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Sample records for functional reach test

  1. Distance reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a function of learning and leg length.

    PubMed

    Bent, Nicholas P; Rushton, Alison B; Wright, Chris C; Batt, Mark E

    2012-06-01

    The anteromedial reach test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = .44-.50) between reach distance and leg length, therefore reach distances were normalized for leg length. Normalized reach distance increased significantly over the 15 trials (p < .01), reaching a plateau after 8 trials, identified by a moving average graph. It is recommended that participants be afforded eight practice trials and that reach distances be normalized by expressing them as a percentage of leg length.

  2. Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

  3. Teratology testing under REACH.

    PubMed

    Barton, Steve

    2013-01-01

    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  4. Computerized Functional Reach Test to Measure Balance Stability in Elderly Patients With Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scena, Silvio; Steindler, Roberto; Ceci, Moira; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to maintain static and dynamic balance is a prerequisite for safe walking and for obtaining functional mobility. For this reason, a reliable and valid means of screening for risk of falls is needed. The functional reach test (FRT) is used in many countries, yet it does not provide some kinematic parameters such as shoulder or pelvic girdles translation. The purpose was to analyze video records measuring of distance, velocity, time length, arm direction and girdles translation while doing FRT. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted where the above variables were correlated to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for mental status and the Tinetti balance assessment test, which have been validated, in order to computerize the FRT (cFRT) for elderly patients with neurological disorders. Eighty patients were tested and 54 were eligible to serve as experimental group. The patients underwent the MMSE, the Tinetti test and the FRT. LAB view software was used to record the FRT performances and to process the videos. The control group consisted of 51 healthy subjects who had been previously tested. Results The experimental group was not able to perform the tests as well as the healthy control subjects. The video camera provided valuable kinematic results such as bending down while performing the forward reach test. Conclusions Instead of manual measurement, we proposed to use a cheap with fair resolution web camera to accurately estimate the FRT. The kinematic parameters were correlated with Tinetti and MMSE scores. The performance values established in this study indicate that the cFRT is a reliable and valid assessment, which provides more accurate data than “manual” test about functional reach. PMID:27635176

  5. Computerized Functional Reach Test to Measure Balance Stability in Elderly Patients With Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scena, Silvio; Steindler, Roberto; Ceci, Moira; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to maintain static and dynamic balance is a prerequisite for safe walking and for obtaining functional mobility. For this reason, a reliable and valid means of screening for risk of falls is needed. The functional reach test (FRT) is used in many countries, yet it does not provide some kinematic parameters such as shoulder or pelvic girdles translation. The purpose was to analyze video records measuring of distance, velocity, time length, arm direction and girdles translation while doing FRT. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted where the above variables were correlated to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for mental status and the Tinetti balance assessment test, which have been validated, in order to computerize the FRT (cFRT) for elderly patients with neurological disorders. Eighty patients were tested and 54 were eligible to serve as experimental group. The patients underwent the MMSE, the Tinetti test and the FRT. LAB view software was used to record the FRT performances and to process the videos. The control group consisted of 51 healthy subjects who had been previously tested. Results The experimental group was not able to perform the tests as well as the healthy control subjects. The video camera provided valuable kinematic results such as bending down while performing the forward reach test. Conclusions Instead of manual measurement, we proposed to use a cheap with fair resolution web camera to accurately estimate the FRT. The kinematic parameters were correlated with Tinetti and MMSE scores. The performance values established in this study indicate that the cFRT is a reliable and valid assessment, which provides more accurate data than “manual” test about functional reach.

  6. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of an instrumented functional reaching task using wireless electromyographic sensors.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Wang, Edward; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the electromyographic and accelerometric data sampled from the prime movers of the dominant arm during an antigravity, within-arm's length stand-reaching task without trunk restraint. Ten healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions, approximately 7-10days apart. During each session, subjects performed 15 trials of both a flexion- and an abduction-reaching task. Surface EMG and acceleration using wireless sensors were sampled from the anterior and middle deltoid. Reliability was established using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2, k) and standard error of measurements (SEM) for electromyographic reaction time, burst duration and normalized amplitude along with peak acceleration. Results indicated high degrees of inter-trial and test-retest reliability for flexion (Cronbach's α range=0.92-0.99; ICC range=0.82-0.92) as well as abduction (Cronbach's α range=0.94-0.99; ICC range=0.81-0.94) reaching. The SEM associated with response variables for flexion and abduction ranged from 1.55-3.26% and 3.33-3.95% of means, respectively. Findings from this study revealed that electromyographic and accelerometric data collected from prime movers of the arm during the relatively functional stand-reaching task were highly reproducible. Given its high reliability and portability, the proposed test could have applications in clinical and laboratory settings to quantify upper limb function.

  7. Computer-Supported Individualized Testing Within Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, W. Ford; Frary, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    A report on the development, implementation, and evaluation of an inexpensive support system providing for file maintenance, administration and scoring of tests, and feedback to the instructor. (Author)

  8. Postural optimization during functional reach while kneeling and standing.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Kawakami, Shingo; Murakami, Kenichi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of functional reach models by comparing actual values with estimated values. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volunteers were included in this study (male: 14, female: 14, age: 21 ± 1 years, height: 166.8 ± 9.0 cm, and body mass: 60.1 ± 8.5 kg). The maximum forward fingertip position and joint angles were measured using the original equipment. In addition, the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee or ankle joint angle were estimated using the functional reach model. [Results] The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and ankle joint angle while standing were 0.93, 0.83, and 0.73, respectively. The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee joint angle while kneeling were 0.86, 0.81, and 0.72, respectively. [Conclusion] The validity of both functional reach models in estimating optimal posture was confirmed. Therefore, the functional reach model is useful for evaluation of postural control and optimal postural control exercises. PMID:27630433

  9. Postural optimization during functional reach while kneeling and standing

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Kawakami, Shingo; Murakami, Kenichi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of functional reach models by comparing actual values with estimated values. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volunteers were included in this study (male: 14, female: 14, age: 21 ± 1 years, height: 166.8 ± 9.0 cm, and body mass: 60.1 ± 8.5 kg). The maximum forward fingertip position and joint angles were measured using the original equipment. In addition, the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee or ankle joint angle were estimated using the functional reach model. [Results] The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and ankle joint angle while standing were 0.93, 0.83, and 0.73, respectively. The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee joint angle while kneeling were 0.86, 0.81, and 0.72, respectively. [Conclusion] The validity of both functional reach models in estimating optimal posture was confirmed. Therefore, the functional reach model is useful for evaluation of postural control and optimal postural control exercises. PMID:27630433

  10. Postural optimization during functional reach while kneeling and standing

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Kawakami, Shingo; Murakami, Kenichi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of functional reach models by comparing actual values with estimated values. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volunteers were included in this study (male: 14, female: 14, age: 21 ± 1 years, height: 166.8 ± 9.0 cm, and body mass: 60.1 ± 8.5 kg). The maximum forward fingertip position and joint angles were measured using the original equipment. In addition, the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee or ankle joint angle were estimated using the functional reach model. [Results] The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and ankle joint angle while standing were 0.93, 0.83, and 0.73, respectively. The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee joint angle while kneeling were 0.86, 0.81, and 0.72, respectively. [Conclusion] The validity of both functional reach models in estimating optimal posture was confirmed. Therefore, the functional reach model is useful for evaluation of postural control and optimal postural control exercises.

  11. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; Fernández, Alberto; Kühne, Ralph; Franco, Antonio; Pauné, Eduard; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2014-08-01

    REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo methods are used only as last resort. Using the ITS, in vivo testing could be waived for about 67% of the examined compounds, but bioaccumulation potential could be estimated on the basis of non-animal methods. The presented ITS is freely available through a web tool.

  12. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal supplements you are taking. What are normal ranges for liver function tests? Normal ranges for liver function tests can vary by age, ... other factors. Laboratory test results usually provide normal ranges for each liver function test with your results. ...

  13. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  14. Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Stengel, Wolfgang; Casalegno, Carlotta; Andrew, David

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce animal testing, companies registering chemical substances under the EU REACH legislation must propose rather than conduct certain tests on animals. Third parties can submit 'scientifically valid information' relevant to these proposals to the Agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), who are obliged to take the information into account. The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) provided comments on nearly half of the 817 proposals for vertebrate tests on 480 substances published for comment for the first REACH deadline (between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2012). The paper summarises the response by registrants and the Agency to third party comments and highlights issues with the use of read across, in vitro tests, QSAR and weight of evidence approaches. Use of existing data and evidence that testing is legally or scientifically unjustified remain the most successful comments for third parties to submit. There is a worrying conservatism within the Agency regarding the acceptance of alternative approaches and examples of where registrants have also failed to maximise opportunities to avoid testing.

  15. Functional electrical stimulation therapy for recovery of reaching and grasping in severe chronic pediatric stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Naaz M; Nagai, Mary K; Zivanovic, Vera; Bernstein, Janet; Woodhouse, Janet; Rumney, Peter; Popovic, Milos R

    2014-04-01

    Stroke affects 2.7 children per 100,000 annually, leaving many of them with lifelong residual impairments despite intensive rehabilitation. In the present study the authors evaluated the effectiveness of 48 hours of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation therapy for retraining voluntary reaching and grasping in 4 severe chronic pediatric stroke participants. Participants were assessed using the Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory Hand Function Test, Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and Assisting Hand Assessment. All participants improved on all measures. The average change scores on selected Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory Hand Function Test components were 14.5 for object manipulation (P = .042), 0.78 Nm for instrumented cylinder (P = .068), and 14 for wooden blocks (P = .068) and on the grasp component of Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test was 25.93 (P = .068). These results provide preliminary evidence that functional electrical stimulation therapy has the potential to improve upper limb function in severe chronic pediatric stroke patients. PMID:23584687

  16. The Validity of the Modified Sit-and-Reach Test in College-Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkler, Sharin; Patterson, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the criterion-related validity of the modified sit-and-reach test against criterion measures of hamstring and low back flexibility in college students. Results indicated the modified sit-and-reach test moderately related to hamstring flexibility, but its relation to low back flexibility was low. (SM)

  17. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  18. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  19. Platelet Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the clotting process in the body ( in vivo ). A person with normal platelet function test results may still experience excessive bleeding or inappropriate clotting during and after a surgery. Most samples for platelet function testing are only stable for a very short period ...

  20. Sperm function test

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  1. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

  2. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  3. Usefulness of the jump-and-reach test in assessment of vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Hans-Joachim; Chagas, Mauro H; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Araujo, Silvia R; Campos, Carlos E; Giannetti, Marcus R

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to estimate the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Jump-and-Reach Test for the assessment of squat, countermovement, and drop jump performance of 32 male Brazilian professional volleyball players. Performance of squat, countermovement, and drop jumps with different dropping heights was assessed on the Jump-and-Reach Test and the measurement of flight time, then compared across different jump trials. The very high reliability coefficients of both assessment methods and the lower correlation coefficients between scores on the assessments indicate a very high consistency of each method but only moderate covariation, which means that they measure partly different items. As a consequence, the Jump-and-Reach Test has good ecological validity in situations when reaching height during the flight phase is critical for performance (e.g., basketball and volleyball) but only limited accuracy for the assessment of vertical impulse production with different jump techniques and conditions.

  4. Trunk-Rotation Differences at Maximal Reach of the Star Excursion Balance Test in Participants With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    de la Motte, Sarah; Arnold, Brent L.; Ross, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional reach on the Star Excursion Balance Test is decreased in participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, comprehensive 3-dimensional kinematics associated with these deficits have not been reported. Objective: To determine if lower extremity kinematics differed in CAI participants during anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial reach on the Star Excursion Balance Test. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty CAI participants (age = 24.15 ± 3.84 years, height = 168.95 ± 11.57 cm, mass = 68.95 ± 16.29 kg) and 20 uninjured participants (age = 25.65 ± 5.58 years, height = 170.14 ± 8.75 cm, mass = 69.89 ± 10.51 kg) with no history of ankle sprain. We operationally defined CAI as repeated episodes of ankle “giving way” or “rolling over” or both, regardless of neuromuscular deficits or pathologic laxity. All CAI participants scored ≤26 on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Intervention(s): Star Excursion Balance Test reaches in the anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial directions. The CAI participants used the unstable side as the stance leg. Control participants were sex, height, mass, and side matched to the CAI group. The 3-dimensional kinematics were assessed with a motion-capture system. Main Outcome Measure(s): Group differences on normalized reach distance, trunk, pelvis, and hip-, knee-, and ankle-joint angles at maximum Star Excursion Balance Test reach. Results: No reach-distance differences were detected between CAI and uninjured participants in any of the 3 reach directions. With anteromedial reach, trunk rotation (t1,38 = 3.06, P = .004), pelvic rotation (t1,38 = 3.17, P = .003), and hip flexion (t1,38 = 2.40, P = .002) were greater in CAI participants. With medial reach, trunk flexion (t1,38 = 6.39, P = .05) was greater than for uninjured participants. No differences were seen with posteromedial reach. Conclusions: We did not detect

  5. Modern vestibular function testing.

    PubMed Central

    Baloh, R W; Furman, J M

    1989-01-01

    Current tests of vestibular function concentrate on the horizontal semicircular canal-ocular reflex because it is the easiest reflex to stimulate (calorically and rotationally) and record (using electro-oculography). Tests of the other vestibulo-ocular reflexes (vertical semicircular canal and otolith) and of the vestibulospinal reflexes have yet to be shown useful in the clinical setting. Digital video recording of eye movements and vestibular-evoked responses are promising new technologies that may affect clinical testing in the near future. PMID:2660408

  6. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required.

  7. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required. PMID:27494627

  8. The food reaching test: a sensitive test of behavioral improvements by deep brain stimulation in MPTP-treated monkey.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Kenji; Akamine, Souichi; Yokoyama, Chihiro; Shukuri, Miho; Mizuma, Hiroshi; Tsukada, Hideo; Onoe, Hirotaka; Namba, Hiroki

    2012-10-01

    We modified an objective behavioral test, namely the food reaching test (FRT), for quantitative assessment of motor performance improved by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the Parkinsonian monkeys. The symptomatic features and their severity in 3 monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) were evaluated with a subjective monkey Parkinson's disease rating scale (PDRS). We then performed STN-DBS with the minimum current intensity that stopped the tremor. The time required for the monkeys to pick up all 5 pieces of potato (FRT time) was measured as a major index to evaluate bradykinesia. The success rate was adopted as another index for assessing overall motor impairments. Although both FRT time and PDRS score were similarly improved by STN-DBS, change of FRT time appeared more sensitive than that of PDRS scores. FRT is an easily trained behavioral test with high objectivity and sensitivity that can be applied for assessing motor performance in MPTP-treated monkeys during experiments in a restrained condition such as functional imaging of the brain.

  9. Effects of Resistance Training on the Sit-and-Reach Test in Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Santarem Jose Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Marucci, Maria de Fatima Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week resistance training program on older women's flexibility (evaluated through the sit- and-reach test performed before and after the training program). Participants were compared to inactive older women. The training program resulted in significant increases in participants' flexibility, suggesting that weight…

  10. Passive reach and grasp with functional electrical stimulation and robotic arm support.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Ard J; Schouten, Alfred C; Veltink, Peter H; van der Kooij, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of arm and hand function is crucial to increase functional independence of stroke subjects. Here, we investigate the technical feasibility of an integrated training system combining robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) to support reach and grasp during functional manipulation of objects. To support grasp and release, FES controlled the thumb and fingers using Model Predictive Control (MPC), while a novel 3D robotic manipulator provided reach support. The system's performance was assessed in both stroke and blindfolded healthy subjects, where the subject's passive arm and hand made functional reach, grasp, move and release movements while manipulating objects. The success rate of complete grasp, move and release tasks with different objects ranged from 33% to 87% in healthy subjects. In severe chronic stroke subjects especially the hand opening had a low success rate (<25%) and no complete movements could be made. We demonstrated that our developed integrated training system can move the passive arm and hand for functional pick and place movements. In the current setup, the positioning accuracy of the robot with respect to the object position was critical for the overall performance. The use of a higher virtual stiffness and including feedback of object position in the robot control would likely improve the relative position accuracy. The system has potential for post-stroke rehabilitation, where support could be reduced based on patient performance which is needed to aid motor relearning of reach, grasp and release.

  11. Exposure-driven risk assessment: applying exposure-based waiving of toxicity tests under REACH.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, Anna L; Gibson, Rosemary M

    2011-08-01

    The REACH Regulation 1907/2006/EC aims to improve knowledge of the potential risks to humans and the environment of the large number of chemicals produced and used in the EU. The testing requirements are likely to trigger numerous toxicological studies, potentially involving millions of experimental animals, despite the professed goal of REACH to reduce vertebrate testing. It may be necessary therefore to shift emphasis away from animal studies towards more pragmatic strategies, reserving animal tests for the substances of greatest concern. One approach is to waive certain tests based on levels of exposure to the substance. This review explores application of 'Exposure-Based Waiving' (EBW) of toxicity studies, with a particular focus on inhalation where possible, considering the potential qualitative and quantitative supporting arguments that might be made, including the use of thresholds of toxicological concern. Incorporating EBW into intelligent testing strategies for substance registration could advance the goals of REACH and the 3Rs (reduction, replacement and refinement of animals in research) by reducing the usage of animals in toxicity tests, whilst maintaining appropriate protection of human health and the environment. However greater regulatory evaluation, acceptance and guidance are required for EBW to achieve its full impact.

  12. Pediatric Arm Function Test

    PubMed Central

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Rowe, Jan; Vogtle, Laura; Barman, Joydip

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although there are several validated upper-extremity measures in young children with cerebral palsy (CP), none primarily assess capacity to carry out actions and tasks with the more-affected arm. To address this need, we developed the Pediatric Arm Function Test (PAFT), which involves behavioral observation of how children use their more-affected arm during structured play in the laboratory or clinic. This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the PAFT Functional Ability scale. Design In Study 1, 20 children between 2–8 years with a wide range of upper-extremity hemiparesis due to CP completed the PAFT on two occasions separated by three weeks. In Study 2, 41 children between 2–6 years with similar characteristics completed the PAFT and received a grade reflecting severity of more-affected arm motor impairment. Results In Study 1, the PAFT test-retest reliability correlation coefficient was 0.74. In Study 2, convergent validity was supported by a strong, inverse correlation (r = −0.6, p < .001) between PAFT scores and grade of impairment. Conclusions The PAFT Functional Ability scale is a reliable and valid measure of more-affected arm motor capacity in children with CP between 2–6 years. It can be employed to measure upper-extremity neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:23103486

  13. The surface electromyographic evaluation of the Functional Reach in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Maranesi, E; Fioretti, S; Ghetti, G G; Rabini, R A; Burattini, L; Mercante, O; Di Nardo, F

    2016-02-01

    This study proposes a comprehensive assessment of myoelectric activity of the main muscles involved in the Functional Reach (FR) test, in 24 elderly subjects. A specific protocol for the surface electromyography (sEMG) signal acquisition during FR-test was developed. Results show that anterior muscles activate following a caudo-cranial order. Tibialis Anterior (TA) is the first to be activated (-18.0±16.3% of the FR-period), together with Rectus Femoris (-10.4±17.9%). Then, Rectus Abdominis (19.7±24.7%) and Sternocleidomastoideus (19.9±15.6%) activate after the FR-start. Hamstrings, Soleus, and L4-level Erectores Spinae (posterior muscles) activate after the FR-start in this order (11.4±16.8%, 17.7±16.6%, and 35.2±29.0%, respectively) and remain active until the movement end. The analysis of the kinematic strategies adopted by subjects revealed an association between TA-activation patterns and two kinematic strategies (hip/mixed strategy), quantified by an increase (p<0.05) of TA-activity duration in subjects adopting the hip strategy (89.9±34.5) vs. subjects adopting the mixed strategy (27.0±16.8). This suggests that TA sEMG activity could be able to discriminate among kinematic strategies, providing different information on balance control. Thus, the present analysis represents the first attempt to quantify the sEMG activity during FR-test in elderly subjects, providing an early contribution in building a reference frame for balance assessment in clinical context. PMID:26752782

  14. The Relationship of the Sit and Reach Test to Criterion Measures of Hamstring and Back Flexibility in Young Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen W.; Baker, Alice A.

    1986-01-01

    This study tested 100 female adolescents to determine the relationships of the sit and reach test, a component of the Health Related Fitness Test, with back and hamstring flexibility. Findings indicate the sit and reach test is moderately related to hamstring flexibility but not to back and low back flexibility. (Author/MT)

  15. A comparison of two Shuttle launch and entry suits - Reach envelope, isokinetic strength, and treadmill tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Lauren E.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1992-01-01

    A quantification has been conducted of any existing differences between the performance, in operational conditions, of the Space Shuttle crew Launch Entry Suit (LES) and the new Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). While LES is a partial-pressure suit, the ACES system which is being considered as a replacement for LES is a full-pressure suit. Three tests have been conducted with six subjects to ascertain the suits' reach envelope, strength, and treadmill performance. No significant operational differences were found between the two suit designs.

  16. Thyroid Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Irving T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes two tests, T-4 and T-3, for hypothyroid based on the binding of the hormones by proteins. The tests were performed in courses for physicians, clinical chemists, laboratory technicians, and undergraduate science students by the individuals involved and on their own sera. These tests are commercially available in kit form. (GA)

  17. Optimizing the aquatic toxicity assessment under REACH through an integrated testing strategy (ITS).

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfenati, Emilio; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; Jeram, Sonja; Pauné, Eduard; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2014-11-01

    To satisfy REACH requirements a high number of data on chemical of interest should be supplied to the European Chemicals Agency. To organize the various kinds of information and help the registrants to choose the best strategy to obtain the needed information limiting at the minimum the use of animal testing, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) schemes can be used. The present work deals with regulatory data requirements for assessing the hazards of chemicals to the aquatic pelagic environment. We present an ITS scheme for organizing and using the complex existing data available for aquatic toxicity assessment. An ITS to optimize the choice of the correct prediction strategy for aquatic pelagic toxicity is described. All existing information (like physico-chemical information), and all the alternative methods (like in silico, in vitro or the acute-to-chronic ratio) are considered. Moreover the weight of evidence approach to combine the available data is included. PMID:25262089

  18. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key Points Overall sit-and-reach

  19. Liver function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... laboratory results. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ... liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ...

  20. Kidney function tests

    MedlinePlus

    Oh MS. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes and acid-base balance. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  1. Pulmonary Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... enters your body. The most common PFT’s are spirometry (spy-RAH-me-tree), diffusion studies and body ... on the day of your test. What is spirometry? Spirometry is one of the most commonly ordered ...

  2. Thyroid function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ... testing. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  3. The Performance of Left-Handed Participants on a Preferential Reaching Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamolo, Carla M.; Roy, Eric A.; Bryden, Pamela J.; Rohr, Linda E.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research in our laboratory has examined the distribution of preferred hand (PH) reaches in working space with right-handed participants. In one study, we examined the effects of tool position and task demands on the frequency of PH reaches with right-handers (Mamolo, Roy, Bryden, & Rohr, 2004). We found that PH reaches were at a maximum…

  4. Pulmonary Function Testing in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... are s pirometry and airway resistance tests . What is spirometry? Spirometry is the most common lung function test done. ... follow very specific instructions. Most children can do spirometry by age 6, though some preschoolers are able ...

  5. Accuracy and Feasibility of Video Analysis for Assessing Hamstring Flexibility and Validity of the Sit-and-Reach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Constance M.

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy of video analysis of the passive straight-leg raise test (PSLR) and the validity of the sit-and-reach test (SR) were tested in 60 men and women. Computer software measured static hip-joint flexion accurately. High within-session reliability of the PSLR was demonstrated (R greater than 0.97). Test-retest (separate days) reliability for…

  6. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  7. The Validity and Reliability of the Back Saver Sit-and-Reach Test in Middle School Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Patricia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of the Back Saver Sit-and-Reach test for middle school students. Students completed the test during physical education class. Results indicated that the test was moderately related to hamstring flexibility, but its relationship to lower back flexibility was quite low for both sexes. (SM)

  8. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A.E.; van den Berg, Sandra M.; Haerkens, Gijs M.; Koenders, Niek H.; de Leeuw, Arina J.; van Oorsouw, Roel G.; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. Purpose To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Study Design Cross-sectional, test-retest design Methods Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Results Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. Conclusion The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level of Evidence Level 2

  9. [Responses of functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-Bo; Liu, Dong-Xiao; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Zhang, Yong; Tong, Xiao-Li; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2013-10-01

    Based on the biological traits such as life history, resistance ability against environmental disturbance, and physiological characteristics of aquatic insects, and by using the fourth-corner statistical method, this paper studied the responses of the functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in the middle reach of Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province of East China. For the test aquatic insect community, some of its biological traits were sensitive to land use change, and altered along human disturbance gradients as expected. With the increasing intensity of human disturbance, the maximal insect body length decreased gradually, the dominant respiration pattern evolved from gill respiration to tegument respiration, and the abundance of burrowers increased significantly. At the same time, the functional diversity measured as Rao's quadratic entropy was significantly higher in reference sites than in disturbed sites (P < 0.001), demonstrating that the changes in the functional diversity of the aquatic community were mainly induced by the land use change caused by human activities, which resulted in the decline of stream water quality and habitat quality and the variations of aquatic insect community composition and biological traits. The aquatic insect biological traits and functional diversity could be the potentially effective indicators in the stream health assessment in the future.

  10. Development of microgravity, full body functional reach envelope using 3-D computer graphic models and virtual reality technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    In microgravity conditions mobility is greatly enhanced and body stability is difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, optimum placement and accessibility of objects and controls can be critical to required tasks on board shuttle flights or on the proposed space station. Anthropometric measurement of the maximum reach of occupants of a microgravity environment provide knowledge about maximum functional placement for tasking situations. Calculations for a full body, functional reach envelope for microgravity environments are imperative. To this end, three dimensional computer modeled human figures, providing a method of anthropometric measurement, were used to locate the data points that define the full body, functional reach envelope. Virtual reality technology was utilized to enable an occupant of the microgravity environment to experience movement within the reach envelope while immersed in a simulated microgravity environment.

  11. The effect of an active vibration stimulus according to different shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of an active vibration stimulus exercise according to shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male students participated in this study. Upper limb length of each subject was measured to obtain normalized measurement values. The exercise groups were as follows: group I (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 90°), group II (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 130°), and group III (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 180°). After warm-up, an active vibration stimulus was applied to the subjects with a Flexi-Bar. The Functional Reach Test and Y-balance test were conducted for measurement of shoulder stability. [Results] Analysis of covariance was conducted with values before the intervention as covariates to analyze the differences among the groups in the two tests. There were significant differences among the groups. According to Bonferroni post hoc comparison, group I showed greater improvement than group III in the Functional Reach Test, and group II showed greater improvement than group I and group III in the Y-balance test. [Conclusion] The effect of the exercise with different shoulder joint angles revealed that the shoulder joint has a certain effective joint angle for its functionality and stability. In addition, application of an active vibration stimulus with a Flexi-Bar can be a very effective tool for improvement of functionality and stability of the shoulder joint. PMID:27134352

  12. The effect of an active vibration stimulus according to different shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of an active vibration stimulus exercise according to shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male students participated in this study. Upper limb length of each subject was measured to obtain normalized measurement values. The exercise groups were as follows: group I (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 90°), group II (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 130°), and group III (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 180°). After warm-up, an active vibration stimulus was applied to the subjects with a Flexi-Bar. The Functional Reach Test and Y-balance test were conducted for measurement of shoulder stability. [Results] Analysis of covariance was conducted with values before the intervention as covariates to analyze the differences among the groups in the two tests. There were significant differences among the groups. According to Bonferroni post hoc comparison, group I showed greater improvement than group III in the Functional Reach Test, and group II showed greater improvement than group I and group III in the Y-balance test. [Conclusion] The effect of the exercise with different shoulder joint angles revealed that the shoulder joint has a certain effective joint angle for its functionality and stability. In addition, application of an active vibration stimulus with a Flexi-Bar can be a very effective tool for improvement of functionality and stability of the shoulder joint. PMID:27134352

  13. Learning to reach by reinforcement learning using a receptive field based function approximation approach with continuous actions.

    PubMed

    Tamosiunaite, Minija; Asfour, Tamim; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2009-03-01

    Reinforcement learning methods can be used in robotics applications especially for specific target-oriented problems, for example the reward-based recalibration of goal directed actions. To this end still relatively large and continuous state-action spaces need to be efficiently handled. The goal of this paper is, thus, to develop a novel, rather simple method which uses reinforcement learning with function approximation in conjunction with different reward-strategies for solving such problems. For the testing of our method, we use a four degree-of-freedom reaching problem in 3D-space simulated by a two-joint robot arm system with two DOF each. Function approximation is based on 4D, overlapping kernels (receptive fields) and the state-action space contains about 10,000 of these. Different types of reward structures are being compared, for example, reward-on- touching-only against reward-on-approach. Furthermore, forbidden joint configurations are punished. A continuous action space is used. In spite of a rather large number of states and the continuous action space these reward/punishment strategies allow the system to find a good solution usually within about 20 trials. The efficiency of our method demonstrated in this test scenario suggests that it might be possible to use it on a real robot for problems where mixed rewards can be defined in situations where other types of learning might be difficult. PMID:19229556

  14. Does implicit motor imagery ability predict reaching correction efficiency? A test of recent models of human motor control.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Christian; Wilmut, Kate; Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Neurocomputational models of reaching indicate that efficient purposive correction of movement midflight (e.g., online control) depends on one's ability to generate and monitor an accurate internal (neural) movement representation. In the first study to test this empirically, the authors investigated the relationship between healthy young adults' implicit motor imagery performance and their capacity to correct their reaching trajectory. As expected, after controlling for general reaching speed, hierarchical regression demonstrated that imagery ability was a significant predictor of hand correction speed; that is, faster and more accurate imagery performance associated with faster corrections to reaching following target displacement at movement onset. They argue that these findings provide preliminary support for the view that a link exists between an individual's ability to represent movement mentally and correct movement online efficiently.

  15. Feasibility of self-collection of specimens for human papillomavirus testing in hard-to-reach women.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Gina; Krajden, Mel; Maginley, Juanita; Isaac-Renton, Judy; Hislop, Greg; Elwood-Martin, Ruth; Sherlock, Chris; Taylor, Darlene; Rekart, Michael

    2007-08-28

    To study the feasibility of self-collected specimens for testing human papillomavirus (HPV) status among hard-to-reach women, outreach nurses recruited women in women's centres, shelters and alleys in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. Of the 151 participants for whom samples were available, 43 (28.5%) tested positive for high-risk HPV. Outreach nurses were able to recontact 81.4% of the participants who tested positive and referred them for further testing. About 14% (21/151) of participants had never received a Papanicolaou smear in British Columbia, as compared with 8.3% (608/7336) of women in the BC general population (p < 0.05). This difference suggests that self-collection of specimens for HPV testing is a feasible method to reach women who have not previously participated in cervical cancer screening programs.

  16. Evaluation of the integrated testing strategy for PNEC derivation under REACH.

    PubMed

    May, Martin; Drost, Wiebke; Germer, Sabine; Juffernholz, Tanja; Hahn, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Species sensitivity evaluation represents an approach to avoid chronic toxicity testing of aquatic vertebrates in accordance with the animal welfare concept of the EU chemicals regulation. In this study a data set of chemicals is analysed for relative species sensitivity between Daphnia and fish in chronic testing to evaluate under what condition chronic fish tests can be waived without underestimating the environmental hazard. Chronic fish toxicity is covered in 84% of the evaluated substances by the chronic invertebrate test and an assessment factor of 50. Thus, animal testing can be avoided in environmental hazard assessment for many chemicals. Moreover, it is shown that species sensitivity in chronic testing is associated with species sensitivity in acute testing. The more sensitive species in chronic testing is predicted with a high probability if a species is >5x more sensitive in acute testing. If substances are comparable or more toxic to Daphnia in acute testing than to fish chronic fish toxicity is covered by the chronic Daphnia test and an assessment factor of 50 in about 95% of the evaluated cases. To provide decision support for the regulation of chemicals a categorization scheme on relative sensitivity comparison is presented. PMID:27103318

  17. Evaluation of the integrated testing strategy for PNEC derivation under REACH.

    PubMed

    May, Martin; Drost, Wiebke; Germer, Sabine; Juffernholz, Tanja; Hahn, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Species sensitivity evaluation represents an approach to avoid chronic toxicity testing of aquatic vertebrates in accordance with the animal welfare concept of the EU chemicals regulation. In this study a data set of chemicals is analysed for relative species sensitivity between Daphnia and fish in chronic testing to evaluate under what condition chronic fish tests can be waived without underestimating the environmental hazard. Chronic fish toxicity is covered in 84% of the evaluated substances by the chronic invertebrate test and an assessment factor of 50. Thus, animal testing can be avoided in environmental hazard assessment for many chemicals. Moreover, it is shown that species sensitivity in chronic testing is associated with species sensitivity in acute testing. The more sensitive species in chronic testing is predicted with a high probability if a species is >5x more sensitive in acute testing. If substances are comparable or more toxic to Daphnia in acute testing than to fish chronic fish toxicity is covered by the chronic Daphnia test and an assessment factor of 50 in about 95% of the evaluated cases. To provide decision support for the regulation of chemicals a categorization scheme on relative sensitivity comparison is presented.

  18. Adapting the Get Yourself Tested Campaign to Reach Black and Latino Sexual-Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, Samantha; Friedman, Allison; Martinez, Omar; Scheinmann, Roberta; Bermudez, Dayana; Silva, Manel; Silverman, Jen; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Culturally appropriate efforts are needed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing and care among Black and Latino sexual-minority youth, who are at high risk for STDs. Get Yourself Tested, a national testing campaign, has demonstrated success among youth, but it has yet to be assessed for relevance or impact among this population. Method This effort included (1) formative and materials-testing research through focus groups; (2) adaptation of existing Get Yourself Tested campaign materials to be more inclusive of Black and Latino sexual-minority youth; (3) a 3-month campaign in four venues of New York City, promoting STD testing at events and through mobile testing and online and social media platforms; (4) process evaluation of outreach activities; and (5) an outcome evaluation of testing at select campaign venues, using a preexperimental design. Results During the 3-month campaign period, the number of STD tests conducted at select campaign venues increased from a comparable 3-month baseline period. Although testing uptake through mobile vans remained low in absolute numbers, the van drew a high-prevalence sample, with positivity rates of 26.9% for chlamydia and 11.5% for gonorrhea. This article documents the process and lessons learned from adapting and implementing a local campaign for Black and Latino sexual-minority youth. PMID:27225216

  19. On the Generality of the "Sit and Reach" Test: An Analysis of Flexibility Data for an Aging Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined head rotation, shoulder extension and rotation, ankle plantar and dorsiflexion, hip flexion, and sit and reach (SR) in 80 adults, aged 45-75, to identify flexibility factors. No single measurement indicates loss of flexibility at all joints, but SR tests are found to be more reliable than others. (SM)

  20. HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montaño-Agudelo, David; Pinzón-Fernández, María Virginia; Tello-Bolívar, Inés Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection. PMID:24592330

  1. GALACSI integration and functional tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Penna, P.; Ströbele, S.; Aller Carpentier, E.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Duchateau, M.; Fedrigo, E.; Gago, F.; Hubin, N.; Quentin, J.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Madec, P.-.; Manescau, A.; Mehrgan, L.; Sedghi, B.; Suarez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.; Zampieri, S.

    2014-07-01

    GALACSI is the Adaptive Optics (AO) modules of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) that will correct the wavefront delivered to the MUSE Integral Field Spectrograph. It will sense with four 40×40 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors the AOF 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS), acting on the 1170 voice-coils actuators of the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM). GALACSI has two operating modes: in Wide Field Mode (WFM), with the four LGS at 64" off axis, the collected energy in a 0.2"×0.2" pixel will be enhanced by a factor 2 at 750 nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1'×1' using the Ground Layer AO (GLAO) technique. The other mode, the Narrow Field Mode (NFM), provides an enhanced wavefront correction (Strehl Ratio (SR) of 5% (goal 10%) at 650 nm) but in a smaller FoV (7.5"×7.5"), using Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), with the 4 LGS located closer, at 10" off axis. Before being shipped to Paranal, GALACSI will be first integrated and fully tested in stand-alone, and then moved to a dedicated AOF facility to be tested with the DSM in Europe. At present the module is fully assembled, its main functionalities have been implemented and verified, and AO system tests with the DSM are starting. We present here the main system features and the results of the internal functional tests of GALACSI.

  2. Effects of Tai Chi on a Functional Arm Reaching Task in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2015-07-01

    This study quantified the effect of aging and the long-term practice of Tai Chi on upper limb movement control, indicated by performance outcome (temporal) and performance production (amplitude) measures, on a multiplanar stand-reaching (i.e., functional) task. Twelve Tai Chi practitioners (TCPs), 11 age-matched older nonpractitioners (ONPs), and 12 young subjects performed cued, flexion-reaching, and abduction-reaching tasks using a custom set-up. Surface EMG and acceleration data sampled from wireless sensors rendered performance outcome (reaction time, burst duration, time to peak, and movement time) and performance production (normalized EMG amplitude and peak acceleration) measures. Young subjects and TCPs demonstrated better performance outcome and performance production than ONPs. Relative-effect computations (i.e., the effect of Tai Chi expressed as a percentage of the effect of aging) showed that TCPs exhibited approximately 20-60% (flexion) and 20-100% (abduction) improvement in reaching task performance compared with ONPs. Tai Chi practitioners displayed better arm movement control than ONPs on a relatively challenging and functional stand-reaching task.

  3. Accuracy and feasibility of video analysis for assessing hamstring flexibility and validity of the sit-and-reach test.

    PubMed

    Mier, Constance M

    2011-12-01

    The accuracy of video analysis of the passive straight-leg raise test (PSLR) and the validity of the sit-and-reach test (SR) were tested in 60 men and women. Computer software measured static hip-joint flexion accurately. High within-session reliability of the PSLR was demonstrated (R > .97). Test-retest (separate days) reliability for SR was high in men (R = .97) and women R = .98) moderate for PSLR in men (R = .79) and women (R = .89). SR validity (PSLR as criterion) was higher in women (Day 1, r = .69; Day 2, r = .81) than men (Day 1, r = .64; Day 2, r = .66). In conclusion, video analysis is accurate and feasible for assessing static joint angles, PSLR and SR tests are very reliable methods for assessing flexibility, and the SR validity for hamstring flexibility was found to be moderate in women and low in men.

  4. Expanding human immunodeficiency virus testing and counseling to reach tuberculosis clients' partners and families.

    PubMed

    Courtenay-Quirk, C; Date, A; Bachanas, P; Baggaley, R; Getahun, H; Nelson, L; Granich, R

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have shown important increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and counseling (HTC), diagnosis, and coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected tuberculosis (TB) patients. Expansion of HTC for partners and families are critical next steps to increase earlier HIV diagnoses and access to ART, and to achieve international goals for reduced TB and HIV-related morbidity, mortality, transmission and costs. TB and HIV programs should develop and evaluate feasible and effective strategies to increase access to HTC among the partners and families of TB patients, and ensure that newly diagnosed people living with HIV and HIV-infected TB patients who complete anti-tuberculosis treatment are successfully linked to ongoing HIV clinical care.

  5. [The effect of a warm-up protocol on the sit-and-reach test score in adolescent students].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Soler, María Angeles; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: los test lineales son frecuentemente utilizados en las clases de educación física para evaluar la extensibilidad isquiosural del alumnado, sin que haya una estandarización del procedimiento para su realización. Objetivo: analizar la influencia de un protocolo de calentamiento en los resultados obtenidos en el test sit-andreach en estudiantes adolescentes. Metodología: a 47 adolescentes (17 chicos y 30 chicas) se les midió la distancia alcanzada en el test sit-and-reach antes, inmediatamente después de finalizar, así como a los 5 y 10 minutos tras finalizar un protocolo de calentamiento compuesto por una parte de carrera continua, actividades de locomoción y movilidad, además de estiramientos estáticos de cuádriceps, isquiosurales, aductores, psoas ilíaco y gemelos, con una duración total de 8 minutos. Entre las mediciones realizadas tras el calentamiento, los participantes permanecieron en bipedestación sin realizar ejercicio y/o estiramiento alguno. Resultados y discusión: tras el calentamiento hubo una mejora significativa en la distancia alcanzada en el test sit-and-reach (+ 2,15 cm) (p < 0,001), siendo ligeramente mayor a los 5 y 10 minutos (+ 2,49 cm a los 5 minutos y + 2,61 cm a los 10 minutos) (p < 0,001 respecto al pretest). Conclusiones: la realización de un protocolo de calentamiento previo al test sit-and-reach, compuesto por locomoción, movilidad y estiramientos, incrementa de manera significativa la distancia alcanzada en este test, que permanece aumentada, al menos, hasta 10 minutos después de finalizar el calentamiento.

  6. [Exercise test and respiratory muscle function test].

