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Sample records for functional domains required

  1. Uncertainty Analysis via Failure Domain Characterization: Polynomial Requirement Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an uncertainty analysis framework based on the characterization of the uncertain parameter space. This characterization enables the identification of worst-case uncertainty combinations and the approximation of the failure and safe domains with a high level of accuracy. Because these approximations are comprised of subsets of readily computable probability, they enable the calculation of arbitrarily tight upper and lower bounds to the failure probability. A Bernstein expansion approach is used to size hyper-rectangular subsets while a sum of squares programming approach is used to size quasi-ellipsoidal subsets. These methods are applicable to requirement functions whose functional dependency on the uncertainty is a known polynomial. Some of the most prominent features of the methodology are the substantial desensitization of the calculations from the uncertainty model assumed (i.e., the probability distribution describing the uncertainty) as well as the accommodation for changes in such a model with a practically insignificant amount of computational effort.

  2. Uncertainty Analysis via Failure Domain Characterization: Unrestricted Requirement Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an uncertainty analysis framework based on the characterization of the uncertain parameter space. This characterization enables the identification of worst-case uncertainty combinations and the approximation of the failure and safe domains with a high level of accuracy. Because these approximations are comprised of subsets of readily computable probability, they enable the calculation of arbitrarily tight upper and lower bounds to the failure probability. The methods developed herein, which are based on nonlinear constrained optimization, are applicable to requirement functions whose functional dependency on the uncertainty is arbitrary and whose explicit form may even be unknown. Some of the most prominent features of the methodology are the substantial desensitization of the calculations from the assumed uncertainty model (i.e., the probability distribution describing the uncertainty) as well as the accommodation for changes in such a model with a practically insignificant amount of computational effort.

  3. The functional requirement of two structural domains within telomerase RNA emerged early in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Podlevsky, Joshua D; Li, Yang; Chen, Julian J-L

    2016-11-16

    Telomerase emerged during evolution as a prominent solution to the eukaryotic linear chromosome end-replication problem. Telomerase minimally comprises the catalytic telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase RNA (TR) that provides the template for telomeric DNA synthesis. While the TERT protein is well-conserved across taxa, TR is highly divergent amongst distinct groups of species. Herein, we have identified the essential functional domains of TR from the basal eukaryotic species Trypanosoma brucei, revealing the ancestry of TR comprising two distinct structural core domains that can assemble in trans with TERT and reconstitute active telomerase enzyme in vitro The upstream essential domain of T. brucei TR, termed the template core, constitutes three short helices in addition to the 11-nt template. Interestingly, the trypanosome template core domain lacks the ubiquitous pseudoknot found in all known TRs, suggesting later evolution of this critical structural element. The template-distal domain is a short stem-loop, termed equivalent CR4/5 (eCR4/5). While functionally similar to vertebrate and fungal CR4/5, trypanosome eCR4/5 is structurally distinctive, lacking the essential P6.1 stem-loop. Our functional study of trypanosome TR core domains suggests that the functional requirement of two discrete structural domains is a common feature of TRs and emerged early in telomerase evolution.

  4. Functional domains within the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope protein required to enhance virus production.

    PubMed

    Abada, Paolo; Noble, Beth; Cannon, Paula M

    2005-03-01

    Primate lentiviruses code for a protein that stimulates virus production. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the activity is provided by the accessory protein, Vpu, while in HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus it is a property of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein. Using a group of diverse retroviruses and cell types, we have confirmed the functional equivalence of the two proteins. However, despite these similarities, the two proteins have markedly different functional domains. While the Vpu activity is associated primarily with its membrane-spanning region, we have determined that the HIV-2 Env activity requires both the cytoplasmic tail and ectodomain of the protein, with the membrane-spanning domain being less important. Within the Env cytoplasmic tail, we further defined the necessary sequence as a membrane-proximal tyrosine-based motif. Providing the two Env regions separately as distinct CD8 chimeric proteins did not increase virus release. This suggests that the two domains must be either contained within a single protein or closely associated within a multiprotein oligomer, such as the Env trimer, in order to function. Finally, we observed that wild-type levels of incorporation of the HIV-2 Env into budding viruses were not required for this activity.

  5. Functional Domains within the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Envelope Protein Required To Enhance Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Abada, Paolo; Noble, Beth; Cannon, Paula M.

    2005-01-01

    Primate lentiviruses code for a protein that stimulates virus production. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the activity is provided by the accessory protein, Vpu, while in HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus it is a property of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein. Using a group of diverse retroviruses and cell types, we have confirmed the functional equivalence of the two proteins. However, despite these similarities, the two proteins have markedly different functional domains. While the Vpu activity is associated primarily with its membrane-spanning region, we have determined that the HIV-2 Env activity requires both the cytoplasmic tail and ectodomain of the protein, with the membrane-spanning domain being less important. Within the Env cytoplasmic tail, we further defined the necessary sequence as a membrane-proximal tyrosine-based motif. Providing the two Env regions separately as distinct CD8 chimeric proteins did not increase virus release. This suggests that the two domains must be either contained within a single protein or closely associated within a multiprotein oligomer, such as the Env trimer, in order to function. Finally, we observed that wild-type levels of incorporation of the HIV-2 Env into budding viruses were not required for this activity. PMID:15731257

  6. Structure–function analysis of myomaker domains required for myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    Millay, Douglas P.; Gamage, Dilani G.; Quinn, Malgorzata E.; Min, Yi-Li; Mitani, Yasuyuki; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    During skeletal muscle development, myoblasts fuse to form multinucleated myofibers. Myomaker [Transmembrane protein 8c (TMEM8c)] is a muscle-specific protein that is essential for myoblast fusion and sufficient to promote fusion of fibroblasts with muscle cells; however, the structure and biochemical properties of this membrane protein have not been explored. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis to disrupt myomaker expression in the C2C12 muscle cell line, which resulted in complete blockade to fusion. To define the functional domains of myomaker required to direct fusion, we established a heterologous cell–cell fusion system, in which fibroblasts expressing mutant versions of myomaker were mixed with WT myoblasts. Our data indicate that the majority of myomaker is embedded in the plasma membrane with seven membrane-spanning regions and a required intracellular C-terminal tail. We show that myomaker function is conserved in other mammalian orthologs; however, related family members (TMEM8a and TMEM8b) do not exhibit fusogenic activity. These findings represent an important step toward deciphering the cellular components and mechanisms that control myoblast fusion and muscle formation. PMID:26858401

  7. Structure-function analysis of myomaker domains required for myoblast fusion.

    PubMed

    Millay, Douglas P; Gamage, Dilani G; Quinn, Malgorzata E; Min, Yi-Li; Mitani, Yasuyuki; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-02-23

    During skeletal muscle development, myoblasts fuse to form multinucleated myofibers. Myomaker [Transmembrane protein 8c (TMEM8c)] is a muscle-specific protein that is essential for myoblast fusion and sufficient to promote fusion of fibroblasts with muscle cells; however, the structure and biochemical properties of this membrane protein have not been explored. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis to disrupt myomaker expression in the C2C12 muscle cell line, which resulted in complete blockade to fusion. To define the functional domains of myomaker required to direct fusion, we established a heterologous cell-cell fusion system, in which fibroblasts expressing mutant versions of myomaker were mixed with WT myoblasts. Our data indicate that the majority of myomaker is embedded in the plasma membrane with seven membrane-spanning regions and a required intracellular C-terminal tail. We show that myomaker function is conserved in other mammalian orthologs; however, related family members (TMEM8a and TMEM8b) do not exhibit fusogenic activity. These findings represent an important step toward deciphering the cellular components and mechanisms that control myoblast fusion and muscle formation.

  8. Separation of domain contacts is required for heterotetrameric assembly of functional NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Anthony N.; Blain, Katherine Y.; Maruo, Tomohiko; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Choe, Senyon; Nakagawa, Terunaga

    2011-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the subunit assembly process of NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) is essential to understand the receptor architecture and underlying mechanism of channel function. Because NMDA-Rs are obligatory heterotetramers requiring the GluN1 subunit, it is critical to investigate how GluN1 and GluN2 type subunits co-assemble into tetramers. By combining approaches in cell biology, biochemistry, single particle electron microscopy, and X-ray crystallography, we report the mechanisms and phenotypes of mutant GluN1 subunits that are defective in receptor maturation. The T110A mutation in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the GluN1 promotes heterodimerization between the NTDs of GluN1 and GluN2, whereas the Y109C mutation in the adjacent residue stabilizes the homodimer of the NTD of GluN1. The crystal structure of the NTD of GluN1 revealed the mechanism underlying the biochemical properties of these mutants. Effects of these mutations on the maturation of heteromeric NMDA-Rs were investigated using a receptor trafficking assay. Our results suggest that the NTDs of the GluN1 subunit initially form homodimers and the subsequent dimer dissociation is critical for forming heterotetrameric NMDA-Rs containing GluN2 subunits, defining a molecular determinant for receptor assembly. The domain arrangement of the dimeric NTD of GluN1 is unique among the ionotropic glutamate receptors and predicts that the structure and mechanism around the NTDs of NMDA-Rs are different from those of the homologous AMPA and kainate receptors. PMID:21389213

  9. Sphingomyelin homeostasis is required to form functional enzymatic domains at the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Josse; Campelo, Felix; Martínez-Alonso, Emma; Scarpa, Margherita; Martínez-Menárguez, José Ángel; Malhotra, Vivek

    2014-09-01

    Do lipids such as sphingomyelin (SM) that are known to assemble into specific membrane domains play a role in the organization and function of transmembrane proteins? In this paper, we show that disruption of SM homeostasis at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) by treatment of HeLa cells with d-ceramide-C6, which was converted together with phosphatidylcholine to short-chain SM and diacylglycerol by SM synthase, led to the segregation of Golgi-resident proteins from each other. We found that TGN46, which cycles between the TGN and the plasma membrane, was not sialylated by a sialyltransferase at the TGN and that this enzyme and its substrate TGN46 could not physically interact with each other. Our results suggest that SM organizes transmembrane proteins into functional enzymatic domains at the TGN.

  10. Sphingomyelin homeostasis is required to form functional enzymatic domains at the trans-Golgi network

    PubMed Central

    van Galen, Josse; Campelo, Felix; Martínez-Alonso, Emma; Scarpa, Margherita; Martínez-Menárguez, José Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Do lipids such as sphingomyelin (SM) that are known to assemble into specific membrane domains play a role in the organization and function of transmembrane proteins? In this paper, we show that disruption of SM homeostasis at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) by treatment of HeLa cells with d-ceramide-C6, which was converted together with phosphatidylcholine to short-chain SM and diacylglycerol by SM synthase, led to the segregation of Golgi-resident proteins from each other. We found that TGN46, which cycles between the TGN and the plasma membrane, was not sialylated by a sialyltransferase at the TGN and that this enzyme and its substrate TGN46 could not physically interact with each other. Our results suggest that SM organizes transmembrane proteins into functional enzymatic domains at the TGN. PMID:25179630

  11. A functional NR4A nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain is required for organ development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Heard, Melissa; Maina, Claude V; Morehead, Benjamin E; Hoener, Marius C; Nguyen, Tri Q; Williams, Christopher C; Rowan, Brian G; Gissendanner, Chris R

    2010-08-01

    NR4A nuclear receptors are a diverse group of orphan nuclear receptors with critical roles in regulating cell proliferation and cell differentiation. The ortholog of the NR4A nuclear receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans, NHR-6, also has a role in cell proliferation and cell differentiation during organogenesis of the spermatheca. Here we show that NHR-6 is able to bind the canonical NR4A monomer response element and can transactivate from this site in mammalian HEK293 cells. Using a functional GFP-tagged NHR-6 fusion, we also demonstrate that NHR-6 is nuclear localized during development of the spermatheca. Mutation of the DNA-binding domain of NHR-6 abolishes its activity in genetic rescue assays, demonstrating a requirement for the DNA-binding domain. This study represents the first genetic demonstration of an in vivo requirement for an NR4A nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain in a whole organism.

  12. BLUF Domain Function Does Not Require a Metastable Radical Intermediate State

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    BLUF (blue light using flavin) domain proteins are an important family of blue light-sensing proteins which control a wide variety of functions in cells. The primary light-activated step in the BLUF domain is not yet established. A number of experimental and theoretical studies points to a role for photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between a highly conserved tyrosine and the flavin chromophore to form a radical intermediate state. Here we investigate the role of PET in three different BLUF proteins, using ultrafast broadband transient infrared spectroscopy. We characterize and identify infrared active marker modes for excited and ground state species and use them to record photochemical dynamics in the proteins. We also generate mutants which unambiguously show PET and, through isotope labeling of the protein and the chromophore, are able to assign modes characteristic of both flavin and protein radical states. We find that these radical intermediates are not observed in two of the three BLUF domains studied, casting doubt on the importance of the formation of a population of radical intermediates in the BLUF photocycle. Further, unnatural amino acid mutagenesis is used to replace the conserved tyrosine with fluorotyrosines, thus modifying the driving force for the proposed electron transfer reaction; the rate changes observed are also not consistent with a PET mechanism. Thus, while intermediates of PET reactions can be observed in BLUF proteins they are not correlated with photoactivity, suggesting that radical intermediates are not central to their operation. Alternative nonradical pathways including a keto–enol tautomerization induced by electronic excitation of the flavin ring are considered. PMID:24579721

  13. Structural Domains Required for Caenorhabditis elegans G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK-2) Function in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jordan F.; Wang, Jianjun; Benovic, Jeffrey L.; Ferkey, Denise M.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are key regulators of signal transduction that specifically phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to terminate signaling. Biochemical and crystallographic studies have provided great insight into mammalian GRK2/3 interactions and structure. However, despite extensive in vitro characterization, little is known about the in vivo contribution of these described GRK structural domains and interactions to proper GRK function in signal regulation. We took advantage of the disrupted chemosensory behavior characteristic of Caenorhabditis elegans grk-2 mutants to discern the interactions required for proper in vivo Ce-GRK-2 function. Informed by mammalian crystallographic and biochemical data, we introduced amino acid substitutions into the Ce-grk-2 coding sequence that are predicted to selectively disrupt GPCR phosphorylation, Gαq/11 binding, Gβγ binding, or phospholipid binding. Changing the most amino-terminal residues, which have been shown in mammalian systems to be required specifically for GPCR phosphorylation but not phosphorylation of alternative substrates or recruitment to activated GPCRs, eliminated the ability of Ce-GRK-2 to restore chemosensory signaling. Disrupting interaction between the predicted Ce-GRK-2 amino-terminal α-helix and kinase domain, posited to stabilize GRKs in their active ATP- and GPCR-bound conformation, also eliminated Ce-GRK-2 chemosensory function. Finally, although changing residues within the RH domain, predicted to disrupt interaction with Gαq/11, did not affect Ce-GRK-2 chemosensory function, disruption of the predicted PH domain-mediated interactions with Gβγ and phospholipids revealed that both contribute to Ce-GRK-2 function in vivo. Combined, we have demonstrated functional roles for broadly conserved GRK2/3 structural domains in the in vivo regulation of organismal behavior. PMID:22375004

  14. Functional dissection of TFIIB domains required for TFIIB-TFIID-promoter complex formation and basal transcription activity.

    PubMed

    Hisatake, K; Roeder, R G; Horikoshi, M

    1993-06-24

    The protein TFIIB is a general transcription initiation factor that interacts with a promoter complex (D.DNA) containing the TATA-binding subunit (TFIID tau, or TBP) of TFIID to facilitate subsequent interaction with RNA polymerase II (ref. 2) through the associated TFIIF (ref. 3). The potential bridging function of TFIIB raises the possibility of two structural domains and emphasizes the importance of TFIIB structure-function studies for a further understanding of preinitiation complex assembly and function. Here we show that human TFIIB (refs 5,6) is comprised of functionally distinct N- and C-terminal domains. The C-terminal domain, containing the direct repeats and associated basic regions, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the D.DNA complex. By contrast, the N-terminal domain that is dispensable for formation of the TFIID tau-TFIIB-promoter (D.B.DNA) complex is required for subsequent events leading to basal transcription initiation. On the basis of these results, we discuss structural and functional similarities between TFIIB and TFIID tau, which have similar structural organization and motifs.

  15. Functional analysis of TMLH variants and definition of domains required for catalytic activity and mitochondrial targeting.

    PubMed

    Monfregola, Jlenia; Cevenini, Armando; Terracciano, Antonio; van Vlies, Naomi; Arbucci, Salvatore; Wanders, Ronald J A; D'Urso, Michele; Vaz, Frédéric M; Ursini, Matilde Valeria

    2005-09-01

    epsilon-N-Trimethyllysine hydroxylase (TMLH) (EC 1.14.11.8) is a non-heme-ferrous iron hydroxylase, Fe(++) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent, catalyzing the first of four enzymatic reactions of the highly conserved carnitine biosynthetic pathway. Otherwise from all the other enzymes of carnitine biosynthesis, TMLH was found to be associated to the mitochondrial fraction. We here report molecular cloning of two alternative spliced forms of TMLH, which appear ubiquitously expressed in human adult and fetal tissues. The deduced proteins are designated TMLH-a and TMLH-b, and contain 421 and 399 amino acids, respectively. They share the first N-terminal 332 amino acids, including a mitochondrial targeting signal, but diverge at the C-terminal end. TMLH-a and TMLH-b exogenous expression in COS-1 cells shows that the first 15 amino acids are necessary and sufficient for mitochondrial import. Furthermore, comparative evolutionary analysis of the C-terminal portion of TMLH-a identifies a conserved domain characterized by a key triad of residues, His242-Glu244-His389 predicted to bind 2OG end. This sequence is conserved in the TMLH enzyme from all species but is partially substituted by a unique sequence in the TMLH-b variant. Indeed, TMLH-b is not functional by itself as well as a TMLH-H389L mutant produced by site directed mutagenesis. As great interest, we found that TMLH-b and TMLH-H389L, individually co-expressed with TMLH-a in COS-1 cells, negatively affect TMLH activity. Therefore, our studies on the TMLH alternative form provide relevant novel information, first that the C-terminal region of TMLH contains the main determinants for its enzymatic activity including a key H389 residue, and second that TMLH-b could act as a crucial physiological negative regulator of TMLH. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Identification of TSG101 Functional Domains and p21 Loci Required for TSG101-Mediated p21 Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Shiuan; Chen, Yin-Ju; Cohen, Stanley N.; Cheng, Tzu-Hao

    2013-01-01

    TSG101 (tumor susceptibility gene 101) is a multi-domain protein known to act in the cell nucleus, cytoplasm, and periplasmic membrane. Remarkably, TSG101, whose location within cells varies with the stage of the cell cycle, affects biological events as diverse as cell growth and proliferation, gene expression, cytokinesis, and endosomal trafficking. The functions of TSG101 additionally are recruited for viral and microvesicle budding and for intracellular survival of invading bacteria. Here we report that the TSG101 protein also interacts with and down-regulates the promoter of the p21CIP1/WAF1tumor suppressor gene, and identify a p21 locus and TSG101 domains that mediate this interaction. TSG101 deficiency in Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells was accompanied by an increased abundance of p21 mRNA and protein and the retardation of cell proliferation. A cis-acting element in the p21 promoter that interacts with TSG101 and is required for promoter repression was located using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and p21-driven luciferase reporter gene expression, respectively. Additional analysis of TSG101 deletion mutants lacking specific domains established the role of the central TSG101 domains in binding to the p21 promoter and demonstrated the additional essentiality of the TSG101 C-terminal steadiness box (SB) in the repression of p21 promoter activity. Neither binding of TSG101 to the p21 promoter nor repression of this promoter required the TSG101 N-terminal UEV domain, which mediates the ubiquitin-recognition functions of TSG101 and its actions as a member of ESCRT endocytic trafficking complexes, indicating that regulation of the p21 promoter by TSG101 is independent of its role in such trafficking. PMID:24244542

  17. Membrane association of the CD3ε signaling domain is required for optimal T cell development and function1

    PubMed Central

    Bettini, Matthew L.; Guy, Clifford; Dash, Pradyot; Vignali, Kate M.; Hamm, David E.; Dobbins, Jessica; Gagnon, Etienne; Thomas, Paul G.; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR):CD3 complex transduces signals that are critical for optimal T cell development and adaptive immunity. In resting T cells, the CD3ε cytoplasmic tail associates with the plasma membrane via a proximal basic-rich stretch (BRS). Here we show that mice lacking a functional CD3ε-BRS exhibited substantial reductions in thymic cellularity and limited CD4−CD8− double negative-3 (DN3) to DN4 thymocyte transition, due to enhanced DN4 TCR signaling resulting in increased cell death and TCR downregulation in all subsequent populations. Furthermore, positive, but not negative, T cell selection was affected in mice lacking a functional CD3ε-BRS, which led to limited peripheral T cell function and substantially reduced responsiveness to influenza infection. Collectively, these results indicate membrane association of the CD3ε signaling domain is required for optimal thymocyte development and peripheral T cell function. PMID:24899501

  18. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  19. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  20. Ribonucleotide reduction - horizontal transfer of a required function spans all three domains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ribonucleotide reduction is the only de novo pathway for synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. The reaction is catalysed by ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), an ancient enzyme family comprised of three classes. Each class has distinct operational constraints, and are broadly distributed across organisms from all three domains, though few class I RNRs have been identified in archaeal genomes, and classes II and III likewise appear rare across eukaryotes. In this study, we examine whether this distribution is best explained by presence of all three classes in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA), or by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of RNR genes. We also examine to what extent environmental factors may have impacted the distribution of RNR classes. Results Our phylogenies show that the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) possessed a class I RNR, but that the eukaryotic class I enzymes are not directly descended from class I RNRs in Archaea. Instead, our results indicate that archaeal class I RNR genes have been independently transferred from bacteria on two occasions. While LECA possessed a class I RNR, our trees indicate that this is ultimately bacterial in origin. We also find convincing evidence that eukaryotic class I RNR has been transferred to the Bacteroidetes, providing a stunning example of HGT from eukaryotes back to Bacteria. Based on our phylogenies and available genetic and genomic evidence, class II and III RNRs in eukaryotes also appear to have been transferred from Bacteria, with subsequent within-domain transfer between distantly-related eukaryotes. Under the three-domains hypothesis the RNR present in the last common ancestor of Archaea and eukaryotes appears, through a process of elimination, to have been a dimeric class II RNR, though limited sampling of eukaryotes precludes a firm conclusion as the data may be equally well accounted for by HGT. Conclusions Horizontal gene transfer has clearly played an

  1. Ribonucleotide reduction - horizontal transfer of a required function spans all three domains.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Daniel; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Torrents, Eduard; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Poole, Anthony M

    2010-12-10

    Ribonucleotide reduction is the only de novo pathway for synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. The reaction is catalysed by ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), an ancient enzyme family comprised of three classes. Each class has distinct operational constraints, and are broadly distributed across organisms from all three domains, though few class I RNRs have been identified in archaeal genomes, and classes II and III likewise appear rare across eukaryotes. In this study, we examine whether this distribution is best explained by presence of all three classes in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA), or by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of RNR genes. We also examine to what extent environmental factors may have impacted the distribution of RNR classes. Our phylogenies show that the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) possessed a class I RNR, but that the eukaryotic class I enzymes are not directly descended from class I RNRs in Archaea. Instead, our results indicate that archaeal class I RNR genes have been independently transferred from bacteria on two occasions. While LECA possessed a class I RNR, our trees indicate that this is ultimately bacterial in origin. We also find convincing evidence that eukaryotic class I RNR has been transferred to the Bacteroidetes, providing a stunning example of HGT from eukaryotes back to Bacteria. Based on our phylogenies and available genetic and genomic evidence, class II and III RNRs in eukaryotes also appear to have been transferred from Bacteria, with subsequent within-domain transfer between distantly-related eukaryotes. Under the three-domains hypothesis the RNR present in the last common ancestor of Archaea and eukaryotes appears, through a process of elimination, to have been a dimeric class II RNR, though limited sampling of eukaryotes precludes a firm conclusion as the data may be equally well accounted for by HGT. Horizontal gene transfer has clearly played an important role in the evolution

  2. Eukaryotic CTR Copper Uptake Transporters Require Two Faces of the Third Transmembrane Domain for Helix Packing, Oligomerization, and Function*

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Stephen G.; Eng, Edward T.; De Feo, Christopher J.; Unger, Vinzenz M.

    2005-01-01

    Members of the copper uptake transporter (CTR) family from yeast, plants, and mammals including human are required for cellular uptake of the essential metal copper. Based on biochemical data, CTRs have three transmembrane domains and have been shown to oligomerize in the membrane. Among individual members of the family, there is little amino acid sequence identity, raising questions as to how these proteins adopt a common fold, oligomerize, and participate in copper transport. Using site-directed mutagenesis, tryptophan scanning, genetic complementation, subcellular localization, chemical cross-linking, and the yeast unfolded protein response, we demonstrated that at least half of the third transmembrane domain (TM3) plays a vital role in CTR structure and function. The results of our analysis showed that TM3 contains two functionally distinct faces. One face bears a highly conserved Gly-X-X-X-Gly (GG4) motif, which we showed to be essential for CTR oligomerization. Moreover, we showed that steric constraints reach past the GG4-motif itself including amino acid residues that are not conserved throughout the CTR family. A second face of TM3 contains three amino acid positions that, when mutated to tryptophan, cause predominantly abnormal localization but are still partially functional in growth complementation experiments. These mutations cluster on the face opposite to the GG4-bearing face of TM3 where they may mediate interactions with the remaining two transmembrane domains. Taken together, our data support TM3 as being buried within trimeric CTR where it plays an essential role in CTR assembly. PMID:15385536

  3. Eukaryotic CTR copper uptake transporters require two faces of the third transmembrane domain for helix packing, oligomerization, and function.

    PubMed

    Aller, Stephen G; Eng, Edward T; De Feo, Christopher J; Unger, Vinzenz M

    2004-12-17

    Members of the copper uptake transporter (CTR) family from yeast, plants, and mammals including human are required for cellular uptake of the essential metal copper. Based on biochemical data, CTRs have three transmembrane domains and have been shown to oligomerize in the membrane. Among individual members of the family, there is little amino acid sequence identity, raising questions as to how these proteins adopt a common fold, oligomerize, and participate in copper transport. Using site-directed mutagenesis, tryptophan scanning, genetic complementation, subcellular localization, chemical cross-linking, and the yeast unfolded protein response, we demonstrated that at least half of the third transmembrane domain (TM3) plays a vital role in CTR structure and function. The results of our analysis showed that TM3 contains two functionally distinct faces. One face bears a highly conserved Gly-X-X-X-Gly (GG4) motif, which we showed to be essential for CTR oligomerization. Moreover, we showed that steric constraints reach past the GG4-motif itself including amino acid residues that are not conserved throughout the CTR family. A second face of TM3 contains three amino acid positions that, when mutated to tryptophan, cause predominantly abnormal localization but are still partially functional in growth complementation experiments. These mutations cluster on the face opposite to the GG4-bearing face of TM3 where they may mediate interactions with the remaining two transmembrane domains. Taken together, our data support TM3 as being buried within trimeric CTR where it plays an essential role in CTR assembly.

  4. Requirements analysis, domain knowledge, and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, Colin

    1988-01-01

    Two improvements to current requirements analysis practices are suggested: domain modeling, and the systematic application of analysis heuristics. Domain modeling is the representation of relevant application knowledge prior to requirements specification. Artificial intelligence techniques may eventually be applicable for domain modeling. In the short term, however, restricted domain modeling techniques, such as that in JSD, will still be of practical benefit. Analysis heuristics are standard patterns of reasoning about the requirements. They usually generate questions of clarification or issues relating to completeness. Analysis heuristics can be represented and therefore systematically applied in an issue-based framework. This is illustrated by an issue-based analysis of JSD's domain modeling and functional specification heuristics. They are discussed in the context of the preliminary design of simple embedded systems.

  5. An in vivo analysis of the vestigial gene in Drosophila melanogaster defines the domains required for Vg function.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Julie O; Soanes, Kelly H; Srivastava, Ajay; Simmonds, Andrew; Brook, William J; Bell, John B

    2003-04-01

    Considerable evidence indicates an obligate partnership of the Drosophila melanogaster Vestigial (VG) and Scalloped (SD) proteins within the context of wing development. These two proteins interact physically and a 56-amino-acid motif within VG is necessary and sufficient for this binding. While the importance of this SD-binding domain has been clearly demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, the remaining portions of VG have not been examined for in vivo function. Herein, additional regions within VG were tested for possible in vivo functions. The results identify two additional domains that must be present for optimal VG function as measured by the loss of ability to rescue vg mutants, to induce ectopic sd expression, and to perform other normal VG functions when they are deleted. An in vivo study such as this one is fundamentally important because it identifies domains of VG that are necessary in the cellular context in which wing development actually occurs. The results also indicate that an additional large portion of VG, outside of these two domains and the SD-binding domain, is dispensable in the execution of these normal VG functions.

  6. Identification of functional domains of the IR2 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 required for inhibition of viral gene expression and replication

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seong K. Kim, Seongman; Dai Gan; Zhang Yunfei; Ahn, Byung C.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

    2011-09-01

    The equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) negative regulatory IR2 protein (IR2P), an early 1,165-amino acid (aa) truncated form of the 1487-aa immediate-early protein (IEP), lacks the trans-activation domain essential for IEP activation functions but retains domains for binding DNA, TFIIB, and TBP and the nuclear localization signal. IR2P mutants of the N-terminal region which lack either DNA-binding activity or TFIIB-binding activity were unable to down-regulate EHV-1 promoters. In EHV-1-infected cells expressing full-length IR2P, transcription and protein expression of viral regulatory IE, early EICP0, IR4, and UL5, and late ETIF genes were dramatically inhibited. Viral DNA levels were reduced to 2.1% of control infected cells, but were vey weakly affected in cells that express the N-terminal 706 residues of IR2P. These results suggest that IR2P function requires the two N-terminal domains for binding DNA and TFIIB as well as the C-terminal residues 707 to 1116 containing the TBP-binding domain. - Highlights: > We examine the functional domains of IR2P that mediates negative regulation. > IR2P inhibits at the transcriptional level. > DNA-binding mutant or TFIIB-binding mutant fails to inhibit. > C-terminal aa 707 to 1116 are required for full inhibition. > Inhibition requires the DNA-binding domain, TFIIB-binding domain, and C-terminus.

  7. The Biologically Relevant Targets and Binding Affinity Requirements for the Function of the Yeast Actin-Binding Protein 1 Src-Homology 3 Domain Vary With Genetic Context

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Jennifer; Garcia, Bianca; Stollar, Elliott J.; Rath, Arianna; Andrews, Brenda J.; Davidson, Alan R.

    2007-01-01

    Many protein–protein interaction domains bind to multiple targets. However, little is known about how the interactions of a single domain with many proteins are controlled and modulated under varying cellular conditions. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of Abp1p SH3 domain mutants that incrementally reduce target-binding affinity in four different yeast mutant backgrounds in which Abp1p activity is essential for growth. Although the severity of the phenotypic defects observed generally increased as binding affinity was reduced, some genetic backgrounds (prk1Δ and sla1Δ) tolerated large affinity reductions while others (sac6Δ and sla2Δ) were much more sensitive to these reductions. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these observations, we determined that Ark1p is the most important Abp1p SH3 domain interactor in prk1Δ cells, but that interactions with multiple targets, including Ark1p and Scp1p, are required in the sac6Δ background. We establish that the Abp1p SH3 domain makes different, functionally important interactions under different genetic conditions, and these changes in function are reflected by changes in the binding affinity requirement of the domain. These data provide the first evidence of biological relevance for any Abp1p SH3 domain-mediated interaction. We also find that considerable reductions in binding affinity are tolerated by the cell with little effect on growth rate, even when the actin cytoskeletal morphology is significantly perturbed. PMID:17409071

  8. MERISTEM-DEFECTIVE, an RS domain protein, is required for the correct meristem patterning and function in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Casson, Stuart A; Topping, Jennifer F; Lindsey, Keith

    2009-03-01

    Plant growth and development is dependent on the specification and maintenance of pools of stem cells found in the meristems. Mutations in the Arabidopsis MERISTEM-DEFECTIVE (MDF) gene lead to a loss of stem cell and meristematic activity in the root and vegetative shoot. MDF encodes a putative RS domain protein with a predicted role in transcription or RNA processing control. mdf mutants exhibit decreased levels of PINFORMED2 (PIN2) and PIN4 mRNAs, which is associated with a reduction in PIN:GFP levels, and with a defective auxin maximum in the basal region of the developing mdf embryo and seedling root meristem. Seedling roots also exhibit reduced PLETHORA (PLT), SCARECROW and SHORTROOT gene expression, a loss of stem cell activity, terminal differentiation of the root meristem and defective cell patterning. MDF expression is not defective in the bodenlos, pin1 or eir1/pin2 auxin mutants, and is not modulated by exogenous auxin. plt1 plt2 double mutants have unaffected levels of MDF RNA, indicating that MDF acts upstream of PIN and PLT gene expression. Differentiation of the shoot stem cell pool also occurs in mdf mutants, associated with a reduced WUSCHEL (WUS) expression domain and expanded CLAVATA3 (CLV3) domain. Overexpression of MDF leads to the activation of markers of embryonic identity and ectopic meristem activity in vegetative tissues. These results demonstrate a requirement for the MDF-dependent pathway in regulating PIN/PLT- and WUS/CLV-mediated meristem activity.

  9. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is required for full functionality and has a novel twist

    SciTech Connect

    Madauss, Kevin P.; Burkhart, William A.; Consler, Thomas G.; Cowan, David J.; Gottschalk, William K.; Miller, Aaron B; Short, Steven A.; Tran, Thuy B.; Williams, Shawn P.

    2009-06-15

    Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) may prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, making the enzyme an attractive pharmaceutical target. Although the enzyme is highly conserved amongst animals, only the yeast enzyme structure is available for rational drug design. The use of biophysical assays has permitted the identification of a specific C-terminal truncation of the 826-residue human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain that is both functionally competent to bind inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This C-terminal truncation led to the determination of the human ACC2 CT domain-CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed distinctions from the yeast-enzyme complex. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is comprised of three intertwined -helices that extend outwards from the enzyme on the opposite side to the ligand-binding site. Differences in the observed inhibitor conformation between the yeast and human structures are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket.

  10. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is required for full functionality and has a novel twist

    SciTech Connect

    Madauss, Kevin P.; Burkhart, William A.; Consler, Thomas G.; Cowan, David J.; Gottschalk, William K.; Miller, Aaron B.; Short, Steven A.; Tran, Thuy B.; Williams, Shawn P.

    2009-05-01

    The use of biophysical assays permitted the identification of a specific human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain mutant that binds inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This mutant led to determination of the human ACC2 CT domain–CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed differences in the inhibitor conformation from the yeast protein complex that are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) may prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, making the enzyme an attractive pharmaceutical target. Although the enzyme is highly conserved amongst animals, only the yeast enzyme structure is available for rational drug design. The use of biophysical assays has permitted the identification of a specific C-terminal truncation of the 826-residue human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain that is both functionally competent to bind inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This C-terminal truncation led to the determination of the human ACC2 CT domain–CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed distinctions from the yeast-enzyme complex. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is comprised of three intertwined α-helices that extend outwards from the enzyme on the opposite side to the ligand-binding site. Differences in the observed inhibitor conformation between the yeast and human structures are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket.

  11. Characterisation of functional domains in fission yeast Ams2 that are required for core histone gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Yuko; Shirai, Masaki; Masuda, Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Histone gene expression is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with a peak at S phase, which is crucial for cell division and genome integrity. However, the detailed mechanisms by which expression of histone genes are tightly regulated remain largely unknown. Fission yeast Ams2, a GATA-type zinc finger motif-containing factor, is required for activation of S phase-specific core histone gene transcription. Here we report the molecular characterisation of Ams2. We show that the zinc finger motif in Ams2 is necessary to bind the histone gene promoter region and to activate histone gene transcription. An N-terminal region of Ams2 acts as a self-interaction domain. Intriguingly, N-terminally truncated Ams2 binds to the histone gene promoters, but does not fully activate histone gene transcription. These observations imply that Ams2 self-interactions are required for efficient core histone gene transcription. Moreover, we show that Ams2 interacts with Teb1, which itself binds to the core histone gene promoters. We discuss the relationships between Ams2 domains and efficient transcription of the core histone genes in fission yeast. PMID:27901072

  12. pARIS-htt: an optimised expression platform to study huntingtin reveals functional domains required for vesicular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Raúl; Molina-Calavita, Maria; Poizat, Ghislaine; Keryer, Guy; Humbert, Sandrine; Saudou, Frédéric

    2010-06-01

    Huntingtin (htt) is a multi-domain protein of 350 kDa that is mutated in Huntington's disease (HD) but whose function is yet to be fully understood. This absence of information is due in part to the difficulty of manipulating large DNA fragments by using conventional molecular cloning techniques. Consequently, few studies have addressed the cellular function(s) of full-length htt and its dysfunction(s) associated with the disease. We describe a flexible synthetic vector encoding full-length htt called pARIS-htt (Adaptable, RNAi Insensitive &Synthetic). It includes synthetic cDNA coding for full-length human htt modified so that: 1) it is improved for codon usage, 2) it is insensitive to four different siRNAs allowing gene replacement studies, 3) it contains unique restriction sites (URSs) dispersed throughout the entire sequence without modifying the translated amino acid sequence, 4) it contains multiple cloning sites at the N and C-ter ends and 5) it is Gateway compatible. These modifications facilitate mutagenesis, tagging and cloning into diverse expression plasmids. Htt regulates dynein/dynactin-dependent trafficking of vesicles, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-containing vesicles, and of organelles, including reforming and maintenance of the Golgi near the cell centre. We used tests of these trafficking functions to validate various pARIS-htt constructs. We demonstrated, after silencing of endogenous htt, that full-length htt expressed from pARIS-htt rescues Golgi apparatus reformation following reversible microtubule disruption. A mutant form of htt that contains a 100Q expansion and a htt form devoid of either HAP1 or dynein interaction domains are both unable to rescue loss of endogenous htt. These mutants have also an impaired capacity to promote BDNF vesicular trafficking in neuronal cells. We report the validation of a synthetic gene encoding full-length htt protein that will facilitate analyses of its structure/function. This may help

  13. pARIS-htt: an optimised expression platform to study huntingtin reveals functional domains required for vesicular trafficking

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Huntingtin (htt) is a multi-domain protein of 350 kDa that is mutated in Huntington's disease (HD) but whose function is yet to be fully understood. This absence of information is due in part to the difficulty of manipulating large DNA fragments by using conventional molecular cloning techniques. Consequently, few studies have addressed the cellular function(s) of full-length htt and its dysfunction(s) associated with the disease. Results We describe a flexible synthetic vector encoding full-length htt called pARIS-htt (Adaptable, RNAi Insensitive &Synthetic). It includes synthetic cDNA coding for full-length human htt modified so that: 1) it is improved for codon usage, 2) it is insensitive to four different siRNAs allowing gene replacement studies, 3) it contains unique restriction sites (URSs) dispersed throughout the entire sequence without modifying the translated amino acid sequence, 4) it contains multiple cloning sites at the N and C-ter ends and 5) it is Gateway compatible. These modifications facilitate mutagenesis, tagging and cloning into diverse expression plasmids. Htt regulates dynein/dynactin-dependent trafficking of vesicles, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-containing vesicles, and of organelles, including reforming and maintenance of the Golgi near the cell centre. We used tests of these trafficking functions to validate various pARIS-htt constructs. We demonstrated, after silencing of endogenous htt, that full-length htt expressed from pARIS-htt rescues Golgi apparatus reformation following reversible microtubule disruption. A mutant form of htt that contains a 100Q expansion and a htt form devoid of either HAP1 or dynein interaction domains are both unable to rescue loss of endogenous htt. These mutants have also an impaired capacity to promote BDNF vesicular trafficking in neuronal cells. Conclusion We report the validation of a synthetic gene encoding full-length htt protein that will facilitate analyses of its

  14. FAH Domain Containing Protein 1 (FAHD-1) Is Required for Mitochondrial Function and Locomotion Activity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Taferner, Andrea; Pircher, Haymo; Koziel, Rafal; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Baraldo, Giorgia; Palikaras, Konstantinos; Liedl, Klaus R.; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder

    2015-01-01

    The fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) protein superfamily of metabolic enzymes comprises a diverse set of enzymatic functions, including ß-diketone hydrolases, decarboxylases, and isomerases. Of note, the FAH superfamily includes many prokaryotic members with very distinct functions that lack homologs in eukaryotes. A prokaryotic member of the FAH superfamily, referred to as Cg1458, was shown to encode a soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (ODx). Based on sequence homologies to Cg1458, we recently identified human FAH domain containing protein-1 (FAHD1) as the first eukaryotic oxaloacetate decarboxylase. The physiological functions of ODx in eukaryotes remain unclear. Here we have probed the function of fahd-1, the nematode homolog of FAHD1, in the context of an intact organism. We found that mutation of fahd-1 resulted in reduced brood size, a deregulation of the egg laying process and a severe locomotion deficit, characterized by a reduced frequency of body bends, reduced exploratory movements and reduced performance in an endurance exercise test. Notably, mitochondrial function was altered in the fahd-1(tm5005) mutant strain, as shown by a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and a reduced oxygen consumption of fahd-1(tm5005) animals. Mitochondrial dysfunction was accompanied by lifespan extension in worms grown at elevated temperature; however, unlike in mutant worms with a defect in the electron transport chain, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response was not upregulated in worms upon inactivation of fahd-1. Together these data establish a role of fahd-1 to maintain mitochondrial function and consequently physical activity in nematodes. PMID:26266933

  15. In-Depth Mutational Analysis of the Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger BTB/POZ Domain Reveals Motifs and Residues Required for Biological and Transcriptional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Ari; Ahmad, K. Farid; Arai, Sally; Polinger, Adam; Ball, Helen; Borden, Katherine L.; Carlile, Graeme W.; Prive, Gilbert G.; Licht, Jonathan D.

    2000-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein is a transcription factor disrupted in patients with t(11;17)(q23;q21)-associated acute promyelocytic leukemia. PLZF contains an N-terminal BTB/POZ domain which is required for dimerization, transcriptional repression, formation of high-molecular-weight DNA-protein complexes, nuclear sublocalization, and growth suppression. X-ray crystallographic data show that the PLZF BTB/POZ domain forms an obligate homodimer via an extensive interface. In addition, the dimer possesses several highly conserved features, including a charged pocket, a hydrophobic monomer core, an exposed hydrophobic surface on the floor of the dimer, and two negatively charged surface patches. To determine the role of these structures, mutational analysis of the BTB/POZ domain was performed. We found that point mutations in conserved residues that disrupt the dimer interface or the monomer core result in a misfolded nonfunctional protein. Mutation of key residues from the exposed hydrophobic surface suggests that these are also important for the stability of PLZF complexes. The integrity of the charged-pocket region was crucial for proper folding of the BTB/POZ domain. In addition, the pocket was critical for the ability of the BTB/POZ domain to repress transcription. Alteration of charged-pocket residue arginine 49 to a glutamine (mutant R49Q) yields a domain that can still dimerize but activates rather than represses transcription. In the context of full-length PLZF, a properly folded BTB/POZ domain was required for all PLZF functions. However, PLZF with the single pocket mutation R49Q repressed transcription, while the double mutant D35N/R49Q could not, despite its ability to dimerize. These results indicate that PLZF requires the BTB/POZ domain for dimerization and the charged pocket for transcriptional repression. PMID:10938130

  16. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is required for full functionality and has a novel twist

    PubMed Central

    Madauss, Kevin P.; Burkhart, William A.; Consler, Thomas G.; Cowan, David J.; Gottschalk, William K.; Miller, Aaron B.; Short, Steven A.; Tran, Thuy B.; Williams, Shawn P.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) may prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, making the enzyme an attractive pharmaceutical target. Although the enzyme is highly conserved amongst animals, only the yeast enzyme structure is available for rational drug design. The use of biophysical assays has permitted the identification of a specific C-terminal truncation of the 826-residue human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain that is both functionally competent to bind inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This C-terminal truncation led to the determination of the human ACC2 CT domain–CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed distinctions from the yeast-enzyme complex. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is com­prised of three intertwined α-helices that extend outwards from the enzyme on the opposite side to the ligand-binding site. Differences in the observed inhibitor conformation between the yeast and human structures are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket. PMID:19390150

  17. Common structural requirements for heptahelical domain function in class A and class C G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Binet, Virginie; Duthey, Béatrice; Lecaillon, Jennifer; Vol, Claire; Quoyer, Julie; Labesse, Gilles; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Prézeau, Laurent

    2007-04-20

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key players in cell communication. Several classes of such receptors have been identified. Although all GPCRs possess a heptahelical domain directly activating G proteins, important structural and sequence differences within receptors from different classes suggested distinct activation mechanisms. Here we show that highly conserved charged residues likely involved in an interaction network between transmembrane domains (TM) 3 and 6 at the cytoplasmic side of class C GPCRs are critical for activation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor. Indeed, the loss of function resulting from the mutation of the conserved lysine residue into aspartate or glutamate in the TM3 of gamma-aminobutyric acid type B(2) can be partly rescued by mutating the conserved acidic residue of TM6 into either lysine or arginine. In addition, mutation of the conserved lysine into an acidic residue leads to a nonfunctional receptor that displays a high agonist affinity. This is reminiscent of a similar ionic network that constitutes a lock stabilizing the inactive state of many class A rhodopsin-like GPCRs. These data reveal that despite their original structure, class C GPCRs share with class A receptors at least some common structural feature controlling G protein activation.

  18. Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution Is Required for Activation of Resistance by the Potato NB-LRR Receptor Rx1 and Is Balanced by Its Functional Domains[W

    PubMed Central

    Slootweg, Erik; Roosien, Jan; Spiridon, Laurentiu N.; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Tameling, Wladimir; Joosten, Matthieu; Pomp, Rikus; van Schaik, Casper; Dees, Robert; Borst, Jan Willem; Smant, Geert; Schots, Arjen; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2010-01-01

    The Rx1 protein, as many resistance proteins of the nucleotide binding–leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) class, is predicted to be cytoplasmic because it lacks discernable nuclear targeting signals. Here, we demonstrate that Rx1, which confers extreme resistance to Potato virus X, is located both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Manipulating the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Rx1 or its elicitor revealed that Rx1 is activated in the cytoplasm and cannot be activated in the nucleus. The coiled coil (CC) domain was found to be required for accumulation of Rx1 in the nucleus, whereas the LRR domain promoted the localization in the cytoplasm. Analyses of structural subdomains of the CC domain revealed no autonomous signals responsible for active nuclear import. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and nuclear fractionation indicated that the CC domain binds transiently to large complexes in the nucleus. Disruption of the Rx1 resistance function and protein conformation by mutating the ATP binding phosphate binding loop in the NB domain, or by silencing the cochaperone SGT1, impaired the accumulation of Rx1 protein in the nucleus, while Rx1 versions lacking the LRR domain were not affected in this respect. Our results support a model in which interdomain interactions and folding states determine the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Rx1. PMID:21177483

  19. Identification of functional domains of the IR2 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 required for inhibition of viral gene expression and replication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong K.; Kim, Seongman; Dai, Gan; Zhang, Yunfei; Ahn, Byung C.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

    2012-01-01

    The equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) negative regulatory IR2 protein (IR2P), an early 1,165-amino acid (aa) truncated form of the 1,487-aa immediate-early protein (IEP), lacks the trans-activation domain essential for IEP activation functions but retains domains for binding DNA, TFIIB, and TBP and the nuclear localization signal. IR2P mutants of the N-terminal region which lack either DNA-binding activity or TFIIB-binding activity were unable to down-regulate EHV-1 promoters. In EHV-1-infected cells expressing full-length IR2P, transcription and protein expression of viral regulatory IE, early EICP0, IR4, and UL5, and late ETIF genes were dramatically inhibited. Viral DNA levels were reduced to 2.1% of control infected cells, but were vey weakly affected in cells that express the N-terminal 706 residues of IR2P. These results suggest that IR2P function requires the two N-terminal domains for binding DNA and TFIIB as well as the C-terminal residues 707 to 1116 containing the TBP-binding domain. PMID:21794889

  20. Dissecting CNBP, a zinc-finger protein required for neural crest development, in its structural and functional domains.

    PubMed

    Armas, Pablo; Agüero, Tristán H; Borgognone, Mariana; Aybar, Manuel J; Calcaterra, Nora B

    2008-10-17

    Cellular nucleic-acid-binding protein (CNBP) plays an essential role in forebrain and craniofacial development by controlling cell proliferation and survival to mediate neural crest expansion. CNBP binds to single-stranded nucleic acids and displays nucleic acid chaperone activity in vitro. The CNBP family shows a conserved modular organization of seven Zn knuckles and an arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) box between the first and second Zn knuckles. The participation of these structural motifs in CNBP biochemical activities has still not been addressed. Here, we describe the generation of CNBP mutants that dissect the protein into regions with structurally and functionally distinct properties. Mutagenesis approaches were followed to generate: (i) an amino acid replacement that disrupted the fifth Zn knuckle; (ii) N-terminal deletions that removed the first Zn knuckle and the RGG box, or the RGG box alone; and (iii) a C-terminal deletion that eliminated the three last Zn knuckles. Mutant proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and used to analyze their biochemical features in vitro, or overexpressed in Xenopus laevis embryos to study their function in vivo during neural crest cell development. We found that the Zn knuckles are required, but not individually essential, for CNBP biochemical activities, whereas the RGG box is essential for RNA-protein binding and nucleic acid chaperone activity. Removal of the RGG box allowed CNBP to preserve a weak single-stranded-DNA-binding capability. A mutant mimicking the natural N-terminal proteolytic CNBP form behaved as the RGG-deleted mutant. By gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments in Xenopus embryos, we confirmed the participation of CNBP in neural crest development, and we demonstrated that the CNBP mutants lacking the N-terminal region or the RGG box alone may act as dominant negatives in vivo. Based on these data, we speculate about the existence of a specific proteolytic mechanism for the

  1. The VPS1 protein, a homolog of dynamin required for vacuolar protein sorting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a GTPase with two functionally separable domains.

    PubMed

    Vater, C A; Raymond, C K; Ekena, K; Howald-Stevenson, I; Stevens, T H

    1992-11-01

    The product of the VPS1 gene, Vps1p, is required for the sorting of soluble vacuolar proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate here that Vps1p, which contains a consensus tripartite motif for guanine nucleotide binding, is capable of binding and hydrolyzing GTP. Vps1p is a member of a subfamily of large GTP-binding proteins whose members include the vertebrate Mx proteins, the yeast MGM1 protein, the Drosophila melanogaster shibire protein, and dynamin, a bovine brain protein that bundles microtubules in vitro. Disruption of microtubules did not affect the fidelity or kinetics of vacuolar protein sorting, indicating that Vps1p function is not dependent on microtubules. Based on mutational analyses, we propose a two-domain model for Vps1p function. When VPS1 was treated with hydroxylamine, half of all mutations isolated were found to be dominant negative with respect to vacuolar protein sorting. All of the dominant-negative mutations analyzed further mapped to the amino-terminal half of Vps1p and gave rise to full-length protein products. In contrast, recessive mutations gave rise to truncated or unstable protein products. Two large deletion mutations in VPS1 were created to further investigate Vps1p function. A mutant form of Vps1p lacking the carboxy-terminal half of the protein retained the capacity to bind GTP and did not interfere with sorting in a wild-type background. A mutant form of Vps1p lacking the entire GTP-binding domain interfered with vacuolar protein sorting in wild-type cells. We suggest that the amino-terminal domain of Vps1p provides a GTP-binding and hydrolyzing activity required for vacuolar protein sorting, and the carboxy-terminal domain mediates Vps1p association with an as yet unidentified component of the sorting apparatus.

  2. Identification of residues within ligand binding domain 1 (LBD1) of the B. burgdorferi OspC protein required for function in the mammalian environment

    PubMed Central

    Earnhart, Christopher G.; LeBlanc, DeLacy V.; Alix, Katie E.; Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Radolf, Justin D.; Marconi, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (ospC) is required for the establishment of infection in mammals. However, its precise function remains controversial. The biologically active form of OspC appears to be a homodimer. Alpha helix 1 and 1′ of the apposing monomers form a solvent-accessible pocket at the dimeric interface that presents a putative ligand binding domain (LBD1). Here we employ site-directed and allelic-exchange mutagenesis to test the hypothesis that LBD1 is a determinant of OspC function in the mammalian environment. Substitution of residues E61, K60 and E63 which line LBD1 resulted in the loss of infectivity or influenced dissemination. Analyses of the corresponding recombinant proteins demonstrated that the loss of function was not due to structural perturbation, impaired dimer formation or the loss of plasminogen binding. This study is the first to assess the involvement of individual residues and domains of OspC in its in vivo function. The data support the hypothesis that OspC interacts with a mammalian derived ligand that is critical for survival during early infection. These results shed new light on the structure-functions relationships of OspC and challenge existing hypotheses regarding OspC function in mammals. PMID:20199597

  3. 3D structural conformation and functional domains of polysialyltransferase ST8Sia IV required for polysialylation of neural cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guo-Ping; Huang, Ri-Bo; Troy, Frederic A

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of α2,8-polysialic acid (polySia) glycans are catalyzed by two highly homologous mammalian polysialyltransferases (polySTs), ST8Sia II (STX) and ST8Sia IV (PST), which are two members of the ST8Sia gene family of sialytransferases. During polysialylation, both STX and PST catalyze the transfer of multiple Sia residues from the activated sugar nucleotide precursor, CMP-Neu5Ac (Sia), to terminal Sia residues on N- and Olinked oligosaccharide chains on acceptor glycoproteins, including the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which is the major carrier protein of polySia. Based on our new findings and previously published studies, this review summarizes the present concepts regarding the molecular mechanism underlying regulation of protein-specific polysialylation of NCAM that includes the following: (1) Determination of the catalytic domains and specific regions within ST8Sia IV for recognizing and catalyzing the efficient polysialylation of NCAM; (2) Identification of key amino acid residues within the PSTD motif of ST8Sia IV that are essential for polysialylation; (3) Verification of key amino acids in the PBR domain of ST8Sia IV required for NCAM-specific polysialylation; and (4) a 3D conformational study of ST8Sia IV based on the Phyre2 server to discover the relationship between the structure and its functional domains of the polyST. Based on these results, our 3D model of ST8Sia IV was used to identify and characterize the catalytic domains and amino acid residues critical for catalyzing polysialylation, and have provided new structural information for supporting a detailed mechanism of polyST-NCAM interaction required for polysialylation of NCAM, findings that have not been previously reported.

  4. Distinct functional domains within the acidic cluster of tegument protein pp28 required for trafficking and cytoplasmic envelopment of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hyejin; Hong, Sookyung; Britt, William J

    2016-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus UL99-encoded tegument protein pp28 contains a 16 aa acidic cluster that is required for pp28 trafficking to the assembly compartment (AC) and the virus assembly. However, functional signals within the acidic cluster of pp28 remain undefined. Here, we demonstrated that an acidic cluster rather than specific sorting signals was required for trafficking to the AC. Recombinant viruses with chimeric pp28 proteins expressing non-native acidic clusters exhibited delayed viral growth kinetics and decreased production of infectious virus, indicating that the native acidic cluster of pp28 was essential for wild-type virus assembly. These results suggested that the acidic cluster of pp28 has distinct functional domains required for trafficking and for efficient virus assembly. The first half (aa 44-50) of the acidic cluster was sufficient for pp28 trafficking, whereas the native acidic cluster consisting of aa 51-59 was required for the assembly of wild-type levels of infectious virus.

  5. The coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC151 is required for the function of IFT-dependent motile cilia in animals.

    PubMed

    Jerber, Julie; Baas, Dominique; Soulavie, Fabien; Chhin, Brigitte; Cortier, Elisabeth; Vesque, Christine; Thomas, Joëlle; Durand, Bénédicte

    2014-02-01

    Cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles endowed with essential physiological and developmental functions. In humans, disruption of cilia motility or signaling leads to complex pleiotropic genetic disorders called ciliopathies. Cilia motility requires the assembly of multi-subunit motile components such as dynein arms, but mechanisms underlying their assembly pathway and transport into the axoneme are still largely unknown. We identified a previously uncharacterized coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC151, which is evolutionarily conserved in motile ciliated species and shares ancient features with the outer dynein arm-docking complex 2 of Chlamydomonas. In Drosophila, we show that CG14127/CCDC151 is associated with motile intraflagellar transport (IFT)-dependent cilia and required for geotaxis behavior of adult flies. In zebrafish, Ccdc151 is expressed in tissues with motile cilia, and morpholino-induced depletion of Ccdc151 leads to left-right asymmetry defects and kidney cysts. We demonstrate that Ccdc151 is required for proper motile function of cilia in the Kupffer's vesicle and in the pronephros by controlling dynein arm assembly, showing that Ccdc151 is a novel player in the control of IFT-dependent dynein arm assembly in animals. However, we observed that CCDC151 is also implicated in other cellular functions in vertebrates. In zebrafish, ccdc151 is involved in proper orientation of cell divisions in the pronephros and genetically interacts with prickle1 in this process. Furthermore, knockdown experiments in mammalian cells demonstrate that CCDC151 is implicated in the regulation of primary cilium length. Hence, CCDC151 is required for motile cilia function in animals but has acquired additional non-motile functions in vertebrates.

  6. Functional requirements for interactions between CD84 and Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins and their contribution to human T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Tangye, Stuart G; Nichols, Kim E; Hare, Nathan J; van de Weerdt, Barbara C M

    2003-09-01

    Cell surface receptors belonging to the CD2 subset of the Ig superfamily of molecules include CD2, CD48, CD58, 2B4, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), Ly9, CD84, and the recently identified molecules NTB-A/Ly108/SLAM family (SF) 2000, CD84H-1/SF2001, B lymphocyte activator macrophage expressed (BLAME), and CRACC (CD2-like receptor-activating cytotoxic cells)/CS-1. Some of these receptors, such as CD2, SLAM, 2B4, CRACC, and NTB-A, contribute to the activation and effector function of T cells and NK cells. Signaling pathways elicited via some of these receptors are believed to involve the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing cytoplasmic adaptor protein SLAM-associated protein (SAP), as it is recruited to SLAM, 2B4, CD84, NTB-A, and Ly-9. Importantly, mutations in SAP cause the inherited human immunodeficiency X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), suggesting that XLP may result from perturbed signaling via one or more of these SAP-associating receptors. We have now studied the requirements for SAP recruitment to CD84 and lymphocyte activation elicited following ligation of CD84 on primary and transformed human T cells. CD84 was found to be rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated following receptor ligation on activated T cells, an event that involved the Src kinase Lck. Phosphorylation of CD84 was indispensable for the recruitment of SAP, which was mediated by Y(262) within the cytoplasmic domain of CD84 and by R(32) within the SH2 domain of SAP. Furthermore, ligating CD84 enhanced the proliferation of anti-CD3 mAb-stimulated human T cells. Strikingly, this effect was also apparent in SAP-deficient T cells obtained from patients with XLP. These results reveal a novel function of CD84 on human lymphocytes and suggest that CD84 can activate human T cells via a SAP-independent mechanism.

  7. Functional domain walls in multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Meier, Dennis

    2015-11-25

    During the last decade a wide variety of novel and fascinating correlation phenomena has been discovered at domain walls in multiferroic bulk systems, ranging from unusual electronic conductance to inseparably entangled spin and charge degrees of freedom. The domain walls represent quasi-2D functional objects that can be induced, positioned, and erased on demand, bearing considerable technological potential for future nanoelectronics. Most of the challenges that remain to be solved before turning related device paradigms into reality, however, still fall in the field of fundamental condensed matter physics and materials science. In this topical review seminal experimental findings gained on electric and magnetic domain walls in multiferroic bulk materials are addressed. A special focus is put on the physical properties that emerge at so-called charged domain walls and the added functionality that arises from coexisting magnetic order. The research presented in this review highlights that we are just entering a whole new world of intriguing nanoscale physics that is yet to be explored in all its details. The goal is to draw attention to the persistent challenges and identify future key directions for the research on functional domain walls in multiferroics.

  8. Cysteine 70 of ankyrin-G is S-palmitoylated and is required for function of ankyrin-G in membrane domain assembly.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Jenkins, Paul; Bennett, Vann

    2012-12-21

    Ankyrin-G (AnkG) coordinates protein composition of diverse membrane domains, including epithelial lateral membranes and neuronal axon initial segments. However, how AnkG itself localizes to these membrane domains is not understood. We report that AnkG remains on the plasma membrane in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in low calcium, although these cells lack apical-basal polarity and exhibit loss of plasma membrane association of AnkG partners, E-cadherin and β(2)-spectrin. We subsequently demonstrate using mutagenesis and mass spectrometry that AnkG is S-palmitoylated exclusively at Cys-70, which is located in a loop of the first ankyrin repeat and is conserved in the vertebrate ankyrin family. Moreover, C70A mutation abolishes membrane association of 190-kDa AnkG in MDCK cells grown in low calcium. C70A 190-kDa AnkG fails to restore biogenesis of epithelial lateral membranes in MDCK cells depleted of endogenous AnkG. In addition, C70A 270-kDa AnkG fails to cluster at the axon initial segment of AnkG-depleted cultured hippocampal neurons and fails to recruit neurofascin as well as voltage-gated sodium channels. These effects of C70A mutation combined with evidence for its S-palmitoylation are consistent with a requirement of palmitoylation for targeting and function of AnkG in membrane domain biogenesis at epithelial lateral membranes and neuronal axon initial segments.

  9. An amino-proximal domain required for the localization of FtsQ in the cytoplasmic membrane, and for its biological function in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dopazo, A; Palacios, P; Sánchez, M; Pla, J; Vicente, M

    1992-03-01

    The location of FtsQ, an Escherichia coli protein essential for cell division, is, under physiological conditions, in the cytoplasmic membrane facing towards the periplasmic space. An amino-proximal hydrophobic domain is required for FtsQ to reach its location and for its activity in the cell. Overexpression of modified forms of FtsQ is deleterious for the cell.

  10. Functional domains in tetraspanin proteins.

    PubMed

    Stipp, Christopher S; Kolesnikova, Tatiana V; Hemler, Martin E

    2003-02-01

    Exciting new findings have emerged about the structure, function and biochemistry of tetraspanin proteins. Five distinct tetraspanin regions have now been delineated linking structural features to specific functions. Within the large extracellular loop of tetraspanins, there is a variable region that mediates specific interactions with other proteins, as well as a more highly conserved region that has been suggested to mediate homodimerization. Within the transmembrane region, the four tetraspanin transmembrane domains are probable sites of both intra- and inter-molecular interactions that are crucial during biosynthesis and assembly of the network of tetraspanin-linked membrane proteins known as the 'tetraspanin web'. In the intracellular juxtamembrane region, palmitoylation of cysteine residues also contributes to tetraspanin web assembly, and the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail region could provide specific functional links to cytoskeletal or signaling proteins.

  11. Boundary of pRNA functional domains and minimum pRNA sequence requirement for specific connector binding and DNA packaging of phage phi29.

    PubMed Central

    Garver, K; Guo, P

    1997-01-01

    Bacteriophage phi29 utilizes a viral-encoded 120-base RNA (pRNA) to accomplish dsDNA packaging into a preformed procapsid. Six pRNAs bind to the procapsid and work sequentially. The pRNA contains two functional domains, one for binding to the DNA translocating connector, and the other for interacting with another component of the DNA packaging machinery during DNA translocation. By UV crosslinking, the pRNA was found to bind to the connector specifically and not to the capsid or scaffolding proteins. When purified connectors were incubated with pRNA, rosette-like connector oligomers were observed. These oligomers were found to contain pRNA. A series of deletion mutants of the pRNA were constructed and their ability to perform various tasks involved in phi29 assembly were assayed. The minimum sizes of the pRNA needed for the following activities have been determined: (1) specific binding to procapsid or to connectors; (2) connector or procapsid binding with full efficiency compared with wild-type pRNA; and (3) genomic DNA packaging. In summary, bases 37-91 (55 nt) comprised the minimum sequence required for specific connector binding, although with lower efficiency; bases 6-113 (105 nt with the additional deletion of two nonessential bases, C109 and A106) comprised the minimum sequence required for full connector binding activity; and bases 1-117 comprised the minimum sequence needed for full DNA packaging activity. These data indicate clearly that the helical region composed of bases 1-6 and 113-117 plays a crucial role in DNA translocation, but is dispensable for connector binding. A model for the role of the pRNA in DNA packaging was also presented. PMID:9292504

  12. Bipartite Topology of Treponema pallidum Repeat Proteins C/D and I: OUTER MEMBRANE INSERTION, TRIMERIZATION, AND PORIN FUNCTION REQUIRE A C-TERMINAL β-BARREL DOMAIN.

    PubMed

    Anand, Arvind; LeDoyt, Morgan; Karanian, Carson; Luthra, Amit; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G; Puthenveetil, Robbins; Vinogradova, Olga; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-05-08

    We previously identified Treponema pallidum repeat proteins TprC/D, TprF, and TprI as candidate outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and subsequently demonstrated that TprC is not only a rare OMP but also forms trimers and has porin activity. We also reported that TprC contains N- and C-terminal domains (TprC(N) and TprC(C)) orthologous to regions in the major outer sheath protein (MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)) of Treponema denticola and that TprC(C) is solely responsible for β-barrel formation, trimerization, and porin function by the full-length protein. Herein, we show that TprI also possesses bipartite architecture, trimeric structure, and porin function and that the MOSP(C)-like domains of native TprC and TprI are surface-exposed in T. pallidum, whereas their MOSP(N)-like domains are tethered within the periplasm. TprF, which does not contain a MOSP(C)-like domain, lacks amphiphilicity and porin activity, adopts an extended inflexible structure, and, in T. pallidum, is tightly bound to the protoplasmic cylinder. By thermal denaturation, the MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)-like domains of TprC and TprI are highly thermostable, endowing the full-length proteins with impressive conformational stability. When expressed in Escherichia coli with PelB signal sequences, TprC and TprI localize to the outer membrane, adopting bipartite topologies, whereas TprF is periplasmic. We propose that the MOSP(N)-like domains enhance the structural integrity of the cell envelope by anchoring the β-barrels within the periplasm. In addition to being bona fide T. pallidum rare outer membrane proteins, TprC/D and TprI represent a new class of dual function, bipartite bacterial OMP.