    PubMed

    Akashiba, Tsuneto

    2011-10-01

    Dyspnea on exertion is a chief complaint of patients with COPD, and it has a major effect on the quality of their lives. Dyspnea is, by definition, subjective, but objective approaches are needed for a comprehensive understanding of these patients' conditions. Thus, measuring changes in cardiopulmonary variables during exercise can be very helpful when evaluating patients with COPD. The main purpose of exercise testing is to evaluate exercise tolerance and to identify the factors limiting exercise. Although incremental exercise testing is ideal for these purposes, simple walking tests such as 6-minute walking test, are also useful. PMID:22073578

  7. Finding HIV in Hard to Reach Populations: Mobile HIV Testing and Geospatial Mapping in Umlazi Township, Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Regan, Susan; Mbonambi, Hlengiwe; Blossom, Jeffrey; Bogan, Stacy; Bearnot, Benjamin; Robine, Marion; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Mhlongo, Bright; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Thulare, Hilary; Losina, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Mobile, community-based HIV testing may help achieve universal HIV testing in South Africa. We compared the yield, geographic distribution, and demographic characteristics of populations tested by mobile- and clinic-based HIV testing programs deployed by iThembalabantu Clinic in Durban, South Africa. From July–November 2011, 4,701 subjects were tested; HIV prevalence was 35% among IPHC testers and 10% among mobile testers (p<0.001). Mobile testers varied in mean age (22–37 years) and % males (26–67%). HIV prevalence at mobile sites ranged from 0% to 26%. Testers traveled further than the clinic closest to their home; mobile testers were more likely to test ≥ 5 km away from home. Mobile HIV testing can improve testing access and identify testing sites with high HIV prevalence. Individuals often access mobile testing sites farther from home than their nearest clinic. Geospatial techniques can help optimize deployment of mobile units to maximize yield in hard-to-reach populations. PMID:25874754

  8. Platelet Function Tests in Bleeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    Functional disorders of platelets can involve any aspect of platelet physiology, with many different effects or outcomes. These include platelet numbers (thrombocytosis or thrombocytopenia); changes in platelet production or destruction, or capture to the liver (Ashwell receptor); altered adhesion to vascular injury sites and/or influence on hemostasis and wound healing; and altered activation or receptor functions, shape change, spreading and release reactions, procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity. Procoagulant membrane alterations, and generation of thrombin and fibrin, also affect platelet aggregation. The above parameters can all be studied, but standardization and quality control of assay methods have been limited despite several efforts. Only after a comprehensive clinical bleeding assessment, including family history, information on drug use affecting platelets, and exclusion of coagulation factor, and tissue deficits, should platelet function testing be undertaken to confirm an abnormality. Current diagnostic tools include blood cell counts, platelet characteristics according to the cell counter parameters, peripheral blood smear, exclusion of pseudothrombocytopenia, whole blood aggregometry (WBA) or light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet-rich plasma, luminescence, platelet function analysis (PFA-100) for platelet adhesion and deposition to collagen cartridges under blood flow, and finally transmission electron microscopy to exclude rare structural defects leading to functional deficits. The most validated test panels are included in WBA, LTA, and PFA. Because platelets are isolated from their natural environment, many simplifications occur, as circulating blood and interaction with vascular wall are omitted in these assays. The target to reach a highly specific platelet disorder diagnosis in routine clinical management can be exhaustive, unless needed for genetic counseling. The elective overall assessment of platelet function disorder

  9. [CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY OF SIT-AND-REACH TEST AS A MEASURE OF HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY IN OLDER WOMEN].

    PubMed

    López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Muyor, José María; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: la disposición del raquis lumbo-sacro y la distancia alcanzada en el test sit-and-reach han sido propuestas para valorar la extensibilidad isquiosural, siendo su validez diferente en función de la población analizada. Objetivo: determinar la validez del ángulo lumbo-horizontal en flexión y la distancia alcanzada en el test sitand- reach como criterio de extensibilidad isquiosural en mujeres mayores. Metodología: un total de 120 mujeres mayores realizaron aleatoriamente los test de elevación de pierna recta (EPR) con ambas piernas y el test sit-and-reach (SR). En este último se valoró la distancia alcanzada y la disposición del raquis lumbo-sacro (L-Hfx) al alcanzar la posición de máxima flexión del tronco. Resultados y discusión: los valores medios en el EPR fueron 81,70 ± 13,83º y 82,10 ± 14,36º en las piernas izquierda y derecha, respectivamente. La media del EPR de ambas piernas fue de 81,90 ± 12,70º. La distancia media en el SR fue de -1,54 ± 8,09 cm. En el L-Hfx, el valor medio fue de 91,08º ± 9,32º. La correlación entre el test EPR medio de ambas piernas respecto a la distancia alcanzada en el test DDP y el ángulo L-Hfx fueron moderados (L-Hfx: r = -0,72, p < 0,01; SR: r = 0,70, p < 0,01). Ambas variables, de forma independiente, explicaron alrededor del 50% de la varianza (L-Hfx: R2 = 0,52; p < 0,001; SR: R2 = 0,49; p < 0,001). Conclusiones: la validez de la disposición del raquis lumbo-sacro en mujeres mayores es moderada, siendo similar a la obtenida por la distancia alcanzada en el test sit-and-reach.

  10. Functional Task Test: Data Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

  11. An incentivized HIV counseling and testing program targeting hard-to-reach unemployed men in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nglazi, Mweete D.; van Schaik, Nienke; Kranzer, Katharina; Lawn, Stephen D.; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background In Southern Africa, men access HIV counseling and testing (HCT) services less than women. Innovative strategies are needed to increase uptake of testing among men. This study assessed the effectiveness of incentivized mobile HCT in reaching unemployed men in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A retrospective analysis of HCT data collected between August 2008 and August 2010 from adult men accessing clinic-based stationary and non-incentivized and incentivized mobile services. Data from these three services were analyzed using descriptive statistics and log-binomial regression models. Results A total of 9416 first time testers were included in the analysis: 708 were clinic-based, 4985 were non-incentivized and 3723 incentivized mobile service testers. A higher HIV prevalence was observed among men accessing incentivized mobile testing 16.6% (617/3723) compared to those attending non-incentivized mobile 5.5% (277/4985)] and clinic-based services 10.2% (72/708)]. Among men testing at the mobile service, greater proportions of men receiving incentives were self-reported first-time testers (60.1% vs. 42.0%) and had advanced disease (14.9% vs. 7.5%) compared to men testing at non-incentivized mobile services. Furthermore, compared to the non-incentivized mobile service, the incentivized service was associated with a 3-fold greater yield of newly diagnosed HIV infections. This strong association persisted in analyses adjusted for age and first-time versus repeat testing (RR 2.33 95% CI 2.03–2.57]; p<0.001). Conclusions These findings suggest that incentivized mobile testing services may reach more previously untested men and significantly increase detection of HIV infection in men. PMID:22173039

  12. Rapid HIV testing at gay pride events to reach previously untested MSM: U.S., 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Mdodo, Rennatus; Thomas, Peter E; Walker, Anissa; Chavez, Pollyanna; Ethridge, Steven; Oraka, Emeka; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2014-01-01

    We offered rapid HIV testing at social events frequented by young men who have sex with men (MSM), a group disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. We tested 1,312 MSM; of those MSM, 1,072 (81.7%) reported HIV testing history. Of those reporting HIV testing history, 550 (51.3%) were non-Hispanic black and 404 (37.7%) were aged <25 years. One hundred twenty-eight (11.9%) had never tested for HIV; 77 (7.2%) were preliminarily positive, with 15 (19.5%) being first-time testers. Factors associated with no previous HIV test included young age (13-24 years) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9, 6.5) and non-Hispanic black (AOR=3.2, 95% CI 1.6, 6.4) or Hispanic (AOR=2.8, 95% CI 1.2, 6.3) race/ethnicity. HIV testing at Gay Pride events reaches young, previously untested MSM. This venue-based HIV testing approach at nonclinical sociocultural events is an additional strategy for HIV prevention goals to increase the number of people aware of their HIV infection with subsequent linkage to HIV care.

  13. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  14. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  15. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  16. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used in... representative engine on a test stand or on an airplane. The propeller must complete these tests without...

  17. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used in... representative engine on a test stand or on an airplane. The propeller must complete these tests without...

  18. Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

  19. Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

  20. What Are Lung Function Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD How the Lungs Work Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... caused by conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis). Also, these tests might ...

  1. Computational models of upper-limb motion during functional reaching tasks for application in FES-based stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Chris; Exell, Tim; Meadmore, Katie; Hallewell, Emma; Hughes, Ann-Marie

    2015-06-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been shown to be an effective approach to upper-limb stroke rehabilitation, where it is used to assist arm and shoulder motion. Model-based FES controllers have recently confirmed significant potential to improve accuracy of functional reaching tasks, but they typically require a reference trajectory to track. Few upper-limb FES control schemes embed a computational model of the task; however, this is critical to ensure the controller reinforces the intended movement with high accuracy. This paper derives computational motor control models of functional tasks that can be directly embedded in real-time FES control schemes, removing the need for a predefined reference trajectory. Dynamic models of the electrically stimulated arm are first derived, and constrained optimisation problems are formulated to encapsulate common activities of daily living. These are solved using iterative algorithms, and results are compared with kinematic data from 12 subjects and found to fit closely (mean fitting between 63.2% and 84.0%). The optimisation is performed iteratively using kinematic variables and hence can be transformed into an iterative learning control algorithm by replacing simulation signals with experimental data. The approach is therefore capable of controlling FES in real time to assist tasks in a manner corresponding to unimpaired natural movement. By ensuring that assistance is aligned with voluntary intention, the controller hence maximises the potential effectiveness of future stroke rehabilitation trials.

  2. Sweat testing to evaluate autonomic function

    PubMed Central

    Illigens, Ben M.W.; Gibbons, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Sudomotor dysfunction is one of the earliest detectable neurophysiologic abnormalities in distal small fiber neuropathy. Traditional neurophysiologic measurements of sudomotor function include thermoregulatory sweat testing (TST), quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART), silicone impressions, the sympathetic skin response (SSR), and the recent addition of quantitative direct and indirect axon reflex testing (QDIRT). These testing techniques, when used in combination, can detect and localized pre- and postganglionic lesions, can provide early diagnosis of sudomotor dysfunction and can monitor disease progression or disease recovery. In this article, we review the common tests available for assessment of sudomotor function, detail the testing methodology, review the limitations and provide examples of test results. PMID:18989618

  3. Integrative fascial release and functional testing.

    PubMed

    Hammer, W

    2000-03-01

    Soft tissue techniques, including Integrative Myofascial Release (IFR) can be more effective if the area of treatment can be determined by functional testing. The patient's source of pain may not necessarily be located at the area of complaint and functional testing helps in pinpointing the source. Post-treatment functional testing will provide feedback to both the patient and the doctor as to whether the technique was effective. This paper will describe some typical functional tests and treatment using IFR of the posterior cervical/thoracolumbar fascia. PMID:17987166

  4. Iterative Evaluation in a Mobile Counseling and Testing Program to Reach People of Color at Risk for HIV--New Strategies Improve Program Acceptability, Effectiveness, and Evaluation Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's…

  5. Laboratory testing for platelet function disorders.

    PubMed

    Israels, S J

    2015-05-01

    Platelet function testing is both complex and labor intensive. A stepwise approach to the evaluation of patients with suspected platelet disorders will optimize the use of laboratory resources, beginning with an appropriate clinical evaluation to determine whether the bleeding is consistent with a defect of primary hemostasis. Bleeding assessment tools, evaluation of platelet counts, and review of peripheral blood cell morphology can aid the initial assessment. For patients requiring further laboratory testing, platelet aggregometry, secretion assays, and von Willebrand factor assays are the most useful next steps and will direct further specialized testing including flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and molecular diagnostics. Guidelines and recommendations for standardizing platelet function testing, with a particular focus on light transmission aggregometry, are available and can provide a template for clinical laboratories in establishing procedures that will optimize diagnosis and assure quality results. This review outlines an approach to platelet function testing and reviews testing methods available to clinical laboratories.

  6. Binomial test statistics using Psi functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2007-01-01

    For the negative binomial model (probability generating function (p + 1 - pt){sup -k}) a logarithmic derivative is the Psi function difference {psi}(k + x) - {psi}(k); this and its derivatives lead to a test statistic to decide on the validity of a specified model. The test statistic uses a data base so there exists a comparison available between theory and application. Note that the test function is not dominated by outliers. Applications to (i) Fisher's tick data, (ii) accidents data, (iii) Weldon's dice data are included.

  7. CIT photoheliograph functional verification unit test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Tests of the 2/3-meter photoheliograph functional verification unit FVU were performed with the FVU installed in its Big Bear Solar Observatory vacuum chamber. Interferometric tests were run both in Newtonian (f/3.85) and Gregorian (f/50) configurations. Tests were run in both configurations with optical axis horizontal, vertical, and at 45 deg to attempt to determine any gravity effects on the system. Gravity effects, if present, were masked by scatter in the data associated with the system wavefront error of 0.16 lambda rms ( = 6328A) apparently due to problems in the primary mirror. Tests showed that the redesigned secondary mirror assembly works well.

  8. Reaching a Uniform Accuracy for Complex Molecular Systems: Long-Range-Corrected XYG3 Doubly Hybrid Density Functional.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Igor Ying; Xu, Xin

    2013-05-16

    An unbiased understanding of complex molecular systems from first-principles critically demands theoretical methods with uniform accuracy for diverse interactions with different natures covering short-, medium-, and long-range correlations. Among the state-of-the-art density functional approximations (DFAs), doubly hybrid (DH) DFAs (e.g., XYG3 in this Letter) provide a remarkable improvement over the conventional DFAs (e.g., B3LYP in this Letter). Even though XYG3 works quite well in many cases of noncovalent bonding interactions (NCIs), it is incomplete in describing the pure long-range dispersive interactions. Here, we address such concerns by adding a scaled long-range contribution from the second-order perturbation theory (PT2). The long-range-corrected XYG3 (lrc-XYG3) is proposed without reparameterizing the three parameters in the original XYG3. Due to its overall excellent performance for all testing sets constructed for various purposes, lrc-XYG3 is the recommended method, which is expected to provide a balanced description of diverse interactions in complex molecular systems. PMID:26282977

  9. Functional testing: Approaches and injury management integration.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laurie J.; Miller, Margot

    2001-01-01

    Functional Capacity Evaluations (FCEs) have become the standard for identifying an individual's physical abilities and/or limitations following injury or illness. While philosophies and approaches differ, the focus of most FCE systems is to identify the individual's maximum capabilities. This article will discuss the usefulness of the FCE information and how FCEs are impacted by multiple factors including APTA guidelines, machine based testing, therapist expertise, medical legal credibility and court testimony, IMEs and FCE, and return to work/return to function.

  10. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  11. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  12. NICMOS Filter Wheel/Mechanisms Mini-Functional Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn

    2001-07-01

    This is an early engineering test to verify the aliveness, functionality, operability, and electro-mechanical calibration of the NICMOS filter wheel motors and assembly. This is the FIRST use of the NICMOS filter wheel mechanisms since they were disabled by ground command in January, 1999. This test has been designed to obviate concerns over possible deformation or breakage of the fitter wheel "soda-straw" shafts due to excess rotational drag torque and/or bending moments which may be imparted due to changes in the dewar metrology from warm-up/cool-down. This test should be executed after the VCS {and filter wheel housing} has reached and approximately equilibrated to its nominal Cycle 11 operating temperature.

  13. Functional Performance Testing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Gupta, Anil K.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: When to allow an athlete to return to unrestricted sporting activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains controversial. Purpose: To report the results of functional performance testing reported in the literature for individuals at differing time points following ACL reconstruction and to examine differences between graft types. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed using PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were English-language studies that examined any functional rehabilitation test from 6 months to 2 years following ACL reconstruction. All patient-, limb-, and knee-specific demographics were extracted from included investigations. All functional rehabilitation tests were analyzed and compared when applicable. Results: The search term returned a total of 890 potential studies, with 88 meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 4927 patients were included, of which 66% were male. The mean patient age was 26.5 ± 3.4 years. The predominant graft choices for reconstruction were bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) autograft (59.8%) and hamstring autograft (37.9%). The most commonly reported functional tests were the hop tests. The results of these functional tests, as reported in the Limb Symmetry Index (LSI), improved with increasing time, with nearly all results greater than 90% at 1 year following primary ACL reconstruction. At 6 months postoperatively, a number of isokinetic strength measurements failed to reach 80% LSI, most commonly isokinetic knee extension testing in both BPTB and hamstring autograft groups. The knee flexion strength deficit was significantly less in the BPTB autograft group as compared with those having hamstring autograft at 1 year postoperatively, while no significant differences were found in isokinetic extension strength between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Hop

  14. Platelet function tests: a comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Paniccia, Rita; Priora, Raffaella; Alessandrello Liotta, Agatina; Abbate, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation – adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation – have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered. PMID:25733843

  15. A new scintigraphic test of neorectal function

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, P.R.; Omdahl, A.L.; Brown, M.L.; Kelly, K.A.

    1985-05-01

    Current tests of neorectal function after colectomy, mucosal rectectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are inadequate. The authors developed a new scintigraphic test that uses an artificial stool made of aluminium magnesium silicate gel (Veegum). Solutions of the gel were labeled with 1 mCi Tc-99m by stirring Veegum powder into water containing the isotope at 37/sup 0/C. Excellent binding was obtained with the sulfur colloid form of the isotope compared with the pertechnetate or ovalbumin forms (Table). The sulfur colloid isotope in 7.5% gel was used in subsequent tests. The volume given to the patients corresponded to the maximum capacity of the ileal pouch as measured manometrically; it averaged 300 ml. Ten patients have been studied to date with minimal patient discomfort. The gel was introduced over a 2 minute period via a 16Fr. transanal tube with the patient in the left lateral position. After 5 minutes AP standing and R lateral scans were taken. Then a dynamic scan was taken while the patient evacuated the gel into a commode. After evacuation AP and R lateral scans were repeated. Computer analysis was used to determine both the functional pouch capacity and the rates of emptying of the pouch and the more proximal ileum. The test has proven useful in the assessment of neorectal anatomy and function after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

  16. Ecoregional, catchment, and reach-scale environmental factors shape functional-trait structure of stream fish assemblages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patterns of association between functional traits and environmental gradients can improve understanding of species assemblage structure from local to regional scales, and therefore may be useful for natural resource management. We measured functional traits related to trophic ecology, habitat use, a...

  17. Analysis of Draize eye irritation testing and its prediction by mining publicly available 2008-2014 REACH data.

    PubMed

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Maertens, Alexandra; Russo, Daniel P; Rovida, Costanza; Zhu, Hao; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Public data from ECHA online dossiers on 9,801 substances encompassing 326,749 experimental key studies and additional information on classification and labeling were made computable. Eye irritation hazard, for which the rabbit Draize eye test still represents the reference method, was analyzed. Dossiers contained 9,782 Draize eye studies on 3,420 unique substances, indicating frequent retesting of substances. This allowed assessment of the test's reproducibility test based on all substances tested more than once. There was a 10% chance of a non-irritant evaluation given after a prior severe-irritant result as given by UN GHS classification criteria. The most reproducible outcomes were the results negative (94% reproducible) and severe eye irritant (73% reproducible). To evaluate whether other GHS categorizations predict eye irritation we built a dataset of 5,629 substances (1,931 'irritant' and 3,698 'non-irritant'). The two best decision trees with up to three other GHS classifications resulted in balanced accuracies of 68% and 73%, i.e., in the rank order of the Draize rabbit eye test itself, but both use inhalation toxicity data ("May cause respiratory irritation"), which is not typically available. Next, a dataset of 929 substances with at least one Draize study was mapped to PubChem to compute chemical similarity using 2D conformational fingerprints and Tanimoto similarity. Using a minimum similarity of 0.7 and simple classification by the closest chemical neighbor resulted in balanced accuracy from 73% over 737 substances to 100% at a threshold of 0.975 over 41 substances. This represents a strong support of read-across and (Q)SAR approaches in this area. PMID:26863293

  18. Gamow states as continuous linear functionals over analytical test functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bollini, C.G.; Civitarese, O.; De Paoli, A.L.; Rocca, M.C. |

    1996-09-01

    The space of analytical test functions {xi}, rapidly decreasing on the real axis (i.e., Schwartz test functions of the type S on the real axis), is used to construct the rigged Hilbert space (RHS) ({xi},H,{xi}{prime}). Gamow states (GS) can be defined in RHS starting from Dirac{close_quote}s formula. It is shown that the expectation value of a self-adjoint operator acting on a GS is real. We have computed exactly the probability of finding a system in a GS and found that it is finite. The validity of recently proposed approximations to calculate the expectation value of self-adjoint operators in a GS is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Expanding the Reach of Participatory Risk Management: Testing an Online Decision-Aiding Framework for Informing Internally Consistent Choices.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Douglas L; Campbell-Arvai, Victoria; Arvai, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    This article presents research aimed at developing and testing an online, multistakeholder decision-aiding framework for informing multiattribute risk management choices associated with energy development and climate change. The framework was designed to provide necessary background information and facilitate internally consistent choices, or choices that are in line with users' prioritized objectives. In order to test different components of the decision-aiding framework, a six-part, 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted, yielding eight treatment scenarios. The three factors included: (1) whether or not users could construct their own alternatives; (2) the level of detail regarding the composition of alternatives users would evaluate; and (3) the way in which a final choice between users' own constructed (or highest-ranked) portfolio and an internally consistent portfolio was presented. Participants' self-reports revealed the framework was easy to use and providing an opportunity to develop one's own risk-management alternatives (Factor 1) led to the highest knowledge gains. Empirical measures showed the internal consistency of users' decisions across all treatments to be lower than expected and confirmed that providing information about alternatives' composition (Factor 2) resulted in the least internally consistent choices. At the same time, those users who did not develop their own alternatives and were not shown detailed information about the composition of alternatives believed their choices to be the most internally consistent. These results raise concerns about how the amount of information provided and the ability to construct alternatives may inversely affect users' real and perceived internal consistency. PMID:26381043

  20. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Workshop functional test... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12f Workshop functional test requirements... functional test on a suitable test bench prior to delivery. The detailed program for a functional test...

  1. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Workshop functional test... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12f Workshop functional test requirements... functional test on a suitable test bench prior to delivery. The detailed program for a functional test...

  2. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Workshop functional test... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12f Workshop functional test requirements... functional test on a suitable test bench prior to delivery. The detailed program for a functional test...

  3. Uses of esophageal function testing: dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Etsuro; Woodland, Philip; Sifrim, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Esophageal function testing should be used for differential diagnosis of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be the consequence of hypermotility or hypomotility of the muscles of the esophagus. Decreased esophageal or esophagogastric junction distensibility can provoke dysphagia. The most well established esophageal dysmotility is achalasia. Other motility disorders can also cause dysphagia. High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the gold standard investigation for esophageal motility disorders. Simultaneous measurement of HRM and intraluminal impedance can be useful to assess motility and bolus transit. Impedance planimetry measures distensibility of the esophageal body and gastroesophageal junction in patients with achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:25216909

  4. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  5. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  6. A computer vision based candidate for functional balance test.

    PubMed

    Nalci, Alican; Khodamoradi, Alireza; Balkan, Ozgur; Nahab, Fatta; Garudadri, Harinath

    2015-08-01

    Balance in humans is a motor skill based on complex multimodal sensing, processing and control. Ability to maintain balance in activities of daily living (ADL) is compromised due to aging, diseases, injuries and environmental factors. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate of the costs of falls among older adults was $34 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $54.9 billion in 2020. In this paper, we present a brief review of balance impairments followed by subjective and objective tools currently used in clinical settings for human balance assessment. We propose a novel computer vision (CV) based approach as a candidate for functional balance test. The test will take less than a minute to administer and expected to be objective, repeatable and highly discriminative in quantifying ability to maintain posture and balance. We present an informal study with preliminary data from 10 healthy volunteers, and compare performance with a balance assessment system called BTrackS Balance Assessment Board. Our results show high degree of correlation with BTrackS. The proposed system promises to be a good candidate for objective functional balance tests and warrants further investigations to assess validity in clinical settings, including acute care, long term care and assisted living care facilities. Our long term goals include non-intrusive approaches to assess balance competence during ADL in independent living environments.

  7. Platelet Function Testing-Guided Antiplatelet Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Spannagl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Western world. Several factors have led to the increase in vascular disorders, including the aging population, unhealthy lifestyles, increasing rates of diabetes and raised lipids, and further risk factors resulting in inflammation and calcification of the vascular endothelium. Activated platelets in damaged blood vessels can trigger arterial thrombus formation, leading to vascular occlusion with subsequent organ hypoperfusion and clinical manifestation of myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral artery disease. Platelet inhibitors such as aspirin and clopidogrel (Plavix® and generics) are prescribed as primary or secondary prevention to attenuate chronic platelet activation. However, a significant proportion of patients do not respond adequately to uniform antiplatelet treatment. These ‘non-responders’ have an increased risk for stent thrombosis, stroke, and other ischemic complications. Platelet function (PF) tests can identify these patients thus enabling physicians to offer personalized and alternative treatment strategies. Recent alternatives to clopidogrel include prasugrel (Efient®) and ticagrelor (Brilique®) – that are both more potent than clopidogrel but also more expensive and associated with a higher risk of bleeding complications. Given these drawbacks, PF testing might help clinicians to prescribe optimal antiplatelet agent to maximize patient safety and efficacy while minimizing costs. While randomized studies using different test systems have left clinicians puzzled about the medical value of tailored antiplatelet therapy, accumulated evidence from recent studies on tailored antiplatelet therapies and the association with improved outcomes have now resulted in a consensus expert opinion for the specific adoption of PF diagnostics into clinical practice.

  8. Formal functional test designs with a test representation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subset for effective testing. An automatic tool and a formal language were developed to implement the method and produce the specification of test cases.

  9. Hanford tanks initiative test facility functions and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, S.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-01

    This document presents the functions and requirements for a test facility for testing single-shell tank waste retrieval equipment and systems for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project. This effort includes review of previous test facility functions and requirements and conducting a workshop to develop specific functions and requirements for HTI testing needs. Functions and requirements for testing future retrieval systems that follow HTI are also identified.

  10. Prognostic value of physical function tests: hand grip strength and six-minute walking test in elderly hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ponce, Esther; Hernández-Betancor, Iván; González-Reimers, Emilio; Hernández-Luis, Rubén; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Santolaria, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    To discern if physical function test are better mortality predictors than muscle mass in elderly hospitalized patients, we analyzed the prognostic value of muscle mass malnutrition and compared it with physical muscle function tests, including the six-minute walking test (6 MWT) and hand grip strength. We included the ankle brachial index (ABI) to assess arterial disease, related to muscle atrophy due to hypoperfusion. We also analyzed the relationship of ABI with malnutrition, physical function tests and survival. We studied 310 hospitalized patients older than 60 years. To assess nutritional status, we determined BMI, triceps skinfold and mid-arm muscle area; we performed a subjective nutritional assessment; and evaluated the degree of inflammatory stress. We assessed physical function by hand grip strength and 6 MWT. We evaluated arterial disease by ABI. Forty-one patients died during hospitalization; 269 were discharged and followed for a mean 808 days, reaching a mortality of 49%. Muscle malnutrition was frequent and was related to mortality, but the best predictors were physical function tests: inability to perform the 6 MWT and low handgrip strength. Function tests were closely related to each other and correlated with nutritional data. Reduced ABI was related to impaired nutritional status, physical function tests and mortality.

  11. Functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals the neural substrates of arm transport and grip formation in reach-to-grasp actions in humans.

    PubMed

    Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Monaco, Simona; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio; McAdam, Teresa D; Quinlan, Derek J; Goodale, Melvyn A; Culham, Jody C

    2010-08-01

    Picking up a cup requires transporting the arm to the cup (transport component) and preshaping the hand appropriately to grasp the handle (grip component). Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the human neural substrates of the transport component and its relationship with the grip component. Participants were shown three-dimensional objects placed either at a near location, adjacent to the hand, or at a far location, within reach but not adjacent to the hand. Participants performed three tasks at each location as follows: (1) touching the object with the knuckles of the right hand; (2) grasping the object with the right hand; or (3) passively viewing the object. The transport component was manipulated by positioning the object in the far versus the near location. The grip component was manipulated by asking participants to grasp the object versus touching it. For the first time, we have identified the neural substrates of the transport component, which include the superior parieto-occipital cortex and the rostral superior parietal lobule. Consistent with past studies, we found specialization for the grip component in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus and left ventral premotor cortex; now, however, we also find activity for the grasp even when no transport is involved. In addition to finding areas specialized for the transport and grip components in parietal cortex, we found an integration of the two components in dorsal premotor cortex and supplementary motor areas, two regions that may be important for the coordination of reach and grasp.

  12. Similar and functionally typical kinematic reaching parameters in 7- and 15-month-old in utero cocaine-exposed and unexposed infants.

    PubMed

    Tronick, E Z; Fetters, Linda; Olson, Karen L; Chen, Yuping

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure on the reaches of 19 exposed and 15 unexposed infants at 7 and 15 months using kinematic measures. Infants sat at a table and reached for a rattle, a toy doll, and a chair. Videotaped reaches were digitized using the Peak Performance system. Kinematic movement variables were extracted (e.g., reach duration, peak velocity, movement units, path length) and ratios computed (e.g., path length divided by number of movement units). Regardless of exposure status, reaches of older infants were faster, more direct, had fewer movement units, and covered more distance with the first movement unit. Exposed infants covered more distance per movement unit than unexposed infants, but there were no other significant differences. Reaches of exposed and unexposed infants were essentially similar. Importantly, reach parameters for these high-risk infants were similar to reach parameters for infants at lower social and biological risk. PMID:15054885

  13. Functional Literacy in Schoolchildren. Definition and Criteria of Test Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessemer, David W.; Spencer, Mary L.

    As part of the development of a functional literacy test for fourth through eigth grade children in Title I compensatory education programs, this report defines functional literacy for children and enumerates criteria for evaluating existing tests. Criteria for selection of a test include: (1) content, empirical, and construct validity; (2)…

  14. First State Fitness Test. A Measurement of Functional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Timothy; And Others

    This test is designed to measure the functional health of young people. Functional health refers to those factors relating to personal health that can be improved with regular exercise. This test is unique in comparison to other physical fitness tests because of the absence of motor skill items which have no relationship to an individual's…

  15. CBOs: Reaching the Hardest to Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The agents most successful in reaching and teaching those most in need of basic skills instruction are the community-based organizations (CBOs). They come into being in response to social and economic problems faced by their constituents--disadvantaged minorities, the poor, the unemployed, and the alienated. Because of their close ties to the…

  16. A Comparison of Statistical Significance Tests for Selecting Equating Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the accuracies of nine previously proposed statistical significance tests for selecting identity, linear, and equipercentile equating functions in an equivalent groups equating design. The strategies included likelihood ratio tests for the loglinear models of tests' frequency distributions, regression tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov…

  17. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12f Workshop functional test requirements... the specific design of equipment. A completed workshop certificate including the delivery test...; (2) A check of the correct function of the signal processor and the recording equipment...

  18. Coaching patients during pulmonary function testing: A practical guide

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Heidi J; Cheung, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are an important tool to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with respiratory disease. Ensuring that the tests are of acceptable quality is vital. Acceptable pulmonary function test quality requires, among others, optimal patient performance. Optimal patient performance, in turn, requires adequate coaching from registered respiratory therapists (RRTs) and other pulmonary function laboratory personnel. The present article provides techniques and tips to help RRTs coach patients during testing. The authors briefly review the components of pulmonary function testing, then describe factors that may hinder a patient’s performance, list common mistakes that patients make during testing, and provide tips that RRTs can use to help patients optimize their performance. PMID:26283871

  19. Reach Out to Enhance Wellness in Older Cancer Survivors (RENEW): Design, Methods and Recruitment Challenges of a Home-based Exercise and Diet Intervention to Improve Physical Function among Long-term Survivors of Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Denise Clutter; Morey, Miriam C.; Sloane, Richard; Stull, Valeda; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Peterson, Bercedis; Pieper, Carl; Hartman, Terryl J.; Miller, Paige E.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Objective Cure rates for cancer are increasing, especially for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Despite positive trends in survivorship, a cancer diagnosis can trigger accelerated functional decline that can threaten independence, reduce quality-of-life and increase health care costs, especially among the elderly who comprise the majority of survivors. Lifestyle interventions may hold promise in reorienting functional decline in older cancer survivors, but few studies have been conducted. Method We describe the design and methods of a randomized controlled trial, RENEW (Reach out to ENhancE Wellness), that tests whether a home-based multi-behavior intervention focused on exercise, and including a low-saturated fat, plant-based diet, would improve physical functioning among 641 older, long-term (≥5 years post-diagnosis) survivors of breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Challenges to recruitment are examined. Results 20,015 cases were approached, and screened using a two-step screening process to assure eligibility. This population of long-term, elderly cancer survivors had lower rates of response (∼11%) and higher rates of ineligibility (∼70%) than our previous intervention studies conducted on adults with newly diagnosed cancer. Significantly higher response rates were noted among survivors who were white, younger, and more proximal to diagnosis and breast cancer survivors (p-values < 0.001). Conclusions Older cancer survivors represent a vulnerable population for whom lifestyle interventions may hold promise. RENEW may provide guidance in allocating limited resources in order to maximize recruitment efforts aimed at this needy, but hard-to-reach population. PMID:19117329

  20. A Generalized DIF Effect Variance Estimator for Measuring Unsigned Differential Test Functioning in Mixed Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Algina, James

    2006-01-01

    One approach to measuring unsigned differential test functioning is to estimate the variance of the differential item functioning (DIF) effect across the items of the test. This article proposes two estimators of the DIF effect variance for tests containing dichotomous and polytomous items. The proposed estimators are direct extensions of the…

  1. Memory Hazard Functions: A Vehicle for Theory Development and Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chechile, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    A framework is developed to rigorously test an entire class of memory retention functions by examining hazard properties. Evidence is provided that the memory hazard function is not monotonically decreasing. Yet most of the proposals for retention functions, which have emerged from the psychological literature, imply that memory hazard is…

  2. Effect of Multiple Testing Adjustment in Differential Item Functioning Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye; Oshima, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, a significance test is conducted for each item. As a test consists of multiple items, such multiple testing may increase the possibility of making a Type I error at least once. The goal of this study was to investigate how to control a Type I error rate and power using adjustment…

  3. Formal Functional Test Designs: Bridging the Gap Between Test Requirements and Test Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the testing life cycle, the purpose of the test design phase, and test design methods and gives an example application. Also included is a description of Test Representation Language (TRL), a summary of the language, and an example of an application of TRL. A sample test requirement and sample test design are included.

  4. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  5. Intraday reliability and sensitivity of four functional ability tests in older women.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Susan; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2014-08-01

    Functional tests are commonly used to evaluate the functional ability of older individuals; however, intraday reliability and sensitivity are required to enable informed decisions on whether repeated trials are necessary and to ensure that the values obtained from a single session are a patient's true score. This study aimed to investigate the intraday reliability and sensitivity of four commonly used functional tests in older individuals. Seventy-one healthy older women (mean [SD]: age, 71.7 [7.3] yrs; body mass, 64.8 [10.2] kg; stature, 1.58 [0.07] m) performed the 6-m maximum walking speed, timed 8-foot up-and-go, chair sit-and-reach, and back scratch tests three times in one single session, with 1 min between trials. Reliability between all trials was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient, and sensitivity was examined using typical error. All tests were highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.89-0.99), indicating no need for a familiarization trial. Typical error between trials 2 and 1 were 0.06 m·s-1, 0.42 s, 1.13 cm, 0.92 cm for the 6-m maximum walking speed, timed 8-foot up-and-go, chair sit-and-reach, and back scratch tests, respectively. Practitioners should perform two trials to examine whether the difference between them is less than the typical error reported here. These results should help practitioners ensure that scores obtained from an individual from these functional tests are a true reflection of their functional ability rather than measurement error.

  6. Safety and Function Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and Function testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, duration, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  7. A Functional Test Platform for the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Thornton, Peter E; King, Anthony Wayne; Steed, Chad A; Gu, Lianhong; Schuchart, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A functional test platform is presented to create direct linkages between site measurements and the process-based ecosystem model within the Community Earth System Models (CESM). The platform consists of three major parts: 1) interactive user interfaces, 2) functional test model and 3) observational datasets. It provides much needed integration interfaces for both field experimentalists and ecosystem modelers to improve the model s representation of ecosystem processes within the CESM framework without large software overhead.

  8. Construct validity of functional capacity tests in healthy workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional Capacity (FC) is a multidimensional construct within the activity domain of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework (ICF). Functional capacity evaluations (FCEs) are assessments of work-related FC. The extent to which these work-related FC tests are associated to bio-, psycho-, or social factors is unknown. The aims of this study were to test relationships between FC tests and other ICF factors in a sample of healthy workers, and to determine the amount of statistical variance in FC tests that can be explained by these factors. Methods A cross sectional study. The sample was comprised of 403 healthy workers who completed material handling FC tests (lifting low, overhead lifting, and carrying) and static work FC tests (overhead working and standing forward bend). The explainable variables were; six muscle strength tests; aerobic capacity test; and questionnaires regarding personal factors (age, gender, body height, body weight, and education), psychological factors (mental health, vitality, and general health perceptions), and social factors (perception of work, physical workloads, sport-, leisure time-, and work-index). A priori construct validity hypotheses were formulated and analyzed by means of correlation coefficients and regression analyses. Results Moderate correlations were detected between material handling FC tests and muscle strength, gender, body weight, and body height. As for static work FC tests; overhead working correlated fair with aerobic capacity and handgrip strength, and low with the sport-index and perception of work. For standing forward bend FC test, all hypotheses were rejected. The regression model revealed that 61% to 62% of material handling FC tests were explained by physical factors. Five to 15% of static work FC tests were explained by physical and social factors. Conclusions The current study revealed that, in a sample of healthy workers, material handling FC tests were

  9. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

  10. Global reach and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  11. Transfer function tests of the Joy longwall shearer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, P. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A series of operational tests was performed on the Joy longwall shearer located at the Bureau of Mines in Bructon, Pennsylvania. The purpose of these tests was to determine the transfer function and operational characteristics of the system. These characteristics will be used to generate a simulation model of the longwall shearer used in the development of the closed-loop vertical control system.

  12. State of the Art in Platelet Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    E. Kehrel, Beate; F. Brodde, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Platelets perform many functions in hemostasis but also in other areas of physiology and pathology. Therefore, it is obvious that many different function tests have been developed, each one conceived and standardized for a special purpose. This review will summarize the different fields in which platelet function testing is currently in use; diagnostics of patients with bleeding disorders, monitoring patients’ response to anti-platelet therapy, monitoring in transfusion medicine (blood donors, platelet concentrates, and after transfusion), and monitoring in perioperative medicine to predict bleeding tendency. The second part of the review outlines different methods for platelet function testing, spanning bleeding time, and platelet counting as well as determining platelet adhesion, platelet secretion, platelet aggregation, platelet morphology, platelet signal transduction, platelet procoagulant activity, platelet apoptosis, platelet proteomics, and molecular biology. PMID:23653569

  13. A dynamic test of lower extremity function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Juris, P M; Phillips, E M; Dalpe, C; Edwards, C; Gotlin, R S; Kane, D J

    1997-10-01

    It is essential to assess the functional status of patients with surgically reconstructed and rehabilitated anterior cruciate ligaments prior to discharge. This study established a testing paradigm for functional force production and absorption. Data were obtained from 100 healthy subjects for maximal hops, controlled leaps, and hopping and leaping symmetry. Only 10% of symptomatic patients met maximal hopping criteria, while 15% achieved controlled leaping norms. Ninety-five percent of these patients failed to reach both hopping and leaping symmetry norms. Asymptomatic patients were 63% successful in meeting hopping criteria, and 57% were successful in meeting leaping criteria. Hop symmetry and leap symmetry were achieved at rates of 70% and 60%, respectively. The performance of both groups fell significantly below that of normal subjects (p < .05). Data suggest that this protocol does accurately assess functional and dysfunctional knees, and that force absorption may be more critical than force production in the determination of functional capacity.

  14. A test of cirrus ice crystal scattering phase functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, P. R.; Baran, A. J.; Kaye, P. H.; Hirst, E.; Greenaway, R.

    2003-07-01

    In-situ ice crystal scattering has been measured in cirrus cloud with the Small Ice Detector laser scattering probe. Using light scattered from single particles (maximum dimension ~<100 μm) at 4-10° and 20-40° we have tested ice crystal scattering phase functions for spheres, hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, polycrystals an aggregate of columns and an analytic function. We find that phase functions that lack a pronounced 22° halo are the best representatives for the example data presented here. Spherical ice particle phase functions do not satisfy the measurements.

  15. An automated miniaturized Haploscope for testing binocular visual function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1976-01-01

    A computer-controlled binocular vision testing device has been developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to test the vision of astronauts during spaceflight. The device, called the Mark III Haploscope, utilizes semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phorias, fixation disparity and accommodation/convergence relationships. All tests are self-administered, yield quantitative data and may be used repeatedly without subject memorization. Future applications of this programmable, compact device include its use as a clinical instrument to perform routine eye examinations or vision screening, and as a research tool to examine the effects of environment or work-cycle upon visual function.

  16. Testing for cognitive function in animals in a regulatory context.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to proliferate in a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because people exposed to chemicals often complain about confusion and forgetfulness, it is commonly thought that cognitive functions should be sensitive indicators of adverse consequences of chemical exposure. For these reasons, complex tests of cognitive function have been developed and deployed in experimental animal laboratories for decades. However, the results of these tests are rarely used as points of departure for chemical risk assessments. Due to their high cost in time, animals, and equipment, the efficacy and utility of these tests need to be evaluated in relation to cheaper and faster whole-animal screening methods. This review examines evidence for the assertions that cognitive functions represent uniquely sensitive indicators of chemical exposure, and that animal models of these functions are necessary to detect and quantify the neurotoxicity of chemicals. Studies conducted since the early 1980s to compare these approaches to assess the neurotoxicity of chemicals are reviewed for both adult and perinatal exposures in experimental rodents. Forty-one studies of 35 chemicals were found that directly compared acute effects using complex tests (i.e., tests that require training animals) with acute effects using screening tests (i.e., tests that do not require training animals) in adult rodents. Complex tests detected effects of three substances (bitertanol, iso-amyl nitrite, and Pfiesteria toxin) that had no effect on screening tests; for an additional five chemicals (carbaryl, deltamethrin, methyl mercury, tetraethyl tin, and Isopar-C), complex tests identified effects at lower doses than did screening tests. Fewer comparable cases were found for developmental exposures: screening and

  17. Executive function on the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests

    PubMed Central

    Li, Victoria; Eiwaz, Massarra A.; Kobel, Yuliyana V.; Benice, Ted S.; Chu, Alex M.; Olsen, Reid H. J.; Rice, Douglas Z.; Gray, Hilary M.; Mueller, Shane T.