  13. Structure-function analysis of the GmRIC1 signal peptide and CLE domain required for nodulation control in soybean.

    PubMed

    Reid, Dugald E; Li, Dongxue; Ferguson, Brett J; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-04-01

    Legumes control the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in response to external and internal stimuli, such as nitrate, and via systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON). Overexpression of the CLV3/ESR-related (CLE) pre-propeptide-encoding genes GmNIC1 (nitrate-induced and acting locally) and GmRIC1 (Bradyrhizobium-induced and acting systemically) suppresses soybean nodulation dependent on the activity of the nodulation autoregulation receptor kinase (GmNARK). This nodule inhibition response was used to assess the relative importance of key structural components within and around the CLE domain sequences of these genes. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, mutants were produced at each amino acid within the CLE domain (RLAPEGPDPHHN) of GmRIC1. This approach identified the Arg1, Ala3, Pro4, Gly6, Pro7, Asp8, His11, and Asn12 residues as critical to GmRIC1 nodulation suppression activity (NSA). In contrast, none of the mutations in conserved residues outside of the CLE domain showed compromised NSA. Chimeric genes derived from combinations of GmRIC1 and GmNIC1 domains were used to determine the role of each pre-propeptide domain in NSA differences that exist between the two peptides. It was found that the transit peptide and CLE peptide regions of GmRIC1 significantly enhanced activity of GmNIC1. In contrast, the comparable GmNIC1 domains reduced the NSA of GmRIC1. Identification of these critical residues and domains provides a better understanding of how these hormone-like peptides function in plant development and regulation.

  14. Structure–function analysis of the GmRIC1 signal peptide and CLE domain required for nodulation control in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Dugald E.; Li, Dongxue; Gresshoff, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Legumes control the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in response to external and internal stimuli, such as nitrate, and via systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON). Overexpression of the CLV3/ESR-related (CLE) pre-propeptide-encoding genes GmNIC1 (nitrate-induced and acting locally) and GmRIC1 (Bradyrhizobium-induced and acting systemically) suppresses soybean nodulation dependent on the activity of the nodulation autoregulation receptor kinase (GmNARK). This nodule inhibition response was used to assess the relative importance of key structural components within and around the CLE domain sequences of these genes. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, mutants were produced at each amino acid within the CLE domain (RLAPEGPDPHHN) of GmRIC1. This approach identified the Arg1, Ala3, Pro4, Gly6, Pro7, Asp8, His11, and Asn12 residues as critical to GmRIC1 nodulation suppression activity (NSA). In contrast, none of the mutations in conserved residues outside of the CLE domain showed compromised NSA. Chimeric genes derived from combinations of GmRIC1 and GmNIC1 domains were used to determine the role of each pre-propeptide domain in NSA differences that exist between the two peptides. It was found that the transit peptide and CLE peptide regions of GmRIC1 significantly enhanced activity of GmNIC1. In contrast, the comparable GmNIC1 domains reduced the NSA of GmRIC1. Identification of these critical residues and domains provides a better understanding of how these hormone-like peptides function in plant development and regulation. PMID:23386683

  15. Structural and functional analysis of methylation and 5'-RNA sequence requirements of short capped RNAs by the methyltransferase domain of dengue virus NS5.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Decroly, Etienne; Malet, Hélène; Selisko, Barbara; Benarroch, Delphine; Ferron, François; Canard, Bruno

    2007-09-21

    The N-terminal 33 kDa domain of non-structural protein 5 (NS5) of dengue virus (DV), named NS5MTase(DV), is involved in two of four steps required for the formation of the viral mRNA cap (7Me)GpppA(2'OMe), the guanine-N7 and the adenosine-2'O methylation. Its S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) dependent 2'O-methyltransferase (MTase) activity has been shown on capped (7Me+/-)GpppAC(n) RNAs. Here we report structural and binding studies using cap analogues and capped RNAs. We have solved five crystal structures at 1.8 A to 2.8 A resolution of NS5MTase(DV) in complex with cap analogues and the co-product of methylation S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy). The cap analogues can adopt several conformations. The guanosine moiety of all cap analogues occupies a GTP-binding site identified earlier, indicating that GTP and cap share the same binding site. Accordingly, we show that binding of (7Me)GpppAC(4) and (7Me)GpppAC(5) RNAs is inhibited in the presence of GTP, (7Me)GTP and (7Me)GpppA but not by ATP. This particular position of the cap is in accordance with the 2'O-methylation step. A model was generated of a ternary 2'O-methylation complex of NS5MTase(DV), (7Me)GpppA and AdoMet. RNA-binding increased when (7Me+/-)GpppAGC(n-1) starting with the consensus sequence GpppAG, was used instead of (7Me+/-)GpppAC(n). In the NS5MTase(DV)-GpppA complex the cap analogue adopts a folded, stacked conformation uniquely possible when adenine is the first transcribed nucleotide at the 5' end of nascent RNA, as it is the case in all flaviviruses. This conformation cannot be a functional intermediate of methylation, since both the guanine-N7 and adenosine-2'O positions are too far away from AdoMet. We hypothesize that this conformation mimics the reaction product of a yet-to-be-demonstrated guanylyltransferase activity. A putative Flavivirus RNA capping pathway is proposed combining the different steps where the NS5MTase domain is involved.

  16. The BH3 Domain of Bcl-xS Is Required for Inhibition of the Antiapoptotic Function of Bcl-xL

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Brian S.; Kelekar, Ameeta; Harris, Marian H.; Harlan, John E.; Fesik, Stephen W.; Thompson, Craig B.

    1999-01-01

    bcl-x is a member of the bcl-2 family of genes. The major protein product, Bcl-xL, is a 233-amino-acid protein which has antiapoptotic properties. In contrast, one of the alternatively spliced transcripts of the bcl-x gene codes for the protein Bcl-xS, which lacks 63 amino acids present in Bcl-xL and has proapoptotic activity. Unlike other proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, such as Bax and Bak, Bcl-xS does not seem to induce cell death in the absence of an additional death signal. However, Bcl-xS does interfere with the ability of Bcl-xL to antagonize Bax-induced death in transiently transfected 293 cells. Mutational analysis of Bcl-xS was conducted to identify the domains necessary to mediate its proapoptotic phenotype. Deletion mutants of Bcl-xS which still contained an intact BH3 domain retained the ability to inhibit survival through antagonism of Bcl-xL. Bcl-xS was able to form heterodimers with Bcl-xL in mammalian cells, and its ability to inhibit survival correlated with the ability to heterodimerize with Bcl-xL. Deletion mutants of Bax and Bcl-2, which lacked BH1 and BH2 domains but contained a BH3 domain, were able to antagonize the survival effect conferred by Bcl-xL. The results suggest that BH3 domains from both pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, while lacking an intrinsic ability to promote programmed cell death, can be potent inhibitors of Bcl-xL survival function. PMID:10490606

  17. The Conserved Tetratricopeptide Repeat-Containing C-Terminal Domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FimV Is Required for Its Cyclic AMP-Dependent and -Independent Functions

    PubMed Central

    Buensuceso, Ryan N. C.; Nguyen, Ylan; Zhang, Kun; Daniel-Ivad, Martin; Sugiman-Marangos, Seiji N.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Junop, Murray S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT FimV is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa inner membrane protein that regulates intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels—and thus type IV pilus (T4P)-mediated twitching motility and type II secretion (T2S)—by activating the adenylate cyclase CyaB. Its cytoplasmic domain contains three predicted tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs separated by an unstructured region: two proximal to the inner membrane and one within the “FimV C-terminal domain,” which is highly conserved across diverse homologs. Here, we present the crystal structure of the FimV C terminus, FimV861–919, containing a TPR motif decorated with solvent-exposed, charged side chains, plus a C-terminal capping helix. FimV689, a truncated form lacking this C-terminal motif, did not restore wild-type levels of twitching or surface piliation compared to the full-length protein. FimV689 failed to restore wild-type levels of the T4P motor ATPase PilU or T2S, suggesting that it was unable to activate cAMP synthesis. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis showed that TPR3 interacts directly with the CyaB activator, FimL. However, FimV689 failed to restore wild-type motility in a fimV mutant expressing a constitutively active CyaB (fimV cyaB-R456L), suggesting that the C-terminal motif is also involved in cAMP-independent functions of FimV. The data show that the highly conserved TPR-containing C-terminal domain of FimV is critical for its cAMP-dependent and -independent functions. IMPORTANCE FimV is important for twitching motility and cAMP-dependent virulence gene expression in P. aeruginosa. FimV homologs have been identified in several human pathogens, and their functions are not limited to T4P expression. The C terminus of FimV is remarkably conserved among otherwise very diverse family members, but its role is unknown. We provide here biological evidence for the importance of the C-terminal domain in both cAMP-dependent (through FimL) and -independent functions of FimV. We present X-ray crystal structures

  18. Phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain of p48 Ebp1 by CDK2 is required for tumorigenic function of p48.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyo Rim; Kim, Chung Kwon; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2015-11-01

    The long isoform of ErbB3 binding protein 1 (Ebp1), p48, strongly promotes tumorigenesis of glioblastoma, accelerating cell proliferation and transformation, while the short isoform, p42, which lacks the N-terminal 54 amino acids, inhibits tumor growth. However, it is unclear if the N-terminal domain of p48 regulates the oncogenic function of p48. Here, we show that p48, but not p42, interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) through its N-terminal domain, resulting in the specific phosphorylation of serine 34 of p48. Overexpression of wild-type p48 greatly enhanced tumor cell growth, whereas phospho-ablated mutant S34A of p48, which is mutated at the CDK2 phosphorylation site, antagonizes cell proliferation and transformation. Moreover, phospho-ablated mutant S34A abrogated the ability of p48 to accelerate tumor cell growth in a mouse engraft model. Thus, our findings indicate that p48Ebp1 acts as an oncoprotein through selective interaction and/or modification of the N-terminal domain that does not exist in its short isoform p42.

  19. Functional Isoforms of IκB Kinase α (IKKα) Lacking Leucine Zipper and Helix-Loop-Helix Domains Reveal that IKKα and IKKβ Have Different Activation Requirements

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Fergus R.; Connelly, Margery A.; Balzarano, Darlene; Müller, Jurgen R.; Geleziunas, Romas; Marcu, Kenneth B.

    2000-01-01

    The activity of the NF-κB family of transcription factors is regulated principally by phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of their inhibitory IκB subunits. Site-specific serine phosphorylation of IκBs by two IκB kinases (IKKα [also known as CHUK] and IKKβ) targets them for proteolysis. IKKα and -β have a unique structure, with an amino-terminal serine-threonine kinase catalytic domain and carboxy-proximal helix-loop-helix (HLH) and leucine zipper-like (LZip) amphipathic α-helical domains. Here, we describe the properties of two novel cellular isoforms of IKKα: IKKα-ΔH and IKKα-ΔLH. IKKα-ΔH and IKKα-ΔLH are differentially spliced isoforms of the IKKα mRNA lacking its HLH domain and both its LZip and HLH domains, respectively. IKKα is the major RNA species in most murine cells and tissues, except for activated T lymphocytes and the brain, where the alternatively spliced isoforms predominate. Remarkably, IKKα-ΔH and IKKα-ΔLH, like IKKα, respond to tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulation to potentiate NF-κB activation in HEK293 cells. A mutant, catalytically inactive form of IKKα blocked IKKα-, IKKα-ΔH-, and IKKα-ΔLH-mediated NF-κB activation. Akin to IKKα, its carboxy-terminally truncated isoforms associated with the upstream activator NIK (NF-κB-inducing kinase). In contrast to IKKα, IKKα-ΔLH failed to associate with either itself, IKKα, IKKβ, or NEMO-IKKγ-IKKAP1, while IKKα-ΔH complexed with IKKβ and IKKα but not with NEMO. Interestingly, each IKKα isoform rescued HEK293 cells from the inhibitory effects of a dominant-negative NEMO mutant, while IKKα could not. IKKα-ΔCm, a recombinant mutant of IKKα structurally akin to IKKα-ΔLH, was equally functional in these assays, but in sharp contrast, IKKβ-ΔCm, a structurally analogous mutant of IKKβ, was inactive. Our results demonstrate that the functional roles of seemingly analogous domains in IKKα and IKKβ need not be equivalent and can also exhibit

  20. Budding of Retroviruses Utilizing Divergent L Domains Requires Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nana F.; Dussupt, Vincent; Sette, Paola; Rudd, Victoria; Nagashima, Kunio; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Chen, Chaoping; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) carrying PTAP and LYPXnL L domains ceased budding when the nucleocapsid (NC) domain was mutated, suggesting a role for NC in HIV-1 release. Here we investigated whether NC involvement in virus release is a property specific to HIV-1 or a general requirement of retroviruses. Specifically, we examined a possible role for NC in the budding of retroviruses relying on divergent L domains and structurally homologous NC domains that harbor diverse protein sequences. We found that NC is critical for the release of viruses utilizing the PTAP motif whether it functions within its native Gag in simian immunodeficiency virus cpzGAB2 (SIVcpzGAB2) or SIVsmmE543 or when it is transplanted into the heterologous Gag protein of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). In both cases, virus release was severely diminished even though NC mutant Gag proteins retained the ability to assemble spherical particles. Moreover, budding-defective NC mutants, which displayed particles tethered to the plasma membrane, were triggered to release virus when access to the cell endocytic sorting complex required for transport pathway was restored (i.e., in trans expression of Nedd4.2s). We also examined the role of NC in the budding of EIAV, a retrovirus relying exclusively on the (L)YPXnL-type L domain. We found that EIAV late budding defects were rescued by overexpression of the isolated Alix Bro1 domain (Bro1). Bro1-mediated rescue of EIAV release required the wild-type NC. EIAV NC mutants lost interactions with Bro1 and failed to produce viruses despite retaining the ability to self-assemble. Together, our studies establish a role for NC in the budding of retroviruses harboring divergent L domains and evolutionarily diverse NC sequences, suggesting the utilization of a common conserved mechanism and/or cellular factor rather than a specific motif. PMID:22345468

  1. Budding of retroviruses utilizing divergent L domains requires nucleocapsid.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nana F; Dussupt, Vincent; Sette, Paola; Rudd, Victoria; Nagashima, Kunio; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Chen, Chaoping; Montelaro, Ronald C; Hahn, Beatrice H; Bouamr, Fadila

    2012-04-01

    We recently reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) carrying PTAP and LYPX(n)L L domains ceased budding when the nucleocapsid (NC) domain was mutated, suggesting a role for NC in HIV-1 release. Here we investigated whether NC involvement in virus release is a property specific to HIV-1 or a general requirement of retroviruses. Specifically, we examined a possible role for NC in the budding of retroviruses relying on divergent L domains and structurally homologous NC domains that harbor diverse protein sequences. We found that NC is critical for the release of viruses utilizing the PTAP motif whether it functions within its native Gag in simian immunodeficiency virus cpzGAB2 (SIVcpzGAB2) or SIVsmmE543 or when it is transplanted into the heterologous Gag protein of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). In both cases, virus release was severely diminished even though NC mutant Gag proteins retained the ability to assemble spherical particles. Moreover, budding-defective NC mutants, which displayed particles tethered to the plasma membrane, were triggered to release virus when access to the cell endocytic sorting complex required for transport pathway was restored (i.e., in trans expression of Nedd4.2s). We also examined the role of NC in the budding of EIAV, a retrovirus relying exclusively on the (L)YPX(n)L-type L domain. We found that EIAV late budding defects were rescued by overexpression of the isolated Alix Bro1 domain (Bro1). Bro1-mediated rescue of EIAV release required the wild-type NC. EIAV NC mutants lost interactions with Bro1 and failed to produce viruses despite retaining the ability to self-assemble. Together, our studies establish a role for NC in the budding of retroviruses harboring divergent L domains and evolutionarily diverse NC sequences, suggesting the utilization of a common conserved mechanism and/or cellular factor rather than a specific motif.

  2. DEP domains: structurally similar but functionally different.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Sarah V; Maurice, Madelon M; Bos, Johannes L

    2014-05-01

    The Dishevelled, EGL-10 and pleckstrin (DEP) domain is a globular protein domain that is present in about ten human protein families with well-defined structural features. A picture is emerging that DEP domains mainly function in the spatial and temporal control of diverse signal transduction events by recruiting proteins to the plasma membrane. DEP domains can interact with various partners at the membrane, including phospholipids and membrane receptors, and their binding is subject to regulation.

  3. Structure and function of KH domains.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Roberto; Edwards, Laura; Regan, Lynne

    2008-06-01

    The hnRNP K homology (KH) domain was first identified in the protein human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) 14 years ago. Since then, KH domains have been identified as nucleic acid recognition motifs in proteins that perform a wide range of cellular functions. KH domains bind RNA or ssDNA, and are found in proteins associated with transcriptional and translational regulation, along with other cellular processes. Several diseases, e.g. fragile X mental retardation syndrome and paraneoplastic disease, are associated with the loss of function of a particular KH domain. Here we discuss the progress made towards understanding both general and specific features of the molecular recognition of nucleic acids by KH domains. The typical binding surface of KH domains is a cleft that is versatile but that can typically accommodate only four unpaired bases. Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions and, to a lesser extent, electrostatic interactions, contribute to the nucleic acid binding affinity. 'Augmented' KH domains or multiple copies of KH domains within a protein are two strategies that are used to achieve greater affinity and specificity of nucleic acid binding. Isolated KH domains have been seen to crystallize as monomers, dimers and tetramers, but no published data support the formation of noncovalent higher-order oligomers by KH domains in solution. Much attention has been given in the literature to a conserved hydrophobic residue (typically Ile or Leu) that is present in most KH domains. The interest derives from the observation that an individual with this Ile mutated to Asn, in the KH2 domain of fragile X mental retardation protein, exhibits a particularly severe form of the syndrome. The structural effects of this mutation in the fragile X mental retardation protein KH2 domain have recently been reported. We discuss the use of analogous point mutations at this position in other KH domains to dissect both structure and function.

  4. Structure and Function of KH Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde, R.; Regan, E

    2008-01-01

    The hnRNP K homology (KH) domain was first identified in the protein human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) 14 years ago. Since then, KH domains have been identified as nucleic acid recognition motifs in proteins that perform a wide range of cellular functions. KH domains bind RNA or ssDNA, and are found in proteins associated with transcriptional and translational regulation, along with other cellular processes. Several diseases, e.g. fragile X mental retardation syndrome and paraneoplastic disease, are associated with the loss of function of a particular KH domain. Here we discuss the progress made towards understanding both general and specific features of the molecular recognition of nucleic acids by KH domains. The typical binding surface of KH domains is a cleft that is versatile but that can typically accommodate only four unpaired bases. Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions and, to a lesser extent, electrostatic interactions, contribute to the nucleic acid binding affinity. 'Augmented' KH domains or multiple copies of KH domains within a protein are two strategies that are used to achieve greater affinity and specificity of nucleic acid binding. Isolated KH domains have been seen to crystallize as monomers, dimers and tetramers, but no published data support the formation of noncovalent higher-order oligomers by KH domains in solution. Much attention has been given in the literature to a conserved hydrophobic residue (typically Ile or Leu) that is present in most KH domains. The interest derives from the observation that an individual with this Ile mutated to Asn, in the KH2 domain of fragile X mental retardation protein, exhibits a particularly severe form of the syndrome. The structural effects of this mutation in the fragile X mental retardation protein KH2 domain have recently been reported. We discuss the use of analogous point mutations at this position in other KH domains to dissect both structure and function.

  5. Functional innovation from changes in protein domains and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Lees, Jonathan G; Dawson, Natalie L; Sillitoe, Ian; Orengo, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Domains are the functional building blocks of proteins. In this work we discuss how domains can contribute to the evolution of new functions. Domains themselves can evolve through various mechanisms, altering their intrinsic function. Domains can also facilitate functional innovations by combining with other domains to make novel proteins. We discuss the mechanisms by which domain and domain combinations support functional innovations. We highlight interesting examples where changes in domain combination promote changes at the domain level.

  6. Synthetic actin-binding domains reveal compositional constraints for function.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Maria; Gimona, Mario

    2008-01-01

    The actin-binding domains of many proteins consist of a canonical type 1/type 2 arrangement of the structurally conserved calponin homology domain. Using the actin-binding domain of alpha-actinin-1 as a scaffold we have generated synthetic actin-binding domains by altering position and composition of the calponin homology domains. We show that the presence of two calponin homology domains alone and in the context of an actin-binding domain is not sufficient for actin-binding, and that both single and homotypic type 2 calponin homology domain tandems fail to bind to actin in vitro and in transfected cells. In contrast, single and tandem type 1 calponin homology domain arrays bind actin directly but result in defective turnover rates on actin filaments, and in aberrant actin bundling when introduced into the full-length alpha-actinin molecule. An actin-binding domain harboring the calponin homology domains in an inverted position, however, functions both in isolation and in the context of the dimeric alpha-actinin molecule. Our data demonstrate that the dynamics and specificity of actin-binding via actin-binding domains requires both the filament binding properties of the type 1, and regulation by type 2 calponin homology domains, and appear independent of their position.

  7. The UBC Domain Is Required for BRUCE to Promote BRIT1/MCPH1 Function in DSB Signaling and Repair Post Formation of BRUCE-USP8-BRIT1 Complex.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunmin; Che, Lixiao; Du, Chunying

    2015-01-01

    BRUCE is implicated in the regulation of DNA double-strand break response to preserve genome stability. It acts as a scaffold to tether USP8 and BRIT1, together they form a nuclear BRUCE-USP8-BRIT1 complex, where BRUCE holds K63-ubiquitinated BRIT1 from access to DSB in unstressed cells. Following DSB induction, BRUCE promotes USP8 mediated deubiquitination of BRIT1, a prerequisite for BRIT1 to be released from the complex and recruited to DSB by binding to γ-H2AX. BRUCE contains UBC and BIR domains, but neither is required for the scaffolding function of BRUCE mentioned above. Therefore, it remains to be determined whether they are required for BRUCE in DSB response. Here we show that the UBC domain, not the BIR domain, is required for BRUCE to promote DNA repair at a step post the formation of BRUCE-USP8-BRIT1 complex. Mutation or deletion of the BRUCE UBC domain did not disrupt the BRUCE-USP8-BRIT1 complex, but impaired deubiquitination and consequent recruitment of BRIT1 to DSB. This leads to impaired chromatin relaxation, decreased accumulation of MDC1, NBS1, pATM and RAD51 at DSB, and compromised homologous recombination repair of DNA DSB. These results demonstrate that in addition to the scaffolding function in complex formation, BRUCE has an E3 ligase function to promote BRIT1 deubiquitination by USP8 leading to accumulation of BRIT1 at DNA double-strand break. These data support a crucial role for BRUCE UBC activity in the early stage of DSB response.

  8. The UBC Domain Is Required for BRUCE to Promote BRIT1/MCPH1 Function in DSB Signaling and Repair Post Formation of BRUCE-USP8-BRIT1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Chunmin; Che, Lixiao; Du, Chunying

    2015-01-01

    BRUCE is implicated in the regulation of DNA double-strand break response to preserve genome stability. It acts as a scaffold to tether USP8 and BRIT1, together they form a nuclear BRUCE-USP8-BRIT1 complex, where BRUCE holds K63-ubiquitinated BRIT1 from access to DSB in unstressed cells. Following DSB induction, BRUCE promotes USP8 mediated deubiquitination of BRIT1, a prerequisite for BRIT1 to be released from the complex and recruited to DSB by binding to γ-H2AX. BRUCE contains UBC and BIR domains, but neither is required for the scaffolding function of BRUCE mentioned above. Therefore, it remains to be determined whether they are required for BRUCE in DSB response. Here we show that the UBC domain, not the BIR domain, is required for BRUCE to promote DNA repair at a step post the formation of BRUCE-USP8-BRIT1 complex. Mutation or deletion of the BRUCE UBC domain did not disrupt the BRUCE-USP8-BRIT1 complex, but impaired deubiquitination and consequent recruitment of BRIT1 to DSB. This leads to impaired chromatin relaxation, decreased accumulation of MDC1, NBS1, pATM and RAD51 at DSB, and compromised homologous recombination repair of DNA DSB. These results demonstrate that in addition to the scaffolding function in complex formation, BRUCE has an E3 ligase function to promote BRIT1 deubiquitination by USP8 leading to accumulation of BRIT1 at DNA double-strand break. These data support a crucial role for BRUCE UBC activity in the early stage of DSB response. PMID:26683461

  9. J domain independent functions of J proteins.

    PubMed

    Ajit Tamadaddi, Chetana; Sahi, Chandan

    2016-07-01

    Heat shock proteins of 40 kDa (Hsp40s), also called J proteins, are obligate partners of Hsp70s. Via their highly conserved and functionally critical J domain, J proteins interact and modulate the activity of their Hsp70 partners. Mutations in the critical residues in the J domain often result in the null phenotype for the J protein in question. However, as more J proteins have been characterized, it is becoming increasingly clear that a significant number of J proteins do not "completely" rely on their J domains to carry out their cellular functions, as previously thought. In some cases, regions outside the highly conserved J domain have become more important making the J domain dispensable for some, if not for all functions of a J protein. This has profound effects on the evolution of such J proteins. Here we present selected examples of J proteins that perform J domain independent functions and discuss this in the context of evolution of J proteins with dispensable J domains and J-like proteins in eukaryotes.

  10. The PAX3 paired domain and homeodomain function as a single binding module in vivo to regulate subnuclear localization and mobility by a mechanism that requires base-specific recognition.

    PubMed

    Corry, Gareth N; Raghuram, Nikhil; Missiaen, Kristal K; Hu, Ninghe; Hendzel, Michael J; Underhill, D Alan

    2010-09-10

    The transcription factor PAX3 is essential for myogenesis and neural crest development, and is one of several genes mutated in human Waardenburg syndrome. Analysis of disease-causing missense mutations in PAX3 has established the interdependence of its two DNA-binding domains, the paired domain (PD) and the homeodomain (HD), as well as defects in localization and mobility. Paradoxically, mutants that retained DNA binding activity exhibited the greatest defects in localization and mobility, regardless of the domain in which they reside. In the present study, structure-function analyses were used to determine the mechanistic basis of this effect. In the context of the isolated DNA-binding domains, HD mutants adopted an increase in mobility proportional to their loss in DNA binding, while PD mutants continued to display the inverse relationship observed in the full-length protein. At the structural level, this reflected an unexpected dependence on base-specific contacts in the PD, whereas HD mobility was more severely affected by loss of backbone contacts, as has been observed with other DNA-binding proteins. This requires that the HD switch to a base-specific mode in the full-length protein. Moreover, both domains underwent substantial reduction in mobility and altered localization when in a contiguous polypeptide with the endogenous linker segment. Notably, although the HD conferred localization to heterochromatin, this activity was masked when linked to the PD, despite the absence of determinants for subnuclear compartmentalization in the PD or linker. Last, the propensity for PAX3 heterochromatin localization was modulated by sequences at the amino and carboxy termini, supporting a model in which alternate conformations lead to unmasking of the HD. These data indicate that the PD and the HD functionally interact in vivo and behave as a single binding module whose mobility and localization are dependent on sequence-specific contacts.

  11. The PR-Set7 binding domain of Riz1 is required for the H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail ‘histone code’ and Riz1 tumor suppressor function

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Lauren M.; Sims, Jennifer K.; Tuzon, Creighton T.; Rice, Judd C.

    2014-01-01

    PR-Set7/Set8/KMT5a is the sole histone H4 lysine 20 monomethyltransferase (H4K20me1) in metazoans and is essential for proper cell division and genomic stability. We unexpectedly discovered that normal cellular levels of monomethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1) were also dependent on PR-Set7, but independent of its catalytic activity. This observation suggested that PR-Set7 interacts with an H3K9 monomethyltransferase to establish the previously reported H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail ‘histone code’. Here we show that PR-Set7 specifically and directly binds the C-terminus of the Riz1/PRDM2/KMT8 tumor suppressor and demonstrate that the N-terminal PR/SET domain of Riz1 preferentially monomethylates H3K9. The PR-Set7 binding domain was required for Riz1 nuclear localization and maintenance of the H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail ‘histone code’. Although Riz1 can function as a repressor, Riz1/H3K9me1 was dispensable for the repression of genes regulated by PR-Set7/H4K20me1. Frameshift mutations resulting in a truncated Riz1 incapable of binding PR-Set7 occur frequently in various aggressive cancers. In these cancer cells, expression of wild-type Riz1 restored tumor suppression by decreasing proliferation and increasing apoptosis. These phenotypes were not observed in cells expressing either the Riz1 PR/SET domain or PR-Set7 binding domain indicating that Riz1 methyltransferase activity and PR-Set7 binding domain are both essential for Riz1 tumor suppressor function. PMID:24423864

  12. The PR-Set7 binding domain of Riz1 is required for the H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail 'histone code' and Riz1 tumor suppressor function.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Lauren M; Sims, Jennifer K; Tuzon, Creighton T; Rice, Judd C

    2014-04-01

    PR-Set7/Set8/KMT5a is the sole histone H4 lysine 20 monomethyltransferase (H4K20me1) in metazoans and is essential for proper cell division and genomic stability. We unexpectedly discovered that normal cellular levels of monomethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1) were also dependent on PR-Set7, but independent of its catalytic activity. This observation suggested that PR-Set7 interacts with an H3K9 monomethyltransferase to establish the previously reported H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail 'histone code'. Here we show that PR-Set7 specifically and directly binds the C-terminus of the Riz1/PRDM2/KMT8 tumor suppressor and demonstrate that the N-terminal PR/SET domain of Riz1 preferentially monomethylates H3K9. The PR-Set7 binding domain was required for Riz1 nuclear localization and maintenance of the H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail 'histone code'. Although Riz1 can function as a repressor, Riz1/H3K9me1 was dispensable for the repression of genes regulated by PR-Set7/H4K20me1. Frameshift mutations resulting in a truncated Riz1 incapable of binding PR-Set7 occur frequently in various aggressive cancers. In these cancer cells, expression of wild-type Riz1 restored tumor suppression by decreasing proliferation and increasing apoptosis. These phenotypes were not observed in cells expressing either the Riz1 PR/SET domain or PR-Set7 binding domain indicating that Riz1 methyltransferase activity and PR-Set7 binding domain are both essential for Riz1 tumor suppressor function.

  13. An introduction to recognizing functional domains.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Gary D

    2006-10-01

    This unit provides an overview of issues involved in domain recognition in protein and DNA sequences. It opens with a discussion of the two primary methods of domain representation, namely consensus sequences and alignment matrices (e.g., the log-odds matrix). The unit continues with a brief overview of some of the resources available for identifying functional domains in nucleotide sequences (e.g., TRANSFAC). In addition, it reviews databases such as Pfam, InterPro and Blocks, which are available for protein analysis.

  14. Functional domains of interferon regulatory factor I (IRF-1).

    PubMed Central

    Schaper, F; Kirchhoff, S; Posern, G; Köster, M; Oumard, A; Sharf, R; Levi, B Z; Hauser, H

    1998-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors among which are IRF-1, IRF-2, and IFN consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP). These factors share sequence homology in the N-terminal DNA-binding domain. IRF-1 and IRF-2 are further related and have additional homologous sequences within their C-termini. Whereas IRF-2 and ICSBP are identified as transcriptional repressors, IRF-1 is an activator. In the present work, the identification of functional domains in murine IRF-1 with regard to DNA-binding, nuclear translocation, heterodimerization with ICSBP and transcriptional activation are demonstrated. The minimal DNA-binding domain requires the N-terminal 124 amino acids plus an arbitrary C-terminal extension. By using mutants of IRF-1 fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein and monitoring their distribution in living cells, a nuclear location signal (NLS) was identified and found to be sufficient for nuclear translocation. Heterodimerization was confirmed by a two-hybrid system adapted to mammalian cells. The heterodimerization domain in IRF-1 was defined by studies in vitro and was shown to be homologous with a sequence in IRF-2, suggesting that IRF-2 also heterodimerizes with ICSBP through this sequence. An acidic domain in IRF-1 was found to be required and to be sufficient for transactivation. Epitope mapping of IRF-1 showed that regions within the NLS, the heterodimerization domain and the transcriptional activation domain are exposed for possible contacts with interacting proteins. PMID:9742224

  15. Architecture and function of metallopeptidase catalytic domains

    PubMed Central

    Cerdà-Costa, Núria; Gomis-Rüth, Francesc Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The cleavage of peptide bonds by metallopeptidases (MPs) is essential for life. These ubiquitous enzymes participate in all major physiological processes, and so their deregulation leads to diseases ranging from cancer and metastasis, inflammation, and microbial infection to neurological insults and cardiovascular disorders. MPs cleave their substrates without a covalent intermediate in a single-step reaction involving a solvent molecule, a general base/acid, and a mono-or dinuclear catalytic metal site. Most monometallic MPs comprise a short metal-binding motif (HEXXH), which includes two metal-binding histidines and a general base/acid glutamate, and they are grouped into the zincin tribe of MPs. The latter divides mainly into the gluzincin and metzincin clans. Metzincins consist of globular ∼130–270-residue catalytic domains, which are usually preceded by N-terminal pro-segments, typically required for folding and latency maintenance. The catalytic domains are often followed by C-terminal domains for substrate recognition and other protein–protein interactions, anchoring to membranes, oligomerization, and compartmentalization. Metzincin catalytic domains consist of a structurally conserved N-terminal subdomain spanning a five-stranded β-sheet, a backing helix, and an active-site helix. The latter contains most of the metal-binding motif, which is here characteristically extended to HEXXHXXGXX(H,D). Downstream C-terminal subdomains are generally shorter, differ more among metzincins, and mainly share a conserved loop—the Met-turn—and a C-terminal helix. The accumulated structural data from more than 300 deposited structures of the 12 currently characterized metzincin families reviewed here provide detailed knowledge of the molecular features of their catalytic domains, help in our understanding of their working mechanisms, and form the basis for the design of novel drugs. PMID:24596965

  16. Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Ohtsu, Kazuhiro; Zhou, Ruilian; Sarkar, Ananda; Hargreaves, Sarah; Elshire, Robert J.; Eudy, Douglas; Pawlowska, Teresa; Ware, Doreen; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Buckner, Brent; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Schnable, Patrick S.; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known to be upregulated in the initiating leaf (P0/P1) or in the SAM proper verified the precision of the microdissections. Genes involved in cell division/growth, cell wall biosynthesis, chromatin remodeling, RNA binding, and translation are especially upregulated in initiating leaves, whereas genes functioning during protein fate and DNA repair are more abundant in the SAM proper. In situ hybridization analyses confirmed the expression patterns of six previously uncharacterized maize genes upregulated in the P0/P1. P0/P1-upregulated genes that were also shown to be downregulated in leaf-arrested shoots treated with an auxin transport inhibitor are especially implicated to function during early events in maize leaf initiation. Reverse genetic analyses of asceapen1 (asc1), a maize D4-cyclin gene upregulated in the P0/P1, revealed novel leaf phenotypes, less genetic redundancy, and expanded D4-CYCLIN function during maize shoot development as compared to Arabidopsis. These analyses generated a unique SAM domain-specific database that provides new insight into SAM function and a useful platform for reverse genetic analyses of shoot development in maize. PMID:19424435

  17. Microdissection of shoot meristem functional domains.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Lionel; Strable, Josh; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ohtsu, Kazuhiro; Zhou, Ruilian; Sarkar, Ananda; Hargreaves, Sarah; Elshire, Robert J; Eudy, Douglas; Pawlowska, Teresa; Ware, Doreen; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Buckner, Brent; Timmermans, Marja C P; Schnable, Patrick S; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection-microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known to be upregulated in the initiating leaf (P0/P1) or in the SAM proper verified the precision of the microdissections. Genes involved in cell division/growth, cell wall biosynthesis, chromatin remodeling, RNA binding, and translation are especially upregulated in initiating leaves, whereas genes functioning during protein fate and DNA repair are more abundant in the SAM proper. In situ hybridization analyses confirmed the expression patterns of six previously uncharacterized maize genes upregulated in the P0/P1. P0/P1-upregulated genes that were also shown to be downregulated in leaf-arrested shoots treated with an auxin transport inhibitor are especially implicated to function during early events in maize leaf initiation. Reverse genetic analyses of asceapen1 (asc1), a maize D4-cyclin gene upregulated in the P0/P1, revealed novel leaf phenotypes, less genetic redundancy, and expanded D4-CYCLIN function during maize shoot development as compared to Arabidopsis. These analyses generated a unique SAM domain-specific database that provides new insight into SAM function and a useful platform for reverse genetic analyses of shoot development in maize.

  18. The RED domain of Paired is specifically required for Drosophila accessory gland maturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Ping; Xue, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The evolutionarily conserved paired domain consists of the N-terminal PAI and the C-terminal RED domains, each containing a helix-turn-helix motif capable of binding DNA. Despite its conserved sequence, the physiological functions of the RED domain remain elusive. Here, we constructed a prd transgene expressing a truncated Paired (Prd) protein without the RED domain, and examined its rescue ability in prd mutants. We found that the RED domain is specifically required for the expression of Acp26Aa and sex peptide in male accessory glands, and the induction of female post-mating response. Our data thus identified an important physiological function for the evolutionarily conserved RED domain.

  19. The functional domain grouping of microtubule associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Charlotte M; Wakefield, James G

    2008-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs), which play crucial roles in normal cell function, are regulated by MT associated proteins (MAPs). Using a combinatorial approach that includes biochemistry, proteomics and bioinformatics, we have recently identified 270 putative MAPs from Drosophila embryos and characterized some of those required for correct progression through mitosis. Here we identify functional groups of these MAPs using a reciprocal hits sequence alignment technique and assign InterPro functional domains to 28 previously uncharacterized proteins. This approach gives insight into the potential functions of MAPs and how their roles may affect MTs. PMID:19704789

  20. Functional analysis of the nuclear LIM domain interactor NLI.

    PubMed Central

    Jurata, L W; Gill, G N

    1997-01-01

    LIM homeodomain and LIM-only (LMO) transcription factors contain two tandemly arranged Zn2+-binding LIM domains capable of mediating protein-protein interactions. These factors have restricted patterns of expression, are found in invertebrates as well as vertebrates, and are required for cell type specification in a variety of developing tissues. A recently identified, widely expressed protein, NLI, binds with high affinity to the LIM domains of LIM homeodomain and LMO proteins in vitro and in vivo. In this study, a 38-amino-acid fragment of NLI was found to be sufficient for the association of NLI with nuclear LIM domains. In addition, NLI was shown to form high affinity homodimers through the amino-terminal 200 amino acids, but dimerization of NLI was not required for association with the LIM homeodomain protein Lmxl. Chemical cross-linking analysis revealed higher-order complexes containing multiple NLI molecules bound to Lmx1, indicating that dimerization of NLI does not interfere with LIM domain interactions. Additionally, NLI formed complexes with Lmx1 on the rat insulin I promoter and inhibited the LIM domain-dependent synergistic transcriptional activation by Lmx1 and the basic helix-loop-helix protein E47 from the rat insulin I minienhancer. These studies indicate that NLI contains at least two functionally independent domains and may serve as a negative regulator of synergistic transcriptional responses which require direct interaction via LIM domains. Thus, NLI may regulate the transcriptional activity of LIM homeodomain proteins by determining specific partner interactions. PMID:9315627

  1. Phospholipid binding to the FAK catalytic domain impacts function

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in development, in homeostasis and in the progression of human disease. Multiple stimuli activate FAK, which requires a change in structure from an autoinhibited to activated conformation. In the autoinhibited conformation the FERM domain associates with the catalytic domain of FAK and PI(4,5)P2 binding to the FERM domain plays a role in the release of autoinhibition, activating the enzyme. An in silico model of FAK/PI(4,5)P2 interaction suggests that residues on the catalytic domain interact with PI(4,5)P2, in addition to the known FERM domain PI(4,5)P2 binding site. This study was undertaken to test the significance of this in silico observation. Mutations designed to disrupt the putative PI(4,5)P2 binding site were engineered into FAK. These mutants exhibited defects in phosphorylation and failed to completely rescue the phenotype associated with fak -/- phenotype fibroblasts demonstrating the importance of these residues in FAK function. The catalytic domain of FAK exhibited PI(4,5)P2 binding in vitro and binding activity was lost upon mutation of putative PI(4,5)P2 binding site basic residues. However, binding was not selective for PI(4,5)P2, and the catalytic domain bound to several phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation variants. The mutant exhibiting the most severe biological defect was defective for phosphatidylinositol phosphate binding, supporting the model that catalytic domain phospholipid binding is important for biochemical and biological function. PMID:28222177

  2. Project X functional requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Lebedev, V.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  3. Identification and characterization of structural domains of human ERp57: association with calreticulin requires several domains.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Laura; Myllyharju, Johanna; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Orrù, Stefania; Caterino, Marianna; Kivirikko, Kari I; Koivunen, Peppi

    2004-04-02

    The amino acid sequence of ERp57, which functions in the endoplasmic reticulum together with the lectins calreticulin and calnexin to achieve folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins, is highly similar to that of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), but they have their own distinct roles in protein folding. We have characterized the domain structure of ERp57 by limited proteolysis and N-terminal sequencing and have found it to be similar but not identical to that of PDI. ERp57 had three major protease-sensitive regions, the first of which was located between residues 120 and 150, the second between 201 and 215, and the third between 313 and 341, the data thus being consistent with a four-domain structure abb'a'. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli was used to verify the domain boundaries. Each single domain and a b'a' double domain could be produced in the form of soluble, folded polypeptides, as verified by circular dichroism spectra and urea gradient gel electrophoresis. When the ability of ERp57 and its a and a' domains to fold denatured RNase A was studied by electrospray mass analyses, ERp57 markedly enhanced the folding rate at early time points, although less effectively than PDI, but was an ineffective catalyst of the overall process. The a and a' domains produced only minor, if any, increases in the folding rate at the early stages and no increase at the late stages. Interaction of the soluble ERp57 domains with the P domain of calreticulin was studied by chemical cross-linking in vitro. None of the single ERp57 domains nor the b'a' double domain could be cross-linked to the P domain, whereas cross-linking was obtained with a hybrid ERpabb'PDIa'c polypeptide but not with ERpabPDIb'a'c, indicating that multiple domains are involved in this protein-protein interaction and that the b' domain of ERp57 cannot be replaced by that of PDI.

  4. Functional electronic inversion layers at ferroelectric domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, J. A.; Schaab, J.; Kumagai, Y.; Cano, A.; Stengel, M.; Krug, I. P.; Gottlob, D. M.; Doğanay, H.; Holtz, M. E.; Held, R.; Yan, Z.; Bourret, E.; Schneider, C. M.; Schlom, D. G.; Muller, D. A.; Ramesh, R.; Spaldin, N. A.; Meier, D.

    2017-06-01

    Ferroelectric domain walls hold great promise as functional two-dimensional materials because of their unusual electronic properties. Particularly intriguing are the so-called charged walls where a polarity mismatch causes local, diverging electrostatic potentials requiring charge compensation and hence a change in the electronic structure. These walls can exhibit significantly enhanced conductivity and serve as a circuit path. The development of all-domain-wall devices, however, also requires walls with controllable output to emulate electronic nano-components such as diodes and transistors. Here we demonstrate electric-field control of the electronic transport at ferroelectric domain walls. We reversibly switch from resistive to conductive behaviour at charged walls in semiconducting ErMnO3. We relate the transition to the formation--and eventual activation--of an inversion layer that acts as the channel for the charge transport. The findings provide new insight into the domain-wall physics in ferroelectrics and foreshadow the possibility to design elementary digital devices for all-domain-wall circuitry.

  5. A functional N-terminal domain in C/EBPβ-LAP* is required for interacting with SWI/SNF and to repress Ric-8B gene transcription in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Rodrigo; Grandy, Rodrigo; Meza, Daniel; Sepulveda, Hugo; Pihan, Philippe; van Wijnen, Andre J; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S; Stein, Janet L; Montecino, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF and the transcription factor C/EBPβ play critical roles in osteoblastic cells as they jointly control transcription of a number of bone-related target genes. The largest C/EBPβ isoform, LAP*, possesses a short additional N-terminal domain that has been proposed to mediate the interaction of this factor with SWI/SNF in myeloid cells. Here we examine the requirement of a functional N-terminus in C/EBPβ-LAP* for binding SWI/SNF and for recruiting this complex to the Ric-8B gene to mediate transcriptional repression. We find that both C/EBPβ-LAP* and SWI/SNF simultaneously bind to the Ric-8B promoter in differentiating osteoblasts that repress Ric-8B expression. This decreased expression of Ric-8B is not accompanied by significant changes in histone acetylation at the Ric-8B gene promoter sequence. A single aminoacid change at the C/EBPβ-LAP* N-terminus (R3L) that inhibits C/EBPβ-LAP*-SWI/SNF interaction, also prevents SWI/SNF recruitment to the Ric-8B promoter as well as C/EBPβ-LAP*-dependent repression of the Ric-8B gene. Inducible expression of the C/EBPβ-LAP*R3L protein in stably transfected osteoblastic cells demonstrates that this mutant protein binds to C/EBPβ-LAP*-target promoters and competes with the endogenous C/EBPβ factor. Together our results indicate that a functional N-terminus in C/EBPβ-LAP* is required for interacting with SWI/SNF and for Ric-8B gene repression in osteoblasts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Functional N-terminal Domain in C/EBPβ-LAP* is Required for Interacting with SWI/SNF and to Repress Ric-8B Gene Transcription in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Rodrigo; Grandy, Rodrigo; Meza, Daniel; Sepulveda, Hugo; Pihan, Philippe; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Gary S.; Stein, Janet L.; Montecino, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF and the transcription factor C/EBPβ play critical roles in osteoblastic cells as they jointly control transcription of a number of bone-related target genes. The largest C/EBPβ isoform, LAP*, possesses a short additional N-terminal domain that has been proposed to mediate the interaction of this factor with SWI/SNF in myeloid cells. Here we examine the requirement of a functional N-terminus in C/EBPβ-LAP* for binding SWI/SNF and for recruiting this complex to the Ric-8B gene to mediate transcriptional repression. We find that both C/EBPβ-LAP* and SWI/SNF simultaneously bind to the Ric-8B promoter in differentiating osteoblasts that repress Ric-8B expression. This decreased expression of Ric-8B is not accompanied by significant changes in histone acetylation at the Ric-8B gene promoter sequence. A single aminoacid change at the C/EBPβ-LAP* N-terminus (R3L) that inhibits C/EBPβ-LAP*-SWI/SNF interaction, also prevents SWI/SNF recruitment to the Ric-8B promoter as well as C/EBPβ-LAP*-dependent repression of the Ric-8B gene. Inducible expression of the C/EBPβ-LAP*R3L protein in stably transfected osteoblastic cells demonstrates that this mutant protein binds to C/EBPβ-LAP*-target promoters and competes with the endogenous C/EBPβ factor. Together our results indicate that a functional N-terminus in C/EBPβ-LAP* is required for interacting with SWI/SNF and for Ric-8B gene repression in osteoblasts. PMID:24585571

  7. Slicing-independent RISC activation requires the argonaute PAZ domain.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuo; Jin, Lan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Feijie; Kay, Mark A

    2012-08-21

    Small RNAs regulate genetic networks through a ribonucleoprotein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which, in mammals, contains at its center one of four Argonaute proteins (Ago1-Ago4). A key regulatory event in the RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways is Ago loading, wherein double-stranded small-RNA duplexes are incorporated into RISC (pre-RISC) and then become single-stranded (mature RISC), a process that is not well understood. The Agos contain an evolutionarily conserved PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain whose primary function is to bind the 3' end of small RNAs. We created multiple PAZ-domain-disrupted mutant Ago proteins and studied their biochemical properties and biological functionality in cells. We found that the PAZ domain is dispensable for Ago loading of slicing-competent RISC. In contrast, in the absence of slicer activity or slicer-substrate duplex RNAs, PAZ-disrupted Agos bound duplex small interfering RNAs, but were unable to unwind or eject the passenger strand and form functional RISC complexes. We have discovered that the highly conserved PAZ domain plays an important role in RISC activation, providing new mechanistic insights into how miRNAs regulate genes, as well as new insights for future design of miRNA- and RNAi-based therapeutics.

  8. Non-functional Avionics Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulitsch, Michael; Ruess, Harald; Sorea, Maria

    Embedded systems in aerospace become more and more integrated in order to reduce weight, volume/size, and power of hardware for more fuel-effi ciency. Such integration tendencies change architectural approaches of system ar chi tec tures, which subsequently change non-functional requirements for plat forms. This paper provides some insight into state-of-the-practice of non-func tional requirements for developing ultra-critical embedded systems in the aero space industry, including recent changes and trends. In particular, formal requi re ment capture and formal analysis of non-functional requirements of avionic systems - including hard-real time, fault-tolerance, reliability, and per for mance - are exemplified by means of recent developments in SAL and HiLiTE.

  9. Mouse embryogenesis requires the tissue factor extracellular domain but not the cytoplasmic domain

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Graham C.N.; Mackman, Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that tissue factor (TF) acts in embryogenesis, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Three independent groups showed that targeted disruption of the murine TF (mTF) gene results in 90% lethality of mTF null embryos at embryonic days 9.5–10.5. We have demonstrated that expression of wild-type human TF (hTF) from a minigene rescues the embryonic lethality of mTF null embryos. To investigate the role of TF in embryogenesis, we made mutant hTF minigenes whose products either bound FVII/VIIa at a reduced level or lacked the cytoplasmic domain. Two independent transgenic lines expressing the hTF extracellular domain mutant failed to rescue the embryonic lethality of mTF null embryos, suggesting that FVII/VIIa binding by TF, proteolytic activity by the TF/FVIIa complex, or both were required for embryogenesis. In contrast, two transgenic lines expressing the hTF cytoplasmic domain mutant rescued the embryonic lethality of mTF null embryos, indicating that the cytoplasmic domain of TF was not required for embryogenesis. We propose that TF/FVIIa-dependent extracellular protease activity is required for embryogenesis. PMID:10841513

  10. Functional Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Bradley A.

    Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT) is a high-speed, high resolution imaging modality capable of structural and functional characterization of tissue microstructure. SDOCT fills a niche between histology and ultrasound imaging, providing non-contact, non-invasive backscattering amplitude and phase from a sample. Due to the translucent nature of the tissue, ophthalmic imaging is an ideal space for SDOCT imaging. Structural imaging of the retina has provided new insights into ophthalmic disease. The phase component of SDOCT images remains largely underexplored, though. While Doppler SDOCT has been explored in a research setting, it has yet to gain traction in the clinic. Other, functional exploitations of the phase are possible and necessary to expand the utility of SDOCT. Spectral Domain Phase Microscopy (SDPM) is an extension of SDOCT that is capable of resolving sub-wavelength displacements within a focal volume. Application of sub-wavelength displacement measurement imaging could provide a new method for non-invasive optophysiological measurement. This body of work encompasses both hardware and software design and development for implementation of SDOCT. Structural imaging was proven in both the lab and the clinic. Coarse phase changes associated with Doppler flow frequency shifts were recorded and a study was conducted to validate Doppler measurement. Fine phase changes were explored through SDPM applications. Preliminary optophysiology data was acquired to study the potential of sub-wavelength measurements in the retina. To remove the complexity associated with in-vivo human retinal imaging, a first principles approach using isolated nerve samples was applied using standard SDPM and a depthencoded technique for measuring conduction velocity. Results from amplitude as well as both coarse and fine phase processing are presented. In-vivo optophysiology using SDPM is a promising avenue for exploration, and projects furthering or extending this body

  11. Design of protein function leaps by directed domain interface evolution

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jin; Koide, Akiko; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2008-01-01

    Most natural proteins performing sophisticated tasks contain multiple domains where an active site is located at the domain interface. Comparative structural analyses suggest that major leaps in protein function occur through gene recombination events that connect two or more protein domains to generate a new active site, frequently occurring at the newly created domain interface. However, such functional leaps by combination of unrelated domains have not been directly demonstrated. Here we show that highly specific and complex protein functions can be generated by joining a low-affinity peptide-binding domain with a functionally inert second domain and subsequently optimizing the domain interface. These directed evolution processes dramatically enhanced both affinity and specificity to a level unattainable with a single domain, corresponding to >500-fold and >2,000-fold increases of affinity and specificity, respectively. An x-ray crystal structure revealed that the resulting “affinity clamp” had clamshell architecture as designed, with large additional binding surface contributed by the second domain. The affinity clamps having a single-nanomolar dissociation constant outperformed a monoclonal antibody in immunochemical applications. This work establishes evolutionary paths from isolated domains with primitive function to multidomain proteins with sophisticated function and introduces a new protein-engineering concept that allows for the generation of highly functional affinity reagents to a predefined target. The prevalence and variety of natural interaction domains suggest that numerous new functions can be designed by using directed domain interface evolution. PMID:18445649

  12. Design of protein function leaps by directed domain interface evolution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Koide, Akiko; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2008-05-06

    Most natural proteins performing sophisticated tasks contain multiple domains where an active site is located at the domain interface. Comparative structural analyses suggest that major leaps in protein function occur through gene recombination events that connect two or more protein domains to generate a new active site, frequently occurring at the newly created domain interface. However, such functional leaps by combination of unrelated domains have not been directly demonstrated. Here we show that highly specific and complex protein functions can be generated by joining a low-affinity peptide-binding domain with a functionally inert second domain and subsequently optimizing the domain interface. These directed evolution processes dramatically enhanced both affinity and specificity to a level unattainable with a single domain, corresponding to >500-fold and >2,000-fold increases of affinity and specificity, respectively. An x-ray crystal structure revealed that the resulting "affinity clamp" had clamshell architecture as designed, with large additional binding surface contributed by the second domain. The affinity clamps having a single-nanomolar dissociation constant outperformed a monoclonal antibody in immunochemical applications. This work establishes evolutionary paths from isolated domains with primitive function to multidomain proteins with sophisticated function and introduces a new protein-engineering concept that allows for the generation of highly functional affinity reagents to a predefined target. The prevalence and variety of natural interaction domains suggest that numerous new functions can be designed by using directed domain interface evolution.

  13. Defining the boundaries: structure and function of LOB domain proteins.

    PubMed

    Majer, Christine; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The plant-specific LBD (Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain) gene family is essential in the regulation of plant lateral organ development and is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin and nitrogen metabolism. LBD proteins contain a characteristic LOB domain composed of a C-motif required for DNA-binding, a conserved glycine residue, and a leucine-zipper-like sequence required for protein-protein interactions. Recently, several LBD genes associated with mutant phenotypes related to almost all aspects of plant development, including embryo, root, leaf, and inflorescence development have been functionally characterized. These novel insights contribute to a better understanding of the molecular definition of boundaries between organs or boundaries between organs and meristems and the regulation of these processes by environmental cues and phytohormones.

  14. Functional domains of yeast hexokinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Peláez, Rafael; Herrero, Pilar; Moreno, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Hkx2 (hexokinase 2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was one of the first metabolic enzymes described as a multifunctional protein. Hxk2 has a double subcellular localization: it functions as a glycolytic enzyme in the cytoplasm and as a regulator of gene transcription of several Mig1-regulated genes in the nucleus. To get more insights into the structure–function relationships of the Hxk2 protein, we followed two different approaches. In the first, we deleted the last eight amino acids of Hxk2 and replaced Ser304 with phenylalanine to generate Hxk2wca. Analysis of this mutant demonstrated that these domains play an essential role in the catalytic activity of yeast Hxk2, but has no effect on the regulatory function of this protein. In the second, we analysed whether amino acids from Lys6 to Met15 of Hxk2 (Hxk2wrf) are essential for the regulatory role of Hxk2 and whether there is an effect on the hexose kinase activity of this protein. In the present paper, we report that the Hxk2wca mutant protein interacts with the Mig1 transcriptional repressor and the Snf1 protein kinase in the nucleus at the level of the SUC2–Mig1 repressor complex. We have demonstrated that Hxk2wca maintained full regulatory function because the glucose-repression signalling of the wild-type machinery is maintained. We also report that the Hxk2wrf mutant allele is incapable of glucose repression signalling because it does not interact with Mig1 at the level of the SUC2–Mig1 repressor complex. The two mutants, Hxk2wca and Hxk2wrf retain single functions, as a transcriptional factor or as an enzyme with hexose-phosphorylating activity, but have lost the original bifunctionality of Hxk2. PMID:20815814

  15. Functional domains of yeast hexokinase 2.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Rafael; Herrero, Pilar; Moreno, Fernando

    2010-11-15

    Hkx2 (hexokinase 2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was one of the first metabolic enzymes described as a multifunctional protein. Hxk2 has a double subcellular localization: it functions as a glycolytic enzyme in the cytoplasm and as a regulator of gene transcription of several Mig1-regulated genes in the nucleus. To get more insights into the structure-function relationships of the Hxk2 protein, we followed two different approaches. In the first, we deleted the last eight amino acids of Hxk2 and replaced Ser³⁰⁴ with phenylalanine to generate Hxk2(wca). Analysis of this mutant demonstrated that these domains play an essential role in the catalytic activity of yeast Hxk2, but has no effect on the regulatory function of this protein. In the second, we analysed whether amino acids from Lys⁶ to Met¹⁵ of Hxk2 (Hxk2(wrf)) are essential for the regulatory role of Hxk2 and whether there is an effect on the hexose kinase activity of this protein. In the present paper, we report that the Hxk2(wca) mutant protein interacts with the Mig1 transcriptional repressor and the Snf1 protein kinase in the nucleus at the level of the SUC2-Mig1 repressor complex. We have demonstrated that Hxk2(wca) maintained full regulatory function because the glucose-repression signalling of the wild-type machinery is maintained. We also report that the Hxk2(wrf) mutant allele is incapable of glucose repression signalling because it does not interact with Mig1 at the level of the SUC2-Mig1 repressor complex. The two mutants, Hxk2(wca) and Hxk2(wrf) retain single functions, as a transcriptional factor or as an enzyme with hexose-phosphorylating activity, but have lost the original bifunctionality of Hxk2.

  16. Structure and function of WD40 domain proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Min, Jinrong

    2011-03-01

    The WD40 domain exhibits a β-propeller architecture, often comprising seven blades. The WD40 domain is one of the most abundant domains and also among the top interacting domains in eukaryotic genomes. In this review, we will discuss the identification, definition and architecture of the WD40 domains. WD40 domain proteins are involved in a large variety of cellular processes, in which WD40 domains function as a protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction platform. WD40 domain mediates molecular recognition events mainly through the smaller top surface, but also through the bottom surface and sides. So far, no WD40 domain has been found to display enzymatic activity. We will also discuss the different binding modes exhibited by the large versatile family of WD40 domain proteins. In the last part of this review, we will discuss how post-translational modifications are recognized by WD40 domain proteins.

  17. The significance of requirements engineering for the medical domain.

    PubMed

    Kossmann, Mario

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to raise awareness of the importance of Requirements Engineering (RE) for the successful and efficient development of high-quality systems and products for the medical domain. It does so by providing an introduction to RE from the viewpoints of project and programme management and systems engineering in general and by illustrating the usefulness of a sound RE approach to the development of a local healthcare system in a deprived region in central Africa. The paper concludes that RE is just as crucial for the development of systems and products in the medical domain, as it is for the development of systems in the aerospace industry or software systems in the consumer electronics industry; while the degree of detail and formality of how RE is used has to be tailored to fit the context in question.

  18. Definition of a "functional R domain" of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed

    Chen, J M; Scotet, V; Ferec, C

    2000-01-01

    The R domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was originally defined as 241 amino acids, encoded by exon 13. Such exon/intron boundaries provide a convenient way to define the R domain, but do not necessarily reflect the corresponding functional domain within CFTR. A two-domain model was later proposed based on a comparison of the R-domain sequences from 10 species. While RD1, the N-terminal third of the R domain is highly conserved, RD2, the large central region of the R domain has less rigid structural requirements. Although this two-domain model was given strong support by recent functional analysis data, the simple observation that two of the four main phosphorylation sites are excluded from RD2 clearly indicates that RD2 still does not satisfy the requirements of a "functional R domain." Nevertheless, knowledge of the CFTR structure and function accumulated over the past decade and reevaluated in the context of a comprehensive sequence comparison of 15 CFTR homologues made it possible to define such a "functional R domain," i.e., amino acids C647 to D836. This definition is validated primarily because it contains all of the important potential consensus phosphorylation sequences. In addition, it includes the highly charged motif from E822 to D836. Finally, it includes all of the deletions/insertions in this region. This definition also aids in understanding the effects of missense mutations occurring within this domain. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Interaction between Functional Domains of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Crystal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rang, Cécile; Vachon, Vincent; de Maagd, Ruud A.; Villalon, Mario; Schwartz, Jean-Louis; Bosch, Dirk; Frutos, Roger; Laprade, Raynald

    1999-01-01

    Interactions among the three structural domains of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins were investigated by functional analysis of chimeric proteins. Hybrid genes were prepared by exchanging the regions coding for either domain I or domain III among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, and Cry1E. The activity of the purified trypsin-activated chimeric toxins was evaluated by testing their effects on the viability and plasma membrane permeability of Sf9 cells. Among the parental toxins, only Cry1C was active against these cells and only chimeras possessing domain II from Cry1C were functional. Combination of domain I from Cry1E with domains II and III from Cry1C, however, resulted in an inactive toxin, indicating that domain II from an active toxin is necessary, but not sufficient, for activity. Pores formed by chimeric toxins in which domain I was from Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac were slightly smaller than those formed by toxins in which domain I was from Cry1C. The properties of the pores formed by the chimeras are therefore likely to result from an interaction between domain I and domain II or III. Domain III appears to modulate the activity of the chimeric toxins: combination of domain III from Cry1Ab with domains I and II of Cry1C gave a protein which was more strongly active than Cry1C. PMID:10388684

  20. Structural and Functional Analysis of Multi-Interface Domains

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Hoi, Steven C. H.; Wong, Limsoon; Hamp, Tobias; Li, Jinyan

    2012-01-01

    A multi-interface domain is a domain that can shape multiple and distinctive binding sites to contact with many other domains, forming a hub in domain-domain interaction networks. The functions played by the multiple interfaces are usually different, but there is no strict bijection between the functions and interfaces as some subsets of the interfaces play the same function. This work applies graph theory and algorithms to discover fingerprints for the multiple interfaces of a domain and to establish associations between the interfaces and functions, based on a huge set of multi-interface proteins from PDB. We found that about 40% of proteins have the multi-interface property, however the involved multi-interface domains account for only a tiny fraction (1.8%) of the total number of domains. The interfaces of these domains are distinguishable in terms of their fingerprints, indicating the functional specificity of the multiple interfaces in a domain. Furthermore, we observed that both cooperative and distinctive structural patterns, which will be useful for protein engineering, exist in the multiple interfaces of a domain. PMID:23272073

  1. Functional domains of the poliovirus receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Satoshi; Ise, Iku; Nomoto, Akio )

    1991-05-15

    A number of mutant cDNAs of the human poliovirus receptor were constructed to identify essential regions of the molecule as the receptor. All mutant cDNAs carrying the sequence coding for the entire N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain (domain I) confer permissiveness for poliovirus to mouse L cells, but a mutant cDNA lacking the sequence for domain I does not. The transformants permissive for poliovirus were able to bind the virus and were also recognized by monoclonal antibody D171, which competes with poliovirus for the cellular receptor. These results strongly suggest that the poliovirus binding site resides in domain I of the receptor. Mutant cDNAs for the sequence encoding the intracellular peptide were also constructed and expressed in mouse L cells. Susceptibility of these cells to poliovirus revealed that the entire putative cytoplasmic domain is not essential for virus infection. Thus, the cytoplasmic domain of the molecule appears not to play a role in the penetration of poliovirus.

  2. Functions and Functional Domains of the GTPase Cdc42p

    PubMed Central

    Kozminski, Keith G.; Chen, Ann J.; Rodal, Avital A.; Drubin, David G.

    2000-01-01

    Cdc42p, a Rho family GTPase of the Ras superfamily, is a key regulator of cell polarity and morphogenesis in eukaryotes. Using 37 site-directed cdc42 mutants, we explored the functions and interactions of Cdc42p in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cytological and genetic analyses of these cdc42 mutants revealed novel and diverse phenotypes, showing that Cdc42p possesses at least two distinct essential functions and acts as a nodal point of cell polarity regulation in vivo. In addition, mapping the functional data for each cdc42 mutation onto a structural model of the protein revealed as functionally important a surface of Cdc42p that is distinct from the canonical protein-interacting domains (switch I, switch II, and the C terminus) identified previously in members of the Ras superfamily. This region overlaps with a region (α5-helix) recently predicted by structural models to be a specificity determinant for Cdc42p-protein interactions. PMID:10637312

  3. Functional domains of the floral regulator AGAMOUS: characterization of the DNA binding domain and analysis of dominant negative mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Mizukami, Y; Huang, H; Tudor, M; Hu, Y; Ma, H

    1996-01-01

    The Arabidopsis MADS box gene AGAMOUS (AG) controls reproductive organ identity and floral meristem determinacy. The AG protein binds in vitro to DNA sequences similar to the targets of known MADS domain transcription factors. Whereas most plant MADS domain proteins begin with the MADS domain, AG and its orthologs contain a region N-terminal to the MADS domain. All plant MADS domain proteins share another region with moderate sequence similarity called the K domain. Neither the region (I region) that lies between the MADS and K domains nor the C-terminal region is conserved. We show here that the AG MADS domain and the I region are necessary and sufficient for DNA binding in vitro and that AG binds to DNA as a dimer. To investigate the in vivo function of the regions of AG not required for in vitro DNA binding, we introduced several AG constructs into wild-type plants and characterized their floral phenotypes. We show that transgenic Arabidopsis plants with a 35S-AG construct encoding an AG protein lacking the N-terminal region produced apetala 2 (ap2)-like flowers similar to those ectopically expressing AG proteins retaining the N-terminal region. This result suggests that the N-terminal region is not required to produce the ap2-like phenotype. In addition, transformants with a 35S-AG construct encoding an AG protein lacking the C-terminal region produced ag-like flowers, indicating that this truncated AG protein inhibits normal AG function. Finally, transformants with a 35S-AG construct encoding an AG protein lacking both K and C regions produced flowers with more stamens and carpels. The phenotypes of the AG transformants demonstrate that both the K domain and the C-terminal region have important and distinct in vivo functions. We discuss possible mechanisms through which AG may regulate downstream genes. PMID:8672883

  4. Efficient time-domain model of the graphene dielectric function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopeva, Ludmila J.; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2013-09-01

    A honey-comb monolayer lattice of carbon atoms, graphene, is not only ultra-thin, ultra-light, flexible and strong, but also highly conductive when doped and exhibits strong interaction with electromagnetic radiation in the spectral range from microwaves to the ultraviolet. Moreover, this interaction can be effectively controlled electrically. High flexibility and conductivity makes graphene an attractive material for numerous photonic applications requiring transparent conducting electrodes: touchscreens, liquid crystal displays, organic photovoltaic cells, and organic light-emitting diodes. Meanwhile, its tunability makes it desirable for optical modulators, tunable filters and polarizers. This paper deals with the basics of the time-domain modeling of the graphene dielectric function under a random-phase approximation. We focus at applicability of Padé approximants to the interband dielectric function (IDF) of single layer graphene. Our study is centered on the development of a two-critical points approximation (2CPA) of the IDF within a single-electron framework with negligible carrier scattering and a realistic range of chemical potential at room temperature. This development is successfully validated by comparing reflection and transmission spectra computed by a numerical method in time-domain versus semi-analytical calculations in frequency domain. Finally, we sum up our results - (1) high-quality approximation, (2) tunability, and (3) second-order accurate numerical FDTD implementation of the 2CPA of IDF demonstrated across the desired range of the chemical potential to temperature ratios (4 - 23). Finally, we put forward future directions for time-domain modeling of optical response of graphene with wide range of tunable and fabrication-dependent parameters, including other broadening factors and variations of temperature and chemical potentials.

  5. Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes th...

  6. CBS domains: structure, function, and pathology in human proteins.

    PubMed

    Ignoul, Sofie; Eggermont, Jan

    2005-12-01

    The cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) domain is an evolutionarily conserved protein domain that is present in the proteome of archaebacteria, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats and are found in cytosolic and membrane proteins performing different functions (metabolic enzymes, kinases, and channels). Crystallographic studies of bacterial CBS domains have shown that two CBS domains form an intramolecular dimeric structure (CBS pair). Several human hereditary diseases (homocystinuria, retinitis pigmentosa, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myotonia congenital, etc.) can be caused by mutations in CBS domains of, respectively, cystathionine-beta-synthase, inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase, AMP kinase, and chloride channels. Despite their clinical relevance, it remains to be established what the precise function of CBS domains is and how they affect the structural and/or functional properties of an enzyme, kinase, or channel. Depending on the protein in which they occur, CBS domains have been proposed to affect multimerization and sorting of proteins, channel gating, and ligand binding. However, recent experiments revealing that CBS domains can bind adenosine-containing ligands such ATP, AMP, or S-adenosylmethionine have led to the hypothesis that CBS domains function as sensors of intracellular metabolites.

  7. Surface responses and desirability functions to determine optimal granulation domains.

    PubMed

    Giry, K; Viana, M; Genty, M; Wüthrich, P; Chulia, D

    2010-09-01

    Single pot mixer-granulator-dryer (high-shear granulator with in situ double jacket vacuum drying) and multiphase equipment (high-shear granulator associated with fluid bed dryer) are classically used for wet granulation. At present time, industrial production imperatives may require to switch one formulation from one equipment to another. To compare the two processes and to define, for each of them, the optimal formulation domain, experiments were organized according to Doehlert experimental designs. Response surfaces were used to identify the levels of each factor (binder and filler ratios) inducing the more satisfying responses. The contribution of binder and filler ratios to granule properties was highlighted according to the process. Then the desirability function was used to determine and compare the optimal formulation domain for each process. In the studied formulation domain and for the considered equipment, the transposition from a single pot to a multiphase high-shear granulation process did not seem to raise difficulties; the same formulations were out of specification for both processes and other trials, the technological properties were maintained or improved in the Fielder/Niro equipment.

  8. Novel functions of CCM1 delimit the relationship of PTB/PH domains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Dubey, Pallavi; Padarti, Akhil; Zhang, Aileen; Patel, Rinkal; Patel, Vipulkumar; Cistola, David; Badr, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Three NPXY motifs and one FERM domain in CCM1 makes it a versatile scaffold protein for tethering the signaling components together within the CCM signaling complex (CSC). The cellular role of CCM1 protein remains inadequately expounded. Both phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains were recognized as structurally related but functionally distinct domains. By utilizing molecular cloning, protein binding assays and RT-qPCR to identify novel cellular partners of CCM1 and its cellular expression patterns; by screening candidate PTB/PH proteins and subsequently structurally simulation in combining with current X-ray crystallography and NMR data to defined the essential structure of PTB/PH domain for NPXY-binding and the relationship among PTB, PH and FERM domain(s). We identified a group of 28 novel cellular partners of CCM1, all of which contain either PTB or PH domain(s), and developed a novel classification system for these PTB/PH proteins based on their relationship with different NPXY motifs of CCM1. Our results demonstrated that CCM1 has a wide spectrum of binding to different PTB/PH proteins and perpetuates their specificity to interact with certain PTB/PH domains through selective combination of three NPXY motifs. We also demonstrated that CCM1 can be assembled into oligomers through intermolecular interaction between its F3 lobe in FERM domain and one of the three NPXY motifs. Despite being embedded in FERM domain as F3 lobe, F3 module acts as a fully functional PH domain to interact with NPXY motif. The most salient feature of the study was that both PTB and PH domains are structurally and functionally comparable, suggesting that PTB domain is likely evolved from PH domain with polymorphic structural additions at its N-terminus. A new β1A-strand of the PTB domain was discovered and new minimum structural requirement of PTB/PH domain for NPXY motif-binding was determined. Based on our data, a novel theory of structure, function and

  9. An information theory framework for dynamic functional domain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Victor M; Miller, Robyn; Calhoun, Vince

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analyzes time evolution of coherent activity in the brain. In this technique dynamic changes are considered for the whole brain. This paper proposes an information theory framework to measure information flowing among subsets of functional networks call functional domains. Our method aims at estimating bits of information contained and shared among domains. The succession of dynamic functional states is estimated at the domain level. Information quantity is based on the probabilities of observing each dynamic state. Mutual information measurement is then obtained from probabilities across domains. Thus, we named this value the cross domain mutual information (CDMI). Strong CDMIs were observed in relation to the subcortical domain. Domains related to sensorial input, motor control and cerebellum form another CDMI cluster. Information flow among other domains was seldom found. Other methods of dynamic connectivity focus on whole brain dFNC matrices. In the current framework, information theory is applied to states estimated from pairs of multi-network functional domains. In this context, we apply information theory to measure information flow across functional domains. Identified CDMI clusters point to known information pathways in the basal ganglia and also among areas of sensorial input, patterns found in static functional connectivity. In contrast, CDMI across brain areas of higher level cognitive processing follow a different pattern that indicates scarce information sharing. These findings show that employing information theory to formally measured information flow through brain domains reveals additional features of functional connectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and Function of the TIR Domain from the Grape NLR Protein RPV1.

    PubMed

    Williams, Simon J; Yin, Ling; Foley, Gabriel; Casey, Lachlan W; Outram, Megan A; Ericsson, Daniel J; Lu, Jiang; Boden, Mikael; Dry, Ian B; Kobe, Bostjan

    2016-01-01

    The N-terminal Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domain has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for defense signaling in the model plants flax and Arabidopsis. In examples from these organisms, TIR domain self-association is required for signaling function, albeit through distinct interfaces. Here, we investigate these properties in the TIR domain containing resistance protein RPV1 from the wild grapevine Muscadinia rotundifolia. The RPV1 TIR domain, without additional flanking sequence present, is autoactive when transiently expressed in tobacco, demonstrating that the TIR domain alone is capable of cell-death signaling. We determined the crystal structure of the RPV1 TIR domain at 2.3 Å resolution. In the crystals, the RPV1 TIR domain forms a dimer, mediated predominantly through residues in the αA and αE helices ("AE" interface). This interface is shared with the interface discovered in the dimeric complex of the TIR domains from the Arabidopsis RPS4/RRS1 resistance protein pair. We show that surface-exposed residues in the AE interface that mediate the dimer interaction in the crystals are highly conserved among plant TIR domain-containing proteins. While we were unable to demonstrate self-association of the RPV1 TIR domain in solution or using yeast 2-hybrid, mutations of surface-exposed residues in the AE interface prevent the cell-death autoactive phenotype. In addition, mutation of residues known to be important in the cell-death signaling function of the flax L6 TIR domain were also shown to be required for RPV1 TIR domain mediated cell-death. Our data demonstrate that multiple TIR domain surfaces control the cell-death function of the RPV1 TIR domain and we suggest that the conserved AE interface may have a general function in TIR-NLR signaling.

  11. Structure and Function of the TIR Domain from the Grape NLR Protein RPV1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Simon J.; Yin, Ling; Foley, Gabriel; Casey, Lachlan W.; Outram, Megan A.; Ericsson, Daniel J.; Lu, Jiang; Boden, Mikael; Dry, Ian B.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2016-01-01

    The N-terminal Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domain has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for defense signaling in the model plants flax and Arabidopsis. In examples from these organisms, TIR domain self-association is required for signaling function, albeit through distinct interfaces. Here, we investigate these properties in the TIR domain containing resistance protein RPV1 from the wild grapevine Muscadinia rotundifolia. The RPV1 TIR domain, without additional flanking sequence present, is autoactive when transiently expressed in tobacco, demonstrating that the TIR domain alone is capable of cell-death signaling. We determined the crystal structure of the RPV1 TIR domain at 2.3 Å resolution. In the crystals, the RPV1 TIR domain forms a dimer, mediated predominantly through residues in the αA and αE helices (“AE” interface). This interface is shared with the interface discovered in the dimeric complex of the TIR domains from the Arabidopsis RPS4/RRS1 resistance protein pair. We show that surface-exposed residues in the AE interface that mediate the dimer interaction in the crystals are highly conserved among plant TIR domain-containing proteins. While we were unable to demonstrate self-association of the RPV1 TIR domain in solution or using yeast 2-hybrid, mutations of surface-exposed residues in the AE interface prevent the cell-death autoactive phenotype. In addition, mutation of residues known to be important in the cell-death signaling function of the flax L6 TIR domain were also shown to be required for RPV1 TIR domain mediated cell-death. Our data demonstrate that multiple TIR domain surfaces control the cell-death function of the RPV1 TIR domain and we suggest that the conserved AE interface may have a general function in TIR-NLR signaling. PMID:28008335

  12. Identification of Ind transcription activation and repression domains required for dorsoventral patterning of the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Von Ohlen, Tonia L.; Moses, Cade

    2009-01-01

    Specification of cell fates across the dorsoventral axis of the central nervous system in Drosophila involves the subdivision of the neuroectoderm into three domains that give rise to three columns of neural precursor cells called neuroblasts. Ventral nervous system defective (Vnd), Intermediate neuroblasts defective (Ind) and Muscle segment homeobox (Msh) are expressed in the three columns from ventral to dorsal, respectively. The products of these genes play multiple important roles in formation and specification of the embryonic nervous system. Ind for example is known to play roles in two important processes. First, Ind is essential for formation of neuroblasts conjunction with SoxB class transcription factors. Sox class transcription factors are known to specify neural stem cells in vertebrates. Second, Ind plays an important role in patterning the CNS in conjunction with, vnd and msh, which is also similar to how vertebrates pattern their neural tube. This work focuses two important aspects of Ind function. First, we used multiple approaches to identify and characterize specific domains within the protein that confer repressor or activator ability. Currently, little is known about the presence of activation or repression domains within Ind. Here we show that transcriptional repression by Ind requires multiple conserved domains within the protein, and that Ind has a transcriptional activation domain. Specifically, we have identified a novel domain, the Pst domain, that has transcriptional repression ability and appears to act independent of interaction with the co-repressor Groucho. This domain is highly conserved among insect species, but is not found in vertebrate Gsh class homeodomain proteins. Second, we show that Ind can and does repress vnd expression, but does so in a stage specific manner. We conclude from this that the function of Ind in regulating vnd expression is one of refinement and maintenance of the dorsal border. PMID:19348939

  13. Recombinant spider silk genetically functionalized with affinity domains.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Ronnie; Thatikonda, Naresh; Lindberg, Diana; Rising, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Nygren, Per-Åke; Hedhammar, My

    2014-05-12

    Functionalization of biocompatible materials for presentation of active protein domains is an area of growing interest. Herein, we describe a strategy for functionalization of recombinant spider silk via gene fusion to affinity domains of broad biotechnological use. Four affinity domains of different origin and structure; the IgG-binding domains Z and C2, the albumin-binding domain ABD, and the biotin-binding domain M4, were all successfully produced as soluble silk fusion proteins under nondenaturing purification conditions. Silk films and fibers produced from the fusion proteins were demonstrated to be chemically and thermally stable. Still, the bioactive domains are concluded to be folded and accessible, since their respective targets could be selectively captured from complex samples, including rabbit serum and human plasma. Interestingly, materials produced from mixtures of two different silk fusion proteins displayed combined binding properties, suggesting that tailor-made materials with desired stoichiometry and surface distributions of several binding domains can be produced. Further, use of the IgG binding ability as a general mean for presentation of desired biomolecules could be demonstrated for a human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF) model system, via a first capture of anti-VEGF IgG to silk containing the Z-domain, followed by incubation with hVEGF. Taken together, this study demonstrates the potential of recombinant silk, genetically functionalized with affinity domains, for construction of biomaterials capable of presentation of almost any desired biomolecule.

  14. Modelling protein functional domains in signal transduction using Maude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sriram, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    Modelling of protein-protein interactions in signal transduction is receiving increased attention in computational biology. This paper describes recent research in the application of Maude, a symbolic language founded on rewriting logic, to the modelling of functional domains within signalling proteins. Protein functional domains (PFDs) are a critical focus of modern signal transduction research. In general, Maude models can simulate biological signalling networks and produce specific testable hypotheses at various levels of abstraction. Developing symbolic models of signalling proteins containing functional domains is important because of the potential to generate analyses of complex signalling networks based on structure-function relationships.

  15. Modular protein domains: an engineering approach toward functional biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Charng-Yu; Liu, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Protein domains and peptide sequences are a powerful tool for conferring specific functions to engineered biomaterials. Protein sequences with a wide variety of functionalities, including structure, bioactivity, protein-protein interactions, and stimuli responsiveness, have been identified, and advances in molecular biology continue to pinpoint new sequences. Protein domains can be combined to make recombinant proteins with multiple functionalities. The high fidelity of the protein translation machinery results in exquisite control over the sequence of recombinant proteins and the resulting properties of protein-based materials. In this review, we discuss protein domains and peptide sequences in the context of functional protein-based materials, composite materials, and their biological applications.

  16. Modelling protein functional domains in signal transduction using Maude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sriram, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    Modelling of protein-protein interactions in signal transduction is receiving increased attention in computational biology. This paper describes recent research in the application of Maude, a symbolic language founded on rewriting logic, to the modelling of functional domains within signalling proteins. Protein functional domains (PFDs) are a critical focus of modern signal transduction research. In general, Maude models can simulate biological signalling networks and produce specific testable hypotheses at various levels of abstraction. Developing symbolic models of signalling proteins containing functional domains is important because of the potential to generate analyses of complex signalling networks based on structure-function relationships.

  17. Transcriptional activation by the acidic domain of Vmw65 requires the integrity of the domain and involves additional determinants distinct from those necessary for TFIIB binding.

    PubMed

    Walker, S; Greaves, R; O'Hare, P

    1993-09-01

    In this work we have examined the requirements for activity of the acidic domain of Vmw65 (VP16) by deletion and site-directed mutagenesis of the region in the context of GAL4 fusion proteins. The results indicate that the present interpretation of what actually constitutes the activation domain is not correct. We demonstrate, using a promoter with one target site which is efficiently activated by the wild-type (wt) fusion protein, that amino acids distal to residue 453 are critical for activity. Truncation of the domain or substitution of residues in the distal region almost completely abrogate activity. However, inactivating mutations within the distal region are complemented by using a promoter containing multiple target sites. Moreover, duplication of the proximal region, but not the distal region, restores the ability to activate a promoter with a single target site. These results indicate some distinct qualitative difference between the proximal and distal regions. We have also examined the binding of nuclear proteins to the wt domain and to a variant with the distal region inactivated by mutation. The lack of activity of this variant is not explained by a lack of binding of TFIIB, a protein previously reported to be the likely target of the acidic domain. Therefore some additional function is involved in transcriptional activation by the acid domain, and determinants distinct from those involved in TFIIB binding are required for this function. Analysis of the total protein profiles binding to the wt and mutant domains has demonstrated the selective binding to the wt domain of a 135-kDa polypeptide, which is therefore a candidate component involved in this additional function. This is the first report to provide evidence for the proposal of a multiplicity of interactions within the acidic domain, by uncoupling requirements for one function from those for another.

  18. Intellectual Growth in Children as a Function of Domain Specific and Domain General Working Memory Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether children's growth on measures of fluid (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices) and crystallized (reading and math achievement) intelligence was attributable to domain-specific or domain-general functions of working memory (WM). A sample of 290 elementary school children was tested on measures of intelligence across three…

  19. Ultrastructure and function of the fractalkine mucin domain in CX(3)C chemokine domain presentation.

    PubMed

    Fong, A M; Erickson, H P; Zachariah, J P; Poon, S; Schamberg, N J; Imai, T; Patel, D D

    2000-02-11

    Fractalkine (FKN), a CX(3)C chemokine/mucin hybrid molecule on endothelium, functions as an adhesion molecule to capture and induce firm adhesion of a subset of leukocytes in a selectin- and integrin-independent manner. We hypothesized that the FKN mucin domain may be important for its function in adhesion, and tested the ability of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) fusion proteins containing the entire extracellular region (FKN-SEAP), the chemokine domain (CX3C-SEAP), or the mucin domain (mucin-SEAP) to support firm adhesion under flow. CX3C-SEAP induced suboptimal firm adhesion of resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells, compared with FKN-SEAP, and mucin-SEAP induced no firm adhesion. CX3C-SEAP and FKN-SEAP bound to CX(3)CR1 with similar affinities. By electron microscopy, fractalkine was 29 nm in length with a long stalk (mucin domain), and a globular head (CX(3)C). To test the function of the mucin domain, a chimeric protein replacing the mucin domain with a rod-like segment of E-selectin was constructed. This chimeric protein gave the same adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells as intact FKN, both when immobilized on glass and when expressed on the cell surface. This implies that the function of the mucin domain is to provide a stalk, extending the chemokine domain away from the endothelial cell surface to present it to flowing leukocytes.

  20. A selective screen reveals discrete functional domains in Drosophila Nanos.

    PubMed Central

    Arrizabalaga, G; Lehmann, R

    1999-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Nanos encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein with two zinc finger motifs. In the embryo, Nanos protein function is required for establishment of the anterior-posterior body pattern and for the migration of primordial germ cells. During oogenesis, Nanos protein is involved in the establishment and maintenance of germ-line stem cells and the differentiation of oocyte precursor cells. To establish proper embryonic patterning, Nanos acts as a translational regulator of hunchback RNA. Nanos' targets for germ cell migration and development are not known. Here, we describe a selective genetic screen aimed at isolating new nanos alleles. The molecular and genetic analysis of 68 new alleles has allowed us to identify amino acids critical for nanos function. This analysis shows that the CCHC motifs, which coordinate two metal ions, are essential for all known functions of Nanos protein. Furthermore, a region C-terminal to the zinc fingers seems to constitute a novel functional domain within the Nanos protein. This "tail region" of Nanos is required for abdomen formation and germ cell migration, but not for oogenesis. PMID:10581288

  1. The N- and C-Terminal Domains Differentially Contribute to the Structure and Function of Dystrophin and Utrophin Tandem Calponin-Homology Domains.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surinder M; Bandi, Swati; Mallela, Krishna M G

    2015-11-24

    Dystrophin and utrophin are two muscle proteins involved in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy. Both proteins use tandem calponin-homology (CH) domains to bind to F-actin. We probed the role of N-terminal CH1 and C-terminal CH2 domains in the structure and function of dystrophin tandem CH domain and compared with our earlier results on utrophin to understand the unifying principles of how tandem CH domains work. Actin cosedimentation assays indicate that the isolated CH2 domain of dystrophin weakly binds to F-actin compared to the full-length tandem CH domain. In contrast, the isolated CH1 domain binds to F-actin with an affinity similar to that of the full-length tandem CH domain. Thus, the obvious question is why the dystrophin tandem CH domain requires CH2, when its actin binding is determined primarily by CH1. To answer, we probed the structural stabilities of CH domains. The isolated CH1 domain is very unstable and is prone to serious aggregation. The isolated CH2 domain is very stable, similar to the full-length tandem CH domain. These results indicate that the main role of CH2 is to stabilize the tandem CH domain structure. These conclusions from dystrophin agree with our earlier results on utrophin, indicating that this phenomenon of differential contribution of CH domains to the structure and function of tandem CH domains may be quite general. The N-terminal CH1 domains primarily determine the actin binding function whereas the C-terminal CH2 domains primarily determine the structural stability of tandem CH domains, and the extent of stabilization depends on the strength of inter-CH domain interactions.

  2. Functions and Requirements for the Transition Project

    SciTech Connect

    YANOCHKO, R.M.

    2000-04-24

    This document describes the functional requirement baseline for the Transition of 100 K Area Facilities Project (Transition Project). This baseline information consists of top-level functions, requirements, concept description, interface description, issues, and enabling assumptions.

  3. Purification, Cellular Levels, and Functional Domains of LMF1

    PubMed Central

    Babilonia-Rosa, Melissa; Neher, Saskia B.

    2014-01-01

    Over a third of the US adult population has hypertriglyceridemia, resulting in an increased risk of atherosclerosis, pancreatitis, and metabolic syndrome. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)1, a dimeric enzyme, is the main lipase responsible for TG clearance from the blood after food intake. LPL requires an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident, transmembrane protein known as lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) for secretion and enzymatic activity. LMF1 is believed to act as a client specific chaperone for dimeric lipases, but the precise mechanism by which LMF1 functions is not understood. Here, we examine which domains of LMF1 contribute to dimeric lipase maturation by assessing the function of truncation variants. N-terminal truncations of LMF1 show that all the domains are necessary for LPL maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and protease protection assays confirmed that these variants were properly oriented in the ER. We measured cellular levels of LMF1 and found that it is expressed at low levels and each molecule of LMF1 promotes the maturation of 50 or more molecules of LPL. Thus we provide evidence for the critical role of the N-terminus of LMF1 for the maturation of LPL and relevant ratio of chaperone to substrate. PMID:24909692

  4. Airspace Operations Demo Functional Requirements Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Flight IPT assessed the reasonableness of demonstrating each of the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements. The functional requirements listed in this matrix are from the September 2005 release of the Access 5 Functional Requirements Document. The demonstration mission considered was a notional Western US mission (WUS). The conclusion of the assessment is that 90% of the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be demonstrated using the notional Western US mission.

  5. The cysteine-rich domain regulates ADAM protease function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine M; Gaultier, Alban; Cousin, Helene; Alfandari, Dominique; White, Judith M; DeSimone, Douglas W

    2002-12-09

    ADAMs are membrane-anchored proteases that regulate cell behavior by proteolytically modifying the cell surface and ECM. Like other membrane-anchored proteases, ADAMs contain candidate "adhesive" domains downstream of their metalloprotease domains. The mechanism by which membrane-anchored cell surface proteases utilize these putative adhesive domains to regulate protease function in vivo is not well understood. We address this important question by analyzing the relative contributions of downstream extracellular domains (disintegrin, cysteine rich, and EGF-like repeat) of the ADAM13 metalloprotease during Xenopus laevis development. When expressed in embryos, ADAM13 induces hyperplasia of the cement gland, whereas ADAM10 does not. Using chimeric constructs, we find that the metalloprotease domain of ADAM10 can substitute for that of ADAM13, but that specificity for cement gland expansion requires a downstream extracellular domain of ADAM13. Analysis of finer resolution chimeras indicates an essential role for the cysteine-rich domain and a supporting role for the disintegrin domain. These and other results reveal that the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 cooperates intramolecularly with the ADAM13 metalloprotease domain to regulate its function in vivo. Our findings thus provide the first evidence that a downstream extracellular adhesive domain plays an active role in regulating ADAM protease function in vivo. These findings are likely relevant to other membrane-anchored cell surface proteases.

  6. Structural-Functional Analysis Reveals a Specific Domain Organization in Family GH20 Hexosaminidases.

    PubMed

    Val-Cid, Cristina; Biarnés, Xevi; Faijes, Magda; Planas, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Hexosaminidases are involved in important biological processes catalyzing the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-hexosaminyl residues in glycosaminoglycans and glycoconjugates. The GH20 enzymes present diverse domain organizations for which we propose two minimal model architectures: Model A containing at least a non-catalytic GH20b domain and the catalytic one (GH20) always accompanied with an extra α-helix (GH20b-GH20-α), and Model B with only the catalytic GH20 domain. The large Bifidobacterium bifidum lacto-N-biosidase was used as a model protein to evaluate the minimal functional unit due to its interest and structural complexity. By expressing different truncated forms of this enzyme, we show that Model A architectures cannot be reduced to Model B. In particular, there are two structural requirements general to GH20 enzymes with Model A architecture. First, the non-catalytic domain GH20b at the N-terminus of the catalytic GH20 domain is required for expression and seems to stabilize it. Second, the substrate-binding cavity at the GH20 domain always involves a remote element provided by a long loop from the catalytic domain itself or, when this loop is short, by an element from another domain of the multidomain structure or from the dimeric partner. Particularly, the lacto-N-biosidase requires GH20b and the lectin-like domain at the N- and C-termini of the catalytic GH20 domain to be fully soluble and functional. The lectin domain provides this remote element to the active site. We demonstrate restoration of activity of the inactive GH20b-GH20-α construct (model A architecture) by a complementation assay with the lectin-like domain. The engineering of minimal functional units of multidomain GH20 enzymes must consider these structural requirements.

  7. Structural-Functional Analysis Reveals a Specific Domain Organization in Family GH20 Hexosaminidases

    PubMed Central

    Val-Cid, Cristina; Biarnés, Xevi; Faijes, Magda; Planas, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Hexosaminidases are involved in important biological processes catalyzing the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-hexosaminyl residues in glycosaminoglycans and glycoconjugates. The GH20 enzymes present diverse domain organizations for which we propose two minimal model architectures: Model A containing at least a non-catalytic GH20b domain and the catalytic one (GH20) always accompanied with an extra α-helix (GH20b-GH20-α), and Model B with only the catalytic GH20 domain. The large Bifidobacterium bifidum lacto-N-biosidase was used as a model protein to evaluate the minimal functional unit due to its interest and structural complexity. By expressing different truncated forms of this enzyme, we show that Model A architectures cannot be reduced to Model B. In particular, there are two structural requirements general to GH20 enzymes with Model A architecture. First, the non-catalytic domain GH20b at the N-terminus of the catalytic GH20 domain is required for expression and seems to stabilize it. Second, the substrate-binding cavity at the GH20 domain always involves a remote element provided by a long loop from the catalytic domain itself or, when this loop is short, by an element from another domain of the multidomain structure or from the dimeric partner. Particularly, the lacto-N-biosidase requires GH20b and the lectin-like domain at the N- and C-termini of the catalytic GH20 domain to be fully soluble and functional. The lectin domain provides this remote element to the active site. We demonstrate restoration of activity of the inactive GH20b-GH20-α construct (model A architecture) by a complementation assay with the lectin-like domain. The engineering of minimal functional units of multidomain GH20 enzymes must consider these structural requirements. PMID:26024355

  8. Extensions of PDZ domains as important structural and functional elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Conan K; Pan, Lifeng; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Mingjie

    2010-08-01

    'Divide and conquer' has been the guiding strategy for the study of protein structure and function. Proteins are divided into domains with each domain having a canonical structural definition depending on its type. In this review, we push forward with the interesting observation that many domains have regions outside of their canonical definition that affect their structure and function; we call these regions 'extensions'. We focus on the highly abundant PDZ (PSD-95, DLG1 and ZO-1) domain. Using bioinformatics, we find that many PDZ domains have potential extensions and we developed an openly-accessible website to display our results ( http://bcz102.ust.hk/pdzex/ ). We propose, using well-studied PDZ domains as illustrative examples, that the roles of PDZ extensions can be classified into at least four categories: 1) protein dynamics-based modulation of target binding affinity, 2) provision of binding sites for macro-molecular assembly, 3) structural integration of multi-domain modules, and 4) expansion of the target ligand-binding pocket. Our review highlights the potential structural and functional importance of domain extensions, highlighting the significance of looking beyond the canonical boundaries of protein domains in general.

  9. Membrane-bound mucin modular domains: from structure to function.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Nicolas; Skrypek, Nicolas; Frénois, Frédéric; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2013-06-01

    Mucins belong to a heterogeneous family of large O-glycoproteins composed of a long peptidic chain called apomucin on which are linked hundreds of oligosaccharidic chains. Among mucins, membrane-bound mucins are modular proteins and have a structural organization usually containing Pro/Thr/Ser-rich O-glycosylated domains (PTS), EGF-like and SEA domains. Via these modular domains, the membrane-bound mucins participate in cell signalling and cell interaction with their environment in normal and pathological conditions. Moreover, the recent knowledge of these domains and their biological activities led to the development of new therapeutic approaches involving mucins. In this review, we show 3D structures of EGF and SEA domains. We also describe the functional features of the evolutionary conserved domains of membrane-bound mucins and discuss consequences of splice events.

  10. Structural and functional diversity of Topologically Associating Domains.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Job; Heard, Edith

    2015-10-07

    Recent studies have shown that chromosomes in a range of organisms are compartmentalized in different types of chromatin domains. In mammals, chromosomes form compartments that are composed of smaller Topologically Associating Domains (TADs). TADs are thought to represent functional domains of gene regulation but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of their formation and how they exert their regulatory effect on embedded genes. Further, similar domains have been detected in other organisms, including flies, worms, fungi and bacteria. Although in all these cases these domains appear similar as detected by 3C-based methods, their biology appears to be quite distinct with differences in the protein complexes involved in their formation and differences in their internal organization. Here we outline our current understanding of such domains in different organisms and their roles in gene regulation.

  11. Identification of Two Functional Domains within the Arenavirus Nucleoprotein▿

    PubMed Central

    Levingston Macleod, Jesica M.; D'Antuono, Alejandra; Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; Casabona, Juan Cruz; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Lopez, Nora

    2011-01-01

    Tacaribe virus (TCRV) belongs to the Arenaviridae family. Its bisegmented negative-stranded RNA genome encodes the nucleoprotein (N), the precursor of the envelope glycoproteins, the polymerase (L), and a RING finger matrix (Z) protein. The 570-amino-acid N protein binds to viral RNA, forming nucleocapsids, which are the template for transcription and replication by the viral polymerase. We have previously shown that the interaction between N and Z is required for assembly of infectious virus-like particles (VLPs) (J. C. Casabona et al., J. Virol. 83:7029-7039, 2009). Here, we examine the functional organization of TCRV N protein. A series of deletions and point mutations were introduced into the N-coding sequence, and the ability of the mutants to sustain heterotypic (N-Z) or homotypic (N-N) interactions was analyzed. We found that N protein displays two functional domains. By using coimmunoprecipitation studies, VLP incorporation assays, and double immunofluorescence staining, the carboxy-terminal region of N was found to be required for N-Z interaction and also necessary for incorporation of N protein into VLPs. Moreover, further analysis of this region showed that the integrity of a putative zinc-finger motif, as well as its amino-flanking sequence (residues 461 to 489), are critical for Z binding and N incorporation into VLPs. In addition, we provide evidence of an essential role of the amino-terminal region of N protein for N-N interaction. In this regard, using reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation analysis, we identified a 28-residue region predicted to form a coiled-coil domain (residues 92 to 119) as a newly recognized molecular determinant of N homotypic interactions. PMID:21159858

  12. Domain mobility in proteins: functional and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Basu, Malay Kumar; Poliakov, Eugenia; Rogozin, Igor B

    2009-05-01

    A substantial fraction of eukaryotic proteins contains multiple domains, some of which show a tendency to occur in diverse domain architectures and can be considered mobile (or 'promiscuous'). These promiscuous domains are typically involved in protein-protein interactions and play crucial roles in interaction networks, particularly those contributing to signal transduction. They also play a major role in creating diversity of protein domain architecture in the proteome. It is now apparent that promiscuity is a volatile and relatively fast-changing feature in evolution, and that only a few domains retain their promiscuity status throughout evolution. Many such domains attained their promiscuity status independently in different lineages. Only recently, we have begun to understand the diversity of protein domain architectures and the role the promiscuous domains play in evolution of this diversity. However, many of the biological mechanisms of protein domain mobility remain shrouded in mystery. In this review, we discuss our present understanding of protein domain promiscuity, its evolution and its role in cellular function.

  13. Aperiodic topological order in the domain configurations of functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fei-Ting; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2017-03-01

    In numerous functional materials, such as steels, ferroelectrics and magnets, new functionalities can be achieved through the engineering of the domain structures, which are associated with the ordering of certain parameters within the material. The recent progress in technologies that enable imaging at atomic-scale spatial resolution has transformed our understanding of domain topology, revealing that, along with simple stripe-like or irregularly shaped domains, intriguing vortex-type topological domain configurations also exist. In this Review, we present a new classification scheme of 'Zm Zn domains with Zl vortices' for 2D macroscopic domain structures with m directional variants and n translational antiphases. This classification, together with the concepts of topological protection and topological charge conservation, can be applied to a wide range of materials, such as multiferroics, improper ferroelectrics, layered transition metal dichalcogenides and magnetic superconductors, as we discuss using selected examples. The resulting topological considerations provide a new basis for the understanding of the formation, kinetics, manipulation and property optimization of domains and domain boundaries in functional materials.

  14. Functional Implications of Domain Organization Within Prokaryotic Rhomboid Proteases.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Rashmi; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Intramembrane proteases are membrane embedded enzymes that cleave transmembrane substrates. This interesting class of enzyme and its water mediated substrate cleavage mechanism occurring within the hydrophobic lipid bilayer has drawn the attention of researchers. Rhomboids are a family of ubiquitous serine intramembrane proteases. Bacterial forms of rhomboid proteases are mainly composed of six transmembrane helices that are preceded by a soluble N-terminal domain. Several crystal structures of the membrane domain of the E. coli rhomboid protease ecGlpG have been solved. Independently, the ecGlpG N-terminal cytoplasmic domain structure was solved using both NMR and protein crystallography. Despite these structures, we still do not know the structure of the full-length protein, nor do we know the functional role of these domains in the cell. This chapter will review the structural and functional roles of the different domains associated with prokaryotic rhomboid proteases. Lastly, we will address questions remaining in the field.

  15. Multiple functional self-association interfaces in plant TIR domains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Bernoux, Maud; Bentham, Adam R.; Newman, Toby E.; Ve, Thomas; Casey, Lachlan W.; Hu, Jian; Croll, Tristan I.; Schreiber, Karl J.; Staskawicz, Brian J.; Anderson, Peter A.; Sohn, Kee Hoon; Williams, Simon J.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2017-01-01

    The self-association of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domains has been implicated in signaling in plant and animal immunity receptors. Structure-based studies identified different TIR-domain dimerization interfaces required for signaling of the plant nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) L6 from flax and disease resistance protein RPS4 from Arabidopsis. Here we show that the crystal structure of the TIR domain from the Arabidopsis NLR suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1 (SNC1) contains both an L6-like interface involving helices αD and αE (DE interface) and an RPS4-like interface involving helices αA and αE (AE interface). Mutations in either the AE- or DE-interface region disrupt cell-death signaling activity of SNC1, L6, and RPS4 TIR domains and full-length L6 and RPS4. Self-association of L6 and RPS4 TIR domains is affected by mutations in either region, whereas only AE-interface mutations affect SNC1 TIR-domain self-association. We further show two similar interfaces in the crystal structure of the TIR domain from the Arabidopsis NLR recognition of Peronospora parasitica 1 (RPP1). These data demonstrate that both the AE and DE self-association interfaces are simultaneously required for self-association and cell-death signaling in diverse plant NLRs. PMID:28159890

  16. Multiple functional self-association interfaces in plant TIR domains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Bernoux, Maud; Bentham, Adam R; Newman, Toby E; Ve, Thomas; Casey, Lachlan W; Raaymakers, Tom M; Hu, Jian; Croll, Tristan I; Schreiber, Karl J; Staskawicz, Brian J; Anderson, Peter A; Sohn, Kee Hoon; Williams, Simon J; Dodds, Peter N; Kobe, Bostjan

    2017-03-07

    The self-association of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domains has been implicated in signaling in plant and animal immunity receptors. Structure-based studies identified different TIR-domain dimerization interfaces required for signaling of the plant nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) L6 from flax and disease resistance protein RPS4 from Arabidopsis Here we show that the crystal structure of the TIR domain from the Arabidopsis NLR suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1 (SNC1) contains both an L6-like interface involving helices αD and αE (DE interface) and an RPS4-like interface involving helices αA and αE (AE interface). Mutations in either the AE- or DE-interface region disrupt cell-death signaling activity of SNC1, L6, and RPS4 TIR domains and full-length L6 and RPS4. Self-association of L6 and RPS4 TIR domains is affected by mutations in either region, whereas only AE-interface mutations affect SNC1 TIR-domain self-association. We further show two similar interfaces in the crystal structure of the TIR domain from the Arabidopsis NLR recognition of Peronospora parasitica 1 (RPP1). These data demonstrate that both the AE and DE self-association interfaces are simultaneously required for self-association and cell-death signaling in diverse plant NLRs.

  17. Structure and functional interactions of the Tsg101 UEV domain.

    PubMed

    Pornillos, Owen; Alam, Steven L; Rich, Rebecca L; Myszka, David G; Davis, Darrell R; Sundquist, Wesley I

    2002-05-15

    Human Tsg101 plays key roles in HIV budding and in cellular vacuolar protein sorting (VPS). In performing these functions, Tsg101 binds both ubiquitin (Ub) and the PTAP tetrapeptide 'late domain' motif located within the viral Gag protein. These interactions are mediated by the N-terminal domain of Tsg101, which belongs to the catalytically inactive ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) family. We now report the structure of Tsg101 UEV and chemical shift mapping of the Ub and PTAP binding sites. Tsg101 UEV resembles canonical E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, but has an additional N-terminal helix, an extended beta-hairpin that links strands 1 and 2, and lacks the two C-terminal helices normally found in E2 enzymes. PTAP-containing peptides bind in a hydrophobic cleft exposed by the absence of the C-terminal helices, whereas ubiquitin binds in a novel site surrounding the beta-hairpin. These studies provide a structural framework for understanding how Tsg101 mediates the protein-protein interactions required for HIV budding and VPS.

  18. Domain coloring of complex functions: an implementation-oriented introduction.

    PubMed

    Poelke, Konstantin; Polthier, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a short overview of domain coloring for complex functions that have four-dimensional function graphs and therefore can't be visualized traditionally. The authors discuss several color schemes, focus on various aspects of complex functions, and provide Java-like pseudocode examples explaining the crucial ideas of the coloring algorithms to allow for easy reproduction.

  19. Miro's N-Terminal GTPase Domain Is Required for Transport of Mitochondria into Axons and Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Babic, Milos; Russo, Gary J.; Wellington, Andrea J.; Sangston, Ryan M.; Gonzalez, Migdalia

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamically transported in and out of neuronal processes to maintain neuronal excitability and synaptic function. In higher eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GTPase Miro binds Milton/TRAK adaptor proteins linking microtubule motors to mitochondria. Here we show that Drosophila Miro (dMiro), which has previously been shown to be required for kinesin-driven axonal transport, is also critically required for the dynein-driven distribution of mitochondria into dendrites. In addition, we used the loss-of-function mutations dMiroT25N and dMiroT460N to determine the significance of dMiro's N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains, respectively. Expression of dMiroT25N in the absence of endogenous dMiro caused premature lethality and arrested development at a pupal stage. dMiroT25N accumulated mitochondria in the soma of larval motor and sensory neurons, and prevented their kinesin-dependent and dynein-dependent distribution into axons and dendrites, respectively. dMiroT25N mutant mitochondria also were severely fragmented and exhibited reduced kinesin and dynein motility in axons. In contrast, dMiroT460N did not impair viability, mitochondrial size, or the distribution of mitochondria. However, dMiroT460N reduced dynein motility during retrograde mitochondrial transport in axons. Finally, we show that substitutions analogous to the constitutively active Ras-G12V mutation in dMiro's N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains cause neomorphic phenotypic effects that are likely unrelated to the normal function of each GTPase domain. Overall, our analysis indicates that dMiro's N-terminal GTPase domain is critically required for viability, mitochondrial size, and the distribution of mitochondria out of the neuronal soma regardless of the employed motor, likely by promoting the transition from a stationary to a motile state. PMID:25855186

  20. Miro's N-terminal GTPase domain is required for transport of mitochondria into axons and dendrites.

    PubMed

    Babic, Milos; Russo, Gary J; Wellington, Andrea J; Sangston, Ryan M; Gonzalez, Migdalia; Zinsmaier, Konrad E

    2015-04-08

    Mitochondria are dynamically transported in and out of neuronal processes to maintain neuronal excitability and synaptic function. In higher eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GTPase Miro binds Milton/TRAK adaptor proteins linking microtubule motors to mitochondria. Here we show that Drosophila Miro (dMiro), which has previously been shown to be required for kinesin-driven axonal transport, is also critically required for the dynein-driven distribution of mitochondria into dendrites. In addition, we used the loss-of-function mutations dMiroT25N and dMiroT460N to determine the significance of dMiro's N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains, respectively. Expression of dMiroT25N in the absence of endogenous dMiro caused premature lethality and arrested development at a pupal stage. dMiroT25N accumulated mitochondria in the soma of larval motor and sensory neurons, and prevented their kinesin-dependent and dynein-dependent distribution into axons and dendrites, respectively. dMiroT25N mutant mitochondria also were severely fragmented and exhibited reduced kinesin and dynein motility in axons. In contrast, dMiroT460N did not impair viability, mitochondrial size, or the distribution of mitochondria. However, dMiroT460N reduced dynein motility during retrograde mitochondrial transport in axons. Finally, we show that substitutions analogous to the constitutively active Ras-G12V mutation in dMiro's N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains cause neomorphic phenotypic effects that are likely unrelated to the normal function of each GTPase domain. Overall, our analysis indicates that dMiro's N-terminal GTPase domain is critically required for viability, mitochondrial size, and the distribution of mitochondria out of the neuronal soma regardless of the employed motor, likely by promoting the transition from a stationary to a motile state.

  1. Domain Requirements of the JIL-1 Tandem Kinase for Histone H3 Serine 10 Phosphorylation and Chromatin Remodeling in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yeran; Cai, Weili; Wang, Chao; Yao, Changfu; Bao, Xiaomin; Deng, Huai; Girton, Jack; Johansen, Jørgen; Johansen, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    The JIL-1 kinase localizes to Drosophila polytene chromosome interbands and phosphorylates histone H3 at interphase, counteracting histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation and gene silencing. JIL-1 can be divided into four main domains, including an NH2-terminal domain, two separate kinase domains, and a COOH-terminal domain. In this study, we characterize the domain requirements of the JIL-1 kinase for histone H3 serine 10 (H3S10) phosphorylation and chromatin remodeling in vivo. We show that a JIL-1 construct without the NH2-terminal domain is without H3S10 phosphorylation activity despite the fact that it localizes properly to polytene interband regions and that it contains both kinase domains. JIL-1 is a double kinase, and we demonstrate that both kinase domains of JIL-1 are required to be catalytically active for H3S10 phosphorylation to occur. Furthermore, we provide evidence that JIL-1 is phosphorylated at serine 424 and that this phosphorylation is necessary for JIL-1 H3S10 phosphorylation activity. Thus, these data are compatible with a model where the NH2-terminal domain of JIL-1 is required for chromatin complex interactions that position the kinase domain(s) for catalytic activity in the context of the state of higher order nucleosome packaging and chromatin structure and where catalytic H3S10 phosphorylation activity mediated by the first kinase domain is dependent on autophosphorylation of serine 424 by the second kinase domain. Furthermore, using a lacO repeat tethering system to target mutated JIL-1 constructs with or without catalytic activity, we show that the epigenetic H3S10 phosphorylation mark itself functions as a causative regulator of chromatin structure independently of any structural contributions from the JIL-1 protein. PMID:23723094

  2. Evolution of distinct EGF domains with specific functions

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Merridee A.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Chu, Carmen K.; Feng, Lina L.; Sparrow, Duncan B.; Dunwoodie, Sally L.

    2005-01-01

    EGF domains are extracellular protein modules cross-linked by three intradomain disulfides. Past studies suggest the existence of two types of EGF domain with three-disulfides, human EGF-like (hEGF) domains and complement C1r-like (cEGF) domains, but to date no functional information has been related to the two different types, and they are not differentiated in sequence or structure databases. We have developed new sequence patterns based on the different C-termini to search specifically for the two types of EGF domains in sequence databases. The exhibited sensitivity and specificity of the new pattern-based method represents a significant advancement over the currently available sequence detection techniques. We re-annotated EGF sequences in the latest release of Swiss-Prot looking for functional relationships that might correlate with EGF type. We show that important post-translational modifications of three-disulfide EGFs, including unusual forms of glycosylation and post-translational proteolytic processing, are dependent on EGF subtype. For example, EGF domains that are shed from the cell surface and mediate intercellular signaling are all hEGFs, as are all human EGF receptor family ligands. Additional experimental data suggest that functional specialization has accompanied subtype divergence. Based on our structural analysis of EGF domains with three-disulfide bonds and comparison to laminin and integrin-like EGF domains with an additional inter-domain disulfide, we propose that these hEGF and cEGF domains may have arisen from a four-disulfide ancestor by selective loss of different cysteine residues. PMID:15772310

  3. A freestanding proofreading domain is required for protein synthesis quality control in Archaea.

    PubMed

    Korencic, Dragana; Ahel, Ivan; Schelert, James; Sacher, Meik; Ruan, Benfang; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Blum, Paul; Ibba, Michael; Söll, Dieter

    2004-07-13

    Threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) participates in protein synthesis quality control by selectively editing the misacylated species Ser-tRNA(Thr). In bacteria and eukaryotes the editing function of ThrRS resides in a highly conserved N-terminal domain distant from the active site. Most archaeal ThrRS proteins are devoid of this editing domain, suggesting evolutionary divergence of quality-control mechanisms. Here we show that archaeal editing of Ser-tRNAThr is catalyzed by a domain unrelated to, and absent from, bacterial and eukaryotic ThrRSs. Despite the lack of sequence homology, the archaeal and bacterial editing domains are both reliant on a pair of essential histidine residues suggestive of a common catalytic mechanism. Whereas the archaeal editing module is most commonly part of full-length ThrRS, several crenarchaeal species contain individual genes encoding the catalytic (ThrRS-cat) and editing domains (ThrRS-ed). Sulfolobus solfataricus ThrRS-cat was shown to synthesize both Thr-tRNAThr and Ser-tRNAThr and to lack editing activity against Ser-tRNAThr. In contrast, ThrRS-ed lacks aminoacylation activity but can act as an autonomous protein in trans to hydrolyze specifically Ser-tRNAThr, or it can be fused to ThrRS-cat to provide the same function in cis. Deletion analyses indicate that ThrRS-ed is dispensable for growth of S. solfataricus under standard conditions but is required for normal growth in media with elevated serine levels. The growth phenotype of the ThrRS-ed deletion strain suggests that retention of the discontinuous ThrRS quaternary structure relates to specific physiological requirements still evident in certain Archaea.

  4. The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor: Glycosylation and the Extracellular D2 Domain Are Not Required for Coxsackievirus B3 Infection.

    PubMed

    Pinkert, Sandra; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Bergelson, Jeffrey M; Fechner, Henry

    2016-06-15

    The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and functions as a receptor for coxsackie B viruses (CVBs). The extracellular portion of CAR comprises two glycosylated immunoglobulin-like domains, D1 and D2. CAR-D1 binds to the virus and is essential for virus infection; however, it is not known whether D2 is also important for infection, and the role of glycosylation has not been explored. To understand the function of these structural components in CAR-mediated CVB3 infection, we generated a panel of human (h) CAR deletion and substitution mutants and analyzed their functionality as CVB receptors, examining both virus binding and replication. Lack of glycosylation of the CAR-D1 or -D2 domains did not adversely affect CVB3 binding or infection, indicating that the glycosylation of CAR is not required for its receptor functions. Deletion of the D2 domain reduced CVB3 binding, with a proportionate reduction in the efficiency of virus infection. Replacement of D2 with the homologous D2 domain from chicken CAR, or with the heterologous type C2 immunoglobulin-like domain from IgSF11, another IgSF member, fully restored receptor function; however, replacement of CAR-D2 with domains from CD155 or CD80 restored function only in part. These data indicate that glycosylation of the extracellular domain of hCAR plays no role in CVB3 receptor function and that CAR-D2 is not specifically required. The D2 domain may function largely as a spacer permitting virus access to D1; however, the data may also suggest that D2 affects virus binding by influencing the conformation of D1. An important step in virus infection is the initial interaction of the virus with its cellular receptor. Although the role in infection of the extracellular CAR-D1, cytoplasmic, and transmembrane domains have been analyzed extensively, nothing is known about the function of CAR-D2 and the extracellular glycosylation of CAR. Our data indicate that

  5. The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor: Glycosylation and the Extracellular D2 Domain Are Not Required for Coxsackievirus B3 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Bergelson, Jeffrey M.; Fechner, Henry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and functions as a receptor for coxsackie B viruses (CVBs). The extracellular portion of CAR comprises two glycosylated immunoglobulin-like domains, D1 and D2. CAR-D1 binds to the virus and is essential for virus infection; however, it is not known whether D2 is also important for infection, and the role of glycosylation has not been explored. To understand the function of these structural components in CAR-mediated CVB3 infection, we generated a panel of human (h) CAR deletion and substitution mutants and analyzed their functionality as CVB receptors, examining both virus binding and replication. Lack of glycosylation of the CAR-D1 or -D2 domains did not adversely affect CVB3 binding or infection, indicating that the glycosylation of CAR is not required for its receptor functions. Deletion of the D2 domain reduced CVB3 binding, with a proportionate reduction in the efficiency of virus infection. Replacement of D2 with the homologous D2 domain from chicken CAR, or with the heterologous type C2 immunoglobulin-like domain from IgSF11, another IgSF member, fully restored receptor function; however, replacement of CAR-D2 with domains from CD155 or CD80 restored function only in part. These data indicate that glycosylation of the extracellular domain of hCAR plays no role in CVB3 receptor function and that CAR-D2 is not specifically required. The D2 domain may function largely as a spacer permitting virus access to D1; however, the data may also suggest that D2 affects virus binding by influencing the conformation of D1. IMPORTANCE An important step in virus infection is the initial interaction of the virus with its cellular receptor. Although the role in infection of the extracellular CAR-D1, cytoplasmic, and transmembrane domains have been analyzed extensively, nothing is known about the function of CAR-D2 and the extracellular glycosylation of CAR. Our data

  6. Talin is required to position and expand the luminal domain of the Drosophila heart tube.

    PubMed

    Vanderploeg, Jessica; Jacobs, J Roger

    2015-09-15

    Fluid- and gas-transporting tubular organs are critical to metazoan development and homeostasis. Tubulogenesis involves cell polarization and morphogenesis to specify the luminal, adhesive, and basal cell domains and to establish an open lumen. We explore a requirement for Talin, a cytoplasmic integrin adapter, during Drosophila melanogaster embryonic heart tube development. Talin marks the presumptive luminal domain and is required to orient and develop an open luminal space within the heart. Genetic analysis demonstrates that loss of zygotic or maternal-and-zygotic Talin disrupts heart cell migratory dynamics, morphogenesis, and polarity. Talin is essential for subsequent polarization of luminal determinants Slit, Robo, and Dystroglycan as well as stabilization of extracellular and intracellular integrin adhesion factors. In the absence of Talin function, mini-lumens enriched in luminal factors form in ectopic locations. Rescue experiments performed with mutant Talin transgenes suggest that actin-binding is required for normal lumen formation, but not for initial heart cell polarization. We propose that Talin provides instructive cues to position the luminal domain and coordinate the actin cytoskeleton during Drosophila heart lumen development.

  7. The C-terminal Domain (CTD) of Human DNA Glycosylase NEIL1 Is Required for Forming BERosome Repair Complex with DNA Replication Proteins at the Replicating Genome: DOMINANT NEGATIVE FUNCTION OF THE CTD.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Pavana M; Dutta, Arijit; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Joy; Adhikari, Sanjay; Tomkinson, Alan E; Li, Guo-Min; Boldogh, Istvan; Hazra, Tapas K; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L

    2015-08-21

    The human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 was recently demonstrated to initiate prereplicative base excision repair (BER) of oxidized bases in the replicating genome, thus preventing mutagenic replication. A significant fraction of NEIL1 in cells is present in large cellular complexes containing DNA replication and other repair proteins, as shown by gel filtration. However, how the interaction of NEIL1 affects its recruitment to the replication site for prereplicative repair was not investigated. Here, we show that NEIL1 binarily interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen clamp loader replication factor C, DNA polymerase δ, and DNA ligase I in the absence of DNA via its non-conserved C-terminal domain (CTD); replication factor C interaction results in ∼8-fold stimulation of NEIL1 activity. Disruption of NEIL1 interactions within the BERosome complex, as observed for a NEIL1 deletion mutant (N311) lacking the CTD, not only inhibits complete BER in vitro but also prevents its chromatin association and reduced recruitment at replication foci in S phase cells. This suggests that the interaction of NEIL1 with replication and other BER proteins is required for efficient repair of the replicating genome. Consistently, the CTD polypeptide acts as a dominant negative inhibitor during in vitro repair, and its ectopic expression sensitizes human cells to reactive oxygen species. We conclude that multiple interactions among BER proteins lead to large complexes, which are critical for efficient BER in mammalian cells, and the CTD interaction could be targeted for enhancing drug/radiation sensitivity of tumor cells.

  8. Functional Interchangeability of Late Domains, Late Domain Cofactors and Ubiquitin in Viral Budding

    PubMed Central

    Zhadina, Maria; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    The membrane scission event that separates nascent enveloped virions from host cell membranes often requires the ESCRT pathway, which can be engaged through the action of peptide motifs, termed late (L-) domains, in viral proteins. Viral PTAP and YPDL-like L-domains bind directly to the ESCRT-I and ALIX components of the ESCRT pathway, while PPxY motifs bind Nedd4-like, HECT-domain containing, ubiquitin ligases (e.g. WWP1). It has been unclear precisely how ubiquitin ligase recruitment ultimately leads to particle release. Here, using a lysine-free viral Gag protein derived from the prototypic foamy virus (PFV), where attachment of ubiquitin to Gag can be controlled, we show that several different HECT domains can replace the WWP1 HECT domain in chimeric ubiquitin ligases and drive budding. Moreover, artificial recruitment of isolated HECT domains to Gag is sufficient to stimulate budding. Conversely, the HECT domain becomes dispensable if the other domains of WWP1 are directly fused to an ESCRT-1 protein. In each case where budding is driven by a HECT domain, its catalytic activity is essential, but Gag ubiquitination is dispensable, suggesting that ubiquitin ligation to trans-acting proteins drives budding. Paradoxically, however, we also demonstrate that direct fusion of a ubiquitin moiety to the C-terminus of PFV Gag can also promote budding, suggesting that ubiquitination of Gag can substitute for ubiquitination of trans-acting proteins. Depletion of Tsg101 and ALIX inhibits budding that is dependent on ubiquitin that is fused to Gag, or ligated to trans-acting proteins through the action of a PPxY motif. These studies underscore the flexibility in the ways that the ESCRT pathway can be engaged, and suggest a model in which the identity of the protein to which ubiquitin is attached is not critical for subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding components of the ESCRT pathway and viral budding to proceed. PMID:20975941

  9. Functional interchangeability of late domains, late domain cofactors and ubiquitin in viral budding.

    PubMed

    Zhadina, Maria; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2010-10-21

    The membrane scission event that separates nascent enveloped virions from host cell membranes often requires the ESCRT pathway, which can be engaged through the action of peptide motifs, termed late (L-) domains, in viral proteins. Viral PTAP and YPDL-like L-domains bind directly to the ESCRT-I and ALIX components of the ESCRT pathway, while PPxY motifs bind Nedd4-like, HECT-domain containing, ubiquitin ligases (e.g. WWP1). It has been unclear precisely how ubiquitin ligase recruitment ultimately leads to particle release. Here, using a lysine-free viral Gag protein derived from the prototypic foamy virus (PFV), where attachment of ubiquitin to Gag can be controlled, we show that several different HECT domains can replace the WWP1 HECT domain in chimeric ubiquitin ligases and drive budding. Moreover, artificial recruitment of isolated HECT domains to Gag is sufficient to stimulate budding. Conversely, the HECT domain becomes dispensable if the other domains of WWP1 are directly fused to an ESCRT-1 protein. In each case where budding is driven by a HECT domain, its catalytic activity is essential, but Gag ubiquitination is dispensable, suggesting that ubiquitin ligation to trans-acting proteins drives budding. Paradoxically, however, we also demonstrate that direct fusion of a ubiquitin moiety to the C-terminus of PFV Gag can also promote budding, suggesting that ubiquitination of Gag can substitute for ubiquitination of trans-acting proteins. Depletion of Tsg101 and ALIX inhibits budding that is dependent on ubiquitin that is fused to Gag, or ligated to trans-acting proteins through the action of a PPxY motif. These studies underscore the flexibility in the ways that the ESCRT pathway can be engaged, and suggest a model in which the identity of the protein to which ubiquitin is attached is not critical for subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding components of the ESCRT pathway and viral budding to proceed.

  10. Functional divergence in the Arabidopsis LOB-domain gene family

    PubMed Central

    Mangeon, Amanda; Lin, Wan-ching; Springer, Patricia S.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis LOB-domain (LBD) gene family is composed by 43 members divided in two classes based on amino acid conservation within the LOB-domain. The LOB domain is known to be responsible for DNA binding and protein-protein interactions. There is very little functional information available for most genes in the LBD family and many lbd single mutants do not exhibit conspicuous phenotypes. One plausible explanation for the limited loss-of-function phenotypes observed in this family is that LBD genes exhibit significant functional redundancy. Here we discuss an example of one phylogenetic subgroup of the LBD family, in which genes that are closely related based on phylogeny exhibit distinctly different expression patterns and do not have overlapping functions. We discuss the challenges of using phylogenetic analyses to predict redundancy in gene families. PMID:23073009

  11. Structural evidence for the functional importance of the heme domain mobility in flavocytochrome b2.

    PubMed

    Diêp Lê, K H; Lederer, Florence; Golinelli-Pimpaneau, Béatrice

    2010-07-16

    Yeast flavocytochrome b(2) (Fcb2) is an L-lactate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase in the mitochondrial intermembrane space participating in cellular respiration. Each enzyme subunit consists of a cytochrome b(5)-like heme domain and a flavodehydrogenase (FDH) domain. In the Fcb2 crystal structure, the heme domain is mobile relative to the tetrameric FDH core in one out of two subunits. The monoclonal antibody B2B4, elicited against the holoenzyme, recognizes only the native heme domain in the holoenzyme. When bound, it suppresses the intramolecular electron transfer from flavin to heme b(2), hence cytochrome c reduction. We report here the crystal structure of the heme domain in complex with the Fab at 2.7 A resolution. The Fab epitope on the heme domain includes the two exposed propionate groups of the heme, which are hidden in the interface between the domains in the complete subunit. The structure discloses an unexpected plasticity of Fcb2 in the neighborhood of the heme cavity, in which the heme has rotated. The epitope overlaps with the docking area of the FDH domain onto the heme domain, indicating that the antibody displaces the heme domain in a movement of large amplitude. We suggest that the binding sites on the heme domain of cytochrome c and of the FDH domain also overlap and therefore that cytochrome c binding also requires the heme domain to move away from the FDH domain, so as to allow electron transfer between the two hemes. Based on this hypothesis, we propose a possible model of the Fcb2.cytochrome c complex. Interestingly, this model shares similarity with that of the cytochrome b(5) x cytochrome c complex, in which cytochrome c binds to the surface around the exposed heme edge of cytochrome b(5). The present results therefore support the idea that the heme domain mobility is an inherent component of the Fcb2 functioning. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stability of the mitochondrial genome requires an amino-terminal domain of yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanhong; Shadel, Gerald S.

    1999-01-01

    Mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) polymerases are related to bacteriophage RNA polymerases, but contain a unique amino-terminal extension of unknown origin and function. In addition to harboring mitochondrial targeting information, we show here that the amino-terminal extension of yeast mtRNA polymerase is required for a mtDNA maintenance function that is separable from the known RNA polymerization activity of the enzyme. Deletion of 185 N-terminal amino acids from the enzyme results in a temperature-sensitive mitochondrial petite phenotype, characterized by increased instability and eventual loss of the mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial transcription initiation in vivo is largely unaffected by this mutation and expression of just the amino-terminal portion of the protein in trans partially suppresses the mitochondrial defect, indicating that the amino-terminal extension of the enzyme harbors an independent functional domain that is required for mtDNA replication and/or stability. These results suggest that amino-terminal extensions present in mtRNA polymerases comprise functional domains that couple additional activities to the transcription process in mitochondria. PMID:10393945

  13. CTCF establishes discrete functional chromatin domains at the Hox clusters during differentiation.

    PubMed

    Narendra, Varun; Rocha, Pedro P; An, Disi; Raviram, Ramya; Skok, Jane A; Mazzoni, Esteban O; Reinberg, Danny

    2015-02-27

    Polycomb and Trithorax group proteins encode the epigenetic memory of cellular positional identity by establishing inheritable domains of repressive and active chromatin within the Hox clusters. Here we demonstrate that the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) functions to insulate these adjacent yet antagonistic chromatin domains during embryonic stem cell differentiation into cervical motor neurons. Deletion of CTCF binding sites within the Hox clusters results in the expansion of active chromatin into the repressive domain. CTCF functions as an insulator by organizing Hox clusters into spatially disjoint domains. Ablation of CTCF binding disrupts topological boundaries such that caudal Hox genes leave the repressed domain and become subject to transcriptional activation. Hence, CTCF is required to insulate facultative heterochromatin from impinging euchromatin to produce discrete positional identities.