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of executive function has a long history in clinical and experimental neuropsychology. The goal of the present report was to determine the profile of behavior across the lifespan on four computerized measures of executive function contained in the recently developed Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) test battery http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ and evaluate whether this pattern is comparable to data previously obtained with the non-PEBL versions of these tests. Participants (N = 1,223; ages, 5–89 years) completed the PEBL Trail Making Test (pTMT), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (pWCST; Berg, Journal of General Psychology, 39, 15–22, 1948; Grant & Berg, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 404–411, 1948), the Tower of London (pToL), or a time estimation task (Time-Wall). Age-related effects were found over all four tests, especially as age increased from young childhood through adulthood. For several tests and measures (including pToL and pTMT), age-related slowing was found as age increased in adulthood. Together, these findings indicate that the PEBL tests provide valid and versatile new research tools for measuring executive functions. PMID:21534005

  18. Inter-rater reliability of a clinical test of standing function.

    PubMed

    Triolo, R J; Bevelheimer, T; Eisenhower, G; Wormser, D

    1995-01-01

    The Functional Standing Test (FST) has been proposed and described as an evaluative tool to assess a person's ability to perform one-handed reaching tasks while standing. The test items, several of which are identical to those in the Jebson Test of Hand Function, require the manipulation of objects on a counter top and on simulated kitchen shelves while the person is standing. The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of FST when it is administered to adolescents with spinal cord injuries who stand with braces, and to able-bodied young adults. Two testers administered the FST separately to three individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) below T-2 who stood with knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) and to 10 able-bodied people who stood unassisted. The order in which the testers operated was randomized and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC (2,1)) was used to analyze inter-rater reliability. Eighty percent of the subtests were found to be moderately to very reliable when applied to either group on the same day. Half of the test items were categorized as having the same level of inter-rater reliability between the two sample populations. A modified version of the test eliminating unreliable components could serve as a valuable and inexpensive means of evaluating the effectiveness of various therapies and technologies to provide or assist standing function. Validity and specificity of the test remain the focus of future research.

  19. Is chlamydia screening and testing in Britain reaching young adults at risk of infection? Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall, Sarah C; Soldan, Kate; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H; Clifton, Soazig; Saunders, Pamela; da Silva, Filomeno; Alexander, Sarah; Wellings, Kaye; Tanton, Clare; Field, Nigel; Copas, Andrew J; Ison, Catherine A; Johnson, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of widespread opportunistic chlamydia screening among young adults, we aimed to quantify chlamydia testing and diagnosis among 16–24 year olds in Britain in relation to risk factors for prevalent chlamydia infection. Methods Using data from sexually experienced (≥1 lifetime sexual partner) 16-year-old to 24-year-old participants in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (conducted 2010–2012), we explored socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with prevalent chlamydia infection (detected in urine; n=1832), self-reported testing and self-reported diagnosis in the last year (both n=3115). Results Chlamydia prevalence was 3.1% (95% CI 2.2% to 4.3%) in women and 2.3% (1.5% to 3.4%) in men. A total of 12.3% of women and 5.3% men had a previous chlamydia diagnosis. Factors associated with prevalent infection were also associated with testing and diagnosis (eg, increasing numbers of sexual partners), with some exceptions. For example, chlamydia prevalence was higher in women living in more deprived areas, whereas testing was not. In men, prevalence was higher in 20–24 than 16–19 year olds but testing was lower. Thirty per cent of women and 53.7% of men with ≥2 new sexual partners in the last year had not recently tested. Conclusions In 2010–2012 in Britain, the proportion of young adults reporting chlamydia testing was generally higher in those reporting factors associated with chlamydia. However, many of those with risk factors had not been recently tested, leaving potential for undiagnosed infections. Greater screening and prevention efforts among individuals in deprived areas and those reporting risk factors for chlamydia may reduce undiagnosed prevalence and transmission. PMID:26290483

  20. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  1. Reaching for the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper-Davis, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Reaching for the Stars," a program which develops teaming and mentoring skills in senior physics students. Phase 1 requires student pairs to design a rocket; Phase 2 pairs seniors with gifted second graders who build the rocket from written instructions; and in Phase 3, pairs of seniors create a children's storybook explaining one of…

  2. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  3. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was focusing on…

  4. Reaching for the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Dorothy Givens

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  5. GROUND-WATER MODEL TESTING: SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION AND TESTING OF CODE FUNCTIONALITY AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective use of ground-water simulation codes as management decision tools requires the establishment of their functionality, performance characteristics, and applicability to the problem at hand. This is accomplished through application of a systematic code-testing protocol and...

  6. Outcomes of Anatomical versus Functional Testing for Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Pamela S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Patel, Manesh R.; Mark, Daniel B.; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R.; Cavanaugh, Brendan; Cole, Jason; Dolor, Rowena J.; Fordyce, Christopher B.; Huang, Megan; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Malhotra, Vinay; Picard, Michael H.; Udelson, James E.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Yow, Eric; Cooper, Lawton S.; Lee, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many patients have symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD) and are often evaluated with the use of diagnostic testing, although there are limited data from randomized trials to guide care. METHODS We randomly assigned 10,003 symptomatic patients to a strategy of initial anatomical testing with the use of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or to functional testing (exercise electrocardiography, nuclear stress testing, or stress echocardiography). The composite primary end point was death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or major procedural complication. Secondary end points included invasive cardiac catheterization that did not show obstructive CAD and radiation exposure. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 60.8±8.3 years, 52.7% were women, and 87.7% had chest pain or dyspnea on exertion. The mean pretest likelihood of obstructive CAD was 53.3±21.4%. Over a median follow-up period of 25 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 164 of 4996 patients in the CTA group (3.3%) and in 151 of 5007 (3.0%) in the functional-testing group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.29; P = 0.75). CTA was associated with fewer catheterizations showing no obstructive CAD than was functional testing (3.4% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.02), although more patients in the CTA group underwent catheterization within 90 days after randomization (12.2% vs. 8.1%). The median cumulative radiation exposure per patient was lower in the CTA group than in the functional-testing group (10.0 mSv vs. 11.3 mSv), but 32.6% of the patients in the functional-testing group had no exposure, so the overall exposure was higher in the CTA group (mean, 12.0 mSv vs. 10.1 mSv; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS In symptomatic patients with suspected CAD who required noninvasive testing, a strategy of initial CTA, as compared with functional testing, did not improve clinical outcomes over a median follow-up of 2 years. (Funded by the

  7. Low yield of unselected testing in patients with acutely abnormal liver function tests

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To audit the diagnostic yield and cost implications of the use of a ‘liver screen’ for inpatients with abnormal liver function tests. Design We performed a retrospective audit of inpatients with abnormal liver function tests. We analysed all investigations ordered including biochemistry, immunology, virology and radiology. The final diagnosis was ascertained in each case, and the diagnostic yield and cost per positive diagnosis for each investigation were calculated. Setting St Thomas’ NHS Trust. Participants All inpatients investigated for abnormal liver function tests over a 12-month period. Main outcome measures We calculated the percentage of courses due to each diagnosis, the yield of each investigation and the cost per positive diagnosis for each investigation. Results A total of 308 patients were included, and a final diagnosis was made in 224 patients (73%) on the basis of both clinical data and investigations. There was considerable heterogeneity in the tests included in an acute liver screen. History and ultrasound yielded the most diagnoses (40% and 30%, respectively). The yield of autoimmune and metabolic screens was minimal. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the low yield of unselected testing in patients with abnormal liver function tests. A thorough history, ultrasound and testing for blood-borne viruses are the cornerstones of diagnosis. Specialist input should be sought before further testing. Prospective studies to evaluate the yield and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies are needed. PMID:26770816

  8. Preparatory delay activity in the monkey parietal reach region predicts reach reaction times.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Lawrence H; Dickinson, Anthony R; Calton, Jeffrey L

    2006-10-01

    To acquire something that we see, visual spatial information must ultimately result in the activation of the appropriate set of muscles. This sensory to motor transformation requires an interaction between information coding target location and information coding which effector will be moved. Activity in the monkey parietal reach region (PRR) reflects both spatial information and the effector (arm or eye) that will be used in an upcoming reach or saccade task. To further elucidate the functional role of PRR in visually guided movement tasks and to obtain evidence that PRR signals are used to drive arm movements, we tested the hypothesis that increased neuronal activity during a preparatory delay period would lead to faster reach reaction times but would not be correlated with saccade reaction times. This proved to be the case only when the type of movement and not the spatial goal of that movement was known in advance. The correlation was strongest in cells that showed significantly more activity on arm reach compared with saccade trials. No significant correlations were found during delay periods in which spatial information was provided in advance. These data support the idea that PRR constitutes a bottleneck in the processing of spatial information for an upcoming arm reach. The lack of a correlation with saccadic reaction time also supports the idea that PRR processing is effector specific, that is, it is involved in specifying targets for arm movements but not targets for eye movements.

  9. Hydrologic data from test wells and low-flow investigations in the middle reach of the Eagle River valley, Alaska; 1980-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deeter, Gary; George, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Test wells and low-flow investigations in the Eagle River valley , Alaska, were used to evaluate the feasibility of developing ground water for a public supply. Aquifers capable of supplying large yield wells were not indicated in any of the drilling areas. The data include: results of low-flow seepage investigations at 22 river sites; geologic materials logs of eight test wells; water-quality data from two observation wells, two springs, and two river sites; and water level and temperature information for the observation wells and streams. (USGS)

  10. Increased Uptake of HCV Testing through a Community-Based Educational Intervention in Difficult-to-Reach People Who Inject Drugs: Results from the ANRS-AERLI Study

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Perrine; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Ndiaye, Khadim; Debrus, Marie; Protopopescu, Camélia; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Haas, Aurélie; Mora, Marion; Spire, Bruno; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Carrieri, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Aims The community-based AERLI intervention provided training and education to people who inject drugs (PWID) about HIV and HCV transmission risk reduction, with a focus on drug injecting practices, other injection-related complications, and access to HIV and HCV testing and care. We hypothesized that in such a population where HCV prevalence is very high and where few know their HCV serostatus, AERLI would lead to increased HCV testing. Methods The national multisite intervention study ANRS-AERLI consisted in assessing the impact of an injection-centered face-to-face educational session offered in volunteer harm reduction (HR) centers (“with intervention”) compared with standard HR centers (“without intervention”). The study included 271 PWID interviewed on three occasions: enrolment, 6 and 12 months. Participants in the intervention group received at least one face-to-face educational session during the first 6 months. Measurements The primary outcome of this analysis was reporting to have been tested for HCV during the previous 6 months. Statistical analyses used a two-step Heckman approach to account for bias arising from the non-randomized clustering design. This approach identified factors associated with HCV testing during the previous 6 months. Findings Of the 271 participants, 127 and 144 were enrolled in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Of the latter, 113 received at least one educational session. For the present analysis, we selected 114 and 88 participants eligible for HCV testing in the control and intervention groups, respectively. In the intervention group, 44% of participants reported having being tested for HCV during the previous 6 months at enrolment and 85% at 6 months or 12 months. In the control group, these percentages were 51% at enrolment and 78% at 12 months. Multivariable analyses showed that participants who received at least one educational session during follow-up were more likely to report HCV testing

  11. [Eosin Y-water test for sperm function examination].

    PubMed

    Zha, Shu-wei; Lü, Nian-qing; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation.

  12. Item Response Changes on Multiple-Choice Tests as a Function of Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy

    Item response changing as a function of test anxiety was investigated. Seventy graduate students enrolled in a basic statistics course completed 73 multiple-choice items on the course content and the Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). The TAS consisted of 25 items that students indicated were descriptive (true) or not descriptive (false) of themselves.…

  13. The Functional Task Test (FTT): An Interdisciplinary Testing Protocol to Investigate the Factors Underlying Changes in Astronaut Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Lawrence, E. L.; Arzeno, N. M.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts. S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Spiering, B. A.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to space flight causes adaptations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing protocol (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Functional tests include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers perform this integrated test protocol before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data are collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Preliminary results from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers indicate decrement in performance of the functional tasks after both short and long-duration space flight. On-going data collection continues to improve the statistical power required to map changes in functional task performance to alterations in physiological systems. The information obtained from this study will be used to design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

  14. Pretoria Centre Reaches Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    On 5 July 2014 six members of the Pretoria Centre of ASSA braved the light pollution of one of the shopping malls in Centurion to reach out to shoppers a la John Dobson and to show them the moon, Mars and Saturn. Although the centre hosts regular monthly public observing evenings, it was felt that we should take astronomy to the people rather than wait for the people to come to us.

  15. 20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC). The report shall also provide the FEV1/FVC ratio, expressed as a percentage. If the maximum voluntary ventilation... the results of the FEV1. (b) All pulmonary function test results submitted in connection with a...

  16. 20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC). The report shall also provide the FEV1/FVC ratio, expressed as a percentage. If the maximum voluntary ventilation... the results of the FEV1. (b) All pulmonary function test results submitted in connection with a...

  17. 20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC). The report shall also provide the FEV1/FVC ratio, expressed as a percentage. If the maximum voluntary ventilation... the results of the FEV1. (b) All pulmonary function test results submitted in connection with a...

  18. 20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC). The report shall also provide the FEV1/FVC ratio, expressed as a percentage. If the maximum voluntary ventilation... the results of the FEV1. (b) All pulmonary function test results submitted in connection with a...

  19. 20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC). The report shall also provide the FEV1/FVC ratio, expressed as a percentage. If the maximum voluntary ventilation... the results of the FEV1. (b) All pulmonary function test results submitted in connection with a...

  20. Frequency importance functions for a feature recognition test material.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, V; Studebaker, G A; Pavlovic, C V; Sherbecoe, R L

    1988-06-01

    The relative importance of different parts of the auditory spectrum to recognition of the Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) and its six speech feature subtests was determined. Three normal hearing subjects were tested twice in each of 70 experimental conditions. The analytical procedures of French and Steinberg [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 19, 90-119 (1947)] were applied to the data to derive frequency importance functions for each of the DRT subtests and the test as a whole over the frequency range 178-8912 Hz. For the DRT as a whole, the low frequencies were found to be more important than is the case for nonsense syllables. Importance functions for the feature subtests also differed from those for nonsense syllables and from each other as well. These results suggest that test materials loaded with different proportions of particular phonemes have different frequency importance functions. Comparison of the results with those from other studies suggests that importance functions depend to a degree on the available response options as well. PMID:3411027

  1. [The general practitioner and abnormal liver function tests].

    PubMed

    Hallez, R

    1997-09-01

    In case of abnormal liver function tests, it's necessary to distinguish different situations, starting from this first data. We will successively consider: the high and moderate acute increases of aminotransferase, the chronic increases of aminotransferase, the isolated cholestase picture and the isolated increases of gamma GT or of bilirubine. We will finish with a partial survey about drug-induced liver diseases.

  2. MUSCULOSKELETAL SCREENING AND FUNCTIONAL TESTING: CONSIDERATIONS FOR BASKETBALL ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Markwick, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Youth participation in basketball is on the rise, with basketball one of the top five participation sports in Australia. With increased participation there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of the pre-participation examination, including musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the risk for future injuries. As majority of all basketball injuries affect the lower extremities, pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing should assess fundamental movement qualities throughout the kinetic chain with an emphasis on lower extremity force characteristics, specifically eccentric loading tasks. Thus, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the existing literature elucidating pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance tests that can be used as a framework for rehabilitation professionals in assessing basketball athletes’ readiness to safely perform the movement demands of their sport. Methods Relevant articles published between 2000 and 2016 using the search terms ‘musculoskeletal screening’, ‘functional testing’, ‘youth athletes’, and ‘basketball’ were identified using MEDLINE. From a basketball-specific perspective, several relevant musculoskeletal assessments were identified, including: the Functional Hop Test Combination, the Landing Error Scoring System, the Tuck Jump Assessment, the Weight-Bearing Lunge Test, and the Star Excursion Balance Test. Each of these assessments creates movement demands that allow for easy identification of inefficient and/or compensatory movement tendencies. A basic understanding of musculoskeletal deficits including bilateral strength and flexibility imbalances, lower crossed syndrome, and dominance-related factors are key components in determination of injury risk. Discussion Assessment of sport-specific movement demands through

  3. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing.

    PubMed

    Ip, Ada; Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond; Bischak, Diane P; Davidson, Warren J; Flemons, W Ward; Pendharkar, Sachin R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15), with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment. PMID:27445545

  4. Behavioral tests of hippocampal function: simple paradigms complex problems.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R

    2001-11-01

    Behavioral tests have become important tools for the analysis of functional effects of induced mutations in transgenic mice. However, depending on the type of mutation and several experimental parameters, false positive or negative findings may be obtained. Given the fact that molecular neurobiologists now make increasing use of behavioral paradigms in their research, it is imperative to revisit such problems. In this review three tests, T-maze spontaneous alternation task (T-CAT), Context dependent fear conditioning (CDFC), and Morris water maze (MWM) sensitive to hippocampal function, serve as illustrative examples for the potential problems. Spontaneous alternation tests are sometimes flawed because the handling procedure makes the test dependent on fear rather than exploratory behavior leading to altered alternation rates independent of hippocampal function. CDFC can provide misleading results because the context test, assumed to be a configural task dependent on the hippocampus, may have a significant elemental, i.e. cued, component. MWM may pose problems if its visible platform task is disproportionately easier for the subjects to solve than the hidden platform task, if the order of administration of visible and hidden platform tasks is not counterbalanced, or if inappropriate parameters are measured. Without attempting to be exhaustive, this review discusses such experimental problems and gives examples on how to avoid them.

  5. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing.

    PubMed

    Ip, Ada; Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond; Bischak, Diane P; Davidson, Warren J; Flemons, W Ward; Pendharkar, Sachin R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15), with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment.

  6. The Importance of Functional Tests in Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Lerman, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent disease mainly in the Western society and becoming the leading cause of death worldwide. Standard methods by which healthcare providers screen for cardiovascular disease have only minimally reduced the burden of disease while exponentially increasing costs. As such, more specific and individualized methods for functionally assessing cardiovascular threats are needed to identify properly those at greatest risk, and appropriately treat these patients so as to avoid a fate such as heart attack, stroke, or death. Currently, endothelial function testing—in both the coronary and peripheral circulation—is well established as being associated with the disease process and future cardiovascular events. Improving such testing can lead to a reduction in the risk of future events. Combining this functional assessment of vascular fitness with other, more personalized, testing methods should serve to identify those at the greatest risk of cardiovascular disease earlier and subsequently reduce the affliction of such diseases worldwide. PMID:23908864

  7. Reach Out to Enhance Wellness Home-Based Diet-Exercise Intervention Promotes Reproducible and Sustainable Long-Term Improvements in Health Behaviors, Body Weight, and Physical Functioning in Older, Overweight/Obese Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Morey, Miriam C.; Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise C.; Miller, Paige E.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Cohen, Harvey J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Diet and exercise interventions have been tested in cancer survivors as a means to reduce late effects and comorbidity, but few have assessed adherence and health outcomes long term. Methods Between July 2005 and May 2007, the Reach Out to Enhance Wellness (RENEW) trial accrued 641 locoregionally staged, long-term (≥ 5 years from diagnosis) colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer survivors in the United States (21 states), Canada, and the United Kingdom. All participants were sedentary (< 150 minutes of physical activity [PA] a week), overweight or obese (body mass index, 25 to 40 kg/m2), and over age 65 years. The trial tested a diet-exercise intervention delivered via mailed print materials and telephone counseling. RENEW used a wait-list control, cross-over design (ie, participants received the year-long intervention immediately or after a 1-year delay), which allowed the opportunity to assess program efficacy (previously reported primary outcome), durability, and reproducibility (reported herein). Measures included diet quality (DQ), PA, BMI, and physical function (PF). Results No significant relapse was observed in the immediate-intervention arm for DQ, PA, and BMI; however, rates of functional decline increased when the intervention ceased. From year 1 to year 2, significant improvements were observed in the delayed-intervention arm; mean change scores in behaviors and BMI and PF slopes were as follows: DQ score, 5.2 (95% CI, 3.4 to 7.0); PA, 45.8 min/wk (95% CI, 26.9 to 64.6 min/wk); BMI, −0.56 (95% CI, −0.75 to −0.36); and Short Form-36 PF, −1.02 versus −5.52 (P < .001 for all measures). Overall, both arms experienced significant improvements in DQ, PA, and BMI from baseline to 2-year follow-up (P < .001). Conclusion Older cancer survivors respond favorably to lifestyle interventions and make durable changes in DQ and PA that contribute to sustained weight loss. These changes positively reorient functional decline trajectories during

  8. Multiple-Group Noncompensatory Differential Item Functioning in Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Wright, Keith; White, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Raju, van der Linden, and Fleer (1995) introduced a framework for differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) for unidimensional dichotomous models. Since then, DFIT has been shown to be a quite versatile framework as it can handle polytomous as well as multidimensional models both at the item and test levels. However, DFIT is still limited…

  9. Improvement of hand function using different surfaces and identification of difficult movement post stroke in the Box and Block Test.

    PubMed

    Slota, Gregory P; Enders, Leah R; Seo, Na Jin

    2014-07-01

    This study determined the impact of changing block surfaces on hand function, as well as identified particularly time-consuming movement components post stroke, measured by the Box and Block Test (BBT). Eight chronic stroke survivors and eight age- and gender-matched control subjects participated in this study. The BBT score (number of blocks moved) and time for seven movement components were compared for three different block surfaces (wood, paper, and rubber). The rubber blocks improved BBT scores 8% (compared to all other conditions) not only for control subjects but also for the paretic and non-paretic hands of stroke survivors, by reducing movement time for finger closing and contact-to-lift. Modifying daily objects' surfaces with rubber could help stroke survivors' hand function. The paretic hand displayed notably slower movement for contact-to-lift, transport-release, reach before barrier, and reach after barrier suggesting that therapies may focus on goal directed reaching and object grasping/releasing.

  10. Reaching the unreached.

    PubMed

    Ariyaratne, A T

    1989-01-01

    Embodied in the child survival revolution are ideological, methodological, and organizational innovations aimed at radical change in the condition of the world's children as rapidly as possible. In countries such as Sri Lanka, child survival and health for all by the year 2000 often seem to be impossible goals, given the tumultuous socioeconomic and political conditions. In Sri Lanka, the quality of life has been eroded, not enhanced, by the importation of Western technology and managerial capitalism and the destruction of indigenous processes. The chaos and violence that have been brought into the country have made it difficult to reach the poor children, women, and refugees in rural areas with primary health care interventions. Sri Lanka's unreachable--the decision making elites--have blocked access to the unreached--the urban and rural poor. If governments are to reach the unreached, they must remove the obstacles to a people-centered, community development process. It is the people themselves, and the institutions of their creation, that can reach the children amidst them in greatest need. To achieve this task, local communities must be provided with basic human rights, the power to make decisions that affect their lives, necessary resources, and appropriate technologies. Nongovernmental organizations can play a crucial role as bridges between the unreached and the unreachable by promoting community empowerment, aiding in the formation of networks of community organizations, and establishing linkages with government programs. If the ruling elites in developing countries can be persuaded to accommodate the needs and aspirations of those who, to date, have been excluded from the development process, the child survival revolution can be a nonviolent one.

  11. Progress in standardizing and harmonizing thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D; Miller, W Greg

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormone. Because thyroid hormone synthesis is affected by iodine deficiency on the one hand and by excess iodine intake on the other, thyroid function biomarkers may be useful for assessing iodine status and studying the effects of iodine supplementation. However, reference intervals for some of the most useful thyroid function biomarkers, including serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroglobulin, vary widely due to variability in the commercially available immunoassays for these tests. Recognizing the need for standardization of thyroid function testing, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine established a working group, later restructured as the Committee for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests, to examine its feasibility. The committee has established a conventional reference measurement procedure for FT4 and an approach to harmonization of results for TSH. Panels of single-donation human blood specimens that span the measuring interval of the immunoassays were used to assess the performance of commercially available immunoassays and form the basis for their recalibration. Recalibration of the manufacturers' methods for both FT4 and TSH has shown that the variability among immunoassays can be successfully eliminated for euthyroid individuals as well as for patients with thyroid disease. The committee is not investigating the standardization of thyroglobulin at the present time. PMID:27534642

  12. [Interventional neuroradiology. Drug treatment, monitoring and function tests].

    PubMed

    Laurent, A; Gobin, Y P; Launay, F; Aymard, A; Casasco, A; Merland, J J

    1994-04-23

    Specialized monitoring as well as function tests and drug therapy play an ever growing role in neuroradiological procedures. The particular route of administration and the territories involved in neuroradiology require special precautions. Anaesthesia must enable the operators to monitor the central nervous system since the patients must remain totally immobilized for several hours. Catheterization is made safe by careful asepsia and antibiotic prophylaxis and by preventing embolic events, particularly in neuro-cervico-facial interventions where an anticoagulant protocol is important. Arterial spasms can be prevented or cured with calcium inhibitors. The safety of the procedure itself is guaranteed by various function tests including sensitivity to ischaemia using anaesthetic barbiturates, controlled clampings or the lidocaine test. Undesirable effects of both emboli (e.g. toxicity of cyanoacrylate glue) and embolization (e.g. subsequent venous thrombosis) can be prevented by adapted anti-inflammatory drugs. Herein, we describe the routine monitoring conditions, drugs prescribed and function tests performed at the Therapeutic Angiography Department of the Lariboisière Hospital, Paris.

  13. Testing the link between functional diversity and ecosystem functioning in a Minnesota grassland experiment.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher M; Flynn, Dan F B; Butterfield, Bradley J; Reich, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    The functional diversity of a community can influence ecosystem functioning and reflects assembly processes. The large number of disparate metrics used to quantify functional diversity reflects the range of attributes underlying this concept, generally summarized as functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence. However, in practice, we know very little about which attributes drive which ecosystem functions, due to a lack of field-based tests. Here we test the association between eight leading functional diversity metrics (Rao's Q, FD, FDis, FEve, FDiv, convex hull volume, and species and functional group richness) that emphasize different attributes of functional diversity, plus 11 extensions of these existing metrics that incorporate heterogeneous species abundances and trait variation. We assess the relationships among these metrics and compare their performances for predicting three key ecosystem functions (above- and belowground biomass and light capture) within a long-term grassland biodiversity experiment. Many metrics were highly correlated, although unique information was captured in FEve, FDiv, and dendrogram-based measures (FD) that were adjusted by abundance. FD adjusted by abundance outperformed all other metrics in predicting both above- and belowground biomass, although several others also performed well (e.g. Rao's Q, FDis, FDiv). More generally, trait-based richness metrics and hybrid metrics incorporating multiple diversity attributes outperformed evenness metrics and single-attribute metrics, results that were not changed when combinations of metrics were explored. For light capture, species richness alone was the best predictor, suggesting that traits for canopy architecture would be necessary to improve predictions. Our study provides a comprehensive test linking different attributes of functional diversity with ecosystem function for a grassland system.

  14. Non-invasive pulmonary function test on Morquio Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kubaski, Francyne; Tomatsu, Shunji; Patel, Pravin; Shimada, Tsutomu; Xie, Li; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert; Mackenzie, William G.; Theroux, Mary; Bober, Michael B.; Oldham, Helen M.; Orii, Tadao; Shaffer, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, respiratory function tests are difficult to perform in Morquio syndrome patients due to their characteristic skeletal dysplasia, small body size and lack of cooperation of young patients, where in some cases, conventional spirometry for pulmonary function is too challenging. To establish feasible clinical pulmonary endpoints and determine whether age impacts lung function in Morquio patients non-invasive pulmonary tests and conventional spirometry were evaluated. The non-invasive pulmonary tests: impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography in conjunction with conventional spirometry were evaluated in twenty-two Morquio patients (18 Morquio A and 4 Morquio B) (7 males), ranging from 3 and 40 years of age. Twenty-two patients were compliant with non-invasive tests (100%) with exception of IOS (81.8%–18 patients). Seventeen patients (77.3%) were compliant with spirometry testing. All subjects had normal vital signs at rest including > 95% oxygen saturation, end tidal CO2 (38–44 mmHg), and age-appropriate heart rate (mean=98.3, standard deviation=19) (two patients were deviated). All patients preserved normal values in impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography, although predicted forced expiratory volume total (72.8 ± 6.9 SE%) decreased with age and was below normal; phase angle (35.5 ± 16.5 Degrees), %Rib Cage (41.6 ± 12.7%), resonant frequency, and forced expiratory volume in one second/forced expiratory volume total (110.0 ± 3.2 SE%) were normal and not significantly impacted by age. The proposed non-invasive pulmonary function tests are able to cover a greater number of patients (young patients and/or wheel-chair bound), thus providing a new diagnostic approach for the assessment of lung function in Morquio syndrome which in many cases may be difficult to evaluate. Morquio patients studied herein demonstrated no clinical or functional signs

  15. Non-invasive pulmonary function test on Morquio patients.

    PubMed

    Kubaski, Francyne; Tomatsu, Shunji; Patel, Pravin; Shimada, Tsutomu; Xie, Li; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary; Bober, Michael B; Oldham, Helen M; Orii, Tadao; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2015-08-01

    In clinical practice, respiratory function tests are difficult to perform in Morquio syndrome patients due to their characteristic skeletal dysplasia, small body size and lack of cooperation of young patients, where in some cases, conventional spirometry for pulmonary function is too challenging. To establish feasible clinical pulmonary endpoints and determine whether age impacts lung function in Morquio patients non-invasive pulmonary tests and conventional spirometry were evaluated. The non-invasive pulmonary tests: impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography in conjunction with conventional spirometry were evaluated in twenty-two Morquio patients (18 Morquio A and 4 Morquio B) (7 males), ranging from 3 to 40 years of age. Twenty-two patients were compliant with non-invasive tests (100%) with the exception of IOS (81.8%-18 patients). Seventeen patients (77.3%) were compliant with spirometry testing. All subjects had normal vital signs at rest including >95% oxygen saturation, end tidal CO2 (38-44 mmHg), and age-appropriate heart rate (mean=98.3, standard deviation=19) (two patients were deviated). All patients preserved normal values in the impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography, although predicted forced expiratory total (72.8±6.9 SE%) decreased with age and was below normal; phase angle (35.5±16.5°), %rib cage (41.6±12.7%), resonant frequency, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced expiratory volume total (110.0±3.2 SE%) were normal and not significantly impacted by age. The proposed non-invasive pulmonary function tests are able to cover a greater number of patients (young patients and/or wheel-chair bound), thus providing a new diagnostic approach for the assessment of lung function in Morquio syndrome which in many cases may be difficult to evaluate. Morquio patients studied herein demonstrated no clinical or functional signs of restrictive and

  16. [The prognostic value of liver function tests--clinical aspects, laboratory chemical parameters and quantitative function tests].

    PubMed

    Wahlländer, A; Beuers, U

    1990-05-01

    In view of increasing therapeutic possibilities interest focuses on prognosis of liver cirrhosis. Until nowadays studies on prognosis revealed significant importance only for some parameters: Ascites, encephalopathy and portal hypertension as signs of decompensation, bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin time as laboratory indices of decreasing liver function. The commonly used Child-Pugh-score is based on these parameters and allows a reasonable classification of diseased patients. Cholestasis and inflammation seem to be of minor prognostic importance. Assessment of liver function by quantitative tests is desirable (e.g. aminopyrine breath test, bile acids). The prognostic value, however, has not yet been proven in large studies. Use of these tests should therefore be restricted to studies (prognosis, therapy, indication to liver transplantation).

  17. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2008-01-01

    Microgravity-induced physiological changes, including cardiovascular deconditioning may impair crewmembers f capabilities during exploration missions on the Moon and Mars. The Functional Task Test (FTT), which will be used to assess task performance in short and long duration astronauts, consists of 7 functional tests to evaluate crewmembers f ability to perform activities to be conducted in a partial-gravity environment or following an emergency landing on Earth. The Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST) tests both the subject fs ability to get up from a prone position and orthostatic intolerance. PURPOSE: Crewmembers have never become presyncopal in the first 3 min of quiet stand, yet it is unknown whether 3 min is long enough to cause similar heart rate fluctuations to a 5-min stand. The purpose of this study was to validate and test the reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3-min quiet stand. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5-min of standing to assess HRV, 7 healthy subjects remained in a prone position for 2 min, stood up quickly and stood quietly for 6 min. ECG and continuous blood pressure data were recorded. Mean R-R interval and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the complete FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3-min stand test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. RESULTS: Spectral HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not different (p>0.05) during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segment (mean R-R interval: 738+/-74 ms, 728+/-69 ms; low frequency to high frequency ratio: 6.5+/-2.2, 7.7+/-2.7; normalized high frequency: 0.19+/-0.03, 0.18+/-0.04). The average coefficient of variation for mean R-R interval, systolic and diastolic blood pressures

  18. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign-Research Steps, Development and Testing.

    PubMed

    Tobey, Lauren N; Koenig, Harold F; Brown, Nicole A; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%-100%) with 1-2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August-October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement. PMID:27649233

  19. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign-Research Steps, Development and Testing.

    PubMed

    Tobey, Lauren N; Koenig, Harold F; Brown, Nicole A; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-09-13

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%-100%) with 1-2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August-October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  20. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    PubMed Central

    Tobey, Lauren N.; Koenig, Harold F.; Brown, Nicole A.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100%) with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement. PMID:27649233

  1. Dynamic testing in the evaluation of male gonadal function.

    PubMed

    De Martino, M U; Pastore, R; Caprio, M; Frajese, G; Fabbri, A

    2003-01-01

    The maturation and physiologic functions of male sexual apparatus are under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The determination of gonadotropins and testosterone as secretory products of pituitary and gonads, respectively, represents the first step in the evaluation of male sexual function and the diagnosis of disorders in male reproductive axis. However, there are several clinical situations that require a dynamic evaluation of this system and the measurement of basal gonadotropins and testosterone must be combined with specific dynamic tests. These mainly consist in GnRH stimulation, which evaluates the endocrine reserve capacity of the pituitary, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation, which is used in the assessment of Leydig cells activity. The paper illustrates the technical aspects, the normal/pathological responses and the role of these two tests in assessing the male HPG axis in respect to different clinical diagnostic queries.

  2. Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions - Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ralph, Mark E.; Ellis, Abraham; Broderick, Robert Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, when deployed in a large scale, are capable of influencing significantly the operation of power systems. Looking to the future, stakeholders are working on standards to make it possible to manage the potentially complex interactions between DER and the power system. In 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) initiated a large industry collaborative to identify and standardize definitions for a set of DER grid support functions. While the initial effort concentrated on grid-tied PV inverters and energy storage systems, the concepts have applicability to all DER. A partial product of this on-going effort is a reference definitions document (IEC TR 61850-90-7, Object models for power converters in distributed energy resources (DER) systems) that has become a basis for expansion of related International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and is supported by US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). Some industry-led organizations advancing communications protocols have also embraced this work. As standards continue to evolve, it is necessary to develop test protocols to independently verify that the inverters are properly executing the advanced functions. Interoperability is assured by establishing common definitions for the functions and a method to test compliance with operational requirements. This document describes test protocols developed by SNL to evaluate the electrical performance and operational capabilities of PV inverters and energy storage, as described in IEC TR 61850-90-7. While many of these functions are not now required by existing grid codes or may not be widely available commercially, the industry is rapidly moving in that direction. Interoperability issues are already apparent as

  3. Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions – Main Document

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ralph, Mark E.; Ellis, Abraham; Broderick, Robert Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, when deployed in a large scale, are capable of influencing significantly the operation of power systems. Looking to the future, stakeholders are working on standards to make it possible to manage the potentially complex interactions between DER and the power system. In 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) initiated a large industry collaborative to identify and standardize definitions for a set of DER grid support functions. While the initial effort concentrated on grid-tied PV inverters and energy storage systems, the concepts have applicability to all DER. A partial product of this on-going effort is a reference definitions document (IEC TR 61850-90-7, Object models for power converters in distributed energy resources (DER) systems) that has become a basis for expansion of related International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and is supported by US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). Some industry-led organizations advancing communications protocols have also embraced this work. As standards continue to evolve, it is necessary to develop test protocols to independently verify that the inverters are properly executing the advanced functions. Interoperability is assured by establishing common definitions for the functions and a method to test compliance with operational requirements. This document describes test protocols developed by SNL to evaluate the electrical performance and operational capabilities of PV inverters and energy storage, as described in IEC TR 61850-90-7. While many of these functions are not currently required by existing grid codes or may not be widely available commercially, the industry is rapidly moving in that direction. Interoperability issues are already

  4. Alterations in cardiovascular autonomic function tests in idiopathic hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    De Marinis, Milena; Colaizzo, Elisa; Petrelli, Rosa Anna Nives; Santilli, Valter

    2012-04-01

    We performed cardiovascular autonomic function tests to assess sympathetic and parasympathetic functions in patients with idiopathic hyperhidrosis. We studied 35 patients with idiopathic hyperhidrosis and 35 age- and sex-matched controls. A thermoregulatory sweat test (TST) was performed in all subjects. Sweating was qualitatively (Minor's test at 22°C) and quantitatively (skin conductance) evaluated. Orthostatism, tilt to 65°, cold pressor test, deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver and hyperventilation were performed in patients and controls. A greater fall in blood pressure values was observed in patients than in controls in the upright tests (p<0.05). In particular, postural hypotension was present in a subgroup of patients (34%), in whom changes in lying-to-standing blood pressure and heart rate were greater (p<0.001) than those of the remaining patients. The TST revealed that the total body sweat rate (ml/cm(2)/min) was more pronounced in patients with postural hypotension (p<0.001) than in the other patients and controls. The skin conductance values of patients with postural hypotension were higher (p<0.001) than those of the remaining patients. A positive correlation was found between skin conductance values and postural hypotension. Dehydration and poor water intake may play a role in postural hypotension in patients with severe hyperhidrosis and pronounced thermoregulatory sweating. A significantly marked increase in parasympathetic function was observed in patients. Responses to deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver and hyperventilation were significantly greater in patients (p<0.001) than in controls. Idiopathic hyperhidrosis seems to be a complex dysfunction that involves autonomic pathways other than those related to sweating.

  5. Optimization of a parallel permutation testing function for the SPRINT R package.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Savvas; Sloan, Terence M; Mewissen, Muriel; Forster, Thorsten; Piotrowski, Michal; Dobrzelecki, Bartosz; Ghazal, Peter; Trew, Arthur; Hill, Jon

    2011-12-10

    The statistical language R and its Bioconductor package are favoured by many biostatisticians for processing microarray data. The amount of data produced by some analyses has reached the limits of many common bioinformatics computing infrastructures. High Performance Computing systems offer a solution to this issue. The Simple Parallel R Interface (SPRINT) is a package that provides biostatisticians with easy access to High Performance Computing systems and allows the addition of parallelized functions to R. Previous work has established that the SPRINT implementation of an R permutation testing function has close to optimal scaling on up to 512 processors on a supercomputer. Access to supercomputers, however, is not always possible, and so the work presented here compares the performance of the SPRINT implementation on a supercomputer with benchmarks on a range of platforms including cloud resources and a common desktop machine with multiprocessing capabilities. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23335858

  6. Lung function tests in clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Puente Maestú, Luis; García de Pedro, Julia

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we review the utility of the most common lung function tests (spirometry, reversibility test, peak expiratory flow, lung volumes, maximal respiratory pressure, carbon monoxide transference, arterial blood gas, 6-minute walk test and desaturation with exercise and ergospirometry) related to the most frequent pathologies (dyspnea of undetermined origin, chronic cough, asthma, COPD, neuromuscular diseases, interstitial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, pre-operative evaluation and disability evaluation). Our analysis has been developed from the perspective of decision-making, clinical interpretation or aspects that the physician should take into account with their use. Consequently, the paper does not deal with aspects of quality, technique or equipment, with the exception of when regarding costs as we believe that this is an important element in the decision-making process. The document is extensively supported by references from the literature.