  14. Functional dependence of neuroligin on a new non-PDZ intracellular domain

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, Seth L; Schnell, Eric; Hirai, Takaaki; Chen, Bo-Shiun; Roche, Katherine W; Nicoll, Roger A

    2011-01-01

    Neuroligins, a family of postsynaptic adhesion molecules, are important in synaptogenesis through a well-characterized trans-synaptic interaction with neurexin. In addition, neuroligins are thought to drive postsynaptic assembly through binding of their intracellular domain to PSD-95. However, there is little direct evidence to support the functional necessity of the neuroligin intracellular domain in postsynaptic development. We found that presence of endogenous neuroligin obscured the study of exogenous mutated neuroligin. We therefore used chained microRNAs in rat organotypic hippocampal slices to generate a reduced background of endogenous neuroligin. On this reduced background, we found that neuroligin function was critically dependent on the cytoplasmic tail. However, this function required neither the PDZ ligand nor any other previously described cytoplasmic binding domain, but rather required a previously unknown conserved region. Mutation of a single critical residue in this region inhibited neuroligin-mediated excitatory synaptic potentiation. Finally, we found a functional distinction between neuroligins 1 and 3. PMID:21532576

  15. PARP-1 activation requires local unfolding of an autoinhibitory domain

    PubMed Central

    Dawicki-McKenna, Jennine M.; Langelier, Marie-France; DeNizio, Jamie E.; Riccio, Amanda A.; Cao, Connie D.; Karch, Kelly R.; McCauley, Michael; Steffen, Jamin D.; Black, Ben E.; Pascal, John M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) creates the posttranslational modification PAR from substrate NAD+ to regulate multiple cellular processes. DNA breaks sharply elevate PARP-1 catalytic activity to mount a cell survival repair response, whereas persistent PARP-1 hyperactivation during severe genotoxic stress is associated with cell death. The mechanism for tight control of the robust catalytic potential of PARP-1 remains unclear. By monitoring PARP-1 dynamics using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HXMS), we unexpectedly find that a specific portion of the helical subdomain (HD) of the catalytic domain rapidly unfolds when PARP-1 encounters a DNA break. Together with biochemical and crystallographic analysis of HD deletion mutants, we show that the HD is an autoinhibitory domain that blocks productive NAD+ binding. Our molecular model explains how PARP-1 DNA damage detection leads to local unfolding of the HD that relieves autoinhibition, and has important implications for the design of PARP inhibitors. PMID:26626480

  16. Functional domains of the Xenopus replication licensing factor Cdt1

    PubMed Central

    Ferenbach, Andrew; Li, Anatoliy; Brito-Martins, Marta; Blow, J. Julian

    2005-01-01

    During late mitosis and early G1, replication origins are licensed for subsequent replication by loading heterohexamers of the mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7). To prevent re-replication of DNA, the licensing system is down-regulated at other cell cycle stages. A small protein called geminin plays an important role in this down-regulation by binding and inhibiting the Cdt1 component of the licensing system. We examine here the organization of Xenopus Cdt1, delimiting regions of Cdt1 required for licensing and regions required for geminin interaction. The C-terminal 377 residues of Cdt1 are required for licensing and the extreme C-terminus contains a domain that interacts with an Mcm(2,4,6,7) complex. Two regions of Cdt1 interact with geminin: one at the N-terminus, and one in the centre of the protein. Only the central region binds geminin tightly enough to successfully compete with full-length Cdt1 for geminin binding. This interaction requires a predicted coiled-coil domain that is conserved amongst metazoan Cdt1 homologues. Geminin forms a homodimer, with each dimer binding one molecule of Cdt1. Separation of the domains necessary for licensing activity from domains required for a strong interaction with geminin generated a construct, whose licensing activity was partially insensitive to geminin inhibition. PMID:15653632

  17. PARP-2 domain requirements for DNA damage-dependent activation and localization to sites of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Amanda A; Cingolani, Gino; Pascal, John M

    2016-02-29

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) is one of three human PARP enzymes that are potently activated during the cellular DNA damage response (DDR). DDR-PARPs detect DNA strand breaks, leading to a dramatic increase in their catalytic production of the posttranslational modification poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to facilitate repair. There are limited biochemical and structural insights into the functional domains of PARP-2, which has restricted our understanding of how PARP-2 is specialized toward specific repair pathways. PARP-2 has a modular architecture composed of a C-terminal catalytic domain (CAT), a central Trp-Gly-Arg (WGR) domain and an N-terminal region (NTR). Although the NTR is generally considered the key DNA-binding domain of PARP-2, we report here that all three domains of PARP-2 collectively contribute to interaction with DNA damage. Biophysical, structural and biochemical analyses indicate that the NTR is natively disordered, and is only required for activation on specific types of DNA damage. Interestingly, the NTR is not essential for PARP-2 localization to sites of DNA damage. Rather, the WGR and CAT domains function together to recruit PARP-2 to sites of DNA breaks. Our study differentiates the functions of PARP-2 domains from those of PARP-1, the other major DDR-PARP, and highlights the specialization of the multi-domain architectures of DDR-PARPs. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. PARP-2 domain requirements for DNA damage-dependent activation and localization to sites of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Amanda A.; Cingolani, Gino; Pascal, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) is one of three human PARP enzymes that are potently activated during the cellular DNA damage response (DDR). DDR-PARPs detect DNA strand breaks, leading to a dramatic increase in their catalytic production of the posttranslational modification poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to facilitate repair. There are limited biochemical and structural insights into the functional domains of PARP-2, which has restricted our understanding of how PARP-2 is specialized toward specific repair pathways. PARP-2 has a modular architecture composed of a C-terminal catalytic domain (CAT), a central Trp-Gly-Arg (WGR) domain and an N-terminal region (NTR). Although the NTR is generally considered the key DNA-binding domain of PARP-2, we report here that all three domains of PARP-2 collectively contribute to interaction with DNA damage. Biophysical, structural and biochemical analyses indicate that the NTR is natively disordered, and is only required for activation on specific types of DNA damage. Interestingly, the NTR is not essential for PARP-2 localization to sites of DNA damage. Rather, the WGR and CAT domains function together to recruit PARP-2 to sites of DNA breaks. Our study differentiates the functions of PARP-2 domains from those of PARP-1, the other major DDR-PARP, and highlights the specialization of the multi-domain architectures of DDR-PARPs. PMID:26704974

  19. Intein Clustering Suggests Functional Importance in Different Domains of Life

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, Olga; Jayachandran, Pradeepa; Kelley, Danielle S.; Morton, Zachary; Merwin, Samantha; Topilina, Natalya I.; Belfort, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Inteins, also called protein introns, are self-splicing mobile elements found in all domains of life. A bioinformatic survey of genomic data highlights a biased distribution of inteins among functional categories of proteins in both bacteria and archaea, with a strong preference for a single network of functions containing replisome proteins. Many nonorthologous, functionally equivalent replicative proteins in bacteria and archaea carry inteins, suggesting a selective retention of inteins in proteins of particular functions across domains of life. Inteins cluster not only in proteins with related roles but also in specific functional units of those proteins, like ATPase domains. This peculiar bias does not fully fit the models describing inteins exclusively as parasitic elements. In such models, evolutionary dynamics of inteins is viewed primarily through their mobility with the intein homing endonuclease (HEN) as the major factor of intein acquisition and loss. Although the HEN is essential for intein invasion and spread in populations, HEN dynamics does not explain the observed biased distribution of inteins among proteins in specific functional categories. We propose that the protein splicing domain of the intein can act as an environmental sensor that adapts to a particular niche and could increase the chance of the intein becoming fixed in a population. We argue that selective retention of some inteins might be beneficial under certain environmental stresses, to act as panic buttons that reversibly inhibit specific networks, consistent with the observed intein distribution. PMID:26609079

  20. Intein Clustering Suggests Functional Importance in Different Domains of Life.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Olga; Jayachandran, Pradeepa; Kelley, Danielle S; Morton, Zachary; Merwin, Samantha; Topilina, Natalya I; Belfort, Marlene

    2016-03-01

    Inteins, also called protein introns, are self-splicing mobile elements found in all domains of life. A bioinformatic survey of genomic data highlights a biased distribution of inteins among functional categories of proteins in both bacteria and archaea, with a strong preference for a single network of functions containing replisome proteins. Many nonorthologous, functionally equivalent replicative proteins in bacteria and archaea carry inteins, suggesting a selective retention of inteins in proteins of particular functions across domains of life. Inteins cluster not only in proteins with related roles but also in specific functional units of those proteins, like ATPase domains. This peculiar bias does not fully fit the models describing inteins exclusively as parasitic elements. In such models, evolutionary dynamics of inteins is viewed primarily through their mobility with the intein homing endonuclease (HEN) as the major factor of intein acquisition and loss. Although the HEN is essential for intein invasion and spread in populations, HEN dynamics does not explain the observed biased distribution of inteins among proteins in specific functional categories. We propose that the protein splicing domain of the intein can act as an environmental sensor that adapts to a particular niche and could increase the chance of the intein becoming fixed in a population. We argue that selective retention of some inteins might be beneficial under certain environmental stresses, to act as panic buttons that reversibly inhibit specific networks, consistent with the observed intein distribution.

  1. Hadp1, a newly identified pleckstrin homology domain protein, is required for cardiac contractility in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wythe, Joshua D.; Jurynec, Michael J.; Urness, Lisa D.; Jones, Christopher A.; Sabeh, M. Khaled; Werdich, Andreas A.; Sato, Mariko; Yost, H. Joseph; Grunwald, David J.; MacRae, Calum A.; Li, Dean Y.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The vertebrate heart is one of the first organs to form, and its early function and morphogenesis are crucial for continued embryonic development. Here we analyze the effects of loss of Heart adaptor protein 1 (Hadp1), which we show is required for normal function and morphogenesis of the embryonic zebrafish heart. Hadp1 is a pleckstrin homology (PH)-domain-containing protein whose expression is enriched in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of hadp1 in zebrafish embryos reduced cardiac contractility and altered late myocyte differentiation. By using optical mapping and submaximal levels of hadp1 knockdown, we observed profound effects on Ca2+ handling and on action potential duration in the absence of morphological defects, suggesting that Hadp1 plays a major role in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ handling in the heart. Hadp1 interacts with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI4P; also known as PtdIns(4)P] derivatives via its PH domain, and its subcellular localization is dependent upon this motif. Pharmacological blockade of the synthesis of PI4P derivatives in vivo phenocopied the loss of hadp1 in zebrafish. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hadp1 is required for normal cardiac function and morphogenesis during embryogenesis, and suggest that hadp1 modulates Ca2+ handling in the heart through its interaction with phosphatidylinositols. PMID:21628396

  2. Diversity of Structure and Function of Response Regulator Output Domains

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Response regulators (RRs) within two-component signal transduction systems control a variety of cellular processes. Most RRs contain DNA-binding output domains and serve as transcriptional regulators. Other RR types contain RNA-binding, ligand-binding, protein-binding or transporter output domains and exert regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional or post-translational levels. In a significant fraction of RRs, output domains are enzymes that themselves participate in signal transduction: methylesterases, adenylate or diguanylate cyclases, c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases, histidine kinases, serine/threonine protein kinases and protein phosphatases. In addition, there remain output domains whose functions are still unknown. Patterns of the distribution of various RR families are generally conserved within key microbial lineages and can be used to trace adaptations of various species to their unique ecological niches. PMID:20226724

  3. Diversity of structure and function of response regulator output domains.

    PubMed

    Galperin, Michael Y

    2010-04-01

    Response regulators (RRs) within two-component signal transduction systems control a variety of cellular processes. Most RRs contain DNA-binding output domains and serve as transcriptional regulators. Other RR types contain RNA-binding, ligand-binding, protein-binding or transporter output domains and exert regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional or post-translational levels. In a significant fraction of RRs, output domains are enzymes that themselves participate in signal transduction: methylesterases, adenylate or diguanylate cyclases, c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases, histidine kinases, serine/threonine protein kinases and protein phosphatases. In addition, there remain output domains whose functions are still unknown. Patterns of the distribution of various RR families are generally conserved within key microbial lineages and can be used to trace adaptations of various species to their unique ecological niches.

  4. Cellular functions of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and FYVE domain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, D J; Simonsen, A; Stenmark, H

    2001-01-01

    PtdIns3P is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase product that has been strongly implicated in regulating membrane trafficking in both mammalian and yeast cells. PtdIns3P has been shown to be specifically located on membranes associated with the endocytic pathway. Proteins that contain FYVE zinc-finger domains are recruited to PtdIns3P-containing membranes. Structural information is now available concerning the interaction between FYVE domains and PtdIns3P. A number of proteins have been identified which contain a FYVE domain, and in this review we discuss the functions of PtdIns3P and its FYVE-domain-containing effector proteins in membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal regulation and receptor signalling. PMID:11284710

  5. The Drosophila fork head domain protein crocodile is required for the establishment of head structures.

    PubMed Central

    Häcker, U; Kaufmann, E; Hartmann, C; Jürgens, G; Knöchel, W; Jäckle, H

    1995-01-01

    The fork head (fkh) domain defines the DNA-binding region of a family of transcription factors which has been implicated in regulating cell fate decisions across species lines. We have cloned and molecularly characterized the crocodile (croc) gene which encodes a new family member from Drosophila. croc is expressed in the head anlagen of the blastoderm embryo under the control of the anterior, the dorsoventral and the terminal maternal organizer systems. The croc mutant phenotype indicates that the croc wild-type gene is required to function as an early patterning gene in the anterior-most blastoderm head segment anlage and for the establishment of a specific head skeletal structure that derives from the non-adjacent intercalary segment at a later stage of embryogenesis. As an early patterning gene, croc exerts unusual properties which do not allow it to be grouped among the established segmentation genes. A single-site mutation within the croc fkh domain, which causes a replacement of the first out of four conserved amino acid residues thought to be involved in the coordinate binding of Mg2+, abolishes the DNA binding of the protein in vitro. In view of the resulting lack-of-function mutant phenotype, it appears likely that metal binding by the affected region of the fkh domain is crucial for proper folding of the DNA-binding structure. Images PMID:7489720

  6. Section 5: Adapting Requirements Practices in Different Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, William

    Technology has a tremendous impact on society. In recent years, the Internet, World Wide Web, and Web 2.0 has changed the nature of commerce, government, and of course software development. It affects the practices of producing requirements and as well as the kinds of systems to be designed. The effect of converging technologies on the role of requirements engineering is considered in the first article by Matthias Jarke, while the effect of technology on requirements practices is considered in the second article by Walt Scacchi. Together, they provide theoretical and practical perspective on requirements engineering issues faced in a modern, technology driven world.

  7. Rules and Norms: Requirements for Rule Interchange Languages in the Legal Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino

    In this survey paper we summarize the requirements for rule interchange languages for applications in the legal domain and use these requirements to evaluate RuleML, SBVR, SWRL and RIF. We also present the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), a new rule interchange format developed specifically for applications in the legal domain.

  8. PARP-1 Activation Requires Local Unfolding of an Autoinhibitory Domain.

    PubMed

    Dawicki-McKenna, Jennine M; Langelier, Marie-France; DeNizio, Jamie E; Riccio, Amanda A; Cao, Connie D; Karch, Kelly R; McCauley, Michael; Steffen, Jamin D; Black, Ben E; Pascal, John M

    2015-12-03

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) creates the posttranslational modification PAR from substrate NAD(+) to regulate multiple cellular processes. DNA breaks sharply elevate PARP-1 catalytic activity to mount a cell survival repair response, whereas persistent PARP-1 hyperactivation during severe genotoxic stress is associated with cell death. The mechanism for tight control of the robust catalytic potential of PARP-1 remains unclear. By monitoring PARP-1 dynamics using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HXMS), we unexpectedly find that a specific portion of the helical subdomain (HD) of the catalytic domain rapidly unfolds when PARP-1 encounters a DNA break. Together with biochemical and crystallographic analysis of HD deletion mutants, we show that the HD is an autoinhibitory domain that blocks productive NAD(+) binding. Our molecular model explains how PARP-1 DNA damage detection leads to local unfolding of the HD that relieves autoinhibition, and has important implications for the design of PARP inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inheritance contradictions between functional and extra-functional requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hochmueller, E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the tension which may arise between functional and extra-functional requirements during the process of object-oriented design. A sketch of some design conflicts in object-oriented development induced by concurrency and security requirements will serve as a basis for rather provocative prospects on an essential distinction between the core requirements for systems dealing with their proper purpose and functionality and the requirements which can be considered to be of extra-functional nature in constraining the systems solution space.

  10. Structure and functional interactions of the Tsg101 UEV domain

    PubMed Central

    Pornillos, Owen; Alam, Steven L.; Rich, Rebecca L.; Myszka, David G.; Davis, Darrell R.; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2002-01-01

    Human Tsg101 plays key roles in HIV budding and in cellular vacuolar protein sorting (VPS). In performing these functions, Tsg101 binds both ubiquitin (Ub) and the PTAP tetrapeptide ‘late domain’ motif located within the viral Gag protein. These interactions are mediated by the N-terminal domain of Tsg101, which belongs to the catalytically inactive ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) family. We now report the struc ture of Tsg101 UEV and chemical shift mapping of the Ub and PTAP binding sites. Tsg101 UEV resembles canonical E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, but has an additional N-terminal helix, an extended β-hairpin that links strands 1 and 2, and lacks the two C-terminal helices normally found in E2 enzymes. PTAP-containing peptides bind in a hydrophobic cleft exposed by the absence of the C-terminal helices, whereas ubiquitin binds in a novel site surrounding the β-hairpin. These studies provide a structural framework for understanding how Tsg101 mediates the protein–protein interactions required for HIV budding and VPS. PMID:12006492

  11. The CA domain of the respiratory complex I is required for normal embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Juan Pablo; Marchetti, Fernanda; Soto, Débora; Martin, María Victoria; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina; Zabaleta, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    The NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase [complex I (CI), EC 1.6.5.3] of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is the principal entry point of electrons, and vital in maintaining metabolism and the redox balance. In a variety of eukaryotic organisms, except animal and fungi (Opisthokonta), it contains an extra domain composed of putative gamma carbonic anhydrases subunits, named the CA domain, which was proposed to be essential for complex I assembly. There are two kinds of carbonic anhydrase subunits: CAs (of which there are three) and carbonic anhydrase-like proteins (CALs) (of which there are two). In plants, the CA domain has been linked to photorespiration. In this work, we report that Arabidopsis mutant plants affected in two specific CA subunits show a lethal phenotype. Double homozygous knockouts ca1ca2 embryos show a significant developmental delay compared to the non-homozygous embryos, which show a wild-type (WT) phenotype in the same silique. Mutant embryos show impaired mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The characteristic embryo greening does not take place and fewer but larger oil bodies are present. Although seeds look dark brown and wrinkled, they are able to germinate 12 d later than WT seeds. However, they die immediately, most likely due to oxidative stress.Since the CA domain is required for complex I biogenesis, it is predicted that in ca1ca2 mutants no complex I could be formed, triggering the lethal phenotype. The in vivo composition of a functional CA domain is proposed.

  12. Domain-specific functions of Stardust in Drosophila embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Leonie; Feicht, Sabine; Sun, Rui; Sen, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, the adaptor protein Stardust is essential for the stabilization of the polarity determinant Crumbs in various epithelial tissues, including the embryonic epidermis, the follicular epithelium and photoreceptor cells of the compound eye. In turn, Stardust recruits another adaptor protein, PATJ, to the subapical region to support adherens junction formation and morphogenetic events. Moreover, Stardust binds to Lin-7, which is dispensable in epithelial cells but functions in postsynaptic vesicle fusion. Finally, Stardust has been reported to bind directly to PAR-6, thereby linking the Crumbs–Stardust–PATJ complex to the PAR-6/aPKC complex. PAR-6 and aPKC are also capable of directly binding Bazooka (the Drosophila homologue of PAR-3) to form the PAR/aPKC complex, which is essential for apical–basal polarity and cell–cell contact formation in most epithelia. However, little is known about the physiological relevance of these interactions in the embryonic epidermis of Drosophila in vivo. Thus, we performed a structure–function analysis of the annotated domains with GFP-tagged Stardust and evaluated the localization and function of the mutant proteins in epithelial cells of the embryonic epidermis. The data presented here confirm a crucial role of the PDZ domain in binding Crumbs and recruiting the protein to the subapical region. However, the isolated PDZ domain is not capable of being recruited to the cortex, and the SH3 domain is essential to support the binding to Crumbs. Notably, the conserved N-terminal regions (ECR1 and ECR2) are not crucial for epithelial polarity. Finally, the GUK domain plays an important role for the protein's function, which is not directly linked to Crumbs stabilization, and the L27N domain is essential for epithelial polarization independently of recruiting PATJ. PMID:28018665

  13. Structure, function, and tethering of DNA-binding domains in σ54 transcriptional activators

    PubMed Central

    Vidangos, Natasha; Maris, Ann E.; Young, Anisa; Hong, Eunmi; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Batchelor, Joseph D.; Wemmer, David E.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the structure, activity and linkage of DNA binding domains from σ54 transcriptional activators, and discuss how the properties of the DNA binding domains and the linker to the neighboring domain are affected by the overall properties and requirements of the full proteins. These transcriptional activators bind upstream of specific promoters that utilize σ54-polymerase. Upon receiving a signal the activators assemble into hexamers, which then, through ATP hydrolysis, drive a conformational change in polymerase that enables transcription initiation. We present structures of the DNA-binding domains of activators NtrC1 and Nlh2 from the thermophile A. aeolicus. The structures of these domains, and their relationship to other sparts of the activators are discussed. These structures are compared with previously determined structures of the DNA-binding domains of NtrC4, NtrC, ZraR, and FIS. The N-terminal linkers that connect the DNA-binding domains to the central domains in NtrC1 and Nlh2 were studied and found to be unstructured. Additionally, a crystal structure of full-length NtrC1 was solved, but density for the DNA-binding domains was extremely weak, further indicating that the linker between ATPase and DNA binding domains functions as a flexible tether. Flexible linking of ATPase and DNA binding domains is likely necessary to allow assembly of the active hexameric ATPase ring. The comparison of this set of activators also shows clearly that strong dimerization of the DNA binding domain only occurs when other domains do not dimerize strongly. PMID:23818155

  14. Interdependence of the rad50 hook and globular domain functions.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Marcel; Kochańczyk, Tomasz; Tous, Cristina; Aguilera, Andrés; Krężel, Artur; Petrini, John H J

    2015-02-05

    Rad50 contains a conserved Zn(2+) coordination domain (the Rad50 hook) that functions as a homodimerization interface. Hook ablation phenocopies Rad50 deficiency in all respects. Here, we focused on rad50 mutations flanking the Zn(2+)-coordinating hook cysteines. These mutants impaired hook-mediated dimerization, but recombination between sister chromatids was largely unaffected. This may reflect that cohesin-mediated sister chromatid interactions are sufficient for double-strand break repair. However, Mre11 complex functions specified by the globular domain, including Tel1 (ATM) activation, nonhomologous end joining, and DNA double-strand break end resection were affected, suggesting that dimerization exerts a broad influence on Mre11 complex function. These phenotypes were suppressed by mutations within the coiled-coil and globular ATPase domains, suggesting a model in which conformational changes in the hook and globular domains are transmitted via the extended coils of Rad50. We propose that transmission of spatial information in this manner underlies the regulation of Mre11 complex functions.

  15. Interdependence of the Rad50 hook and globular domain functions

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Marcel; Kochańczyk, Tomasz; Tous, Cristina; Aguilera, Andrés; Krężel, Artur; Petrini, John H J

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Rad50 contains a conserved Zn2+ coordination domain (the Rad50 hook) that functions as a homodimerization interface. Hook ablation phenocopies Rad50 deficiency in all respects. Here we focused on rad50 mutations flanking the Zn2+-coordinating hook cysteines. These mutants impaired hook-mediated dimerization, but recombination between sister chromatids was largely unaffected. This may reflect that cohesin-mediated sister chromatid interactions are sufficient for double strand break repair. However, Mre11 complex functions specified by the globular domain, including Tel1 (ATM) activation, nonhomologous end-joining, and DNA double strand break end resection were affected, suggesting that dimerization exerts a broad influence on Mre11 complex function. These phenotypes were suppressed by mutations within the coiled coil and globular ATPase domain, suggesting a model in which conformational changes in the hook and globular domains are transmitted via the extended coils of Rad50. We propose that transmission of spatial information in this manner underlies the regulation of Mre11 complex functions. PMID:25601756

  16. Integral estimates for differentiable functions on irregular domains

    SciTech Connect

    Besov, Oleg V

    2011-02-11

    Integral representations for functions and their partial derivatives in terms of some fixed system of partial derivatives are constructed on irregular domains in a Euclidean space. Embedding theorems for Sobolev-type spaces into a Lebesgue space are established and the norms of the derivatives are estimated. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  17. Functional properties of extracellular domains of transducer receptor gp130.

    PubMed

    Kostjukova, M N; Tupitsyn, N N

    2011-04-01

    Cytokine receptor molecules have been shown to have extracellular domains of complex structure and a multi-step activation system. Glycoprotein gp130 is a typical transducer of cytokine signal; it functions by forming multicomponent receptor complexes and transferring signals of tens of cytokines from the IL-6 family. Structural organization and basic functioning principles of gp130 are well known, as well as related signal pathways, which function during normal differentiation and are involved in pathogenesis of many tumors. The role of gp130 in IL-6-dependent tumors is best studied. In this review, based on extensive accumulated data, we examine the functional significance of certain parts of gp130 extracellular domains. Potentials of a recently developed method for estimation of receptor activation at the level of epitope structure are discussed.

  18. Mapping a kingdom-specific functional domain of squalene synthase.

    PubMed

    Linscott, Kristin B; Niehaus, Thomas D; Zhuang, Xun; Bell, Stephen A; Chappell, Joe

    2016-09-01

    Squalene synthase catalyzes the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis and consists of both an amino-terminal catalytic domain and a carboxy-terminal domain tethering the enzyme to the ER membrane. While the overall architecture of this enzyme is identical in eukaryotes, it was previously shown that plant and animal genes cannot complement a squalene synthase knockout mutation in yeast unless the carboxy-terminal domain is swapped for one of fungal origin. This implied a unique component of the fungal carboxy-terminal domain was responsible for the complementation phenotype. To identify this motif, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a squalene synthase knockout mutation, and expressed intact and chimeric squalene synthases originating from fungi, plants, and animals. In contrast to previous observations, all enzymes tested could partially complement the knockout mutation when the genes were weakly expressed. However, when highly expressed, non-fungal squalene synthases could not complement the yeast mutation and instead led to the accumulation of a toxic intermediate(s) as defined by mutations of genes downstream in the ergosterol pathway. Restoration of the complete complementation phenotype was mapped to a 26-amino acid hinge region linking the catalytic and membrane-spanning domains specific to fungal squalene synthases. Over-expression of the C-terminal domain containing a hinge domain from fungi, not from animals or plants, led to growth inhibition of wild-type yeast. Because this hinge region is unique to and highly conserved within each kingdom of life, the data suggests that the hinge domain plays an essential functional role, such as assembly of ergosterol multi-enzyme complexes in fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The structure-function relationships in Drosophila neurotactin show that cholinesterasic domains may have adhesive properties.

    PubMed Central

    Darboux, I; Barthalay, Y; Piovant, M; Hipeau-Jacquotte, R

    1996-01-01

    Neurotactin (Nrt), a Drosophila transmembrane glycoprotein which is expressed in neuronal and epithelial tissues during embryonic and larval stages, exhibits heterophilic adhesive properties. The extracellular domain is composed of a catalytically inactive cholinesterase-like domain. A three-dimensional model deduced from the crystal structure of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been constructed for Nrt and suggests that its extracellular domain is composed of two sub-domains organized around a gorge: an N-terminal region, whose three-dimensional structure is almost identical to that of Torpedo AChE, and a less conserved C-terminal region. By using truncated Nrt molecules and a homotypic cell aggregation assay which involves a soluble ligand activity, it has been possible to show that the adhesive function is localized in the N-terminal region of the extracellular domain comprised between His347 and His482. The C-terminal region of the protein can be removed without impairing Nrt adhesive properties, suggesting that the two sub-domains are structurally independent. Chimeric molecules in which the Nrt cholinesterase-like domain has been replaced by homologous domains from Drosophila AChE, Torpedo AChE or Drosophila glutactin (Glt), share similar adhesive properties. These properties may require the presence of Nrt cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains since authentic Drosophila AChE does not behave as an adhesive molecule when transfected in S2 cells. Images PMID:8890157

  20. The Ω-loop lid domain of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is essential for catalytic function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Troy A.; Holyoak, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is an essential metabolic enzyme operating in the gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis pathways. Recent studies have demonstrated that the enzyme contains a mobile active site lid domain that transitions between an open/disorded conformation to a closed/ordered conformation as the enzyme progresses through the catalytic cycle. The understanding of how this mobile domain functions in catalysis is incomplete. Previous studies show that the closure of the lid domain stabilizes the reaction intermediate and protects the reactive intermediate from spurious protonation and thus contributes to the fidelity of the enzyme. In order to more fully investigate the roles of the lid domain in PEPCK function we created three mutations that replaced the 11-residue lid domain with one, two or three glycine residues. Kinetic analysis of the mutant enzymes demonstrates that none of the enzyme constructs exhibit any measurable kinetic activity resulting in a decrease in the catalytic parameters by at least 106. Structural characterization of the mutants in complexes representing the catalytic cycle suggest that the inactivity is due to a role for the lid domain in the formation of the fully closed state of the enzyme that is required for catalytic function. In the absence of the lid domain, the enzyme is unable to achieve the fully closed state and is rendered inactive despite possessing all of the residues and substrates required for catalytic function. This work demonstrates how enzyme catalytic function can be abolished through the alteration of conformational equilibria despite all elements required for chemical conversion of substrates to products remaining intact. PMID:23127136

  1. The Ω-loop lid domain of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is essential for catalytic function.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Troy A; Holyoak, Todd

    2012-11-27

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is an essential metabolic enzyme operating in the gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis pathways. Recent studies have demonstrated that the enzyme contains a mobile active site lid domain that undergoes a transition between an open, disorded conformation and a closed, ordered conformation as the enzyme progresses through the catalytic cycle. The understanding of how this mobile domain functions in catalysis is incomplete. Previous studies showed that the closure of the lid domain stabilizes the reaction intermediate and protects the reactive intermediate from spurious protonation and thus contributes to the fidelity of the enzyme. To more fully investigate the roles of the lid domain in PEPCK function, we introduced three mutations that replaced the 11-residue lid domain with one, two, and three glycine residues. Kinetic analysis of the mutant enzymes demonstrates that none of the enzyme constructs exhibit any measurable kinetic activity, resulting in a decrease in the catalytic parameters of at least 10(6). Structural characterization of the mutants in complexes representing the catalytic cycle suggests that the inactivity is due to a role for the lid domain in the formation of the fully closed state of the enzyme that is required for catalytic function. In the absence of the lid domain, the enzyme is unable to achieve the fully closed state and is rendered inactive despite possessing all of the residues and substrates required for catalytic function. This work demonstrates how enzyme catalytic function can be abolished through the alteration of conformational equilibria despite all the elements required for chemical conversion of substrates to products remaining intact.

  2. Domain structure and function of matrix metalloprotease 23 (MMP23): role in potassium channel trafficking.

    PubMed

    Galea, Charles A; Nguyen, Hai M; George Chandy, K; Smith, Brian J; Norton, Raymond S

    2014-04-01

    MMP23 is a member of the matrix metalloprotease family of zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases, which are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions. Its catalytic domain displays a high degree of structural homology with those of other metalloproteases, but its atypical domain architecture suggests that it may possess unique functional properties. The N-terminal MMP23 pro-domain contains a type-II transmembrane domain that anchors the protein to the plasma membrane and lacks the cysteine-switch motif that is required to maintain other MMPs in a latent state during passage to the cell surface. Instead of the C-terminal hemopexin domain common to other MMPs, MMP23 contains a small toxin-like domain (TxD) and an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule (IgCAM) domain. The MMP23 pro-domain can trap Kv1.3 but not closely-related Kv1.2 channels in the endoplasmic reticulum, preventing their passage to the cell surface, while the TxD can bind to the channel pore and block the passage of potassium ions. The MMP23 C-terminal IgCAM domain displays some similarity to Ig-like C2-type domains found in IgCAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which are known to mediate protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. MMP23 and Kv1.3 are co-expressed in a variety of tissues and together are implicated in diseases including cancer and inflammatory disorders. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action of this unique member of the MMP family.

  3. The Rad50 coiled-coil domain is indispensable for Mre11 complex functions.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Marcel; Kwon, Youngho; Galván, Sandra Muñoz; Xue, Xiaoyu; Tous, Cristina; Aguilera, Andrés; Sung, Patrick; Petrini, John H J

    2011-09-04

    The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) influences diverse functions in the DNA damage response. The complex comprises the globular DNA-binding domain and the Rad50 hook domain, which are linked by a long and extended Rad50 coiled-coil domain. In this study, we constructed rad50 alleles encoding truncations of the coiled-coil domain to determine which Mre11 complex functions required the full length of the coils. These mutations abolished telomere maintenance and meiotic double-strand break (DSB) formation, and severely impaired homologous recombination, indicating a requirement for long-range action. Nonhomologous end joining, which is probably mediated by the globular domain of the Mre11 complex, was also severely impaired by alteration of the coiled-coil and hook domains, providing the first evidence of their influence on this process. These data show that functions of Mre11 complex are integrated by the coiled coils of Rad50.

  4. Protein function annotation using protein domain family resources.

    PubMed

    Das, Sayoni; Orengo, Christine A

    2016-01-15

    As a result of the genome sequencing and structural genomics initiatives, we have a wealth of protein sequence and structural data. However, only about 1% of these proteins have experimental functional annotations. As a result, computational approaches that can predict protein functions are essential in bridging this widening annotation gap. This article reviews the current approaches of protein function prediction using structure and sequence based classification of protein domain family resources with a special focus on functional families in the CATH-Gene3D resource.

  5. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80.1081 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80.1081 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80.1081 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80.1081 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80.1081 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  10. Identification of domains of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor that are required for protection from apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, R; Kauffmann-Zeh, A; Liu, Y; Lehar, S; Evan, G I; Baserga, R; Blättler, W A

    1997-01-01

    Using a series of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor mutants, we have attempted to define domains required for transmitting the antiapoptotic signal from the receptor and to compare these domains with those required for mitogenesis or transformation. In FL5.12 cells transfected with wild-type IGF-I receptors, IGF-I affords protection from interleukin 3 withdrawal but is not mitogenic. An IGF-I receptor lacking a functional ATP binding site provided no protection from apoptosis. However, receptors mutated at tyrosine residue 950 or in the tyrosine cluster (1131, 1135, and 1136) within the kinase domain remained capable of suppressing apoptosis, although such mutations are known to inactivate transforming and mitogenic functions. In the C terminus of the IGF-I receptor, two mutations, one at tyrosine 1251 and one which replaced residues histidine 1293 and lysine 1294, abolished the antiapoptotic function, whereas mutation of the four serines at 1280 to 1283 did not. Interestingly, receptors truncated at the C terminus had enhanced antiapoptotic function. In Rat-1/ c-MycER fibroblasts, the Y950F mutant and the tyrosine cluster mutant could still provide protection from c-Myc-induced apoptosis, whereas mutant Y1250/1251F could not. These studies demonstrate that the domains of the IGF-I receptor required for its antiapoptotic function are distinct from those required for its proliferation or transformation functions and suggest that domains of the receptor required for inhibition of apoptosis are necessary but not sufficient for transformation. PMID:8972223

  11. The RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are required for RNA binding and cancer cell proliferation inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Yu; Wu, Chuanfang

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for cell proliferation inhibition. • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for apoptosis induction. • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for RNA binding. • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for caspase-2 alternative splicing. - Abstract: RBM5 is a known putative tumor suppressor gene that has been shown to function in cell growth inhibition by modulating apoptosis. RBM5 also plays a critical role in alternative splicing as an RNA binding protein. However, it is still unclear which domains of RBM5 are required for RNA binding and related functional activities. We hypothesized the two putative RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of RBM5 spanning from amino acids 98–178 and 231–315 are essential for RBM5-mediated cell growth inhibition, apoptosis regulation, and RNA binding. To investigate this hypothesis, we evaluated the activities of the wide-type and mutant RBM5 gene transfer in low-RBM5 expressing A549 cells. We found that, unlike wild-type RBM5 (RBM5-wt), a RBM5 mutant lacking the two RRM domains (RBM5-ΔRRM), is unable to bind RNA, has compromised caspase-2 alternative splicing activity, lacks cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction function in A549 cells. These data provide direct evidence that the two RRM domains of RBM5 are required for RNA binding and the RNA binding activity of RBM5 contributes to its function on apoptosis induction and cell growth inhibition.

  12. Functional diversity of potassium channel voltage-sensing domains

    PubMed Central

    Islas, León D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Voltage-gated potassium channels or Kv's are membrane proteins with fundamental physiological roles. They are composed of 2 main functional protein domains, the pore domain, which regulates ion permeation, and the voltage-sensing domain, which is in charge of sensing voltage and undergoing a conformational change that is later transduced into pore opening. The voltage-sensing domain or VSD is a highly conserved structural motif found in all voltage-gated ion channels and can also exist as an independent feature, giving rise to voltage sensitive enzymes and also sustaining proton fluxes in proton-permeable channels. In spite of the structural conservation of VSDs in potassium channels, there are several differences in the details of VSD function found across variants of Kvs. These differences are mainly reflected in variations in the electrostatic energy needed to open different potassium channels. In turn, the differences in detailed VSD functioning among voltage-gated potassium channels might have physiological consequences that have not been explored and which might reflect evolutionary adaptations to the different roles played by Kv channels in cell physiology. PMID:26794852

  13. Functional diversity of potassium channel voltage-sensing domains.

    PubMed

    Islas, León D

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels or Kv's are membrane proteins with fundamental physiological roles. They are composed of 2 main functional protein domains, the pore domain, which regulates ion permeation, and the voltage-sensing domain, which is in charge of sensing voltage and undergoing a conformational change that is later transduced into pore opening. The voltage-sensing domain or VSD is a highly conserved structural motif found in all voltage-gated ion channels and can also exist as an independent feature, giving rise to voltage sensitive enzymes and also sustaining proton fluxes in proton-permeable channels. In spite of the structural conservation of VSDs in potassium channels, there are several differences in the details of VSD function found across variants of Kvs. These differences are mainly reflected in variations in the electrostatic energy needed to open different potassium channels. In turn, the differences in detailed VSD functioning among voltage-gated potassium channels might have physiological consequences that have not been explored and which might reflect evolutionary adaptations to the different roles played by Kv channels in cell physiology.

  14. Human Systems Integration: Requirements and Functional Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berson, Barry; Gershzohn, Gary; Boltz, Laura; Wolf, Russ; Schultz, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This deliverable was intended as an input to the Access 5 Policy and Simulation Integrated Product Teams. This document contains high-level pilot functionality for operations in the National Airspace System above FL430. Based on the derived pilot functions the associated pilot information and control requirements are given.

  15. The twist box domain is required for Twist1-induced prostate cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gajula, Rajendra P; Chettiar, Sivarajan T; Williams, Russell D; Thiyagarajan, Saravanan; Kato, Yoshinori; Aziz, Khaled; Wang, Ruoqi; Gandhi, Nishant; Wild, Aaron T; Vesuna, Farhad; Ma, Jinfang; Salih, Tarek; Cades, Jessica; Fertig, Elana; Biswal, Shyam; Burns, Timothy F; Chung, Christine H; Rudin, Charles M; Herman, Joseph M; Hales, Russell K; Raman, Venu; An, Steven S; Tran, Phuoc T

    2013-11-01

    Twist1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays a key role during development and is a master regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that promotes cancer metastasis. Structure-function relationships of Twist1 to cancer-related phenotypes are underappreciated, so we studied the requirement of the conserved Twist box domain for metastatic phenotypes in prostate cancer. Evidence suggests that Twist1 is overexpressed in clinical specimens and correlated with aggressive/metastatic disease. Therefore, we examined a transactivation mutant, Twist1-F191G, in prostate cancer cells using in vitro assays, which mimic various stages of metastasis. Twist1 overexpression led to elevated cytoskeletal stiffness and cell traction forces at the migratory edge of cells based on biophysical single-cell measurements. Twist1 conferred additional cellular properties associated with cancer cell metastasis including increased migration, invasion, anoikis resistance, and anchorage-independent growth. The Twist box mutant was defective for these Twist1 phenotypes in vitro. Importantly, we observed a high frequency of Twist1-induced metastatic lung tumors and extrathoracic metastases in vivo using the experimental lung metastasis assay. The Twist box was required for prostate cancer cells to colonize metastatic lung lesions and extrathoracic metastases. Comparative genomic profiling revealed transcriptional programs directed by the Twist box that were associated with cancer progression, such as Hoxa9. Mechanistically, Twist1 bound to the Hoxa9 promoter and positively regulated Hoxa9 expression in prostate cancer cells. Finally, Hoxa9 was important for Twist1-induced cellular phenotypes associated with metastasis. These data suggest that the Twist box domain is required for Twist1 transcriptional programs and prostate cancer metastasis. Targeting the Twist box domain of Twist1 may effectively limit prostate cancer metastatic potential. ©2013 AACR.

  16. Domains of the TCR beta-chain required for early thymocyte development

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The T cell receptor beta (TCR beta) chain controls the developmental transition from CD4-CD8- to CD4+8+thymocytes. We show that the extracellular constant region and the transmembrane region, but not the variable domain or cytoplasmic tail of the TCR beta chain are required for this differentiation step. TCR beta mutant chains lacking the cytoplasmic tail can be found at the cell surface both in functional TCR/CD3 complexes and in a GPI-anchored monomeric form indicating that the cytoplasmic tail of the TCR beta chain functions as an ER retention signal. The concordance between cell surface expression of the mutant chains as TCR/CD3 complexes and their capacity to mediate thymocyte differentiation supports the CD3 mediated feedback model in which preTCR/CD3 complexes control the developmental transition from CD4-CD8- to CD4+CD8+thymocytes. PMID:8920871

  17. Wind-instrument reflection function measurements in the time domain.

    PubMed

    Keefe, D H

    1996-04-01

    Theoretical and computational analyses of wind-instrument sound production in the time domain have emerged as useful tools for understanding musical instrument acoustics, yet there exist few experimental measurements of the air-column response directly in the time domain. A new experimental, time-domain technique is proposed to measure the reflection function response of woodwind and brass-instrument air columns. This response is defined at the location of sound regeneration in the mouthpiece or double reed. A probe assembly comprised of an acoustic source and microphone is inserted directly into the air column entryway using a foam plug to ensure a leak-free fit. An initial calibration phase involves measurements on a single cylindrical tube of known dimensions. Measurements are presented on an alto saxophone and euphonium. The technique has promise for testing any musical instrument air columns using a single probe assembly and foam plugs over a range of diameters typical of air-column entryways.

  18. Vaccinia virus A6 is a two-domain protein requiring a cognate N-terminal domain for full viral membrane assembly activity.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Rose, Lloyd; Han, Yue; Deng, Junpeng; Xiang, Yan

    2017-03-08

    Poxvirus virion biogenesis is a complex, multistep process, starting with the formation of crescent-shaped viral membranes, followed by their enclosure of viral core to form the spherical immature virions. Crescent formation requires a group of proteins that are highly conserved among poxviruses, including A6 and A11 of vaccinia virus (VACV). To gain a better understanding of the molecular function of A6, we established a HeLa cell line that inducibly expressed VACV-A6, which allowed us to construct VACV mutants with A6 deletion or mutation. As expected, A6 deletion VACV mutant failed to replicate in non-complementing cell lines with defects in crescent formation and A11 localization. Surprisingly, a VACV mutant that had A6 substituted with a close ortholog from Yaba-like disease virus, YLDV-97, also failed to replicate. This mutant, however, developed crescents and had normal A11 localization despite failing to form immature virions. A limited proteolysis of the recombinant A6 protein identified an N- and a C-domain of approximately 121 and 251 residues, respectively. Various chimeras of VACV-A6 and YLDV-97 were constructed, but only one that precisely combined the N-domain of VACV-A6 and the C-domain of YLDV-97 supported VACV replication, albeit at reduced efficiency. Our results show that VACV A6 has a two-domain architecture and functions in both crescent formation and its enclosure to form immature virions. While a cognate N-domain is not required for crescent formation, it is required for virion formation, suggesting that interactions of N-domain with cognate viral proteins may be critical for virion assembly.IMPORTANCE Poxviruses are unique among enveloped viruses in that they acquire their primary envelope not through budding from cellular membranes but by forming and extending crescent membranes. The crescents are highly unusual, open-ended membranes, and their origin and biogenesis have perplexed virologists for decades. A group of five viral proteins

  19. Functional and topological diversity of LOV domain photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Spencer T.; Carpenter, Eric J.; Melkonian, Michael; Boyden, Edward S.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Chow, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    Light–oxygen–voltage sensitive (LOV) flavoproteins are ubiquitous photoreceptors that mediate responses to environmental cues. Photosensory inputs are transduced into signaling outputs via structural rearrangements in sensor domains that consequently modulate the activity of an effector domain or multidomain clusters. Establishing the diversity in effector function and sensor–effector topology will inform what signaling mechanisms govern light-responsive behaviors across multiple kingdoms of life and how these signals are transduced. Here, we report the bioinformatics identification of over 6,700 candidate LOV domains (including over 4,000 previously unidentified sequences from plants and protists), and insights from their annotations for ontological function and structural arrangements. Motif analysis identified the sensors from ∼42 million ORFs, with strong statistical separation from other flavoproteins and non-LOV members of the structurally related Per-aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-Sim family. Conserved-domain analysis determined putative light-regulated function and multidomain topologies. We found that for certain effectors, sensor–effector linker length is discretized based on both phylogeny and the preservation of α-helical heptad repeats within an extended coiled-coil linker structure. This finding suggests that preserving sensor–effector orientation is a key determinant of linker length, in addition to ancestry, in LOV signaling structure–function. We found a surprisingly high prevalence of effectors with functions previously thought to be rare among LOV proteins, such as regulators of G protein signaling, and discovered several previously unidentified effectors, such as lipases. This work highlights the value of applying genomic and transcriptomic technologies to diverse organisms to capture the structural and functional variation in photosensory proteins that are vastly important in adaptation, photobiology, and

  20. Functional and topological diversity of LOV domain photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Spencer T; Carpenter, Eric J; Melkonian, Michael; Gardner, Kevin H; Boyden, Edward S; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Chow, Brian Y

    2016-03-15

    Light-oxygen-voltage sensitive (LOV) flavoproteins are ubiquitous photoreceptors that mediate responses to environmental cues. Photosensory inputs are transduced into signaling outputs via structural rearrangements in sensor domains that consequently modulate the activity of an effector domain or multidomain clusters. Establishing the diversity in effector function and sensor-effector topology will inform what signaling mechanisms govern light-responsive behaviors across multiple kingdoms of life and how these signals are transduced. Here, we report the bioinformatics identification of over 6,700 candidate LOV domains (including over 4,000 previously unidentified sequences from plants and protists), and insights from their annotations for ontological function and structural arrangements. Motif analysis identified the sensors from ∼42 million ORFs, with strong statistical separation from other flavoproteins and non-LOV members of the structurally related Per-aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-Sim family. Conserved-domain analysis determined putative light-regulated function and multidomain topologies. We found that for certain effectors, sensor-effector linker length is discretized based on both phylogeny and the preservation of α-helical heptad repeats within an extended coiled-coil linker structure. This finding suggests that preserving sensor-effector orientation is a key determinant of linker length, in addition to ancestry, in LOV signaling structure-function. We found a surprisingly high prevalence of effectors with functions previously thought to be rare among LOV proteins, such as regulators of G protein signaling, and discovered several previously unidentified effectors, such as lipases. This work highlights the value of applying genomic and transcriptomic technologies to diverse organisms to capture the structural and functional variation in photosensory proteins that are vastly important in adaptation, photobiology, and optogenetics.

  1. The Topology of the l-Arginine Exporter ArgO Conforms to an Nin-Cout Configuration in Escherichia coli: Requirement for the Cytoplasmic N-Terminal Domain, Functional Helical Interactions, and an Aspartate Pair for ArgO Function.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Amit; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Dubey, Swati; Gopal, Balasubramanian; Sardesai, Abhijit A

    2016-12-01

    ArgO and LysE are members of the LysE family of exporter proteins and ordinarily mediate the export of l-arginine (Arg) in Escherichia coli and l-lysine (Lys) and Arg in Corynebacterium glutamicum, respectively. Under certain conditions, ArgO also mediates Lys export. To delineate the arrangement of ArgO in the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli, we have employed a combination of cysteine accessibility in situ, alkaline phosphatase fusion reporters, and protein modeling to arrive at a topological model of ArgO. Our studies indicate that ArgO assumes an Nin-Cout configuration, potentially forming a five-transmembrane helix bundle flanked by a cytoplasmic N-terminal domain (NTD) comprising roughly its first 38 to 43 amino acyl residues and a short periplasmic C-terminal region (CTR). Mutagenesis studies indicate that the CTR, but not the NTD, is dispensable for ArgO function in vivo and that a pair of conserved aspartate residues, located near the opposing edges of the cytoplasmic membrane, may play a pivotal role in facilitating transmembrane Arg flux. Additional studies on amino acid substitutions that impair ArgO function in vivo and their derivatives bearing compensatory amino acid alterations indicate a role for intramolecular interactions in the Arg export mechanism, and some interactions are corroborated by normal-mode analyses. Lastly, our studies suggest that ArgO may exist as a monomer in vivo, thus highlighting the requirement for intramolecular interactions in ArgO, as opposed to interactions across multiple ArgO monomers, in the formation of an Arg-translocating conduit.

  2. Structural and functional definition of the human chitinase chitin-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Tjoelker, L W; Gosting, L; Frey, S; Hunter, C L; Trong, H L; Steiner, B; Brammer, H; Gray, P W

    2000-01-07

    Mammalian chitinase, a chitinolytic enzyme expressed by macrophages, has been detected in atherosclerotic plaques and is elevated in blood and tissues of guinea pigs infected with Aspergillus. Its normal physiological function is unknown. To understand how the enzyme interacts with its substrate, we have characterized the chitin-binding domain. The C-terminal 49 amino acids make up the minimal sequence required for chitin binding activity. The absence of this domain does not affect the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze the soluble substrate, triacetylchitotriose, but abolishes hydrolysis of insoluble chitin. Within the minimal chitin-binding domain are six cysteines; mutation of any one of these to serine results in complete loss of chitin binding activity. Analysis of purified recombinant chitin-binding domain revealed the presence of three disulfide linkages. The recombinant domain binds specifically to chitin but does not bind chitosan, cellulose, xylan, beta-1, 3-glucan, beta-1,3-1,4-glucan, or mannan. Fluorescently tagged chitin-binding domain was used to demonstrate chitin-specific binding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Mucor rouxii, and Neurospora crassa. These experiments define structural features of the minimal domain of human chitinase required for both specifically binding to and hydrolyzing insoluble chitin and demonstrate relevant binding within the context of the fungal cell wall.

  3. A Naturally-Occurring Transcript Variant of MARCO Reveals the SRCR Domain is Critical for Function

    PubMed Central

    Novakowski, Kyle E.; Huynh, Angela; Han, SeongJun; Dorrington, Michael G.; Yin, Charles; Tu, Zhongyuan; Pelka, Peter; Whyte, Peter; Guarné, Alba; Sakamoto, Kaori; Bowdish, Dawn M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a Class A Scavenger Receptor (cA-SR) that recognizes and phagocytoses of a wide variety of pathogens. Most cA-SRs that contain a C-terminal Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich (SRCR) domain use the proximal collagenous domain to bind ligands. In contrast, for the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO in phagocytosis, adhesion and pro-inflammatory signalling is less clear. The discovery of a naturally-occurring transcript variant lacking the SRCR domain, MARCOII, provided the opportunity to study the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO. We tested whether the SRCR domain is required for ligand binding, promoting downstream signalling, and enhancing cellular adhesion. Unlike cells expressing full-length MARCO, ligand binding was abolished in MARCOII-expressing cells. Furthermore, co-expression of MARCO and MARCOII impaired phagocytic function, indicating that MARCOII acts as a dominant negative variant. Unlike MARCO, expression of MARCOII did not enhance Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated pro-inflammatory signalling in response to bacterial stimulation. MARCO-expressing cells were more adherent and exhibited a dendritic-like phenotype, while MARCOII-expressing cells were less adherent and did not exhibit changes in morphology. These data suggest the SRCR domain of MARCO is the key domain in modulating ligand binding, enhancing downstream pro-inflammatory signalling, and MARCO-mediated cellular adhesion. PMID:26888252

  4. Localization of Fission Yeast Type II Myosin, Myo2, to the Cytokinetic Actin Ring Is Regulated by Phosphorylation of a C-Terminal Coiled-Coil Domain and Requires a Functional Septation Initiation Network

    PubMed Central

    Mulvihill, Daniel P.; Barretto, Caroline; Hyams, Jeremy S.

    2001-01-01

    Myo2 truncations fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) defined a C-terminal domain essential for the localization of Myo2 to the cytokinetic actin ring (CAR). The localization domain contained two predicted phosphorylation sites. Mutation of serine 1518 to alanine (S1518A) abolished Myo2 localization, whereas Myo2 with a glutamic acid at this position (S1518E) localized to the CAR. GFP-Myo2 formed rings in the septation initiation kinase (SIN) mutant cdc7-24 at 25°C but not at 36°C. GFP-Myo2S1518E rings persisted at 36°C in cdc7-24 but not in another SIN kinase mutant, sid2-250. To further examine the relationship between Myo2 and the SIN pathway, the chromosomal copy of myo2+ was fused to GFP (strain myo2-gc). Myo2 ring formation was abolished in the double mutants myo2-gc cdc7.24 and myo2-gc sid2-250 at the restrictive temperature. In contrast, activation of the SIN pathway in the double mutant myo2-gc cdc16-116 resulted in the formation of Myo2 rings which subsequently collapsed at 36°C. We conclude that the SIN pathway that controls septation in fission yeast also regulates Myo2 ring formation and contraction. Cdc7 and Sid2 are involved in ring formation, in the case of Cdc7 by phosphorylation of a single serine residue in the Myo2 tail. Other kinases and/or phosphatases may control ring contraction. PMID:11739799

  5. Cross-Cultural Competence: Leader Requirements for Intercultural Effectiveness in the Human Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE: LEADER REQUIREMENTS FOR INTERCULTURAL EFFECTIVENESS IN THE HUMAN DOMAIN A thesis presented to...Intercultural Effectiveness in the Human Domain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Shawn...attributes, and affect/motivation (KSAs) are a greater indicator for cross- cultural effectiveness than language and regional expertise. These KSAs

  6. Contributions of individual domains to function of the HIV-1 Rev response element.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Ina P; Thappeta, Yashna; Fan, Lixin; Ramirez-Valdez, Edric A; Smith, Sean; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2017-08-16

    The HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) is a 351-base element in unspliced and partially spliced viral RNA; binding of the RRE by the viral Rev protein induces nuclear export of RRE-containing RNAs, as required for virus replication. It contains one long, imperfect double helix (domain I), one branched domain (domain II) containing a high-affinity Rev-binding site, and two or three additional domains. We previously reported that the RRE assumes an "A" shape in solution and suggested that the location of the Rev binding sites in domains I and II, opposite each other on the two legs of the A, is optimal for Rev binding and explains Rev's specificity for RRE-containing RNAs. Using SAXS and a quantitative functional assay, we have now analyzed a panel of RRE mutants. All the results support the essential role of the A shape for RRE function. Moreover, they suggest that the distal portion of domain I and the three crowning domains all contribute to the maintenance of the A shape. Domains I and II are necessary and sufficient for substantial RRE function, provided they are joined by a flexible linker that allows the two domains to face each other.IMPORTANCE Retroviral replication requires that some of the viral RNAs transcribed in the cell nucleus be exported to the cytoplasm without being spliced. To achieve this, HIV-1 encodes a protein, Rev, which binds to a complex, highly structured element within viral RNA, the Rev Response Element (RRE), and escorts RRE-containing RNAs from the nucleus. We previously reported that the RRE is "A"-shaped and suggested that this architecture, with the 2 legs opposite one another, can explain the specificity of Rev for the RRE. We have analyzed the functional contributions of individual RRE domains, and now report that several domains contribute, with some redundancy, to maintenance of the overall RRE shape. The data strongly support the hypothesis that the opposed placement of the 2 legs is essential for RRE function. Copyright © 2017

  7. Tankyrase Sterile α Motif Domain Polymerization Is Required for Its Role in Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Amanda A; McCauley, Michael; Langelier, Marie-France; Pascal, John M

    2016-09-06

    Tankyrase-1 (TNKS1/PARP-5a) is a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme that regulates multiple cellular processes creating a poly(ADP-ribose) posttranslational modification that can lead to target protein turnover. TNKS1 thereby controls protein levels of key components of signaling pathways, including Axin1, the limiting component of the destruction complex in canonical Wnt signaling that degrades β-catenin to prevent its coactivator function in gene expression. There are limited molecular level insights into TNKS1 regulation in cell signaling pathways. TNKS1 has a sterile α motif (SAM) domain that is known to mediate polymerization, but the functional requirement for SAM polymerization has not been assessed. We have determined the crystal structure of wild-type human TNKS1 SAM domain and used structure-based mutagenesis to disrupt polymer formation and assess the consequences on TNKS1 regulation of β-catenin-dependent transcription. Our data indicate the SAM polymer is critical for TNKS1 catalytic activity and allows TNKS1 to efficiently access cytoplasmic signaling complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. X-ray Structural and Functional Studies of the Three Tandemly Linked Domains of Non-structural Protein 3 (nsp3) from Murine Hepatitis Virus Reveal Conserved Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yafang; Savinov, Sergey N.; Mielech, Anna M.; Cao, Thu; Baker, Susan C.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) has long served as a model system for the study of coronaviruses. Non-structural protein 3 (nsp3) is the largest nsp in the coronavirus genome, and it contains multiple functional domains that are required for coronavirus replication. Despite the numerous functional studies on MHV and its nsp3 domain, the structure of only one domain in nsp3, the small ubiquitin-like domain 1 (Ubl1), has been determined. We report here the x-ray structure of three tandemly linked domains of MHV nsp3, including the papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) catalytic domain, the ubiquitin-like domain 2 (Ubl2), and a third domain that we call the DPUP (domain preceding Ubl2 and PLP2) domain. DPUP has close structural similarity to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus unique domain C (SUD-C), suggesting that this domain may not be unique to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The PLP2 catalytic domain was found to have both deubiquitinating and deISGylating isopeptidase activities in addition to proteolytic activity. A computationally derived model of MHV PLP2 bound to ubiquitin was generated, and the potential interactions between ubiquitin and PLP2 were probed by site-directed mutagenesis. These studies extend substantially our structural knowledge of MHV nsp3, providing a platform for further investigation of the role of nsp3 domains in MHV viral replication. PMID:26296883

  9. Evolution of function in the "two dinucleotide binding domains" flavoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Sunil; Meng, Elaine C; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2007-07-01

    Structural and biochemical constraints force some segments of proteins to evolve more slowly than others, often allowing identification of conserved structural or sequence motifs that can be associated with substrate binding properties, chemical mechanisms, and molecular functions. We have assessed the functional and structural constraints imposed by cofactors on the evolution of new functions in a superfamily of flavoproteins characterized by two-dinucleotide binding domains, the "two dinucleotide binding domains" flavoproteins (tDBDF) superfamily. Although these enzymes catalyze many different types of oxidation/reduction reactions, each is initiated by a stereospecific hydride transfer reaction between two cofactors, a pyridine nucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Sequence and structural analysis of more than 1,600 members of the superfamily reveals new members and identifies details of the evolutionary connections among them. Our analysis shows that in all of the highly divergent families within the superfamily, these cofactors adopt a conserved configuration optimal for stereospecific hydride transfer that is stabilized by specific interactions with amino acids from several motifs distributed among both dinucleotide binding domains. The conservation of cofactor configuration in the active site restricts the pyridine nucleotide to interact with FAD from the re-side, limiting the flow of electrons from the re-side to the si-side. This directionality of electron flow constrains interactions with the different partner proteins of different families to occur on the same face of the cofactor binding domains. As a result, superimposing the structures of tDBDFs aligns not only these interacting proteins, but also their constituent electron acceptors, including heme and iron-sulfur clusters. Thus, not only are specific aspects of the cofactor-directed chemical mechanism conserved across the superfamily, the constraints they impose are manifested in the

  10. Structural and Functional Analysis of Domains of the Progesterone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Krista K.; Roemer, Sarah C.; Churchill, Mair E.A.; Edwards, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are multi-domain proteins composed of conserved well-structured regions, such as ligand (LBD) and DNA binding domains (DBD), plus other naturally unstructured regions including the amino-terminal domain (NTD) and the hinge region between the LBD and DBD. The hinge is more than just a flexible region between the DBD and LBD and is capable of binding co-regulatory proteins and the minor groove of DNA flanking hormone response elements. Because the hinge can directly participate in DNA binding it has also been termed the carboxyl terminal extension (CTE) of the DNA binding domain. The CTE and NTD are dynamic regions of the receptor that can adopt multiple conformations depending on the environment of interacting proteins and DNA. Both regions have important regulatory roles for multiple receptor functions that are related to the ability of the CTE and NTD to form multiple active conformations. This review focuses on studies of the CTE and NTD of progesterone receptor (PR), as well as related work with other steroid/nuclear receptors. PMID:21803119

  11. Structural and functional analysis of domains of the progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Hill, Krista K; Roemer, Sarah C; Churchill, Mair E A; Edwards, Dean P

    2012-01-30

    Steroid hormone receptors are multi-domain proteins composed of conserved well-structured regions, such as ligand (LBD) and DNA binding domains (DBD), plus other naturally unstructured regions including the amino-terminal domain (NTD) and the hinge region between the LBD and DBD. The hinge is more than just a flexible region between the DBD and LBD and is capable of binding co-regulatory proteins and the minor groove of DNA flanking hormone response elements. Because the hinge can directly participate in DNA binding it has also been termed the carboxyl terminal extension (CTE) of the DNA binding domain. The CTE and NTD are dynamic regions of the receptor that can adopt multiple conformations depending on the environment of interacting proteins and DNA. Both regions have important regulatory roles for multiple receptor functions that are related to the ability of the CTE and NTD to form multiple active conformations. This review focuses on studies of the CTE and NTD of progesterone receptor (PR), as well as related work with other steroid/nuclear receptors.

  12. [Respiratory domain of revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Functional Rating Scale].

    PubMed

    Lima, Sandra E; Pessolano, Fernando A; Monteiro, Sergio G; De Vito, Eduardo L

    2009-01-01

    Virtually all patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will complain of dyspnea, which is perhaps the most distressing symptom of this devastating disease. The objective was to correlate respiratory domain of ALSFRS-R with forced vital capacity and maximal static pressures in the mouth. We designed a prospective study in 20 consecutive patients without dyspnea during 24 months. The global decline of ALSFRS-R was from 34.3 +/- 10.3 to 22.1 +/- 8.0 (p = 0.0325), the contribution of respiratory domain was irrelevant. Those who referred dyspnea (n: 12), forced vital capacity fell 41 +/- 21% of the initial value but with similar value of fall (46 +/- 23%) 8 patients did not referred dyspnea. Total score of ALSFRS-R correlated with forced vital capacity (litres), r: 0.73, p = 0.0016 and maximal inspiratory pressure (cm H2O), r: 0.84, p = 0.0038, but the fall of the forced vital capacity (%) did not correlate with dyspnea (r(s): 0.23, p = 0.1400). There was a moderate correlation between dyspnea and maximal inspiratory pressure (%), r(s): 0.58, p = 0.0300 and between dyspnea and maximal expiratory pressure (%), r(s): 0.49, p = 0.0400. We concluded that the respiratory functional deterioration could not be predicted using respiratory domain of ALSFRS-R. This suggests that respiratory domain of this scale does not replace to respiratory function testing measurements and, due to the respiratory insufficiency could not be clinically evident; performing pulmonary function tests provides an objective view and permit to make anticipatory actions.

  13. Experimental Analysis of Functional Variation within Protein Families: Receiver Domain Autodephosphorylation Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephani C; Immormino, Robert M; Miller, Thane H; Bourret, Robert B

    2016-09-15

    members. Characterizing conserved residues within a conserved domain can identify functions shared by all family members. However, a general strategy to assess features that differ between members of a family is lacking. Fully exploring the impact of just two variable positions within a conserved domain could require assessment of 400 (i.e., 20 × 20) variants. Instead, we created and analyzed a nonredundant database of receiver domain sequences. Five percent of D + 2/T + 2 pairs were sufficient to represent 50% of receiver domain sequences. Using protein sequence analysis to prioritize mutant choice made it experimentally feasible to extensively probe the influence of positions D + 2 and T + 2 on receiver domain autodephosphorylation kinetics. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Release of Plasmodium sporozoites requires proteins with histone-fold dimerization domains

    PubMed Central

    Currà, Chiara; Gessmann, Renate; Pace, Tomasino; Picci, Leonardo; Peruzzi, Giulia; Varamogianni-Mamatsi, Vassiliki; Spanos, Lefteris; Garcia, Célia R. S.; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Ponzi, Marta; Siden-Kiamos, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The sporozoite, the stage of the malaria parasite transmitted by the mosquito, first develops for ∼2 weeks in an oocyst. Rupture of the oocyst capsule is required for release of sporozoites, which then transfer to the salivary gland where they are injected into a new host. Here we identify two parasite proteins that we call oocyst rupture proteins 1 (ORP1) and ORP2. These proteins have a histone-fold domain (HFD) that promotes heterodimer formation in the oocyst capsule at the time of rupture. Oocyst rupture is prevented in mutants lacking either protein. Mutational analysis confirms the HFD as essential for ORP1 and ORP2 function, and heterodimer formation was verified in vitro. These two proteins are potential targets for blocking transmission of the parasite in the mosquito. PMID:27982038

  15. Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, M. R.; Bermudez-Aguirre, L. D.; Douglas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight foods were evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf-life correlated with the expected storage duration during the mission. Specifically, the research aims were: Aim A. To determine the amount of each nutrient in representative spaceflight foods immediately after processing and at predetermined storage time to establish the current nutritional state. Aim B. To identify the requirements to develop foods that stabilize these nutrients such that required concentrations are maintained in the space food system throughout long duration missions (up to five years). Aim C. To coordinate collaborations with health and performance groups that may require functional foods as a countermeasure.

  16. LAP2 binds to BAF⋅DNA complexes: requirement for the LEM domain and modulation by variable regions

    PubMed Central

    Shumaker, Dale K.; Lee, Kenneth K.; Tanhehco, Yvette C.; Craigie, Robert; Wilson, Katherine L.

    2001-01-01

    LAP2 belongs to a family of nuclear membrane proteins sharing a 43 residue LEM domain. All LAP2 isoforms have the same N-terminal ‘constant’ region (LAP2-c), which includes the LEM domain, plus a C-terminal ‘variable’ region. LAP2-c polypeptide inhibits nuclear assembly in Xenopus extracts, and binds in vitro to barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), a DNA-bridging protein. We tested 17 Xenopus LAP2-c mutants for nuclear assembly inhibition, and binding to BAF and BAF⋅DNA complexes. LEM domain mutations disrupted all activities tested. Some mutations outside the LEM domain had no effect on binding to BAF, but disrupted activity in Xenopus extracts, suggesting that LAP2-c has an additional unknown function required to inhibit nuclear assembly. Mutagenesis results suggest that BAF changes conformation when complexed with DNA. The binding affinity of LAP2 was higher for BAF⋅DNA complexes than for BAF, suggesting that these interactions are physiologically relevant. Nucleoplasmic domains of Xenopus LAP2 isoforms varied 9-fold in their affinities for BAF, but all isoforms supershifted BAF⋅DNA complexes. We propose that the LEM domain is a core BAF-binding domain that can be modulated by the variable regions of LAP2 isoforms. PMID:11285238

  17. LAP2 binds to BAF.DNA complexes: requirement for the LEM domain and modulation by variable regions.

    PubMed

    Shumaker, D K; Lee, K K; Tanhehco, Y C; Craigie, R; Wilson, K L

    2001-04-02

    LAP2 belongs to a family of nuclear membrane proteins sharing a 43 residue LEM domain. All LAP2 isoforms have the same N-terminal 'constant' region (LAP2-c), which includes the LEM domain, plus a C-terminal 'variable' region. LAP2-c polypeptide inhibits nuclear assembly in Xenopus extracts, and binds in vitro to barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), a DNA-bridging protein. We tested 17 Xenopus LAP2-c mutants for nuclear assembly inhibition, and binding to BAF and BAF small middle dotDNA complexes. LEM domain mutations disrupted all activities tested. Some mutations outside the LEM domain had no effect on binding to BAF, but disrupted activity in Xenopus extracts, suggesting that LAP2-c has an additional unknown function required to inhibit nuclear assembly. Mutagenesis results suggest that BAF changes conformation when complexed with DNA. The binding affinity of LAP2 was higher for BAF small middle dotDNA complexes than for BAF, suggesting that these interactions are physiologically relevant. Nucleoplasmic domains of Xenopus LAP2 isoforms varied 9-fold in their affinities for BAF, but all isoforms supershifted BAF small middle dotDNA complexes. We propose that the LEM domain is a core BAF-binding domain that can be modulated by the variable regions of LAP2 isoforms.