  7. Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the calibration of reach distance by gradually distorting the haptic feedback obtained when participants grasped visible target objects. The authors found that the modified relationship between visually specified distance and reach distance could be captured by a straight-line mapping function. Thus, the relation could be…

  8. Reaching Beyond The Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.

    2014-01-01

    Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

  9. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters during NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity exposure causes physiological deconditioning and impairs crewmember task performance. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in a series of operationally-relevant tasks. One of these, the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST), tests both the ability to recover from a prone position and cardiovascular responses to orthostasis. PURPOSE: Three minutes were chosen for the duration of this test, yet it is unknown if this is long enough to induce cardiovascular responses similar to the operational 5 min stand test. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3 min stand and to examine the effect of spaceflight on these measures. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5 min of standing to assess HRV, ECG was collected from 7 healthy subjects who participated in a 6 min RFST. Mean R-R interval (RR) and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3 min stand. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. One crewmember completed the FTT before a 14-day mission, on landing day (R+0) and one (R+1) day after returning to Earth. RESULTS VALIDITY: HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not significantly different during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segments. RELIABILITY: The average coefficient of variation for RR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures during the RFST were less than 8% for the 3 sessions. ANOVA results yielded a greater inter-subject variability (p<0.006) than inter-session variability (p>0.05) for HRV in the RFST. SPACEFLIGHT: Lower RR and higher SBP were observed on R+0 in rest and stand. On R+1

  10. Development of additional tasks for the executive function performance test.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Bridget; Baum, Carolyn; Moore, Jennifer; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Spoeri, Susan; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) is a reliable and valid performance-based assessment of executive function for people with stroke. The objective of this study was to enhance the clinical utility of the EFPT by developing and testing additional tasks for the EFPT in the Alternate EFPT (aEFPT). METHOD. We performed a cross-sectional study with poststroke participants (n = 25) and healthy control participants (n = 25). All participants completed a neuropsychological assessment battery and both the EFPT and the aEFPT. RESULTS. No statistically significant differences were found between the EFPT and the aEFPT when examining total scores, construct scores, and two overall task scores. Correlations between the aEFPT and the neuropsychological measures were adequate to strong (r2s = .59-.83). CONCLUSION. The aEFPT tasks are comparable to the original EFPT tasks, providing occupational therapy practitioners with additional tasks that can be used clinically to identify performance-based executive function deficits in people with stroke. PMID:25397771

  11. Functional redundancy as a tool for bioassessment: A test using riparian vegetation.

    PubMed

    Bruno, D; Gutiérrez-Cánovas, C; Velasco, J; Sánchez-Fernández, D

    2016-10-01

    There is an urgent need to track how natural systems are responding to global change in order to better guide management efforts. Traditionally, taxonomically based metrics have been used as indicators of ecosystem integrity and conservation status. However, functional approaches offer promising advantages that can improve bioassessment performance. In this study, we aim to test the applicability of functional redundancy (FR), a functional feature related to the stability, resistance and resilience of ecosystems, as a tool for bioassessment, looking at woody riparian communities in particular. We used linear mixed-effect models to investigate the response of FR and other traditional biomonitoring indices to natural (drought duration) and anthropogenic stress gradients (flow regulation and agriculture) in a Mediterranean basin. Such indices include species richness, a taxonomic index, and the Riparian Quality Index, which is an index of ecological status. Then, we explored the ability of FR and the other indices to discriminate between different intensities of human alteration. FR showed higher explanatory capacity in response to multiple stressors, although we found significant negative relationships between all the biological indices (taxonomic, functional and ecological quality) and stress gradients. In addition, FR was the most accurate index to discriminate among different categories of human alteration in both perennial and intermittent river reaches, which allowed us to set threshold values to identify undisturbed (reference condition), moderately disturbed and highly disturbed reaches in the two types of river. Using these thresholds and the best-fitting model, we generated a map of human impact on the functional redundancy of riparian communities for all the stretches of the river network. Our results demonstrate that FR presents clear advantages over traditional methods, which suggests that it should be part of the biomonitoring toolbox used for

  12. Functional redundancy as a tool for bioassessment: A test using riparian vegetation.

    PubMed

    Bruno, D; Gutiérrez-Cánovas, C; Velasco, J; Sánchez-Fernández, D

    2016-10-01

    There is an urgent need to track how natural systems are responding to global change in order to better guide management efforts. Traditionally, taxonomically based metrics have been used as indicators of ecosystem integrity and conservation status. However, functional approaches offer promising advantages that can improve bioassessment performance. In this study, we aim to test the applicability of functional redundancy (FR), a functional feature related to the stability, resistance and resilience of ecosystems, as a tool for bioassessment, looking at woody riparian communities in particular. We used linear mixed-effect models to investigate the response of FR and other traditional biomonitoring indices to natural (drought duration) and anthropogenic stress gradients (flow regulation and agriculture) in a Mediterranean basin. Such indices include species richness, a taxonomic index, and the Riparian Quality Index, which is an index of ecological status. Then, we explored the ability of FR and the other indices to discriminate between different intensities of human alteration. FR showed higher explanatory capacity in response to multiple stressors, although we found significant negative relationships between all the biological indices (taxonomic, functional and ecological quality) and stress gradients. In addition, FR was the most accurate index to discriminate among different categories of human alteration in both perennial and intermittent river reaches, which allowed us to set threshold values to identify undisturbed (reference condition), moderately disturbed and highly disturbed reaches in the two types of river. Using these thresholds and the best-fitting model, we generated a map of human impact on the functional redundancy of riparian communities for all the stretches of the river network. Our results demonstrate that FR presents clear advantages over traditional methods, which suggests that it should be part of the biomonitoring toolbox used for

  13. Test-specific control conditions for functional analyses.

    PubMed

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Querim, Angie C; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Most functional analyses of problem behavior include a common condition (play or noncontingent reinforcement) as a control for both positive and negative reinforcement. However, test-specific conditions that control for each potential source of reinforcement may be beneficial occasionally. We compared responding during alone, ignore, play, and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) control conditions for individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by positive or negative reinforcement. Results showed that all of the conditions were effective controls for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement; however, the DRO condition was consistently ineffective as a control for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Implications for the design of functional analyses and future research are discussed.

  14. Executive Function in Preschool Children: Test-Retest Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Danielle M.; Schaefer, Catherine; Pang, Karen; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that executive function (EF) may distinguish between children who are well- or ill-prepared for kindergarten, however, little is known about the test-retest reliability of measures of EF for children. We aimed to establish a battery of EF measures that are sensitive to both development and individual differences across the preschool period using Conflict and Delay subtests that had a cool (abstract) or hot (extrinsic reward) focus. Results from 151 children in three age groups (2.5, 3.5, and 4.5) suggested acceptable same-day test-retest reliability on all but Delay-Cool subtasks. These findings will inform appropriate measurement selection and development for future studies. PMID:21643523

  15. Neural coordination during reach-to-grasp.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Mukta; Kording, Konrad; Saleh, Maryam; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G

    2015-09-01

    When reaching to grasp, we coordinate how we preshape the hand with how we move it. To ask how motor cortical neurons participate in this coordination, we examined the interactions between reach- and grasp-related neuronal ensembles while monkeys reached to grasp a variety of different objects in different locations. By describing the dynamics of these two ensembles as trajectories in a low-dimensional state space, we examined their coupling in time. We found evidence for temporal compensation across many different reach-to-grasp conditions such that if one neural trajectory led in time the other tended to catch up, reducing the asynchrony between the trajectories. Granger causality revealed bidirectional interactions between reach and grasp neural trajectories beyond that which could be attributed to the joint kinematics that were consistently stronger in the grasp-to-reach direction. Characterizing cortical coordination dynamics provides a new framework for understanding the functional interactions between neural populations.

  16. TRL - A FORMAL TEST REPRESENTATION LANGUAGE AND TOOL FOR FUNCTIONAL TEST DESIGNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A Formal Test Representation Language and Tool for Functional Test Designs (TRL) is an automatic tool and a formal language that is used to implement the Category-Partition Method and produce the specification of test cases in the testing phase of software development. The Category-Partition Method is particularly useful in defining the inputs, outputs and purpose of the test design phase and combines the benefits of choosing normal cases with error exposing properties. Traceability can be maintained quite easily by creating a test design for each objective in the test plan. The effort to transform the test cases into procedures is simplified by using an automatic tool to create the cases based on the test design. The method allows the rapid elimination of undesired test cases from consideration, and easy review of test designs by peer groups. The first step in the category-partition method is functional decomposition, in which the specification and/or requirements are decomposed into functional units that can be tested independently. A secondary purpose of this step is to identify the parameters that affect the behavior of the system for each functional unit. The second step, category analysis, carries the work done in the previous step further by determining the properties or sub-properties of the parameters that would make the system behave in different ways. The designer should analyze the requirements to determine the features or categories of each parameter and how the system may behave if the category were to vary its value. If the parameter undergoing refinement is a data-item, then categories of this data-item may be any of its attributes, such as type, size, value, units, frequency of change, or source. After all the categories for the parameters of the functional unit have been determined, the next step is to partition each category's range space into mutually exclusive values that the category can assume. In choosing partition values, all possible kinds

  17. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that "there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies" to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only

  18. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that "there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies" to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only

  19. Validation of a Computerized test of Functional Capacity.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Richard S E; Davis, Vicki G; Atkins, Alexandra S; Vaughan, Adam; Patterson, Tom; Narasimhan, Meera; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory guidance for schizophrenia cognition clinical trials requires that the assessment of cognitive change is accompanied by a functionally meaningful endpoint. However, currently available measures are challenged by resistance to change, psychometric weaknesses, and for interview-based assessments, dependence upon the presence of an informant. The aims of the current study were to: 1) assess the validity, sensitivity, and reliability of the Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) as a measure of functional capacity; 2) determine the association between performance on the VRFCAT and performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB); and 3) compare the metrics of the VRFCAT with the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA). 167 patients with schizophrenia and 166 healthy controls completed the VRFCAT, UPSA, and the MCCB at baseline. The VRFCAT and UPSA were completed again at follow-up. The VRFCAT, MCCB, and UPSA were very sensitive to impairment in schizophrenia (d=1.16 to 1.22). High test-retest reliability was demonstrated for VRFCAT total completion time and the UPSA total score in patients (ICC=0.81 and 0.78, respectively). The UPSA demonstrated significant practice effects in patients (d=0.35), while the VRFCAT did not (d=-0.04). VRFCAT total completion time was correlated with both UPSA (r=-0.56, p<0.0001 for patients and -0.58, p<0.0001 for controls) and MCCB Composite (r=-0.57, p<0.0001 for patients and -0.68, p<0.0001 for controls). The VRFCAT is a highly reliable and sensitive measure of functional capacity with associations to the UPSA and MCCB. These results provide encouraging support for a computerized functional capacity assessment for use in schizophrenia.

  20. An expert system for synoptic interpretation of lung function tests.

    PubMed

    Heise, D; Kroker, P; Mailänder, A

    1990-01-01

    We simulate the interpretation process by the testing of preformed working hypotheses. A clinical syndrome, "bronchial obstruction," is described by a set of suitable parameters (FEV1, MMEF, Raw, etc.). For a given patient, this set forms a normalized vector. It has to be compared with equivalent data derived from patients which fulfilled the criteria for the clinical syndrome in question. If the patient's vector has a similar direction as the vector of the collective, the working hypothesis is accepted. The length of the vector is then used to quantify the severity of the functional disturbances in verbal terms ("slight," "moderate," "severe"). The limits used for severity grading and the typical parameter pattern for the given syndrome are adapted to the user's criteria by a built-in learning capability. On the other hand, the assembled data may be used for the training of newcomers. The use of vector algorithms allows for a high flexibility of our program with respect to all methods used in lung function testing. PMID:2117121

  1. An expert system for synoptic interpretation of lung function tests.

    PubMed

    Heise, D; Kroker, P; Mailänder, A

    1990-01-01

    We simulate the interpretation process by the testing of preformed working hypotheses. A clinical syndrome, "bronchial obstruction," is described by a set of suitable parameters (FEV1, MMEF, Raw, etc.). For a given patient, this set forms a normalized vector. It has to be compared with equivalent data derived from patients which fulfilled the criteria for the clinical syndrome in question. If the patient's vector has a similar direction as the vector of the collective, the working hypothesis is accepted. The length of the vector is then used to quantify the severity of the functional disturbances in verbal terms ("slight," "moderate," "severe"). The limits used for severity grading and the typical parameter pattern for the given syndrome are adapted to the user's criteria by a built-in learning capability. On the other hand, the assembled data may be used for the training of newcomers. The use of vector algorithms allows for a high flexibility of our program with respect to all methods used in lung function testing.

  2. Infection control in the pulmonary function test laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Rasam, Shweta Amol; Apte, Komalkirti Keshavkiran; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing plays a crucial role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with lung diseases. Cases of cross infection acquired from the pulmonary function laboratory, although rare, have been reported from various countries. It is therefore imperative to identify the risks and potential organisms implicated in cross infections in a pulmonary function test (PFT) laboratory and implement better and more effective infection control procedures, which will help in preventing cross infections. The infrastructure, the daily patient flow, and the prevalent disinfection techniques used in a PFT laboratory, all play a significant role in transmission of infections. Simple measures to tackle the cross infection potential in a PFT laboratory can help reduce this risk to a bare minimum. Use of specialized techniques and equipment can also be of much use in a set up that has a high turnover of patients. This review aims at creating awareness about the possible pathogens and situations commonly encountered in a PFT laboratory. We have attempted to suggest some relevant and useful infection control measures with regard to disinfection, sterilization, and patient planning and segregation to help minimize the risk of cross infections in a PFT laboratory. The review also highlights the lacuna in the current scenario of PFT laboratories in India and the need to develop newer and better methods of infection control, which will be more user-friendly and cost effective. Further studies to study the possible pathogens in a PFT laboratory and evaluate the prevalent infection control strategies will be needed to enable us to draw more precious conclusions, which can lead to more relevant, contextual recommendations for cross infections control in PFT lab in India. PMID:26180386

  3. Spatial weighting functions: transient hydraulic tests and heterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Molz, Fred J; Guan, Jianyong; Wang, Jinjun

    2005-01-01

    To improve understanding of property measurements in heterogeneous media, an energy-based weighting function concept is developed. In (assumed) homogeneous media, the instrument spatial weighting function (ISWF) depends only on the energy dissipation distribution set up by the measurement procedure and it reduces to simply inverse sample volume (uniform weighting) for 1-D parallel flow case (ideal permeameter). For 1-D transient flow in homogeneous media, such as with slug tests, the ISWF varies with position and time, with 95% of the total weighting contained within 115 well radii, even late in the test. In the heterogeneous case, the determination of the ISWF is connected to the problem of determining an equivalent hydraulic conductivity (K), where the criterion for equivalence is based on equal energy dissipation rate rather than equal volume discharge. The discharge-based equivalent K (K(E)) and the energy-based equivalent K in heterogeneous media (K(eh)) are not equal in general, with K(eh) typically above the nodal arithmetic mean K. The possibly more fundamental problem is that as one makes K measurements in heterogeneous media at different locations or on different cores of heterogeneous materials, the ISWF will be heterogeneity dependent, implying that the averaging process resulting in the equivalent K value also varies with position. If the testing procedure is transient, then the averaging process varies with time. This suggests a fundamental ambiguity in the interpretation of hydraulic conductivity measurements in heterogeneous media that may impact how we approach modeling and prediction in a practical sense (Molz 2003). Further research is suggested.

  4. Testing galaxy formation models with galaxy stellar mass functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. H.; Mo, H. J.; Lan, Ting-Wen; Ménard, Brice

    2016-10-01

    We compare predictions of a number of empirical models and numerical simulations of galaxy formation to the conditional stellar mass functions (CSMF) of galaxies in groups of different masses obtained recently by Lan et al. to test how well different models accommodate the data. The observational data clearly prefer a model in which star formation in low-mass halos changes behavior at a characteristic redshift zc ˜ 2. There is also tentative evidence that this characteristic redshift depends on environment, becoming zc ˜ 4 in regions that eventually evolve into rich clusters of galaxies. The constrained model is used to understand how galaxies form and evolve in dark matter halos, and to make predictions for other statistical properties of the galaxy population, such as the stellar mass functions of galaxies at high z, the star formation and stellar mass assembly histories in dark matter halos. A comparison of our model predictions with those of other empirical models shows that different models can make vastly different predictions, even though all of them are tuned to match the observed stellar mass functions of galaxies.

  5. Olfactory functioning in early multiple sclerosis: Sniffin’ Sticks Test study

    PubMed Central

    Batur Caglayan, Hale Z; Irkec, Ceyla; Nazliel, Bijen; Akyol Gurses, Aslı; Capraz, Irem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that olfactory functioning is affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). This study assessed the level of the olfactory impairment in early MS by using the Sniffin’ Sticks Test. Methods This study included 30 patients with MS and 30 healthy controls. We collected demographic and clinical data from participants and administered the Sniffin’ Sticks Test. Results We found no differences between the MS and control groups in odor discrimination, odor identification, and threshold discrimination identification scores, but odor threshold (OT) scores were higher in the control group than in the MS group (P=0.49). In addition, we did not find any correlation between MS patients’ olfactory test scores and their scores on the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), disease duration, history of optic neuritis, or being on immunomodulatory therapy. Conclusion In recent studies, odor threshold impairment seemed to be the most striking finding in patients with MS. Although the present study found a mild alteration in odor threshold, olfactory dysfunction appears to be a consequence of neurodegeneration in the higher order olfactory brain regions, which is thought to be a time-dependent process.

  6. Evaluation of pulmonary function tests by using fuzzy logic theory.

    PubMed

    Uncü, Umit

    2010-06-01

    Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) are very important in the medical evaluation of patients suffering from "shortness of breath", and they are effectively used for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, such as COPD (i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases). Measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Flow in the 1st second (FEV1) are very important for controlling the treatment of COPD. During PFTs, some difficulties are encountered which complicate the comparison of produced graphs with the standards. These mainly include the reluctance of the patients to co-operate and the physicians' weaknesses to make healthy interpretations. Main tools of the diagnostic process are the symptoms, laboratory tests or measurements and the medical history of the patient. However, quite frequently, most of the medical information obtained from the patient is uncertain, exaggerated or ignored, incomplete or inconsistent. Fuzziness encountered during PFT is very important. In this study, the purpose is to use "fuzzy logic" approach to facilitate reliable and fast interpretation of PFT graphical outputs. A comparison is made between this approach and methodologies adopted in previous studies. Mathematical models and their coefficients for the spirometric plots are introduced as fuzzy numbers. Firstly, a set of rules for categorizing coefficients of mathematical models obtained. Then, a fuzzy rule-base for a medical inference engine is constructed and a diagnostic "expert system COPDes" designed. This program, COPDes helps for diagnosing the degree of COPD for the patient under test.

  7. Olfactory functioning in early multiple sclerosis: Sniffin’ Sticks Test study

    PubMed Central

    Batur Caglayan, Hale Z; Irkec, Ceyla; Nazliel, Bijen; Akyol Gurses, Aslı; Capraz, Irem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that olfactory functioning is affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). This study assessed the level of the olfactory impairment in early MS by using the Sniffin’ Sticks Test. Methods This study included 30 patients with MS and 30 healthy controls. We collected demographic and clinical data from participants and administered the Sniffin’ Sticks Test. Results We found no differences between the MS and control groups in odor discrimination, odor identification, and threshold discrimination identification scores, but odor threshold (OT) scores were higher in the control group than in the MS group (P=0.49). In addition, we did not find any correlation between MS patients’ olfactory test scores and their scores on the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), disease duration, history of optic neuritis, or being on immunomodulatory therapy. Conclusion In recent studies, odor threshold impairment seemed to be the most striking finding in patients with MS. Although the present study found a mild alteration in odor threshold, olfactory dysfunction appears to be a consequence of neurodegeneration in the higher order olfactory brain regions, which is thought to be a time-dependent process. PMID:27621629

  8. Oncolytic virotherapy reaches adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hammill, Adrienne M; Conner, Joseph; Cripe, Timothy P

    2010-12-15

    Lytic viruses kill cells as a consequence of their normal replication life cycle. The idea of harnessing viruses to kill cancer cells arose over a century ago, before viruses were even discovered, from medical case reports of infections associated with cancer remissions. Since then, there has been no shortage of hype, hope, or fear regarding the prospect of oncolytic virotherapy for cancer. Early developments in the field included encouraging antitumor efficacy both in animal studies in the 1920s-1940s and in human clinical trials in the 1950s-1970s. Despite its long-standing history, oncolytic virotherapy was an idea ahead of its time. Without needed advances in molecular biology, virology, immunology, and clinical research ethics, early clinical trials resulted in infectious complications and were fraught with controversial research conduct, so that enthusiasm in the medical community waned. Oncolytic virotherapy is now experiencing a major growth spurt, having sustained numerous laboratory advances and undergone multiple encouraging adult clinical trials, and is now witnessing the emergence of pediatric trials. Here we review the history and salient biology of the field, including preclinical and clinical data, with a special emphasis on those agents now being tested in pediatric cancer patients. PMID:20734404

  9. A NEW CLINICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION TEST FOR ASSESSMENT OF HIP EXTERNAL ROTATION STRENGTH: AUGUSTSSON STRENGTH TEST

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non–athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test. Methods Fifty–three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test–retest reliability. Results No significant test–retest differences were observed. Intra–class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93–0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76–4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156). Conclusions The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip

  10. Linking transient storage parameters to exchange mechanisms and reach characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morén, Ida; Wörman, Anders; Riml, Joakim

    2015-04-01

    A traditional way of investigating transient storage zones in streams and rivers comprises the performance of tracer tests. The information gained from the tests however, is in many ways limited by the geomorphological and hydraulic local conditions under which the test was performed. Consequently, there is a need for more general information about how reach characteristics and combined exchange mechanisms affect transient storage retention that can be expressed by scaling factors between physical, measurable parameters and the integrated total retention in a reach. A large number of tracer tests have been performed in a wide variety of reaches around the world and in this project we are taking advantage of already collected data as well as new tracer test performed within the study, to quantitatively evaluate how different geomorphic and hydraulic conditions affect the retention of solutes in rivers. By advancing existing physically based models on the local-scale with the combinations of exchange mechanisms we theoretically describe the relative magnitude of exchange mechanisms, and combinations of these, under specific hydraulic conditions and show how exchange parameters associated with different mechanisms are correlated physically. Both hyporheic transient storage zones (HTS) and surface transient storage zones (STS) are considered. Combined vertical exchange with the HTS can be evaluated by superimposing the velocity fields associated with stream features of different size described mathematically by harmonic functions, while exchange with other zones can be treated as independent and after evaluating the relative importance of the associated exchange parameters it can be added to the vertical exchange to obtain the total integrated retention. Based on the tracer tests, each tested reach is characterised in terms of its geomorphologic and hydraulic features and related statistically to reach-scale parameters evaluated from the tests with a longitudinal

  11. A comparison of visual function tests in eyes with maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Fish, G E; Birch, D G; Fuller, D G; Straach, R

    1986-09-01

    Several recently developed tests of visual function, including the Potential Acuity Meter (PAM), laser interferometer (LI), white-light interferometer (WLI), blue field entoptic phenomenon, and focal electroretinogram (ERG) were compared in 81 eyes with clear media and known macular disease. The results indicate that the PAM, the LI, and the WLI overread relative to Snellen acuity. Laser interferometric acuity values differed from Snellen acuity by at least 1.5 octaves in approximately 40% of all eyes, regardless of stimulus size (2, 5, or 8 degrees). Similar results were obtained with the WLI. Agreement with Snellen acuity was better for the PAM, with 91% of eyes falling within 1.5 octaves of Snellen acuity. Blue field and focal ERG results were categorized as normal or abnormal. While not producing Snellen equivalents, abnormal results from the blue field and focal ERG corresponded with poor Snellen acuity (less than 20/40) in 65% and 91% of eyes, respectively. Assuming that media opacities do not prevent adequate retinal stimulation, the present results suggest that the PAM and focal ERG are the most reliable for evaluating macular function when maculopathy is present.

  12. Above-Level Test Item Functioning across Examinee Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; Doty, Kristine J.; Malbica, Anne Marie; Angeles, Victor R.; Innes, Scott; Hall, Jared; Masterson-Nixon, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    "Above-level testing" (also called "above-grade testing," "out-of-level testing," and "off-level testing") is the practice of administering to a child a test that is designed for an examinee population that is older or in a more advanced grade. Above-level testing is frequently used to help educators design…

  13. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): MIST Facility Functional Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, T F; Koksal, C G; Moskal, T E; Rush, G C; Gloudemans, J R

    1991-04-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST Functional Specification documents as-built design features, dimensions, instrumentation, and test approach. It also presents the scaling basis for the facility and serves to define the scope of work for the facility design and construction. 13 refs., 112 figs., 38 tabs.

  14. Cosmological tests with the FSRQ gamma-ray luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Houdun; Melia, Fulvio; Zhang, Li

    2016-11-01

    The extensive catalogue of gamma-ray selected flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) produced by Fermi during a four-year survey has generated considerable interest in determining their gamma-ray luminosity function (GLF) and its evolution with cosmic time. In this paper, we introduce the novel idea of using this extensive database to test the differential volume expansion rate predicted by two specific models, the concordance Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and Rh = ct cosmologies. For this purpose, we use two well-studied formulations of the GLF, one based on pure luminosity evolution (PLE) and the other on a luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE). Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on one-parameter cumulative distributions (in luminosity, redshift, photon index and source count), we confirm the results of earlier works showing that these data somewhat favour LDDE over PLE; we show that this is the case for both ΛCDM and Rh = ct. Regardless of which GLF one chooses, however, we also show that model selection tools very strongly favour Rh = ct over ΛCDM. We suggest that such population studies, though featuring a strong evolution in redshift, may none the less be used as a valuable independent check of other model comparisons based solely on geometric considerations.

  15. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Two Aerogel sorption tests that have been performed this fiscal year. The maximum iodine decontamination factor (DF) was measured to be over 10,000, above the 1,000-10,000 target DF range. The mass transfer zone may be as short as 0.5 inches under the sorption conditions of the first test. Only a small fraction of the iodine sorbed on Bed 1 was desorbed during the purge periods. The silver-functionalized Aerogel appears to have potential to be a very effective and efficient iodine sorbent.

  16. The Database for Reaching Experiments and Models

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ben; Kording, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc.) from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by) multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM). DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis. PMID:24244351

  17. Vestibular Function Tests for Vestibular Migraine: Clinical Implication of Video Head Impulse and Caloric Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Woo Seok; Lee, Sang Hun; Yang, Chan Joo; Ahn, Joong Ho; Chung, Jong Woo; Park, Hong Ju

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM) is one of the most common causes of episodic vertigo. We reviewed the results of multiple vestibular function tests in a cohort of VM patients who were diagnosed with VM according to the diagnostic criteria of the Barany Society and the International Headache Society and assessed the efficacy of each for predicting the prognosis in VM patients. A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 81 VM patients at a tertiary care center from June 2014 to July 2015. Patients were assessed by the video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric test, vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), and sensory organization test (SOT) at the initial visit and then evaluated for symptomatic improvement after 6 months. Complete response (CR) was defined as no need for continued medication, partial response (PR) as improved symptoms but need for continued medication, and no response (NR) as no symptomatic improvement and requiring increased dosage or change in medications. At the initial evaluation, 9 of 81 patients (11%) exhibited abnormal vHIT results, 14 of 73 (19%) exhibited abnormal caloric test results, 25 of 65 (38%) exhibited abnormal SOT results, 8 of 75 (11%) exhibited abnormal cervical VEMP results, and 20 of 75 (27%) exhibited abnormal ocular VEMP results. Six months later, 63 of 81 patients (78%) no longer required medication (CR), while 18 (22%) still required medication, including 7 PR and 11 NR patients. Abnormal vHIT gain and abnormal caloric results were significantly related to the necessity for continued medication at 6-month follow-up (OR = 5.67 and 4.36, respectively). Abnormal vHIT and caloric test results revealed semicircular canal dysfunction in VM patients and predicted prolonged preventive medication requirement. These results suggest that peripheral vestibular abnormalities are closely related to the development of vertigo in VM patients. PMID:27746761

  18. Reach preparation enhances visual performance and appearance.

    PubMed

    Rolfs, Martin; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-10-19

    We investigated the impact of the preparation of reach movements on visual perception by simultaneously quantifying both an objective measure of visual sensitivity and the subjective experience of apparent contrast. Using a two-by-two alternative forced choice task, observers compared the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the contrast (higher or lower) of a Standard Gabor and a Test Gabor, the latter of which was presented during reach preparation, at the reach target location or the opposite location. Discrimination performance was better overall at the reach target than at the opposite location. Perceived contrast increased continuously at the target relative to the opposite location during reach preparation, that is, after the onset of the cue indicating the reach target. The finding that performance and appearance do not evolve in parallel during reach preparation points to a distinction with saccade preparation, for which we have shown previously there is a parallel temporal evolution of performance and appearance. Yet akin to saccade preparation, this study reveals that overall reach preparation enhances both visual performance and appearance.

  19. ROC and Loss Function Analysis in Sequential Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Van Luijk, Scheltus J.; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Sequential testing is applied to reduce costs in SP-based tests (OSCEs). Initially, all candidates take a screening test consisting of a part of the OSCE. Candidates who fail the screen sit the complete test, whereas those who pass the screen are qualified as a pass of the complete test. The procedure may result in a reduction of testing…

  20. Measurement of global functional performance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using rheumatology function tests.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Agustín; Haas, Roy W; del Rincón, Inmaculada

    2004-01-01

    Outcome assessment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes measurement of physical function. We derived a scale to quantify global physical function in RA, using three performance-based rheumatology function tests (RFTs). We measured grip strength, walking velocity, and shirt button speed in consecutive RA patients attending scheduled appointments at six rheumatology clinics, repeating these measurements after a median interval of 1 year. We extracted the underlying latent variable using principal component factor analysis. We used the Bayesian information criterion to assess the global physical function scale's cross-sectional fit to criterion standards. The criteria were joint tenderness, swelling, and deformity, pain, physical disability, current work status, and vital status at 6 years after study enrolment. We computed Guyatt's responsiveness statistic for improvement according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition. Baseline functional performance data were available for 777 patients, and follow-up data were available for 681. Mean +/- standard deviation for each RFT at baseline were: grip strength, 14 +/- 10 kg; walking velocity, 194 +/- 82 ft/min; and shirt button speed, 7.1 +/- 3.8 buttons/min. Grip strength and walking velocity departed significantly from normality. The three RFTs loaded strongly on a single factor that explained >or=70% of their combined variance. We rescaled the factor to vary from 0 to 100. Its mean +/- standard deviation was 41 +/- 20, with a normal distribution. The new global scale had a stronger fit than the primary RFT to most of the criterion standards. It correlated more strongly with physical disability at follow-up and was more responsive to improvement defined according to the ACR20 and ACR50 definitions. We conclude that a performance-based physical function scale extracted from three RFTs has acceptable distributional and measurement properties and is responsive to clinically meaningful change

  1. Measurement of global functional performance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using rheumatology function tests

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Agustín; Haas, Roy W; del Rincón, Inmaculada

    2004-01-01

    Outcome assessment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes measurement of physical function. We derived a scale to quantify global physical function in RA, using three performance-based rheumatology function tests (RFTs). We measured grip strength, walking velocity, and shirt button speed in consecutive RA patients attending scheduled appointments at six rheumatology clinics, repeating these measurements after a median interval of 1 year. We extracted the underlying latent variable using principal component factor analysis. We used the Bayesian information criterion to assess the global physical function scale's cross-sectional fit to criterion standards. The criteria were joint tenderness, swelling, and deformity, pain, physical disability, current work status, and vital status at 6 years after study enrolment. We computed Guyatt's responsiveness statistic for improvement according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition. Baseline functional performance data were available for 777 patients, and follow-up data were available for 681. Mean ± standard deviation for each RFT at baseline were: grip strength, 14 ± 10 kg; walking velocity, 194 ± 82 ft/min; and shirt button speed, 7.1 ± 3.8 buttons/min. Grip strength and walking velocity departed significantly from normality. The three RFTs loaded strongly on a single factor that explained ≥70% of their combined variance. We rescaled the factor to vary from 0 to 100. Its mean ± standard deviation was 41 ± 20, with a normal distribution. The new global scale had a stronger fit than the primary RFT to most of the criterion standards. It correlated more strongly with physical disability at follow-up and was more responsive to improvement defined according to the ACR20 and ACR50 definitions. We conclude that a performance-based physical function scale extracted from three RFTs has acceptable distributional and measurement properties and is responsive to clinically meaningful change. It

  2. Timed Sollerman hand function test for analysis of hand function in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Singh, H P; Dias, J J; Thompson, J R

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the development and application of the timed Sollerman hand function test in normal volunteers and the effect of age, gender, dominance and handedness on hand function. A total of 100 volunteers (50 men and 50 women) aged between 20 to 70 years were asked to complete the Sollerman hand function test. We measured the time taken to complete the 20 tasks using seven grips. Volunteers completed the tasks a mean of 20 seconds quicker with the dominant than with the nondominant hand. Individuals who are strongly right-handed showed a pronounced difference taking less time with the dominant hand. Women took less time to complete all tasks in age groups 30 to 40 years, than women in age groups 20 to 30 years and beyond 40 years using the dominant hand. Men also showed worsening performance with age. The centile curves of the total time taken to complete all 20 Sollerman tasks between the ages of 20 to 70 years will allow investigators to adjust their findings for age before attributing observed differences to disease or its treatment.

  3. Transient changes in thyroid functions tests after zoledronic acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Karga, Helen; Giagourta, Irene; Papaioannou, Garyphallia; Katsichti, Paraskevi; Pardalakis, Argyris; Kassi, Georgia; Zagoreou, Apostolia; Triantaphyllopoulou, Maria; Zerva, Cherry

    2011-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) induces an acute phase response in association with elevation of serum cytokines, which possibly alter the 3 types of iodothyronine deiodinase activity. We therefore studied the possible alteration in thyroid function tests by ZA. We investigated the acute changes in serum thyroid hormones, TSH, cortisol, white blood cells, CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), before (0) and 1, 2 and 3 days after iv infusion of 5 mg ZA in 24 asymptomatic postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (ZA group) in comparison with a placebo group. In the majority of patients the ZA infusion was associated with acute phase response and fever within 24h after infusion which became attenuated on day three. Concurrently with increase in serum cortisol, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α, on day 1 and 2, total serum T3 (TT3), free T3 (fT3), total T4 (TT4) and fT4 decreased with a nadir on day 2 in association with an increase in the fT4/fT3 ratio and reverse T3 (rT3) levels. All thyroid function changes returned to the baseline levels on day 3, with cytokines still at higher levels, although lower than those on day 2. Serum TSH remained essentially unchanged throughout the study. The changes in thyroid hormones were at least in part explained by the increased TNF-α, but not by IL-6. ZA induces short term changes in thyroid hormones, characteristic of nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), in association with an increase in TNF-α and IL-6.

  4. Assessment of platelet function in healthy sedated cats using three whole blood platelet function tests.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kimberly K; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Wood, R Darren; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Kirby, Gordon M; Blois, Shauna L

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish feline references intervals for 3 commercial whole blood platelet function test analyzer systems: Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PF: Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX). Venipuncture was performed on 55 healthy sedated cats, and platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen (COL), and arachidonic acid (AA; MP only) was assessed using citrated blood. For the MP analyzer, median (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) area under curve (Units) for ADP, COL, and AA agonists were 87 (11-176), 81 (32-129), and 91 (59-129), respectively. For the PF analyzer, median (95% CIs) closure time, using COL-ADP cartridges, was 69 (46-89) sec. For the PW assay, median (95% CIs) percent aggregations for ADP and COL agonists were 71 (18-92) and 49 (9-96), respectively, using impedance hematology analyzer platelet counts, and 94 (25-98) and 68 (14-119), respectively, using flow cytometry hematology analyzer platelet counts. There were low correlations between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and MP analyzer (COL agonist; ρ = 0.11), and between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and PW assay (COL agonist using impedance platelet counts; ρ = 0.14). The PW assay percent aggregations using impedance and flow cytometric platelet counts were correlated for both ADP (ρ = 0.64) and COL (ρ = 0.64) agonists. Platelet function testing using these tests are feasible in cats, but 95% CIs are wide, so single results may be difficult to interpret. Platelet counting by impedance or flow cytometry may be used for the PW assay but are not interchangeable.

  5. Pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Olympia; Moran, Carla; Halsall, David; Chatterjee, Krishna; Gurnell, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are amongst the most commonly requested laboratory investigations in both primary and secondary care. Fortunately, most TFTs are straightforward to interpret and confirm the clinical impression of euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. However, in an important subgroup of patients the results of TFTs can seem confusing, either by virtue of being discordant with the clinical picture or because they appear incongruent with each other [e.g. raised thyroid hormones (TH), but with non-suppressed thyrotropin (TSH); raised TSH, but with normal TH]. In such cases, it is important first to revisit the clinical context, and to consider potential confounding factors, including alterations in normal physiology (e.g. pregnancy), intercurrent (non-thyroidal) illness, and medication usage (e.g. thyroxine, amiodarone, heparin). Once these have been excluded, laboratory artefacts in commonly used TSH or TH immunoassays should be screened for, thus avoiding unnecessary further investigation and/or treatment in cases where there is assay interference. In the remainder, consideration should be given to screening for rare genetic and acquired disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis [e.g. resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), thyrotropinoma (TSHoma)]. Here, we discuss the main pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of TFTs, and propose a structured algorithm for the investigation and management of patients with anomalous/discordant TFTs. PMID:24275187

  6. Evaluation of strategy for testing thyroid function applied to hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Corns, C M; Miller, A L

    1986-01-01

    A strategy for testing thyroid function with discretionary assay of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) following initial measurement of total plasma thyroxine (tT4) was retrospectively evaluated in relation to the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Over a two year period 14 641 tT4 assays were done and 6887 TSH assays, of which 29% were initiated in the laboratory. The percentage of raised TSH values (over 5 mU/1) was similar to those for clinician and pathologist initiated requests (23.2% and 23.6%). Some TSH requests (1620) were cancelled; when 212 of these were subsequently analysed the TSH value was raised in 5.7% The incidence of raised TSH values in 188 patients with a tT4 below 100 nmol/1 (7.8 micrograms/100 ml), in whom TSH was not requested, was 5.3% Most of these raised TSH results could be readily explained by information available to the requesting clinician but not given on the request form. PMID:3082940

  7. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Bishawi, Muath; Kim, Bong; Moore, William H.; Bilfinger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and

  8. Functional imaging of an alcohol-Implicit Association Test (IAT)

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; He, Qinghua; Stacy, Alan W.; Wong, Savio W.; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Gui; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This research assessed activation in neural substrates involved in implicit associative processes through the imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) of an alcohol-Implicit Association Test (IAT) focused on positive outcomes of alcohol use. Comparisons involved 17 heavy and 19 light drinkers, ranging in age from 18 to 22, during compatible and incompatible association task trials. Behaviorally, a significant IAT effect was found with heavy drinkers showing stronger positive implicit associations toward alcohol use than light drinkers. Imaging data revealed heavy drinkers showed greater activity during compatible trials relative to incompatible trials in the left putamen and insula while no significant difference in activity between conditions was found in the light drinkers. Light drinkers showed significantly more activity in the left orbital frontal cortex during both compatible and incompatible trials than heavy drinkers, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was engaged more in both light and heavy drinkers during incompatible trials relative to compatible trials. Further, within-group analyses showed significant amygdala activity along with the putamen and insula among heavy drinkers during compatible trials relative to incompatible trials. These results are consistent with a dual process framework of appetitive behaviors proposing that (1) implicit associations underlying habit are mediated through neural circuitry dependent on the striatum, and (2) controlled behaviors are mediated through neural circuitry more dependent on the prefrontal cortex. This is the first study to evaluate the neural mechanisms elicited by an alcohol-IAT, providing an additional step toward increasing understanding of associative habit processes and their regulatory influence over addictive behaviors. PMID:23822813

  9. Compensatory arm reaching strategies after stroke: Induced position analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Waller, Sandy McCombe; Kepple, Tom; Whitall, Jill

    2013-01-01

    After stroke, movement patterns of the upper limb (UL) during functional arm reaching change to accommodate altered constraints. These compensatory movement control strategies do not, however, have a one-to-one mapping with posttraining outcomes. In this study, we quantify arm movement control strategies in unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks using induced position analysis. In addition, we assess how those strategies are associated with UL residual impairments and with functional improvement after a specific bilateral arm training intervention. Twelve individuals with chronic stroke were measured while reaching to a box as part of their pre- and posttesting assessments. Other measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Assessment (FM), Modified Wolf Motor Function Test (WT), and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (UMAQS). We identified arm control strategies that did not differ between unilateral and bilateral tasks but did differ by FM impairment level and by predicted gains in WT but not UMAQS. Increased shoulder relative to elbow moment contribution was associated with less impairment and greater gains of speed in functional tasks. These results suggest that one goal of training to achieve better outcomes may be to decrease the abnormal coupling of the shoulder and elbow. PMID:23516085

  10. Acquiescence as a Function of Test Type and Subject Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krenz, Claudia; Sax, Gilbert

    1987-01-01

    Either positive or negative test instructions and two item types (attitude or personality) were administered to undergraduates. Students were more likely to respond true when receiving positive instructions. Students receiving attitude test instructions were not more likely to respond true than students receiving personality test instructions.…

  11. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  12. Development of the EpiOcular(TM) eye irritation test for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals in response to the requirements of the EU cosmetics directive and REACH legislation.

    PubMed

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Hayden, Patrick; Kubilus, Joseph; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2011-09-01

    The recently implemented 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH legislation have heightened the need for in vitro ocular test methods. To address this need, the EpiOcular(TM) eye irritation test (EpiOcular-EIT), which utilises the normal (non-transformed) human cell-based EpiOcular tissue model, has been developed. The EpiOcular-EIT prediction model is based on an initial training set of 39 liquid and 21 solid test substances and uses a single exposure period and a single cut-off in tissue viability, as determined by the MTT assay. A chemical is classified as an irritant (GHS Category 1 or 2), if the tissue viability is ≤ 60%, and as a non-irritant (GHS unclassified), if the viability is > 60%. EpiOcular-EIT results for the training set, along with results for an additional 52 substances, which included a range of alcohols, hydrocarbons, amines, esters, and ketones, discriminated between ocular irritants and non-irritants with 98.1% sensitivity, 72.9% specificity, and 84.8% accuracy. To ensure the long-term commercial viability of the assay, EpiOcular tissues produced by using three alternative cell culture inserts were evaluated in the EpiOcular-EIT with 94 chemicals. The assay results obtained with the initial insert and the three alternative inserts were very similar, as judged by correlation coefficients (r²) that ranged from 0.82 to 0.96. The EpiOcular-EIT was pre-validated in 2007/2008, and is currently involved in a formal, multi-laboratory validation study sponsored by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) under the auspices of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The EpiOcular-EIT, together with EpiOcular's long history of reproducibility and proven utility for ultra-mildness testing, make EpiOcular a useful model for addressing current legislation related to animal use in the testing of potential ocular irritants.

  13. Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Morris, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    Nambury S. Raju (1937-2005) developed two model-based indices for differential item functioning (DIF) during his prolific career in psychometrics. Both methods, Raju's area measures (Raju, 1988) and Raju's DFIT (Raju, van der Linden, & Fleer, 1995), are based on quantifying the gap between item characteristic functions (ICFs). This approach…

  14. Testing versus Functional Approaches in Determining Reading Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The testing and measurement movement has certainly become important in United States education. Test scores are looked upon as being quite valuable in ascertaining student achievement, especially in the reading curriculum. Percentiles, standard deviations, stanine scores, and other indicators are given to show objectively how well the reading…

  15. Testing and Functions of the J2X Gas Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The Ares I, NASA s new solid rocket based crew launch vehicle, is a two stage in line rocket that has made its waytothe forefront of NASA s endeavors. The Ares I s Upper Stage (US) will be propelled by a J-2X engine which is fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The J-2X is a variation based on two of its predecessor s, the J-2 and J-2S engines. ET50 is providing the design support for hardware required to run tests on the J-2X Gas Generator (GG) that increases the delivery pressure of the supplied combustion fuels that the engine burns. The test area will be running a series of tests using different lengths and curved segments of pipe and different sized nozzles to determine the configuration that best satisfies the thrust, heat, and stability requirements for the engine. I have had to research the configurations that are being tested and gain an understanding of the purpose of the tests. I then had to research the parts that would be used in the test configurations. I was taken to see parts similar to the ones used in the test configurations and was allowed to review drawings and dimensions used for those parts. My job over this summer has been to use the knowledge I have gained to design, model, and create drawings for the un-fabricated parts that are necessary for the J-2X Workhorse Gas Generator Phase IIcTest.

  16. Increases in Test Scores as a Function of Material Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuinman, J. Jaap; And Others

    From the entire population (N=341) of grades 7 and 8 in a rural Indiana junior high school, 160 subjects were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and the control groups. Form A of the Nelson Reading Test was administered twice with a 4-week interval. While the control group was told only that the post-test was given to measure how…

  17. Reaching ignition in the tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-06-01

    This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project. (MOW)

  18. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... switching functions interconnecting with other parts of the system; and (4) A check for correct reading at... simulated input signals of ppm, flow rate, and speed are varied; (3) A check that the alarm is...

  19. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    SciTech Connect

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  20. Simple functional performance tests and mortality in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Puhan, Milo A.; Siebeling, Lara; Zoller, Marco; Muggensturm, Patrick; ter Riet, Gerben

    2013-01-01

    Exercise tests are important to characterise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and predict their prognosis, but are often not available outside of rehabilitation or research settings. Our aim was to assess the predictive performance of the sit-to-stand and handgrip strength tests. The prospective cohort study in Dutch and Swiss primary care settings included a broad spectrum of patients (n=409) with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages II to IV. To assess the association of the tests with outcomes, we used Cox proportional hazards (mortality), negative binomial (centrally adjudicated exacerbations) and mixed linear regression models (longitudinal health-related quality of life) while adjusting for age, sex and severity of disease. The sit-to-stand test was strongly (adjusted hazard ratio per five more repetitions of 0.58, 95% CI 0.40–0.85; p=0.004) and the handgrip strength test moderately strongly (0.84, 95% CI 0.72–1.00; p=0.04) associated with mortality. Both tests were also significantly associated with health-related quality of life but not with exacerbations. The sit-to-stand test alone was a stronger predictor of 2-year mortality (area under curve 0.78) than body mass index (0.52), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (0.61), dyspnoea (0.63) and handgrip strength (0.62). The sit-to-stand test may close an important gap in the evaluation of exercise capacity and prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients across practice settings. PMID:23520321

  1. Performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test predicts functional turnout angle in pre-pubescent female dancers.

    PubMed

    Filipa, Alyson R; Smith, Teresa R; Paterno, Mark V; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a predictive relationship between performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and functional turnout angle (FTA) in prepubescent female dancers. Ten dance students, ages 5 to 9 years (mean: 7.3 years), were recruited for this study. The SEBT required the subject to reach in the anterior, posterior-medial, and posteriorlateral directions with her free-limb foot while standing on the reference limb. A composite reach score was determined by calculating the sum of distance reached in the three directions and normalizing to leg length. The FTA was assessed in first position by measuring the angle of bisection between the second and third metatarsals and the midpoint of the calcaneus. Linear regression was used to determine if there was a predictive relationship between performance on the SEBT and FTA in this cohort. The subjects demonstrated a mean FTA of 90.3° ± 17.7°. Composite reach on the dominant limb normalized to leg length (81.4 ± 11.1%) during the SEBT was a significant predictor of FTA (r(2) = 0.49, p = 0.02), while performance on the non-dominant limb (81.9 ± 10.8%) indicated a trend toward a predictive association (r(2) = 0.35, p = 0.07). A decreased composite reach score was predictive of decreased FTA. These measurements may serve as an important screening tool for identifying dancers at risk for lower extremity injury.

  2. An Effect Size Measure for Raju's Differential Functioning for Items and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Keith D.; Oshima, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study established an effect size measure for differential functioning for items and tests' noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF). The Mantel-Haenszel parameter served as the benchmark for developing NCDIF's effect size measure for reporting moderate and large differential item functioning in test items. The effect size of…

  3. 75 FR 50853 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing. Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR 21.35(b)(2), the following... Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... ``Vision'' Jet. The SF50 is a low- wing, five-plus-two-place (2 children), single-engine...

  4. 75 FR 29962 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... SF50 airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR part 21.35(b)(2... Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... low-wing, five-plus-two-place (2 children), single-engine turbofan- powered aircraft. It...

  5. The Impact of Variability of Item Parameter Estimators on Test Information Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming

    2012-01-01

    The impact of uncertainty about item parameters on test information functions is investigated. The information function of a test is one of the most important tools in item response theory (IRT). Inaccuracy in the estimation of test information can have substantial consequences on data analyses based on IRT. In this article, the major part (called…

  6. Testing for Cognitive Function in Animals in a Regulatory Context

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to dominate a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because peo...

  7. Differential Item Functioning Amplification and Cancellation in a Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Han; Dayton, C. Mitchell; Hendrickson, Amy B.

    2009-01-01

    When testlet effects and item idiosyncratic features are both considered to be the reasons of DIF in educational tests using testlets (Wainer & Kiely, 1987) or item bundles (Rosenbaum, 1988), it is interesting to investigate the phenomena of DIF amplification and cancellation due to the interactive effects of these two factors. This research…

  8. A new guide for commissioning air handling systems: Using a model functional test

    SciTech Connect

    Haasl, Tudi; Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann; Bourassa, Norman; Gillespie, Ken

    2002-05-01

    Functional tests are a set of detailed instructions for building commissioning that demand extensive HVAC system knowledge to write and perform. Understanding the energy use implications and theory behind the test procedures, estimating the costs and benefits of doing a particular test, implementing the tests correctly, and resolving problems require years of field experience. As part of a large research project now underway, a practical guide is being developed that communicates this knowledge. This paper presents the components and intended use of the Functional Testing Guide and Model Functional Test for Air Handling Systems. A series of model functional tests, starting at the outdoor air intake section and proceeding through the air handling unit, distribution system, and terminal equipment and ending at the exhaust air discharge point, are provided for many commonly installed air handling system configurations. The model functional tests contain advice for tailoring the test procedures to specific system configurations, desirable and undesirable testing outcomes, a calculation appendix, references to other resources, and examples of completed test forms. The guide is an educational resource, with background information that clarifies the principles behind testing configurations and results. The functional tests have been selected from an extensive commissioning test protocol library compiled by Pacific Gas and Electric in 2001. The guide also includes a design guideline for the selection of control and monitoring points and a design intent documentation form.

  9. The Video Head Impulse Test in a Case of Suspected Bilateral Loss of Vestibular Function

    PubMed Central

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira; Cusin, Flavia Salvaterra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A patient who had no symptoms suggestive of bilateral loss of vestibular function presented no responses in rotational and caloric tests. Objectives To demonstrate the importance of the video head impulse test in neuro-otologic diagnosis. Resumed Report This patient had a neuro-otologic evaluation and presented no responses in torsion swing tests, caloric tests, and rotational tests in a Bárány chair. The video head impulse test elicited responses in four of the six semicircular canals. Conclusion Absent responses in caloric and rotatory tests alone are not sufficient to diagnose bilateral loss of vestibular function. PMID:26722351

  10. Definition et mesure des fonctions langagieres (The Definition and Testing of Language Functions)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savard, Jean-Guy

    1978-01-01

    Defining course objectives and testing these objectives are inseparable components of the education process. The development of a model using eleven language functions as the basis for testing communication in a second language is described. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  11. Reaching the "iBored"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauleke, Debra S.; Herrmann, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, they are always looking for creative ways to engage their students. They start the school year determined to bring to the classroom creative projects that generate student interest and foster critical thinking skills. Reaching today's Gen M student is challenging and changing the way they teach. The idea of using music to teach…

  12. Reaching All Students with Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Gilbert, Ed.; Driscoll, Mark, Ed.

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" reflect the belief that all students can learn a significant core of high-quality mathematics. Recognizing the magnitude of the task of reaching all students, this book was put together…

  13. Schools Reaching Out: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heleen, Owen

    1990-01-01

    Introduces an issue devoted to the Schools Reaching Out projects at David A. Ellis School in Roxbury (MA) and Adolph S. Ochs School in New York City. Projects attempt to link the schools with parents and their communities to promote the students' academic and social success. (DM)

  14. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality, model validation, and technology readiness.

    SciTech Connect

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Blecke, Jill; Baker, Michael Sean; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Mitchell, John Anthony; Brake, Matthew Robert; Epp, David S.; Wittwer, Jonathan W.

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes the functional, model validation, and technology readiness testing of the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor in FY08. Functional testing of a large number of revision 4 parts showed robust and consistent performance. Model validation testing helped tune the models to match data well and identified several areas for future investigation related to high frequency sensitivity and thermal effects. Finally, technology readiness testing demonstrated the integrated elements of the sensor under realistic environments.

  15. [Changes in lung function testing associated with obesity].

    PubMed

    Carpio, Carlos; Santiago, Ana; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo

    2014-11-01

    Excess bodyweight has an important impact on the physiology of breathing. In fact, it affects resting lung volumes and exercise capacity. These effects appear as a consequence of ventilatory and inflammatory changes commonly associated to obesity. As a result, obese individuals have a rapid and shallow pattern of breathing, their respiratory compliance is reduced and the airway resistance tends to be higher. However, with respect to aerobic capacity, contradictory results have been reported depending on the way peak oxygen uptake is expressed. Moreover, the inability of this population to achieve maximal efforts during exercise testing also affects their cardiorespiratory fitness.

  16. Effect of yoga on pulmonary function tests of hypothyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Swami, Gaurav; Singh, Savita; Singh, K P; Gupta, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to see any effect on respiratory functions in hypothyroid patients after pranayama (yoga). The subjects for the study were 20 hypothyroid females, 39.70 +/- 8.27 years of mean age referred from medicine department of UCMS & G.T.B. Hospital. Spiro metric recordings were taken with hypair (version-1.28). Baseline (first) recordings were taken when patient came for the first time. Patients came to yoga lab in physiology department for 21 days continuously where they were trained by the yoga instructors and then told to do pranayama at home and called at regular intervals after 7 days to see the compliance. The breathing exercises were done for 45 minutes everyday. After 6 months of pranayama second recording was taken and compared with the baseline. There were significant improvement in forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and Inspiratory Capacity(IC). Thus Pranayama and meditation has beneficial effect on pulmonary functions of hypothyroid patients along with conventional treatment.

  17. A Test in Context: Neprilysin: Function, Inhibition, and Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Barallat, Jaume; Richards, A Mark

    2016-08-01

    Neprilysin is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase. It is ubiquitous in distribution and promiscuous in function, with >50 putative peptide substrates with varying levels of in vitro and/or in vivo evidence of functional relevance. In the first part of this review, we discuss the genetic, structural, substrate, and pathophysiological aspects of neprilysin. We incorporate information provided by genetically modified models, as well as pre-clinical and clinical data from investigations of synthetic neprilysin inhibitors. We next highlight the value of neprilysin as a biotarget and weigh the clinical benefits of synthetic neprilysin inhibitors, either alone or in combination with antagonists of the renin-angiotensin system. Finally, we provide evidence about soluble neprilysin as a biomarker surrogate in patients with heart failure and identify important gaps that require further research before soluble neprilysin is used clinically. In sum, neprilysin is a versatile, veteran player returning yet again to center stage after an eventful career spanning >40 years. PMID:27491909

  18. W Lepton Charge Asymmetry - Test of Structure Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qun

    1996-05-01

    The lepton charge asymmetry as a function of lepton rapidity |y_l| has been measured at √s=1.8 TeV, using the W decays to electrons and muons recorded by the CDF detector during the 1992-93 run (≈ 20 pb-1 of integrated luminosity), and the 1994-95 run (≈ 90 pb-1). The asymmetry is sensitive to the ratio of the d to u quark momentum distributions in the proton. The measurement probes the quark distributions to x<0.01 at Q^2 ≈ M_W^2, where nonperturbative effects are minimal. These precise data provide discrimination between sets of modern parton distributions. It is found that the most recent parton distributions, which included the 1992-93 W asymmetry data in their fits (MRSA and CTEQ3M) are in better agreement with the more precise data from the 1994-95 run.

  19. W-charge asymmetry at CDF, tests of structure functions

    SciTech Connect

    Budd, H.S.

    1994-09-01

    The charge asymmetry of W-bosons produced in p{bar p} collisions has been measured using 19,039 W {yields} e{nu} and W {yields} {mu}{nu} decays recorded by the CDF detector during the 1992-93 Tevatron collider run. The asymmetry is sensitive to the slope of the proton`s d/u quark distribution ratio down to x < 0.01 at Q{sup 2} {approx} M{sub W}{sup 2}, where nonperturbative QCD effects are minimal. Of recent parton distribution functions, those of Martin, Roberts and Stirling are favored over those of the CTEQ collaboration. This difference is seen even though both sets agree, at the level of the nuclear shadowing corrections, with the recent NMC measurements of F{sub 2}{sup {mu}n}/F{sub 2}{sup {mu}p}.

  20. W-charge asymmetry at CDF, tests of structure functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budd, H. S.

    1994-09-01

    The charge asymmetry of W-bosons produced in p(bar p) collisions has been measured using 19,039 W (yields) e(nu) and W (yields) (mu)(nu) decays recorded by the CDF detector during the 1992-93 Tevatron collider run. The asymmetry is sensitive to the slope of the proton's d/u quark distribution ratio down to x less than 0.01 at Q(sup 2) (approx) M(sub W, sup 2), where nonperturbative QCD effects are minimal. Of recent parton distribution functions, those of Martin, Roberts and Stirling are favored over those of the CTEQ collaboration. This difference is seen even though both sets agree, at the level of the nuclear shadowing corrections, with the recent NMC measurements of F(sub 2, sup (mu)n)/F(sub 2, sup (mu)p).

  1. FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE HIP IN ATHLETES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW FOR RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

    PubMed Central

    Martin, RobRoy L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for functional performance tests with evidence of reliability and validity that could be used for a young, athletic population with hip dysfunction. Methods: A search of PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases were performed to identify movement, balance, hop/jump, or agility functional performance tests from the current peer-reviewed literature used to assess function of the hip in young, athletic subjects. Results: The single-leg stance, deep squat, single-leg squat, and star excursion balance tests (SEBT) demonstrated evidence of validity and normative data for score interpretation. The single-leg stance test and SEBT have evidence of validity with association to hip abductor function. The deep squat test demonstrated evidence as a functional performance test for evaluating femoroacetabular impingement. Hop/Jump tests and agility tests have no reported evidence of reliability or validity in a population of subjects with hip pathology. Conclusions: Use of functional performance tests in the assessment of hip dysfunction has not been well established in the current literature. Diminished squat depth and provocation of pain during the single-leg balance test have been associated with patients diagnosed with FAI and gluteal tendinopathy, respectively. The SEBT and single-leg squat tests provided evidence of convergent validity through an analysis of kinematics and muscle function in normal subjects. Reliability of functional performance tests have not been established on patients with hip dysfunction. Further study is needed to establish reliability and validity of functional performance tests that can be used in a young, athletic population with hip dysfunction. Level of Evidence: 2b (Systematic Review of Literature) PMID:22893860

  2. Test of structure functions using leptons with CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, M.; CDF Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    The charge asymmetry as a function of lepton rapidity, A(yl), has been measured at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV for {vert_bar}yl{vert_bar} < 1.8, using the W decays to electrons and muons recorded by CDF during the 1992--1993 run of the Tevatron Collider. The luminosity used, approximately 20 pb{sup {minus}1}, and detector improvements have lead to a six fold increase in statistics making discrimination between sets of parton distributions possible. Our data favors the most recent parton distributions and demonstrates the value of collider data in the measurement of the proton`s structure. In addition, the Drell-Yan cross section has been measured using 4.13 pb{sup {minus}1} of dielectron and 2.77 pb{sup {minus}1} of dimuon data taken during the 1988--1989 run. These measurements probe the quark distributions to x < 0.01 at high Q{sup 2} where nonperturbative effects are minimal.

  3. Environmental Degradation, Disproportionality, and the Double Diversion: Reaching out, Reaching ahead, and Reaching beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Rather than seeking ivory-tower isolation, members of the Rural Sociological Society have always been distinguished by a willingness to work with specialists from a broad range of disciplines, and to work on some of the world's most challenging problems. What is less commonly recognized is that the willingness to reach beyond disciplinary…

  4. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  5. Domain-specific functional software testing: A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonnenmann, Uwe

    1992-01-01

    Software Engineering is a knowledge intensive activity that involves defining, designing, developing, and maintaining software systems. In order to build effective systems to support Software Engineering activities, Artificial Intelligence techniques are needed. The application of Artificial Intelligence technology to Software Engineering is called Knowledge-based Software Engineering (KBSE). The goal of KBSE is to change the software life cycle such that software maintenance and evolution occur by modifying the specifications and then rederiving the implementation rather than by directly modifying the implementation. The use of domain knowledge in developing KBSE systems is crucial. Our work is mainly related to one area of KBSE that is called automatic specification acquisition. One example is the WATSON prototype on which our current work is based. WATSON is an automatic programming system for formalizing specifications for telephone switching software mainly restricted to POTS, i.e., plain old telephone service. Our current approach differentiates itself from other approaches in two antagonistic ways. On the one hand, we address a large and complex real-world problem instead of a 'toy domain' as in many research prototypes. On the other hand, to allow such scaling, we had to relax the ambitious goal of complete automatic programming, to the easier task of automatic testing.

  6. Neural Correlates of Reach Errors

    PubMed Central

    Hashambhoy, Yasmin; Rane, Tushar; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-01-01

    Reach errors may be broadly classified into errors arising from unpredictable changes in target location, called target errors, and errors arising from miscalibration of internal models, called execution errors. Execution errors may be caused by miscalibration of dynamics (e.g.. when a force field alters limb dynamics) or by miscalibration of kinematics (e.g., when prisms alter visual feedback). While all types of errors lead to similar online corrections, we found that the motor system showed strong trial-by-trial adaptation in response to random execution errors but not in response to random target errors. We used fMRI and a compatible robot to study brain regions involved in processing each kind of error. Both kinematic and dynamic execution errors activated regions along the central and the post-central sulci and in lobules V, VI, and VIII of the cerebellum, making these areas possible sites of plastic changes in internal models for reaching. Only activity related to kinematic errors extended into parietal area 5. These results are inconsistent with the idea that kinematics and dynamics of reaching are computed in separate neural entities. In contrast, only target errors caused increased activity in the striatum and the posterior superior parietal lobule. The cerebellum and motor cortex were as strongly activated as with execution errors. These findings indicate a neural and behavioral dissociation between errors that lead to switching of behavioral goals, and errors that lead to adaptation of internal models of limb dynamics and kinematics. PMID:16251440

  7. PEP Run Report for Simulant Shakedown/Functional Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.

    2009-12-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes." The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3-8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration

  8. Exposure-based waiving under REACH.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Theo; van de Bovenkamp, Marja; de Bruin, Yuri Bruinen; Delmaar, Christiaan; van Engelen, Jacqueline; Escher, Sylvia; Marquart, Hans; Meijster, Tim

    2010-12-01

    Within the REACH framework, but also within OECD, there is understanding that for reasons of animal welfare, costs and logistics, it is important to limit the number of tests to be conducted. Exposure-based waiving (EBW) is a potentially important element in testing strategies. This publication describes criteria for exposure-based waiving as foreseen in the REACH regulation and gives more detail to the REACH requirements for exposure-based waiving The principle behind any EBW is that there are situations when human or environmental exposures are so low or infrequent that there is a very low probability that the acquisition of additional effect information may lead to an improvement in the ability to manage risk. EBW therefore is risk-based and needs thorough knowledge on exposure as well as on effects criteria. Both elements are discussed: exposure models are analysed and the uncertainty in their predictions discussed as well as no-effect criteria such as the threshold of toxicological concern. Examples of EBW are provided for environmental, consumer and worker exposure. REACH only allows EBW in a limited number of cases with constraints on tonnage levels, types of tests to be waived and the need for a thorough ES and exposure assessment throughout the life cycle of a chemical and for all human exposure routes and environmental pathways. EBW will only be considered a real option by industry if a cost-benefit analysis shows an advantage, which may heavily depend on the weighing factor one applies for the non-use of experimental animals.

  9. Exposure-based waiving under REACH.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Theo; van de Bovenkamp, Marja; de Bruin, Yuri Bruinen; Delmaar, Christiaan; van Engelen, Jacqueline; Escher, Sylvia; Marquart, Hans; Meijster, Tim

    2010-12-01

    Within the REACH framework, but also within OECD, there is understanding that for reasons of animal welfare, costs and logistics, it is important to limit the number of tests to be conducted. Exposure-based waiving (EBW) is a potentially important element in testing strategies. This publication describes criteria for exposure-based waiving as foreseen in the REACH regulation and gives more detail to the REACH requirements for exposure-based waiving The principle behind any EBW is that there are situations when human or environmental exposures are so low or infrequent that there is a very low probability that the acquisition of additional effect information may lead to an improvement in the ability to manage risk. EBW therefore is risk-based and needs thorough knowledge on exposure as well as on effects criteria. Both elements are discussed: exposure models are analysed and the uncertainty in their predictions discussed as well as no-effect criteria such as the threshold of toxicological concern. Examples of EBW are provided for environmental, consumer and worker exposure. REACH only allows EBW in a limited number of cases with constraints on tonnage levels, types of tests to be waived and the need for a thorough ES and exposure assessment throughout the life cycle of a chemical and for all human exposure routes and environmental pathways. EBW will only be considered a real option by industry if a cost-benefit analysis shows an advantage, which may heavily depend on the weighing factor one applies for the non-use of experimental animals. PMID:20713110

  10. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    PubMed

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint.

  11. Identifying Differential Item Functioning in Multi-Stage Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Li, Johnson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of CATSIB (Computer Adaptive Testing-Simultaneous Item Bias Test) for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) when items in the matching and studied subtest are administered adaptively in the context of a realistic multi-stage adaptive test (MST). MST was simulated using a 4-item…

  12. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Cognitive Assessment of Prefrontal Executive Functions: A Critical Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhus, Erika; Barcelo, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    For over four decades the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has been one of the most distinctive tests of prefrontal function. Clinical research and recent brain imaging have brought into question the validity and specificity of this test as a marker of frontal dysfunction. Clinical studies with neurological patients have confirmed that, in its…

  13. Extending earthquakes' reach through cascading.

    PubMed

    Marsan, David; Lengliné, Olivier

    2008-02-22

    Earthquakes, whatever their size, can trigger other earthquakes. Mainshocks cause aftershocks to occur, which in turn activate their own local aftershock sequences, resulting in a cascade of triggering that extends the reach of the initial mainshock. A long-lasting difficulty is to determine which earthquakes are connected, either directly or indirectly. Here we show that this causal structure can be found probabilistically, with no a priori model nor parameterization. Large regional earthquakes are found to have a short direct influence in comparison to the overall aftershock sequence duration. Relative to these large mainshocks, small earthquakes collectively have a greater effect on triggering. Hence, cascade triggering is a key component in earthquake interactions.

  14. Results of hepatic and renal function tests to different CO2 pneumoperitoneum conditions: An experimental capnoperitoneum study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2015-08-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most commonly used insufflation gas to provide exposure in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic surgery. This study investigated the results of hepatic and renal function tests after different capnoperitoneum intraabdominal pressures in dogs. Twenty-four beagle dogs (12 males and 12 females) were used (n = 6 dogs). The intraabdominal pressure was maintained for 60 minutes, and urinalysis, hepatic and renal function tests were carried out at designed times. No surgery was performed on any of the dogs during the capnoperitoneum. In this study, whether low or high pressure, significant increases of gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine levels were observed after pneumoperitoneum. However, our results showed a trend toward higher serum concentrations of some enzymes in dogs at an insufflation pressure of 15 mmHg compared to that of the other groups, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. Therefore, low pressure capnoperitoneum should be considered for dogs with compromised splanchnic function, particularly those undergoing prolonged laparoscopic surgery.

  15. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory took another step forward and upward, as one of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to Chile's 16,500-foot-high plateau of Chajnantor on the back of a giant, custom-built transporter. The 40-foot-diameter antenna, weighing about 100 tons, was moved to ALMA's high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for observing the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only about half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 9,500-foot altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF). It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "The successful transport of the first ALMA Antenna to the high site marks the start of the next phase of the project. Now that we are starting to move the ALMA antennas to the high site, the real work begins and the exciting part is just beginning," said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Manager. The antenna's trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters lifted the antenna onto its back, carrying its heavy load along the 17-mile road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 8 miles per hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas use state-of-the-art technology, and are the most advanced submillimeter-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions of the Array Operations Site, to survive strong winds and extreme temperatures, to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf

  16. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory has taken another step forward - and upwards. One of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to the 5000m plateau of Chajnantor, in the Chilean Andes, on the back of a custom-built giant transporter. The antenna, which weighs about 100 tons and has a diameter of 12 metres, was transported up to the high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for ALMA's observations of the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 2900 m altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility. It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "This is an important moment for ALMA. We are very happy that the first transport of an antenna to the high site went flawlessly. This achievement was only possible through contributions from all international ALMA partners: this particular antenna is provided by Japan, the heavy-lift transporter by Europe, and the receiving electronics inside the antenna by North America, Europe, and Asia", said Wolfgang Wild, European ALMA Project Manager. The trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters, named Otto, lifted the antenna onto its back. It then carried its heavy load along the 28 km road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 12 km/hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas are the most advanced submillimetre-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions

  17. Test methods and custom hardware for functional testing of a high speed GaAs DRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Michael P.

    1993-09-01

    The goal of this project is to produce a digital circuit operating near a frequency of 250 MHz to test a new experimental gallium arsenide (GaAs) dynamic random access memory (DRAM). This thesis presents the design of the digital circuit using 'off-the-shelf' emitter coupled logic (ECL) and the design of a six layer printed circuit test fixture. The use of ECL is illustrated including general design rules, high speed design considerations, and basic transmission line theory. Finally, the design is laid out and simulated using commercially available computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) tools. Examples and shortcomings of schematic capture, logic simulation, PCB design, and auto-routing are discussed as applicable to fabrication of the final product.

  18. Modifications to the Standard Sit-and-Reach Flexibility Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Laurence E.; Pelham, Thomas W.; Burke, Darren G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To present several modifications of the standard sit-and-reach protocol. Background: Many exercises designed to increase strength and aerobic capacity tend to decrease the flexibility of the erector spinae and hamstrings musculature. Less-than-ideal flexibility in these soft tissues may increase the risk of injury during training, competition, or activities of daily living. The most widely used measures of flexibility have been either the stand-and-reach or the sit-and-reach, but both are limited to a single measure. Description: Using the new multitest flexometer, we were able to take 6 flexibility measures beyond the stand-and-reach test: standard active sit-and-reach, standard passive sit-and-reach, modified active sit-and-reach with external rotators slackened, modified passive sit-and-reach with external rotators slackened, modified active sit-and-reach with the hamstrings, gastrocnemii, and external rotators slackened, and modified passive sit-and-reach with the hamstrings, gastrocnemii, and external rotators slackened. Clinical Advantages: This modified sit-and-reach protocol allows the indirect assessment of the influence of the 4 major muscle groups that affect sit-and-reach scores: erector spinae, hip rotators, hamstrings, and gastrocnemii. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:16558547

  19. To develop behavioral tests of vestibular functioning in the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two tests of vestibular functioning in the rat were developed. The first test was the water maze. In the water maze the rat does not have the normal proprioceptive feedback from its limbs to help it maintain its orientation, and must rely primarily on the sensory input from its visual and vestibular systems. By altering lighting conditions and visual cues the vestibular functioning without visual cues was assessed. Whether there was visual compensation for some vestibular dysfunction was determined. The second test measured vestibular functioning of the rat's behavior on a parallel swing. In this test the rat's postural adjustments while swinging on the swing with the otoliths being stimulated were assessed. Less success was achieved in developing the parallel swing as a test of vestibular functioning than with the water maze. The major problem was incorrect initial assumptions of what the rat's probable behavior on the parallel swing would be.

  20. Functional test generation of digital LSI/VLSI systems using machine symbolic execution technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.

    1985-01-01

    Functional testing is among the promising solutions proposed in recent years for the challenging problems of testing modern digital LSI/VLSI systems. It is aimed at validating the correct operation of a digital system with respect to its functional specification. Functional test generation is performed before functional testing. In this dissertation, a functional test pattern generation algorithm is developed. This algorithm is explicit, systematic, and practical. The whole research work consists of five related topics including theoretical development and computer experiment. First, a register transfer language specially designed for the functional description of a general digital system is defined. Second, a register-transfer (RT) level fault model quite different from the conventional gate-level stuck-at fault model is established and the fault collapsing analysis is performed for better test generation efficiency. Third, the technique of register-transfer-level symbolic execution is explored. The major problems are defined, analyzed, and solved. A register-transfer-level symbolic execution system is designed and implemented. Fourth, an overall RT-level test pattern generation algorithm is developed based on the RT-level fault model and the RT-level symbolic execution technique. The symbolic executions are performed on both fault-free and fault-injected machines for symbolic results. By comparing the symbolic results and path constraints obtained from fault-free and fault-injected machines, an input test pattern which distinguishes each bad machine from the good machine is derived.

  1. Detecting Differential Item Functioning across Examinees Tested in Their Dominant Language and Examinees Tested in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauger, Jeffrey B.; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) among groups of students who were tested in their native language or in a different language when participating in the 1999 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Data from 18,837 examinees from three countries (Singapore, United States, and Iran) were…

  2. Injury History, Sex, and Performance on the Functional Movement Screen and Y Balance Test

    PubMed Central

    Chimera, Nicole J.; Smith, Craig A.; Warren, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Context: Research is limited regarding the effects of injury or surgery history and sex on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Y Balance Test (YBT). Objective: To determine if injury or surgery history or sex affected results on the FMS and YBT. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 200 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female (n = 92; age = 20.0 ± 1.4 years, body mass index = 22.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2) and male (n = 108; age = 20.0 ± 1.5 years, body mass index = 27.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2) athletes were screened; 170 completed the FMS, and 190 completed the YBT. Intervention(s): A self-reported questionnaire identified injury or surgery history and sex. The FMS assessed movement during the patterns of deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, impingement-clearing test, straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, press-up clearing test, rotary stability, and posterior-rocking clearing test. The YBT assessed balance while participants reached in anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Main Outcome Measure(s): The FMS composite score (CS; range, 0–21) and movement pattern score (range, 0–3), the YBT CS (% lower extremity length), and YBT anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral asymmetry (difference between limbs in centimeters). Independent-samples t tests established differences in mean FMS CS, YBT CS, and YBT asymmetry. The Mann-Whitney U test identified differences in FMS movement patterns. Results: We found lower overall FMS CSs for the following injuries or surgeries: hip (injured = 12.7 ± 3.1, uninjured = 14.4 ± 2.3; P = .005), elbow (injured = 12.1 ± 2.8, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.4; P = .02), and hand (injured = 12.3 ± 2.9, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.3; P = .006) injuries and shoulder surgery (surgery = 12.0 ± 1.0, no surgery = 14.3 ± 2.4; P < .001). We observed worse FMS movement pattern performance for knee surgery (rotary stability: P

  3. On statistical properties of test functions in nonparametric methods for periodogram analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Chinarova, L. L.

    Periodogram analysis methods in the modifications by Lafler and Kinman (1965), Burke et al. (1970), Deeming (1970), Renson (1978), and Dworetsky (1983) are compared. Mean values, variances, skewness, and excesses of test functions are determined for some numerical models, and correlations between them are discussed. Analytical estimates are obtained for the mathematical expectation of test functions in different methods and for the variance of the test function by Lafler and Kinman (1965). An algorithm of choosing the optimum period is discussed, the technique proposed is used to determine the orbital period of the eclipsing binary star HBV 426 = V1147 Cyg; the period is found to be 1.097383d.

  4. The Synthesis of Structural Responses Using Experimentally Measured Frequency Response Functions and Field Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    CAP,JEROME S.; NELSON,CURTIS F.

    2000-11-17

    This paper presents an analysis technique used to generate the structural response at locations not measured during the ejection of a captive-carried store. The ejection shock event is complicated by the fact that forces may be imparted to the store at eight distinct locations. The technique derives forcing functions by combining the initial field test data for a limited number of measurement locations with Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured using a traditional modal-type impact (tap) test at the same locations. The derived forcing functions were then used with tap test FRFs measured at additional locations of interest to produce the desired response data.

  5. Functional and structural failure mode overpressurization tests of 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model.

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, James F. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Shibata, Satoru (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation, Tokyo, Japan); Hessheimer, Michael F.

    2003-02-01

    A 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV), representative of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Japan, was constructed by NUPEC at Sandia National Laboratories from January 1997 through June, 2000. Concurrently, Sandia instrumented the model with nearly 1500 transducers to measure strain, displacement and forces in the model from prestressing through the pressure testing. The limit state test of the PCCV model, culminating in functional failure (i.e. leakage by cracking and liner tearing) was conducted in September, 2000 at Sandia National Laboratories. After inspecting the model and the data after the limit state test, it became clear that, other than liner tearing and leakage, structural damage was limited to concrete cracking and the overall structural response (displacements, rebar and tendon strains, etc.) was only slightly beyond yield. (Global hoop strains at the mid-height of the cylinder only reached 0.4%, approximately twice the yield strain in steel.) In order to provide additional structural response data, for comparison with inelastic response conditions, the PCCV model filled nearly full with water and pressurized to 3.6 times the design pressure, when a catastrophic rupture occurred preceded only briefly by successive tensile failure of several hoop tendons. This paper summarizes the results of these tests.

  6. The relationship between subjective knee scores, isokinetic testing, and functional testing in the ACL-reconstructed knee.

    PubMed

    Wilk, K E; Romaniello, W T; Soscia, S M; Arrigo, C A; Andrews, J R

    1994-08-01

    It is important to examine the functional relationships between commonly performed clinical tests and to resolve inconsistencies in previous investigative results. The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between three commonly performed clinical tests: isokinetic isolated knee concentric muscular testing, the single-leg hop test, and the subjective knee score in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees. To determine if a relationship exists would be beneficial to clinicians in determining patient progression, treatment modification, and return-to-sport objective parameters. Several investigators have analyzed two of these parameters, but no one has investigated three parameters to date. Additionally, this study explored the concept of limb acceleration and deceleration during high-speed isokinetics and its relationship to function. Fifty patients were randomly selected (29 males) with a mean age of 23.7 years (range 15-52). The subjects completed a subjective knee score questionnaire that rated symptoms (pain, swelling, giving way) and specific sport function and completed an overall knee score assessment. The patients were then evaluated performing three one-legged functional tests: 1) hop for distance, 2) timed hop, and 3) cross-over triple hop. Isokinetic testing was performed on a Biodex dynamometer at 180, 300, and 450 degrees/sec for knee extension/flexion. The patients' mean value of the self-assessed knee rating was 86 points. Sixty-four percent of the patients exhibited normal limb symmetry (within 85%) on all three single-leg hop tests. Sixteen percent exhibited quadriceps strength at least 90% of the contralateral limb isokinetically. A positive correlation was noted between isokinetic knee extension peak torque (180, 300 degrees/sec) and subjective knee scores, and the three hop tests (p < 0.001). A statistical trend was noted between knee extension acceleration and deceleration range at 180 and 300 degrees/sec for the

  7. Quantifying the adsorption of ionic silver and functionalized nanoparticles during ecotoxicity testing: Test container effects and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Ryo; Khurana, Kanupriya; Vasilev, Krasimir; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in a wide variety of products, prompting concerns regarding their potential environmental impacts. To accurately determine the toxicity of Ag-NPs it is necessary to differentiate between the toxicity of the nanoparticles themselves and the toxicity of ionic silver (Ag) released from them. This is not a trivial task given the reactive nature of Ag in solution, and its propensity for both adsorption and photoreduction. In the experiments reported here, we quantified the loss of silver from test solutions during standard ecotoxicity testing conducted using a variety of different test container materials and geometries. This sensitive (110m)Ag isotope tracing method revealed a substantial underestimation of the toxicity of dissolved Ag to the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata when calculated only on the basis of the initial test concentrations. Furthermore, experiments with surface-functionalized Ag-NPs under standard algal growth inhibition test conditions also demonstrated extensive losses of Ag-NPs from the solution due to adsorption to the container walls, and the extent of loss was dependent on Ag-NP surface-functionality. These results hold important messages for researchers engaged in both environmental and human nanotoxicology testing, not only for Ag-NPs but also for other NPs with various tailored surface chemistries, where these phenomena are recognized but are also frequently disregarded in the experimental design and reporting.

  8. Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed reaches

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The spiking activity in the parietal reach region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending reach when the reach is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the reach goal when the reach is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended reach goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, reach goals are not always based on the location of a visual object, e.g., playing the piano following sheet music or moving following verbal directions. So far it has not been directly tested whether and how PRR represents reach goals in such cognitive, nonlocational conditions, and knowing the encoding properties in various task conditions would help in designing a reach goal decoder for prosthetic applications. To address this issue, we examined the macaque PRR under two reach conditions: reach goal determined by the stimulus location (direct) or shape (symbolic). For the same goal, the spiking activity near reach onset was indistinguishable between the two tasks, and thus a reach goal decoder trained with spiking activity in one task performed perfectly in the other. In contrast, the LFP activity at 20–40 Hz showed small but significantly enhanced reach goal tuning in the symbolic task, but its spatial preference remained the same. Consequently, a decoder trained with LFP activity performed worse in the other task than in the same task. These results suggest that LFP decoders in PRR should take into account the task context (e.g., locational vs. nonlocational) to be accurate, while spike decoders can robustly provide reach goal information regardless of the task context in various prosthetic applications. PMID:22072511

  9. Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed reaches.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Andersen, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    The spiking activity in the parietal reach region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending reach when the reach is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the reach goal when the reach is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended reach goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, reach goals are not always based on the location of a visual object, e.g., playing the piano following sheet music or moving following verbal directions. So far it has not been directly tested whether and how PRR represents reach goals in such cognitive, nonlocational conditions, and knowing the encoding properties in various task conditions would help in designing a reach goal decoder for prosthetic applications. To address this issue, we examined the macaque PRR under two reach conditions: reach goal determined by the stimulus location (direct) or shape (symbolic). For the same goal, the spiking activity near reach onset was indistinguishable between the two tasks, and thus a reach goal decoder trained with spiking activity in one task performed perfectly in the other. In contrast, the LFP activity at 20-40 Hz showed small but significantly enhanced reach goal tuning in the symbolic task, but its spatial preference remained the same. Consequently, a decoder trained with LFP activity performed worse in the other task than in the same task. These results suggest that LFP decoders in PRR should take into account the task context (e.g., locational vs. nonlocational) to be accurate, while spike decoders can robustly provide reach goal information regardless of the task context in various prosthetic applications. PMID:22072511

  10. Ability of a new hop test to determine functional deficits after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, Jesper; Thomeé, Roland; Karlsson, Jon

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a new hop test to determine functional deficits after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The test consists of a pre-exhaustion exercise protocol combined with a single-leg hop. Nineteen male patients with ACL reconstruction (mean time after operation 11 months) who exhibited normal single-leg hop symmetry values (> or =90% compared with the non-involved extremity) were tested for one-repetition maximum (1 RM) strength of a knee-extension exercise. The patients then performed single-leg hops following a standardised pre-exhaustion exercise protocol, which consisted of unilateral weight machine knee-extensions until failure at 50% of 1 RM. Although no patients displayed abnormal hop symmetry when non-fatigued, 68% of the patients showed abnormal hop symmetry for the fatigued test condition. Sixty-three per cent exhibited 1 RM strength scores of below 90% of the non-involved leg. Eighty-four percent of the patients exhibited abnormal symmetry in at least one of the tests. Our findings indicate that patients are not fully rehabilitated 11 months after ACL reconstruction. It is concluded that the pre-exhaustion exercise protocol, combined with the single-leg hop test, improved testing sensitivity when evaluating lower-extremity function after ACL reconstruction. For a more comprehensive evaluation of lower-extremity function after ACL reconstruction, it is therefore suggested that functional testing should be performed both under non-fatigued and fatigued test conditions.