  18. Phenotypic lentivirus screens to identify functional single domain antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Florian I.; Hanke, Leo; Morin, Benjamin; Brewer, Rebeccah; Brusic, Vesna; Whelan, Sean P.J.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of proteins is key in assessing their in vivo function. While genetic ablation is straightforward, reversible and specific perturbation of protein function remains a challenge. Single domain antibody fragments, such as camelid-derived VHHs, can serve as inhibitors or activators of intracellular protein function, but functional testing of identified VHHs is laborious. To address this challenge, we developed a lentiviral screening approach to identify VHHs that elicit a phenotype when expressed intracellularly. We identified 19 antiviral VHHs that protect human A549 cells from lethal infection with influenza A virus (IAV) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), respectively. Both negative-sense RNA viruses are vulnerable to VHHs uniquely specific for their respective nucleoproteins. Antiviral VHHs prevented nuclear import of viral ribonucleoproteins or mRNA transcription, respectively, and may provide clues for novel antiviral reagents. In principle, the screening approach described here should be applicable to identify inhibitors of any pathogen or biological pathway. PMID:27573105

  19. The Drosophila SOX-domain protein Dichaete is required for the development of the central nervous system midline.

    PubMed

    Soriano, N S; Russell, S

    1998-10-01

    SOX-domain proteins are a class of developmentally important transcriptional regulators related to the mammalian testis determining factor SRY. In common with other SOX-domain genes, the Drosophila Dichaete gene has a dynamic expression profile in the developing central nervous system, including cells of the ventral midline. We find defects in the differentiation of midline glia and concomitant axonal defects in Dichaete mutants that are rescued by driving Dichaete expression in the midline. Since Dichaete is required for the correct specification or differentiation of midline glia, we have used the ventral midline as a model system to study SOX gene function in vivo and demonstrate a genetic interaction between Dichaete and the POU domain gene ventral veinless. In mammals, a protein related to Dichaete, SOX2, also interacts with POU transcription factors. The midline phenotypes of Dichaete mutations are rescued by expression of mouse SOX2. Our data suggest that SOX gene structure, function and interactions have been conserved during evolution.

  20. Motor function domains in alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Melanie; Gordon, Kelly; Hall, Amanda; Jasien, Joan; Lardinois, Kara; Uchitel, Julie; Mclean, Melissa; Prange, Lyndsey; Wuchich, Jeffrey; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2017-08-01

    To characterize motor function profiles in alternating hemiplegia of childhood, and to investigate interrelationships between these domains and with age. We studied a cohort of 23 patients (9 males, 14 females; mean age 9y 4mo, range 4mo-43y) who underwent standardized tests to assess gross motor, upper extremity motor control, motor speech, and dysphagia functions. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Revised Melbourne Assessment (MA2) scales manifested predominantly mild impairments; motor speech, moderate to severe; Modified Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale (M-DOSS), mild-to moderate deficits. GMFCS correlated with GMFM-88 scores (Pearson's correlation, p=0.002), MACS (p=0.038), and MA2 fluency (p=0.005) and accuracy (p=0.038) scores. GMFCS did not correlate with motor speech (p=0.399), MA2 dexterity (p=0.247), range of motion (p=0.063), or M-DOSS (p=0.856). Motor speech was more severely impaired than the GMFCS (p<0.013). There was no correlation between any of the assessment tools and age (p=0.210-0.798). Our data establish a detailed profile of motor function in alternating hemiplegia of childhood, argue against the presence of worse motor function in older patients, identify tools helpful in evaluating this population, and identify oropharyngeal function as the more severely affected domain, suggesting that brain areas controlling this function are more affected than others. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  1. The Twist Box Domain is Required for Twist1-induced Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gajula, Rajendra P.; Chettiar, Sivarajan T.; Williams, Russell D.; Thiyagarajan, Saravanan; Kato, Yoshinori; Aziz, Khaled; Wang, Ruoqi; Gandhi, Nishant; Wild, Aaron T.; Vesuna, Farhad; Ma, Jinfang; Salih, Tarek; Cades, Jessica; Fertig, Elana; Biswal, Shyam; Burns, Timothy F.; Chung, Christine H.; Rudin, Charles M.; Herman, Joseph M.; Hales, Russell K.; Raman, Venu; An, Steven S.; Tran, Phuoc T.

    2013-01-01

    Twist1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays a key role during development and is a master regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that promotes cancer metastasis. Structure-function relationships of Twist1 to cancer-related phenotypes are underappreciated, so we studied the requirement of the conserved Twist box domain for metastatic phenotypes in prostate cancer (PCa). Evidence suggests that Twist1 is overexpressed in clinical specimens and correlated with aggressive/metastatic disease. Therefore, we examined a transactivation mutant, Twist1-F191G, in PCa cells using in vitro assays which mimic various stages of metastasis. Twist1 overexpression led to elevated cytoskeletal stiffness and cell traction forces at the migratory edge of cells based on biophysical single-cell measurements. Twist1 conferred additional cellular properties associated with cancer cell metastasis including increased migration, invasion, anoikis resistance, and anchorage-independent growth. The Twist box mutant was defective for these Twist1 phenotypes in vitro. Importantly, we observed a high frequency of Twist1-induced metastatic lung tumors and extra-thoracic metastases in vivo using the experimental lung metastasis assay. The Twist box was required for PCa cells to colonize metastatic lung lesions and extra-thoracic metastases. Comparative genomic profiling revealed transcriptional programs directed by the Twist box that were associated with cancer progression, such as Hoxa9. Mechanistically, Twist1 bound to the Hoxa9 promoter and positively regulated Hoxa9 expression in PCa cells. Finally, Hoxa9 was important for Twist1-induced cellular phenotypes associated with metastasis. These data suggest that the Twist box domain is required for Twist1 transcriptional programs and PCa metastasis. PMID:23982216

  2. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. IMPORTANCE While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed

  3. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  4. Characterization of DNA polymerase X from Thermus thermophilus HB8 reveals the POLXc and PHP domains are both required for 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2009-04-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases (PolXs) comprise a highly conserved DNA polymerase family found in all kingdoms. Mammalian PolXs are known to be involved in several DNA-processing pathways including repair, but the cellular functions of bacterial PolXs are less known. Many bacterial PolXs have a polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain at their C-termini in addition to a PolX core (POLXc) domain, and possess 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Although both domains are highly conserved in bacteria, their molecular functions, especially for a PHP domain, are unknown. We found Thermus thermophilus HB8 PolX (ttPolX) has Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent DNA/RNA polymerase, Mn(2+)-dependent 3'-5' exonuclease and DNA-binding activities. We identified the domains of ttPolX by limited proteolysis and characterized their biochemical activities. The POLXc domain was responsible for the polymerase and DNA-binding activities but exonuclease activity was not detected for either domain. However, the POLXc and PHP domains interacted with each other and a mixture of the two domains had Mn(2+)-dependent 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis revealed catalytically important residues in the PHP domain for the 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Our findings provide a molecular insight into the functional domain organization of bacterial PolXs, especially the requirement of the PHP domain for 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

  5. Functional Significance of SRJ Domain Mutations in CITED2

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Catherine; Braganca, Jose; Cuenda, Ana; Bamforth, Simon D.; Schneider, Jürgen E.; Watkins, Hugh; Keavney, Bernard; Davies, Benjamin; Bhattacharya, Shoumo

    2012-01-01

    CITED2 is a transcriptional co-activator with 3 conserved domains shared with other CITED family members and a unique Serine-Glycine Rich Junction (SRJ) that is highly conserved in placental mammals. Loss of Cited2 in mice results in cardiac and aortic arch malformations, adrenal agenesis, neural tube and placental defects, and partially penetrant defects in left-right patterning. By screening 1126 sporadic congenital heart disease (CHD) cases and 1227 controls, we identified 19 variants, including 5 unique non-synonymous sequence variations (N62S, R92G, T166N, G180-A187del and A187T) in patients. Many of the CHD-specific variants identified in this and previous studies cluster in the SRJ domain. Transient transfection experiments show that T166N mutation impairs TFAP2 co-activation function and ES cell proliferation. We find that CITED2 is phosphorylated by MAPK1 in vitro at T166, and that MAPK1 activation enhances the coactivation function of CITED2 but not of CITED2-T166N. In order to investigate the functional significance in vivo, we generated a T166N mutation of mouse Cited2. We also used PhiC31 integrase-mediated cassette exchange to generate a Cited2 knock-in allele replacing the mouse Cited2 coding sequence with human CITED2 and with a mutant form deleting the entire SRJ domain. Mouse embryos expressing only CITED2-T166N or CITED2-SRJ-deleted alleles surprisingly show no morphological abnormalities, and mice are viable and fertile. These results indicate that the SRJ domain is dispensable for these functions of CITED2 in mice and that mutations clustering in the SRJ region are unlikely to be the sole cause of the malformations observed in patients with sporadic CHD. Our results also suggest that coding sequence mutations observed in case-control studies need validation using in vivo models and that predictions based on structural conservation and in vitro functional assays, or even in vivo global loss of function models, may be insufficient. PMID:23082118

  6. Natural-like function in artificial WW domains.

    PubMed

    Russ, William P; Lowery, Drew M; Mishra, Prashant; Yaffe, Michael B; Ranganathan, Rama

    2005-09-22

    Protein sequences evolve through random mutagenesis with selection for optimal fitness. Cooperative folding into a stable tertiary structure is one aspect of fitness, but evolutionary selection ultimately operates on function, not on structure. In the accompanying paper, we proposed a model for the evolutionary constraint on a small protein interaction module (the WW domain) through application of the SCA, a statistical analysis of multiple sequence alignments. Construction of artificial protein sequences directed only by the SCA showed that the information extracted by this analysis is sufficient to engineer the WW fold at atomic resolution. Here, we demonstrate that these artificial WW sequences function like their natural counterparts, showing class-specific recognition of proline-containing target peptides. Consistent with SCA predictions, a distributed network of residues mediates functional specificity in WW domains. The ability to recapitulate natural-like function in designed sequences shows that a relatively small quantity of sequence information is sufficient to specify the global energetics of amino acid interactions.

  7. Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Baker, Scott E.; Proctor, Robert H.

    2012-02-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based food and feed is more often associated with a variety of diseases in plants and in animals. Many of these structurally diverse metabolites are derived from a family of related enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). A search of genomic sequence of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and Nectria haematococca (anamorph F. solani) identified a total of 58 PKS genes. To gain insight into how this gene family evolved and to guide future studies, we conducted a phylogenomic and functional domain analysis. The resulting genealogy suggested that Fusarium PKSs represent 34 different groups responsible for synthesis of different core metabolites. The analyses indicate that variation in the Fusarium PKS gene family is due to gene duplication and loss events as well as enzyme gain-of-function due to the acquisition of new domains or of loss-of-function due to nucleotide mutations. Transcriptional analysis indicate that the 16 F. verticillioides PKS genes are expressed under a range of conditions, further evidence that they are functional genes that confer the ability to produce secondary metabolites.

  8. ERAD of proteins containing aberrant transmembrane domains requires ubiquitylation of cytoplasmic lysine residues

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Kit; Koay, Yee-Hui; Otsuka, Yuka; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clearance of misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The mechanisms through which proteins containing aberrant transmembrane domains are degraded by ERAD are poorly understood. To address this question, we generated model ERAD substrates based on CD8 with either a non-native transmembrane domain but a folded ER luminal domain (CD8TMD*), or the native transmembrane domain but a misfolded luminal domain (CD8LUM*). Although both chimeras were degraded by ERAD, we found that the location of the folding defect determined the initial site of ubiquitylation. Ubiquitylation of cytoplasmic lysine residues was required for the extraction of CD8TMD* from the ER membrane during ERAD, whereas CD8LUM* continued to be degraded in the absence of cytoplasmic lysine residues. Cytoplasmic lysine residues were also required for degradation of an additional ERAD substrate containing an unassembled transmembrane domain and when a non-native transmembrane domain was introduced into CD8LUM*. Our results suggest that proteins with defective transmembrane domains are removed from the ER through a specific ERAD mechanism that depends upon ubiquitylation of cytoplasmic lysine residues. PMID:26446255

  9. The Dof domain, a zinc finger DNA-binding domain conserved only in higher plants, truly functions as a Cys2/Cys2 Zn finger domain.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Yoshimi; Ishiduka, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Rie; Esaka, Muneharu

    2004-03-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) proteins are plant transcription factors that have a highly conserved DNA-binding domain, called the Dof domain. The Dof domain, which is composed of 52 amino acid residues, is similar to the Cys2/Cys2 zinc finger DNA-binding domain of GATA1 and steroid hormone receptors, but has a longer putative loop than that in the case of these zinc finger domains. The DNA-binding function of ascorbate oxidase gene binding protein (AOBP), a Dof protein, was investigated by gel retardation analysis. When Cys was replaced by His, the Dof domain could not function as a Cys3/His- or a Cys2/His2-type zinc finger. The characteristic longer loop was essential for DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, heavy metals such as Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III) inhibited the DNA-binding activity of the Dof domain. Manganese ion as well as zinc ion was coordinated by the Dof domain in vitro. On the other hand, the analysis using inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed that the Dof domain contained zinc ion but not manganese ion. Thus, the Dof domain was proved to function as a Cys2/Cys2 zinc finger domain.

  10. Discoidin domain receptor functions in physiological and pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leitinger, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are non-integrin collagen receptors that are members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. Both DDRs bind a number of different collagen types and play important roles in embryo development. Dysregulated DDR function is associated with progression of various human diseases, including fibrosis, arthritis and cancer. By interacting with key components of the extracellular matrix and displaying distinct activation kinetics, the DDRs form a unique subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases. DDR-facilitated cellular functions include cell migration, cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, as well as remodelling of extracellular matrices. This review summarises the current knowledge of DDR-ligand interactions, DDR-initiated signal pathways and the molecular mechanisms that regulate receptor function. Also discussed are the roles of DDRs in development and disease progression. PMID:24725424

  11. Infected cell protein 0 functional domains and their coordination in herpes simplex virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that establishes latent infection in ganglia neurons. Its unique life cycle requires a balanced “conquer and compromise” strategy to deal with the host anti-viral defenses. One of HSV-1 α (immediate early) gene products, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a multifunctional protein that interacts with and modulates a wide range of cellular defensive pathways. These pathways may locate in different cell compartments, which then migrate or exchange factors upon stimulation, for the purpose of a concerted and effective defense. ICP0 is able to simultaneously attack multiple host pathways by either degrading key restrictive factors or modifying repressive complexes. This is a viral protein that contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase, translocates among different cell compartments and interacts with major defensive complexes. The multiple functional domains of ICP0 can work independently and at the same time coordinate with each other. Dissecting the functional domains of ICP0 and delineating the coordination of these domains will help us understand HSV-1 pathogenicity as well as host defense mechanisms. This article focuses on describing individual ICP0 domains, their biochemical properties and their implication in HSV-1 infection. By putting individual domain functions back into the picture of host anti-viral defense network, this review seeks to elaborate the complex interactions between HSV-1 and its host. PMID:26870669

  12. Infected cell protein 0 functional domains and their coordination in herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haidong

    2016-02-12

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that establishes latent infection in ganglia neurons. Its unique life cycle requires a balanced "conquer and compromise" strategy to deal with the host anti-viral defenses. One of HSV-1 α (immediate early) gene products, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a multifunctional protein that interacts with and modulates a wide range of cellular defensive pathways. These pathways may locate in different cell compartments, which then migrate or exchange factors upon stimulation, for the purpose of a concerted and effective defense. ICP0 is able to simultaneously attack multiple host pathways by either degrading key restrictive factors or modifying repressive complexes. This is a viral protein that contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase, translocates among different cell compartments and interacts with major defensive complexes. The multiple functional domains of ICP0 can work independently and at the same time coordinate with each other. Dissecting the functional domains of ICP0 and delineating the coordination of these domains will help us understand HSV-1 pathogenicity as well as host defense mechanisms. This article focuses on describing individual ICP0 domains, their biochemical properties and their implication in HSV-1 infection. By putting individual domain functions back into the picture of host anti-viral defense network, this review seeks to elaborate the complex interactions between HSV-1 and its host.

  13. Domain requirements for the Dock adapter protein in growth- cone signaling.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y; Zipursky, S L

    1998-03-03

    Tyrosine phosphorylation has been implicated in growth-cone guidance through genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological studies. Adapter proteins containing src homology 2 (SH2) domains and src homology 3 (SH3) domains provide a means of linking guidance signaling through phosphotyrosine to downstream effectors regulating growth-cone motility. The Drosophila adapter, Dreadlocks (Dock), the homolog of mammalian Nck containing three N-terminal SH3 domains and a single SH2 domain, is highly specialized for growth-cone guidance. In this paper, we demonstrate that Dock can couple signals in either an SH2-dependent or an SH2-independent fashion in photoreceptor (R cell) growth cones, and that Dock displays different domain requirements in different neurons.

  14. Domain requirements for the Dock adapter protein in growth- cone signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Yong; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation has been implicated in growth-cone guidance through genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological studies. Adapter proteins containing src homology 2 (SH2) domains and src homology 3 (SH3) domains provide a means of linking guidance signaling through phosphotyrosine to downstream effectors regulating growth-cone motility. The Drosophila adapter, Dreadlocks (Dock), the homolog of mammalian Nck containing three N-terminal SH3 domains and a single SH2 domain, is highly specialized for growth-cone guidance. In this paper, we demonstrate that Dock can couple signals in either an SH2-dependent or an SH2-independent fashion in photoreceptor (R cell) growth cones, and that Dock displays different domain requirements in different neurons. PMID:9482841

  15. From Structure to Function: A Comprehensive Compendium of Tools to Unveil Protein Domains and Understand Their Role in Cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Sergio A; Paoletti, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Unveiling the function of a novel protein is a challenging task that requires careful experimental design. Yeast cytokinesis is a conserved process that involves modular structural and regulatory proteins. For such proteins, an important step is to identify their domains and structural organization. Here we briefly discuss a collection of methods commonly used for sequence alignment and prediction of protein structure that represent powerful tools for the identification homologous domains and design of structure-function approaches to test experimentally the function of multi-domain proteins such as those implicated in yeast cytokinesis.

  16. Role of the PB2 627 Domain in Influenza A Virus Polymerase Function

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Benjamin E.; te Velthuis, Aartjan J. W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The RNA genome of influenza A viruses is transcribed and replicated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, composed of the subunits PA, PB1, and PB2. High-resolution structural data revealed that the polymerase assembles into a central polymerase core and several auxiliary highly flexible, protruding domains. The auxiliary PB2 cap-binding and the PA endonuclease domains are both involved in cap snatching, but the role of the auxiliary PB2 627 domain, implicated in host range restriction of influenza A viruses, is still poorly understood. In this study, we used structure-guided truncations of the PB2 subunit to show that a PB2 subunit lacking the 627 domain accumulates in the cell nucleus and assembles into a heterotrimeric polymerase with PB1 and PA. Furthermore, we showed that a recombinant viral polymerase lacking the PB2 627 domain is able to carry out cap snatching, cap-dependent transcription initiation, and cap-independent ApG dinucleotide extension in vitro, indicating that the PB2 627 domain of the influenza virus RNA polymerase is not involved in core catalytic functions of the polymerase. However, in a cellular context, the 627 domain is essential for both transcription and replication. In particular, we showed that the PB2 627 domain is essential for the accumulation of the cRNA replicative intermediate in infected cells. Together, these results further our understanding of the role of the PB2 627 domain in transcription and replication of the influenza virus RNA genome. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses are a major global health threat, not only causing disease in both humans and birds but also placing significant strains on economies worldwide. Avian influenza A virus polymerases typically do not function efficiently in mammalian hosts and require adaptive mutations to restore polymerase activity. These adaptations include mutations in the 627 domain of the PB2 subunit of the viral polymerase, but it still remains to be established how these

  17. 55 Amino acid linker between helicase and carboxyl terminal domains of RIG-I functions as a critical repression domain and determines inter-domain conformation.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Maiko; Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Narita, Ryo; Hirai, Reiko; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Kato, Hiroki; Fujita, Takashi

    2011-11-11

    In virus-infected cells, viral RNA with non-self structural pattern is recognized by DExD/Hbox RNA helicase, RIG-I. Once RIG-I senses viral RNA, it triggers a signaling cascade, resulting in the activation of genes including type I interferon, which activates antiviral responses. Overexpression of N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) is sufficient to activate signaling; however basal activity of full-length RIG-I is undetectable. The repressor domain (RD), initially identified as a.a. 735-925, is responsible for diminished basal activity; therefore, it is suggested that RIG-I is under auto-repression in uninfected cells and the repression is reversed upon its encounter with viral RNA. In this report, we further delimited RD to a.a. 747-801, which corresponds to a linker connecting the helicase and the C-terminal domain (CTD). Alanine substitutions of the conserved residues in the linker conferred constitutive activity to full-length RIG-I. We found that the constitutive active mutants do not exhibit ATPase activity, suggesting that ATPase is required for de-repression but not signaling itself. Furthermore, trypsin digestion of recombinant RIG-I revealed that the wild-type, but not linker mutant conforms to the trypsin-resistant structure, containing CARD and helicase domain. The result strongly suggests that the linker is responsible for maintaining RIG-I in a "closed" structure to minimize unwanted production of interferon in uninfected cells. These findings shed light on the structural regulation of RIG-I function.

  18. Functional regions of the mouse interleukin-10 receptor cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, A S; Wei, S H; Mui, A L; Miyajima, A; Moore, K W

    1995-01-01

    The functions of wild-type and mutant mouse interleukin-10 receptors (mIL-10R) expressed in murine Ba/F3 cells were studied. As observed previously, IL-10 stimulates proliferation of IL-10R-expressing Ba/F3 cells. Accumulation of viable cells in the proliferation assay is to a significant extent balanced by concomitant cell death. Moreover, growth in IL-10 also induces a previously unrecognized response, differentiation of the cells, as evidenced both by formation of large clusters of cells in cultures with IL-10 and by induction or enhancement of expression of several cell surface antigens, including CD32/16, CD2, LECAM-1 (v-selectin), and heat-stable antigen. Two distinct functional regions near the C terminus of the mIL-10R cytoplasmic domain which mediate proliferation were identified; one of these regions also mediates the differentiation response. A third region proximal to the transmembrane domain was identified; removal of this region renders the cell 10- to 100-fold more sensitive to IL-10 in the proliferation assay. In cells expressing both wild-type and mutant IL-10R, stimulation with IL-10 leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of the kinases JAK1 and TYK2 but not JAK2 or JAK3 under the conditions tested. PMID:7544437

  19. Variola virus E3L Zα domain, but not its Z-DNA binding activity, is required for PKR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Meghna; Seo, Eun Joo; Dever, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    Responding to viral infection, the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase PKR phosphorylates translation initiation factor eIF2α to inhibit cellular and viral protein synthesis. To overcome this host defense mechanism, many poxviruses express the protein E3L, containing an N-terminal Z-DNA binding (Zα) domain and a C-terminal dsRNA-binding domain (dsRBD). While E3L is thought to inhibit PKR activation by sequestering dsRNA activators and by directly binding the kinase, the role of the Zα domain in PKR inhibition remains unclear. Here, we show that the E3L Zα domain is required to suppress the growth-inhibitory properties associated with expression of human PKR in yeast, to inhibit PKR kinase activity in vitro, and to reverse the inhibitory effects of PKR on reporter gene expression in mammalian cells treated with dsRNA. Whereas previous studies revealed that the Z-DNA binding activity of E3L is critical for viral pathogenesis, we identified point mutations in E3L that functionally uncouple Z-DNA binding and PKR inhibition. Thus, our studies reveal a molecular distinction between the nucleic acid binding and PKR inhibitory functions of the E3L Zα domain, and they support the notion that E3L contributes to viral pathogenesis by targeting PKR and other components of the cellular anti-viral defense pathway.

  20. Structure and function of the interacting domains of Spire and Fmn-family formins

    SciTech Connect

    Vizcarra, Christina L.; Kreutz, Barry; Rodal, Avital A.; Toms, Angela V.; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Wei; Quinlan, Margot E.; Eck, Michael J.

    2012-07-11

    Evidence for cooperation between actin nucleators is growing. The WH2-containing nucleator Spire and the formin Cappuccino interact directly, and both are essential for assembly of an actin mesh during Drosophila oogenesis. Their interaction requires the kinase noncatalytic C-lobe domain (KIND) domain of Spire and the C-terminal tail of the formin. Here we describe the crystal structure of the KIND domain of human Spir1 alone and in complex with the tail of Fmn2, a mammalian ortholog of Cappuccino. The KIND domain is structurally similar to the C-lobe of protein kinases. The Fmn2 tail is coordinated in an acidic cleft at the base of the domain that appears to have evolved via deletion of a helix from the canonical kinase fold. Our functional analysis of Cappuccino reveals an unexpected requirement for its tail in actin assembly. In addition, we find that the KIND/tail interaction blocks nucleation by Cappuccino and promotes its displacement from filament barbed ends providing insight into possible modes of cooperation between Spire and Cappuccino.

  1. Malic Enzyme Cofactor and Domain Requirements for Symbiotic N2 Fixation by Sinorhizobium meliloti▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mitsch, Michael J.; Cowie, Alison; Finan, Turlough M.

    2007-01-01

    The NAD+-dependent malic enzyme (DME) and the NADP+-dependent malic enzyme (TME) of Sinorhizobium meliloti are representatives of a distinct class of malic enzymes that contain a 440-amino-acid N-terminal region homologous to other malic enzymes and a 330-amino-acid C-terminal region with similarity to phosphotransacetylase enzymes (PTA). We have shown previously that dme mutants of S. meliloti fail to fix N2 (Fix−) in alfalfa root nodules, whereas tme mutants are unimpaired in their N2-fixing ability (Fix+). Here we report that the amount of DME protein in bacteroids is 10 times greater than that of TME. We therefore investigated whether increased TME activity in nodules would allow TME to function in place of DME. The tme gene was placed under the control of the dme promoter, and despite elevated levels of TME within bacteroids, no symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurred in dme mutant strains. Conversely, expression of dme from the tme promoter resulted in a large reduction in DME activity and symbiotic N2 fixation. Hence, TME cannot replace the symbiotic requirement for DME. In further experiments we investigated the DME PTA-like domain and showed that it is not required for N2 fixation. Thus, expression of a DME C-terminal deletion derivative or the Escherichia coli NAD+-dependent malic enzyme (sfcA), both of which lack the PTA-like region, restored wild-type N2 fixation to a dme mutant. Our results have defined the symbiotic requirements for malic enzyme and raise the possibility that a constant high ratio of NADPH + H+ to NADP in nitrogen-fixing bacteroids prevents TME from functioning in N2-fixing bacteroids. PMID:17071765

  2. The crystal structure of Mtr4 reveals a novel arch domain required for rRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.N.; Robinson, H.; Klauer, A. A.; Hintze, B. J.; van Hoof, A.; Johnson, S. J.

    2010-07-01

    The essential RNA helicase, Mtr4, performs a critical role in RNA processing and degradation as an activator of the nuclear exosome. The molecular basis for this vital function is not understood and detailed analysis is significantly limited by the lack of structural data. In this study, we present the crystal structure of Mtr4. The structure reveals a new arch-like domain that is specific to Mtr4 and Ski2 (the cytosolic homologue of Mtr4). In vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrate that the Mtr4 arch domain is required for proper 5.8S rRNA processing, and suggest that the arch functions independently of canonical helicase activity. In addition, extensive conservation along the face of the putative RNA exit site highlights a potential interface with the exosome. These studies provide a molecular framework for understanding fundamental aspects of helicase function in exosome activation, and more broadly define the molecular architecture of Ski2-like helicases.

  3. The BRCT domain of PARP-1 is required for immunoglobulin gene conversion.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Marcia N; Buelow, Ben D; Takeda, Shunichi; Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2010-07-20

    Genetic variation at immunoglobulin (Ig) gene variable regions in B-cells is created through a multi-step process involving deamination of cytosine bases by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and their subsequent mutagenic repair. To protect the genome from dangerous, potentially oncogenic effects of off-target mutations, both AID activity and mutagenic repair are targeted specifically to the Ig genes. However, the mechanisms of targeting are unknown and recent data have highlighted the role of regulating mutagenic repair to limit the accumulation of somatic mutations resulting from the more widely distributed AID-induced lesions to the Ig genes. Here we investigated the role of the DNA damage sensor poly-(ADPribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the repair of AID-induced DNA lesions. We show through sequencing of the diversifying Ig genes in PARP-1(-/-) DT40 B-cells that PARP-1 deficiency results in a marked reduction in gene conversion events and enhanced high-fidelity repair of AID-induced lesions at both Ig heavy and light chains. To further characterize the role of PARP-1 in the mutagenic repair of AID-induced lesions, we performed functional analyses comparing the role of engineered PARP-1 variants in high-fidelity repair of DNA damage induced by methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and the mutagenic repair of lesions at the Ig genes induced by AID. This revealed a requirement for the previously uncharacterized BRCT domain of PARP-1 to reconstitute both gene conversion and a normal rate of somatic mutation at Ig genes, while being dispensable for the high-fidelity base excision repair. From these data we conclude that the BRCT domain of PARP-1 is required to initiate a significant proportion of the mutagenic repair specific to diversifying antibody genes. This role is distinct from the known roles of PARP-1 in high-fidelity DNA repair, suggesting that the PARP-1 BRCT domain has a specialized role in assembling mutagenic DNA repair complexes involved in antibody

  4. Functional synergy between the Munc13 C-terminal C1 and C2 domains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Seven, Alpay Burak; Camacho, Marcial; Esser, Victoria; Xu, Junjie; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Quade, Bradley; Su, Lijing; Ma, Cong; Rosenmund, Christian; Rizo, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release requires SNARE complexes to bring membranes together, NSF-SNAPs to recycle the SNAREs, Munc18-1 and Munc13s to orchestrate SNARE complex assembly, and Synaptotagmin-1 to trigger fast Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion. However, it is unclear whether Munc13s function upstream and/or downstream of SNARE complex assembly, and how the actions of their multiple domains are integrated. Reconstitution, liposome-clustering and electrophysiological experiments now reveal a functional synergy between the C1, C2B and C2C domains of Munc13-1, indicating that these domains help bridging the vesicle and plasma membranes to facilitate stimulation of SNARE complex assembly by the Munc13-1 MUN domain. Our reconstitution data also suggest that Munc18-1, Munc13-1, NSF, αSNAP and the SNAREs are critical to form a ‘primed’ state that does not fuse but is ready for fast fusion upon Ca2+ influx. Overall, our results support a model whereby the multiple domains of Munc13s cooperate to coordinate synaptic vesicle docking, priming and fusion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13696.001 PMID:27213521

  5. Functional synergy between the Munc13 C-terminal C1 and C2 domains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Seven, Alpay Burak; Camacho, Marcial; Esser, Victoria; Xu, Junjie; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Quade, Bradley; Su, Lijing; Ma, Cong; Rosenmund, Christian; Rizo, Josep

    2016-05-23

    Neurotransmitter release requires SNARE complexes to bring membranes together, NSF-SNAPs to recycle the SNAREs, Munc18-1 and Munc13s to orchestrate SNARE complex assembly, and Synaptotagmin-1 to trigger fast Ca(2+)-dependent membrane fusion. However, it is unclear whether Munc13s function upstream and/or downstream of SNARE complex assembly, and how the actions of their multiple domains are integrated. Reconstitution, liposome-clustering and electrophysiological experiments now reveal a functional synergy between the C1, C2B and C2C domains of Munc13-1, indicating that these domains help bridging the vesicle and plasma membranes to facilitate stimulation of SNARE complex assembly by the Munc13-1 MUN domain. Our reconstitution data also suggest that Munc18-1, Munc13-1, NSF, αSNAP and the SNAREs are critical to form a 'primed' state that does not fuse but is ready for fast fusion upon Ca(2+) influx. Overall, our results support a model whereby the multiple domains of Munc13s cooperate to coordinate synaptic vesicle docking, priming and fusion.

  6. Novel modular domain PB1 recognizes PC motif to mediate functional protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takashi; Matsui, Yasushi; Ago, Tetsuro; Ota, Kazuhisa; Sumimoto, Hideki

    2001-01-01

    Modular domains mediating specific protein–protein interactions play central roles in the formation of complex regulatory networks to execute various cellular activities. Here we identify a novel domain PB1 in the budding yeast protein Bem1p, which functions in polarity establishment, and mammalian p67phox, which activates the microbicidal phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Each of these specifically recognizes an evolutionarily conserved PC motif to interact directly with Cdc24p (an essential protein for cell polarization) and p40phox (a component of the signaling complex for the oxidase), respectively. Swapping the PB1 domain of Bem1p with that of p67phox, which abolishes its interaction with Cdc24p, confers on cells temperature- sensitive growth and a bilateral mating defect. These phenotypes are suppressed by a mutant Cdc24p harboring the PC motif-containing region of p40phox, which restores the interaction with the altered Bem1p. This domain-swapping experiment demonstrates that Bem1p function requires interaction with Cdc24p, in which the PB1 domain and the PC motif participate as responsible modules. PMID:11483497

  7. PB1 Domain-Dependent Signaling Complex Is Required for Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Uhlik, Mark T.; Johnson, Nancy L.; Hahn, Klaus M.; Johnson, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    MEKK2, MEK5, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) are members of a three-kinase cascade for the activation of ERK5. MEK5 is the only MAP2K to express a PB1 domain, and we have shown that it heterodimerizes with the PB1 domain of MEKK2. Here we demonstrate the MEK5 PB1 domain is a scaffold that also binds ERK5, functionally forming a MEKK2-MEK5-ERK5 complex. Reconstitution assays and CFP/YFP imaging (fluorescence resonance energy transfer [FRET]) measuring YFP-MEKK2/CFP-MEK5 and CFP-MEK5/YFP-ERK5 interactions define distinct MEK5 PB1 domain binding sites for MEKK2 and ERK5, with a C-terminal extension of the PB1 domain contributing to ERK5 binding. Stimulus-dependent CFP/YFP FRET in combination with mutational analysis was used to define MEK5 PB1 domain residues critical for the interaction of MEKK2/MEK5 and MEK5/ERK5 required for activation of the ERK5 pathway in living cells. Fusion of the MEK5 PB1 domain to the N terminus of MEK1 confers ERK5 regulation by a MAP2K normally regulating only ERK1/2. The MEK5 PB1 domain confers stringent MAP3K regulation of ERK5 relative to more promiscuous MAP3K control of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. PMID:16507987

  8. DIFFERENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE KINASE AND UHM DOMAINS OF KIS FOR ITS NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION AND BINDING TO SPLICING FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Manceau, Valérie; Kielkopf, Clara L.; Sobel, André; Maucuer, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Summary The protein kinase KIS is made by the juxtaposition of a unique kinase domain and a C-terminal domain with a U2AF Homology Motif (UHM), a sequence motif for protein interaction initially identified in the heterodimeric pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF. This domain of KIS is closely related to the C-terminal UHM domain of the U2AF large subunit, U2AF65. KIS phosphorylates the splicing factor SF1, which in turn enhances SF1 binding to U2AF65 and the 3′ splice site, an event known to take place at an early step of spliceosome assembly. Here, the analysis of the subcellular localization of mutated forms of KIS indicates that the kinase domain of KIS is the necessary domain for its nuclear localization. As in the case of U2AF65, the UHM containing C-terminal domain of KIS is required for binding to the splicing factors SF1 and SF3b155. The efficiency of KIS binding to SF1 and SF3b155 is similar to that of U2AF65 in pull-down assays. These results further support the functional link of KIS with splicing factors. Interestingly, when compared to other UHM containing proteins, KIS presents a different specificity for the UHM docking sites that are present in the N-terminal region of SF3b155, thus providing a new insight into the variety of interactions mediated by UHM domains. PMID:18588901

  9. Analysis of Thisbe and Pyramus functional domains reveals evidence for cleavage of Drosophila FGFs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As important regulators of developmental and adult processes in metazoans, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) proteins are potent signaling molecules whose activities must be tightly regulated. FGFs are known to play diverse roles in many processes, including mesoderm induction, branching morphogenesis, organ formation, wound healing and malignant transformation; yet much more remains to be learned about the mechanisms of regulation used to control FGF activity. Results In this work, we conducted an analysis of the functional domains of two Drosophila proteins, Thisbe (Ths) and Pyramus (Pyr), which share homology with the FGF8 subfamily of ligands in vertebrates. Ths and Pyr proteins are secreted from Drosophila Schneider cells (S2) as smaller N-terminal fragments presumably as a result of intracellular proteolytic cleavage. Cleaved forms of Ths and Pyr can be detected in embryonic extracts as well. The FGF-domain is contained within the secreted ligand portion, and this domain alone is capable of functioning in the embryo when ectopically expressed. Through targeted ectopic expression experiments in which we assay the ability of full-length, truncated, and chimeric proteins to support cell differentiation, we find evidence that (1) the C-terminal domain of Pyr is retained inside the cell and does not seem to be required for receptor activation and (2) the C-terminal domain of Ths is secreted and, while also not required for receptor activation, this domain does plays a role in limiting the activity of Ths when present. Conclusions We propose that differential protein processing may account for the previously observed inequalities in signaling capabilities between Ths and Pyr. While the regulatory mechanisms are likely complex, studies such as ours conducted in a tractable model system may be able to provide insights into how ligand processing regulates growth factor activity. PMID:20687959

  10. Simplified Interpretation of the Erectile Function Domain of the International Index of Erectile Function.

    PubMed

    Cappelleri, Joseph C; Tseng, Li-Jung; Luo, Xuemei; Stecher, Vera; Lue, Tom F

    2016-04-01

    This report describes a post hoc analysis of data from a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose, sildenafil trial in men with erectile dysfunction. To simplify interpretation of erectile function (EF) domain scores of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Men at least 18 years old with erectile dysfunction were randomized to receive sildenafil or placebo for 12 weeks. Men taking nitrates or nitric oxide donors were excluded. Responses for each IIEF EF domain question (questions 1-5 and 15) were combined into two broad categories ("success" for responses of the two most favorable categories of a question and "no success" for other responses). Each question was expressed in a logistic regression model (sildenafil and placebo groups combined) as a function of overall EF domain score. IIEF EF domain score and items. A four-point increase in the IIEF EF domain score was associated with an odds ratio of success of 6.1 for getting an erection, 29.2 for having a firm erection, 10.0 for able to penetrate,12.8 for maintaining erection, 4.0 for maintaining erection to completion, and 3.7 for erection confidence. An EF domain score of 22 was associated with a probability of success of 81% for getting an erection, 86% for having a firm erection, 89% for able to penetrate, 67% for maintaining an erection, 70% for maintaining an erection to completion, and 32% for erection confidence. For an EF domain score of 16, the corresponding probabilities of success were 22%, 4%, 20%, 4%, 22%, and 6%, respectively. These results provide stakeholders with a simplified and meaningful interpretation of IIEF EF domain scores based on six key aspects of EF. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel repressor domain is required for maximal growth inhibition by the IRF-1 tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Mirjam; Meek, Sarah E M; Ball, Kathryn L

    2006-08-11

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a transcription factor and tumor suppressor that can regulate gene expression in a manner requiring either its sequence specific DNA binding activity or its ability to bind the p300 coactivator. We show that IRF-1-mediated growth inhibition is dependent on the integrity of a C-terminal transcriptional enhancer domain. An enhancer subdomain (amino acids 301-325) that differentially regulates IRF-1 activity has been identified and this region mediates the repression of Cdk2. The repressor domain encompasses an LXXLL coregulator signature motif and mutations or deletions within this region completely uncouple transcriptional activation from repression. The loss of growth suppressor activity when the Cdk2-repressor domain of IRF-1 is mutated implicates repression as a determinant of its maximal growth inhibitory potential. The data link IRF-1 regulatory domains to its growth inhibitory activity and provide information about how differential gene regulation may contribute to IRF-1 tumor suppressor activity.

  12. The APP Intracellular Domain Is Required for Normal Synaptic Morphology, Synaptic Plasticity, and Hippocampus-Dependent Behavior.

    PubMed

    Klevanski, Maja; Herrmann, Ulrike; Weyer, Sascha W; Fol, Romain; Cartier, Nathalie; Wolfer, David P; Caldwell, John H; Korte, Martin; Müller, Ulrike C

    2015-12-09

    The amyloid precursor protein family (APP/APLPs) has essential roles for neuromuscular synapse development and for the formation and plasticity of synapses within the CNS. Despite this, it has remained unclear whether APP mediates its functions primarily as a cell surface adhesion and signaling molecule or via its numerous proteolytic cleavage products. To address these questions, we followed a genetic approach and used APPΔCT15 knockin mice lacking the last 15 amino acids of APP, including the highly conserved YENPTY protein interaction motif. To circumvent functional compensation by the closely related APLP2, these mice were bred to an APLP2-KO background to generate APPΔCT15-DM double mutants. These APPΔCT15-DM mice were partially viable and displayed defects in neuromuscular synapse morphology and function with impairments in the ability to sustain transmitter release that resulted in muscular weakness. In the CNS, we demonstrate pronounced synaptic deficits including impairments in LTP that were associated with deficits in spatial learning and memory. Thus, the APP-CT15 domain provides essential physiological functions, likely via recruitment of specific interactors. Together with the well-established role of APPsα for synaptic plasticity, this shows that multiple domains of APP, including the conserved C-terminus, mediate signals required for normal PNS and CNS physiology. In addition, we demonstrate that lack of the APP-CT15 domain strongly impairs Aβ generation in vivo, establishing the APP C-terminus as a target for Aβ-lowering strategies. Synaptic dysfunction and cognitive decline are early hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, it is essential to elucidate the in vivo function(s) of APP at the synapse. At present, it is unknown whether APP family proteins function as cell surface receptors, or mainly via shedding of their secreted ectodomains, such as neurotrophic APPsα. Here, to dissect APP functional domains, we used APP mutant mice

  13. The Dysferlin Domain-Only Protein, Spo73, Is Required for Prospore Membrane Extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yuuya; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi S; Tanaka, Takayuki; Inoue, Ichiro; Suda, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Nakanishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shugo; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a developmental process in which an ascus containing four haploid spores forms from a diploid cell. During this process, newly formed membrane structures called prospore membranes extend along the nuclear envelope and engulf and package daughter nuclei along with cytosol and organelles to form precursors of spores. Proteins involved in prospore membrane extension, Vps13 and Spo71, have recently been reported; however, the overall mechanism of membrane extension remains unclear. Here, we identified Spo73 as an additional factor involved in prospore membrane extension. Analysis of a spo73∆ mutant revealed that it shows defects similar to those of a spo71∆ mutant during prospore membrane formation. Spo73 localizes to the prospore membrane, and this localization is independent of Spo71 and Vps13. In contrast, a Spo73 protein carrying mutations in a surface basic patch mislocalizes to the cytoplasm and overexpression of Spo71 can partially rescue localization to the prospore membrane. Similar to spo71∆ mutants, spo73∆ mutants display genetic interactions with the mutations in the SMA2 and SPO1 genes involved in prospore membrane bending. Further, our bioinformatic analysis revealed that Spo73 is a dysferlin domain-only protein. Thus, these results suggest that a dysferlin domain-only protein, Spo73, functions with a dual pleckstrin homology domain protein, Spo71, in prospore membrane extension. Analysis of Spo73 will provide insights into the conserved function of dysferlin domains, which is related to dysferlinopathy. IMPORTANCE Prospore membrane formation consists of de novo double-membrane formation, which occurs during the developmental process of sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Membranes are formed into their proper size and shape, and thus, prospore membrane formation has been studied as a general model of membrane formation. We identified SPO73, previously shown to be required for spore wall formation

  14. Mapping of Functional Subdomains in the Terminal Protein Domain of Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Clark, Daniel N; Flanagan, John M; Hu, Jianming

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) encodes a multifunction reverse transcriptase or polymerase (P), which is composed of several domains. The terminal protein (TP) domain is unique to HBV and related hepadnaviruses and is required for specifically binding to the viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Subsequently, the TP domain is necessary for pgRNA packaging into viral nucleocapsids and the initiation of viral reverse transcription for conversion of the pgRNA to viral DNA. Uniquely, the HBV P protein initiates reverse transcription via a protein priming mechanism using the TP domain as a primer. No structural homologs or high-resolution structure exists for the TP domain. Secondary structure prediction identified three disordered loops in TP with highly conserved sequences. A meta-analysis of mutagenesis studies indicated these predicted loops are almost exclusively where functionally important residues are located. Newly constructed TP mutations revealed a priming loop in TP which plays a specific role in protein-primed DNA synthesis beyond simply harboring the site of priming. Substitutions of potential sites of phosphorylation surrounding the priming site demonstrated that these residues are involved in interactions critical for priming but are unlikely to be phosphorylated during viral replication. Furthermore, the first 13 and 66 TP residues were shown to be dispensable for protein priming and pgRNA binding, respectively. Combining current and previous mutagenesis work with sequence analysis has increased our understanding of TP structure and functions by mapping specific functions to distinct predicted secondary structures and will facilitate antiviral targeting of this unique domain.

  15. Pathway logic modeling of protein functional domains in signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Talcott, C; Eker, S; Knapp, M; Lincoln, P; Laderoute, K

    2004-01-01

    Protein functional domains (PFDs) are consensus sequences within signaling molecules that recognize and assemble other signaling components into complexes. Here we describe the application of an approach called Pathway Logic to the symbolic modeling signal transduction networks at the level of PFDs. These models are developed using Maude, a symbolic language founded on rewriting logic. Models can be queried (analyzed) using the execution, search and model-checking tools of Maude. We show how signal transduction processes can be modeled using Maude at very different levels of abstraction involving either an overall state of a protein or its PFDs and their interactions. The key insight for the latter is our algebraic representation of binding interactions as a graph.

  16. Rad53 kinase activation-independent replication checkpoint function of the N-terminal forkhead-associated (FHA1) domain.

    PubMed

    Pike, Brietta L; Tenis, Nora; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2004-09-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad53 has crucial functions in many aspects of the cellular response to DNA damage and replication blocks. To coordinate these diverse roles, Rad53 has two forkhead-associated (FHA) phosphothreonine-binding domains in addition to a kinase domain. Here, we show that the conserved N-terminal FHA1 domain is essential for the function of Rad53 to prevent the firing of late replication origins in response to replication blocks. However, the FHA1 domain is not required for Rad53 activation during S phase, and as a consequence of defective downstream signaling, Rad53 containing an inactive FHA1 domain is hyperphosphorylated in response to replication blocks. The FHA1 mutation dramatically hypersensitizes strains with defects in the cell cycle-wide checkpoint pathways (rad9Delta and rad17Delta) to DNA damage, but it is largely epistatic with defects in the replication checkpoint (mrc1Delta). Altogether, our data indicate that the FHA1 domain links activated Rad53 to downstream effectors in the replication checkpoint. The results reveal an important mechanistic difference to the homologous Schizosaccharomyces pombe FHA domain that is required for Mrc1-dependent activation of the corresponding Cds1 kinase. Surprisingly, despite the severely impaired replication checkpoint and also G(2)/M checkpoint functions, the FHA1 mutation by itself leads to only moderate viability defects in response to DNA damage, highlighting the importance of functionally redundant pathways.

  17. Dissection of the Adenoviral VA RNAI Central Domain Structure Reveals Minimum Requirements for RNA-mediated Inhibition of PKR*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jo L.; Vachon, Virginia K.; Sunita, S.; Schwartz, Samantha L.; Conn, Graeme L.

    2014-01-01

    Virus-associated RNA I (VA RNAI) is a short (∼160-nucleotide) non-coding RNA transcript employed by adenoviruses to subvert the innate immune system protein double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). The central domain of VA RNAI is proposed to contain a complex tertiary structure that contributes to its optimal inhibitory activity against PKR. Here we use a combination of VA RNAI mutagenesis, structural analyses, as well as PKR activity and binding assays to dissect this tertiary structure and assess its functional role. Our results support the existence of a pH- and Mg2+-dependent tertiary structure involving pseudoknot formation within the central domain. Unexpectedly, this structure appears to play no direct role in PKR inhibition. Deletion of central domain sequences within a minimal but fully active construct lacking the tertiary structure reveals a crucial role in PKR binding and inhibition for nucleotides in the 5′ half of the central domain. Deletion of the central domain 3′ half also significantly impacts activity but appears to arise indirectly by reducing its capacity to assist in optimally presenting the 5′ half sequence. Collectively, our results identify regions of VA RNAI critical for PKR inhibition and reveal that the requirements for an effective RNA inhibitor of PKR are simpler than appreciated previously. PMID:24970889

  18. The Ancient Immunoglobulin Domains of Peroxidasin Are Required to Form Sulfilimine Cross-links in Collagen IV*

    PubMed Central

    Ero-Tolliver, Isi A.; Hudson, Billy G.; Bhave, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The collagen IV sulfilimine cross-link and its catalyzing enzyme, peroxidasin, represent a dyad critical for tissue development, which is conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Peroxidasin forms novel sulfilimine bonds between opposing methionine and hydroxylysine residues to structurally reinforce the collagen IV scaffold, a function critical for basement membrane and tissue integrity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying cross-link formation remains unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that the catalytic domain of peroxidasin and its immunoglobulin (Ig) domains are required for efficient sulfilimine bond formation. Thus, these molecular features underlie the evolutionarily conserved function of peroxidasin in tissue development and integrity and distinguish peroxidasin from other peroxidases, such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). PMID:26178375

  19. Identification of discrete functional domains of HIV-1 integrase and their organization within an active multimeric complex.

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, A; Bushman, F D; Craigie, R

    1993-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase protein possesses the 3' processing and DNA strand transfer activities that are required to integrate HIV DNA into a host chromosome. The N-, C-terminal and core domains of integrase are necessary for both activities in vitro. We find that certain pairs of mutant integrase proteins, which are inactive when each protein is assayed alone, can support near wild type levels of activity when both proteins are present together in the reaction mixture. This complementation implies that HIV-1 integrase functions as a multimer and has enabled us to probe the organization of the functional domains within active mixed multimers. We have identified a minimal set of functional integrase domains that are sufficient for 3' processing and DNA strand transfer and find that some domains are contributed in trans by separate monomers within the functional complex. Images PMID:8344264

  20. Glycolipid Crosslinking Is Required for Cholera Toxin to Partition Into and Stabilize Ordered Domains.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Krishnan; Wong, Tiffany H; Chinnapen, Daniel J; Lencer, Wayne I; Jobling, Michael G; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2016-12-20

    Current models of lipid rafts propose that lipid domains exist as nanoscale compositional fluctuations and these fluctuations can potentially be stabilized into larger domains, consequently better compartmentalizing cellular functions. However, the mechanisms governing stabilized raft assembly and function remain unclear. Here, we test the role of glycolipid crosslinking as a raft targeting and ordering mechanism using the well-studied raft marker cholera toxin B pentamer (CTxB) that binds up to five GM1 glycosphingolipids to enter host cells. We show that when applied to cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles, a variant of CTxB containing only a single functional GM1 binding site exhibits significantly reduced partitioning to the ordered phase compared to wild-type CTxB with five binding sites. Moreover, monovalent CTxB does not stabilize membrane domains, unlike wild-type CTxB. These results support the long-held hypothesis that CTxB stabilizes raft domains via a lipid crosslinking mechanism and establish a role for crosslinking in the partitioning of CTxB to ordered domains.

  1. Analysis of vaccinia virus temperature-sensitive I7L mutants reveals two potential functional domains

    PubMed Central

    Moerdyk, Megan J; Byrd, Chelsea M; Hruby, Dennis E

    2006-01-01

    As an approach to initiating a structure-function analysis of the vaccinia virus I7L core protein proteinase, a collection of conditional-lethal mutants in which the mutation had been mapped to the I7L locus were subjected to genomic sequencing and phenotypic analyses. Mutations in six vaccinia virus I7L temperature sensitive mutants fall into two groups: changes at three positions at the N-terminal end between amino acids 29 and 37 and two different substitutions at amino acid 344, near the catalytic domain. Regardless of the position of the mutation, mutants at the non-permissive temperature failed to cleave core protein precursors and had their development arrested prior to core condensation. Thus it appears that the two clusters of mutations may affect two different functional domains required for proteinase activity. PMID:16945137

  2. Identification of functional domains of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein (ARNT).

    PubMed Central

    Reisz-Porszasz, S; Probst, M R; Fukunaga, B N; Hankinson, O

    1994-01-01

    The activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) bind DNA as a heterodimer. Both proteins represent a novel class of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-containing transcription factors in that (i) activation of AHR requires the binding of ligand (e.g., 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]), (ii) the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) recognized by the AHR/ARNT heterodimer differs from the recognition sequence for nearly all other bHLH proteins, and (iii) both proteins contain a PAS homology region, which in the Drosophila PER and SIM proteins functions as a dimerization domain. A cDNA for mouse ARNT has been cloned, and potential functional domains of ARNT were investigated by deletion analysis. A mutant lacking all regions of ARNT other than the bHLH and PAS regions is unimpaired in TCDD-dependent dimerization and subsequent XRE binding and only modestly reduced in ability to complement an ARNT-deficient mutant cell line, c4, in vivo. Both the first and second alpha helices of the bHLH region are required for dimerization. The basic region is required for XRE binding but not for dimerization. Deletion of either the A or B segments of the PAS region slightly affects TCDD-induced heterodimerization, while deletion of the complete PAS region severely affects (but does not eliminate) dimerization. Thus, ARNT possesses multiple domains required for maximal heterodimerization. Mutants deleted for PAS A, PAS B, and the complete PAS region all retain some degree of XRE binding, yet none can rescue the c4 mutant. Therefore, both the PAS A and PAS B segments, besides contributing to dimerization, apparently fulfill additional, unknown functions required for biological activity of ARNT. Images PMID:8065341

  3. The pilus usher controls protein interactions via domain masking and is functional as an oligomer

    DOE PAGES

    Werneburg, Glenn T.; Li, Huilin; Henderson, Nadine S.; ...

    2015-06-08

    The chaperone/usher (CU) pathway is responsible for biogenesis of organelles termed pili or fimbriae in Gram-negative bacteria. Type 1 pili expressed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli are prototypical structures assembled by the CU pathway. Assembly and secretion of pili by the CU pathway requires a dedicated periplasmic chaperone and a multidomain outer membrane protein termed the usher (FimD). We show that the FimD C-terminal domains provide the high-affinity substrate binding site, but that these domains are masked in the resting usher. Domain masking requires the FimD plug domain, which served as a central switch controlling usher activation. In addition, we demonstratemore » that usher molecules can act in trans for pilus biogenesis, providing conclusive evidence for a functional usher oligomer. These results reveal mechanisms by which molecular machines such as the usher regulate and harness protein-protein interactions, and suggest that ushers may interact in a cooperative manner during pilus assembly in bacteria.« less

  4. The pilus usher controls protein interactions via domain masking and is functional as an oligomer

    SciTech Connect

    Werneburg, Glenn T.; Li, Huilin; Henderson, Nadine S.; Portnoy, Erica B.; Sarowar, Samema; Hultgren, Scott J.; Thanassi, David G.

    2015-06-08

    The chaperone/usher (CU) pathway is responsible for biogenesis of organelles termed pili or fimbriae in Gram-negative bacteria. Type 1 pili expressed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli are prototypical structures assembled by the CU pathway. Assembly and secretion of pili by the CU pathway requires a dedicated periplasmic chaperone and a multidomain outer membrane protein termed the usher (FimD). We show that the FimD C-terminal domains provide the high-affinity substrate binding site, but that these domains are masked in the resting usher. Domain masking requires the FimD plug domain, which served as a central switch controlling usher activation. In addition, we demonstrate that usher molecules can act in trans for pilus biogenesis, providing conclusive evidence for a functional usher oligomer. These results reveal mechanisms by which molecular machines such as the usher regulate and harness protein-protein interactions, and suggest that ushers may interact in a cooperative manner during pilus assembly in bacteria.

  5. Requirements for effective functional breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, I. N.; Zawarzin, V.; Adler, L. P.; Pani, R.; DeVincentis, G.; Khalkhali, I.; Vargas, H.; Venegas, R.; Kim, S. C.; Bakale, G.; Levine, E.; Perrier, N.; Freimanis, R. I.; Lesko, N. M.; Newman, D. P.; Geisinger, K. R.; Berg, W. A.; Masood, S.

    2003-01-01

    Most nuclear medicine physicists were trained on devices aimed at functional neuroimaging. The clinical goals of brain-centered devices differ dramatically from the parameters needed to be useful in the breast clinic. We will discuss similarities and differences that impact on design considerations, and describe our latest generation of positron emission mammography and intraoperative products. Source of physiologic contrast: Clinical neuroimaging depends on flow agents to detect the presence of breaks in the blood-brain barrier. Breast flow agents are nonspecific, and may miss preinvasive lesions. Resolution: Brain cancers are generally diagnosed at late stages, so resolution is not so critical. Detecting early breast cancers, and specifying margins for surgery requires 3 mm spatial resolution or better. Prevalence: Primary brain cancer is uncommon, and lesions mimicking brain cancer are rare. Primary breast cancer is common, and benign lesions are even more common, so specificity and biopsy capability are very important. Anatomic references: Brain structure is standard, while breast structure is highly variable, requiring immobilization/compression for physiologic imaging and biopsy. Surgery: Complete cancer resections for brain are very rare, but are possible for breast with appropriate imaging guidance, implying the need for rapid and reliable imaging. To summarize, the breast clinic needs a rapid and highly sensitive method of assessing breast physiology, compatible with biopsy and surgery. Positron emission mammography devices, in handheld and X-ray platform based configurations, are ideal for this mission.

  6. Multiple ER–Golgi SNARE transmembrane domains are dispensable for trafficking but required for SNARE recycling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Lau, Martin S. Y.; Banfield, David K.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes between opposing membranes is an essential prerequisite for fusion between vesicles and their target compartments. The composition and length of a SNARE’s transmembrane domain (TMD) is also an indicator for their steady-state distribution in cells. The evolutionary conservation of the SNARE TMD, together with the strict requirement of this feature for membrane fusion in biochemical studies, implies that the TMD represents an essential protein module. Paradoxically, we find that for several essential ER- and Golgi-localized SNAREs, a TMD is unnecessary. Moreover, in the absence of a covalent membrane tether, such SNAREs can still support ER–Golgi vesicle transport and recapitulate established genetic interactions. Transport anomalies appear to be restricted to retrograde trafficking, but these defects are overcome by the attachment of a C-terminal lipid anchor to the SNARE. We conclude that the TMD functions principally to support the recycling of Qb-, Qc-, and R-SNAREs and, in so doing, retrograde transport. PMID:27385338

  7. Regulatory T cells require TCR signaling for their suppressive function.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Amanda M; Lu, Wen; Sindhava, Vishal J; Huang, Yanping; Burkhardt, Janis K; Yang, Enjun; Riese, Matthew J; Maltzman, Jonathan S; Jordan, Martha S; Kambayashi, Taku

    2015-05-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of CD4(+) T cells that maintain immune tolerance in part by their ability to inhibit the proliferation of conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconvs). The role of the TCR and the downstream signaling pathways required for this suppressive function of Tregs are not fully understood. To yield insight into how TCR-mediated signals influence Treg suppressive function, we assessed the ability of Tregs with altered TCR-mediated signaling capacity to inhibit Tconv proliferation. Mature Tregs deficient in Src homology 2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76), an adaptor protein that nucleates the proximal signaling complex downstream of the TCR, were unable to inhibit Tconv proliferation, suggesting that TCR signaling is required for Treg suppressive function. Moreover, Tregs with defective phospholipase C γ (PLCγ) activation due to a Y145F mutation of SLP-76 were also defective in their suppressive function. Conversely, enhancement of diacylglycerol-mediated signaling downstream of PLCγ by genetic ablation of a negative regulator of diacylglycerol kinase ζ increased the suppressive ability of Tregs. Because SLP-76 is also important for integrin activation and signaling, we tested the role of integrin activation in Treg-mediated suppression. Tregs lacking the adaptor proteins adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein or CT10 regulator of kinase/CT10 regulator of kinase-like, which are required for TCR-mediated integrin activation, inhibited Tconv proliferation to a similar extent as wild-type Tregs. Together, these data suggest that TCR-mediated PLCγ activation, but not integrin activation, is required for Tregs to inhibit Tconv proliferation.

  8. Structural and Functional Dissection of the Abp1 ADFH Actin-binding Domain Reveals Versatile In Vivo Adapter Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero-Monzon,O.; Rodal, A.; Strokopytov, B.; Almo, S.; Goode, B.

    2005-01-01

    Abp1 is a multidomain protein that regulates the Arp2/3 complex and links proteins involved in endocytosis to the actin cytoskeleton. All of the proposed cellular functions of Abp1 involve actin filament binding, yet the actin binding site(s) on Abp1 have not been identified, nor has the importance of actin binding for Abp1 localization and function in vivo been tested. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Abp1 actin-binding actin depolymerizing factor homology (ADFH) domain and dissect its activities by mutagenesis. Abp1-ADFH domain and ADF/cofilin structures are similar, and they use conserved surfaces to bind actin; however, there are also key differences that help explain their differential effects on actin dynamics. Using point mutations, we demonstrate that actin binding is required for localization of Abp1 in vivo, the lethality caused by Abp1 overexpression, and the ability of Abp1 to activate Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, we genetically uncouple ABP1 functions that overlap with SAC6, SLA1, and SLA2, showing they require distinct combinations of activities and interactions. Together, our data provide the first structural and functional view of the Abp1-actin interaction and show that Abp1 has distinct cellular roles as an adapter, linking different sets of ligands for each function.

  9. Relation of neurocardiovascular instability to cognitive, emotional and functional domains.

    PubMed

    Bendini, C; Angelini, A; Salsi, F; Finelli, M E; Martini, E; Neviani, F; Mussi, C; Neri, M

    2007-01-01

    There is bulk of evidence suggesting that blood pressure dysregulation, as low blood pressure (LBP) or hypotension, orthostatic hypotension (OH) and high blood pressure (HPB) or hypertension are associated with alterations in cognitive and emotional domains. Some studies suggest that LBP, neurocardiovascular instability, like the OH, and atherosclerosis resulting from long standing HBP, reduces cerebral blood flow, increasing the risk of cognitive impairment, morbidity and mortality. This study aims to evaluate whether patients with cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease would show any differences in some anamnestic indicators and/or psychometric measures of cognitive performance and affective symptoms. We recruited 36 patients over 65 years of age admitted to both psycho- and cardio-geriatric ambulatories of our hospital during the last year. The population (mean age of 80.5 years, 72.2% females, 27.8% males) was divided in 2 groups, with OH (25%), and without OH (75%). The first group was subdivided in subgroups: patients with HBP, normal BP and LBP, respectively. Cognitive and depressive domains were assessed with the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Italian "scala di valutazione del benessere emotivo nell' anziano" (SVEBA). Information about the present status, comorbidities (cumulative illness rating scale=CIRS), functional ability (activities of daily living=ADL, instrumental ADL=IADL) and drugs were collected during clinical examination. BP was measured 4 times, at the beginning of examination, then with the patient in clinostatic and orthostatic position (1st and 3rd minute). Data were analyzed by MANCOVA, considering age and gender as covariates, MMSE, SVEBA, CIRS, ADL, IADL and drugs as dependent variables, and presence/absence of OH as factor. Covariates were not significant sources of variance, as well as overall factor. Due to the heuristic aim of the study, we considered of interest the results of subsequent ANOVAs showing

  10. Optimization of the autocorrelation weighting function for the time-domain calculation of spectral centroids.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seo; Hur, Don; Kim, Hyungsuk

    2015-03-01

    Spectral centroid from the backscattered ultrasound provides important information about the attenuation properties of soft tissues and Doppler effects of blood flows. Because the spectral centroid is originally determined from the power spectrum of backscattered ultrasound signals in the frequency domain, it is natural to calculate it after converting time-domain signals into spectral domain signals, using the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Recent research, however, derived the time-domain equations for calculating the spectral centroid using a Parseval's theorem, to avoid the calculation of the Fourier transform. The work only presented the final result, which showed that the computational time of the proposed time-domain method was 4.4 times faster than that of the original FFT-based method, whereas the average estimation error was negligible. In this paper, we present the optimal design of the autocorrelation weighting function, which is used for the timedomain spectral centroid estimation process, to reduce the computational time significantly. We also carry out a comprehensive analysis of the computational complexities of the FFTbased and time-domain methods with respect to the length of ultrasound signal segments. The simulation results using numerical phantoms show that, with the optimized autocorrelation weighting function, we only need approximately 3% of the full set of data points. In addition to that, because the proposed optimization technique requires a fixed number of data points to calculate the spectral centroid, the execution time is constant as the length of the data segment increases, whereas the execution time of the conventional FFT-based method is increased. Analysis of the computational complexities between the proposed method and the conventional FFT-based method presents O(N) and O(Nlog2N), respectively.

  11. Microtubule motors mediate endosomal sorting by maintaining functional domain organization.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sylvie D; Townley, Anna K; Danson, Chris M; Cullen, Peter J; Stephens, David J

    2013-06-01

    Many microtubule motors have been shown to couple to endosomal membranes. These motors include dynein in addition to many different kinesin family members. Sorting nexins (SNXs) are central to the organization and function of endosomes. These proteins can actively shape endosomal membranes and couple directly or indirectly to the minus-end microtubule motor dynein. Motor proteins acting on endosomes drive their motility, dictate their morphology and affect cargo segregation. We have used well-characterized members of the SNX family to elucidate motor coupling using high-resolution light microscopy coupled with depletion of specific microtubule motors. Endosomal domains labelled with SNX1, SNX4 and SNX8 couple to discrete combinations of dynein and kinesin motors. These specific combinations govern the structure and motility of each SNX-coated membrane in addition to the segregation of distinct functional endosomal subdomains. Taken together, our data show that these key features of endosome dynamics are governed by the same set of opposing microtubule motors. Thus, microtubule motors help to define the mosaic layout of endosomes that underpins cargo sorting.