  11. Wind Turbine Safety and Function Test Report for the Mariah Windspire Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-07-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers to wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines (SWT). In total, five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests performed on the turbines, including power performance, duration, noise, and power-quality tests. NWTC testing results provide manufacturers with reports that may be used to meet part of small wind turbine certification requirements. The test equipment includes a Mariah Windspire wind turbine mounted on a monopole tower. L&E Machine manufactured the turbine in the United States. The inverter was manufactured separately by Technology Driven Products in the United States. The system was installed by the NWTC site operations group with guidance and assistance from Mariah Power.

  12. Safety and Function Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roadman, J.; Murphy, M.; van Dam, J.

    2013-10-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Several turbines were selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include duration, power performance, acoustic noise, and power quality. Viryd Technologies, Inc. of Austin, Texas, was the recipient of the DOE grant and provided the turbine for testing.

  13. Wind Turbine Safety and Function Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests that were performed on the turbines, including power performance, duration, noise, and power quality tests. Test results provide manufacturers with reports that can be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes an ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 100-ft free-standing lattice tower. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

  14. Infants' Predictive Reaching for Moving Objects in the Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Daniel J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirteen infants were presented with a moving object under two lighting conditions to investigate the role of vision in early reaching. Infants were tested twice, at 5 and 7.5 months of age. The results suggest that proprioceptive feedback and sight of the target allowed for successful reaching with limited visual information, even in relatively…

  15. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  16. Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible. PMID:9609497

  17. Interrater reliability of mechanical tests for functional classification of transtibial prosthesis components distal to the socket.

    PubMed

    Major, Matthew J; Johnson, William Brett; Gard, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that the design and associated mechanical function of lower-limb prostheses affects user health and mobility, supporting common standards of clinical practice for appropriate matching of prosthesis design and user needs. This matching process is dependent on accurate and reliable methods for the functional classification of prosthetic components. The American Orthotic & Prosthetic Association developed a set of tests for L-code characterization of prosthesis mechanical properties to facilitate functional classification of passive below-knee prosthetic components. The mechanical tests require use of test-specific fixtures to be installed in a materials testing machine by a test administrator. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of test outcomes between two administrators using the same testing facility. Ten prosthetic components (8 feet and 2 pylons) that spanned the range of commercial designs were subjected to all appropriate tests. Tests with scalar outcomes demonstrated high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient(2,1) >/= 0.935), and there was no discrepancy in observation-based outcomes between administrators, suggesting that between-administrator variability may not present a significant source of error. These results support the integration of these mechanical tests for prosthesis classification, which will help enhance objectivity and optimization of the prosthesis-patient matching process for maximizing rehabilitation outcomes.

  18. GIRAFFE Reaches towards the Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-07-01

    "First Light" of New Powerful Spectrograph at the VLT Summary The first observations of stellar spectra have just been performed with the new GIRAFFE multi-object spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This milestone event was achieved in the early morning of July 3, 2002. It signifies another important step towards the full implementation of the extremely powerful Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) , one of the main instruments for the ESO VLT. This project is co-ordinated by ESO and incorporates many complex components that have been constructed at various research institutions in Europe and Australia. The GIRAFFE spectrograph provides unique possibilities for detailed observations of the properties of individual stars located in our Milky Way galaxy ( PR 16b/02 ) as well as in other galaxies of the Local Group. PR Photo 16a/02 : A series of stellar spectra recorded by GIRAFFE during "First Light" . PR Photo 16b/02 : Details of some of these stellar spectra . FLAMES and GIRAFFE ESO PR Photo 16a/02 ESO PR Photo 16a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 756 x 400 pix - 363k] [Normal - JPEG: 1511 x 800 pix - 1.2M] ESO PR Photo 16b/02 ESO PR Photo 16b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 461 x 400 pix - 196k] [Normal - JPEG: 921 x 800 pix - 606k] Caption : PR Photo 16a/02 : "First Light" test observation with the GIRAFFE spectrograph of about 50 high-quality spectra (10 min exposure at spectral resolution 7,000) of stars in the Milky Way disk, in the early morning of July 3, 2002. The stars have magnitudes of 12 - 16 and are all of solar type. The photo shows part of the image recorded with a 2000 x 4000 pixel CCD detector at the focal plane of the spectrograph. Each stellar spectrum is seen as one vertical line - some of the absorption lines can be seen as dark horizontal features. PR Photo 16b/02 shows a small part of this image. The three strong absorption lines that are visible as horizontal, dark lines in the lower part of the

  19. An integrative method for testing form–function linkages and reconstructed evolutionary pathways of masticatory specialization

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Z. Jack; Flynn, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphology serves as a ubiquitous proxy in macroevolutionary studies to identify potential adaptive processes and patterns. Inferences of functional significance of phenotypes or their evolution are overwhelmingly based on data from living taxa. Yet, correspondence between form and function has been tested in only a few model species, and those linkages are highly complex. The lack of explicit methodologies to integrate form and function analyses within a deep-time and phylogenetic context weakens inferences of adaptive morphological evolution, by invoking but not testing form–function linkages. Here, we provide a novel approach to test mechanical properties at reconstructed ancestral nodes/taxa and the strength and direction of evolutionary pathways in feeding biomechanics, in a case study of carnivorous mammals. Using biomechanical profile comparisons that provide functional signals for the separation of feeding morphologies, we demonstrate, using experimental optimization criteria on estimation of strength and direction of functional changes on a phylogeny, that convergence in mechanical properties and degree of evolutionary optimization can be decoupled. This integrative approach is broadly applicable to other clades, by using quantitative data and model-based tests to evaluate interpretations of function from morphology and functional explanations for observed macroevolutionary pathways. PMID:25994295

  20. Executive Functions as Endophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive…

  1. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  2. Critical appraisal of 13C breath tests for microsomal liver function: aminopyrine revisited.

    PubMed

    Pijls, Kirsten E; de Vries, Hanne; Nikkessen, Suzan; Bast, Aalt; Wodzig, Will K W H; Koek, Ger H

    2014-04-01

    As liver diseases are a major health problem and especially the incidence of metabolic liver diseases like non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, the demand for non-invasive tests is growing to replace liver biopsy. Non-invasive tests such as carbon-labelled breath tests can provide a valuable contribution to the evaluation of metabolic liver function. This review aims to critically appraise the value of the (13) C-labelled microsomal breath tests for the evaluation of metabolic liver function, and to discuss the role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the metabolism of the different probe drugs, especially of aminopyrine. Although a number of different probe drugs have been used in breath tests, the perfect drug to assess the functional metabolic capacity of the liver has not been found. Data suggest that both the (13) C(2) -aminopyrine and the (13) C-methacetin breath test can play a role in assessing the capacity of the microsomal liver function and may be useful in the follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases. Furthermore, CYP2C19 seems to be an important enzyme in the N-demethylation of aminopyrine, and polymorphisms in this gene may influence breath test values, which should be kept in mind when performing the (13) C(2) -aminopyrine breath test in clinical practice.

  3. Comparing Methods of Assessing Differential Item Functioning in a Computerized Adaptive Testing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Chen, Shu-Ying; Yu, Lan

    2006-01-01

    Mantel-Haenszel and SIBTEST, which have known difficulty in detecting non-unidirectional differential item functioning (DIF), have been adapted with some success for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study adapts logistic regression (LR) and the item-response-theory-likelihood-ratio test (IRT-LRT), capable of detecting both unidirectional…

  4. Speed and Accuracy on Tests of Executive Function in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Robert M.; Baribeau, Jacinthe; Milovan, Denise L.; O'Connor, Kieron

    2004-01-01

    Slowness in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been attributed to intrusive thoughts or meticulousness. Recent research suggests that slowness in OCD may be particularly evident on tests of executive function subserved by frontostriatal circuitry. In the present study, the speed and accuracy of responding on neuropsychological tests of…

  5. Examining Differential Item Functions of Different Item Ordered Test Forms According to Item Difficulty Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokluk, Ömay; Gül, Emrah; Dogan-Gül, Çilem

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to examine whether differential item function is displayed in three different test forms that have item orders of random and sequential versions (easy-to-hard and hard-to-easy), based on Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods and bearing item difficulty levels in mind. In the correlational research, the…

  6. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Logistic Regression Tests for Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhushan

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is a popular method for detecting uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning (DIF) effects. Theoretical formulas for the power and sample size calculations are derived for likelihood ratio tests and Wald tests based on the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators for the logistic regression model.…

  7. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  8. Impairment in occupational functioning and adult ADHD: the predictive utility of executive function (EF) ratings versus EF tests.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A; Murphy, Kevin R

    2010-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in executive functioning (EF). ADHD in adults is also associated with impairments in major life activities, particularly occupational functioning. We investigated the extent to which EF deficits assessed by both tests and self-ratings contributed to the degree of impairment in 11 measures involving self-reported occupational problems, employer reported workplace adjustment, and clinician rated occupational adjustment. Three groups of adults were recruited as a function of their severity of ADHD: ADHD diagnosis (n = 146), clinical controls self-referring for ADHD but not diagnosed with it (n = 97), and community controls (n = 109). Groups were combined and regression analyses revealed that self-ratings of EF were significantly predictive of impairments in all 11 measures of occupational adjustment. Although several tests of EF also did so, they contributed substantially less than did the EF ratings, particularly when analyzed jointly with the ratings. We conclude that EF deficits contribute to the impairments in occupational functioning that occur in conjunction with adult ADHD. Ratings of EF in daily life contribute more to such impairments than do EF tests, perhaps because, as we hypothesize, each assesses a different level in the hierarchical organization of EF as a meta-construct.

  9. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  10. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  11. Influence of functional knee bracing on the isokinetic and functional tests of anterior cruciate ligament deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Razjouyan, Javad

    2013-01-01

    Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL)-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0 ± 5.3 yrs., 175.2 ± 5.4 cm, and 73.0 ± 10.0 kg) and six healthy male subjects (27.2 ± 3.7 yrs., 176.4 ± 6.4 cm, and 70.3 ± 6.9 kg) were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves). Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s(-1),180°.s(-1)) were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05). Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been some

  12. Influence of Functional Knee Bracing on the Isokinetic and Functional Tests of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficient Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Razjouyan, Javad

    2013-01-01

    Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL)-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0±5.3 yrs., 175.2±5.4 cm, and 73.0±10.0 kg) and six healthy male subjects (27.2±3.7 yrs., 176.4±6.4 cm, and 70.3±6.9 kg) were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves). Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s−1,180°.s−1) were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05). Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been some enhancement regarding

  13. Sample collection and platelet function testing: influence of vacuum or aspiration principle on PFA-100 test results.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Zobbi, Valentina; Sandei, Franca; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2013-09-01

    As for other tests of hemostasis, the investigation of platelet function is highly vulnerable to a broad series of preanalytical variables, which span from patient preparation to the final analysis of the specimen and issuance of test results. In particular, there remains much controversy about the influence of manual or vacuum aspiration of blood into primary collection tubes on platelet function testing. Accordingly, we investigated this for the PFA-100. In 12 healthy volunteers, a sample labeled as 'BD-V' was drawn into a 2.7 ml BD Vacutainer tube, whereas two additional samples were collected from the opposite arm into 5.0 ml Sarstedt S-Monovette tubes by vacuum (SD-V) or manual aspiration (SD-A). All sample were tested on PFA-100 with collagen and ADP (CADP) or collagen and epinephrine (CEPI). The values of both CEPI and CADP obtained in SD-A samples were significantly lower than those obtained in SD-V and BD-V tubes, whereas those of the two evacuated tubes did not significantly differ. On average, CEPI values were prolonged by 11% in SD-V and 13% in BD-V, whereas those of CADP were prolonged by 14% in SD-V and 10% in BD-V, respectively. These findings suggests that the lower shear stress generated by the manual aspiration of blood into the primary collection tube would prevent spurious hyper-activation of platelets, thus, preserving the integrity of their function for subsequent testing on PFA-100. This study underscores the need to define or validate local reference ranges for the PFA-100 based on the collection tube used. Different reference ranges of both CEPI and CADP may also be advisable when venous blood samples are collected with manual aspiration or vacuum principle.

  14. The Application of Normal Stress Reduction Function in Tilt Tests for Different Block Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Gratchev, Ivan; Hein, Maw; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the shapes of rock cores, which control the sliding or toppling behaviours in tilt tests for the estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC). When the JRC values are estimated by performing tilt tests, the values are directly proportional to the basic friction of the rock material and the applied normal stress on the sliding planes. Normal stress obviously varies with the shape of the sliding block, and the basic friction angle is also affected by the sample shapes in tilt tests. In this study, the shapes of core blocks are classified into three representative shapes and those are created using plaster. Using the various shaped artificial cores, a set of tilt tests is carried out to identify the shape influences on the normal stress and the basic friction angle in tilt tests. The test results propose a normal stress reduction function to estimate the normal stress for tilt tests according to the sample shapes based on Barton's empirical equation. The proposed normal stress reduction functions are verified by tilt tests using artificial plaster joints and real rock joint sets. The plaster joint sets are well matched and cast in detailed printed moulds using a 3D printing technique. With the application of the functions, the obtained JRC values from the tilt tests using the plaster samples and the natural rock samples are distributed within a reasonable JRC range when compared with the measured values.

  15. Evaluation of early airway disease in smokers: cost effectiveness of pulmonary function testing.

    PubMed

    Loss, R W; Hall, W J; Speers, D M

    1979-01-01

    We studied 73 young adults who were presently cigarette smokers to evaluate whether the identification of abnormalities in pulmonary function tests had a detectable influence on modification of smoking habits. Utilizing rate schedules for these tests presently applicable in Rochester, New York, we determined the potential cost to these subjects and community relative to the number of subjects who stopped smoking as a result of test findings. Subjects were evaluated by questionnaire and function testing including spirometry, flow-volume curves, body plethysmography and single breath nitrogen washout test (SBN2). Functional abnormalities were present in 75% of subjects screened. The SBN2 test was most sensitive, identifying 97% of subjects with any abnormality. The presence of common respiratory symptoms was found to be highly predictive of test abnormalities. Subjects were informed of results and counseled. At six-month follow-up, 7% of subjects with abnormal test results had stopped smoking. Utilizing even our most cost-effective test, the SBN2, it would cost +1,392 for each "benefit" defined as one subject not smoking for six months. Application of these screening techniques is unlikely to be effective in altering smoking habits in the absence of continued physician support.

  16. The squares test as a measure of hand function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Jeroen; Laton, Jorne; Van Schependom, J; De Deyn, P P; Nagels, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Deterioration of hand function can be important in multiple sclerosis (MS). The standard way of assessing hand function in MS is the 9-hole peg test (9HPT), one of the three components of the MS functional composite measure. In this study we examine the squares test (ST), a test of hand function that is used extensively in handedness research. We evaluated reproducibility of the ST in 49 healthy controls, and both discriminatory power and concurrent validity of the ST in 38 MS patients and 18 age and gender matched controls. The ST proved to be a reliable and easy to administrate paper-and-pencil test of hand function. The ST showed a high and highly significant correlation with the standard 9HPT over a broad range of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and had high discriminatory power, also comparable to the 9HPT. Therefore, the ST is a candidate test for use in composite measures of MS related functional deficits for clinical practice and in clinical trials.

  17. Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Community Dynamics and Functional End Points during Sediment Bioaccumulation Tests.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Koelmans, Albert A; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-11-17

    Whole sediment toxicity tests play an important role in environmental risk assessment of organic chemicals. It is not clear, however, to what extent changing microbial community composition and associated functions affect sediment test results. We assessed the development of bacterial communities in artificial sediment during a 28 day bioaccumulation test with polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorpyrifos, and four marine benthic invertebrates. DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes were used to characterize bacterial community composition. Abundance of total bacteria and selected genes encoding enzymes involved in important microbially mediated ecosystem functions were measured by qPCR. Community composition and diversity responded most to the time course of the experiment, whereas organic matter (OM) content showed a low but significant effect on community composition, biodiversity and two functional genes tested. Moreover, OM content had a higher influence on bacterial community composition than invertebrate species. Medium OM content led to the highest gene abundance and is preferred for standard testing. Our results also indicated that a pre-equilibration period is essential for growth and stabilization of the bacterial community. The observed changes in microbial community composition and functional gene abundance may imply actual changes in such functions during tests, with consequences for exposure and toxicity assessment. PMID:26466173

  18. The Pillbox Test: an ecological measure of executive functioning and estimate of medication management abilities.

    PubMed

    Zartman, Andrea L; Hilsabeck, Robin C; Guarnaccia, Charles A; Houtz, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Studies indicate that executive functioning (EF) is a strong predictor of everyday function. However, assessment can be problematic as no single standardized instrument is known to measure all EF domains simultaneously. Thus, the Pillbox Test was developed as a new measure tapping four EF factors through the real-time assessment of medication management, a complex instrumental activity of daily living. The Pillbox Test showed good criterion-related validity and was effective in differentiating graduated levels of executive dysfunction between a mixed neurological group, medical control group, and healthy community control group. This test also showed good convergent validity as it correlated significantly in expected directions with established EF measures in all four of selected EF domains and the Direct Assessment of Functional Status. Finally, a receiver operator characteristic curve found a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 87.5%, suggesting that the Pillbox Test is a promising new ecological measure of EF.

  19. Postural control during standing reach in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-Ling; Yeh, Chun-Fu; Howe, Tsu-Hsin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the dynamic postural control of children with Down syndrome (DS). Specifically, we compared postural control and goal-directed reaching performance between children with DS and typically developing children during standing reach. Standing reach performance was analyzed in three main phases using the kinematic and kinetic data collected from a force plate and a motion capture system. Fourteen children with DS, age and gender matched with fourteen typically developing children, were recruited for this study. The results showed that the demand of the standing reach task affected both dynamic postural control and reaching performance in children with DS, especially in the condition of beyond arm's length reaching. More postural adjustment strategies were recruited when reaching distance was beyond arm's length. Children with DS tended to use inefficient and conservative strategies for postural stability and reaching. That is, children with DS perform standing reach with increased reaction and execution time and decreased amplitudes of center of pressure displacements. Standing reach resembled functional balance that is required in daily activities. It is suggested to be considered as a part of strength and balance training program with graded task difficulty.

  20. Ground Test of the Urine Processing Assembly for Accelerations and Transfer Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Almond, Deborah F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the ground test of the urine processing assembly for accelerations and transfer functions. Details are given on the test setup, test data, data analysis, analytical results, and microgravity assessment. The conclusions of the tests include the following: (1) the single input/multiple output method is useful if the data is acquired by tri-axial accelerometers and inputs can be considered uncorrelated; (2) tying coherence with the matrix yields higher confidence in results; (3) the WRS#2 rack ORUs need to be isolated; (4) and future work includes a plan for characterizing performance of isolation materials.

  1. Functional test generation for digital circuits described with a declarative language: LUSTRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahrous, Mazen

    1990-08-01

    A functional approach to the test generation problem starting from a high level description is proposed. The circuit tested is modeled, using the LUSTRE high level data flow description language. The different LUSTRE primitives are translated to a SATAN format graph in order to evaluate the testability of the circuit and to generate test sequences. Another method of testing the complex circuits comprising an operative part and a control part is defined. It consists of checking experiments for the control part observed through the operative part. It was applied to the automata generated from a LUSTRE description of the circuit.

  2. Testing functional trait-based mechanisms underpinning plant responses to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning in grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. X.; Li, W. H.; Lan, Z. C.; Ren, H. Y.; Wang, K. B.; Bai, Y. F.

    2014-09-01

    Abundant evidence has shown that grazing alters plant functional traits, ecological strategies, community structure, and ecosystem functioning of grasslands. Few studies, however, have examined how plant responses to grazing are mediated by resource availability and functional group identity. We test functional trait-based mechanisms underlying the responses of different life forms to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning along a soil moisture gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on 9 traits × 276 species matrix showed that the plant size spectrum (i.e., individual biomass), leaf economics spectrum (leaf N content and leaf density), and light competition spectrum (height and stem-leaf biomass ratio) distinguished plant species responses to grazing. The three life forms exhibited differential strategies as indicated by trait responses to grazing. The annuals and biennials adopted grazing-tolerant strategies associated with high growth rate, reflected by high leaf N content and specific leaf area. The perennial grasses exhibited grazing-tolerant strategies associated with great regrowth capacity and high palatability scores, whereas perennial forbs showed grazing-avoidant strategies with short stature and low palatability scores. In addition, the dominant perennial bunchgrasses exhibited mixed tolerance-resistance strategies to grazing and mixed acquisitive-conservative strategies in resource utilization. Grazing increased the relative abundance of perennial forbs with low palatability in the wet and fertile meadow, but it promoted perennial grasses with high palatability in the dry and infertile typical steppe. Our findings suggest that the effects of grazing on plant functional traits are dependent on both the abiotic (e.g., soil moisture) and biotic (e.g., plant functional group identity and composition) factors. Grazing-induced shifts in functional group composition are largely dependent on resource

  3. Reliability and validity of the sideways step test and its correlation with motor function after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Eva Y.F.; Fong, Shirley S.M.; Tse, Mimi M.Y.; Tam, Eric W.C.; Ng, Shamay SM; So, Billy C.L.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the sideways step test (SST), its correlation with other indicators of stroke-specific impairment, and the cut-off count best discriminating subjects with stroke from their healthy counterparts. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three subjects with chronic stroke and 41 healthy subjects older than 50 years participated in this study. The SST was administered along with the Fugl-Meyer motor assessment for the lower extremities (FMA-LE), the five-times sit to stand (5TSTS) test, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the movement velocity (MVL) by the limits of stability (LOS) test, the ten-metre walk (10mW) test, the timed “Up and Go” (TUG) test and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. [Results] The SST showed good to excellent intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability. The SST counts correlated with 5TSTS times, 10mW times, TUG times, and the FMA-LE and BBS scores. SST counts of 11 for the paretic leg and 14 for the non-paretic leg were found to distinguish the healthy adults from subjects with stroke. [Conclusion] The sideways step test is a reliable clinical test, which correlates with the functional strength, gait speed, and functional balance of people with chronic stroke. PMID:26180332

  4. Switching from reaching to navigation: differential cognitive strategies for spatial memory in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Navigational and reaching spaces are known to involve different cognitive strategies and brain networks, whose development in humans is still debated. In fact, high-level spatial processing, including allocentric location encoding, is already available to very young children, but navigational strategies are not mature until late childhood. The Magic Carpet (MC) is a new electronic device translating the traditional Corsi Block-tapping Test (CBT) to navigational space. In this study, the MC and the CBT were used to assess spatial memory for navigation and for reaching, respectively. Our hypothesis was that school-age children would not treat MC stimuli as navigational paths, assimilating them to reaching sequences. Ninety-one healthy children aged 6 to 11 years and 18 adults were enrolled. Overall short-term memory performance (span) on both tests, effects of sequence geometry, and error patterns according to a new classification were studied. Span increased with age on both tests, but relatively more in navigational than in reaching space, particularly in males. Sequence geometry specifically influenced navigation, not reaching. The number of body rotations along the path affected MC performance in children more than in adults, and in women more than in men. Error patterns indicated that navigational sequences were increasingly retained as global paths across development, in contrast to separately stored reaching locations. A sequence of spatial locations can be coded as a navigational path only if a cognitive switch from a reaching mode to a navigation mode occurs. This implies the integration of egocentric and allocentric reference frames, of visual and idiothetic cues, and access to long-term memory. This switch is not yet fulfilled at school age due to immature executive functions.

  5. Switching from reaching to navigation: differential cognitive strategies for spatial memory in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Navigational and reaching spaces are known to involve different cognitive strategies and brain networks, whose development in humans is still debated. In fact, high-level spatial processing, including allocentric location encoding, is already available to very young children, but navigational strategies are not mature until late childhood. The Magic Carpet (MC) is a new electronic device translating the traditional Corsi Block-tapping Test (CBT) to navigational space. In this study, the MC and the CBT were used to assess spatial memory for navigation and for reaching, respectively. Our hypothesis was that school-age children would not treat MC stimuli as navigational paths, assimilating them to reaching sequences. Ninety-one healthy children aged 6 to 11 years and 18 adults were enrolled. Overall short-term memory performance (span) on both tests, effects of sequence geometry, and error patterns according to a new classification were studied. Span increased with age on both tests, but relatively more in navigational than in reaching space, particularly in males. Sequence geometry specifically influenced navigation, not reaching. The number of body rotations along the path affected MC performance in children more than in adults, and in women more than in men. Error patterns indicated that navigational sequences were increasingly retained as global paths across development, in contrast to separately stored reaching locations. A sequence of spatial locations can be coded as a navigational path only if a cognitive switch from a reaching mode to a navigation mode occurs. This implies the integration of egocentric and allocentric reference frames, of visual and idiothetic cues, and access to long-term memory. This switch is not yet fulfilled at school age due to immature executive functions. PMID:25443319

  6. Mass reach scaling for future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2015-04-01

    The primary goal of any future hadron collider is to discover new physics (NP) associated with a high mass scale, , beyond the range of the LHC. In order to maintain the same relative mass reach for rate-limited NP, , as increases, Richter recently reminded us that the required integrated luminosity obtainable at future hadron colliders (FHC) must grow rapidly, , in the limit of naive scaling. This would imply, e.g., a 50-fold increase in the required integrated luminosity when going from the 14 TeV LHC to a FHC with TeV, an increase that would prove quite challenging on many different fronts. In this paper we point out, due to the scaling violations associated with the evolution of the parton density functions (PDFs) and the running of the strong coupling, , that the actual luminosity necessary in order to maintain any fixed value of the relative mass reach is somewhat greater than this scaling result indicates. However, the actual values of the required luminosity scaling are found to be dependent upon the detailed nature of the NP being considered. Here we elucidate this point explicitly by employing several specific benchmark examples of possible NP scenarios and briefly discuss the (relatively weak) search impact in each case if these luminosity goals are not met.

  7. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (p<0.05). Bench press total work was also significantly impaired, although maximal isometric force and power were not significantly affected. No changes were noted for measurements of central activation or force steadiness. Results for ISS crew were not analyzed due to the current small sample size. DISCUSSION: Significant reductions in lower body muscle performance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely

  8. Functional brain hubs and their test-retest reliability: a multiband resting-state functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xu-Hong; Xia, Ming-Rui; Xu, Ting; Dai, Zheng-Jia; Cao, Xiao-Yan; Niu, Hai-Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng; He, Yong

    2013-12-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) has emerged as a promising neuroimaging technique used to identify global hubs of the human brain functional connectome. However, most R-fMRI studies on functional hubs mainly utilize traditional R-fMRI data with relatively low sampling rates (e.g., repetition time [TR]=2 s). R-fMRI data scanned with higher sampling rates are important for the characterization of reliable functional connectomes because they can provide temporally complementary information about functional integration among brain regions and simultaneously reduce the effects of high frequency physiological noise. Here, we employed a publicly available multiband R-fMRI dataset with a sub-second sampling rate (TR=645 ms) to identify global hubs in the human voxel-wise functional networks, and further examined their test-retest (TRT) reliability over scanning time. We showed that the functional hubs of human brain networks were mainly located at the default-mode regions (e.g., medial prefrontal and parietal cortex as well as the lateral parietal and temporal cortex) and the sensorimotor and visual cortex. These hub regions were highly anatomically distance-dependent, where short-range and long-range hubs were primarily located at the primary cortex and the multimodal association cortex, respectively. We found that most functional hubs exhibited fair to good TRT reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients. Interestingly, our analysis suggested that a 6-minute scan duration was able to reliably detect these functional hubs. Further comparison analysis revealed that these results were approximately consistent with those obtained using traditional R-fMRI scans of the same subjects with TR=2500 ms, but several regions (e.g., lateral frontal cortex, paracentral lobule and anterior temporal lobe) exhibited different TRT reliability. Finally, we showed that several regions (including the medial/lateral prefrontal cortex and lateral temporal cortex) were

  9. On statistical properties of the test functions of the nonparametric methods for periodogram analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Chinarova, L. L.

    1997-12-01

    Numerical comparison of methods for the periodogram analysis is carried out for modifications by Lafler and Kinman (1965), Burke et al. (1970), Deeming (1970), Renson (1978) and Dworetsky (1983). For some numerical models the values of the mean, variance, asymmetry, and excess of the test functions are determined, the correlations between them are discussed. Analytic estimates of the mathematical expectation of the test function for different methods and of the dispersion of the test function by Lafler and Kinman (1965) are obtained. The algorithm of choosing the optimum period is discussed. By using the proposed method, the orbital period of the eclipsing binary star HBV 426 = V1147 Cyg is determined, which is 1.097383d.

  10. [Respiratory function assessment in cooperative patients. Part I. Spiromery and bronchodilator reversibility testing].

    PubMed

    Oliva Hernández, C; Gómez Pastrana, D; Sirvent Gómez, J; Asensio de la Cruz, O

    2007-04-01

    Assessment of respiratory function is the principal tool in the study of patients with lung diseases, allowing physiopathological alterations to be detected, and the severity of the process, its clinical course, and treatment response to be identified. Nowadays, assessment of respiratory function is among the investigations used by Spanish pediatricians. The Techniques Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pneumology undertook the design of a protocol for the study of pulmonary function in children that would incorporate the most recent published consensus documents on basic pulmonary function assessment (spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility testing) and on airway hyperreactivity evaluation using nonspecific provocation tests. The aim of this protocol is to provide a guide to good clinical practice until new changes, based on scientific evidence, are produced.

  11. Functional Performance Testing and Patient Reported Outcomes following ACL Reconstruction: A Systematic Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Almangoush, Adel; Herrington, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. A systematic scoping review of the literature to identify functional performance tests and patient reported outcomes for patients who undergo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and rehabilitation that are used in clinical practice and research during the last decade. Methods. A literature search was conducted. Electronic databases used included Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and AMED. The inclusion criteria were English language, publication between April 2004 and April 2014, and primary ACL reconstruction with objective and/or subjective outcomes used. Two authors screened the selected papers for title, abstract, and full-text in accordance with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality of all papers was assessed by a checklist of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Results. A total of 16 papers were included with full-text. Different authors used different study designs for functional performance testing which led to different outcomes that could not be compared. All papers used a measurement for quantity of functional performance except one study which used both quantity and quality outcomes. Several functional performance tests and patient reported outcomes were identified in this review. Conclusion. No extensive research has been carried out over the past 10 years to measure the quality of functional performance testing and control stability of patients following ACL reconstruction. However this study found that the measurement of functional performance following ACL reconstruction consisting of a one-leg hop for a set distance or a combination of different hops using limb symmetry index (LSI) was a main outcome parameter of several studies. A more extensive series of tests is suggested to measure both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of functional performance after the ACL reconstruction. The KOOS and the IKDC questionnaires are both measures that

  12. Functional Performance Testing and Patient Reported Outcomes following ACL Reconstruction: A Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. A systematic scoping review of the literature to identify functional performance tests and patient reported outcomes for patients who undergo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and rehabilitation that are used in clinical practice and research during the last decade. Methods. A literature search was conducted. Electronic databases used included Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and AMED. The inclusion criteria were English language, publication between April 2004 and April 2014, and primary ACL reconstruction with objective and/or subjective outcomes used. Two authors screened the selected papers for title, abstract, and full-text in accordance with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality of all papers was assessed by a checklist of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Results. A total of 16 papers were included with full-text. Different authors used different study designs for functional performance testing which led to different outcomes that could not be compared. All papers used a measurement for quantity of functional performance except one study which used both quantity and quality outcomes. Several functional performance tests and patient reported outcomes were identified in this review. Conclusion. No extensive research has been carried out over the past 10 years to measure the quality of functional performance testing and control stability of patients following ACL reconstruction. However this study found that the measurement of functional performance following ACL reconstruction consisting of a one-leg hop for a set distance or a combination of different hops using limb symmetry index (LSI) was a main outcome parameter of several studies. A more extensive series of tests is suggested to measure both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of functional performance after the ACL reconstruction. The KOOS and the IKDC questionnaires are both measures that

  13. Test battery designed to quickly and safely assess diverse indices of neuromuscular function after unweighting.

    PubMed

    Spiering, Barry A; Lee, Stuart M C; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Bentley, Jason R; Buxton, Roxanne E; Lawrence, Emily L; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2011-02-01

    Adequately describing the functional consequences of unweighting (e.g., bed rest, immobilization, spaceflight) requires assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular function (i.e., strength, power, endurance, central activation, force steadiness). Additionally, because unweighting increases the susceptibility of muscle to damage, testing should consider supplementary safety features. The purpose of this study was to develop a test battery for quickly assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular function. Commercially available exercise equipment was modified to include data acquisition hardware (e.g., force plates, position transducers) and auxiliary safety hardware (e.g., magnetic brakes). Ten healthy, ambulatory subjects (31 ± 5 years, 173 ± 11 cm, 73 ± 14 kg) completed a battery of lower- and upper-body neuromuscular function tests on 3 occasions separated by at least 48 hours. The battery consisted of the following tests, in order: (1) knee extension central activation, (2) knee extension force steadiness, (3) leg press maximal strength, (4) leg press maximal power, (5) leg press power endurance, (6) bench press maximal strength, (7) bench press force steadiness, (8) bench press maximal power, and (9) bench press power endurance. Central activation, strength, rate of force development, maximal power, and power endurance (total work) demonstrated good-to-excellent measurement reliability (SEM = 3-14%; intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.87-0.99). The SEM of the force steadiness variables was 20-35% (ICC = 0.20-0.60). After familiarization, the test battery required 49 ± 6 minutes to complete. In conclusion, we successfully developed a test battery that could be used to quickly and reliably assess diverse indices of neuromuscular function. Because the test battery involves minimal eccentric muscle actions and impact forces, the potential for muscle injury has likely been reduced.

  14. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R.; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome. PMID:26351414

  15. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  16. Measuring individuals' response quality in self-administered psychological tests: an introduction to Gendre's functional method.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Capel, Roland; Gendre, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The functional method is a new test theory using a new scoring method that assumes complexity in test structure, and thus takes into account every correlation between factors and items. The main specificity of the functional method is to model test scores by multiple regression instead of estimating them by using simplistic sums of points. In order to proceed, the functional method requires the creation of hyperspherical measurement space, in which item responses are expressed by their correlation with orthogonal factors. This method has three main qualities. First, measures are expressed in the absolute metric of correlations; therefore, items, scales and persons are expressed in the same measurement space using the same single metric. Second, factors are systematically orthogonal and without errors, which is optimal in order to predict other outcomes. Such predictions can be performed to estimate how one would answer to other tests, or even to model one's response strategy if it was perfectly coherent. Third, the functional method provides measures of individuals' response validity (i.e., control indices). Herein, we propose a standard procedure in order to identify whether test results are interpretable and to exclude invalid results caused by various response biases based on control indices.

  17. Resampling-based multiple comparison procedure with application to point-wise testing with functional data

    PubMed Central

    Vsevolozhskaya, Olga A.; Greenwood, Mark C.; Powell, Scott L.; Zaykin, Dmitri V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a coherent multiple testing procedure for correlated test statistics such as are encountered in functional linear models. The procedure makes use of two different p-value combination methods: the Fisher combination method and the Šidák correction-based method. P-values for Fisher’s and Šidák’s test statistics are estimated through resampling to cope with the correlated tests. Building upon these two existing combination methods, we propose the smallest p-value as a new test statistic for each hypothesis. The closure principle is incorporated along with the new test statistic to obtain the overall p-value and appropriately adjust the individual p-values. Furthermore, a shortcut version for the proposed procedure is detailed, so that individual adjustments can be obtained even for a large number of tests. The motivation for developing the procedure comes from a problem of point-wise inference with smooth functional data where tests at neighboring points are related. A simulation study verifies that the methodology performs well in this setting. We illustrate the proposed method with data from a study on the aerial detection of the spectral effect of below ground carbon dioxide leakage on vegetation stress via spectral responses.

  18. Comparison of statistical tests for group differences in brain functional networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghi; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Mueller, Bryon A; Shen, Xiaotong; Pan, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Brain functional connectivity has been studied by analyzing time series correlations in regional brain activities based on resting-state fMRI data. Brain functional connectivity can be depicted as a network or graph defined as a set of nodes linked by edges. Nodes represent brain regions and an edge measures the strength of functional correlation between two regions. Most of existing work focuses on estimation of such a network. A key but inadequately addressed question is how to test for possible differences of the networks between two subject groups, say between healthy controls and patients. Here we illustrate and compare the performance of several state-of-the-art statistical tests drawn from the neuroimaging, genetics, ecology and high-dimensional data literatures. Both real and simulated data were used to evaluate the methods. We found that Network Based Statistic (NBS) performed well in many but not all situations, and its performance critically depends on the choice of its threshold parameter, which is unknown and difficult to choose in practice. Importantly, two adaptive statistical tests called adaptive sum of powered score (aSPU) and its weighted version (aSPUw) are easy to use and complementary to NBS, being higher powered than NBS in some situations. The aSPU and aSPUw tests can also be applied to adjust for covariates. Between the aSPU and aSPUw tests, they often, but not always, performed similarly with neither one as a uniform winner. On the other hand, Multivariate Matrix Distance Regression (MDMR) has been applied to detect group differences for brain connectivity; with the usual choice of the Euclidean distance, MDMR is a special case of the aSPU test. Consequently NBS, aSPU and aSPUw tests are recommended to test for group differences in functional connectivity. PMID:25086298

  19. Exercise testing in severe emphysema: association with quality of life and lung function.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cynthia D; Benditt, Joshua O; Sciurba, Frank C; Lee, Shing M; Criner, Gerard J; Mosenifar, Zab; Shade, David M; Slivka, William A; Wise, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    Six-minute walk testing (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) are used to evaluate impairment in emphysema. However, the extent of impairment in these tests as well as the correlation of these tests with each other and lung function in advanced emphysema is not well characterized. During screening for the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, maximum ergometer CPX and 6MWT were performed in 1,218 individuals with severe COPD with an average FEV(1) of 26.9 +/- 7.1 % predicted. Predicted values for 6MWT and CPX were calculated from reference equations. Correlation coefficients and multivariable regression models were used to determine the association between lung function, quality of life (QOL) scores, and exercise measures. The two forms of exercise testing were correlated with each other (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001). However, the impairment of performance on CPX was greater than on the 6MWT (27.6 +/- 16.8 vs. 67.9 +/- 18.9 % predicted). Both exercise tests had similar correlation with measures of QOL, but maximum exercise capacity was better correlated with lung function measures than 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment, 6MWD had a slightly greater association with total SGRQ score than maximal exercise (effect size 0.37 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.03 %predicted/unit). Despite advanced emphysema, patients are able to maintain 6MWD to a greater degree than maximum exercise capacity. Moreover, the 6MWT may be a better test of functional capacity given its greater association with QOL measures whereas CPX is a better test of physiologic impairment.

  20. The use of a battery of tracking tests in the quantitative evaluation of neurological function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repa, B. S.; Albers, J. W.; Potvin, A. R.; Tourtellotte, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    A tracking test battery has been applied in a drug trail designed to compare the efficacy of L-DOPA and amantadine to that of L-DOPA and placebo in the treatment of 28 patients with Parkinson's disease. The drug trial provided an ideal opportunity for objectively evaluating the usefulness of tracking tests in assessing changes in neurologic function. Evaluating changes in patient performance resulting from disease progression and controlled clinical trials is of great importance in establishing effective treatment programs.

  1. It Might Not Make a Big DIF: Improved Differential Test Functioning Statistics That Account for Sampling Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, R. Philip; Counsell, Alyssa; Flora, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Differential test functioning, or DTF, occurs when one or more items in a test demonstrate differential item functioning (DIF) and the aggregate of these effects are witnessed at the test level. In many applications, DTF can be more important than DIF when the overall effects of DIF at the test level can be quantified. However, optimal statistical…

  2. Test-Retest Reliability and Convergent Validity of a Computer Based Hand Function Test Protocol in People with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Srikesavan, Cynthia S.; Shay, Barbara; Szturm, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A computer based hand function assessment tool has been developed to provide a standardized method for quantifying task performance during manipulations of common objects/tools/utensils with diverse physical properties and grip/grasp requirements for handling. The study objectives were to determine test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the test protocol in people with arthritis. Methods: Three different object manipulation tasks were evaluated twice in forty people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or hand osteoarthritis (HOA). Each object was instrumented with a motion sensor and moved in concert with a computer generated visual target. Self-reported joint pain and stiffness levels were recorded before and after each task. Task performance was determined by comparing the object movement with the computer target motion. This was correlated with grip strength, nine hole peg test, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Results: The test protocol indicated moderate to high test-retest reliability of performance measures for three manipulation tasks, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging between 0.5 to 0.84, p<0.05. Strength of association between task performance measures with self- reported activity/participation composite scores was low to moderate (Spearman rho <0.7). Low correlations (Spearman rho < 0.4) were observed between task performance measures and grip strength; and between three objects’ performance measures. Significant reduction in pain and joint stiffness (p<0.05) was observed after performing each task. Conclusion: The study presents initial evidence on the test retest reliability and convergent validity of a computer based hand function assessment protocol in people with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis. The novel tool objectively measures overall task performance during a variety of object manipulation tasks done by tracking a

  3. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Corrosion Test Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, W. C.; Fritz, R. L.

    1993-12-27

    This report documents the results of the corrosion tests that were performed to aid in the selection of the construction materials for multi-function waste tanks to be built in the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. Two alloys were tested: 304L and Alloy 20 austenitic stainless steel. The test media were aqueous solutions formulated to represent the extreme of the chemical compositions of waste to be stored in the tanks. The results summerized by alloy are as follows: For 304L the tests showed no stress-corrosion cracking in any of the nine test solutions. The tests showed pitting in on of the solutions. There were no indications of any weld heat-tint corrosion, nor any sign of preferential corrosion in the welded areas. For Alloy 20 the tests showed no general, pitting, or stress-corrosion cracking. One crevice corrosion coupon cracked at the web between a hole and the edge of the coupon in one of the solutions. Mechanical tests showed some possible crack extension in the same solution. Because of the failure of both alloys to meet test acceptance criteria, the tank waste chemistry will have to be restricted or an alternative alloy tested.

  4. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    PubMed

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  5. Clinical usefulness of dual-label Schilling test for pancreatic exocrine function

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.L.; Morishita, R.; Eguchi, T.; Kawai, T.; Sakai, M.; Tateishi, H.; Uchino, H.

    1989-05-01

    The usefulness of the pancreatic dual-label Schilling test as an indirect test of pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated. This dual-label Schilling test was based on the difference of absorption for (58Co)cobalamin bound to hog R protein and (57Co)cobalamin bound to intrinsic factor. In this study, the test was performed in 7 normal subjects, 5 patients with pancreatectomy, 12 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 10 patients with suspicion of chronic pancreatitis, and 13 patients without chronic pancreatitis. The normal lower limit (mean -2 SD) of excretion ratio for (58Co)/(57Co) in 24-h urine was 0.68. Of the 26 patients on whom endoscopic retrograde pancreatography was performed, none of the 9 patients with normal pancreatogram, 4 of the 9 patients with mild to moderate pancreatitic changes in pancreatogram, and 7 of the 8 patients with advanced pancreatitic changes in pancreatogram showed a positive value lower than the ratio of 0.68 in this test. In 28 patients examined with the direct test of pancreatic secretory capacity, 2 of the 13 patients with normal function, 6 of the 9 patients with mild dysfunction, and 5 of the 6 patients with definite dysfunction were positive in this test. The results of the pancreatic dual-label Schilling test significantly correlated with those of a direct test of pancreatic secretory capacity and the findings of pancreatitic changes in pancreatogram (p less than 0.01, chi 2 test). The ratio for (58Co)/(57Co) correlated (r = 0.73) with the maximal bicarbonate concentration in duodenal juice of the direct test of pancreatic secretory capacity. The impairment of bicarbonate output by the pancreas may adversely affect the transfer of cobalamin from R protein to intrinsic factor.

  6. Functional Equivalence Acceptance Testing of FUN3D for Entry Descent and Landing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Glass, Christopher E.; Padilla, Jose F.; Hammond, Dana P.; White, Jeffery A.

    2013-01-01

    The functional equivalence of the unstructured grid code FUN3D to the the structured grid code LAURA (Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm) is documented for applications of interest to the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) community. Examples from an existing suite of regression tests are used to demonstrate the functional equivalence, encompassing various thermochemical models and vehicle configurations. Algorithm modifications required for the node-based unstructured grid code (FUN3D) to reproduce functionality of the cell-centered structured code (LAURA) are also documented. Challenges associated with computation on tetrahedral grids versus computation on structured-grid derived hexahedral systems are discussed.

  7. An experimental method to obtain the elastic strain energy function from torsion-tension tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that by employing a torsion-tension test, it is possible to have a complete mapping near the origin of the two principal strain invariants associated with the rate of change of the strain energy function. However, the mathematical representation of the twist moment and normal forces vs strain and the strain energy function are complex. This problem is solved by using a set of solid cylindrical bars with different diameters such that the difference in diameter of two successive bars is small. The stress-strain equations can be grossly oversimplified by considering differences in twist moment and normal force as a function of difference in radius.

  8. Optimum laboratory test combinations for thyroid function studies, selected by discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Rootwelt, K; Solberg, H E

    1978-09-01

    In 430 patients with a variety of thyroid disorders, linear discriminant analysis was used to select laboratory test combinations giving optimum diagnostic efficiency in thyroid function studies. Unexpectedly, TSH was found valuable in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and T3 in hypothyroidism. These test combinations were found optimal for the separation of euthyroidism/hyperthyroidism: T3, TSH and T4; euthyroidism/hypothyroidism: Combined free thyroid hormone index (FTI) and TSH; and hyperthyroidism/euthyroidism/hypothyroidism: T3, TSH, T4, FTI and T3U. The latter test combination had a total efficiency of 94%. Cholesterol, achilles reflex time, PBI and radioiodine uptake measurement contributed little to the discrimination.

  9. Functional linear models to test for differences in prairie wetland hydraulic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Mark C.; Sojda, Richard S.; Preston, Todd M.; Swayne, David A.; Yang, Wanhong; Voinov, A.A.; Rizzoli, A.; Filatova, T.

    2010-01-01

    Functional data analysis provides a framework for analyzing multiple time series measured frequently in time, treating each series as a continuous function of time. Functional linear models are used to test for effects on hydraulic gradient functional responses collected from three types of land use in Northeastern Montana at fourteen locations. Penalized regression-splines are used to estimate the underlying continuous functions based on the discretely recorded (over time) gradient measurements. Permutation methods are used to assess the statistical significance of effects. A method for accommodating missing observations in each time series is described. Hydraulic gradients may be an initial and fundamental ecosystem process that responds to climate change. We suggest other potential uses of these methods for detecting evidence of climate change.

  10. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W.; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge. PMID:26418499

  11. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge.

  12. Retronasal testing of olfactory function: an investigation and comparison in seven countries.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Hoffmann, Heike; Philpott, Carl; Rombaux, Philippe; Welge-Luessen, Antje; Vodicka, Jan; Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Morera, Eduardo; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Flavor perception is to a large extent determined by olfaction, and persons who lost their sense of smell consequently complain about strongly reduced enjoyment of food. The retronasal olfactory function is especially important for flavor appreciation. The aim of this study was to compare retronasal function across different cultures and to develop a test that is applicable across cultures. Identification of 39 retronasal applied odor probes was tested in a total of 518 participants of seven countries; 292 of them were healthy, and 226 exhibited a smell disorder. A retest was performed with 224 of the healthy participants. Furthermore, all participants were tested for orthonasal threshold, identification, and discrimination ability. Significant cultural differences in identification ability were found in 92% of the probes. The 20 probes that could be identified above chance in healthy participants of all countries and that could differentiate between patients and controls were selected for the final retronasal test. This test was well able to differentiate between controls and patients in different countries and showed a good coherence with the orthonasal test (r = 0.80) and a good retest-reliability (r = 0.76). Furthermore, it is age-independent. The strong cultural differences observed in retronasal identification underline the necessity to develop a culturally independent instrument. This retronasal test is easy to apply and can be used across different countries for diagnostics and clinical research. PMID:23999595

  13. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge. PMID:26418499

  14. Region-Based Association Test for Familial Data under Functional Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Axenovich, Tatiana I.

    2015-01-01

    Region-based association analysis is a more powerful tool for gene mapping than testing of individual genetic variants, particularly for rare genetic variants. The most powerful methods for regional mapping are based on the functional data analysis approach, which assumes that the regional genome of an individual may be considered as a continuous stochastic function that contains information about both linkage and linkage disequilibrium. Here, we extend this powerful approach, earlier applied only to independent samples, to the samples of related individuals. To this end, we additionally include a random polygene effects in functional linear model used for testing association between quantitative traits and multiple genetic variants in the region. We compare the statistical power of different methods using Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 mini-exome family data and a wide range of simulation scenarios. Our method increases the power of regional association analysis of quantitative traits compared with burden-based and kernel-based methods for the majority of the scenarios. In addition, we estimate the statistical power of our method using regions with small number of genetic variants, and show that our method retains its advantage over burden-based and kernel-based methods in this case as well. The new method is implemented as the R-function ‘famFLM’ using two types of basis functions: the B-spline and Fourier bases. We compare the properties of the new method using models that differ from each other in the type of their function basis. The models based on the Fourier basis functions have an advantage in terms of speed and power over the models that use the B-spline basis functions and those that combine B-spline and Fourier basis functions. The ‘famFLM’ function is distributed under GPLv3 license and is freely available at http://mga.bionet.nsc.ru/soft/famFLM/. PMID:26111046

  15. Poor Vision, Functioning, and Depressive Symptoms: A Test of the Activity Restriction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila; Lawson, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the applicability of the activity restriction model of depressed affect to the context of poor vision in late life. This model hypothesizes that late-life stressors contribute to poorer mental health not only directly but also indirectly by restricting routine everyday functioning. Method: We used data from a national…

  16. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-2, Pump Functional Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasel, Ed; Espy, John

    This second in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection describes typical pump functional tests which are performed after pump installation and prior to release of the plant for unrestricted power operation. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  17. Genetic Influences on Cognitive Function Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jamie J.; MacGregor, Alex J.; Cherkas, Lynn F.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic relationship between intelligence and components of cognition remains controversial. Conflicting results may be a function of the limited number of methods used in experimental evaluation. The current study is the first to use CANTAB (The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). This is a battery of validated computerised…

  18. Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for Test Development and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Janet F.; Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the development and use of tests in school settings are enumerated. We predict increased demand for behavioural assessments that consider a person's activities, participation and person-environment interactions, including measures that: (a) address…

  19. Detecting and Analyzing Differential Item Functioning in an Essay Test Using the Partial Credit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steven; Walker-Bartnick, Leslie

    A procedure was developed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in a standardized essay test using the Partial Credit Model, the general polychotomous form of the Rasch model. Using a panel of experts in the writing process, hypothesized explanations for DIF at some score points were developed. Data for the study included averaged…

  20. Emotional-volitional components of operator reliability. [sensorimotor function testing under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileryan, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sensorimotor function testing in a tracking task under stressfull working conditions established a psychological characterization for a successful aviation pilot: Motivation significantly increased the reliability and effectiveness of their work. Their acitivities were aimed at suppressing weariness and the feeling of fear caused by the stress factors; they showed patience, endurance, persistence, and a capacity for lengthy volitional efforts.

  1. Cardio-Pulmonary Function Testing. Continuing Education Curriculum for Respiratory Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Technical Vocational Inst., MN.

    Compiled from interviews with personnel in pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, this competency-based curriculum guide is intended to provide a knowledge of PFT for persons who provide respiratory care. The guide contains 20 sections covering the following topics: vital capacity, flow measurements,…

  2. Exploring Population Sensitivity of Linking Functions across Three Law School Admission Test Administrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Mei; Holland, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    The simplified version of the Dorans and Holland (2000) measure of population invariance, the root mean square difference (RMSD), is used to explore the degree of dependence of linking functions on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) subpopulations defined by examinees' gender, ethnic background, geographic region, law school application status,…

  3. The predominant forms of vertigo in children and their associated findings on balance function testing.

    PubMed

    McCaslin, Devin L; Jacobson, Gary P; Gruenwald, Jill M

    2011-04-01

    This article reports vestibular laboratory findings from the most common disorders known to cause dizziness and vertigo in children. Specific information regarding migraine, trauma, benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood, vestibular neuritis, and otitis media is reviewed, along with indications for balance function testing in children.

  4. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  5. PuFT: Computer-Assisted Program for Pulmonary Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    PuFT computer program (Microsoft Basic) is designed to help in understanding/interpreting pulmonary function tests (PFT). The program provides predicted values for common PFT after entry of patient data, calculates/plots graph simulating force vital capacity (FVC), and allows observations of effects on predicted PFT values and FVC curve when…

  6. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. Aim To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Materials and Methods Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. Results There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (p< 0.05, significant) which indicates that mindfulness meditation is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system and can thereby reduce the day-to-day perceived stress in pregnant women. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy. PMID:27190795

  7. Variability of Classification by the Matching Familiar Figures Test as a Function of Grade Level Medians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Steven G.

    1977-01-01

    This study examined the variability of classification by the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFF) as a function of grade level medians. MFF classification was highly dependent upon which sample medians were used. Analysis revealed for the majority (65 percent) of children, change in classification was due to change in the median error cutoff.…

  8. Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Erb, Christopher D; Moher, Jeff; Sobel, David M; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The current study uses reach tracking to investigate how cognitive control is implemented during online performance of the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and the Eriksen flanker task (Experiment 2). We demonstrate that two of the measures afforded by reach tracking, initiation time and reach curvature, capture distinct patterns of effects that have been linked to dissociable processes underlying cognitive control in electrophysiology and functional neuroimaging research. Our results suggest that initiation time reflects a response threshold adjustment process involving the inhibition of motor output, while reach curvature reflects the degree of co-activation between response alternatives registered by a monitoring process over the course of a trial. In addition to shedding new light on fundamental questions concerning how these processes contribute to the cognitive control of behavior, these results present a framework for future research to investigate how these processes function across different tasks, develop across the lifespan, and differ among individuals. PMID:27045465

  9. Estimation of ventilatory capacity in subjects with unacceptable lung function tests.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E A; Robins, J M

    1986-09-01

    Based on pulmonary function data collected annually for six years on 540 Vermont granite workers, FEV1 in survey 1 was estimated by extrapolating back from subsequent measurements. The extrapolation method was found to fit the observed data of subjects with reproducible initial values very well (R2 = 0.87). Extrapolated FEV1s for workers unable to perform an adequate pulmonary function test according to the standards of the American Thoracic Society were compared to extrapolated values in the rest of the cohort. After adjusting for confounding, subjects with test failure in survey 1 had a lower extrapolated FEV1 than the rest of the cohort (p = 0.07). The mean extrapolated FEV1 of the 71 workers with an initial test failure was only 95% of a predicted value derived from the group with reproducible data, and the per cent predicted decreased from 98% to 71% as the number of test failures in the follow-up surveys increased (p = 0.0004). The American Thoracic Society and the Epidemiology Standardization Project currently recommend that test failures be excluded from the analysis of epidemiological data. Our findings suggest that alternative strategies for handling non-reproducible lung function may need to be explored in order to avoid selection bias.

  10. Testing and teaching functional versus generic skills in early childhood education in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baine, David

    1987-06-01

    This paper critiques a number of pre-academic and readiness tasks commonly found in tests and curricula used in early childhood education in North America and Europe and frequently adopted in developing countries. Some of the tasks discussed are: putting pegs in a pegboard, reproducing bead patterns, and completing picture puzzles. Evidence is presented to challenge a number of commonly held assumptions associated with these tasks: a) that the `generic skills' acquired when children learn these tasks are prerequisite to learning higher level skills, b) that the skills acquired will generalize to the performance of more functional activities, c) that handicapped children should be taught skills corresponding to their mental age level, and d) that handicapped children in developing countries should be tested and taught skills that are frequently found in the tests and curricula of normal functioning children in North America and Europe. Although much of the evidence cited has been available for some time, it has not generally influenced testing and teaching practices in developing countries. The tragic result is that very limited economic and manpower resources are often wasted on the use of ineffective methods. The final section of the paper describes recently developed methods of conducting ecological inventories for designing ecologically valid tests and curricula of functional skills in developing countries.

  11. Similar Motor Cortical Control Mechanisms for Precise Limb Control during Reaching and Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the course of evolution there has been a parallel development of the complexity and flexibility of the nervous system and the skeletomuscular system that it controls. This development is particularly evident for the cerebral cortical areas and the transformation of the use of the upper limbs from a purely locomotor function to one including, or restricted to, reaching and grasping. This study addresses the issue of whether the control of reaching has involved the development of new cortical circuits or whether the same neurons are used to control both locomotion and reaching. We recorded the activity of pyramidal tract neurons in the motor cortex of the cat both during voluntary gait modifications and during reaching. All cells showed generally similar patterns of activity in both tasks. More specifically, we showed that, in many cases, cells maintained a constant temporal relationship to the activity of synergistic muscle groups in each task. In addition, in some cells the relationship between the intensity of the cell discharge activity and the magnitude of the EMG activity was equally constant during gait modifications and reaching. As such, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that the corticospinal circuits used to control reaching evolved from those used to precisely modify gait. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In an article in 1989, Georgopoulos and Grillner (1989) proposed that the corticospinal control mechanisms used for reaching movements in primates may have evolved from those used to control precise modifications of gait during quadrupedal locomotion. In this article, we provide a test of this hypothesis by recording the activity of individual motor cortical cells during both behaviors. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis in that they demonstrate that individual cortical neurons exhibit similar qualitative and quantitative patterns during each behavior. Beyond a general similarity of activity patterns, we show that some cortical

  12. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height. PMID:26317680

  13. Monitoring Cognitive Functioning: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT)

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Margie E.; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Tun, Patricia A.; Weaver, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument which includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. We administered the battery to a national sample (N = 4,268), aged 32 to 84, from the study of Midlife in the United States and examined age, education and sex differences, reliability, and factor structure. We found good evidence for construct validity with a subsample tested in person. Implications of the findings are considered for efficient neuropsychological assessment and monitoring changes in cognitive aging, for clinical and research applications by telephone or in person. PMID:24322011

  14. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  15. [The comparative test of nasal mucociliary function in healthy subjects, smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Alfaro Monge, J M; Soda Merhy, A

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the changes produced in the nasal respiratory epithelium in individuals with an important smoking habit. The purpose of this study is to compare the nasal mucociliary function in healthy subjects, smokers and non-smokers. The nasal mucociliary transport of aspartame particles was measured in 50 healthy non-smokers and in 50 healthy smokers under similar conditions. The average time taken for the displacement of the test substance from the middle third of the inferior turbinate to the oropharynx was found to be in the smokers 13.62 min., and in the non-smokers, 10.34 min. The results were compared using student's "t" test and a significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between both groups. This result is taken as a simple clinical test that evaluates the smoking effects on the nasal mucociliary function.

  16. The Social Reach: 8-Month-Olds Reach for Unobtainable Objects in the Presence of Another Person.

    PubMed

    Ramenzoni, Verónica C; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    Linguistic communication builds on prelinguistic communicative gestures, but the ontogenetic origins and complexities of these prelinguistic gestures are not well known. The current study tested whether 8-month-olds, who do not yet point communicatively, use instrumental actions for communicative purposes. In two experiments, infants reached for objects when another person was present and when no one else was present; the distance to the objects was varied. When alone, the infants reached for objects within their action boundaries and refrained from reaching for objects out of their action boundaries; thus, they knew about their individual action efficiency. However, when a parent (Experiment 1) or a less familiar person (Experiment 2) sat next to them, the infants selectively increased their reaching for out-of-reach objects. The findings reveal that before they communicate explicitly through pointing gestures, infants use instrumental actions with the apparent expectation that a partner will adopt and complete their goals. PMID:27481910

  17. Does morphological convergence imply functional similarity? A test using the evolution of quadrupedalism in ornithischian dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Maidment, Susannah C R; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-09-22

    Convergent morphologies are thought to indicate functional similarity, arising because of a limited number of evolutionary or developmental pathways. Extant taxa displaying convergent morphologies are used as analogues to assess function in extinct taxa with similar characteristics. However, functional studies of extant taxa have shown that functional similarity can arise from differing morphologies, calling into question the paradigm that form and function are closely related. We test the hypothesis that convergent skeletal morphology indicates functional similarity in the fossil record using ornithischian dinosaurs. The rare transition from bipedality to quadrupedality occurred at least three times independently in this clade, resulting in a suite of convergent osteological characteristics. We use homology rather than analogy to provide an independent line of evidence about function, reconstructing soft tissues using the extant phylogenetic bracket and applying biomechanical concepts to produce qualitative assessments of muscle leverage. We also optimize character changes to investigate the sequence of character acquisition. Different lineages of quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur stood and walked differently from each other, falsifying the hypothesis that osteological convergence indicates functional similarity. The acquisition of features correlated with quadrupedalism generally occurs in the same order in each clade, suggesting underlying developmental mechanisms that act as evolutionary constraints.

  18. DVA as a Diagnostic Test for Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Appelbaum, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes vision on earth-fixed targets by eliciting eyes movements in response to changes in head position. How well the eyes perform this task can be functionally measured by the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test. We designed a passive, horizontal DVA test to specifically study the acuity and reaction time when looking in different target locations. Visual acuity was compared among 12 subjects using a standard Landolt C wall chart, a computerized static (no rotation) acuity test and dynamic acuity test while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (+/-60 deg/s). In addition, five trials with yaw oscillation randomly presented a visual target in one of nine different locations with the size and presentation duration of the visual target varying across trials. The results showed a significant difference between the static and dynamic threshold acuities as well as a significant difference between the visual targets presented in the horizontal plane versus those in the vertical plane when comparing accuracy of vision and reaction time of the response. Visual acuity increased proportional to the size of the visual target and increased between 150 and 300 msec duration. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of rotation. This DVA test could be used as a functional diagnostic test for visual-vestibular and neuro-cognitive impairments by assessing both accuracy and reaction time to acquire visual targets.

  19. Prediction of glass durability as a function of glass composition and test conditions: Thermodynamics and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1988-01-01

    The long-term durability of nuclear waste glasses can be predicted by comparing their performance to natural and ancient glasses. Glass durability is a function of the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of glass in solution. The relationship between the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of glass durability can be understood when the relative contributions of glass composition and imposed test conditions are delineated. Glass durability has been shown to be a function of the thermodynamic hydration free energy which can be calculated from the glass composition. Hydration thermodynamics also furnishes a quantitative frame of reference to understand how various test parameters affect glass durability. Linear relationships have been determined between the logarithmic extent of hydration and the calculated hydration free energy for several different test geometries. Different test conditions result in different kinetic reactivity parameters such as the exposed glass surface area (SA), the leachant solution volume (V), and the length of time that the glass is in the leachant (t). Leachate concentrations are known to be a function of the kinetic test parameter (SAV)t. The relative durabilities of glasses, including pure silica, obsidians, nuclear waste glasses, medieval window glasses, and frit glasses define a plane in three dimensional ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration-(SAV)t space. At constant kinetic conditions, e.g., test geometry and test duration, the three dimensional plane is intersected at constant (SAV)t and the ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration plots have similar slopes. The slope represents the natural logarithm of the theoretical slope, (12.303 RT), for the rate of glass dissolution. 53 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Evaluation of a whole blood remote platelet function test for the diagnosis of mild bleeding disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dovlatova, Natalia; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Lowe, Gillian C.; Dawood, Ban; May, Jane; Heptinstall, Stan; Watson, Steve P.; Fox, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mild platelet function disorders (PFDs) are complex and difficult to diagnose. The current gold standard test, light transmission aggregometry (LTA), including lumi-aggregometry, is time- and labour-intensive and blood samples must be processed within a limited time after venepuncture. Furthermore, many subjects with suspected PFDs do not show a platelet abnormality on LTA. Objective To assess the diagnostic potential of an easy-to-use remote platelet function test (RPFT) as a diagnostic pre-test for suspected PFDs. Methods RPFT was compared to lumi-aggregometry in participants recruited to the Genotyping and Phenotyping of Platelets study (GAPP, ISRCTN 77951167). For RPFT, whole blood was stimulated with platelet agonists, stabilized with PAMFix and returned to the central laboratory for analysis of P-selectin and CD63 by flow cytometry. Results In the 61 study participants (42 index cases and 19 relatives) there was a good agreement between lumi-aggregometry and RPFT with diagnosis being concordant in 84% of cases (kappa=0.668, p<0.0001). According to both tests, 29 participants were identified to have a deficiency in platelet function and 22 participants appeared normal. There were 4 participants where lumi-aggregometry revealed a defect but RPFT did not, and 6 participants where RPFT detected an abnormal platelet response that was not identified by lumi-aggregometry. Conclusion This study suggests that RPFT could be an easy-to-use pre-test to select, which participants with bleeding disorders would benefit from extensive platelet phenotyping. Further development and evaluation of the test are warranted in a wider population of patients with excessive bleeding and could provide informative screening tests for PFDs. PMID:24618131

  1. Stringent test for non-additive, non-interacting, kinetic energy functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Kaili; Nafziger, Jonathan; Wasserman, Adam

    Partition Density Functional Theory (PDFT) provides an ideal framework for testing and developing new approximations to the non-additive and non-interacting kinetic energy functional (Tsnadd [ {nα } ]), understood as a functional of the set of fragment ground-state densities. We present our progress on both of these fronts: (1) Systematic comparison of the performance of various existing approximations to Tsnadd [ {nα } ] ; and (2) Development of new approximations. We find that a re-parametrization of the GGA enhancement factor employed for the construction of Tsnadd [ {nα } ] through the conjointness conjecture captures essential features of the functional derivatives of Tsnadd [ {nα } ] . A physically-motivated two-orbital approximation for Tsnadd [ {nα } ] is shown to outperform most other approximations for the case of He2, and an intriguing one-parameter formula makes this approximation accurate for all noble-gas diatomics.

  2. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in State Science Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilich, Maria O.

    Psychometricians and test developers evaluate standardized tests for potential bias against groups of test-takers by using differential item functioning (DIF). English language learners (ELLs) are a diverse group of students whose native language is not English. While they are still learning the English language, they must take their standardized tests for their school subjects, including science, in English. In this study, linguistic complexity was examined as a possible source of DIF that may result in test scores that confound science knowledge with a lack of English proficiency among ELLs. Two years of fifth-grade state science tests were analyzed for evidence of DIF using two DIF methods, Simultaneous Item Bias Test (SIBTest) and logistic regression. The tests presented a unique challenge in that the test items were grouped together into testlets---groups of items referring to a scientific scenario to measure knowledge of different science content or skills. Very large samples of 10, 256 students in 2006 and 13,571 students in 2007 were examined. Half of each sample was composed of Spanish-speaking ELLs; the balance was comprised of native English speakers. The two DIF methods were in agreement about the items that favored non-ELLs and the items that favored ELLs. Logistic regression effect sizes were all negligible, while SIBTest flagged items with low to high DIF. A decrease in socioeconomic status and Spanish-speaking ELL diversity may have led to inconsistent SIBTest effect sizes for items used in both testing years. The DIF results for the testlets suggested that ELLs lacked sufficient opportunity to learn science content. The DIF results further suggest that those constructed response test items requiring the student to draw a conclusion about a scientific investigation or to plan a new investigation tended to favor ELLs.

  3. LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTIONAL TESTS AND RISK OF INJURY IN DIVISION III COLLEGIATE ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Manske, Robert C.; Niemuth, Paul E.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Functional tests have been used primarily to assess an athlete's fitness or readiness to return to sport. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine the ability of the standing long jump (SLJ) test, the single‐leg hop (SLH) for distance test, and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT) as preseason screening tools to identify collegiate athletes who may be at increased risk for a time‐loss sports‐related low back or lower extremity injury. Methods: A total of 193 Division III athletes from 15 university teams (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to their sports seasons. Athletes performed the functional tests in the following sequence: SLJ, SLH, LEFT. The athletes were then prospectively followed during their sports season for occurrence of low back or LE injury. Results: Female athletes who completed the LEFT in $118 s were 6 times more likely (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 31.7) to sustain a thigh or knee injury. Male athletes who completed the LEFT in #100 s were more likely to experience a time‐loss injury to the low back or LE (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.5) or a foot or ankle injury (OR=6.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 29.7) than male athletes who completed the LEFT in 101 s or more. Female athletes with a greater than 10% side‐to‐side asymmetry between SLH distances had a 4‐fold increase in foot or ankle injury (cut point: >10%; OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 15.4). Male athletes with SLH distances (either leg) at least 75% of their height had at least a 3‐fold increase (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for the right LE; OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for left LE) in low back or LE injury. Conclusions: The LEFT and the SLH tests appear useful in identifying Division III athletes at risk for a low back or lower extremity sports injury. Thus, these tests warrant further consideration as preparticipatory screening examination tools for sport injury in this population. Clinical Relevance: The single‐leg hop for

  4. Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Park, E-Jin; Choi, Jeewook; Chai, Sukhi; Lee, Ji-Han; Lee, Chul; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2011-12-30

    The potential relationship between Internet addiction and certain cognitive function problems has been suggested by several studies. However, few or no studies have examined the differences in cognitive functioning between persons addicted to the Internet and persons not addicted using a standard neuropsychological test. This study screened 253 middle school students and 389 high school students for Internet addiction and compared 59 Internet-addicted students with 43 non-addicted students using an IQ test. The Internet-addicted group had comprehension sub-item scores that were significantly lower than those of the non-addicted group. As the comprehension item reflects ethical judgement and reality testing, there may be a relationship between Internet addiction and weak social intelligence. Earlier onset of Internet addiction and longer addiction duration were associated with lower participant performance in areas related to attention. As this study is a cross-sectional study, it is not clear whether the persons who display weak cognitive functioning are susceptible to Internet addiction or if Internet addiction causes cognitive problems. However, as brain development remains active during adolescence, the possibility that Internet addiction adversely affects the cognitive functioning of adolescents cannot be ruled out.

  5. Thyroid function tests during first-trimester of pregnancy: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Azad R

    2010-07-15

    This literature review was conducted to summarize the main points of maternal thyroid function tests, with particular attention in the first trimester of pregnancy which accompanied with significant biochemical and metabolic alteration. The evaluation of thyroid function of either hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism should be assessed by determination of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), Iodine and Thyroid Autoantibodies. Glomerular filtration rate is increased during pregnancy; therefor iodine deficiency should be evaluated during the pregnancy to prevent hypothyroidism. The role which can be played by Human Chronic Gonadotropin (hCG) on stimulating the thyroid gland to become over-active was investigated. Serum level ofthyroglobulin (Tg) and Thyroxin Binding Globulin (TBG) should be assessed for proper assessments of thyroid gland during pregnancy. Thyroid function tests during first-trimester of pregnancy and particularly the reference interval for thyroid function tests for pregnant women in each region has to be established, to prevent mis-diagnosis and irreversible mental and physical adverse affect for growing fetus. PMID:21848058

  6. Dynamic testing of hypothalamic-pituitary function in abnormalities of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Jones, G E; Wentz, A C; Rosenwaks, Z; Shoemaker, J

    1977-12-01

    A review of 26 unusual patients indicates that a combined luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LRH)-clomiphene test in conjunction with an estrogen provocation test not only was helpful in identifying underlying pathophysiology of anovulation but also proved useful in the clinical management of the patients. Dynamic testing per se does not establish a diagnosis but, in conjunction with history and other laboratory findings, it does make possible further subdivisions of groups of patients who otherwise appear similar, both clinically and from routine laboratory evaluations. It, therefore, tends to pinpoint a lesion and establish the area in which further tests should be made. It is concluded that the value of such investigations will be more evident as gynecologic endocrinology moves into investigation of the supratentorial control of hypothalamic function and as hypothalamic LRH becomes available as a therapeutic agent.

  7. Unemployment in multiple sclerosis (MS): utility of the MS Functional Composite and cognitive testing.

    PubMed

    Strober, Lauren; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Moore, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2014-01-01

    Unemployment is a significant concern among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Determinations regarding ability to work are highly dependent on measurement tools used by neurologists and allied professionals. However, little is known of the usefulness of these tools when determining issues pertaining to employment status. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the utility of the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) and a brief cognitive test battery when examining employment status in MS. Seventy-seven individuals with MS completed the MSFC and a brief cognitive test battery. On the MSFC, unemployed individuals demonstrated worse upper extremity functioning. There was no difference on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT), the sole cognitive measure of the MSFC. On cognitive testing, unemployed individuals performed worse on measures of memory, information processing speed, and executive functioning. Through logistic regression analysis, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) was found to be the sole predictor of employment status among the significant disease, MSFC and cognitive variables. Consistent with previous findings, logistic regression found the SDMT to be a significant predictor of employment status. Given the lack of significant group differences on the PASAT, continued consideration of replacing the PASAT with the SDMT in the MSFC appears warranted.

  8. Binary pseudorandom test standard to determine the modulation transfer function of optical microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Ian; Anderson, Erik H.; Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Babin, Sergey; Cabrini, Stefano; Calafiore, Guiseppe; Chan, Elaine R.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Peroz, Christophe; Takacs, Peter Z.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports on the development of a binary pseudo-random test sample optimized to calibrate the MTF of optical microscopes. The sample consists of a number of 1-D and 2-D patterns, with different minimum sizes of spatial artifacts from 300 nm to 2 microns. We describe the mathematical background, fabrication process, data acquisition and analysis procedure to return spatial frequency based instrument calibration. We show that the developed samples satisfy the characteristics of a test standard: functionality, ease of specification and fabrication, reproducibility, and low sensitivity to manufacturing error.

  9. The impact of automatic digit naming ability on a clinical test of eye movement functioning.

    PubMed

    Richman, J E; Walker, A J; Garzia, R P

    1983-07-01

    One of the primary reasons for the clinical measurement of eye movements in children is probing the relationship of oculomotor functioning with reading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a subjective clinical test of lateral eye movements (KD Saccade Test) using a visual-verbal response format with the ability to name numbers automatically in the absence of eye movements in a first and second grade population. The results support the hypothesis that the eye movement skills measured with subjective visual-verbal formats as described in this study are deficits in automaticity of number knowledge ability and not oculomotor dysfunctions in some children.

  10. A Monte Carlo Examination of the Sensitivity of the Differential Functioning of Items and Tests Framework for Tests of Measurement Invariance with Likert Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Adam W.; Lautenschlager, Gary J.; Johnson, Emily C.

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights issues associated with the use of the differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) methodology for assessing measurement invariance (or differential functioning) with Likert-type data. Monte Carlo analyses indicate relatively low sensitivity of the DFIT methodology for identifying differential item functioning (DIF)…

  11. From Hard to Reach to How to Reach: A Systematic Review of the Literature on Hard-to-Reach Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boag-Munroe, Gill; Evangelou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature relating to hard-to-reach families which has been published over the last 12 years in the UK, USA, Canada and Australia. The purpose of the review was twofold: to gain insights to understandings of the term "hard-to-reach" within these services--education, health and social--which might be aiming to…

  12. The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The

  13. Differential Item Functioning in While-Listening Performance Tests: The Case of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Listening Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates a version of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) listening test for evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) based on gender, nationality, age, and degree of previous exposure to the test. Overall, the listening construct was found to be underrepresented, which is probably an important cause…

  14. Improving the Sandia Test Protocols with Advanced Inverter Functionality Testing of INV3, VV11, FW21, and L/HVRT

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean

    2013-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has created a test protocol for IEC TR 61850-90-7 advanced distributed energy resource (DER) functions, titled "Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions," often referred to as the Sandia Test Protocols. This document is currently in draft form, but has been shared with stakeholders around the world with the ultimate goal of collaborating to create a consensus set of test protocols which can be then incorporated into an International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and/or Underwriters Laboratories (UL) certification standard. The protocols are designed to ensure functional interoperability of DER (primarily photovoltaic (PV) inverters and energy storage systems) as specified by the IEC technical report through communication and electrical tests. In this report, Sandia exercises the electrical characterization portion of the test protocols for four functions: constant power factor (INV3), volt-var (VV11), frequency-watt (FW21), and Low and High Voltage Ride Through (L/HVRT). The goal of the tests reported here was not to characterize the performance of the equipment under test (EUT), but rather to (a) exercise the draft Sandia Test Protocols in order to identify any revisions needed in test procedures, conditions, or equipment and (b) gain experience with state-of-the-art DER equipment to determine if the tests put unrealistic or overly aggressive requirements on EUT operation. In performing the work according to the current versions of the protocols, Sandia was able to identify weaknesses in the current versions and suggest improvements to the test protocols.

  15. Perception–action development from infants to adults: Perceiving affordances for reaching through openings

    PubMed Central

    Franchak, John M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving possibilities for action—affordances—requires sensitivity, accuracy, and consistency. In the current study, we tested children of different ages (16-month-olds to 7-year-olds) and adults to examine the development of affordance perception for reaching through openings of various sizes. Using a psychophysical procedure, we estimated individual affordance functions to characterize participants' actual ability to fit their hand through openings and individual decision functions to characterize attempts to reach. Decisions were less accurate in younger children (16-month-olds to 5-year-olds); they were more likely to attempt impossible openings and to touch openings prior to refusing, suggesting a slow developmental trend in learning to perceive affordances for fitting through openings. However, analyses of multiple outcome measures revealed that the youngest participants were equally consistent in their decision making as the oldest ones and that every age group showed sensitivity to changes in the environment by scaling their attempts to opening size. PMID:24149378

  16. Investigating the Function of Content and Argumentation Items in a Science Test: A Multidimensional Approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shih-Ying; Wilson, Mark; Henderson, J Bryan; Osborne, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The latest national science framework has formally stated the need for developing assessments that test both students' content knowledge and scientific practices. In response to this call, a science assessment that consists of (a) content items that measure students' understanding of a grade eight physics topic and (b) argumentation items that measure students' argumentation competency has been developed. This paper investigated the function of these content and argumentation items with a multidimensional measurement framework from two perspectives. First, we performed a dimensionality analysis to investigate whether the relationship between the content and argumentation items conformed to test deign. Second, we conducted a differential item functioning analysis in the multidimensional framework to examine if any content or argumentation item unfairly favored students with an advanced level of English literacy. Methods and findings of this study could inform future research on the validation of assessments measuring higher-order and complex abilities.

  17. Proprioceptive body illusions modulate the visual perception of reaching distance.

    PubMed

    Petroni, Agustin; Carbajal, M Julia; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide-without engaging in explicit action-whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas.

  18. Proprioceptive body illusions modulate the visual perception of reaching distance.

    PubMed

    Petroni, Agustin; Carbajal, M Julia; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide-without engaging in explicit action-whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas. PMID:26110274

  19. Visual information throughout a reach determines endpoint precision.

    PubMed

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; McKee, Suzanne P

    2007-05-01

    People make rapid, goal-directed movements to interact with their environment. Because these movements have consequences, it is important to be able to control them with a high level of precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis is that vision guides rapid hand movements, thereby enhancing their accuracy and precision. To test this idea, we asked observers to point to a briefly presented target (110 ms). We measured the impact of visual information on endpoint precision by using a shutter to close off view of the hand 50, 110 and 250 ms into the reach. We found that precision was degraded if the view of the hand was restricted at any time during the reach, despite the fact that the target disappeared long before the reach was completed. We therefore conclude that vision keeps the hand on the planned trajectory. We then investigated the effects of a perturbation of target position during the reach. For these experiments, the target remained visible until the reach was completed. The target position was shifted at 110, 180 or 250 ms into the reach. Early shifts in target position were easily compensated for, but late shifts led to a shift in the mean position of the endpoints; observers pointed to the center of the two locations, as a kind of best bet on the position of the target. Visual information is used to guide the hand throughout a reach and has a significant impact on endpoint precision.

  20. A test of multiple hypotheses for the function of call sharing in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Christine R; Young, Anna M; Cordier, Breanne; Mundry, Roger; Wright, Timothy F

    2014-01-01

    In many social species group, members share acoustically similar calls. Functional hypotheses have been proposed for call sharing, but previous studies have been limited by an inability to distinguish among these hypotheses. We examined the function of vocal sharing in female budgerigars with a two-part experimental design that allowed us to distinguish between two functional hypotheses. The social association hypothesis proposes that shared calls help animals mediate affiliative and aggressive interactions, while the password hypothesis proposes that shared calls allow animals to distinguish group identity and exclude nonmembers. We also tested the labeling hypothesis, a mechanistic explanation which proposes that shared calls are used to address specific individuals within the sender-receiver relationship. We tested the social association hypothesis by creating four-member flocks of unfamiliar female budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and then monitoring the birds' calls, social behaviors, and stress levels via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. We tested the password hypothesis by moving immigrants into established social groups. To test the labeling hypothesis, we conducted additional recording sessions in which individuals were paired with different group members. The social association hypothesis was supported by the development of multiple shared call types in each cage and a correlation between the number of shared call types and the number of aggressive interactions between pairs of birds. We also found support for calls serving as a labeling mechanism using discriminant function analysis with a permutation procedure. Our results did not support the password hypothesis, as there was no difference in stress or directed behaviors between immigrant and control birds. PMID:24860236

  1. Latent Class Analysis of Differential Item Functioning on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mi-young Lee; Cohen, Allan S.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of latent class analysis for the detection of differences in item functioning on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition (PPVT-III). A two-class solution for a latent class model appeared to be defined in part by ability because Class 1 was lower in ability than Class 2 on both the PPVT-III and the…

  2. Point-of-care platelet function tests: detection of platelet inhibition induced by nonopioid analgesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Scharbert, Gisela; Gebhardt, Kristina; Sow, Zacharia; Duris, Monika; Deusch, Engelbert; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle

    2007-12-01

    Detection of platelet inhibition is of clinical relevance in the preinterventional risk-benefit assessment in chronic low-back-pain patients scheduled for invasive pain therapy. We evaluated the sensitivity of various point-of-care platelet function tests for the detection of platelet inhibition induced by nonopioid analgesic drugs. After Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, citrated whole blood from 40 patients with chronic unspecific low back pain was investigated before and 30 min after intravenous infusion of the study medication consisting of diclofenac 75 mg (plus orphenadrin 30 mg; Neodolpasse; Fresenius Kabi Austria GmbH, Austria), parecoxib 40 mg (Dynastat; Pharmacia Europe EEIG, UK), paracetamol 1 g (Perfalgan; Bieffe Medital S.P.A., Italy), or normal saline in a randomized, cross-over, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Platelet function was assessed using the PFA-100 platelet function analyzer and thromboelastometry, as well as impedance aggregometry (in the last 17 patients recruited after it became commercially available). Sensitivity for detecting diclofenac-induced platelet inhibition was 85% for the PFA-100 using epinephrine as agonist and 94% for arachidonic acid-induced impedance aggregometry. ADP-induced platelet function tests, as well as cytochalasin D-modified thromboelastometry were unreliable. All tests had a low incidence of false-positive test results after normal saline. Paracetamol and parecoxib had no significant platelet inhibiting effect. The PFA-100 using epinephrine as agonist and arachidonic acid-induced impedance aggregometry are recommended for the detection of cyclooxygenase-I-inhibiting effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac. Our findings confirm that a single rescue dose of paracetamol and parecoxib has no antiplatelet effect. PMID:17982319

  3. A test of multiple hypotheses for the function of call sharing in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus

    PubMed Central

    Young, Anna M.; Cordier, Breanne; Mundry, Roger; Wright, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    In many social species group, members share acoustically similar calls. Functional hypotheses have been proposed for call sharing, but previous studies have been limited by an inability to distinguish among these hypotheses. We examined the function of vocal sharing in female budgerigars with a two-part experimental design that allowed us to distinguish between two functional hypotheses. The social association hypothesis proposes that shared calls help animals mediate affiliative and aggressive interactions, while the password hypothesis proposes that shared calls allow animals to distinguish group identity and exclude nonmembers. We also tested the labeling hypothesis, a mechanistic explanation which proposes that shared calls are used to address specific individuals within the sender–receiver relationship. We tested the social association hypothesis by creating four–member flocks of unfamiliar female budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and then monitoring the birds’ calls, social behaviors, and stress levels via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. We tested the password hypothesis by moving immigrants into established social groups. To test the labeling hypothesis, we conducted additional recording sessions in which individuals were paired with different group members. The social association hypothesis was supported by the development of multiple shared call types in each cage and a correlation between the number of shared call types and the number of aggressive interactions between pairs of birds. We also found support for calls serving as a labeling mechanism using discriminant function analysis with a permutation procedure. Our results did not support the password hypothesis, as there was no difference in stress or directed behaviors between immigrant and control birds. PMID:24860236

  4. Eddy current nondestructive testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample utilizing Walsh functions

    DOEpatents

    Libby, Hugo L.; Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1978-01-01

    An eddy current testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample generates a signal which varies with variations in such characteristics. A signal expander samples at least a portion of this generated signal and expands the sampled signal on a selected basis of square waves or Walsh functions to produce a plurality of signal components representative of the sampled signal. A network combines these components to provide a display of at least one of the characteristics of the sample.