  12. Functional regions of the N-terminal domain of the antiterminator RfaH

    PubMed Central

    Belogurov, Georgiy A; Sevostyanova, Anastasia; Svetlov, Vladimir; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2010-01-01

    RfaH is a bacterial elongation factor that increases expression of distal genes in several long, horizontally acquired operons. RfaH is recruited to the transcription complex during RNA chain elongation through specific interactions with a DNA element called ops. Following recruitment, RfaH remains bound to RNA polymerase (RNAP) and acts as an antiterminator by reducing RNAP pausing and termination at some factor-independent and Rho-dependent signals. RfaH consists of two domains connected by a flexible linker. The N-terminal RfaH domain (RfaHN) recognizes the ops element, binds to the RNAP and reduces pausing and termination in vitro. Functional analysis of single substitutions in this domain reported here suggests that three separate RfaHN regions mediate these functions. We propose that a polar patch on one side of RfaHN interacts with the non-template DNA strand during recruitment, whereas a hydrophobic surface on the opposite side of RfaHN remains bound to the β′ subunit clamp helices domain throughout transcription of the entire operon. The third region is apparently dispensable for RfaH binding to the transcription complex but is required for the antitermination modification of RNAP. PMID:20132437

  13. Human Foamy Virus Capsid Formation Requires an Interaction Domain in the N Terminus of Gag

    PubMed Central

    Tobaly-Tapiero, Joelle; Bittoun, Patricia; Giron, Marie-Lou; Neves, Manuel; Koken, Marcel; Saïb, Ali; de Thé, Hugues

    2001-01-01

    Retroviral Gag expression is sufficient for capsid assembly, which occurs through interaction between distinct Gag domains. Human foamy virus (HFV) capsids assemble within the cytoplasm, although their budding, which mainly occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum, requires the presence of homologous Env. Yet little is known about the molecular basis of HFV Gag precursor assembly. Using fusions between HFV Gag and a nuclear reporter protein, we have identified a strong interaction domain in the N terminus of HFV Gag which is predicted to contain a conserved coiled-coil motif. Deletion within this region in an HFV provirus abolishes viral production through inhibition of capsid assembly. PMID:11287585

  14. An exploration of function analysis and function allocation in the commercial flight domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James C.; Zich, John A.; Goins, Richard T.; Erickson, Jeffery B.; Dwyer, John P.; Cody, William J.; Rouse, William B.

    1991-01-01

    The applicability is explored of functional analysis methods to support cockpit design. Specifically, alternative techniques are studied for ensuring an effective division of responsibility between the flight crew and automation. A functional decomposition is performed of the commercial flight domain to provide the information necessary to support allocation decisions and demonstrate methodology for allocating functions to flight crew or to automation. The function analysis employed 'bottom up' and 'top down' analyses and demonstrated the comparability of identified functions, using the 'lift off' segment of the 'take off' phase as a test case. The normal flight mission and selected contingencies were addressed. Two alternative methods for using the functional description in the allocation of functions between man and machine were investigated. The two methods were compared in order to ascertain their relative strengths and weaknesses. Finally, conclusions were drawn regarding the practical utility of function analysis methods.

  15. Functional analysis of synthetic DELLA domain peptides and bioactive gibberellin assay using surface plasmon resonance technology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhuoya; Xing, Zenan; Zhou, Min; Chen, Yi; Li, Chenzhong; Wang, Ruozhong; Xu, Wenzhong; Ma, Mi

    2015-11-01

    DELLA proteins and phytohormone gibberellin act together to control convergence point of plant development. A gibberellin-bound nuclear receptor that interacts with the N-terminal domain of DELLA proteins is required for gibberellin induced degradation of DELLA proteins. N-terminal DELLA domain includes two conserved motifs: DELLA and VHYNP. However, their respective functions remain unclear. Meanwhile, the identification and detection of several bioactive gibberellins from the more than 100 gibberellin metabolites are overwhelmingly difficult for their similar structures. Using in vitro biochemical approach, our work demonstrates for the first time that the synthetic GAI N-terminal DELLA domain peptides have similar bioactive function as the expressed protein to interact with AtGID1a receptor. Furthermore, our results reveal that DELLA motif is vitally important region and DELLA segment is essentially required region to recognize AtGID1a receptor. Finally, based on bioactive GA-dependent of the interaction between AtGID1a and DELLA protein, we generated a new method that could identify and detect bioactive GAs accurately and rapidly with surface plasmon resonance assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. On the detection of functionally coherent groups of protein domains with an extension to protein annotation

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, William A; Chen, Ken; Hou, Tingjun; Wang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Background Protein domains coordinate to perform multifaceted cellular functions, and domain combinations serve as the functional building blocks of the cell. The available methods to identify functional domain combinations are limited in their scope, e.g. to the identification of combinations falling within individual proteins or within specific regions in a translated genome. Further effort is needed to identify groups of domains that span across two or more proteins and are linked by a cooperative function. Such functional domain combinations can be useful for protein annotation. Results Using a new computational method, we have identified 114 groups of domains, referred to as domain assembly units (DASSEM units), in the proteome of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The units participate in many important cellular processes such as transcription regulation, translation initiation, and mRNA splicing. Within the units the domains were found to function in a cooperative manner; and each domain contributed to a different aspect of the unit's overall function. The member domains of DASSEM units were found to be significantly enriched among proteins contained in transcription modules, defined as genes sharing similar expression profiles and presumably similar functions. The observation further confirmed the functional coherence of DASSEM units. The functional linkages of units were found in both functionally characterized and uncharacterized proteins, which enabled the assessment of protein function based on domain composition. Conclusion A new computational method was developed to identify groups of domains that are linked by a common function in the proteome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These groups can either lie within individual proteins or span across different proteins. We propose that the functional linkages among the domains within the DASSEM units can be used as a non-homology based tool to annotate uncharacterized proteins. PMID:17937820

  17. Organized living: formation mechanisms and functions of plasma membrane domains in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E; Christiano, Romain; Walther, Tobias C

    2012-03-01

    Plasma membrane proteins and lipids organize into lateral domains of specific composition. Domain formation is achieved by a combination of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions, membrane-binding protein scaffolds and protein fences. The resulting domains function in membrane protein turnover and homeostasis, as well as in cell signaling. We review the mechanisms generating plasma membrane domains and the functional consequences of this organization, focusing on recent findings from research on the yeast model system.

  18. Reader domain specificity and lysine demethylase-4 family function

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhangli; Wang, Fengbin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Stephens, Kimberly E.; Papazyan, Romeo; Voronina, Ekaterina; Krautkramer, Kimberly A.; Raman, Ana; Thorpe, Jeremy J.; Boersma, Melissa D.; Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Taverna, Sean D.; Phillips, George N.; Denu, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The KDM4 histone demethylases are conserved epigenetic regulators linked to development, spermatogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, how the KDM4 family targets specific chromatin regions is largely unknown. Here, an extensive histone peptide microarray analysis uncovers trimethyl-lysine histone-binding preferences among the closely related KDM4 double tudor domains (DTDs). KDM4A/B DTDs bind strongly to H3K23me3, a poorly understood histone modification recently shown to be enriched in meiotic chromatin of ciliates and nematodes. The 2.28 Å co-crystal structure of KDM4A-DTD in complex with H3K23me3 peptide reveals key intermolecular interactions for H3K23me3 recognition. Furthermore, analysis of the 2.56 Å KDM4B-DTD crystal structure pinpoints the underlying residues required for exclusive H3K23me3 specificity, an interaction supported by in vivo co-localization of KDM4B and H3K23me3 at heterochromatin in mammalian meiotic and newly postmeiotic spermatocytes. In vitro demethylation assays suggest H3K23me3 binding by KDM4B stimulates H3K36 demethylation. Together, these results provide a possible mechanism whereby H3K23me3-binding by KDM4B directs localized H3K36 demethylation during meiosis and spermatogenesis. PMID:27841353

  19. Reovirus Cell Entry Requires Functional Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Mainou, Bernardo A.; Zamora, Paula F.; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Dorset, Daniel C.; Kim, Kwang S.; Dermody, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian reovirus binds to cell-surface glycans and junctional adhesion molecule A and enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis in a process dependent on β1 integrin. Within the endocytic compartment, reovirus undergoes stepwise disassembly, allowing release of the transcriptionally active viral core into the cytoplasm. To identify cellular mediators of reovirus infectivity, we screened a library of small-molecule inhibitors for the capacity to block virus-induced cytotoxicity. In this screen, reovirus-induced cell killing was dampened by several compounds known to impair microtubule dynamics. Microtubule inhibitors were assessed for blockade of various stages of the reovirus life cycle. While these drugs did not alter reovirus cell attachment or internalization, microtubule inhibitors diminished viral disassembly kinetics with a concomitant decrease in infectivity. Reovirus virions colocalize with microtubules and microtubule motor dynein 1 during cell entry, and depolymerization of microtubules results in intracellular aggregation of viral particles. These data indicate that functional microtubules are required for proper sorting of reovirus virions following internalization and point to a new drug target for pathogens that use the endocytic pathway to invade host cells. PMID:23820395

  20. Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Pifferi, Antonio; Caffini, Matteo; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-15

    This review is aimed at presenting the state-of-the-art of time domain (TD) functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We first introduce the physical principles, the basics of modeling and data analysis. Basic instrumentation components (light sources, detection techniques, and delivery and collection systems) of a TD fNIRS system are described. A survey of past, existing and next generation TD fNIRS systems used for research and clinical studies is presented. Performance assessment of TD fNIRS systems and standardization issues are also discussed. Main strengths and weakness of TD fNIRS are highlighted, also in comparison with continuous wave (CW) fNIRS. Issues like quantification of the hemodynamic response, penetration depth, depth selectivity, spatial resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio are critically examined, with the help of experimental results performed on phantoms or in vivo. Finally we give an account on the technological developments that would pave the way for a broader use of TD fNIRS in the neuroimaging community.

  1. Trehalose induces functionally active conformation in the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shagufta H; Jasuja, Ravi; Kumar, Raj

    2016-08-05

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a classic member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays pivotal roles in human physiology at the level of gene regulation. Various constellations of cellular cofactors are required to associate with GR to activate/repress genes. The effects of specific ligands on the AF2 structure and consequent preferential binding of co-activators or co-repressors have helped our understanding of the mechanisms involved. But the data so far fall short of fully explaining GR actions. We believe that this is because work so far has largely avoided detailed examination of the contributions of AF1 to overall GR actions. It has been shown that the GR containing only the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the DNA-binding domain (GR500) is constitutively quite active in stimulating transcription from simple promoters. However, we are only beginning to understand structure and functions of GR500 in spite of the fact that AF1 located within the NTD serves as major transactivation domain for GR. Lack of this information has hampered our complete understanding of how GR regulates its target gene(s). The major obstacle in determining GR500 structure has been due to its intrinsically disordered NTD conformation, frequently found in transcription factors. In this study, we tested whether a naturally occurring osmolyte, trehalose, can promote functionally ordered conformation in GR500. Our data show that in the presence of trehalose, GR500 is capable of formation of a native-like functionally folded conformation.

  2. Characterization of DNA polymerase X from Thermus thermophilus HB8 reveals the POLXc and PHP domains are both required for 3′–5′ exonuclease activity

    PubMed Central

    Nakane, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2009-01-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases (PolXs) comprise a highly conserved DNA polymerase family found in all kingdoms. Mammalian PolXs are known to be involved in several DNA-processing pathways including repair, but the cellular functions of bacterial PolXs are less known. Many bacterial PolXs have a polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain at their C-termini in addition to a PolX core (POLXc) domain, and possess 3′–5′ exonuclease activity. Although both domains are highly conserved in bacteria, their molecular functions, especially for a PHP domain, are unknown. We found Thermus thermophilus HB8 PolX (ttPolX) has Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent DNA/RNA polymerase, Mn2+-dependent 3′–5′ exonuclease and DNA-binding activities. We identified the domains of ttPolX by limited proteolysis and characterized their biochemical activities. The POLXc domain was responsible for the polymerase and DNA-binding activities but exonuclease activity was not detected for either domain. However, the POLXc and PHP domains interacted with each other and a mixture of the two domains had Mn2+-dependent 3′–5′ exonuclease activity. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis revealed catalytically important residues in the PHP domain for the 3′–5′ exonuclease activity. Our findings provide a molecular insight into the functional domain organization of bacterial PolXs, especially the requirement of the PHP domain for 3′–5′ exonuclease activity. PMID:19211662

  3. A functional protein pore with a "retro" transmembrane domain.

    PubMed Central

    Cheley, S.; Braha, O.; Lu, X.; Conlan, S.; Bayley, H.

    1999-01-01

    Extended retro (reversed) peptide sequences have not previously been accommodated within functional proteins. Here, we show that the entire transmembrane portion of the beta-barrel of the pore-forming protein alpha-hemolysin can be formed by retrosequences comprising a total of 175 amino acid residues, 25 contributed by the central sequence of each subunit of the heptameric pore. The properties of wild-type and retro heptamers in planar bilayers are similar. The single-channel conductance of the retro pore is 15% less than that of the wild-type heptamer and its current-voltage relationship denotes close to ohmic behavior, while the wild-type pore is weakly rectifying. Both wild-type and retro pores are very weakly anion selective. These results and the examination of molecular models suggest that beta-barrels may be especially accepting of retro sequences compared to other protein folds. Indeed, the ability to form a retro domain could be diagnostic of a beta-barrel, explaining, for example, the activity of the retro forms of many membrane-permeabilizing peptides. By contrast with the wild-type subunits, monomeric retro subunits undergo premature assembly in the absence of membranes, most likely because the altered central sequence fails to interact with the remainder of the subunit, thereby initiating assembly. Despite this difficulty, a technique was devised for obtaining heteromeric pores containing both wild-type and retro subunits. Most probably as a consequence of unfavorable interstrand side-chain interactions, the heteromeric pores are less stable than either the wild-type or retro homoheptamers, as judged by the presence of subconductance states in single-channel recordings. Knowledge about the extraordinary plasticity of the transmembrane beta-barrel of alpha-hemolysin will be very useful in the de novo design of functional membrane proteins based on the beta-barrel motif. PMID:10386875

  4. LRIG1 extracellular domain: structure and function analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yibin; Soo, Priscilla; Walker, Francesca; Zhang, Hui Hua; Redpath, Nicholas; Tan, Chin Wee; Nicola, Nicos A; Adams, Timothy E; Garrett, Thomas P; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Burgess, Antony W

    2015-05-22

    We have expressed and purified three soluble fragments of the human LRIG1-ECD (extracellular domain): the LRIG1-LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domain, the LRIG1-3Ig (immunoglobulin-like) domain, and the LRIG1-LRR-1Ig fragment using baculovirus vectors in insect cells. The two LRIG1 domains crystallised so that we have been able to determine the three-dimensional structures at 2.3Å resolution. We developed a three-dimensional structure for the LRIG1-ECD using homology modelling based on the LINGO-1 structure. The LRIG1-LRR domain and the LRIG1-LRR-1Ig fragment are monomers in solution, whereas the LRIG1-3Ig domain appears to be dimeric. We could not detect any binding of the LRIG1 domains or the LRIG1-LRR-1Ig fragment to the EGF receptor (EGFR), either in solution using biosensor analysis or when the EGFR was expressed on the cell surface. The FLAG-tagged LRIG1-LRR-1Ig fragment binds weakly to colon cancer cells regardless of the presence of EGFRs. Similarly, neither the soluble LRIG1-LRR nor the LRIG1-3Ig domains nor the full-length LRIG1 co-expressed in HEK293 cells inhibited ligand-stimulated activation of cell-surface EGFR.

  5. Dissection of Amino-Terminal Functional Domains of Murine Coronavirus Nonstructural Protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Hurst-Hess, Kelley R.; Kuo, Lili

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coronaviruses, the largest RNA viruses, have a complex program of RNA synthesis that entails genome replication and transcription of subgenomic mRNAs. RNA synthesis by the prototype coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is carried out by a replicase-transcriptase composed of 16 nonstructural protein (nsp) subunits. Among these, nsp3 is the largest and the first to be inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum. nsp3 comprises multiple structural domains, including two papain-like proteases (PLPs) and a highly conserved ADP-ribose-1″-phosphatase (ADRP) macrodomain. We have previously shown that the ubiquitin-like domain at the amino terminus of nsp3 is essential and participates in a critical interaction with the viral nucleocapsid protein early in infection. In the current study, we exploited atypical expression schemes to uncouple PLP1 from the processing of nsp1 and nsp2 in order to investigate the requirements of nsp3 domains for viral RNA synthesis. In the first strategy, a mutant was created in which replicase polyprotein translation initiated with nsp3, thereby establishing that complete elimination of nsp1 and nsp2 does not abolish MHV viability. In the second strategy, a picornavirus autoprocessing element was used to separate a truncated nsp1 from nsp3. This provided a platform for further dissection of amino-terminal domains of nsp3. From this, we found that catalytic mutation of PLP1 or complete deletion of PLP1 and the adjacent ADRP domain was tolerated by the virus. These results showed that neither the PLP1 domain nor the ADRP domain of nsp3 provides integral activities essential for coronavirus genomic or subgenomic RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE The largest component of the coronavirus replicase-transcriptase complex, nsp3, contains multiple modules, many of which do not have clearly defined functions in genome replication or transcription. These domains may play direct roles in RNA synthesis, or they may have evolved for other purposes, such as

  6. The longest mitochondrial RNA editing PPR protein MEF12 in Arabidopsis thaliana requires the full-length E domain

    PubMed Central

    Härtel, Barbara; Zehrmann, Anja; Verbitskiy, Daniil; Takenaka, Mizuki

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial RNA editing factor 12 (MEF12) was identified in a screen for editing defects of a chemically mutated plant population in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MEF12 editing protein is required for the C to U change of nucleotide nad5-374. The MEF12 polypeptide is characterized by an exceptionally long stretch of 25 pentatricopeptide repeats (PPR) and a C-terminal extension domain. Editing is lost in mutant plants with a stop codon in the extending element. A T-DNA insertion substituting the 10 C-terminal amino acids of the extension domain reduces RNA editing to about 20% at the target site in a mutant plant. These results support the importance of the full-length extension module for functional RNA editing in plant mitochondria. PMID:23845994

  7. Functional and topological characteristics of mammalian regulatory domains

    PubMed Central

    Symmons, Orsolya; Uslu, Veli Vural; Tsujimura, Taro; Ruf, Sandra; Nassari, Sonya; Schwarzer, Wibke; Ettwiller, Laurence; Spitz, François

    2014-01-01

    Long-range regulatory interactions play an important role in shaping gene-expression programs. However, the genomic features that organize these activities are still poorly characterized. We conducted a large operational analysis to chart the distribution of gene regulatory activities along the mouse genome, using hundreds of insertions of a regulatory sensor. We found that enhancers distribute their activities along broad regions and not in a gene-centric manner, defining large regulatory domains. Remarkably, these domains correlate strongly with the recently described TADs, which partition the genome into distinct self-interacting blocks. Different features, including specific repeats and CTCF-binding sites, correlate with the transition zones separating regulatory domains, and may help to further organize promiscuously distributed regulatory influences within large domains. These findings support a model of genomic organization where TADs confine regulatory activities to specific but large regulatory domains, contributing to the establishment of specific gene expression profiles. PMID:24398455

  8. Crystallographic and functional analyses of J-domain of JAC1 essential for chloroplast photorelocation movement in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Takano, Akira; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu; Kohda, Daisuke

    2010-08-01

    An auxilin-like J-domain-containing protein, JAC1, is necessary for chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis thaliana, to capture photosynthetic light efficiently under weak light conditions. Here, we performed crystallographic and functional analyses of the J-domain of JAC1. The crystal structure of the J-domain is quite similar to that of bovine auxilin, and possesses a similar positively charged surface, which probably forms the interface with the Hsp70 chaperone. The mutation of the highly conserved HPD motif of the JAC1 J-domain abrogated the chloroplast photorelocation response. These results suggest that the requirement of JAC1 in chloroplast photorelocation movement is attributable to the J-domain's cochaperone activity.

  9. Cell Migration and Invadopodia Formation Require a Membrane-binding Domain of CARMIL2*

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, M. Hunter; McConnell, Patrick; Cooper, John A.

    2016-01-01

    CARMILs regulate capping protein (CP), a critical determinant of actin assembly and actin-based cell motility. Vertebrates have three conserved CARMIL genes with distinct functions. In migrating cells, CARMIL2 is important for cell polarity, lamellipodial assembly, ruffling, and macropinocytosis. In cells, CARMIL2 localizes with a distinctive dual pattern to vimentin intermediate filaments and to membranes at leading edges and macropinosomes. The mechanism by which CARMIL2 localizes to membranes has not been defined. Here, we report that CARMIL2 has a conserved membrane-binding domain composed of basic and hydrophobic residues, which is necessary and sufficient for membrane localization, based on expression studies in cells and on direct binding of purified protein to lipids. Most important, we find that the membrane-binding domain is necessary for CARMIL2 to function in cells, based on rescue expression with a set of biochemically defined mutants. CARMIL1 and CARMIL3 contain similar membrane-binding domains, based on sequence analysis and on experiments, but other CPI motif proteins, such as CD2AP, do not. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the membrane-binding domain of CARMIL2 tethers this multidomain protein to the membrane, where it links dynamic vimentin filaments with regulation of actin assembly via CP. PMID:26578515

  10. Cell Migration and Invadopodia Formation Require a Membrane-binding Domain of CARMIL2.

    PubMed

    Lanier, M Hunter; McConnell, Patrick; Cooper, John A

    2016-01-15

    CARMILs regulate capping protein (CP), a critical determinant of actin assembly and actin-based cell motility. Vertebrates have three conserved CARMIL genes with distinct functions. In migrating cells, CARMIL2 is important for cell polarity, lamellipodial assembly, ruffling, and macropinocytosis. In cells, CARMIL2 localizes with a distinctive dual pattern to vimentin intermediate filaments and to membranes at leading edges and macropinosomes. The mechanism by which CARMIL2 localizes to membranes has not been defined. Here, we report that CARMIL2 has a conserved membrane-binding domain composed of basic and hydrophobic residues, which is necessary and sufficient for membrane localization, based on expression studies in cells and on direct binding of purified protein to lipids. Most important, we find that the membrane-binding domain is necessary for CARMIL2 to function in cells, based on rescue expression with a set of biochemically defined mutants. CARMIL1 and CARMIL3 contain similar membrane-binding domains, based on sequence analysis and on experiments, but other CPI motif proteins, such as CD2AP, do not. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the membrane-binding domain of CARMIL2 tethers this multidomain protein to the membrane, where it links dynamic vimentin filaments with regulation of actin assembly via CP. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Fibronectin Growth Factor-Binding Domains Are Required for Fibroblast Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fubao; Ren, Xiang-Dong; Pan, Zhi; Macri, Lauren; Zong, Wei-Xing; Tonnesen, Marcia G.; Rafailovich, Miriam; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Clark, Richard A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is required for embryogenesis, morphogenesis, and wound repair, and its Arg–Gly–Asp-containing central cell-binding domain (CCBD) is essential for mesenchymal cell survival and growth. Here, we demonstrate that FN contains three growth factor-binding domains (FN-GFBDs) that bind platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), a potent fibroblast survival and mitogenic factor. These sites bind PDGF-BB with dissociation constants of 10–100 nm. FN-null cells cultured on recombinant CCBD (FNIII8–11) without a FN-GFBD demonstrated minimal metabolism and underwent autophagy at 24 hours, followed by apoptosis at 72 hours, even in the presence of PDGF-BB. In contrast, FN-null cells plated on FNIII8–11 contiguous with FN-GFBD survived without, and proliferated with, PDGF-BB. FN-null cell survival on FNIII8–11 and noncontiguous arrays of FN-GFBDs required these domains to be adsorbed on the same surface, suggesting the existence of a mesenchymal cell-extracellular matrix synapse. Thus, fibroblast survival required GF stimulation in the presence of a FN-GFBD, as well as adhesion to FN through the CCBD. The findings that fibroblast survival is dependent on FN-GFBD underscore the critical importance of pericellular matrix for cell survival and have significant implications for cutaneous wound healing and regeneration. PMID:20811396

  12. Functional replacement and positional dependence of homologous and heterologous L domains in equine infectious anemia virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Chen, Chaoping; Puffer, Bridget A; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2002-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated by Gag polyprotein budding assays that the Gag p9 protein of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) utilizes a unique YPDL motif as a late assembly domain (L domain) to facilitate release of the budding virus particle from the host cell plasma membrane (B. A. Puffer, L. J. Parent, J. W. Wills, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:6541-6546, 1997). To characterize in more detail the role of the YPDL L domain in the EIAV life cycle, we have examined the replication properties of a series of EIAV proviral mutants in which the parental YPDL L domain was replaced by a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) PTAP or Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) PPPY L domain in the p9 protein or by proviruses in which the parental YPDL or HIV-1 PTAP L domain was inserted in the viral matrix protein. The replication properties of these L-domain variants were examined with respect to Gag protein expression and processing, virus particle production, and virus infectivity. The data from these experiments indicate that (i) the YPDL L domain of p9 is required for replication competence (assembly and infectivity) in equine cell cultures, including the natural target equine macrophages; (ii) all of the functions of the YPDL L domain in the EIAV life cycle can be replaced by replacement of the parental YPDL sequence in p9 with the PTAP L-domain segment of HIV-1 p6 or the PPPY L domain of RSV p2b; and (iii) the assembly, but not infectivity, functions of the EIAV proviral YPDL substitution mutants can be partially rescued by inclusions of YPDL and PTAP L-domain sequences in the C-terminal region of the EIAV MA protein. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the EIAV YPDL L domain mediates distinct functions in viral budding and infectivity and that the HIV-1 PTAP and RSV PPPY L domains can effectively facilitate these dual replication functions in the context of the p9 protein. In light of the fact that YPDL, PTAP, and PPPY domains evidently have distinct

  13. Functional Replacement and Positional Dependence of Homologous and Heterologous L Domains in Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Chen, Chaoping; Puffer, Bridget A.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated by Gag polyprotein budding assays that the Gag p9 protein of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) utilizes a unique YPDL motif as a late assembly domain (L domain) to facilitate release of the budding virus particle from the host cell plasma membrane (B. A. Puffer, L. J. Parent, J. W. Wills, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:6541-6546, 1997). To characterize in more detail the role of the YPDL L domain in the EIAV life cycle, we have examined the replication properties of a series of EIAV proviral mutants in which the parental YPDL L domain was replaced by a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) PTAP or Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) PPPY L domain in the p9 protein or by proviruses in which the parental YPDL or HIV-1 PTAP L domain was inserted in the viral matrix protein. The replication properties of these L-domain variants were examined with respect to Gag protein expression and processing, virus particle production, and virus infectivity. The data from these experiments indicate that (i) the YPDL L domain of p9 is required for replication competence (assembly and infectivity) in equine cell cultures, including the natural target equine macrophages; (ii) all of the functions of the YPDL L domain in the EIAV life cycle can be replaced by replacement of the parental YPDL sequence in p9 with the PTAP L-domain segment of HIV-1 p6 or the PPPY L domain of RSV p2b; and (iii) the assembly, but not infectivity, functions of the EIAV proviral YPDL substitution mutants can be partially rescued by inclusions of YPDL and PTAP L-domain sequences in the C-terminal region of the EIAV MA protein. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the EIAV YPDL L domain mediates distinct functions in viral budding and infectivity and that the HIV-1 PTAP and RSV PPPY L domains can effectively facilitate these dual replication functions in the context of the p9 protein. In light of the fact that YPDL, PTAP, and PPPY domains evidently have distinct

  14. PROMIS PF CAT Outperforms the ODI and SF-36 Physical Function Domain in Spine Patients.

    PubMed

    Brodke, Darrel S; Goz, Vadim; Voss, Maren W; Lawrence, Brandon D; Spiker, William Ryan; Hung, Man

    2017-06-15

    The Oswestry Disability Index v2.0 (ODI), SF36 Physical Function Domain (SF-36 PFD), and PROMIS Physical Function CAT v1.2 (PF CAT) questionnaires were prospectively collected from 1607 patients complaining of back or leg pain, visiting a university-based spine clinic. All questionnaires were collected electronically, using a tablet computer. The aim of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of the PROMIS PF CAT with the ODI and SF36 Physical Function Domain in the same patient population. Evidence-based decision-making is improved by using high-quality patient-reported outcomes measures. Prior studies have revealed the shortcomings of the ODI and SF36, commonly used in spine patients. The PROMIS Network has developed measures with excellent psychometric properties. The Physical Function domain, delivered by Computerized Adaptive Testing (PF CAT), performs well in the spine patient population, though to-date direct comparisons with common measures have not been performed. Standard Rasch analysis was performed to directly compare the psychometrics of the PF CAT, ODI, and SF36 PFD. Spearman correlations were computed to examine the correlations of the three instruments. Time required for administration was also recorded. One thousand six hundred seven patients were administered all assessments. The time required to answer all items in the PF CAT, ODI, and SF-36 PFD was 44, 169, and 99 seconds. The ceiling and floor effects were excellent for the PF CAT (0.81%, 3.86%), while the ceiling effects were marginal and floor effects quite poor for the ODI (6.91% and 44.24%) and SF-36 PFD (5.97% and 23.65%). All instruments significantly correlated with each other. The PROMIS PF CAT outperforms the ODI and SF-36 PFD in the spine patient population and is highly correlated. It has better coverage, while taking less time to administer with fewer questions to answer. 2.

  15. A cell-permeable tool for analysing APP intracellular domain function and manipulation of PIKfyve activity

    PubMed Central

    Guscott, Benjamin; Balklava, Zita; Safrany, Stephen T.; Wassmer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms for regulating PIKfyve complex activity are currently emerging. The PIKfyve complex, consisting of the phosphoinositide kinase PIKfyve (also known as FAB1), VAC14 and FIG4, is required for the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2]. PIKfyve function is required for homoeostasis of the endo/lysosomal system and is crucially implicated in neuronal function and integrity, as loss of function mutations in the PIKfyve complex lead to neurodegeneration in mouse models and human patients. Our recent work has shown that the intracellular domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a molecule central to the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease binds to VAC14 and enhances PIKfyve function. In the present study, we utilize this recent advance to create an easy-to-use tool for increasing PIKfyve activity in cells. We fused APP intracellular domain (AICD) to the HIV TAT domain, a cell-permeable peptide allowing proteins to penetrate cells. The resultant TAT–AICD fusion protein is cell permeable and triggers an increase in PI(3,5)P2. Using the PI(3,5)P2 specific GFP-ML1Nx2 probe, we show that cell-permeable AICD alters PI(3,5)P2 dynamics. TAT–AICD also provides partial protection from pharmacological inhibition of PIKfyve. All three lines of evidence show that the AICD activates the PIKfyve complex in cells, a finding that is important for our understanding of the mechanism of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26934981

  16. The Vesicle Priming Factor CAPS Functions as a Homodimer via C2 Domain Interactions to Promote Regulated Vesicle Exocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Matt; Esquibel, Joseph; Maciuba, Stephanie; Takahashi, Hirohide

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and peptide hormones are secreted by regulated vesicle exocytosis. CAPS (also known as CADPS) is a 145-kDa cytosolic and peripheral membrane protein required for vesicle docking and priming steps that precede Ca2+-triggered vesicle exocytosis. CAPS binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and SNARE proteins and is proposed to promote SNARE protein complex assembly for vesicle docking and priming. We characterized purified soluble CAPS as mainly monomer in equilibrium with small amounts of dimer. However, the active form of CAPS bound to PC12 cell membranes or to liposomes containing PI(4,5)P2 and Q-SNARE proteins was mainly dimer. CAPS dimer formation required its C2 domain based on mutation or deletion studies. Moreover, C2 domain mutations or deletions resulted in a loss of CAPS function in regulated vesicle exocytosis, indicating that dimerization is essential for CAPS function. Comparison of the CAPS C2 domain to a structurally defined Munc13-1 C2A domain dimer revealed conserved residues involved in CAPS dimerization. We conclude that CAPS functions as a C2 domain-mediated dimer in regulated vesicle exocytosis. The unique tandem C2-PH domain of CAPS may serve as a PI(4,5)P2-triggered switch for dimerization. CAPS dimerization may be coupled to oligomeric SNARE complex assembly for vesicle docking and priming. PMID:27528604

  17. A new functional motif in Hox domain-containing ceramide synthases: identification of a novel region flanking the Hox and TLC domains essential for activity.

    PubMed

    Mesika, Adi; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Laviad, Elad L; Futerman, Anthony H

    2007-09-14

    Ceramide is synthesized in mammals by a family of ceramide synthases (CerS) each of which uses a relatively restricted set of fatty acyl-CoAs for N-acylation of the sphingoid long chain base (Pewzner-Jung, Y., Ben-Dor, S., and Futerman, A. H. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 25001-25005). CerS are characterized by two functional domains, the Tram-Lag-CLN8 (TLC) domain and the homeobox (Hox) domain, which is found in all mammalian CerS except CerS1. We now demonstrate that the majority of the Hox domain is not required for CerS activity since its deletion in CerS5 does not affect activity. Subsequently, we define a highly conserved new motif of 12 amino acid residues that flanks the Hox and TLC domains but is not part of the TLC domain, which is essential for CerS5 and CerS6 activity. Two positively charged residues in this domain, one of which is conserved in all putative CerS in all organisms, are essential for activity since site-directed mutagenesis of either (Lys-134 and Lys-140 in CerS5) results in an approximately 50% loss of activity, whereas mutation of both leads to a complete loss of activity. Because this region is conserved across species, we propose that it plays a previously unidentified and essential role in CerS activity and can be used as a new motif to define Hox domain-containing CerS.

  18. The extracellular domain of Smoothened regulates ciliary localization and is required for high-level Hh signaling.

    PubMed

    Aanstad, Pia; Santos, Nicole; Corbit, Kevin C; Scherz, Paul J; Trinh, Le A; Salvenmoser, Willi; Huisken, Jan; Reiter, Jeremy F; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2009-06-23

    Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins function as morphogens to pattern developing tissues and control cell proliferation. The seven-transmembrane domain (7TM) protein Smoothened (Smo) is essential for the activation of all levels of Hh signaling. However, the mechanisms by which Smo differentially activates low- or high-level Hh signaling are not known. Here we show that a newly identified mutation in the extracellular domain (ECD) of zebrafish Smo attenuates Smo signaling. The Smo agonist purmorphamine induces the stabilization, ciliary translocation, and high-level signaling of wild-type Smo. In contrast, purmorphamine induces the stabilization but not the ciliary translocation or high-level signaling of the Smo ECD mutant protein. Surprisingly, a truncated form of Smo that lacks the cysteine-rich domain of the ECD localizes to the cilium but is unable to activate high-level Hh signaling. We also present evidence that cilia may be required for Hh signaling in early zebrafish embryos. These data indicate that the ECD, previously thought to be dispensable for vertebrate Smo function, both regulates Smo ciliary localization and is essential for high-level Hh signaling.

  19. Linking Functional Domains of the Human Insulin Receptor with the Bacterial Aspartate Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Leland; Morgan, David O.; Koshland, Daniel E.; Clauser, Eric; Moe, Gregory R.; Bollag, Gideon; Roth, Richard A.; Rutter, William J.

    1986-11-01

    A hybrid receptor has been constructed that is composed of the extracellular domain of the human insulin receptor fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the bacterial aspartate chemoreceptor. This hybrid protein can be expressed in rodent (CHO) cells and displays several functional features comparable to wild-type insulin receptor. It is localized to the cell surface, binds insulin with high affinity, forms oligomers, and is recognized by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies. Although most of the expressed protein accumulates as a 180-kDa proreceptor, some processed 135-kDa receptor can be detected on the cell surface by covalent cross-linking. Expression of the hybrid receptor inhibits the insulin-activated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by CHO cells. Thus, this hybrid is partially functional and can be processed; however, it is incapable of native transmembrane signaling. The results indicate that the intact domains of different types of receptors can retain some of the native features in a hybrid molecule but specific requirements will need to be satisfied for transmembrane signaling.

  20. Transforming User Needs into Functional Requirements for an Antibiotic Clinical Decision Support System

    PubMed Central

    Bright, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Many informatics studies use content analysis to generate functional requirements for system development. Explication of this translational process from qualitative data to functional requirements can strengthen the understanding and scientific rigor when applying content analysis in informatics studies. Objective To describe a user-centered approach transforming emergent themes derived from focus group data into functional requirements for informatics solutions and to illustrate these methods to the development of an antibiotic clinical decision support system (CDS). Methods The approach consisted of five steps: 1) identify unmet therapeutic planning information needs via Focus Group Study-I, 2) develop a coding framework of therapeutic planning themes to refine the domain scope to antibiotic therapeutic planning, 3) identify functional requirements of an antibiotic CDS system via Focus Group Study-II, 4) discover informatics solutions and functional requirements from coded data, and 5) determine the types of information needed to support the antibiotic CDS system and link with the identified informatics solutions and functional requirements. Results The coding framework for Focus Group Study-I revealed unmet therapeutic planning needs. Twelve subthemes emerged and were clustered into four themes; analysis indicated a need for an antibiotic CDS intervention. Focus Group Study-II included five types of information needs. Comments from the Barrier/Challenge to information access and Function/Feature themes produced three informatics solutions and 13 functional requirements of an antibiotic CDS system. Comments from the Patient, Institution, and Domain themes generated required data elements for each informatics solution. Conclusion This study presents one example explicating content analysis of focus group data and the analysis process to functional requirements from narrative data. Illustration of this 5-step method was used to develop an

  1. Frequency domain transfer function identification using the computer program SYSFIT

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    Because the primary application of SYSFIT for BPA involves studying power system dynamics, this investigation was geared toward simulating the effects that might be encountered in studying electromechanical oscillations in power systems. Although the intended focus of this work is power system oscillations, the studies are sufficiently genetic that the results can be applied to many types of oscillatory systems with closely-spaced modes. In general, there are two possible ways of solving the optimization problem. One is to use a least-squares optimization function and to write the system in such a form that the problem becomes one of linear least-squares. The solution can then be obtained using a standard least-squares technique. The other method involves using a search method to obtain the optimal model. This method allows considerably more freedom in forming the optimization function and model, but it requires an initial guess of the system parameters. SYSFIT employs this second approach. Detailed investigations were conducted into three main areas: (1) fitting to exact frequency response data of a linear system; (2) fitting to the discrete Fourier transformation of noisy data; and (3) fitting to multi-path systems. The first area consisted of investigating the effects of alternative optimization cost function options; using different optimization search methods; incorrect model order, missing response data; closely-spaced poles; and closely-spaced pole-zero pairs. Within the second area, different noise colorations and levels were studied. In the third area, methods were investigated for improving fitting results by incorporating more than one system path. The following is a list of guidelines and properties developed from the study for fitting a transfer function to the frequency response of a system using optimization search methods.

  2. Replication-coupled chromatin assembly of newly synthesized histones: distinct functions for the histone tail domains.

    PubMed

    Ejlassi-Lassallette, Aïda; Thiriet, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    The maintenance of the genome during replication requires the assembly of nucleosomes with newly synthesized histones. Achieving the deposition of newly synthesized histones in chromatin implies their transport from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the replication sites. Several lines of evidence have revealed critical functions of the histone tail domains in these conserved cellular processes. In this review, we discuss the role of the amino termini of the nucleosome building blocks, H2A/H2B and H3/H4, in different model systems. The experimental data showed that H2A/H2B tails and H3/H4 tails display distinct functions in nuclear import and chromatin assembly. Furthermore, we describe recent studies exploiting the unique properties of the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum , that have advanced understanding of the function of the highly conserved replication-dependent diacetylation of H4.

  3. Structure, function, and tethering of DNA-binding domains in σ⁵⁴ transcriptional activators.

    PubMed

    Vidangos, Natasha; Maris, Ann E; Young, Anisa; Hong, Eunmi; Pelton, Jeffrey G; Batchelor, Joseph D; Wemmer, David E

    2013-12-01

    We compare the structure, activity, and linkage of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) from σ(54) transcriptional activators and discuss how the properties of the DBDs and the linker to the neighboring domain are affected by the overall properties and requirements of the full proteins. These transcriptional activators bind upstream of specific promoters that utilize σ(54)-polymerase. Upon receiving a signal the activators assemble into hexamers, which then, through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis, drive a conformational change in polymerase that enables transcription initiation. We present structures of the DBDs of activators nitrogen regulatory protein C 1 (NtrC1) and Nif-like homolog 2 (Nlh2) from the thermophile Aquifex aeolicus. The structures of these domains and their relationship to other parts of the activators are discussed. These structures are compared with previously determined structures of the DBDs of NtrC4, NtrC, ZraR, and factor for inversion stimulation. The N-terminal linkers that connect the DBDs to the central domains in NtrC1 and Nlh2 were studied and found to be unstructured. Additionally, a crystal structure of full-length NtrC1 was solved, but density of the DBDs was extremely weak, further indicating that the linker between ATPase and DBDs functions as a flexible tether. Flexible linking of ATPase and DBDs is likely necessary to allow assembly of the active hexameric ATPase ring. The comparison of this set of activators also shows clearly that strong dimerization of the DBD only occurs when other domains do not dimerize strongly. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Regularized Laplace-Fourier-Domain Full Waveform Inversion Using a Weighted l 2 Objective Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyunggu; Kwon, Jungmin; Shin, Changsoo; Zhou, Hongbo; Cogan, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) can be applied to obtain an accurate velocity model that contains important geophysical and geological information. FWI suffers from the local minimum problem when the starting model is not sufficiently close to the true model. Therefore, an accurate macroscale velocity model is essential for successful FWI, and Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is appropriate for obtaining such a velocity model. However, conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI remains an ill-posed and ill-conditioned problem, meaning that small errors in the data can result in large differences in the inverted model. This approach also suffers from certain limitations related to the logarithmic objective function. To overcome the limitations of conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI, we introduce a weighted l 2 objective function, instead of the logarithmic objective function, as the data-domain objective function, and we also introduce two different model-domain regularizations: first-order Tikhonov regularization and prior model regularization. The weighting matrix for the data-domain objective function is constructed to suitably enhance the far-offset information. Tikhonov regularization smoothes the gradient, and prior model regularization allows reliable prior information to be taken into account. Two hyperparameters are obtained through trial and error and used to control the trade-off and achieve an appropriate balance between the data-domain and model-domain gradients. The application of the proposed regularizations facilitates finding a unique solution via FWI, and the weighted l 2 objective function ensures a more reasonable residual, thereby improving the stability of the gradient calculation. Numerical tests performed using the Marmousi synthetic dataset show that the use of the weighted l 2 objective function and the model-domain regularizations significantly improves the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI. Because the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is improved, the

  5. Regularized Laplace-Fourier-Domain Full Waveform Inversion Using a Weighted l 2 Objective Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyunggu; Kwon, Jungmin; Shin, Changsoo; Zhou, Hongbo; Cogan, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) can be applied to obtain an accurate velocity model that contains important geophysical and geological information. FWI suffers from the local minimum problem when the starting model is not sufficiently close to the true model. Therefore, an accurate macroscale velocity model is essential for successful FWI, and Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is appropriate for obtaining such a velocity model. However, conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI remains an ill-posed and ill-conditioned problem, meaning that small errors in the data can result in large differences in the inverted model. This approach also suffers from certain limitations related to the logarithmic objective function. To overcome the limitations of conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI, we introduce a weighted l 2 objective function, instead of the logarithmic objective function, as the data-domain objective function, and we also introduce two different model-domain regularizations: first-order Tikhonov regularization and prior model regularization. The weighting matrix for the data-domain objective function is constructed to suitably enhance the far-offset information. Tikhonov regularization smoothes the gradient, and prior model regularization allows reliable prior information to be taken into account. Two hyperparameters are obtained through trial and error and used to control the trade-off and achieve an appropriate balance between the data-domain and model-domain gradients. The application of the proposed regularizations facilitates finding a unique solution via FWI, and the weighted l 2 objective function ensures a more reasonable residual, thereby improving the stability of the gradient calculation. Numerical tests performed using the Marmousi synthetic dataset show that the use of the weighted l 2 objective function and the model-domain regularizations significantly improves the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI. Because the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is improved, the

  6. Unique Structural Features of Membrane-Bound C-Terminal Domain Motifs Modulate Complexin Inhibitory Function

    PubMed Central

    Snead, David; Lai, Alex L.; Wragg, Rachel T.; Parisotto, Daniel A.; Ramlall, Trudy F.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Freed, Jack H.; Eliezer, David

    2017-01-01

    Complexin is a small soluble presynaptic protein that interacts with neuronal SNARE proteins in order to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. While the SNARE-binding central helix of complexin is required for both the inhibition of spontaneous fusion and the facilitation of synchronous fusion, the disordered C-terminal domain (CTD) of complexin is specifically required for its inhibitory function. The CTD of worm complexin binds to membranes via two distinct motifs, one of which undergoes a membrane curvature dependent structural transition that is required for efficient inhibition of neurotransmitter release, but the conformations of the membrane-bound motifs remain poorly characterized. Visualizing these conformations is required to clarify the mechanisms by which complexin membrane interactions regulate its function. Here, we employ optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to precisely define the boundaries of the two CTD membrane-binding motifs and to characterize their conformations. We show that the curvature dependent amphipathic helical motif features an irregular element of helical structure, likely a pi-bulge, and that this feature is important for complexin inhibitory function in vivo. PMID:28596722

  7. Characterization of a functional domain of human calpastatin.

    PubMed

    Uemori, T; Shimojo, T; Asada, K; Asano, T; Kimizuka, F; Kato, I; Maki, M; Hatanaka, M; Murachi, T; Hanzawa, H

    1990-02-14

    Expression plasmids were constructed from the cDNA of human calpastatin to examine the contribution to the inhibition of calpain of highly conserved sequences in each of four repetitive domains. A series of deletion derivatives of domain 1 proteins, truncated at either the amino or carboxy terminus, were produced in E. coli. Deletion from the amino terminus past the amino terminal conserved sequence decreased the inhibition. When the middle conserved sequence, the M-sequence, was further deleted, no inhibition was detected, but deletion from the carboxy terminus past the carboxy terminal conserved sequence did not decrease the inhibition until the M-sequence was reached. Nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectra showed that domain 1 has an unfolded structure. Peptides that contained the M-sequence and some neighboring sequences were synthesized to measure the minimum size of the inhibitory peptide, which was the M-sequence with the next six residues on the amino terminal side.

  8. Requirement of the N-terminal activation domain of herpes simplex virus ICP4 for viral gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lauren M; Bayer, Avraham; Deluca, Neal A

    2013-01-01

    ICP4 is the major activator of herpes simplex virus (HSV) transcription. Previous studies have defined several regions of ICP4 that are important for viral gene expression, including a DNA binding domain and transactivation domains that are contained in the C-terminal and N-terminal 520 and 274 amino acids, respectively. Here we show that the N-terminal 210 amino acids of ICP4 are required for interactions with components of TFIID and mediator and, as a consequence, are necessary for the activation of viral genes. A mutant of ICP4 deleted for amino acids 30 to 210, d3-10, was unable to complement an ICP4 null virus at the level of viral replication. This was the result of a severe deficiency in viral gene and protein expression. The absence of viral gene expression coincided with a defect in the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to a representative early promoter (thymidine kinase [TK]). Affinity purification experiments demonstrated that d3-10 ICP4 was not found in complexes with components of TFIID and mediator, suggesting that the defect in RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment was the result of ablated interactions between d3-10 and TFIID and mediator. Complementation assays suggested that the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of ICP4 cooperate to mediate gene expression. The complementation was the result of the formation of more functional heterodimers, which restored the ability of the d3-10-containing molecules to interact with TFIID. Together, these studies suggest that the N terminus contains a true activation domain, mediating interactions with TFIID, mediator, and perhaps other transcription factors, and that the C terminus of the molecule contains activities that augment the functions of the activation domain.

  9. Different functional modes of BAR domain proteins in formation and plasticity of mammalian postsynapses.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Michael M; Qualmann, Britta

    2015-09-01

    A plethora of cell biological processes involve modulations of cellular membranes. By using extended lipid-binding interfaces, some proteins have the power to shape membranes by attaching to them. Among such membrane shapers, the superfamily of Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins has recently taken center stage. Extensive structural work on BAR domains has revealed a common curved fold that can serve as an extended membrane-binding interface to modulate membrane topologies and has allowed the grouping of the BAR domain superfamily into subfamilies with structurally slightly distinct BAR domain subtypes (N-BAR, BAR, F-BAR and I-BAR). Most BAR superfamily members are expressed in the mammalian nervous system. Neurons are elaborately shaped and highly compartmentalized cells. Therefore, analyses of synapse formation and of postsynaptic reorganization processes (synaptic plasticity) - a basis for learning and memory formation - has unveiled important physiological functions of BAR domain superfamily members. These recent advances, furthermore, have revealed that the functions of BAR domain proteins include different aspects. These functions are influenced by the often complex domain organization of BAR domain proteins. In this Commentary, we review these recent insights and propose to classify BAR domain protein functions into (1) membrane shaping, (2) physical integration, (3) action through signaling components, and (4) suppression of other BAR domain functions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Structural and functional conservation of key domains in InsP[subscript 3] and ryanodine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Min-Duk; Velamakanni, Saroj; Ishiyama, Noboru; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Rossi, Ana M.; Khan, Samir A.; Dale, Philippa; Li, Congmin; Ames, James B.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Taylor, Colin W.

    2012-07-11

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP{sub 3}Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric intracellular Ca{sup 2+} channels. In each of these receptor families, the pore, which is formed by carboxy-terminal transmembrane domains, is regulated by signals that are detected by large cytosolic structures. InsP{sub 3}R gating is initiated by InsP{sub 3} binding to the InsP{sub 3}-binding core (IBC, residues 224-604 of InsP{sub 3}R1) and it requires the suppressor domain (SD, residues 1-223 of InsP{sub 3}R1). Here we present structures of the amino-terminal region (NT, residues 1-604) of rat InsP{sub 3}R1 with (3.6 {angstrom}) and without (3.0 {angstrom}) InsP{sub 3} bound. The arrangement of the three NT domains, SD, IBC-{beta} and IBC-{alpha}, identifies two discrete interfaces ({alpha} and {beta}) between the IBC and SD. Similar interfaces occur between equivalent domains (A, B and C) in RyR1 (ref. 9). The orientations of the three domains when docked into a tetrameric structure of InsP{sub 3}R and of the ABC domains docked into RyR are remarkably similar. The importance of the {alpha}-interface for activation of InsP{sub 3}R and RyR is confirmed by mutagenesis and, for RyR, by disease-causing mutations. Binding of InsP{sub 3} causes partial closure of the clam-like IBC, disrupting the {beta}-interface and pulling the SD towards the IBC. This reorients an exposed SD loop ('hotspot' (HS) loop) that is essential for InsP{sub 3}R activation. The loop is conserved in RyR and includes mutations that are associated with malignant hyperthermia and central core disease. The HS loop interacts with an adjacent NT, suggesting that activation re-arranges inter-subunit interactions. The A domain of RyR functionally replaced the SD in full-length InsP{sub 3}R, and an InsP{sub 3}R in which its C-terminal transmembrane region was replaced by that from RyR1 was gated by InsP{sub 3} and blocked by ryanodine. Activation mechanisms are conserved between InsP{sub 3}R and Ry

  11. Functional Analysis of a Bacterial Antifreeze Protein Indicates a Cooperative Effect between Its Two Ice-Binding Domains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Oliver, Erin E; Christner, Brent C; Luo, Bing-Hao

    2016-07-19

    Antifreeze proteins make up a class of ice-binding proteins (IBPs) that are possessed and expressed by certain cold-adapted organisms to enhance their freezing tolerance. Here we report the biophysical and functional characterization of an IBP discovered in a bacterium recovered from a deep glacial ice core drilled at Vostok Station, Antarctica (IBPv). Our study showed that the recombinant protein rIBPv exhibited a thermal hysteresis of 2 °C at concentrations of >50 μM, effectively inhibited ice recrystallization, and enhanced bacterial viability during freeze-thaw cycling. Circular dichroism scans indicated that rIBPv mainly consists of β strands, and its denaturing temperature was 53.5 °C. Multiple-sequence alignment of homologous IBPs predicted that IBPv contains two ice-binding domains, a feature unique among known IBPs. To examine functional differences between the IBPv domains, each domain was cloned, expressed, and purified. The second domain (domain B) expressed greater ice binding activity. Data from thermal hysteresis and gel filtration assays supported the idea that the two domains cooperate to achieve a higher ice binding effect by forming heterodimers. However, physical linkage of the domains was not required for this effect.

  12. FENS-1 and DFCP1 are FYVE domain-containing proteins with distinct functions in the endosomal and Golgi compartments.

    PubMed

    Ridley, S H; Ktistakis, N; Davidson, K; Anderson, K E; Manifava, M; Ellson, C D; Lipp, P; Bootman, M; Coadwell, J; Nazarian, A; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Cooper, M A; Thuring, J W; Lim, Z Y; Holmes, A B; Stephens, L R; Hawkins, P T

    2001-11-01

    FENS-1 and DFCP1 are recently discovered proteins containing one or two FYVE-domains respectively. We show that the FYVE domains in these proteins can bind PtdIns3P in vitro with high specificity over other phosphoinositides. Exogenously expressed FENS-1 localises to early endosomes: this localisation requires an intact FYVE domain and is sensitive to wortmannin inhibition. The isolated FYVE domain of FENS-1 also localises to endosomes. These results are consistent with current models of FYVE-domain function in this cellular compartment. By contrast, exogenously expressed DFCP1 displays a predominantly Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vesicular distribution with little or no overlap with FENS-1 or other endosomal markers. Overexpression of DFCP1 was found to cause dispersal of the Golgi compartment defined by giantin and gpp130-staining. Disruption of the FYVE domains of DFCP1 causes a shift to more condensed and compact Golgi structures and overexpression of this mutant was found to confer significant protection to the Golgi against brefeldin-induced dispersal. These properties of DFCP1 are surprising, and suggest FYVE domain-localisation and function may not be exclusively endosomal. Movies available on-line

  13. Structural and functional analysis of Utp23, a yeast ribosome synthesis factor with degenerate PIN domain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Sun, Mengyi; Ye, Keqiong

    2013-01-01

    During synthesis of yeast ribosome, a large complex, called the 90S pre-ribosome or the small subunit processome, is assembled on the nascent precursor rRNA and mediates early processing of 18S rRNA. The Utp23 protein and snR30 H/ACA snoRNA are two conserved components of 90S pre-ribosomes. Utp23 contains a degenerate PIN nuclease domain followed by a long C-terminal tail and associates specifically with snR30. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Utp23 PIN domain at 2.5-Å resolution. The structure reveals a conserved core fold of PIN domain with degenerate active site residues, a unique CCHC Zn-finger motif, and two terminal extension elements. Functional sites of Utp23 have been examined with conservation analysis, mutagenesis, and in vivo and in vitro assays. Mutations in each of three cysteine ligands of zinc, although not the histidine ligand, were lethal or strongly inhibitory to yeast growth, indicating that the Zn-finger motif is required for Utp23 structure or function. The N-terminal helix extension harbors many highly conserved basic residues that mostly are critical for growth and in vitro RNA-binding activity of Utp23. Deletion of the C-terminal tail, which contains a short functionally important sequence motif, disrupted the interaction of Utp23 with snR30 and perturbed the pre-ribosomal association of Utp23. Our data establish a structural framework for dissecting Utp23 function in the assembly and dynamics of 90S pre-ribosomes. PMID:24152547

  14. Structural and functional analysis of Utp23, a yeast ribosome synthesis factor with degenerate PIN domain.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Sun, Mengyi; Ye, Keqiong

    2013-12-01

    During synthesis of yeast ribosome, a large complex, called the 90S pre-ribosome or the small subunit processome, is assembled on the nascent precursor rRNA and mediates early processing of 18S rRNA. The Utp23 protein and snR30 H/ACA snoRNA are two conserved components of 90S pre-ribosomes. Utp23 contains a degenerate PIN nuclease domain followed by a long C-terminal tail and associates specifically with snR30. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Utp23 PIN domain at 2.5-Å resolution. The structure reveals a conserved core fold of PIN domain with degenerate active site residues, a unique CCHC Zn-finger motif, and two terminal extension elements. Functional sites of Utp23 have been examined with conservation analysis, mutagenesis, and in vivo and in vitro assays. Mutations in each of three cysteine ligands of zinc, although not the histidine ligand, were lethal or strongly inhibitory to yeast growth, indicating that the Zn-finger motif is required for Utp23 structure or function. The N-terminal helix extension harbors many highly conserved basic residues that mostly are critical for growth and in vitro RNA-binding activity of Utp23. Deletion of the C-terminal tail, which contains a short functionally important sequence motif, disrupted the interaction of Utp23 with snR30 and perturbed the pre-ribosomal association of Utp23. Our data establish a structural framework for dissecting Utp23 function in the assembly and dynamics of 90S pre-ribosomes.

  15. BTB and TAZ domain scaffold proteins perform a crucial function in Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Robert, Hélène S; Quint, Ab; Brand, Daan; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Offringa, Remko

    2009-04-01

    In Arabidopsis, bric-a-brac, tramtrack and broad (BTB) domain scaffold proteins form a family of 80 proteins that have involvement in various signaling pathways. The five members of the subfamily of BTB AND TAZ DOMAIN proteins (BT1-BT5) have a typical domain structure that is only observed in land plants. Here, we present a functional analysis of the BT family, of which at least four members are encoded by auxin-responsive genes. BT1 is a short-lived protein that is characteristically targeted for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Expression pattern, gene structure and sequence analyses indicate that BT1 and BT2 are closely related. They both localize to the nucleus and the cytosol, whereas the remaining BT proteins were determined as cytosolic proteins. Detailed molecular and phenotypic analysis of plants segregating for null mutations in the BT family revealed substantial redundancy among the BT members, and highlighted that BT proteins perform crucial roles in both male and female gametophyte development. BT2 seems to be the predominant gene in this process, in which it is functionally replaced by BT3 and BT1 through reciprocal transcription regulation. Compensational expression alters the steady-state mRNA levels among the remaining BT family members when other BT members are lost, and this contributes towards functional redundancy. Our data provide a surprising example of functional redundancy among genes required during gametophyte development, something that could not be detected in the current screens for gametophyte mutants. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. PDSS/IMC requirements and functional specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The system (software and hardware) requirements for the Payload Development Support System (PDSS)/Image Motion Compensator (IMC) are provided. The PDSS/IMC system provides the capability for performing Image Motion Compensator Electronics (IMCE) flight software test, checkout, and verification and provides the capability for monitoring the IMC flight computer system during qualification testing for fault detection and fault isolation.

  17. Functional analysis of domain of unknown function (DUF) 1943, DUF1944 and von Willebrand factor type D domain (VWD) in vitellogenin2 in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Lili; Liu, Shousheng; Gao, Zhan; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-12-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), the precursor of egg-yolk proteins in all oviparous organisms, shares a similar domain structure combination. In most cases, Vg contains the Vitellogenin_N domain, the domain of unknown function (DUF) 1943, and the von Willebrand factor type D domain (VWD), which are present in different forms of Vg from both vertebrates and invertebrates. Occasionally, a DUF1944 domain is also present in between DUF1943 and VWD in some Vg proteins of vertebrates. Recent studies have shown that Vg participates in immune defense of host with multiple functions. However, whether all Vg proteins encoded by different vg genes play an immune role is unknown. In addition, the correlation of different domains in Vg with the multiple immune functions remains completely unclear. Here we demonstrated clearly that recombinant proteins, rDUF1943, rDUF1944 and rVWD from zebrafish Vg2 interacted with both the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Vibrio anguillarum, as well as their signature components LTA and LPS. Moreover, both rDUF1943 and rDUF1944 promoted the phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus by carp macrophages. These suggest that both DUF1943 and DUF1944 as well as VWD may contribute to the function of Vg as a pattern recognition receptor, and DUF1943 and DUF1944 also contribute to the function of Vg as an opsonin. This study also opens a new angle for identification of function of genes of unknown function, which have the domains DUF1943 and DUF1944. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional analyses of two cellular binding domains of bovine lactadherin.

    PubMed

    Andersen, M H; Graversen, H; Fedosov, S N; Petersen, T E; Rasmussen, J T

    2000-05-23

    The glycoprotein bovine lactadherin (formerly known as PAS-6/7) comprises two EGF-like domains and two C-like domains found in blood clotting factors V and VIII. Bovine lactadherin binds to alpha(v)beta(5) integrin in an RGD-dependent manner and also to phospholipids, especially phosphatidyl serine. To define and characterize these bindings the interactions between lactadherin and different mammalian cell types were investigated. Using recombinant forms of bovine lactadherin, the human breast carcinomas MCF-7 cells expressing the alpha(v)beta(5) integrin receptor were shown to bind specifically to RGD containing lactadherin but not to a mutated RGE lactadherin. A monoclonal antibody against the alpha(v)beta(5) integrin receptor and a synthetic RGD-containing peptide inhibited the adhesion of MCF-7 cells to lactadherin. Green monkey kidney MA-104 cells, also expressing the alpha(v)beta(3) together with the alpha(v)beta(5) integrin, showed binding to bovine lactadherin via both integrins. To investigate the interaction of lipid with lactadherin two fragments were expressed corresponding to the C1C2 domains and the C2 domain. Both fragments bound to phosphatidyl serine in a concentration-dependent manner with an affinity similar to native lactadherin (K(d) = 1.8 nM). A peptide corresponding to the C-terminal part of the C2 domain inhibited the binding of lactadherin to phospholipid in a concentration-dependent manner, and finally it was shown that lactadherin mediates binding between artificial phosphatidyl serine membranes and MCF-7 cells. Taken together these results show that lactadherin can act as link between two surfaces by binding to integrin receptors through its N-terminus and to phospholipids through its C-terminus.

  19. Structural And Functional Studies of ALIX Interactions With YPXnL Late Domains of HIV-1 And EIAV

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Q.; Fisher, R.D.; Chung, H.-Y.; Myszka, D.G.; Sundquist, W.I.; Hill, C.P.

    2009-05-28

    Retrovirus budding requires short peptide motifs (late domains) located within the viral Gag protein that function by recruiting cellular factors. The YPX{sub n}L late domains of HIV and other lentiviruses recruit the protein ALIX (also known as AIP1), which also functions in vesicle formation at the multivesicular body and in the abscission stage of cytokinesis. Here, we report the crystal structures of ALIX in complex with the YPX{sub n}L late domains from HIV-1 and EIAV. The two distinct late domains bind at the same site on the ALIX V domain but adopt different conformations that allow them to make equivalent contacts. Binding studies and functional assays verified the importance of key interface residues and revealed that binding affinities are tuned by context-dependent effects. These results reveal how YPX{sub n}L late domains recruit ALIX to facilitate virus budding and how ALIX can bind YPX{sub n}L sequences with both n = 1 and n = 3.

  20. Tubby domain superfamily protein is required for the formation of the 7S SNARE complex in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eun Jang; Jeong, Yong Taek; Lee, Ji Eun; Moon, Seok Jun; Kim, Chul Hoon

    2017-01-22

    Tubby domain superfamily protein (TUSP) is a distant member of the Tubby-like protein (TULP) family. Although other TULPs play important roles in sensation, metabolism, and development, the molecular functions of TUSP are completely unknown. Here, we explore the function of TUSP in the Drosophila nervous system where it is expressed in all neurons. Tusp mutant flies exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis. This paralysis can be rescued by tissue-specific expression of Tusp in the giant fibers and peripherally synapsing interneurons of the giant fiber system, a well-characterized neuronal circuit that mediates rapid escape behavior in flies. Consistent with this paralytic phenotype, we observed a profound reduction in the assembly of the ternary 7S SNARE complex that is required for neurotransmitter release despite seeing no changes in the expression of each individual SNARE complex component. Together, these data suggest TUSP is a novel regulator of SNARE assembly and, therefore, of neurotransmitter release.

  1. Tank waste remediation system functions and requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.E

    1996-10-03

    This is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document derived from the TWRS Technical Baseline. The document consists of several text sections that provide the purpose, scope, background information, and an explanation of how this document assists the application of Systems Engineering to the TWRS. The primary functions identified in the TWRS Functions and Requirements Document are identified in Figure 4.1 (Section 4.0) Currently, this document is part of the overall effort to develop the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline, and contains the functions and requirements needed to properly define the top three TWRS function levels. TWRS Technical Baseline information (RDD-100 database) included in the appendices of the attached document contain the TWRS functions, requirements, and architecture necessary to define the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline. Document organization and user directions are provided in the introductory text. This document will continue to be modified during the TWRS life-cycle.

  2. Regulation of synaptic Pumilio function by an aggregation-prone domain

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Anna M.; Silverman, Edward J.; Menon, Kaushiki P.; Zinn, Kai

    2010-01-01

    We identified Pumilio (Pum), a Drosophila translational repressor, in a computational search for metazoan proteins whose activities might be regulated by assembly into ordered aggregates. The search algorithm was based on evolutionary sequence conservation patterns observed for yeast prion proteins, which contain aggregation-prone glutamine/asparagine (Q/N)-rich domains attached to functional domains of normal amino acid composition. We examined aggregation of Pum and its nematode ortholog PUF-9 by expression in yeast. A domain of Pum containing the Q/N-rich sequence, denoted as NQ1, the entire Pum N-terminus, and the complete PUF-9 protein localize to macroscopic aggregates (foci) in yeast. NQ1 and PUF-9 can generate the yeast Pin+ trait, which is transmitted by a heritable aggregate. NQ1 also assembles into amyloid fibrils in vitro. In Drosophila, Pum regulates postsynaptic translation at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). To assess whether NQ1 affects synaptic Pum activity in vivo, we expressed it in muscles. We found that it negatively regulates endogenous Pum, producing gene dosage-dependent pum loss-of-function NMJ phenotypes. NQ1 coexpression also suppresses lethality and NMJ phenotypes caused by overexpression of Pum in muscles. The Q/N block of NQ1 is required for these phenotypic effects. Negative regulation of Pum by NQ1 might be explained by formation of inactive aggregates, but we have been unable to demonstrate that NQ1 aggregates in Drosophila. NQ1 could also regulate Pum by a “dominant-negative” effect, in which it would block Q/N-mediated interactions of Pum with itself or with cofactors required for translational repression. PMID:20071514

  3. Structural Heterogeneity and Functional Domains of Murine Immunoglobulin G Fc Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Luster, Andrew D.; Weinshank, Richard; Kochan, Jarema; Pavlovec, Amalia; Portnoy, Daniel A.; Hulmes, Jeffrey; Pan, Yu-Ching E.; Unkeless, Jay C.

    1986-11-01

    Binding of antibodies to effector cells by way of receptors to their constant regions (Fc receptors) is central to the pathway that leads to clearance of antigens by the immune system. The structure and function of this important class of receptors on immune cells is addressed through the molecular characterization of Fc receptors (FcR) specific for the murine immunoglobulin G isotype. Structural diversity is encoded by two genes that by alternative splicing result in expression of molecules with highly conserved extracellular domains and different transmembrane and intracytoplasmic domains. The proteins encoded by these genes are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family, most homologous to the major histocompatibility complex molecule Eβ. Functional reconstitution of ligand binding by transfection of individual FcR genes demonstrates that the requirements for ligand binding are encoded in a single gene. These studies demonstrate the molecular basis for the functional heterogeneity of FcR's, accounting for the possible transduction of different signals in response to a single ligand.

  4. Distinct and redundant roles of the non-muscle myosin II isoforms and functional domains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aibing; Ma, Xuefei; Conti, Mary Anne; Adelstein, Robert S

    2011-10-01

    We propose that the in vivo functions of NM II (non-muscle myosin II) can be divided between those that depend on the N-terminal globular motor domain and those less dependent on motor activity but more dependent on the C-terminal domain. The former, being more dependent on the kinetic properties of NM II to translocate actin filaments, are less amenable to substitution by different NM II isoforms, whereas the in vivo functions of the latter, which involve the structural properties of NM II to cross-link actin filaments, are more amenable to substitution. In light of this hypothesis, we examine the ability of NM II-A, as well as a motor-compromised form of NM II-B, to replace NM II-B and rescue neuroepithelial cell-cell adhesion defects and hydrocephalus in the brain of NM II-B-depleted mice. We also examine the ability of NM II-B as well as chimaeric forms of NM II (II-A head and II-B tail and vice versa) to substitute for NM II-A in cell-cell adhesions in II-A-ablated mice. However, we also show that certain functions, such as neuronal cell migration in the developing brain and vascularization of the mouse embryo and placenta, specifically require NM II-B and II-A respectively.

  5. Analysis of Bovine Leukemia Virus Gag Membrane Targeting and Late Domain Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huating; Norris, Kendra M.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2002-01-01

    Assembly of retrovirus-like particles only requires the expression of the Gag polyprotein precursor. We have exploited this in the development of a model system for studying the virus particle assembly pathway for bovine leukemia virus (BLV). BLV is closely related to the human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLVs), and all are members of the Deltaretrovirus genus of the Retroviridae family. Overexpression of a BLV Gag polyprotein containing a carboxy-terminal influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag in mammalian cells led to the robust production of virus-like particles (VLPs). Site-directed mutations were introduced into HA-tagged Gag to test the usefulness of this model system for studying certain aspects of the virus assembly pathway. First, mutations that disrupted the amino-terminal glycine residue that is important for Gag myristylation led to a drastic reduction in VLP production. Predictably, the nature of the VLP production defect was correlated to Gag membrane localization. Second, mutation of the PPPY motif (located in the MA domain) greatly reduced VLP production in the absence of the viral protease. This reduction in VLP production was more severe in the presence of an active viral protease. Examination of particles by electron microscopy revealed an abundance of particles that began to pinch off from the plasma membrane but were not completely released from the cell surface, indicating that the PPPY motif functions as a late domain (L domain). PMID:12134053

  6. ELMO Domains, Evolutionary and Functional Characterization of a Novel GTPase-activating Protein (GAP) Domain for Arf Protein Family GTPases*

    PubMed Central

    East, Michael P.; Bowzard, J. Bradford; Dacks, Joel B.; Kahn, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The human family of ELMO domain-containing proteins (ELMODs) consists of six members and is defined by the presence of the ELMO domain. Within this family are two subclassifications of proteins, based on primary sequence conservation, protein size, and domain architecture, deemed ELMOD and ELMO. In this study, we used homology searching and phylogenetics to identify ELMOD family homologs in genomes from across eukaryotic diversity. This demonstrated not only that the protein family is ancient but also that ELMOs are potentially restricted to the supergroup Opisthokonta (Metazoa and Fungi), whereas proteins with the ELMOD organization are found in diverse eukaryotes and thus were likely the form present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. The segregation of the ELMO clade from the larger ELMOD group is consistent with their contrasting functions as unconventional Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factors and the Arf family GTPase-activating proteins, respectively. We used unbiased, phylogenetic sorting and sequence alignments to identify the most highly conserved residues within the ELMO domain to identify a putative GAP domain within the ELMODs. Three independent but complementary assays were used to provide an initial characterization of this domain. We identified a highly conserved arginine residue critical for both the biochemical and cellular GAP activity of ELMODs. We also provide initial evidence of the function of human ELMOD1 as an Arf family GAP at the Golgi. These findings provide the basis for the future study of the ELMOD family of proteins and a new avenue for the study of Arf family GTPases. PMID:23014990

  7. Function and evolution of ubiquitous bacterial signaling adapter phosphopeptide recognition domain FHA.

    PubMed

    Weiling, Hong; Xiaowen, Yu; Chunmei, Li; Jianping, Xie

    2013-03-01

    Forkhead-associated domain (FHA) is a phosphopeptide recognition domain embedded in some regulatory proteins. With similar fold type to important eukaryotic signaling molecules such as Smad2 and IRF3, the role of bacterial FHA domain is intensively pursued. Reported bacterial FHA domain roles include: regulation of glutamate and lipids production, regulation of cell shape, type III secretion, ethambutol resistance, sporulation, signal transduction, carbohydrate storage and transport, and pathogenic and symbiotic host-bacterium interactions. To provide basis for the studies of other bacterial FHA domain containing proteins, the status of bacterial FHA functionality and evolution were summarized. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CDD/SPARCLE: functional classification of proteins via subfamily domain architectures.

    PubMed

    Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Bo, Yu; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; Lanczycki, Christopher J; Lu, Shennan; Chitsaz, Farideh; Derbyshire, Myra K; Geer, Renata C; Gonzales, Noreen R; Gwadz, Marc; Hurwitz, David I; Lu, Fu; Marchler, Gabriele H; Song, James S; Thanki, Narmada; Wang, Zhouxi; Yamashita, Roxanne A; Zhang, Dachuan; Zheng, Chanjuan; Geer, Lewis Y; Bryant, Stephen H

    2017-01-04

    NCBI's Conserved Domain Database (CDD) aims at annotating biomolecular sequences with the location of evolutionarily conserved protein domain footprints, and functional sites inferred from such footprints. An archive of pre-computed domain annotation is maintained for proteins tracked by NCBI's Entrez database, and live search services are offered as well. CDD curation staff supplements a comprehensive collection of protein domain and protein family models, which have been imported from external providers, with representations of selected domain families that are curated in-house and organized into hierarchical classifications of functionally distinct families and sub-families. CDD also supports comparative analyses of protein families via conserved domain architectures, and a recent curation effort focuses on providing functional characterizations of distinct subfamily architectures using SPARCLE: Subfamily Protein Architecture Labeling Engine. CDD can be accessed at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/cdd.shtml.

  9. Control of brain patterning by Engrailed paracrine transfer: a new function of the Pbx interaction domain

    PubMed Central

    Rampon, Christine; Gauron, Carole; Lin, Thibault; Meda, Francesca; Dupont, Edmond; Cosson, Adrien; Ipendey, Eliane; Frerot, Alice; Aujard, Isabelle; Le Saux, Thomas; Bensimon, David; Jullien, Ludovic; Volovitch, Michel; Vriz, Sophie; Joliot, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Homeoproteins of the Engrailed family are involved in the patterning of mesencephalic boundaries through a mechanism classically ascribed to their transcriptional functions. In light of recent reports on the paracrine activity of homeoproteins, including Engrailed, we asked whether Engrailed intercellular transfer was also involved in brain patterning and boundary formation. Using time-controlled activation of Engrailed combined with tools that block its transfer, we show that the positioning of the diencephalic-mesencephalic boundary (DMB) requires Engrailed paracrine activity. Both zebrafish Eng2a and Eng2b are competent for intercellular transfer in vivo, but only extracellular endogenous Eng2b, and not Eng2a, participates in DMB positioning. In addition, disruption of the Pbx-interacting motif in Engrailed, known to strongly reduce the gain-of-function phenotype, also downregulates Engrailed transfer, thus revealing an unsuspected participation of the Pbx interaction domain in this pathway. PMID:25926358

  10. Control of brain patterning by Engrailed paracrine transfer: a new function of the Pbx interaction domain.

    PubMed

    Rampon, Christine; Gauron, Carole; Lin, Thibault; Meda, Francesca; Dupont, Edmond; Cosson, Adrien; Ipendey, Eliane; Frerot, Alice; Aujard, Isabelle; Le Saux, Thomas; Bensimon, David; Jullien, Ludovic; Volovitch, Michel; Vriz, Sophie; Joliot, Alain

    2015-05-15

    Homeoproteins of the Engrailed family are involved in the patterning of mesencephalic boundaries through a mechanism classically ascribed to their transcriptional functions. In light of recent reports on the paracrine activity of homeoproteins, including Engrailed, we asked whether Engrailed intercellular transfer was also involved in brain patterning and boundary formation. Using time-controlled activation of Engrailed combined with tools that block its transfer, we show that the positioning of the diencephalic-mesencephalic boundary (DMB) requires Engrailed paracrine activity. Both zebrafish Eng2a and Eng2b are competent for intercellular transfer in vivo, but only extracellular endogenous Eng2b, and not Eng2a, participates in DMB positioning. In addition, disruption of the Pbx-interacting motif in Engrailed, known to strongly reduce the gain-of-function phenotype, also downregulates Engrailed transfer, thus revealing an unsuspected participation of the Pbx interaction domain in this pathway. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. A subtype specific function for the extracellular domain of neuroligin 1 in hippocampal LTP

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, Seth L.; Nicoll, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary At neuronal excitatory synapses, two major subtypes of the synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin are present. These subtypes, neuroligin 1 and neuroligin 3, have roles in synaptogenesis and synaptic maintenance that appear largely overlapping. In this study we combine electrophysiology with molecular deletion and replacement of these proteins to identify similarities and differences between these subtypes. In doing so, we identify a subtype specific role in LTP for neuroligin 1 in young CA1, which persists into adulthood in the dentate gyrus. As neuroligin 3 showed no requirement for LTP, we constructed chimeric proteins of the two excitatory neuroligin subtypes to identify the molecular determinants particular to the unique function of neuroligin 1. Using in vivo molecular replacement experiments, we find that these unique functions depend on a region in its extracellular domain containing the B site splice insertion previously shown to determine specificity of neurexin binding. PMID:23083734

  12. A subtype-specific function for the extracellular domain of neuroligin 1 in hippocampal LTP.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Seth L; Nicoll, Roger A

    2012-10-18

    At neuronal excitatory synapses, two major subtypes of the synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin are present. These subtypes, neuroligin 1 and neuroligin 3, have roles in synaptogenesis and synaptic maintenance that appear largely overlapping. In this study, we combine electrophysiology with molecular deletion and replacement of these proteins to identify similarities and differences between these subtypes. In doing so, we identify a subtype-specific role in LTP for neuroligin 1 in young CA1, which persists into adulthood in the dentate gyrus. As neuroligin 3 showed no requirement for LTP, we constructed chimeric proteins of the two excitatory neuroligin subtypes to identify the molecular determinants particular to the unique function of neuroligin 1. Using in vivo molecular replacement experiments, we find that these unique functions depend on a region in its extracellular domain containing the B site splice insertion previously shown to determine specificity of neurexin binding.

  13. Insights into Hox protein function from a large scale combinatorial analysis of protein domains.

    PubMed

    Merabet, Samir; Litim-Mecheri, Isma; Karlsson, Daniel; Dixit, Richa; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Monier, Bruno; Brun, Christine; Thor, Stefan; Vijayraghavan, K; Perrin, Laurent; Pradel, Jacques; Graba, Yacine

    2011-10-01

    Protein function is encoded within protein sequence and protein domains. However, how protein domains cooperate within a protein to modulate overall activity and how this impacts functional diversification at the molecular and organism levels remains largely unaddressed. Focusing on three domains of the central class Drosophila Hox transcription factor AbdominalA (AbdA), we used combinatorial domain mutations and most known AbdA developmental functions as biological readouts to investigate how protein domains collectively shape protein activity. The results uncover redundancy, interactivity, and multifunctionality of protein domains as salient features underlying overall AbdA protein activity, providing means to apprehend functional diversity and accounting for the robustness of Hox-controlled developmental programs. Importantly, the results highlight context-dependency in protein domain usage and interaction, allowing major modifications in domains to be tolerated without general functional loss. The non-pleoitropic effect of domain mutation suggests that protein modification may contribute more broadly to molecular changes underlying morphological diversification during evolution, so far thought to rely largely on modification in gene cis-regulatory sequences.

  14. Insights into Hox Protein Function from a Large Scale Combinatorial Analysis of Protein Domains

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Daniel; Dixit, Richa; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Monier, Bruno; Brun, Christine; Thor, Stefan; Vijayraghavan, K.; Perrin, Laurent; Pradel, Jacques; Graba, Yacine

    2011-01-01

    Protein function is encoded within protein sequence and protein domains. However, how protein domains cooperate within a protein to modulate overall activity and how this impacts functional diversification at the molecular and organism levels remains largely unaddressed. Focusing on three domains of the central class Drosophila Hox transcription factor AbdominalA (AbdA), we used combinatorial domain mutations and most known AbdA developmental functions as biological readouts to investigate how protein domains collectively shape protein activity. The results uncover redundancy, interactivity, and multifunctionality of protein domains as salient features underlying overall AbdA protein activity, providing means to apprehend functional diversity and accounting for the robustness of Hox-controlled developmental programs. Importantly, the results highlight context-dependency in protein domain usage and interaction, allowing major modifications in domains to be tolerated without general functional loss. The non-pleoitropic effect of domain mutation suggests that protein modification may contribute more broadly to molecular changes underlying morphological diversification during evolution, so far thought to rely largely on modification in gene cis-regulatory sequences. PMID:22046139

  15. The coiled-coil and nucleotide binding domains of the Potato Rx disease resistance protein function in pathogen recognition and signaling.

    PubMed

    Rairdan, Gregory J; Collier, Sarah M; Sacco, Melanie A; Baldwin, Thomas T; Boettrich, Teresa; Moffett, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Plant genomes encode large numbers of nucleotide binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins, some of which mediate the recognition of pathogen-encoded proteins. Following recognition, the initiation of a resistance response is thought to be mediated by the domains present at the N termini of NB-LRR proteins, either a Toll and Interleukin-1 Receptor or a coiled-coil (CC) domain. In order to understand the role of the CC domain in NB-LRR function, we have undertaken a systematic structure-function analysis of the CC domain of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CC-NB-LRR protein Rx, which confers resistance to Potato virus X. We show that the highly conserved EDVID motif of the CC domain mediates an intramolecular interaction that is dependent on several domains within the rest of the Rx protein, including the NB and LRR domains. Other conserved and nonconserved regions of the CC domain mediate the interaction with the Ran GTPase-activating protein, RanGAP2, a protein required for Rx function. Furthermore, we show that the Rx NB domain is sufficient for inducing cell death typical of hypersensitive plant resistance responses. We describe a model of CC-NB-LRR function wherein the LRR and CC domains coregulate the signaling activity of the NB domain in a recognition-specific manner.

  16. Phosphorylation of synapsin domain A is required for post-tetanic potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fiumara, Ferdinando; Milanese, Chiara; Corradi, Anna; Giovedì, Silvia; Leitinger, Gerd; Menegon, Andrea; Montarolo, Pier Giorgio; Benfenati, Fabio; Ghirardi, Mirella

    2010-01-01

    Summary Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) is a form of homosynaptic plasticity important for information processing and short-term memory in the nervous system. The synapsins, a family of synaptic vesicle (SV)-associated phosphoproteins, have been implicated in PTP. Although several synapsin functions are known to be regulated by phosphorylation by multiple protein kinases, the role of individual phosphorylation sites in synaptic plasticity is poorly understood. All the synapsins share a phosphorylation site in the N-terminal domain A (site 1) that regulates neurite elongation and SV mobilization. Here, we have examined the role of phosphorylation of synapsin domain A in PTP and other forms of short-term synaptic enhancement (STE) at synapses between cultured Helix pomatia neurons. To this aim, we cloned H. pomatia synapsin (helSyn) and overexpressed GFP-tagged wild-type helSyn or site-1-mutant helSyn mutated in the presynaptic compartment of C1-B2 synapses. We found that PTP at these synapses depends both on Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and cAMP-dependent protein kinases, and that overexpression of the non-phosphorylatable helSyn mutant, but not wild-type helSyn, specifically impairs PTP, while not altering facilitation and augmentation. Our findings show that phosphorylation of site 1 has a prominent role in the expression of PTP, thus defining a novel role for phosphorylation of synapsin domain A in short-term homosynaptic plasticity. PMID:17726061

  17. The rapidly evolving centromere-specific histone has stringent functional requirements in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Maruthachalam; Kwong, Pak N; Menorca, Ron M G; Valencia, Joel T; Ramahi, Joseph S; Stewart, Jodi L; Tran, Robert K; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Comai, Luca; Chan, Simon W-L

    2010-10-01

    Centromeres control chromosome inheritance in eukaryotes, yet their DNA structure and primary sequence are hypervariable. Most animals and plants have megabases of tandem repeats at their centromeres, unlike yeast with unique centromere sequences. Centromere function requires the centromere-specific histone CENH3 (CENP-A in human), which replaces histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes. CENH3 evolves rapidly, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. A portion of the CENH3 histone-fold domain, the CENP-A targeting domain (CATD), has been previously shown to confer kinetochore localization and centromere function when swapped into human H3. Furthermore, CENP-A in human cells can be functionally replaced by CENH3 from distantly related organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used cenh3-1 (a null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana) to replace endogenous CENH3 with GFP-tagged variants. A H3.3 tail domain-CENH3 histone-fold domain chimera rescued viability of cenh3-1, but CENH3's lacking a tail domain were nonfunctional. In contrast to human results, H3 containing the A. thaliana CATD cannot complement cenh3-1. GFP-CENH3 from the sister species A. arenosa functionally replaces A. thaliana CENH3. GFP-CENH3 from the close relative Brassica rapa was targeted to centromeres, but did not complement cenh3-1, indicating that kinetochore localization and centromere function can be uncoupled. We conclude that CENH3 function in A. thaliana, an organism with large tandem repeat centromeres, has stringent requirements for functional complementation in mitosis.

  18. CD6-ligand interactions: a paradigm for SRCR domain function?

    PubMed

    Aruffo, A; Bowen, M A; Patel, D D; Haynes, B F; Starling, G C; Gebe, J A; Bajorath, J

    1997-10-01

    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily, which includes proteins expressed by leukocytes, can be subdivided into groups A and B. Group B contains the lymphocyte cell-surface receptor CD6. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the interaction between CD6 and its ligand, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM). Analysis of the CD6-ALCAM interaction may help to understand how other SRCR domains bind to their ligands.

  19. Nuclear localization is required for induction of apoptotic cell death by the Rb-associated p84N5 death domain protein.

    PubMed

    Evans, Randall L; Poe, Bryan S; Goodrich, David W

    2002-07-11

    The mechanisms utilized to transduce apoptotic signals that originate from within the nucleus, in response to DNA damage for example, are not well understood. Identifying these mechanisms is important for predicting how tumor cells will respond to genotoxic radiation or chemotherapy. The Rb tumor suppressor protein can inhibit apoptosis triggered by DNA damage, but how it does so is unclear. We have previously characterized a death domain protein, p84N5, that specifically associates with an amino-terminal domain of Rb protein. The p84N5 death domain is required for its ability to trigger apoptotic cell death. Association with Rb protein inhibits p84N5-induced apoptosis suggesting that it may be a mediator of Rb's effects on apoptosis. Unlike other death domain-containing apoptotic signaling proteins, however, p84N5 is localized predominantly within the nucleus of interphase cells. Here we test whether p84N5 requires nuclear localization in order to trigger apoptosis. We identify the p84N5 nuclear localization signal and demonstrate that nuclear localization is required for p84N5-induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this identifies p84N5 as the first death-domain containing apoptotic signaling protein that functions within the nucleus. By analogy to other death domain containing proteins, p84N5 may play some role in apoptotic signaling within the nucleus. Further, p84N5 is a potential mediator of Rb protein's effects on DNA damage induced apoptosis.

  20. New Generation Nuclear Plant -- High Level Functions and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Ryskamp; E. J. Gorski; E. A. Harvego; S. T. Khericha; G. A. Beitel

    2003-09-01

    This functions and requirements (F&R) document was prepared for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The highest-level functions and requirements for the NGNP preconceptual design are identified in this document, which establishes performance definitions for what the NGNP will achieve. NGNP designs will be developed based on these requirements by commercial vendor(s).

  1. The protein domains of the Dictyostelium microprocessor that are required for correct subcellular localization and for microRNA maturation.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Janis; Meier, Doreen; Zenk, Fides; Rehders, Maren; Nellen, Wolfgang; Hammann, Christian

    2016-10-02

    The maturation pathways of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been delineated for plants and several animals, belonging to the evolutionary supergroups of Archaeplastida and Opisthokonta, respectively. Recently, we reported the discovery of the microprocessor complex in Dictyostelium discoideum of the Amoebozoa supergroup. The complex is composed of the Dicer DrnB and the dsRBD (double-stranded RNA binding domain) containing protein RbdB. Both proteins localize at nucleoli, where they physically interact, and both are required for miRNA maturation. Here we show that the miRNA phenotype of a ΔdrnB gene deletion strain can be rescued by ectopic expression of a series of DrnB GFP fusion proteins, which consistently showed punctate perinucleolar localization in fluorescence microscopy. These punctate foci appear surprisingly stable, as they persist both disintegration of nucleoli and degradation of cellular nucleic acids. We observed that DrnB expression levels influence the number of microprocessor foci and alter RbdB accumulation. An investigation of DrnB variants revealed that its newly identified nuclear localization signal is necessary, but not sufficient for the perinucleolar localization. Biogenesis of miRNAs, which are RNA Pol II transcripts, is correlated with that localization. Besides its bidentate RNase III domains, DrnB contains only a dsRBD, which surprisingly is dispensable for miRNA maturation. This dsRBD can, however, functionally replace the homologous domain in RbdB. Based on the unique setup of the Dictyostelium microprocessor with a subcellular localization similar to plants, but a protein domain composition similar to animals, we propose a model for the evolutionary origin of RNase III proteins acting in miRNA maturation.

  2. Protein domain recurrence and order can enhance prediction of protein functions.

    PubMed

    Messih, Mario Abdel; Chitale, Meghana; Bajic, Vladimir B; Kihara, Daisuke; Gao, Xin

    2012-09-15

    Burgeoning sequencing technologies have generated massive amounts of genomic and proteomic data. Annotating the functions of proteins identified in this data has become a big and crucial problem. Various computational methods have been developed to infer the protein functions based on either the sequences or domains of proteins. The existing methods, however, ignore the recurrence and the order of the protein domains in this function inference. We developed two new methods to infer protein functions based on protein domain recurrence and domain order. Our first method, DRDO, calculates the posterior probability of the Gene Ontology terms based on domain recurrence and domain order information, whereas our second method, DRDO-NB, relies on the naïve Bayes methodology using the same domain architecture information. Our large-scale benchmark comparisons show strong improvements in the accuracy of the protein function inference achieved by our new methods, demonstrating that domain recurrence and order can provide important information for inference of protein functions. The new models are provided as open source programs at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Software.aspx. dkihara@cs.purdue.edu, xin.gao@kaust.edu.sa Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics Online.

  3. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  4. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  5. Structural And Functional Analysis of the Ligand Specificity of the HtrA2/OmI PDZ Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Appleton, B.A.; Wu, P.; Wiesmann, C.; Sidhu, S.S.

    2009-06-04

    The mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi helps to maintain mitochondrial function by handling misfolded proteins in the intermembrane space. In addition, HtrA2/Omi has been implicated as a proapoptotic factor upon release into the cytoplasm during the cell death cascade. The protein contains a C-terminal PDZ domain that packs against the protease active site and inhibits proteolytic activity. Engagement of the PDZ domain by peptide ligands has been shown to activate the protease and also has been proposed to mediate substrate recognition. We report a detailed structural and functional analysis of the human HtrA2/Omi PDZ domain using peptide libraries and affinity assays to define specificity, X-ray crystallography to view molecular details of PDZ-ligand interactions, and alanine-scanning mutagenesis to probe the peptide-binding groove. We show that the HtrA2/Omi PDZ domain recognizes both C-terminal and internal stretches of extended, hydrophobic polypeptides. High-affinity ligand recognition requires contacts with up to five hydrophobic side chains by distinct sites on the PDZ domain. However, no particular residue type is absolutely required at any position, and thus, the HtrA2/Omi PDZ domain appears to be a promiscuous module adapted to recognize unstructured, hydrophobic polypeptides. This type of specificity is consistent with the biological role of HtrA2/Omi in mitochondria, which requires the recognition of diverse, exposed stretches of hydrophobic sequences in misfolded proteins. The findings are less consistent with, but do not exclude, a role for the PDZ domain in targeting the protease to specific substrates during apoptosis.

  6. Two functionally distinct domains generated by in vivo cleavage of Nup145p: a novel biogenesis pathway for nucleoporins.

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, M T; Siniossoglou, S; Podtelejnikov, S; Bénichou, J C; Mann, M; Dujon, B; Hurt, E; Fabre, E

    1997-01-01

    Nup145p is an essential yeast nucleoporin involved in nuclear export of polyadenylated RNAs. We demonstrate here that Nup145p is cleaved in vivo to yield two functionally distinct domains: a carboxy-terminal domain (C-Nup145p) which is located at the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and assembles into the Nup84p complex, and a GLFG-containing amino-terminal domain (N-Nup145p) which is not part of this complex. Whereas the essential C-Nup145p accomplishes the functions required for efficient mRNA export and normal NPC distribution, N-Nup145p, which is homologous to the GLFG-containing nucleoporins Nup100p and Nup116p, is not necessary for cell growth. However, the N-Nup145p becomes essential in a nup188 mutant background. Strikingly, generation of a free N-domain is a prerequisite for complementation of this peculiar synthetic lethal mutant. These data suggest that N- and C-domains of Nup145p perform independent functions, and that the in vivo cleavage observed is of functional importance. PMID:9305650

  7. Domain-driven specification techniques simplify the analysis of requirements for the Kaon Factory central control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inwood, Clifford; Ludgate, G. A.; Dohan, D. A.; Osberg, E. A.; Koscielniak, S.

    1990-08-01

    Domain-driven modelling, outlined in this paper, has been successfully applied to the analysis, specification and design of the KAON Factory central control system (KF-CCS). This advanced object-oriented technique is especially suited to the development of complex systems. Early in the project, four very natural domains were identified which simplified the analysis of requirements.

  8. Domains in microbial beta-1, 4-glycanases: sequence conservation, function, and enzyme families.

    PubMed Central

    Gilkes, N R; Henrissat, B; Kilburn, D G; Miller, R C; Warren, R A

    1991-01-01

    Several types of domain occur in beta-1, 4-glycanases. The best characterized of these are the catalytic domains and the cellulose-binding domains. The domains may be joined by linker sequences rich in proline or hydroxyamino acids or both. Some of the enzymes contain repeated sequences up to 150 amino acids in length. The enzymes can be grouped into families on the basis of sequence similarities between the catalytic domains. There are sequence similarities between the cellulose-binding domains, of which two types have been identified, and also between some domains of unknown function. The beta-1, 4-glycanases appear to have arisen by the shuffling of a relatively small number of progenitor sequences. PMID:1886523

  9. Control of germline torso expression by the BTB/POZ domain protein pipsqueak is required for embryonic terminal patterning in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Marco; Furriols, Marc; Casanova, Jordi; Luschnig, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Early embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster is controlled by maternal gene products, which are deposited in the egg during oogenesis. It is not well understood how maternal gene expression is controlled during germline development. pipsqueak (psq) is a complex locus that encodes several nuclear protein variants containing a PSQ DNA-binding domain and a BTB/POZ domain. Psq proteins are thought to regulate germline gene expression through epigenetic silencing. While psq was originally identified as a posterior-group gene, we show here a novel role of psq in embryonic terminal patterning. We characterized a new psq loss-of-function allele, psq(rum), which specifically affects signaling by the Torso (Tor) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). Using genetic epistasis, gene expression analyses, and rescue experiments, we demonstrate that the sole function impaired by the psq(rum) mutation in the terminal system is an essential requirement for controlling transcription of the tor gene in the germline. In contrast, the expression of several other maternal genes, including those encoding Tor pathway components, is not affected by the mutation. Rescue of the psq(rum) terminal phenotype does not require the BTB/POZ domain, suggesting that the PSQ DNA-binding domain can function independently of the BTB/POZ domain. Our finding that tor expression is subject to dedicated transcriptional regulation suggests that different maternal genes may be regulated by multiple distinct mechanisms, rather than by a general program controlling nurse-cell transcription.

  10. Multiple DNA Binding Domains Mediate the Function of the ERCC1-XPF Protein in Nucleotide Excision Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yan; Orelli, Barbara; Madireddy, Advaitha; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Schärer, Orlando D.

    2012-01-01

    ERCC1-XPF is a heterodimeric, structure-specific endonuclease that cleaves single-stranded/double-stranded DNA junctions and has roles in nucleotide excision repair (NER), interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair, homologous recombination, and possibly other pathways. In NER, ERCC1-XPF is recruited to DNA lesions by interaction with XPA and incises the DNA 5′ to the lesion. We studied the role of the four C-terminal DNA binding domains in mediating NER activity and cleavage of model substrates. We found that mutations in the helix-hairpin-helix domain of ERCC1 and the nuclease domain of XPF abolished cleavage activity on model substrates. Interestingly, mutations in multiple DNA binding domains were needed to significantly diminish NER activity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that interactions with proteins in the NER incision complex can compensate for some defects in DNA binding. Mutations in DNA binding domains of ERCC1-XPF render cells more sensitive to the crosslinking agent mitomycin C than to ultraviolet radiation, suggesting that the ICL repair function of ERCC1-XPF requires tighter substrate binding than NER. Our studies show that multiple domains of ERCC1-XPF contribute to substrate binding, and are consistent with models of NER suggesting that multiple weak protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions drive progression through the pathway. Our findings are discussed in the context of structural studies of individual domains of ERCC1-XPF and of its role in multiple DNA repair pathways. PMID:22547097

  11. Structure and Functional Studies of the CS Domain of the Essential H/ACA Ribonucleoparticle Assembly Protein SHQ1

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahavir; Gonzales, Fernando A.; Cascio, Duilio; Heckmann, Nathanael; Chanfreau, Guillaume; Feigon, Juli

    2009-03-16

    H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particles are essential for ribosomal RNA and telomerase RNA processing and metabolism. Shq1p has been identified as an essential eukaryotic H/ACA small nucleolar (sno) ribonucleoparticle (snoRNP) biogenesis and assembly factor. Shq1p is postulated to be involved in the early biogenesis steps of H/ACA snoRNP complexes, and Shq1p depletion leads to a specific decrease in H/ACA small nucleolar RNA levels and to defects in ribosomal RNA processing. Shq1p contains two predicted domains as follows: an N-terminal CS (named after CHORD-containing proteins and SGT1) or HSP20-like domain, and a C-terminal region of high sequence homology called the Shq1 domain. Here we report the crystal structure and functional studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Shq1p CS domain. The structure consists of a compact anti-parallel {beta}-sandwich fold that is composed of two {beta}-sheets containing four and three {beta}-strands, respectively, and a short {alpha}-helix. Deletion studies showed that the CS domain is required for the essential functions of Shq1p. Point mutations in residues Phe-6, Gln-10, and Lys-80 destabilize Shq1p in vivo and induce a temperature-sensitive phenotype with depletion of H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs and defects in rRNA processing. Although CS domains are frequently found in co-chaperones of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone, no interaction was detected between the Shq1p CS domain and yeast Hsp90 in vitro. These results show that the CS domain is essential for Shq1p function in H/ACA snoRNP biogenesis in vivo, possibly in an Hsp90-independent manner.

  12. Functional analysis of the interface between the tandem C2 domains of synaptotagmin-1

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Chantell S.; He, Zixuan; Bai, Hua; Lou, Xiaochu; Jeggle, Pia; Sutton, R. Bryan; Edwardson, J. Michael; Chapman, Edwin R.

    2016-01-01

    C2 domains are widespread motifs that often serve as Ca2+-binding modules; some proteins have more than one copy. An open issue is whether these domains, when duplicated within the same parent protein, interact with one another to regulate function. In the present study, we address the functional significance of interfacial residues between the tandem C2 domains of synaptotagmin (syt)-1, a Ca2+ sensor for neuronal exocytosis. Substitution of four residues, YHRD, at the domain interface, disrupted the interaction between the tandem C2 domains, altered the intrinsic affinity of syt-1 for Ca2+, and shifted the Ca2+ dependency for binding to membranes and driving membrane fusion in vitro. When expressed in syt-1 knockout neurons, the YHRD mutant yielded reductions in synaptic transmission, as compared with the wild-type protein. These results indicate that physical interactions between the tandem C2 domains of syt-1 contribute to excitation–secretion coupling. PMID:26792839

  13. EXO70I Is Required for Development of a Sub-domain of the Periarbuscular Membrane during Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinchun; Pumplin, Nathan; Ivanov, Sergey; Harrison, Maria J

    2015-08-17

    In eukaryotic cells, polarized secretion mediated by exocytotic fusion of membrane vesicles with the plasma membrane is essential for spatially restricted expansion of the plasma membrane and for the delivery of molecules to specific locations at the membrane and/or cell surface. The EXOCYST complex is central to this process, and in yeast, regulation of the EXO70 subunit influences exocytosis and cargo specificity. In contrast to yeast and mammalian cells, plants have upwards of 23 EXO70 genes with largely unknown roles. During arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, deposition of the plant periarbuscular membrane (PAM) around the fungal arbuscule creates an intracellular membrane interface between the symbionts. The PAM has two major membrane sub-domains, and symbiosis-specific transporter proteins are localized in the branch domain. Currently, the mechanisms and cellular machinery involved in biogenesis of the PAM are largely unknown. Here, we identify an EXO70I protein present exclusively in plants forming AM symbiosis. Medicago truncatula exo70i mutants are unable to support normal arbuscule development, and incorporation of two PAM-resident ABC transporters, STR and STR2, is limited. During arbuscule branching, EXO70I is located in spatially restricted zones adjacent to the PAM around the arbuscule hyphal tips where it interacts with Vapyrin, a plant-specific protein required for arbuscule development. We conclude that EXO70I provides a specific exocytotic capacity necessary for development of the main functional sub-domain of the PAM. Furthermore, in contrast to other eukaryotes, plant EXO70s have evolved distinct specificities and interaction partners to fulfill their specialized secretory requirements.

  14. Speech and language functions that require a functioning Broca's area.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cameron; Kleinman, Jonathan T; Newhart, Melissa; Gingis, Leila; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Hillis, Argye E

    2008-04-01

    A number of previous studies have indicated that Broca's area has an important role in understanding and producing syntactically complex sentences and other language functions. If Broca's area is critical for these functions, then either infarction of Broca's area or temporary hypoperfusion within this region should cause impairment of these functions, at least while the neural tissue is dysfunctional. The opportunity to identify the language functions that depend on Broca's area in a particular individual was provided by a patient with hyperacute stroke who showed selective hypoperfusion, with minimal infarct, in Broca's area, and acutely impaired production of grammatical sentences, comprehension of semantically reversible (but not non-reversible) sentences, spelling, and motor planning of speech articulation. When blood flow was restored to Broca's area, as demonstrated by repeat perfusion weighted imaging, he showed immediate recovery of these language functions. The identification of language functions that were impaired when Broca's area was dysfunctional (due to low blood flow) and recovered when Broca's area was functional again, provides evidence for the critical role of Broca's area in these language functions, at least in this individual.

  15. Speech and Language Functions that Require a Functioning Broca's Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cameron; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Gingis, Leila; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Hillis, Argye E.

    2008-01-01

    A number of previous studies have indicated that Broca's area has an important role in understanding and producing syntactically complex sentences and other language functions. If Broca's area is critical for these functions, then either infarction of Broca's area or temporary hypoperfusion within this region should cause impairment of these…

  16. Speech and Language Functions that Require a Functioning Broca's Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cameron; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Gingis, Leila; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Hillis, Argye E.

    2008-01-01

    A number of previous studies have indicated that Broca's area has an important role in understanding and producing syntactically complex sentences and other language functions. If Broca's area is critical for these functions, then either infarction of Broca's area or temporary hypoperfusion within this region should cause impairment of these…

  17. Processes of fungal proteome evolution and gain of function: gene duplication and domain rearrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Gihon, Inbar; Sharan, Roded; Nussinov, Ruth

    2011-06-01

    During evolution, organisms have gained functional complexity mainly by modifying and improving existing functioning systems rather than creating new ones ab initio. Here we explore the interplay between two processes which during evolution have had major roles in the acquisition of new functions: gene duplication and protein domain rearrangements. We consider four possible evolutionary scenarios: gene families that have undergone none of these event types; only gene duplication; only domain rearrangement, or both events. We characterize each of the four evolutionary scenarios by functional attributes. Our analysis of ten fungal genomes indicates that at least for the fungi clade, species significantly appear to gain complexity by gene duplication accompanied by the expansion of existing domain architectures via rearrangements. We show that paralogs gaining new domain architectures via duplication tend to adopt new functions compared to paralogs that preserve their domain architectures. We conclude that evolution of protein families through gene duplication and domain rearrangement is correlated with their functional properties. We suggest that in general, new functions are acquired via the integration of gene duplication and domain rearrangements rather than each process acting independently.

  18. Maximal stimulation of meiotic recombination by a yeast transcription factor requires the transcription activation domain and a DNA-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, D T; Fan, Q; Petes, T D

    1999-01-01

    The DNA sequences located upstream of the yeast HIS4 represent a very strong meiotic recombination hotspot. Although the activity of this hotspot requires the transcription activator Rap1p, the level of HIS4 transcription is not directly related to the level of recombination. We find that the recombination-stimulating activity of Rap1p requires the transcription activation domain of the protein. We show that a hybrid protein with the Gal4p DNA-binding domain and the Rap1p activation domain can stimulate recombination in a strain in which Gal4p-binding sites are inserted upstream of HIS4. In addition, we find recombination hotspot activity associated with the Gal4p DNA-binding sites that is independent of known transcription factors. We suggest that yeast cells have two types of recombination hotspots, alpha (transcription factor dependent) and beta (transcription factor independent). PMID:10224246

  19. How do disordered regions achieve comparable functions to structured domains?

    PubMed

    Latysheva, Natasha S; Flock, Tilman; Weatheritt, Robert J; Chavali, Sreenivas; Babu, M Madan

    2015-06-01

    The traditional structure to function paradigm conceives of a protein's function as emerging from its structure. In recent years, it has been established that unstructured, intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) in proteins are equally crucial elements for protein function, regulation and homeostasis. In this review, we provide a brief overview of how IDRs can perform similar functions to structured proteins, focusing especially on the formation of protein complexes and assemblies and the mediation of regulated conformational changes. In addition to highlighting instances of such functional equivalence, we explain how differences in the biological and physicochemical properties of IDRs allow them to expand the functional and regulatory repertoire of proteins. We also discuss studies that provide insights into how mutations within functional regions of IDRs can lead to human diseases.

  20. Proteasome function is required for platelet production

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dallas S.; Smith, Matthew C.P.; Campbell, Robert A.; Zimmerman, Patrick W.; Franks, Zechariah B.; Kraemer, Bjorn F.; Machlus, Kellie R.; Ling, Jing; Kamba, Patrick; Schwertz, Hansjörg; Rowley, Jesse W.; Miles, Rodney R.; Liu, Zhi-Jian; Sola-Visner, Martha; Italiano, Joseph E.; Christensen, Hilary; Kahr, Walter H.A.; Li, Dean Y.; Weyrich, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The proteasome inhibiter bortezomib has been successfully used to treat patients with relapsed multiple myeloma; however, many of these patients become thrombocytopenic, and it is not clear how the proteasome influences platelet production. Here we determined that pharmacologic inhibition of proteasome activity blocks proplatelet formation in human and mouse megakaryocytes. We also found that megakaryocytes isolated from mice deficient for PSMC1, an essential subunit of the 26S proteasome, fail to produce proplatelets. Consistent with decreased proplatelet formation, mice lacking PSMC1 in platelets (Psmc1fl/fl Pf4-Cre mice) exhibited severe thrombocytopenia and died shortly after birth. The failure to produce proplatelets in proteasome-inhibited megakaryocytes was due to upregulation and hyperactivation of the small GTPase, RhoA, rather than NF-κB, as has been previously suggested. Inhibition of RhoA or its downstream target, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), restored megakaryocyte proplatelet formation in the setting of proteasome inhibition in vitro. Similarly, fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor used clinically to treat cerebral vasospasm, restored platelet counts in adult mice that were made thrombocytopenic by tamoxifen-induced suppression of proteasome activity in megakaryocytes and platelets (Psmc1fl/fl Pdgf-Cre-ER mice). These results indicate that proteasome function is critical for thrombopoiesis, and suggest inhibition of RhoA signaling as a potential strategy to treat thrombocytopenia in bortezomib-treated multiple myeloma patients. PMID:25061876

  1. Domain-specific functional software testing: A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonnenmann, Uwe

    1992-01-01

    Software Engineering is a knowledge intensive activity that involves defining, designing, developing, and maintaining software systems. In order to build effective systems to support Software Engineering activities, Artificial Intelligence techniques are needed. The application of Artificial Intelligence technology to Software Engineering is called Knowledge-based Software Engineering (KBSE). The goal of KBSE is to change the software life cycle such that software maintenance and evolution occur by modifying the specifications and then rederiving the implementation rather than by directly modifying the implementation. The use of domain knowledge in developing KBSE systems is crucial. Our work is mainly related to one area of KBSE that is called automatic specification acquisition. One example is the WATSON prototype on which our current work is based. WATSON is an automatic programming system for formalizing specifications for telephone switching software mainly restricted to POTS, i.e., plain old telephone service. Our current approach differentiates itself from other approaches in two antagonistic ways. On the one hand, we address a large and complex real-world problem instead of a 'toy domain' as in many research prototypes. On the other hand, to allow such scaling, we had to relax the ambitious goal of complete automatic programming, to the easier task of automatic testing.

  2. Further characterization of functional domains of PerA, role of amino and carboxy terminal domains in DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, J Antonio; García-Zacarias, Claudia M; Lara-Ochoa, Cristina; Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; Tecpanecatl-Xihuitl, J Sergio; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Puente, José L

    2013-01-01

    PerA is a key regulator of virulence genes in enteropathogenic E. coli. PerA is a member of the AraC/XylS family of transcriptional regulators that directly regulates the expression of the bfp and per operons in response to different environmental cues. Here, we characterized mutants in both the amino (NTD) and carboxy (CTD) terminal domains of PerA that affect its ability to activate the expression of the bfp and per promoters. Mutants at residues predicted to be important for DNA binding within the CTD had a significant defect in their ability to bind to the regulatory regions of the bfp and per operons and, consequently, in transcriptional activation. Notably, mutants in specific NTD residues were also impaired to bind to DNA suggesting that this domain is involved in structuring the protein for correct DNA recognition. Mutations in residues E116 and D168, located in the vicinity of the putative linker region, significantly affected the activation of the perA promoter, without affecting PerA binding to the per or bfp regulatory sequences. Overall these results provide additional evidence of the importance of the N-terminal domain in PerA activity and suggest that the activation of these promoters involves differential interactions with the transcriptional machinery. This study further contributes to the characterization of the functional domains of PerA by identifying critical residues involved in DNA binding, differential promoter activation and, potentially, in the possible response to environmental cues.

  3. Deletions of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein define the minimal domain required for fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Zhang, G; Ngo, N; Zhao, X; Kain, S R; Huang, C C

    1997-11-07

    The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is a widely used marker for gene expression and protein localization studies. Dissection of the structure of the protein would be expected to shed light on its potential applications to other fields such as the detection of protease activity. Using deletion analysis, we have defined the minimal domain in GFP required for fluorescence to amino acids 7-229. This domain starts at the middle of the first small alpha helix at the N terminus of GFP and ends immediately following the last beta sheet. Studies of the amino acids at both termini of the minimal domain revealed that positions 6 and 7 at the N terminus are Glu-specific. Change of the Glu residues to other amino acids results in reduction of GFP fluorescence. Position 229 at the C terminus of GFP, however, is nonspecific: the Ile can be replaced with other amino acids with no measurable loss of fluorescence. A total of only 15 terminal amino acids can be deleted from GFP without disrupting fluorescence, consistent with findings of a previous study of GFP crystal structure (Ormo, M., Cubitt, A. B., Kallio, K., Gross, L. A., Tsien, R. Y., Remington, S. J. (1996) Science 273, 1392-1395 and Yang, F., Moss, L. G., and Phillips, G. N., Jr. (1996) Nat. Biotechnol. 14, 1246-1251) that a tightly packed structure exists in the protein. We also generated internal deletions within the loop regions of GFP according to its crystal structure and found that all such deletions eliminated GFP fluorescence.

  4. Genetic and biochemical dissection of a HisKA domain identifies residues required exclusively for kinase and phosphatase activities.

    PubMed

    Willett, Jonathan W; Kirby, John R

    2012-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems, composed of histidine kinases (HK) and response regulators (RR), allow bacteria to respond to diverse environmental stimuli. The HK can control both phosphorylation and subsequent dephosphorylation of its cognate RR. The majority of HKs utilize the HisKA subfamily of dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer (DHp) domains, which contain the phospho-accepting histidine and directly contact the RR. Extensive genetics, biochemistry, and structural biology on several prototypical TCS systems including NtrB-NtrC and EnvZ-OmpR have provided a solid basis for understanding the function of HK-RR signaling. Recently, work on NarX, a HisKA_3 subfamily protein, indicated that two residues in the highly conserved region of the DHp domain are responsible for phosphatase activity. In this study we have carried out both genetic and biochemical analyses on Myxococcus xanthus CrdS, a member of the HisKA subfamily of bacterial HKs. CrdS is required for the regulation of spore formation in response to environmental stress. Following alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the α1 helix of the DHp domain of CrdS, we determined the role for each mutant protein for both kinase and phosphatase activity. Our results indicate that the conserved acidic residue (E372) immediately adjacent to the site of autophosphorylation (H371) is specifically required for kinase activity but not for phosphatase activity. Conversely, we found that the conserved Thr/Asn residue (N375) was required for phosphatase activity but not for kinase activity. We extended our biochemical analyses to two CrdS homologs from M. xanthus, HK1190 and HK4262, as well as Thermotoga maritima HK853. The results were similar for each HisKA family protein where the conserved acidic residue is required for kinase activity while the conserved Thr/Asn residue is required for phosphatase activity. These data are consistent with conserved mechanisms for kinase and phosphatase activities in the

  5. It takes two to tango: the structure and function of LIM, RING, PHD and MYND domains.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J M; Bhati, M; Lehtomaki, E; Mansfield, R E; Cubeddu, L; Mackay, J P

    2009-01-01

    LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1, Mec-3), RING (Really interesting new gene), PHD (Plant homology domain) and MYND (myeloid, Nervy, DEAF-1) domains are all zinc-binding domains that ligate two zinc ions. Unlike the better known classical zinc fingers, these domains do not bind DNA, but instead mediate interactions with other proteins. LIM-domain containing proteins have diverse functions as regulators of gene expression, cell adhesion and motility and signal transduction. RING finger proteins are generally associated with ubiquitination; the presence of such a domain is the defining feature of a class of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases. PHD proteins have been associated with SUMOylation but most recently have emerged as a chromatin recognition motif that reads the methylation state of histones. The function of the MYND domain is less clear, but MYND domains are also found in proteins that have ubiquitin ligase and/or histone methyltransferase activity. Here we review the structure-function relationships for these domains and discuss strategies to modulate their activity.

  6. Is membrane occupation and recognition nexus domain functional in plant phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases?

    PubMed

    Mikami, Koji; Saavedra, Laura; Sommarin, Marianne

    2010-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK) catalyzes a key step controlling cellular contents of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2], a critical intracellular messenger involved in vesicle trafficking and modulation of actin cytoskeleton and also a substrate of phospholipase C to produce the two intracellular messengers, diacylglycerol and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate. In addition to the conserved C-terminal PIPK catalytic domain, plant PIPKs contain a unique structural feature consisting of a repeat of membrane occupation and recognition nexus (MORN) motifs, called the MORN domain, in the N-terminal half. The MORN domain has previously been proposed to regulate plasma membrane localization and phosphatidic acid (PA)-inducible activation. Recently, the importance of the catalytic domain, but not the MORN domain, in these aspects was demonstrated. These conflicting data raise the question about the function of the MORN domain in plant PIPKs. We therefore performed analyses of PpPIPK1 from the moss Physcomitrella patens to elucidate the importance of the MORN domain in the control of enzymatic activity; however, we found no effect on either enzymatic activity or activation by PA. Taken together with our previous findings of lack of function in plasma membrane localization, there is no positive evidence indicating roles of the MORN domain in enzymatic and functional regulations of PpPIPK1. Therefore, further biochemical and reverse genetic analyses are necessary to understand the biological significance of the MORN domain in plant PIPKs.

  7. A functional R domain from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is predominantly unstructured in solution.

    PubMed

    Ostedgaard, L S; Baldursson, O; Vermeer, D W; Welsh, M J; Robertson, A D

    2000-05-09

    Phosphorylation of the regulatory (R) domain initiates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel activity. To discover how the function of this domain is determined by its structure, we produced an R domain protein (R8) that spanned residues 708-831 of CFTR. Phosphorylated, but not unphosphorylated, R8 stimulated activity of CFTR channels lacking this domain, indicating that R8 is functional. Unexpectedly, this functional R8 was predominantly random coil, as revealed by CD and limited proteolysis. The CD spectra of both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated R8 were similar in aqueous buffer. The folding agent trimethylamine N-oxide induced only a small increase in the helical content of nonphosphorylated R8 and even less change in the helical content of phosphorylated R8. These data, indicating that the R domain is predominantly random coil, may explain the seemingly complex way in which phosphorylation regulates CFTR channel activity.

  8. Genetic, structural, and molecular insights into the function of ras of complex proteins domains.

    PubMed

    Civiero, Laura; Dihanich, Sybille; Lewis, Patrick A; Greggio, Elisa

    2014-07-17

    Ras of complex proteins (ROC) domains were identified in 2003 as GTP binding modules in large multidomain proteins from Dictyostelium discoideum. Research into the function of these domains exploded with their identification in a number of proteins linked to human disease, including leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) and death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in Parkinson's disease and cancer, respectively. This surge in research has resulted in a growing body of data revealing the role that ROC domains play in regulating protein function and signaling pathways. In this review, recent advances in the structural information available for proteins containing ROC domains, along with insights into enzymatic function and the integration of ROC domains as molecular switches in a cellular and organismal context, are explored.

  9. FERM Domain Phosphoinositide Binding Targets Merlin to the Membrane and Is Essential for Its Growth-Suppressive Function

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Timmy; Hennigan, Robert F.; Foster, Lauren A.; Conrady, Deborah G.; Herr, Andrew B.; Ip, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    The neurofibromatosis type 2 tumor suppressor protein, merlin, is related to the ERM (ezrin, radixin, and moesin) family of plasma membrane-actin cytoskeleton linkers. For ezrin, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding to the amino-terminal FERM domain is required for its conformational activation, proper subcellular localization, and function, but less is known about the role of phosphoinositide binding for merlin. Current evidence indicates that association with the membrane is important for merlin to function as a growth regulator; however, the mechanisms by which merlin localizes to the membrane are less clear. Here, we report that merlin binds phosphoinositides, including PIP2, via a conserved binding motif in its FERM domain. Abolition of FERM domain-mediated phosphoinositide binding of merlin displaces merlin from the membrane and releases it into the cytosol without altering the folding of merlin. Importantly, a merlin protein whose FERM domain cannot bind phosphoinositide is defective in growth suppression. Retargeting the mutant merlin into the membrane using a dual-acylated amino-terminal decapeptide from Fyn is sufficient to restore the growth-suppressive properties to the mutant merlin. Thus, FERM domain-mediated phosphoinositide binding and membrane association are critical for the growth-regulatory function of merlin. PMID:21402777

  10. The Influence of Domain Knowledge on the Functional Capacity of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Travis Rex; Wiley, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Theories of expertise have proposed that superior cognitive performance is in part due to increases in the functional capacity of working memory during domain-related tasks. Consistent with this approach Fincher-Kiefer et al. (1988), found that domain knowledge increased scores on baseball-related reading span tasks. The present studies extended…

  11. The Influence of Domain Knowledge on the Functional Capacity of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Travis Rex; Wiley, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Theories of expertise have proposed that superior cognitive performance is in part due to increases in the functional capacity of working memory during domain-related tasks. Consistent with this approach Fincher-Kiefer et al. (1988), found that domain knowledge increased scores on baseball-related reading span tasks. The present studies extended…

  12. Structure and function of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domains.

    PubMed

    Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-02-01

    The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domain is a protein-protein interaction domain consisting of 125-200 residues, widely distributed in animals, plants and bacteria but absent from fungi, archea and viruses. In plants and animals, these domains are found in proteins with functions in innate immune pathways, while in bacteria, some TIR domain-containing proteins interfere with the innate immune pathways in the host. TIR domains function as protein scaffolds, mostly involving self-association and homotypic interactions with other TIR domains. In the last 15 years, the three-dimensional structures of TIR domains from several mammalian, plant and bacterial proteins have been reported. These structures, jointly with functional data including the identification of interacting proteins, have started to provide insight into the molecular basis of the assembly of animal and plant immune signaling complexes, and for host immunosuppression by bacterial pathogens. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the structures of the TIR domains and how the structure relates to function.

  13. Identification of the functional domains of ANT-1, a novel coactivator of the androgen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Shuli; Goto, Kiminobu; Chen Guangchun; Morinaga, Hidetaka; Nomura, Masatoshi; Okabe, Taijiro; Nawata, Hajime; Yanase, Toshihiko . E-mail: yanase@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2006-03-03

    Previously, we identified a transcriptional coactivator for the activation function-1 (AF-1) domain of the human androgen receptor (AR) and designated it androgen receptor N-terminal domain transactivating protein-1 (ANT-1). This coactivator, which contains multiple tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs from amino acid (aa) 294, is identical to a component of U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles and binds specifically to the AR or glucocorticoid receptor. Here, we identified four distinct functional domains. The AR-AF-1-binding domain, which bound to either aa 180-360 or 360-532 in AR-AF-1, clearly overlapped with TAU-1 and TAU-5. This domain and the subnuclear speckle formation domain in ANT-1 were assigned within the TPR motifs, while the transactivating and nuclear localization signal domains resided within the N-terminal sequence. The existence of these functional domains may further support the idea that ANT-1 can function as an AR-AF-1-specific coactivator while mediating a transcription-splicing coupling.

  14. Critical role of the first transmembrane domain of Cx26 in regulating oligomerization and function

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Oscar; Acuña, Rodrigo; García, Isaac E.; Maripillán, Jaime; Figueroa, Vania; Sáez, Juan C.; Araya-Secchi, Raúl; Lagos, Carlos F.; Pérez-Acle, Tomas; Berthoud, Viviana M.; Beyer, Eric C.; Martínez, Agustín D.

    2012-01-01

    To identify motifs involved in oligomerization of the gap junction protein Cx26, we studied individual transmembrane (TM) domains and the full-length protein. Using the TOXCAT assay for interactions of isolated TM α-helices, we found that TM1, a Cx26 pore domain, had a strong propensity to homodimerize. We identified amino acids Val-37–Ala-40 (VVAA) as the TM1 motif required for homodimerization. Two deafness-associated Cx26 mutations localized in this region, Cx26V37I and Cx26A40G, differentially affected dimerization. TM1-V37I dimerized only weakly, whereas TM1-A40G did not dimerize. When the full-length mutants were expressed in HeLa cells, both Cx26V37I and Cx26A40G formed oligomers less efficiently than wild-type Cx26. A Cx26 cysteine substitution mutant, Cx26V37C formed dithiothreitol-sensitive dimers. Substitution mutants of Val-37 formed intercellular channels with reduced function, while mutants of Ala-40 did not form functional gap junction channels. Unlike wild-type Cx26, neither Cx26V37I nor Cx26A40G formed functional hemichannels in low extracellular calcium. Thus the VVAA motif of Cx26 is critical for TM1 dimerization, hexamer formation, and channel function. The differential effects of VVAA mutants on hemichannels and gap junction channels imply that inter-TM interactions can differ in unapposed and docked hemichannels. Moreover, Cx26 oligomerization appears dependent on transient TM1 dimerization as an intermediate step. PMID:22787277

  15. Evolutionary Algorithms for Boolean Functions in Diverse Domains of Cryptography.

    PubMed

    Picek, Stjepan; Carlet, Claude; Guilley, Sylvain; Miller, Julian F; Jakobovic, Domagoj

    2016-01-01

    The role of Boolean functions is prominent in several areas including cryptography, sequences, and coding theory. Therefore, various methods for the construction of Boolean functions with desired properties are of direct interest. New motivations on the role of Boolean functions in cryptography with attendant new properties have emerged over the years. There are still many combinations of design criteria left unexplored and in this matter evolutionary computation can play a distinct role. This article concentrates on two scenarios for the use of Boolean functions in cryptography. The first uses Boolean functions as the source of the nonlinearity in filter and combiner generators. Although relatively well explored using evolutionary algorithms, it still presents an interesting goal in terms of the practical sizes of Boolean functions. The second scenario appeared rather recently where the objective is to find Boolean functions that have various orders of the correlation immunity and minimal Hamming weight. In both these scenarios we see that evolutionary algorithms are able to find high-quality solutions where genetic programming performs the best.

  16. Analysis of functional domains of the host cell factor involved in VP16 complex formation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, T A; La Boissière, S; O'Hare, P

    1999-06-04

    We present biochemical analyses of the regions of the host cell factor (HCF) involved in VP16 complex formation and in the association between the N- and C-terminal domains of HCF itself. We show that the kelch repeat region of HCF (residues 1-380) is sufficient for VP16 complex formation, but that residues C-terminal to the repeats (positions 381-450) interfere with this activity. However, these latter residues are required for the interaction between the N- and C-terminal regions of HCF. The extreme C-terminal region of HCF, corresponding to an area of strong conservation with a Caenorhabditis elegans homologue, is sufficient for interaction with the N-terminal region. These results are discussed with respect to possible differences in the roles of HCF in VP16 activity versus its normal cellular function.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus domain V functions in Escherichia coli ribosomes provided a conserved interaction with domain IV is restored.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J; Tapprich, W E; Munger, C; Dahlberg, A E

    2001-01-01

    Domain V of Escherichia coli 23 S rRNA (residues 2023-2630) was replaced by that from Staphylococcus aureus, thereby introducing 132 changes in the rRNA sequence. The resulting ribosomal mutant was unable to support cell growth. The mutant was rescued, however, by restoring an interaction between domains IV and V (residues 1782 and 2586). Although the importance of this interaction, U/U in E. coli, C/C in S. aureus, is therefore demonstrated, it cannot be the only tertiary interaction important for ribosomal function as the rescued hybrid grew more slowly than the wild type. Additionally, although the single-site mutations U1782C and U2586C in E. coli are viable, the double mutant is lethal. PMID:11497427

  18. The HhH(2)/NDD Domain of the Drosophila Nod Chromokinesin-like Protein Is Required for Binding to Chromosomes in the Oocyte Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wei; Hawley, R. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Nod is a chromokinesin-like protein that plays a critical role in segregating achiasmate chromosomes during female meiosis. The C-terminal half of the Nod protein contains two putative DNA-binding domains. The first of these domains, known as the HMGN domain, consists of three tandemly repeated high-mobility group N motifs. This domain was previously shown to be both necessary and sufficient for binding of the C-terminal half of Nod to mitotic chromosomes in embryos. The second putative DNA-binding domain, denoted HhH(2)/NDD, is a helix-hairpin-helix(2)/Nod-like DNA-binding domain. Although the HhH(2)/NDD domain is not required or sufficient for chromosome binding in embryos, several well-characterized nod mutations have been mapped in this domain. To characterize the role of the HhH(2)/NDD domain in mediating Nod function, we created a series of UAS-driven transgene constructs capable of expressing either a wild-type Nod-GFP fusion protein or proteins in which the HhH(2)/NDD domain had been altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Although wild-type Nod-GFP localizes to the oocyte chromosomes and rescues the segregation defect in nod mutant oocytes, two of three proteins carrying mutants in the HhH(2)/NDD domain fail to either rescue the nod mutant phenotype or bind to oocyte chromosomes. However, these mutant proteins do bind to the polytene chromosomes in nurse-cell nuclei and enter the oocyte nucleus. Thus, even though the HhH(2)/NDD domain is not essential for chromosome binding in other cell types, it is required for chromosome binding in the oocyte. These HhH(2)/NDD mutants also block the localization of Nod to the posterior pole of stage 9–10A oocytes, a process that is thought to facilitate the interaction of Nod with the plus ends of microtubules (Cui et al. 2005). This observation suggests that the Nod HhH2/NDD domain may play other roles in addition to binding Nod to meiotic chromosomes. PMID:16143607

  19. The HhH2/NDD domain of the Drosophila Nod chromokinesin-like protein is required for binding to chromosomes in the oocyte nucleus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Hawley, R Scott

    2005-12-01

    Nod is a chromokinesin-like protein that plays a critical role in segregating achiasmate chromosomes during female meiosis. The C-terminal half of the Nod protein contains two putative DNA-binding domains. The first of these domains, known as the HMGN domain, consists of three tandemly repeated high-mobility group N motifs. This domain was previously shown to be both necessary and sufficient for binding of the C-terminal half of Nod to mitotic chromosomes in embryos. The second putative DNA-binding domain, denoted HhH(2)/NDD, is a helix-hairpin-helix(2)/Nod-like DNA-binding domain. Although the HhH(2)/NDD domain is not required or sufficient for chromosome binding in embryos, several well-characterized nod mutations have been mapped in this domain. To characterize the role of the HhH(2)/NDD domain in mediating Nod function, we created a series of UAS-driven transgene constructs capable of expressing either a wild-type Nod-GFP fusion protein or proteins in which the HhH(2)/NDD domain had been altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Although wild-type Nod-GFP localizes to the oocyte chromosomes and rescues the segregation defect in nod mutant oocytes, two of three proteins carrying mutants in the HhH(2)/NDD domain fail to either rescue the nod mutant phenotype or bind to oocyte chromosomes. However, these mutant proteins do bind to the polytene chromosomes in nurse-cell nuclei and enter the oocyte nucleus. Thus, even though the HhH(2)/NDD domain is not essential for chromosome binding in other cell types, it is required for chromosome binding in the oocyte. These HhH(2)/NDD mutants also block the localization of Nod to the posterior pole of stage 9-10A oocytes, a process that is thought to facilitate the interaction of Nod with the plus ends of microtubules (Cui et al. 2005). This observation suggests that the Nod HhH2/NDD domain may play other roles in addition to binding Nod to meiotic chromosomes.

  20. Structural insights into the functional versatility of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent work on WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) tumor suppressor is beginning to shed new light on both the molecular mechanism of action of its WW domains as well as the contiguous catalytic domain. Herein, the structural basis underlying the ability of WW1 domain to bind to various physiological ligands and how the orphan WW2 tandem partner synergizes its ligand binding in the context of WW1–WW2 tandem module of WWOX is discussed. Notably, the WW domains within the WW1–WW2 tandem module physically associate so as to adopt a fixed spatial orientation relative to each other. In this manner, the association of WW2 domain with WW1 hinders ligand binding to the latter. Consequently, ligand binding to WW1 domain not only results in the displacement of WW2 lid but also disrupts the fixed orientation of WW domains in the liganded conformation. Equally importantly, structure-guided functional approach suggests that the catalytic domain of WWOX likely serves as a retinal oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible oxidation and reduction of all-trans-retinal. Collectively, this review provides structural insights into the functional versatility of a key signaling protein with important implications on its biology. PMID:25662954

  1. Structural insights into the functional versatility of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Amjad

    2015-03-01

    Recent work on WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) tumor suppressor is beginning to shed new light on both the molecular mechanism of action of its WW domains as well as the contiguous catalytic domain. Herein, the structural basis underlying the ability of WW1 domain to bind to various physiological ligands and how the orphan WW2 tandem partner synergizes its ligand binding in the context of WW1-WW2 tandem module of WWOX is discussed. Notably, the WW domains within the WW1-WW2 tandem module physically associate so as to adopt a fixed spatial orientation relative to each other. In this manner, the association of WW2 domain with WW1 hinders ligand binding to the latter. Consequently, ligand binding to WW1 domain not only results in the displacement of WW2 lid but also disrupts the fixed orientation of WW domains in the liganded conformation. Equally importantly, structure-guided functional approach suggests that the catalytic domain of WWOX likely serves as a retinal oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible oxidation and reduction of all-trans-retinal. Collectively, this review provides structural insights into the functional versatility of a key signaling protein with important implications on its biology.

  2. Protein Domain of Unknown Function 3233 is a Translocation Domain of Autotransporter Secretory Mechanism in Gamma proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ananth; Yogeeshwari, S.; Sircar, Sanchari; Agrawal, Shipra

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the enteropathogenic gram negative bacteria is one of the main causative agents of waterborne diseases like cholera. About 1/3rd of the organism's genome is uncharacterised with many protein coding genes lacking structure and functional information. These proteins form significant fraction of the genome and are crucial in understanding the organism's complete functional makeup. In this study we report the general structure and function of a family of hypothetical proteins, Domain of Unknown Function 3233 (DUF3233), which are conserved across gram negative gammaproteobacteria (especially in Vibrio sp. and similar bacteria). Profile and HMM based sequence search methods were used to screen homologues of DUF3233. The I-TASSER fold recognition method was used to build a three dimensional structural model of the domain. The structure resembles the transmembrane beta-barrel with an axial N-terminal helix and twelve antiparallel beta-strands. Using a combination of amphipathy and discrimination analysis we analysed the potential transmembrane beta-barrel forming properties of DUF3233. Sequence, structure and phylogenetic analysis of DUF3233 indicates that this gram negative bacterial hypothetical protein resembles the beta-barrel translocation unit of autotransporter Va secretory mechanism with a gene organisation that differs from the conventional Va system. PMID:22073138

  3. Protein domain of unknown function 3233 is a translocation domain of autotransporter secretory mechanism in gamma proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ananth; Yogeeshwari, S; Sircar, Sanchari; Agrawal, Shipra

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the enteropathogenic gram negative bacteria is one of the main causative agents of waterborne diseases like cholera. About 1/3(rd) of the organism's genome is uncharacterised with many protein coding genes lacking structure and functional information. These proteins form significant fraction of the genome and are crucial in understanding the organism's complete functional makeup. In this study we report the general structure and function of a family of hypothetical proteins, Domain of Unknown Function 3233 (DUF3233), which are conserved across gram negative gammaproteobacteria (especially in Vibrio sp. and similar bacteria). Profile and HMM based sequence search methods were used to screen homologues of DUF3233. The I-TASSER fold recognition method was used to build a three dimensional structural model of the domain. The structure resembles the transmembrane beta-barrel with an axial N-terminal helix and twelve antiparallel beta-strands. Using a combination of amphipathy and discrimination analysis we analysed the potential transmembrane beta-barrel forming properties of DUF3233. Sequence, structure and phylogenetic analysis of DUF3233 indicates that this gram negative bacterial hypothetical protein resembles the beta-barrel translocation unit of autotransporter Va secretory mechanism with a gene organisation that differs from the conventional Va system.

  4. C-terminal domains of bacterial proteases: structure, function and the biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Wu, C; Liu, D; Yang, X; Wu, R; Zhang, J; Ma, C; He, H

    2017-01-01

    C-terminal domains widely exist in the C-terminal region of multidomain proteases. As a β-sandwich domain in multidomain protease, the C-terminal domain plays an important role in proteolysis including regulation of the secretory process, anchoring and swelling the substrate molecule, presenting as an inhibitor for the preprotease and adapting the protein structural flexibility and stability. In this review, the diversity, structural characteristics and biological function of C-terminal protease domains are described. Furthermore, the application prospects of C-terminal domains, including polycystic kidney disease, prepeptidase C-terminal and collagen-binding domain, in the area of medicine and biological artificial materials are also discussed.

  5. Structure-Function Study of the N-terminal Domain of Exocyst Subunit Sec3

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Kyuwon; Knödler, Andreas; Lee, Sung Haeng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Orlando, Kelly; Zhang, Jian; Foskett, Trevor J.; Guo, Wei; Dominguez, Roberto

    2010-04-19

    The exocyst is an evolutionarily conserved octameric complex involved in polarized exocytosis from yeast to humans. The Sec3 subunit of the exocyst acts as a spatial landmark for exocytosis through its ability to bind phospholipids and small GTPases. The structure of the N-terminal domain of Sec3 (Sec3N) was determined ab initio and defines a new subclass of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains along with a new family of proteins carrying this domain. Respectively, N- and C-terminal to the PH domain Sec3N presents an additional {alpha}-helix and two {beta}-strands that mediate dimerization through domain swapping. The structure identifies residues responsible for phospholipid binding, which when mutated in cells impair the localization of exocyst components at the plasma membrane and lead to defects in exocytosis. Through its ability to bind the small GTPase Cdc42 and phospholipids, the PH domain of Sec3 functions as a coincidence detector at the plasma membrane.

  6. Beyond polarity: functional membrane domains in astrocytes and Müller cells.

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Amin; Pannicke, Thomas; Haseleu, Julia; Blaess, Sandra; Grosche, Jens; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Various ependymoglial cells display varying degrees of process specialization, in particular processes contacting mesenchymal borders (pia, blood vessels, vitreous body), or those lining the ventricular surface. Within the neuropil, glial morphology, cellular contacts, and interaction partners are complex. It appears that glial processes contacting neurons, specific parts of neurons, or mesenchymal or ventricular borders are characterized by specialized membranes. We propose a concept of membrane domains in addition to the existing concept of ependymoglial polarity. Such membrane domains are equipped with certain membrane-bound proteins, enabling them to function in their specific environment. This review focuses on Müller cells and astrocytes and discusses exemplary the localization of established glial markers in membrane domains. We distinguish three functional glial membrane domains based on their typical molecular arrangement. The domain of the endfoot specifically displays the complex of dystrophin-associated proteins, aquaporin 4 and the potassium channel Kir4.1. We show that the domain of microvilli and the peripheral glial process in the Müller cell share the presence of ezrin, as do peripheral astrocyte processes. As a third domain, the Müller cell has peripheral glial processes related to a specific subtype of synapse. Although many details remain to be studied, the idea of glial membrane domains may permit new insights into glial function and pathology.

  7. The Popeye domain containing 2 (popdc2) gene in zebrafish is required for heart and skeletal muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Kirchmaier, Bettina C.; Poon, Kar Lai; Schwerte, Thorsten; Huisken, Jan; Winkler, Christoph; Jungblut, Benno; Stainier, Didier Y.; Brand, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode a family of transmembrane proteins with an evolutionary conserved Popeye domain. These genes are abundantly expressed in striated muscle tissue, however their function is not well understood. In this study we have investigated the role of the popdc2 gene in zebrafish. Popdc2 transcripts were detected in the embryonic myocardium and transiently in the craniofacial and tail musculature. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of popdc2 resulted in aberrant development of skeletal muscle and heart. Muscle segments in the trunk were irregularly shaped and craniofacial muscles were severely reduced or even missing. In the heart, pericardial edema was prevalent in the morphants and heart chambers were elongated and looping was abnormal. These pathologies in muscle and heart were alleviated after reducing the morpholino concentration. However the heart still was abnormal displaying cardiac arrhythmia at later stages of development. Optical recordings of cardiac contractility revealed irregular ventricular contractions with a 2:1, or 3:1 atrial/ventricular conduction ratio, which caused a significant reduction in heart frequency. Recordings of calcium transients with high spatiotemporal resolution using a transgenic calcium indicator line (Tg(cmlc2:gCaMP)s878) and SPIM microscopy confirmed the presence of a severe arrhythmia phenotype. Our results identify popdc2 as a gene important for striated muscle differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis. In addition it is required for the development of the cardiac conduction system. PMID:22290329

  8. Elucidating the domain architecture and functions of non-core RAG1: The capacity of a non-core zinc-binding domain to function in nuclear import and nucleic acid binding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The repertoire of the antigen-binding receptors originates from the rearrangement of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genetic loci in a process known as V(D)J recombination. The initial site-specific DNA cleavage steps of this process are catalyzed by the lymphoid specific proteins RAG1 and RAG2. The majority of studies on RAG1 and RAG2 have focused on the minimal, core regions required for catalytic activity. Though not absolutely required, non-core regions of RAG1 and RAG2 have been shown to influence the efficiency and fidelity of the recombination reaction. Results Using a partial proteolysis approach in combination with bioinformatics analyses, we identified the domain boundaries of a structural domain that is present in the 380-residue N-terminal non-core region of RAG1. We term this domain the Central Non-core Domain (CND; residues 87-217). Conclusions We show how the CND alone, and in combination with other regions of non-core RAG1, functions in nuclear localization, zinc coordination, and interactions with nucleic acid. Together, these results demonstrate the multiple roles that the non-core region can play in the function of the full length protein. PMID:21599978

  9. Elucidating the domain architecture and functions of non-core RAG1: the capacity of a non-core zinc-binding domain to function in nuclear import and nucleic acid binding.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Janeen L; Rahman, Negar S; Zhao, Shuying; Rodgers, William; Rodgers, Karla K

    2011-05-20

    The repertoire of the antigen-binding receptors originates from the rearrangement of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genetic loci in a process known as V(D)J recombination. The initial site-specific DNA cleavage steps of this process are catalyzed by the lymphoid specific proteins RAG1 and RAG2. The majority of studies on RAG1 and RAG2 have focused on the minimal, core regions required for catalytic activity. Though not absolutely required, non-core regions of RAG1 and RAG2 have been shown to influence the efficiency and fidelity of the recombination reaction. Using a partial proteolysis approach in combination with bioinformatics analyses, we identified the domain boundaries of a structural domain that is present in the 380-residue N-terminal non-core region of RAG1. We term this domain the Central Non-core Domain (CND; residues 87-217). We show how the CND alone, and in combination with other regions of non-core RAG1, functions in nuclear localization, zinc coordination, and interactions with nucleic acid. Together, these results demonstrate the multiple roles that the non-core region can play in the function of the full length protein.

  10. Functionality of the STNV translational enhancer domain correlates with affinity for two wheat germ factors

    PubMed Central

    Lipzig, Rosalinde van; Montagu, Marc Van; Cornelissen, Marc; Meulewaeter, Frank

    2001-01-01

    The satellite tobacco necrosis virus RNA is uncapped and requires a 3′ translational enhancer domain (TED) for translation. Both in the wheat germ extract and in tobacco, TED stimulates in cis translation of heterologous, uncapped RNAs. In this study we investigated to what extent translation stimulation by TED depends on binding to wheat germ factors. We show that in vitro TED binds at least seven wheat germ proteins. Translation and crosslinking assays, to which TED or TED derivatives with reduced functionality were included as competitor, showed that TED function correlates with binding to a 28 kDa protein (p28). One particular condition of competition revealed that p28 binding is not obligatory for TED function. Under this condition, a 30 kDa protein (p30) binds to TED. Importantly, affinity of p30 correlates with functionality of TED. These results strongly suggest that TED has the capacity to stimulate translation by recruiting the translational machinery either via binding to p28 or via binding to p30. PMID:11222757

  11. Functionality of the STNV translational enhancer domain correlates with affinity for two wheat germ factors.

    PubMed

    van Lipzig, R; Van Montagu, M; Cornelissen, M; Meulewaeter, F

    2001-03-01

    The satellite tobacco necrosis virus RNA is uncapped and requires a 3' translational enhancer domain (TED) for translation. Both in the wheat germ extract and in tobacco, TED stimulates in cis translation of heterologous, uncapped RNAs. In this study we investigated to what extent translation stimulation by TED depends on binding to wheat germ factors. We show that in vitro TED binds at least seven wheat germ proteins. Translation and crosslinking assays, to which TED or TED derivatives with reduced functionality were included as competitor, showed that TED function correlates with binding to a 28 kDa protein (p28). One particular condition of competition revealed that p28 binding is not obligatory for TED function. Under this condition, a 30 kDa protein (p30) binds to TED. Importantly, affinity of p30 correlates with functionality of TED. These results strongly suggest that TED has the capacity to stimulate translation by recruiting the translational machinery either via binding to p28 or via binding to p30.

  12. Differential functions of the Apoer2 intracellular domain in selenium uptake and cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Masiulis, Irene; Quill, Timothy A; Burk, Raymond F; Herz, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (Apoer2) is a multifunctional transport and signaling receptor that regulates the uptake of selenium into the mouse brain and testis through endocytosis of selenoprotein P (Sepp1). Mice deficient in Apoer2 or Sepp1 are infertile, with kinked and hypomotile spermatozoa. They also develop severe neurological defects on a low selenium diet, due to a profound impairment of selenium uptake. Little is known about the function of Apoer2 in the testis beyond its role as a Sepp1 receptor. By contrast, in the brain, Apoer2 is an essential component of the Reelin signaling pathway, which is required for proper neuronal organization and synapse function. Using knock-in mice, we have functionally dissociated the signaling motifs in the Apoer2 cytoplasmic domain from Sepp1 uptake. Selenium concentration of brain and testis was normal in the knock-in mutants, in contrast to Apoer2 knock-outs. Thus, the neurological defects in the signaling impaired knock-in mice are not caused by a selenium uptake defect, but instead are a direct consequence of a disruption of the Reelin signal. Reduced sperm motility was observed in some of the knock-in mice, indicating a novel signaling role for Apoer2 in sperm development and function that is independent of selenium uptake.

  13. Mapping interactions between myosin relay and converter domains that power muscle function.

    PubMed

    Kronert, William A; Melkani, Girish C; Melkani, Anju; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2014-05-02

    Intramolecular communication within myosin is essential for its function as motor, but the specific amino acid residue interactions required are unexplored within muscle cells. Using Drosophila melanogaster skeletal muscle myosin, we performed a novel in vivo molecular suppression analysis to define the importance of three relay loop amino acid residues (Ile(508), Asn(509), and Asp(511)) in communicating with converter domain residue Arg(759). We found that the N509K relay mutation suppressed defects in myosin ATPase, in vitro motility, myofibril stability, and muscle function associated with the R759E converter mutation. Through molecular modeling, we define a mechanism for this interaction and suggest why the I508K and D511K relay mutations fail to suppress R759E. Interestingly, I508K disabled motor function and myofibril assembly, suggesting that productive relay-converter interaction is essential for both processes. We conclude that the putative relay-converter interaction mediated by myosin residues 509 and 759 is critical for the biochemical and biophysical function of skeletal muscle myosin and the normal ultrastructural and mechanical properties of muscle.

  14. Collision Avoidance Functional Requirements for Step 1. Revision 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This Functional Requirements Document (FRD) describes the flow of requirements from the high level operational objectives down to the functional requirements specific to cooperative collision avoidance for high altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft systems. These are further decomposed into performance and safety guidelines that are backed up by analysis or references to various documents or research findings. The FRD should be considered when establishing future policies, procedures, and standards pertaining to cooperative collision avoidance.

  15. LysK CHAP endopeptidase domain is required for lysis of live staphylococcal cells.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    LysK is a staphylococcal bacteriophage endolysin composed of three domains, an N-terminal cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases (CHAP) endopeptidase domain (cleaves between D-alanine of the stem peptide and glycine of the cross-bridge peptide) a mid-protein amidase 2 domain (N-ace...

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana FLA4 functions as a glycan-stabilized soluble factor via its carboxy-proximal Fasciclin 1 domain.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Veit, Christiane; Abas, Lindy; Tryfona, Theodora; Maresch, Daniel; Ricardi, Martiniano M; Estevez, José Manuel; Strasser, Richard; Seifert, Georg J

    2017-08-01

    Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) are involved in numerous important functions in plants but the relevance of their complex structure to physiological function and cellular fate is unresolved. Using a fully functional fluorescent version of Arabidopsis thaliana FLA4 we show that this protein is localized at the plasma membrane as well as in endosomes and soluble in the apoplast. FLA4 is likely to be GPI-anchored, is highly N-glycosylated and carries two O-glycan epitopes previously associated with arabinogalactan proteins. The activity of FLA4 was resistant against deletion of the amino-proximal fasciclin 1 domain and was unaffected by removal of the GPI-modification signal, a highly conserved N-glycan or the deletion of predicted O-glycosylation sites. Nonetheless these structural changes dramatically decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-exit and plasma membrane localization of FLA4, with N-glycosylation acting at the level of ER-exit and O-glycosylation influencing post-secretory fate. We show that FLA4 acts predominantly by molecular interactions involving its carboxy-proximal fasciclin 1 domain and that its amino-proximal fasciclin 1 domain is required for stabilization of plasma membrane localization. FLA4 functions as a soluble glycoprotein via its carboxy-proximal Fas1 domain and its normal cellular trafficking depends on N- and O-glycosylation. © 2017 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Metal ion and inter-domain interactions as functional networks in E. coli topoisomerase I.

    PubMed

    Sissi, Claudia; Cheng, Bokun; Lombardo, Valentina; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching; Palumbo, Manlio

    2013-07-25

    Escherichia coli topoisomerase I (EcTopoI) is a type IA bacterial topoisomerase which is receiving large attention due to its potential application as novel target for antibacterial therapeutics. Nevertheless, a detailed knowledge of its mechanism of action at molecular level is to some extent lacking. This is partly due to the requirement of several factors (metal ions, nucleic acid) to the proper progress of the enzyme catalytic cycle. Additionally, each of them can differently affect the protein structure. Here we assess the role of the different components (DNA, metal ions, protein domains) in a dynamic environment as in solution by monitoring the catalytic as well as the structural properties of EcTopoI. Our results clearly indicated the interaction among these components as functionally relevant and underlined their mutual involvement. Some similarities with other enzymes of the same family emerged (for example DNA prevents divalent metal ions coordination at non selective binding sites). Interestingly, same interactions (C- and N-terminal domain interaction) appear to be peculiar of this bacterial topoisomerase which suggest they could be favorably exploited to the design of selective inhibitors for this class of enzyme. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal ions and inter-domains interactions as functional networks in E. coli Topoisomerase I

    PubMed Central

    Sissi, Claudia; Cheng, Bokun; Lombardo, Valentina; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching; Palumbo, Manlio

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli Topoisomerase I (EcTopoI) is a type IA bacterial topoisomerase which is receiving large attention due to its potential application as novel target for antibacterial therapeutics. Nevertheless, a detailed knowledge of its mechanism of action at molecular level is to some extent lacking. This is partly due to the requirement of several factors (metal ions, nucleic acid) to the proper progress of the enzyme catalytic cycle. Additionally, each of them can differently affect the protein structure. Here we assess the role of the different components (DNA, metal ions, protein domains) in a dynamic environment as in solution by monitoring the catalytic as well as the structural properties of EcTopoI. Our results clearly indicated the interaction among these components as functionally relevant and underlined their mutual involvement. Some similarities with other enzymes of the same family emerged (for example DNA prevents divalent metal ions coordination at non selective binding sites). Interestingly, same interactions (C- and N- terminal domains interaction) appear to be peculiar of this bacterial topoisomerase which suggest they could be favorable exploited to the design of selective inhibitors for this class of enzyme. PMID:23612251

  19. Insulator function and topological domain border strength scale with architectural protein occupancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chromosome conformation capture studies suggest that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structures called topologically associating domains. The borders of these domains are highly enriched for architectural proteins with characterized roles in insulator function. However, a majority of architectural protein binding sites localize within topological domains, suggesting sites associated with domain borders represent a functionally different subclass of these regulatory elements. How topologically associating domains are established and what differentiates border-associated from non-border architectural protein binding sites remain unanswered questions. Results By mapping the genome-wide target sites for several Drosophila architectural proteins, including previously uncharacterized profiles for TFIIIC and SMC-containing condensin complexes, we uncover an extensive pattern of colocalization in which architectural proteins establish dense clusters at the borders of topological domains. Reporter-based enhancer-blocking insulator activity as well as endogenous domain border strength scale with the occupancy level of architectural protein binding sites, suggesting co-binding by architectural proteins underlies the functional potential of these loci. Analyses in mouse and human stem cells suggest that clustering of architectural proteins is a general feature of genome organization, and conserved architectural protein binding sites may underlie the tissue-invariant nature of topologically associating domains observed in mammals. Conclusions We identify a spectrum of architectural protein occupancy that scales with the topological structure of chromosomes and the regulatory potential of these elements. Whereas high occupancy architectural protein binding sites associate with robust partitioning of topologically associating domains and robust insulator function, low occupancy sites appear reserved for gene-specific regulation within topological domains. PMID

  20. The role of chromosome domains in shaping the functional genome.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Tom; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-03-12

    The genome must be highly compacted to fit within eukaryotic nuclei but must be accessible to the transcriptional machinery to allow appropriate expression of genes in different cell types and throughout developmental pathways. A growing body of work has shown that the genome, analogously to proteins, forms an ordered, hierarchical structure that closely correlates and may even be causally linked with regulation of functions such as transcription. This review describes our current understanding of how these functional genomic "secondary and tertiary structures" form a blueprint for global nuclear architecture and the potential they hold for understanding and manipulating genomic regulation.

  1. Small Molecule-Induced Domain Swapping as a Mechanism for Controlling Protein Function and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Karchin, Joshua M.; Ha, Jeung-Hoi; Namitz, Kevin E.; Cosgrove, Michael S.; Loh, Stewart N.

    2017-01-01

    Domain swapping is the process by which identical proteins exchange reciprocal segments to generate dimers. Here we introduce induced domain swapping (INDOS) as a mechanism for regulating protein function. INDOS employs a modular design consisting of the fusion of two proteins: a recognition protein that binds a triggering molecule, and a target protein that undergoes a domain swap in response to binding of the triggering ligand. The recognition protein (FK506 binding protein) is inserted into functionally-inactivated point mutants of two target proteins (staphylococcal nuclease and ribose binding protein). Binding of FK506 to the FKBP domain causes the target domain to first unfold, then refold via domain swap. The inactivating mutations become ‘swapped out’ in the dimer, increasing nuclease and ribose binding activities by 100-fold and 15-fold, respectively, restoring them to near wild-type values. INDOS is intended to convert an arbitrary protein into a functional switch, and is the first example of rational design in which a small molecule is used to trigger protein domain swapping and subsequent activation of biological function. PMID:28287617

  2. Metal binding to the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the PIB ATPase HMA4 is required for metal transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Clémentine; Lekeux, Gilles; Ukuwela, Ashwinie A; Xiao, Zhiguang; Charlier, Jean-Benoit; Bosman, Bernard; Carnol, Monique; Motte, Patrick; Damblon, Christian; Galleni, Moreno; Hanikenne, Marc

    2016-03-01

    PIB ATPases are metal cation pumps that transport metals across membranes. These proteins possess N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic extensions that contain Cys- and His-rich high affinity metal binding domains, which may be involved in metal sensing, metal ion selectivity and/or in regulation of the pump activity. The PIB ATPase HMA4 (Heavy Metal ATPase 4) plays a central role in metal homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana and has a key function in zinc and cadmium hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation in the extremophile plant species Arabidopsis halleri. Here, we examined the function and structure of the N-terminal cytoplasmic metal-binding domain of HMA4. We mutagenized a conserved CCTSE metal-binding motif in the domain and assessed the impact of the mutations on protein function and localization in planta, on metal-binding properties in vitro and on protein structure by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The two Cys residues of the motif are essential for the function, but not for localization, of HMA4 in planta, whereas the Glu residue is important but not essential. These residues also determine zinc coordination and affinity. Zinc binding to the N-terminal domain is thus crucial for HMA4 protein function, whereas it is not required to maintain the protein structure. Altogether, combining in vivo and in vitro approaches in our study provides insights towards the molecular understanding of metal transport and specificity of metal P-type ATPases.

  3. Identification of Functionally Important TonB-ExbD Periplasmic Domain Interactions In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ollis, Anne A.

    2012-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the cytoplasmic membrane proton-motive force energizes the active transport of TonB-dependent ligands through outer membrane TonB-gated transporters. In Escherichia coli, cytoplasmic membrane proteins ExbB and ExbD couple the proton-motive force to conformational changes in TonB, which are hypothesized to form the basis of energy transduction through direct contact with the transporters. While the role of ExbB is not well understood, contact between periplasmic domains of TonB and ExbD is required, with the conformational response of TonB to presence or absence of proton motive force being modulated through ExbD. A region (residues 92 to 121) within the ExbD periplasmic domain was previously identified as being important for TonB interaction. Here, the specific sites of periplasmic domain interactions between that region and the TonB carboxy terminus were identified by examining 270 combinations of 45 TonB and 6 ExbD individual cysteine substitutions for disulfide-linked heterodimer formation. ExbD residues A92C, K97C, and T109C interacted with multiple TonB substitutions in four regions of the TonB carboxy terminus. Two regions were on each side of the TonB residues known to interact with the TonB box of TonB-gated transporters, suggesting that ExbD positions TonB for correct interaction at that site. A third region contained a functionally important glycine residue, and the fourth region involved a highly conserved predicted amphipathic helix. Three ExbD substitutions, F103C, L115C, and T121C, were nonreactive with any TonB cysteine substitutions. ExbD D25, a candidate to be on a proton translocation pathway, was important to support efficient TonB-ExbD heterodimerization at these specific regions. PMID:22493017

  4. Identification of functionally important TonB-ExbD periplasmic domain interactions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ollis, Anne A; Postle, Kathleen

    2012-06-01

    In gram-negative bacteria, the cytoplasmic membrane proton-motive force energizes the active transport of TonB-dependent ligands through outer membrane TonB-gated transporters. In Escherichia coli, cytoplasmic membrane proteins ExbB and ExbD couple the proton-motive force to conformational changes in TonB, which are hypothesized to form the basis of energy transduction through direct contact with the transporters. While the role of ExbB is not well understood, contact between periplasmic domains of TonB and ExbD is required, with the conformational response of TonB to presence or absence of proton motive force being modulated through ExbD. A region (residues 92 to 121) within the ExbD periplasmic domain was previously identified as being important for TonB interaction. Here, the specific sites of periplasmic domain interactions between that region and the TonB carboxy terminus were identified by examining 270 combinations of 45 TonB and 6 ExbD individual cysteine substitutions for disulfide-linked heterodimer formation. ExbD residues A92C, K97C, and T109C interacted with multiple TonB substitutions in four regions of the TonB carboxy terminus. Two regions were on each side of the TonB residues known to interact with the TonB box of TonB-gated transporters, suggesting that ExbD positions TonB for correct interaction at that site. A third region contained a functionally important glycine residue, and the fourth region involved a highly conserved predicted amphipathic helix. Three ExbD substitutions, F103C, L115C, and T121C, were nonreactive with any TonB cysteine substitutions. ExbD D25, a candidate to be on a proton translocation pathway, was important to support efficient TonB-ExbD heterodimerization at these specific regions.

  5. Characterization of desnutrin functional domains: critical residues for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robin E; Wang, Yuhui; Ahmadian, Maryam; Lu, Jennifer; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Sul, Hei Sook

    2010-02-01

    Murine desnutrin/human ATGL is a triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase with a predicted catalytic dyad within an alpha-beta hydrolase fold in the N-terminal region. In humans, mutations resulting in C-terminal truncation cause neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy. To identify critical functional domains, we measured TAG breakdown in cultured cells by mutated or truncated desnutrin. In vitro, C-terminally truncated desnutrin displayed an even higher apparent V(max) than the full-length form without changes in K(m), which may be explained by our finding of an interaction between the C- and N-terminal domains. In live cells, however, C-terminally truncated adenoviral desnutrin had lower TAG hydrolase activity. We investigated a role for the phosphorylation of C-terminal S406 and S430 residues but found that these were not necessary for TAG breakdown or lipid droplet localization in cells. The predicted N-terminal active sites, S47 and D166, were both critical for TAG hydrolysis in live cells and in vitro. We also identified two overlapping N-terminal motifs that predict lipid substrate binding domains, a glycine-rich motif (underlined) and an amphipathic alpha-helix (bold) within amino acid residues 10-24 (ISFAGCGFLGVYHIG). G14, F17, L18, and V20, but not G16 and G19, were important for TAG hydrolysis, suggesting a potential role for the amphipathic alpha-helix in TAG binding. This study identifies for the first time critical sites in the N-terminal region of desnutrin and reveals the requirement of the C-terminal region for TAG hydrolysis in cultured cells.

  6. The SNAG domain of Snail1 functions as a molecular hook for recruiting lysine-specific demethylase 1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiwei; Wu, Yadi; Li, Junlin; Dong, Chenfang; Ye, Xiaofeng; Chi, Young-In; Evers, B Mark; Zhou, Binhua P

    2010-06-02

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a transdifferentiation programme. The mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of EMT remains unclear. In this study, we identified that Snail1 interacted with histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). We demonstrated that the SNAG domain of Snail1 and the amine oxidase domain of LSD1 were required for their mutual interaction. Interestingly, the sequence of the SNAG domain is similar to that of the histone H3 tail, and the interaction of Snail1 with LSD1 can be blocked by LSD1 enzymatic inhibitors and a histone H3 peptide. We found that the formation of a Snail1-LSD1-CoREST ternary complex was critical for the stability and function of these proteins. The co-expression of these molecules was found in cancer cell lines and breast tumour specimens. Furthermore, we showed that the SNAG domain of Snail1 was critical for recruiting LSD1 to its target gene promoters and resulted in suppression of cell migration and invasion. Our study suggests that the SNAG domain of Snail1 resembles a histone H3-like structure and functions as a molecular hook for recruiting LSD1 to repress gene expression in metastasis.

  7. Insights into common functional domains of tospovirus NSm proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Direct demonstration of tospovirus gene function has been impeded by the absence of reliable reverse genetics systems for this virus genus. Use of a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based expression system has demonstrated that the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) NSm protein supports cell-to-cell moveme...

  8. Ecogenomic perspectives on domains of unknown function: correlation-based exploration of marine metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Hankeln, Wolfgang; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Duhaime, Melissa Beth; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of conserved DNA sequences with no clear function is steadily growing in bioinformatics databases. Studies of sequence and structural homology have indicated that many uncharacterized protein domain sequences are variants of functionally described domains. If these variants promote an organism's ecological fitness, they are likely to be conserved in the genome of its progeny and the population at large. The genetic composition of microbial communities in their native ecosystems is accessible through metagenomics. We hypothesize the co-variation of protein domain sequences across metagenomes from similar ecosystems will provide insights into their potential roles and aid further investigation. We calculated the correlation of Pfam protein domain sequences across the Global Ocean Sampling metagenome collection, employing conservative detection and correlation thresholds to limit results to well-supported hits and associations. We then examined intercorrelations between domains of unknown function (DUFs) and domains involved in known metabolic pathways using network visualization and cluster-detection tools. We used a cautious "guilty-by-association" approach, referencing knowledge-level resources to identify and discuss associations that offer insight into DUF function. We observed numerous DUFs associated to photobiologically active domains and prevalent in the Cyanobacteria. Other clusters included DUFs associated with DNA maintenance and repair, inorganic nutrient metabolism, and sodium-translocating transport domains. We also observed a number of clusters reflecting known metabolic associations and cases that predicted functional reclassification of DUFs. Critically examining domain covariation across metagenomic datasets can grant new perspectives on the roles and associations of DUFs in an ecological setting. Targeted attempts at DUF characterization in the laboratory or in silico may draw from these insights and opportunities to discover new

  9. Ecogenomic Perspectives on Domains of Unknown Function: Correlation-Based Exploration of Marine Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Hankeln, Wolfgang; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Duhaime, Melissa Beth; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Background The proportion of conserved DNA sequences with no clear function is steadily growing in bioinformatics databases. Studies of sequence and structural homology have indicated that many uncharacterized protein domain sequences are variants of functionally described domains. If these variants promote an organism's ecological fitness, they are likely to be conserved in the genome of its progeny and the population at large. The genetic composition of microbial communities in their native ecosystems is accessible through metagenomics. We hypothesize the co-variation of protein domain sequences across metagenomes from similar ecosystems will provide insights into their potential roles and aid further investigation. Methodology/Principal findings We calculated the correlation of Pfam protein domain sequences across the Global Ocean Sampling metagenome collection, employing conservative detection and correlation thresholds to limit results to well-supported hits and associations. We then examined intercorrelations between domains of unknown function (DUFs) and domains involved in known metabolic pathways using network visualization and cluster-detection tools. We used a cautious “guilty-by-association” approach, referencing knowledge-level resources to identify and discuss associations that offer insight into DUF function. We observed numerous DUFs associated to photobiologically active domains and prevalent in the Cyanobacteria. Other clusters included DUFs associated with DNA maintenance and repair, inorganic nutrient metabolism, and sodium-translocating transport domains. We also observed a number of clusters reflecting known metabolic associations and cases that predicted functional reclassification of DUFs. Conclusion/Significance Critically examining domain covariation across metagenomic datasets can grant new perspectives on the roles and associations of DUFs in an ecological setting. Targeted attempts at DUF characterization in the laboratory or in

  10. Functional Requirements for an Electronic Work Package System

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna H.

    2016-12-01

    This document provides a set of high level functional requirements for a generic electronic work package (eWP) system. The requirements have been identified by the U.S. nuclear industry as a part of the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages - Enterprise Requirements (NEWPER) initiative. The functional requirements are mainly applied to eWP system supporting Basic and Moderate types of smart documents, i.e., documents that have fields for recording input such as text, dates, numbers, and equipment status, and documents which incorporate additional functionalities such as form field data “type“ validation (e.g. date, text, number, and signature) of data entered and/or self-populate basic document information (usually from existing host application meta data) on the form when the user first opens it. All the requirements are categorized by the roles; Planner, Supervisor, Craft, Work Package Approval Reviewer, Operations, Scheduling/Work Control, and Supporting Functions. The categories Statistics, Records, Information Technology are also included used to group the requirements. All requirements are presented in Section 2 through Section 11. Examples of more detailed requirements are provided for the majority of high level requirements. These examples are meant as an inspiration to be used as each utility goes through the process of identifying their specific requirements. The report’s table of contents provides a summary of the high level requirements.

  11. Function-selective domain architecture plasticity potentials in eukaryotic genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Linkeviciute, Viktorija; Rackham, Owen J L; Gough, Julian; Oates, Matt E; Fang, Hai

    2015-12-01

    To help evaluate how protein function impacts on genome evolution, we introduce a new concept of 'architecture plasticity potential' - the capacity to form distinct domain architectures - both for an individual domain, or more generally for a set of domains grouped by shared function. We devise a scoring metric to measure the plasticity potential for these domain sets, and evaluate how function has changed over time for different species. Applying this metric to a phylogenetic tree of eukaryotic genomes, we find that the involvement of each function is not random but highly selective. For certain lineages there is strong bias for evolution to involve domains related to certain functions. In general eukaryotic genomes, particularly animals, expand complex functional activities such as signalling and regulation, but at the cost of reducing metabolic processes. We also observe differential evolution of transcriptional regulation and a unique evolutionary role of channel regulators; crucially this is only observable in terms of the architecture plasticity potential. Our findings provide a new layer of information to understand the significance of function in eukaryotic genome evolution. A web search tool, available at http://supfam.org/Pevo, offers a wide spectrum of options for exploring functional importance in eukaryotic genome evolution. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The activation domain of a basic helix-loop-helix protein is masked by repressor interaction with domains distinct from that required for transcription regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, P S; Hirst, K; Goding, C R

    1994-01-01

    While there are many examples of protein-protein interactions modulating the DNA-binding activity of transcription factors, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the transcription activation function. Using a two-hybrid system we show here that transcription repression of the basic domain/helix-loop-helix factor PHO4 is mediated by complex formation with the PHO80 repressor. In contrast to other systems, such as inhibition of GAL4 by GAL80 or of p53 by MDM2, where repression is mediated by direct interaction at regions overlapping the transcription activation domain, interaction with PHO80 involves two regions of PHO4 distinct from those involved in transcription activation or DNA-binding and dimerization. The possibility that repression of PHO4 by PHO80 may represent a general mechanism of transcription control, including regulation of the cell-type-specific transcription activation domain of c-Jun, is discussed. Images PMID:8187772

  13. RIC-3 affects properties and quantity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via a mechanism that does not require the coiled-coil domains.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, Hagit Cohen; Yassin, Lina; Farah, Hanna; Michaeli, Avner; Eshel, Margalit; Treinin, Millet

    2005-07-29

    Members of the RIC-3 gene family are effectors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression in vertebrates and invertebrates. In Caenorhabditis elegans RIC-3 is needed for functional expression of multiple nAChRs, including the DEG-3/DES-2 nAChR. Effects of RIC-3 on DEG-3/DES-2 functional expression are found in vivo and following heterologous expression in Xenopus leavis oocytes. We now show that in X. leavis oocytes RIC-3 also affects the kinetics and agonist affinity properties of the DEG-3/DES-2 receptor. Because these effects are mimicked by increasing the ratio of DEG-3 subunits within DEG-3/DES-2 receptors, this suggests that RIC-3 may preferentially promote maturation of DEG-3-rich receptors. Indeed, effects of RIC-3 on functional expression of DEG-3/DES-2 positively correlate with the DEG-3 to DES-2 ratio. All RIC-3 family members have two transmembrane domains followed by one or two coiled-coil domains. Here we show that the effects of RIC-3 on functional expression and on receptor properties are mediated by the transmembrane domains and do not require the coiled-coil domains. In agreement with this, mammals express a RIC-3 transcript lacking the coiled-coil domain that is capable of promoting DEG-3/DES-2 functional expression. Last, we show that RIC-3 affects DEG-3 quantity, suggesting stabilization of receptors or receptor intermediates by RIC-3. Together our results suggest that subunit-specific interactions of RIC-3 with nAChR subunits, mediated by the transmembrane domains, are sufficient for the effects of RIC-3 on nAChR quantity and quality.

  14. Identification of two functional PCNA-binding domains in human DNA polymerase κ.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Acharya, Narottam; Park, Jeseong; Basu, Debashree; Prakash, Satya; Prakash, Louise

    2014-07-01

    Previously, we have shown that human DNA polymerase (Pol) η has two functional PCNA-binding motifs, PIP1 and PIP2, and that a C-terminal deletion of Polη that lacks the ubiquitin-binding UBZ domain and the PIP2 domain but retains the PIP1 domain promotes normal levels of translesion synthesis (TLS) opposite a cis-syn TT dimer in human cells. Here, we identify two PIP domains in Polκ and show that TLS occurs normally in human fibroblast cells in which the pip1 or pip2 mutant Polκ is expressed, but mutational inactivation of both PIP domains renders Polκ nonfunctional in TLS opposite the thymine glycol lesion. Thus, the two PIP domains of Polκ function redundantly in TLS opposite this DNA lesion in human cells. However, and surprisingly, whereas mutational inactivation of the PIP1 domain completely inhibits the stimulation of DNA synthesis by Polκ in the presence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), replication factor C, and replication protein A, mutations in PIP2 have no adverse effect on PCNA-dependent DNA synthesis. This raises the possibility that activation of Polκ PIP2 as a PCNA-binding domain occurs during TLS in human cells and that protein-protein interactions and post-transcriptional modifications are involved in such activation. © 2014 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2014 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Evolution of the sewage treatment plant model SimpleTreat: applicability domain and data requirements.

    PubMed

    Franco, Antonio; Struijs, Jaap; Gouin, Todd; Price, Oliver R

    2013-10-01

    SimpleTreat 3.1 is the sewage treatment plant (STP) model implemented in the European Union (EU) framework for the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. The model was originally designed for neutral hydrophobic chemicals, whereas many substances currently under regulatory scrutiny, are ionizable at environmental pH. Although the model has been adapted to describe ionization (SimpleTreat 3.1), the fate of organic ions is limited to the unbound aqueous phase, which seriously restricts the applicability domain. New regressions were implemented to estimate the sludge-water partition coefficient normalized to organic carbon (KOC ) of monovalent acids and bases from the octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ), the dissociation constant (pKa) and the pH. We evaluated the updated model (SimpleTreat 3.2) with 10 test chemicals by comparing predictions with monitoring data collected from the literature. Test chemicals were specifically selected to challenge the applicability domain and to cover a wide range of functionality and physical-chemical properties. Although predicted effluent concentrations are generally conservative, SimpleTreat 3.2 provides reasonable estimates for use in lower-tier risk assessment for neutral and monovalent ionizable chemicals. The accuracy of the new KOC regressions is acceptable for monovalent acid but is lower for bases, for which measured sludge KOC is highly recommended. Measured KOC are also recommended for ionic surfactants and necessary for organic ligands, which may limit the applicability of SimpleTreat using a basic input data set. The conservative nature of model estimates reflects the default worst case, non-numerical parameterization of biodegradation rates and the assumption that biodegradation is limited to the unbound aqueous phase. The potential of refining the description of biodegradation using higher tier simulation tests is explored in a parallel article (Franco et al. this issue).

  16. The EF-hand Ca2+ Binding Domain Is Not Required for Cytosolic Ca2+ Activation of the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenting; Sun, Bo; Xiao, Zhichao; Liu, Yingjie; Wang, Yundi; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ruiwu; Chen, S R Wayne

    2016-01-29

    Activation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) by elevating cytosolic Ca(2+) is a central step in the process of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release, but the molecular basis of RyR2 activation by cytosolic Ca(2+) is poorly defined. It has been proposed recently that the putative Ca(2+) binding domain encompassing a pair of EF-hand motifs (EF1 and EF2) in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) functions as a Ca(2+) sensor that regulates the gating of RyR1. Although the role of the EF-hand domain in RyR1 function has been studied extensively, little is known about the functional significance of the corresponding EF-hand domain in RyR2. Here we investigate the effect of mutations in the EF-hand motifs on the Ca(2+) activation of RyR2. We found that mutations in the EF-hand motifs or deletion of the entire EF-hand domain did not affect the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of [(3)H]ryanodine binding or the cytosolic Ca(2+) activation of RyR2. On the other hand, deletion of the EF-hand domain markedly suppressed the luminal Ca(2+) activation of RyR2 and spontaneous Ca(2+) release in HEK293 cells during store Ca(2+) overload or store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR). Furthermore, mutations in the EF2 motif, but not EF1 motif, of RyR2 raised the threshold for SOICR termination, whereas deletion of the EF-hand domain of RyR2 increased both the activation and termination thresholds for SOICR. These results indicate that, although the EF-hand domain is not required for RyR2 activation by cytosolic Ca(2+), it plays an important role in luminal Ca(2+) activation and SOICR.

  17. Functional domains in nuclear import factor p97 for binding the nuclear localization sequence receptor and the nuclear pore.

    PubMed Central

    Chi, N C; Adam, S A

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the nuclear protein import factor p97 with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) receptor, the nuclear pore complex, and Ran/TC4 is important for coordinating the events of protein import to the nucleus. We have mapped the binding domains on p97 for the NLS receptor and the nuclear pore. The NLS receptor-binding domain of p97 maps to the C-terminal 60% of the protein between residues 356 and 876. The pore complex-binding domain of p97 maps to residues 152-352. The pore complex-binding domain overlaps the Ran-GTP- and Ran-GDP-binding domains on p97, but only Ran-GTP competes for docking in permeabilized cells. The N-ethylmaleimide sensitivity of the p97 for docking was investigated and found to be due to inhibition of p97 binding to the pore complex and to the NLS receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues in the pore- and receptor-binding domains identified two cysteines, C223 and C228, that were required for p97 to bind the nuclear pore. Inhibition studies on docking and accumulation of a NLS protein provided additional evidence that the domains identified biochemically are the functional domains involved in protein import. Together, these results suggest that Ran-GTP dissociates the receptor complex and prevents p97 binding to the pore by inducing a conformational change in the structure of p97 rather than simple competition for binding sites. Images PMID:9201707

  18. Towards a minimal generic set of domains of functioning and health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) has argued that functioning, and, more concretely, functioning domains constitute the operationalization that best captures our intuitive notion of health. Functioning is, therefore, a major public-health goal. A great deal of data about functioning is already available. Nonetheless, it is not possible to compare and optimally utilize this information. One potential approach to address this challenge is to propose a generic and minimal set of functioning domains that captures the experience of individuals and populations with respect to functioning and health. The objective of this investigation was to identify a minimal generic set of ICF domains suitable for describing functioning in adults at both the individual and population levels. Methods We performed a psychometric study using data from: 1) the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, 2) the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007/2008, and 3) the ICF Core Set studies. Random Forests and Group Lasso regression were applied using one self-reported general-health question as a dependent variable. The domains selected were compared to those of the World Health Survey (WHS) developed by the WHO. Results Seven domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) are proposed as a minimal generic set of functioning and health: energy and drive functions, emotional functions, sensation of pain, carrying out daily routine, walking, moving around, and remunerative employment. The WHS domains of self-care, cognition, interpersonal activities, and vision were not included in our selection. Conclusions The minimal generic set proposed in this study is the starting point to address one of the most important challenges in health measurement – the comparability of data across studies and countries. It also represents the first step in developing a common metric of health to link information

  19. Characterization of a dual-function domain that mediates membrane insertion and excision of Ff filamentous bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nicholas J; Gagic, Dragana; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J; Rakonjac, Jasna

    2011-09-02

    The filamentous phage Ff (f1, fd, or M13) of Escherichia coli is assembled at the cell membranes by a process that is morphologically similar to that of pilus assembly. The release of the filament virion is mediated by excision from the membrane; conversely, entry into a host cell is mediated by insertion of the virion coat proteins into the membrane. The N-terminal domains of the minor virion protein pIII have the sole role of binding to host receptors during infection. In contrast, the C domain of pIII is required for two opposite functions: insertion of the virion into the membrane during infection and excision at the termination step of assembly/secretion. We identified a 28-residue-long segment in the pIII C domain, which is required for phage entry but dispensable for release from the membrane at the end of assembly. This segment, which we named the infection-competence segment (ICS), works only in cis with the N-terminal receptor-binding domains and does not require the equivalent ICS sequences in other subunits within the virion cap. The ICS contains a predicted amphipathic α-helix and is rich in small amino acids, Gly, Ala, and Ser, which are arranged as a [small]XXX[small]XX[small]XXX[small]XXX[small] motif. Scanning Ala/Gly mutagenesis of ICS showed that small residues are compatible with infection. Overall, organization of the C domain is reminiscent of α-helical pore-forming toxins' membrane insertion domains. The unique ability of pIII to mediate both membrane insertion and excision allowed us to compare these two fundamental membrane transactions and to show that receptor-triggered insertion is a more complex process than excision from membranes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional Information Stored in the Conserved Structural RNA Domains of Flavivirus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sanlés, Alba; Ríos-Marco, Pablo; Romero-López, Cristina; Berzal-Herranz, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    The genus Flavivirus comprises a large number of small, positive-sense single-stranded, RNA viruses able to replicate in the cytoplasm of certain arthropod and/or vertebrate host cells. The genus, which has some 70 member species, includes a number of emerging and re-emerging pathogens responsible for outbreaks of human disease around the world, such as the West Nile, dengue, Zika, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Like other RNA viruses, flaviviruses have a compact RNA genome that efficiently stores all the information required for the completion of the infectious cycle. The efficiency of this storage system is attributable to supracoding elements, i.e., discrete, structural units with essential functions. This information storage system overlaps and complements the protein coding sequence and is highly conserved across the genus. It therefore offers interesting potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes our knowledge of the features of flavivirus genome functional RNA domains. It also provides a brief overview of the main achievements reported in the design of antiviral nucleic acid-based drugs targeting functional genomic RNA elements. PMID:28421048

  1. The macro domain protein family: structure, functions, and their potential therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Han, Weidong; Li, Xiaolei; Fu, Xiaobing

    2011-01-01

    Macro domains are ancient, highly evolutionarily conserved domains that are widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life. The 'macro fold' is roughly 25kDa in size and is composed of a mixed α-β fold with similarity to the P loop-containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolases. They function as binding modules for metabolites of NAD(+), including poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which is synthesized by PAR polymerases (PARPs). Although there is a high degree of sequence similarity within this family, particularly for residues that might be involved in catalysis or substrates binding, it is likely that the sequence variation that does exist among macro domains is responsible for the specificity of function of individual proteins. Recent findings have indicated that macro domain proteins are functionally promiscuous and are implicated in the regulation of diverse biological functions, such as DNA repair, chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. Significant advances in the field of macro domain have occurred in the past few years, including biological insights and the discovery of novel signaling pathways. To provide a framework for understanding these recent findings, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the known and proposed biochemical, cellular and physiological roles of the macro domain family. Recent data that indicate a critical role of macro domain regulation for the proper progression of cellular differentiation programs will be discussed. In addition, the effect of dysregulated expression of macro domain proteins will be considered in the processes of tumorigenesis and bacterial pathogenesis. Finally, a series of observations will be highlighted that should be addressed in future efforts to develop macro domains as effective therapeutic targets.

  2. Functions & Requirements for Debris Removal System Project A-2

    SciTech Connect

    PRECECHTEL, D.R.

    1999-12-29

    This revision of the Functions and Requirements Document updates the approved Functions and Requirements for Debris Removal Subproject WHC-SD-SNF-FRD-009, Rev. 0. It has been revised in its entirety to reflect the current scope of work for Debris Removal as canisters and lids under the K Basin Projects work breakdown structure (WBS). In this revision the canisters and lids will be consider debris and a new set of Functions and Requirements have been developed to remove the canisters and lids from the basin.

  3. Identification of distinct SET/TAF-Iβ domains required for core histone binding and quantitative characterisation of the interaction

    PubMed Central

    Karetsou, Zoe; Emmanouilidou, Anastasia; Sanidas, Ioannis; Liokatis, Stamatis; Nikolakaki, Eleni; Politou, Anastasia S; Papamarcaki, Thomais

    2009-01-01

    Background The assembly of nucleosomes to higher-order chromatin structures is finely tuned by the relative affinities of histones for chaperones and nucleosomal binding sites. The myeloid leukaemia protein SET/TAF-Iβ belongs to the NAP1 family of histone chaperones and participates in several chromatin-based mechanisms, such as chromatin assembly, nucleosome reorganisation and transcriptional activation. To better understand the histone chaperone function of SET/TAF-Iβ, we designed several SET/TAF-Iβ truncations, examined their structural integrity by circular Dichroism and assessed qualitatively and quantitatively the histone binding properties of wild-type protein and mutant forms using GST-pull down experiments and fluorescence spectroscopy-based binding assays. Results Wild type SET/TAF-Iβ binds to histones H2B and H3 with Kd values of 2.87 and 0.15 μM, respectively. The preferential binding of SET/TAF-Iβ to histone H3 is mediated by its central region and the globular part of H3. On the contrary, the acidic C-terminal tail and the amino-terminal dimerisation domain of SET/TAF-Iβ, as well as the H3 amino-terminal tail, are dispensable for this interaction. Conclusion This type of analysis allowed us to assess the relative affinities of SET/TAF-Iβ for different histones and identify the domains of the protein required for effective histone recognition. Our findings are consistent with recent structural studies of SET/TAF-Iβ and can be valuable to understand the role of SET/TAF-Iβ in chromatin function. PMID:19358706

  4. Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) Protein IST1 by Different Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Emily Z.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. PMID:25657007

  5. Distinct mechanisms of recognizing endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) protein IST1 by different microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains.

    PubMed

    Guo, Emily Z; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-03-27

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) Protein IST1 by Different Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Emily Z.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-02-05

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). In this paper, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. Finally, these observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode.

  7. Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) Protein IST1 by Different Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domains

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Emily Z.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-02-05

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). In this paper, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed thatmore » IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. Finally, these observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode.« less

  8. A conserved interaction between the SDI domain of Bre2 and the Dpy-30 domain of Sdc1 is required for histone methylation and gene expression.

    PubMed

    South, Paul F; Fingerman, Ian M; Mersman, Douglas P; Du, Hai-Ning; Briggs, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) is methylated by the Set1 complex (Set1C or COMPASS). Besides the catalytic Set1 subunit, several proteins that form the Set1C (Swd1, Swd2, Swd3, Spp1, Bre2, and Sdc1) are also needed to mediate proper H3K4 methylation. Until this study, it has been unclear how individual Set1C members interact and how this interaction may impact histone methylation and gene expression. In this study, Bre2 and Sdc1 are shown to directly interact, and it is shown that the association of this heteromeric complex is needed for proper H3K4 methylation and gene expression to occur. Interestingly, mutational and biochemical analysis identified the C terminus of Bre2 as a critical protein-protein interaction domain that binds to the Dpy-30 domain of Sdc1. Using the human homologs of Bre2 and Sdc1, ASH2L and DPY-30, respectively, we demonstrate that the C terminus of ASH2L also interacts with the Dpy-30 domain of DPY-30, suggesting that this protein-protein interaction is maintained from yeast to humans. Because of the functionally conserved nature of the C terminus of Bre2 and ASH2L, this region was named the SDI (Sdc1 Dpy-30 interaction) domain. Finally, we show that the SDI-Dpy-30 domain interaction is physiologically important for the function of Set1 in vivo, because specific disruption of this interaction prevents Bre2 and Sdc1 association with Set1, resulting in H3K4 methylation defects and decreases in gene expression. Overall, these and other mechanistic studies on how H3K4 methyltransferase complexes function will likely provide insights into how human MLL and SET1-like complexes or overexpression of ASH2L leads to oncogenesis.

  9. Implications of 3D domain swapping for protein folding, misfolding and function.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Itzhaki, Laura S

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional domain swapping is the process by which two identical protein chains exchange a part of their structure to form an intertwined dimer or higher-order oligomer. The phenomenon has been observed in the crystal structures of a range of different proteins. In this chapter we review the experiments that have been performed in order to understand the sequence and structural determinants of domain-swapping and these show how the general principles obtained can be used to engineer proteins to domain swap. We discuss the role of domain swapping in regulating protein function and as one possible mechanism of protein misfolding that can lead to aggregation and disease. We also review a number of interesting pathways of macromolecular assembly involving β-strand insertion or complementation that are related to the domain-swapping phenomenon.

  10. [Detection of the functionally active domains in the molecule of the lethal factor of the anthrax exotoxin].

    PubMed

    Noskov, A N; Kravchenko, T B; Noskova, V P

    1996-01-01

    Three functional domains were revealed in the molecule of the lethal factor of B. anthracis. They are located in the linear structure of the molecula as follows: the associative domain occupies the area from Lys39 to Met242, the stabilizing domain from Leu517 to Lys614, and the effector domain still further to the COOH-terminal Lys mino acid.

  11. Connexin43 PDZ2 Binding Domain Mutants Create Functional Gap Junctions and Exhibit Altered Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chengshi; Martyn, Kendra D.; Kurata, Wendy E.; Warn-Cramer, Bonnie J.; Lau, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundantly expressed gap junction protein. The C-terminal tail of Cx43 is important for regulation of gap junctions via phosphorylation of specific tyrosine and serine residues and through interactions with cellular proteins. The C-terminus of Cx43 has been shown to interact with the PDZ2 domain of the tight and adherens junction associated zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) protein. Analysis of the PDZ2 binding domain of Cx43 indicated that positions −3 and −2, and the final hydrophobic amino acid at the C-terminus, are critical for ZO-1 binding. In addition, the C-termini of connexins 40 and 45, but not Cx32, interacted with ZO-1. To evaluate the functional significance of the Cx43-ZO-1 interaction, Cx43 wild type (Cx43wt) and mutants lacking either the C-terminal hydrophobic isoleucine (Cx43ΔI382) or the last five amino acids (Cx43Δ378–382), required for ZO-1 binding in vitro, were introduced into a Cx43-deficient MDCK cell line. In vitro binding studies and coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated that these Cx43 mutants failed to interact with ZO-1. Confocal and deconvolution microscopy revealed that a fraction of Cx43wt colocalized with ZO-1 at the plasma membrane. A similar colocalization pattern was observed for the Cx43ΔI382 and Cx43Δ378–382 mutants, which were translocated to the plasma membrane and formed functional gap junction channels. The wt and mutant Cx43 appeared to have similar turnover rates. However, the P2 and P3 phosphoisoforms of the Cx43 mutants were significantly reduced compared to Cx43wt. These studies indicated that the interaction of Cx43 with ZO-1 may contribute to the regulation of Cx43 phosphorylation. PMID:16247852

  12. Characterization of the Functional Domains of a Mammalian Voltage-Sensitive Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Rosasco, Mario G; Gordon, Sharona E; Bajjalieh, Sandra M

    2015-12-15

    Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) are proteins that directly couple changes in membrane electrical potential to inositol lipid phosphatase activity. VSPs thus couple two signaling pathways that are critical for cellular functioning. Although a number of nonmammalian VSPs have been characterized biophysically, mammalian VSPs are less well understood at both the physiological and biophysical levels. In this study, we aimed to address this gap in knowledge by determining whether the VSP from mouse, Mm-VSP, is expressed in the brain and contains a functional voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and a phosphatase domain. We report that Mm-VSP is expressed in neurons and is developmentally regulated. To address whether the functions of the VSD and phosphatase domain are retained in Mm-VSP, we took advantage of the modular nature of these domains and expressed each independently as a chimeric protein in a heterologous expression system. We found that the Mm-VSP VSD, fused to a viral potassium channel, was able to drive voltage-dependent gating of the channel pore. The Mm-VSP phosphatase domain, fused to the VSD of a nonmammalian VSP, was also functional: activation resulted in PI(4,5)P2 depletion that was sufficient to inhibit the PI(4,5)P2-regulated KCNQ2/3 channels. While testing the functionality of the VSD and phosphatase domain, we observed slight differences between the activities of Mm-VSP-based chimeras and those of nonmammalian VSPs. Although the properties of VSP chimeras may not completely reflect the properties of native VSPs, the differences we observed in voltage-sensing and phosphatase activity provide a starting point for future experiments to investigate the function of Mm-VSP and other mammalian VSPs. In conclusion, our data reveal that both the VSD and the lipid phosphatase domain of Mm-VSP are functional, indicating that Mm-VSP likely plays an important role in mouse neurophysiology.

  13. Structure determination of the functional domain interaction of a chimeric nonribosomal peptide synthetase from a challenging crystal with noncrystallographic translational symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sundlov, Jesse A.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2013-08-01

    The structure of the functional interaction of NRPS adenylation and carrier protein domains, trapped with a mechanism-based inhibitor, is described. Crystals exhibit translational non-crystallographic symmetry, which challenged structure determination and refinement. The nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are a family of modular proteins that contain multiple catalytic domains joined in a single protein. Together, these domains work to produce chemically diverse peptides, including compounds with antibiotic activity or that play a role in iron acquisition. Understanding the structural mechanisms that govern the domain interactions has been a long-standing goal. During NRPS synthesis, amino-acid substrates are loaded onto integrated carrier protein domains through the activity of NRPS adenylation domains. The structures of two adenylation domain–carrier protein domain complexes have recently been determined in an effort that required the use of a mechanism-based inhibitor to trap the domain interaction. Here, the continued analysis of these proteins is presented, including a higher resolution structure of an engineered di-domain protein containing the EntE adenylation domain fused with the carrier protein domain of its partner EntB. The protein crystallized in a novel space group in which molecular replacement and refinement were challenged by noncrystallographic pseudo-translational symmetry. The structure determination and how the molecular packing impacted the diffraction intensities are reported. Importantly, the structure illustrates that in this new crystal form the functional interface between the adenylation domain and the carrier protein domain remains the same as that observed previously. At a resolution that allows inclusion of water molecules, additional interactions are observed between the two protein domains and between the protein and its ligands. In particular, a highly solvated region that surrounds the carrier protein cofactor is described.

  14. The docking domain of histone H2A is required for H1 binding and RSC-mediated nucleosome remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Manu Shubhdarshan; Syed, Sajad Hussain; Goutte-Gattat, Damien; Richard, John Lalith Charles; Montel, Fabien; Hamiche, Ali; Travers, Andrew; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Bednar, Jan; Hayes, Jeffrey J.; Angelov, Dimitar; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Histone variants within the H2A family show high divergences in their C-terminal regions. In this work, we have studied how these divergences and in particular, how a part of the H2A COOH-terminus, the docking domain, is implicated in both structural and functional properties of the nucleosome. Using biochemical methods in combination with Atomic Force Microscopy and Electron Cryo-Microscopy, we show that the H2A-docking domain is a key structural feature within the nucleosome. Deletion of this domain or replacement with the incomplete docking domain from the variant H2A.Bbd results in significant structural alterations in the nucleosome, including an increase in overall accessibility to nucleases, un-wrapping of ∼10 bp of DNA from each end of the nucleosome and associated changes in the entry/exit angle of DNA ends. These structural alterations are associated with a reduced ability of the chromatin remodeler RSC to both remodel and mobilize the nucleosomes. Linker histone H1 binding is also abrogated in nucleosomes containing the incomplete docking domain of H2A.Bbd. Our data illustrate the unique role of the H2A-docking domain in coordinating the structural-functional aspects of the nucleosome properties. Moreover, our data suggest that incorporation of a ‘defective’ docking domain may be a primary structural role of H2A.Bbd in chromatin. PMID:21131284

  15. The docking domain of histone H2A is required for H1 binding and RSC-mediated nucleosome remodeling.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Manu Shubhdarshan; Syed, Sajad Hussain; Goutte-Gattat, Damien; Richard, John Lalith Charles; Montel, Fabien; Hamiche, Ali; Travers, Andrew; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Bednar, Jan; Hayes, Jeffrey J; Angelov, Dimitar; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    Histone variants within the H2A family show high divergences in their C-terminal regions. In this work, we have studied how these divergences and in particular, how a part of the H2A COOH-terminus, the docking domain, is implicated in both structural and functional properties of the nucleosome. Using biochemical methods in combination with Atomic Force Microscopy and Electron Cryo-Microscopy, we show that the H2A-docking domain is a key structural feature within the nucleosome. Deletion of this domain or replacement with the incomplete docking domain from the variant H2A.Bbd results in significant structural alterations in the nucleosome, including an increase in overall accessibility to nucleases, un-wrapping of ∼10 bp of DNA from each end of the nucleosome and associated changes in the entry/exit angle of DNA ends. These structural alterations are associated with a reduced ability of the chromatin remodeler RSC to both remodel and mobilize the nucleosomes. Linker histone H1 binding is also abrogated in nucleosomes containing the incomplete docking domain of H2A.Bbd. Our data illustrate the unique role of the H2A-docking domain in coordinating the structural-functional aspects of the nucleosome properties. Moreover, our data suggest that incorporation of a 'defective' docking domain may be a primary structural role of H2A.Bbd in chromatin.

  16. Identification and Functional Characterization of an N-terminal Oligomerization Domain for Polycystin-2*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuang; Okenka, Genevieve M.; Bai, Chang-Xi; Streets, Andrew J.; Newby, Linda J.; DeChant, Brett T.; Tsiokas, Leonidas; Obara, Tomoko; Ong, Albert C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most common inherited cause of kidney failure, is caused by mutations in either PKD1 (85%) or PKD2 (15%). The PKD2 protein, polycystin-2 (PC2 or TRPP2), is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily and functions as a non-selective calcium channel. PC2 has been found to form oligomers in native tissues suggesting that it may form functional homo- or heterotetramers with other subunits, similar to other TRP channels. Our experiments unexpectedly revealed that PC2 mutant proteins lacking the known C-terminal dimerization domain were still able to form oligomers and co-immunoprecipitate full-length PC2, implying the possible existence of a proximal dimerization domain. Using yeast two-hybrid and biochemical assays, we have mapped an alternative dimerization domain to the N terminus of PC2 (NT2-1-223, L224X). Functional characterization of this domain demonstrated that it was sufficient to induce cyst formation in zebrafish embryos and inhibit PC2 surface currents in mIMCD3 cells probably by a dominant-negative mechanism. In summary, we propose a model for PC2 assembly as a functional tetramer which depends on both C- and N-terminal dimerization domains. These results have significant implications for our understanding of PC2 function and disease pathogenesis in ADPKD and provide a new strategy for studying PC2 function. PMID:18701462

  17. Bile acids modulate signaling by functional perturbation of plasma membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Maxwell, Kelsey N; Sezgin, Erdinc; Lu, Maryia; Liang, Hong; Hancock, John F; Dial, Elizabeth J; Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Levental, Ilya

    2013-12-13

    Eukaryotic cell membranes are organized into functional lipid and protein domains, the most widely studied being membrane rafts. Although rafts have been associated with numerous plasma membrane functions, the mechanisms by which these domains themselves are regulated remain undefined. Bile acids (BAs), whose primary function is the solubilization of dietary lipids for digestion and absorption, can affect cells by interacting directly with membranes. To investigate whether these interactions affected domain organization in biological membranes, we assayed the effects of BAs on biomimetic synthetic liposomes, isolated plasma membranes, and live cells. At cytotoxic concentrations, BAs dissolved synthetic and cell-derived membranes and disrupted live cell plasma membranes, implicating plasma membrane damage as the mechanism for BA cellular toxicity. At subtoxic concentrations, BAs dramatically stabilized domain separation in Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles without affecting protein partitioning between coexisting domains. Domain stabilization was the result of BA binding to and disordering the nonraft domain, thus promoting separation by enhancing domain immiscibility. Consistent with the physical changes observed in synthetic and isolated biological membranes, BAs reorganized intact cell membranes, as evaluated by the spatial distribution of membrane-anchored Ras isoforms. Nanoclustering of K-Ras, related to nonraft membrane domains, was enhanced in intact plasma membranes, whereas the organization of H-Ras was unaffected. BA-induced changes in Ras lateral segregation potentiated EGF-induced signaling through MAPK, confirming the ability of BAs to influence cell signal transduction by altering the physical properties of the plasma membrane. These observations suggest general, membrane-mediated mechanisms by which biological amphiphiles can produce their cellular effects.

  18. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12f Workshop functional test requirements... exceed the capacity of the system....

  19. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12f Workshop functional test requirements... exceed the capacity of the system....

  20. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12f Workshop functional test requirements... exceed the capacity of the system....

  1. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12f Workshop functional test requirements... exceed the capacity of the system....

  2. Optimization of the functional domain of flat plate collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritoux, G.; Irigaray, J.-L.

    1981-12-01

    The variations of the extracted heat flux as function of the temperature of the heat transfer fluid in black and selective surface solar collectors are examined. The heat flux is calculated based on the difference of the initial to the stage of thermal equilibrium of the fluid. A nonlinear system of equations is developed and solved by a fast, iterative method to obtain the equilibrium temperatures. It is found that more flux can be extracted from the solar heat by a collector with only one glass cover than with more than one cover. The captured flux is proportional to the coefficient of transmission of the glass coverings, to the coefficient of absorption of the collector, and to the incident flux. Black painted surfaces were more absorbent than selective surfaces, and highest collection efficiencies were displayed by low temperature collectors. Charts of effective uses of the respective types of collectors for heating swimming pools, hot water, home heat, and for refrigeration and air-conditioning are provided.

  3. Energy Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS): functional requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-17

    This report deals with the functional requirements of the Energy Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS) as it is defined for State level use (EEMIS-S). This report provides a technical description of the EEMIS-S requirements. These guidelines state that in order to create the widest practicable competition the system's requirements, with few exceptions, must be expressed in functional terms without reference to specific hardware or software products, and that wherever exceptions are made a statement of justification must be provided. In addition, these guidelines set forth a recommended maximum threshold limit of annual contract value for schedule contract procurements. Section 2.0 presents a general overview of the EEMIS structure in terms of requirements for vendor support. The functional requirements for each component are developed by section as: Teleprocessing Monitor Requirements, Section 3.0; EEMIS File Requirements, Section 4.0; Data Base Management Requirements, Section 5.0; Application Program Requirements, Section 6.0; and Utility Program Requirements, Section 7.0. The final Section, 8.0, justifies the use of the GSA Teleprocessing Service Program - Multiple Award Schedule Contracts (TSP-MASC) procurement process. The intent of this section is to substantiate, in this instance, the desirability of obtaining time-sharing vendor services to support EEMIS under a schedule contract, even if certain TSP-MASC threshold limits might be exceeded.