  5. Blind test of density-functional-based methods on intermolecular interaction energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, DeCarlos E.; Ángyán, János G.; Galli, Giulia; Zhang, Cui; Gygi, Francois; Hirao, Kimihiko; Song, Jong Won; Rahul, Kar; Anatole von Lilienfeld, O.; Podeszwa, Rafał; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Toulouse, Julien; Peverati, Roberto; Truhlar, Donald G.; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    In the past decade, a number of approaches have been developed to fix the failure of (semi)local density-functional theory (DFT) in describing intermolecular interactions. The performance of several such approaches with respect to highly accurate benchmarks is compared here on a set of separation-dependent interaction energies for ten dimers. Since the benchmarks were unknown before the DFT-based results were collected, this comparison constitutes a blind test of these methods.

  6. Assessing executive and community functioning among homeless persons with substance use disorders using the executive function performance test.

    PubMed

    Raphael-Greenfield, Emily

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the utility of an occupational therapy assessment of executive and performance functioning and indicators of community adjustment among adults with histories of homelessness and substance abuse. A sample of 60 individuals living in a supported housing programme was interviewed about community living experiences and was assessed using the Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT). A descriptive and correlational study design was used. Measurable levels of cognitive and task impairment were documented, in older adults, non-US citizens and those diagnosed with cognitive impairments. Those who had completed a supported education/employment programme (Total EFPT t = -2.83, 0.008) performed better as did those who were employed (Total EFPT t = -2.33, 0.03), met regularly with their case managers (cooking t = -2.07, 0.04), had hobbies (paying bills r = -0.31, 0.02) and had longer periods of abstinence (organization/planning t = -3.59, 0.001). Limitations of the study include the unanticipated need by the clients for additional translation services. Future directions include a randomized controlled intervention study using the EFPT. An implication of this study for occupational therapists working with homeless clients who abuse substances is the importance of assessing and treating their cognitive impairments as well as providing these services within housing first agencies.

  7. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce ordering of thyroid function tests: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rebecca; Rogers, Morwenna; Fleming, Simon; Patterson, Anthea; Hamilton, William Trevor; Heaton, Janet; Vaidya, Bijay; Hyde, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour changing interventions targeting ordering of thyroid function tests. Design Systematic review. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database up to May 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included studies evaluating the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions aiming to reduce ordering of thyroid function tests. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled studies and before and after studies were included. There were no language restrictions. Study appraisal and synthesis methods 2 reviewers independently screened all records identified by the electronic searches and reviewed the full text of any deemed potentially relevant. Study details were extracted from the included papers and their methodological quality assessed independently using a validated tool. Disagreements were resolved through discussion and arbitration by a third reviewer. Meta-analysis was not used. Results 27 studies (28 papers) were included. They evaluated a range of interventions including guidelines/protocols, changes to funding policy, education, decision aids, reminders and audit/feedback; often intervention types were combined. The most common outcome measured was the rate of test ordering, but the effect on appropriateness, test ordering patterns and cost were also measured. 4 studies were RCTs. The majority of the studies were of poor or moderate methodological quality. The interventions were variable and poorly reported. Only 4 studies reported unsuccessful interventions but there was no clear pattern to link effect and intervention type or other characteristics. Conclusions The results suggest that behaviour change interventions are effective particularly in reducing the volume of thyroid function tests. However, due to the poor methodological quality and reporting of the studies, the likely presence of publication bias and the questionable relevance of some interventions to current

  8. Macular sub-layer thinning and association with pulmonary function tests in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simonett, Joseph M; Huang, Russell; Siddique, Nailah; Farsiu, Sina; Siddique, Teepu; Volpe, Nicholas J; Fawzi, Amani A

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that may have anterior visual pathway involvement. In this study, we compare the macular structure of patients with ALS to healthy controls, and examine correlations between macular sub-layer thickness measurements and pulmonary function tests and disease duration. ALS patients underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to obtain macular cube scans of the right eye. Macular cube OCT data from age-matched healthy subjects were provided by the OCT reading center. Semi-automated retinal segmentation software was used to quantify macular sub-layers. Pulmonary function tests and time since symptom onset were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical records of ALS patients. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in ALS patients compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Total macular and other sub-layer thicknesses were not reduced in the ALS cohort. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness positively correlated with forced vital capacity % predicted and forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted (P < 0.05). In conclusion, analysis of OCT measurements supports the involvement of the anterior visual pathway in ALS. Subtle structural thinning in the macular retinal nerve fiber layer correlates with pulmonary function tests. PMID:27383525

  9. Transfer function approach for artificial tracer test interpretation in karstic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labat, D.; Mangin, A.

    2015-10-01

    A karstic formation consists in a three-dimensional hydrological system which involves horizontal and vertical, diphasic or saturated water transfers characterised by a large range of velocity. These subsurface flow processes correspond to various water pathways through fractured, fissured, and underground streams or conduits leading to a nonlinear global behaviour of the system. An efficient way of investigating of a karstic system behaviour consists in the injection of artificial tracer tests at loss points and in careful analysis of the recovery tracer fluxes at one or several outlets of the systems. These injections are also an efficient way of providing hypotheses on characteristic time of contaminant transfer in these type of aquifers. Here, we propose a Laplace-transform transfer function of the Residence Time Distribution function that allows to discriminate between a quick-flow advection-dominated component and a slow-flow advection-dispersion/dominated component in the artificial tracer transfer in the system. We apply this transfer function on five high resolution sampling rate artificial tracer tests operated on the Baget system in the Pyrenees (France) in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of this approach. We provide then an interpretation of the relationship between tracer test recovery shape and karstic system organisation between inlet and outlet site.

  10. Towards Personalized Medicine Based on Platelet Function Testing for Stent Thrombosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Godschalk, Thea Cornelia; Hackeng, Christian Marcus; ten Berg, Jurriën Maria

    2012-01-01

    Stent thrombosis (ST) is a severe and feared complication of coronary stenting. Patients who have suffered from ST are usually treated according to the “one-size-fits-all” dosing regimen of aspirin and clopidogrel. Many ST patients show high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) despite this antiplatelet therapy (APT). It has been shown that HPR is a risk factor for major adverse cardiac events. Therefore, ST patients with HPR are at a high risk for recurrent atherothrombotic events. New insights into the variable response to clopidogrel and the advent of stronger P2Y12 inhibitors prasugrel and ticagrelor have changed the attention from a fixed APT treatment strategy towards “personalized APT strategies.” Strategies can be based on platelet function testing, which gives insight into the overall response of a patient to APT. At our outpatient ST clinic, we practice personalized APT based on platelet function testing to guide the cardiologist to a presumed optimal antiplatelet treatment of ST patients. Beside results of platelet function testing, comedication, clinical characteristics, and genetics have to be considered to decide on personalized APT. Ongoing studies have yet to reveal the optimal personalized APT strategy for cardiologists to prevent their patients from atherothrombotic and bleeding events. PMID:23320159

  11. Macular sub-layer thinning and association with pulmonary function tests in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Simonett, Joseph M.; Huang, Russell; Siddique, Nailah; Farsiu, Sina; Siddique, Teepu; Volpe, Nicholas J.; Fawzi, Amani A.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that may have anterior visual pathway involvement. In this study, we compare the macular structure of patients with ALS to healthy controls, and examine correlations between macular sub-layer thickness measurements and pulmonary function tests and disease duration. ALS patients underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to obtain macular cube scans of the right eye. Macular cube OCT data from age-matched healthy subjects were provided by the OCT reading center. Semi-automated retinal segmentation software was used to quantify macular sub-layers. Pulmonary function tests and time since symptom onset were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical records of ALS patients. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in ALS patients compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Total macular and other sub-layer thicknesses were not reduced in the ALS cohort. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness positively correlated with forced vital capacity % predicted and forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted (P < 0.05). In conclusion, analysis of OCT measurements supports the involvement of the anterior visual pathway in ALS. Subtle structural thinning in the macular retinal nerve fiber layer correlates with pulmonary function tests. PMID:27383525

  12. ESO telbib: Linking In and Reaching Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2015-04-01

    Measuring an observatory's research output is an integral part of its science operations. Like many other observatories, ESO tracks scholarly papers that use observational data from ESO facilities and uses state-of-the-art tools to create, maintain, and further develop the Telescope Bibliography database (telbib). While telbib started out as a stand-alone tool mostly used to compile lists of papers, it has by now developed into a multi-faceted, interlinked system. The core of the telbib database is links between scientific papers and observational data generated by the La Silla Paranal Observatory residing in the ESO archive. This functionality has also been deployed for ALMA data. In addition, telbib reaches out to several other systems, including ESO press releases, the NASA ADS Abstract Service, databases at the CDS Strasbourg, and impact scores at Altmetric.com. We illustrate these features to show how the interconnected telbib system enhances the content of the database as well as the user experience.

  13. Pulmonary function tests in the preoperative evaluation of lung cancer surgery candidates. A review of guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyński, Szymon; Pierzchała, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Before planned surgical treatment of lung cancer, the patient's respiratory system function should be evaluated. According to the current guidelines, the assessment should start with measurements of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and DLco (carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity). Pneumonectomy is possible when FEV1 and DLco are > 80% of the predicted value (p.v.). If either of these parameters is < 80%, an exercise test with VO2 max (oxygen consumption during maximal exercise) measurement should be performed. When VO2 max is < 35 % p.v. or < 10 ml/kg/min, resection is associated with high risk. If VO2 max is in the range of 35-75% p.v. or 10-20 ml/kg/min, the postoperative values of FEV1 and DLco (ppoFEV1, ppoDLco) should be determined. The exercise test with VO2 max measurement may be replaced with other tests such as the shuttle walk test and the stair climbing test. The distance covered during the shuttle walk test should be > 400 m. Patients considered for lobectomy should be able to climb 3 flights of stairs (12 m) and for pneumonectomy 5 flights of stairs (22 m). PMID:26336435

  14. Effects of a third party observer and anxiety on tests of executive function.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Julie E; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2008-07-01

    For the past 10 years, research on the effects of observer presence on test performance has expanded in the neuropsychological literature. Previous studies have shown that the presence of a third party observer is associated with poorer performance on tests of effort, attention, concentration, learning, and memory. The present study was designed to investigate whether performance on tests of executive function is similarly impaired by the presence of a third party observer. The study also sought to examine associations among examinee anxiety, observer presence, and performance. Seventy-nine college undergraduates were recruited for the study, and 70 were included in the final analyses. Participants were randomly assigned to either the observation or control condition, and were administered verbal fluency tests, the Trail Making Test (parts A and B), and the Tactual Performance Test, as well as the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that performance on the combined dependent variables was significantly associated with observer presence. A significant observation condition by trait anxiety interaction was also found. Univariate analyses revealed that performances on semantic fluency and TPT-localization were most strongly associated with observation and trait anxiety, with performance being poorer in the presence of a third party observer. Additionally, effects of trait anxiety on performance in the presence of an observer appear to vary depending on task characteristics. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:18400466

  15. Validation and use of the functioning assessment short test in first psychotic episodes.

    PubMed

    González-Ortega, Itxaso; Rosa, Adriane; Alberich, Susana; Barbeito, Sara; Vega, Patricia; Echeburúa, Enrique; Vieta, Eduard; González-Pinto, Ana

    2010-11-01

    Numerous studies have documented high rates of functional impairment in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, this impairment appears early in the course of the illness. The purpose of the present study was to validate the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) by comparing it with the Strauss-Carpenter Scale for use as an instrument to assess functional impairment in subjects with first psychotic episodes. The study was conducted on 53 patients admitted to Santiago Apostol Hospital because of a first psychotic episode. The FAST showed high internal consistency both at baseline and at 6 months as well as at 1 year. Concurrent validity showed a highly significant negative correlation at each time point. The FAST also showed good reliability and discriminant validity. The FAST showed strong psychometric properties and is a valid instrument for use in clinical practice, clinical trials, and research settings in subjects with first psychotic episodes.

  16. Collaboration for Nondestructive Testing Education — Extending the Reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Brian; Schmerr, Lester

    2003-03-01

    The development of NDT related educational materials has been the focus of the North Central Collaboration for NDT Education for the past four years. The Collaboration was started as a National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technology Education (ATE) program and united a number of community colleges and Iowa State University. The Collaboration developed advanced teaching methods and new materials that have allowed students to learn NDT concepts better and in less time. These materials have been made available over the Internet and have been well received. The Collaboration has recently received a second NSF ATE grant to develop an Internet site that will serve as a national focal point for NDT. In this phase of activities, the collaboration will develop a coordinated, multi-level approach that 1) promotes NDT as a career field to students, teachers and counselors in junior and senior high schools, 2) serves as an educational resource for students and instructors of two-year NDT programs and their graduates who are working in the industry, and 3) supplies educational materials that will allow educators in other technology programs (such as manufacturing and welding) to introduce their students to NDT methods. This paper will review the current activities of the Collaboration.

  17. Using computational fluid dynamics to test functional and ecological hypotheses in fossil taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Reconstructing how ancient organisms moved and fed is a major focus of study in palaeontology. Traditionally, this has been hampered by a lack of objective data on the functional morphology of extinct species, especially those without a clear modern analogue. However, cutting-edge techniques for characterizing specimens digitally and in three dimensions, coupled with state-of-the-art computer models, now provide a robust framework for testing functional and ecological hypotheses even in problematic fossil taxa. One such approach is computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a method for simulating fluid flows around objects that has primarily been applied to complex engineering-design problems. Here, I will present three case studies of CFD applied to fossil taxa, spanning a range of specimen sizes, taxonomic groups and geological ages. First, I will show how CFD enabled a rigorous test of hypothesized feeding modes in an enigmatic Ediacaran organism with three-fold symmetry, revealing previously unappreciated complexity of pre-Cambrian ecosystems. Second, I will show how CFD was used to evaluate hydrodynamic performance and feeding in Cambrian stem-group echinoderms, shedding light on the probable feeding strategy of the latest common ancestor of all deuterostomes. Third, I will show how CFD allowed us to explore the link between form and function in Mesozoic ichthyosaurs. These case studies serve to demonstrate the enormous potential of CFD for addressing long-standing hypotheses for a variety of fossil taxa, opening up an exciting new avenue in palaeontological studies of functional morphology.

  18. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  19. Test-retest reliability of graph metrics of resting state MRI functional brain networks: A review.

    PubMed

    Andellini, Martina; Cannatà, Vittorio; Gazzellini, Simone; Bernardi, Bruno; Napolitano, Antonio

    2015-09-30

    The employment of graph theory to analyze spontaneous fluctuations in resting state BOLD fMRI data has become a dominant theme in brain imaging studies and neuroscience. Analysis of resting state functional brain networks based on graph theory has proven to be a powerful tool to quantitatively characterize functional architecture of the brain and it has provided a new platform to explore the overall structure of local and global functional connectivity in the brain. Due to its increased use and possible expansion to clinical use, it is essential that the reliability of such a technique is very strongly assessed. In this review, we explore the outcome of recent studies in network reliability which apply graph theory to analyze connectome resting state networks. Therefore, we investigate which preprocessing steps may affect reproducibility the most. In order to investigate network reliability, we compared the test-retest (TRT) reliability of functional data of published neuroimaging studies with different preprocessing steps. In particular we tested influence of global signal regression, correlation metric choice, binary versus weighted link definition, frequency band selection and length of time-series. Statistical analysis shows that only frequency band selection and length of time-series seem to affect TRT reliability. Our results highlight the importance of the choice of the preprocessing steps to achieve more reproducible measurements. PMID:26072249

  20. A simple behavioral assay for testing visual function in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Viczian, Andrea S; Zuber, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the visual function in the tadpoles of the frog, Xenopus laevis, allows screening for blindness in live animals. The optokinetic response is a vision-based, reflexive behavior that has been observed in all vertebrates tested. Tadpole eyes are small so the tail flip response was used as alternative measure, which requires a trained technician to record the subtle response. We developed an alternative behavior assay based on the fact that tadpoles prefer to swim on the white side of a tank when placed in a tank with both black and white sides. The assay presented here is an inexpensive, simple alternative that creates a response that is easily measured. The setup consists of a tripod, webcam and nested testing tanks, readily available in most Xenopus laboratories. This article includes a movie showing the behavior of tadpoles, before and after severing the optic nerve. In order to test the function of one eye, we also include representative results of a tadpole in which each eye underwent retinal axotomy on consecutive days. Future studies could develop an automated version of this assay for testing the vision of many tadpoles at once. PMID:24962702

  1. A computer adaptive testing approach for assessing physical functioning in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haley, Stephen M; Ni, Pengsheng; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Skrinar, Alison M; Corzo, Deyanira

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate: (1) the accuracy and (2) the reduction in amount of time and effort in assessing physical functioning (self-care and mobility domains) of children and adolescents using computer-adaptive testing (CAT). A CAT algorithm selects questions directly tailored to the child's ability level, based on previous responses. Using a CAT algorithm, a simulation study was used to determine the number of items necessary to approximate the score of a full-length assessment. We built simulated CAT (5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-item versions) for self-care and mobility domains and tested their accuracy in a normative sample (n=373; 190 males, 183 females; mean age 6y 11mo [SD 4y 2m], range 4mo to 14y 11mo) and a sample of children and adolescents with Pompe disease (n=26; 21 males, 5 females; mean age 6y 1mo [SD 3y 10mo], range 5mo to 14y 10mo). Results indicated that comparable score estimates (based on computer simulations) to the full-length tests can be achieved in a 20-item CAT version for all age ranges and for normative and clinical samples. No more than 13 to 16% of the items in the full-length tests were needed for any one administration. These results support further consideration of using CAT programs for accurate and efficient clinical assessments of physical functioning.

  2. Using speech sounds to test functional spectral resolution in listeners with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Matthew B.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, spectral properties of speech sounds were used to test functional spectral resolution in people who use cochlear implants (CIs). Specifically, perception of the /ba/-/da/ contrast was tested using two spectral cues: Formant transitions (a fine-resolution cue) and spectral tilt (a coarse-resolution cue). Higher weighting of the formant cues was used as an index of better spectral cue perception. Participants included 19 CI listeners and 10 listeners with normal hearing (NH), for whom spectral resolution was explicitly controlled using a noise vocoder with variable carrier filter widths to simulate electrical current spread. Perceptual weighting of the two cues was modeled with mixed-effects logistic regression, and was found to systematically vary with spectral resolution. The use of formant cues was greatest for NH listeners for unprocessed speech, and declined in the two vocoded conditions. Compared to NH listeners, CI listeners relied less on formant transitions, and more on spectral tilt. Cue-weighting results showed moderately good correspondence with word recognition scores. The current approach to testing functional spectral resolution uses auditory cues that are known to be important for speech categorization, and can thus potentially serve as the basis upon which CI processing strategies and innovations are tested. PMID:25786954

  3. A hierarchical Bayesian approach to adaptive vision testing: A case study with the contrast sensitivity function

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hairong; Kim, Woojae; Hou, Fang; Lesmes, Luis Andres; Pitt, Mark A.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Myung, Jay I.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement efficiency is of concern when a large number of observations are required to obtain reliable estimates for parametric models of vision. The standard entropy-based Bayesian adaptive testing procedures addressed the issue by selecting the most informative stimulus in sequential experimental trials. Noninformative, diffuse priors were commonly used in those tests. Hierarchical adaptive design optimization (HADO; Kim, Pitt, Lu, Steyvers, & Myung, 2014) further improves the efficiency of the standard Bayesian adaptive testing procedures by constructing an informative prior using data from observers who have already participated in the experiment. The present study represents an empirical validation of HADO in estimating the human contrast sensitivity function. The results show that HADO significantly improves the accuracy and precision of parameter estimates, and therefore requires many fewer observations to obtain reliable inference about contrast sensitivity, compared to the method of quick contrast sensitivity function (Lesmes, Lu, Baek, & Albright, 2010), which uses the standard Bayesian procedure. The improvement with HADO was maintained even when the prior was constructed from heterogeneous populations or a relatively small number of observers. These results of this case study support the conclusion that HADO can be used in Bayesian adaptive testing by replacing noninformative, diffuse priors with statistically justified informative priors without introducing unwanted bias. PMID:27105061

  4. Development of an aerosol dispersion test to detect early changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    McCawley, M.; Lippmann, M.

    1988-07-01

    The dispersion of a 0.5 micron aerosol bolus during tidal breathing differs significantly (p less than 0.0001) between a group of smokers (with approximately 20 pack-years average exposure) and a comparable group of nonsmokers. Their mean differences in standard respiratory function indexes from spirometry (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75)) were smaller and not statistically significant. The test is simple to perform and may be done as quickly as spirometry but without using a forced exhalation. Comparison of the coefficients of variation for the dispersion test and FEV1 indicate that the aerosol dispersion test may be useful in epidemiologic investigations either by reducing the required population size or increasing the level of confidence.

  5. A Battery of Tests for Assessing Cognitive Function in Older Latino Persons

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Kristin R.; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Aggarwal, Neelum T.

    2009-01-01

    With the proportion of older Latinos in the United States rapidly growing, dementia is expected to be an increasing public health problem in this segment of the population. Yet relatively few cognitive test batteries have been developed for evaluating older Spanish speaking persons. We selected a battery of cognitive tests used in cognitive aging studies of English speakers, adapted it for Spanish speakers, and administered it to 66 older Latinos (mean age = 71.1, SD = 8.1). The results of a factor analysis supported grouping the tests into the same five functional domains identified for English speakers. Composite measures of performance in each domain were positively related to education and, with some exceptions, inversely related to age. The results suggest that this battery may be useful in epidemiologic research on cognition in older Latinos. PMID:19561439

  6. Concept of REACH and impact on evaluation of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Foth, H; Hayes, Aw

    2008-01-01

    Industrial chemicals have been in use for many decades and new products are regularly invented and introduced to the market. Also for decades, many different chemical laws have been introduced to regulate safe handling of chemicals in different use patterns. The patchwork of current regulation in the European Union is to be replaced by the new regulation on industrial chemical control, REACH. REACH stands for registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals. REACH entered force on June 1, 2007. REACH aims to overcome limitations in testing requirements of former regulation on industrial chemicals to enhance competitiveness and innovation with regard to manufacture safer substances and to promote the development of alternative testing methods. A main task of REACH is to address data gaps regarding the properties and uses of industrial chemicals. Producers, importers, and downstream users will have to compile and communicate standard information for all chemicals. Information sets to be prepared include safety data sheets (SDS), chemical safety reports (CSR), and chemical safety assessments (CSA). These are designed to guarantee adequate handling in the production chain, in transport and in use and to prevent the substances from being released to and distributed within the environment. Another important aim is to identify the most harmful chemicals and to set incentives to substitute them with safer alternatives. On one hand, REACH will have substantial impact on the basic understanding of the evaluation of chemicals. However, the toxicological sciences can also substantially influence the workability of REACH that supports the transformation of data to the information required to understand and manage acceptable and non acceptable risks in the use of industrial chemicals. The REACH regulation has been laid down in the main document and 17 Annexes of more than 849 pages. Even bigger technical guidance documents will follow and will inform about the rules for

  7. [Validity of diagnostic methods for kidney function tests in the cat].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Westhoff, A; Wohlsein, P; Nolte, I

    1996-08-01

    The diagnosis of kidney disease is difficult in the stage of compensation and impossible based solely on the routinely performed laboratory tests on blood and urine. For this reason, more sensitive methods are required. In the present study, three special techniques are compared with regard to their validity in the early diagnosis of kidney disease in the cat: 1. the molecular-weight related separation of urine proteins with the sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide-gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-page) in the PhastSystem, 2. measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with the renalyzer PRX90 using an iodine containing contrast medium and 3. kidney scintigraphy. The results of this comparison demonstrate that these procedures are important adjuncts to common laboratory investigations in the testing of renal function. The SDS-page allows an early qualitative assessment on alterations of specific functional compartments of the kidney. However, it is not possible with this method alone to evaluate the degree of renal disturbance and it does not give information concerning the severity of renal functional impairment. Measurement of the GFR is also a valuable procedure which gives a quantitative result on the global renal function within a few hours. It is of special importance when subclinically disturbed kidney function is present. In the cat however it is until now not possible to give a correct prognosis in high grade nephropathies. Only scintigraphy allows unilateral assessment of renal function, which is most important in cats with morphologically altered kidneys, such as kidney cysts, hydronephrosis or tumours. PMID:9012026

  8. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing – one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID

  9. Testing the field of dreams hypothesis: functional responses to urbanization and restoration in stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sudduth, Elizabeth B; Hassett, Brooke A; Cada, Peter; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2011-09-01

    As catchments become increasingly urban, the streams that drain them become increasingly degraded. Urban streams are typically characterized by high-magnitude storm flows, homogeneous habitats, disconnected riparian zones, and elevated nitrogen concentrations. To reverse the degradation of urban water quality, watershed managers and regulators are increasingly turning to stream restoration approaches. By reshaping the channel and reconnecting the surface waters with their riparian zone, practitioners intend to enhance the natural nutrient retention capacity of the restored stream ecosystem. Despite the exponential growth in stream restoration projects and expenditures, there has been no evaluation to date of the efficacy of urban stream restoration projects in enhancing nitrogen retention or in altering the underlying ecosystem metabolism that controls instream nitrogen consumption. In this study, we compared ecosystem metabolism and nitrate uptake kinetics in four stream restoration projects within urban watersheds to ecosystem functions measured in four unrestored urban stream segments and four streams draining minimally impacted forested watersheds in central North Carolina, U.S.A. All 12 sites were surveyed in June through August of 2006 and again in January through March of 2007. We anticipated that urban streams would have enhanced rates of ecosystem metabolism and nitrate uptake relative to forested streams due to the increases in nutrient loads and temperature associated with urbanization, and we predicted that restored streams would have further enhanced rates for these ecosystem functions by virtue of their increased habitat heterogeneity and water residence times. Contrary to our predictions we found that stream metabolism did not differ between stream types in either season and that nitrate uptake kinetics were not different between stream types in the winter. During the summer, restored stream reaches had substantially higher rates of nitrate uptake

  10. Sit-and-reach flexibility and running economy of men and women collegiate distance runners.

    PubMed

    Trehearn, Tamra L; Buresh, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Flexibility has been controversially suggested as one of the biomechanical factors contributing to the variability observed in running economy among distance runners. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the magnitude of the relationship between sit-and-reach flexibility and running economy in men and women. Eight collegiate distance runners (4 men and 4 women) served as subjects for this correlational study (age = 19.9 +/- 1.25 years; VO2max = 63.2 +/- 3.4 mlxkgxmin). Each subject's flexibility was measured using the standard sit-and-reach test, and running economy was recorded during an incremental maximal treadmill test at both absolute (men = 241.2 mxmin; women = 198.32 mxmin) and relative (10-km pace) velocities. Statistical analyses indicated a significant relationship between sit-and-reach scores and running economy at an absolute velocity (r = 0.826, p reach scores (p function of the elastic components in the muscles and tendons during the stretch-shortening cycle.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project vitrification process equipment Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, D.E.; Paul, J.; Foran, J.M.; Brooks, R.

    1990-09-30

    The Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass for disposal in a federal repository. The Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) program was conducted from 1984 to 1989. During this time new equipment and processes were developed, installed, and implemented. Thirty-seven FACTS tests were conducted, and approximately 150,000 kg of glass were made by using nonradioactive materials to simulate the radioactive waste. By contrast, the planned radioactive operation is expected to produce approximately 500,000 kg of glass. The FACTS program demonstrated the effectiveness of equipment and procedures in the vitrification system, and the ability of the VF to produce quality glass on schedule. FACTS testing also provided data to validate the WVNS waste glass qualification method and verify that the product glass would meet federal repository acceptance requirements. The system was built and performed to standards which would have enabled it to be used in radioactive service. As a result, much of the VF tested, such as the civil construction, feed mixing and holding vessels, and the off-gas scrubber, will be converted for radioactive operation. The melter was still in good condition after being at temperature for fifty-eight of the sixty months of FACTS. However, the melter exceeded its recommended design life and will be replaced with a similar melter. Components that were not designed for remote operation and maintenance will be replaced with remote-use items. The FACTS testing was accomplished with no significant worker injury or environmental releases. During the last FACTS run, the VF processes approximated the remote-handling system that will be used in radioactive operations. Following this run the VF was disassembled for conversion to a radioactive process. Functional and checkout testing of new components will be performed prior to radioactive operation.

  12. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Douglas; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.; Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT

  13. Utilization of Modified NFL Combine Testing to Identify Functional Deficits in Athletes Following ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    MYER, GREGORY D.; SCHMITT, LAURA C.; BRENT, JENSEN L.; FORD, KEVIN R.; BARBER FOSS, KIM D.; SCHERER, BRADLEY J.; HEIDT, ROBERT S.; DIVINE, JON G.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Case control. OBJECTIVES To use modified NFL Combine testing methodology to test for functional deficits in athletes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction following return to sport. BACKGROUND There is a need to develop objective, performance-based, on-field assessment methods designed to identify potential lower extremity performance deficits and related impairments in this population. METHODS Eighteen patients (mean ± SD age, 16.9 ± 2.1 years; height, 170.0 ± 8.7 cm; body mass, 71.9 ± 21.8 kg) who returned to their sport within a year following ACL reconstruction (95% CI: 7.8 to 11.9 months from surgery) participated (ACLR group). These individuals were asked to bring 1 or 2 teammates to serve as control participants, who were matched for sex, sport, and age (n = 20; mean ± SD age, 16.9 ± 1.1 years; height, 169.7 ± 8.4 cm; body mass, 70.1 ± 20.7 kg). Functional performance was tested using the broad jump, vertical jump, modified long shuttle, modified pro shuttle, modified agility T-test, timed hop, triple hop, single hop, and crossover hop tests. A 1-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate group differences for dependent performance variables. RESULTS The functional performance measurements of skills requiring bilateral involvement of both lower extremities showed no group differences between the ACLR and control groups (P>.05). An overall group difference (P = .006) was observed for the combined limb symmetry index (LSI) measures. However, the modified double-limb performance tasks (long shuttle, modified agility T-test, and pro shuttle) were not, independently, sufficiently sensitive to detect limb deficits in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Conversely, the LSI on the distance measures of the single-limb performance tasks all provided moderate to large effect sizes to differentiate between the ACLR and control groups, as the individuals who had ACL reconstruction demonstrated involved

  14. Tests of dorsolateral frontal function correlate with objective tests of postural stability in early to moderate stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Joe R; Price, Catherine; Fernandez, Hubert H; Amano, Shinichi; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Okun, Michael S; Hwynn, Nelson; Hass, Chris J

    2010-11-01

    A substantial number of individuals with Parkinson's disease who display impaired postural stability experience accelerated cognitive decline and an increased prevalence of dementia. To date, studies suggest that this relationship, believed to be due to involvement of nondopaminergic circuitry, occurs later in the disease process. Research has yet to adequately investigate this cognitive-posturomotor relationship especially when examining earlier disease states. To gain greater understanding of the relationship between postural stability and cognitive function/dysfunction we evaluated a more stringent, objective measure of postural stability (center of pressure displacement), and also more specific measures of cognition in twenty-two patients with early to moderate stage Parkinson's disease. The magnitude of the center of pressure displacement in this cohort was negatively correlated with performance on tests known to activate dorsolateral frontal regions. Additionally, the postural stability item of the UPDRS exhibited poor correlation with the more objective measure of center of pressure displacement and all specific measures of cognition. These results may serve as rationale for a more thorough evaluation of postural stability and cognition especially in individuals with mild Parkinson's disease. Greater understanding of the relationship between motor and cognitive processes in Parkinson's disease will be critical for understanding the disease process and its potential therapeutic possibilities.

  15. Indices of cognitive function measured in rugby union players using a computer-based test battery.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Luke A; Minahan, Clare L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-day reliability of cognitive performance using a computer-based test battery in team-sport athletes. Eighteen elite male rugby union players (age: 19 ± 0.5 years) performed three experimental trials (T1, T2 and T3) of the test battery: T1 and T2 on the same day and T3, on the following day, 24 h later. The test battery comprised of four cognitive tests assessing the cognitive domains of executive function (Groton Maze Learning Task), psychomotor function (Detection Task), vigilance (Identification Task), visual learning and memory (One Card Learning Task). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the Detection Task, the Identification Task and the One Card Learning Task performance variables ranged from 0.75 to 0.92 when comparing T1 to T2 to assess intraday reliability, and 0.76 to 0.83 when comparing T1 and T3 to assess inter-day reliability. The ICCs for the Groton Maze Learning Task intra- and inter-day reliability were 0.67 and 0.57, respectively. We concluded that the Detection Task, the Identification Task and the One Card Learning Task are reliable measures of psychomotor function, vigilance, visual learning and memory in rugby union players. The reliability of the Groton Maze Learning Task is questionable (mean coefficient of variation (CV) = 19.4%) and, therefore, results should be interpreted with caution.

  16. A social network analysis of communication about hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer genetic testing and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Koehly, Laura M; Peterson, Susan K; Watts, Beatty G; Kempf, Kari K G; Vernon, Sally W; Gritz, Ellen R

    2003-04-01

    Hereditary cancers are relational diseases. A primary focus of research in the past has been the biological relations that exist within the families and how genes are passed along family lines. However, hereditary cancers are relational in a psychosocial sense, as well. They can impact communication relationships within a family, as well as support relationships among family members. Furthermore, the familial culture can affect an individual's participation in genetic counseling and testing endeavors. Our aims are (a) to describe the composition of familial networks, (b) to characterize the patterns of family functioning within families, (c) to analyze how these patterns relate to communications about genetic counseling and testing among family members, and (d) to identify influential family members. Specifically, we asked how the relationship between mutation status, kinship ties, and family functioning constructs, e.g., communication, cohesion, affective involvement, leadership, and conflict, was associated with discussions about genetic counseling and testing. We used social network analysis and random graph techniques to examine 783 dyadic relationships in 36 members of 5 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families interviewed from 1999-2000. Results suggest that in these five HNPCC families, two family members are more likely to discuss genetic counseling and testing if either one carries the mutation, if either one is a spouse or a first-degree relative of the other, or if the relationship is defined by positive cohesion, leadership, or lack of conflict. Furthermore, the family functioning patterns suggest that mothers tend to be the most influential persons in the family network. Results of this study suggest encouraging family members who act in the mother role to take a "team approach" with the family proband when discussing HNPCC risks and management with family members.

  17. Innovative quantitative testing of hand function in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Maria A; Mori, Laura; Francini, Luca; Poggi, Ilaria; Monti Bragadin, Margherita; Bellone, Emilia; Grandis, Marina; Maggi, Giovanni; Reni, Lizia; Sormani, Maria P; Tacchino, Andrea; Padua, Luca; Prada, Valeria; Bove, Marco; Schenone, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    To describe a new test to quantitatively evaluate hand function in patients affected by Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT). The sensor-engineered glove test (SEGT) was applied to CMT patients (N: 26) and compared with a cohort of healthy controls (HC, N: 26). CMT patients were further divided into subjects with clinically normal (group 1) or impaired hand (group 2) function. The SEGT parameters evaluated were touch duration, inter-tapping interval, and movement rate parameters of two different sequences: finger tapping (FT) and index-medium-ring-little (IMRL) performed at self-paced mode (SPM) and maximum velocity (MV). Hand function and strength were assessed by the 9-hole peg test (9HPT) and dynamometry. Disability of patients was measured by the CMT neuropathy score. CMT patients had significantly worst performances at SEGT than controls regarding the rate of execution of both FT (at MV) and IMRL sequences (at SPM and MV). The rate parameter at MV in IMRL sequence showed a significant trend of decreasing in its average between HC (n: 26, rate = 3.08 ± 0.52 Hz), group 1 (n: 9, rate = 2.64 ± 0.66 Hz) and group 2 (n: 17, rate = 2.19 ± 0.45 Hz) (p for trend <0.001). No correlations were found with either 9HPT, dynamometry, electrophysiology, and the CMT neuropathy score. The SEGT test is sensitive to show hand dysfunction in CMT patients, with and without clinically impaired hands.

  18. Full monitoring for long-reach TWDM passive optical networks.

    PubMed

    Cen, Min; Chen, Jiajia; Moeyaert, Véronique; Mégret, Patrice; Wuilpart, Marc

    2016-07-11

    This paper presents a novel and simple fiber monitoring system based on multi-wavelength transmission-reflection analysis for long-reach time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks. For the first time, the full localization functionality of long-reach passive optical networks is possible with the proposed monitoring scheme, including supporting fault detection, identification, and localization in both feeder and distribution fiber segments. By measuring the transmitted and reflected/backscattered optical powers launched by an unmodulated continuous-wave optical source, the proposed solution is able to supervise the network with good spatial accuracy, a high detection speed and a low impact on data traffic. Both the theoretical analysis and experimental validation show that the proposed scheme is capable of providing an accurate fault monitoring functionality for long-reach time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks. PMID:27410849

  19. Testing Adaptive Hypotheses of Convergence with Functional Landscapes: A Case Study of Bone-Cracking Hypercarnivores

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2013-01-01

    Morphological convergence is a well documented phenomenon in mammals, and adaptive explanations are commonly employed to infer similar functions for convergent characteristics. I present a study that adopts aspects of theoretical morphology and engineering optimization to test hypotheses about adaptive convergent evolution. Bone-cracking ecomorphologies in Carnivora were used as a case study. Previous research has shown that skull deepening and widening are major evolutionary patterns in convergent bone-cracking canids and hyaenids. A simple two-dimensional design space, with skull width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios as variables, was used to examine optimized shapes for two functional properties: mechanical advantage (MA) and strain energy (SE). Functionality of theoretical skull shapes was studied using finite element analysis (FEA) and visualized as functional landscapes. The distribution of actual skull shapes in the landscape showed a convergent trend of plesiomorphically low-MA and moderate-SE skulls evolving towards higher-MA and moderate-SE skulls; this is corroborated by FEA of 13 actual specimens. Nevertheless, regions exist in the landscape where high-MA and lower-SE shapes are not represented by existing species; their vacancy is observed even at higher taxonomic levels. Results highlight the interaction of biomechanical and non-biomechanical factors in constraining general skull dimensions to localized functional optima through evolution. PMID:23734244

  20. Pulmonary function test in formalin exposed and nonexposed subjects: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Uthiravelu, P.; Saravanan, A.; Kumar, C. Kishor; Vaithiyanandane, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main function of the lung is gas exchange, which can be assessed in several ways. A spirometer measures the flow and the volumes of the inspired and expired air. The thoracic and abdominal muscle strength plays an important role in pulmonary function and diffusing lung capacity. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of formalin exposure on the pulmonary function to compare with healthy individuals. To assess the chronic effects of formalin exposure on Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in the faculties, lab technicians and attender of the Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 50 healthy formalin exposed subjects (at least 5 years exposure) from Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur and 50 healthy controls of same age group of this study were included after obtaining ethical clearance and consent ‘Easy One Pro Spirometer (Ndd Medical Technologies, Cheshire SK 101LT, United Kingdom) was used to find out the PFT. Results: Student's t-test was applied to compare the PFT parameters between formalin exposed and formalin nonexposed group. There was a significant difference in mean and standard deviation of pulmonary parameters with the P < 0.005 in formalin exposed, which shows that they have lesser ventilatory drive. Conclusion: The formalin exposed subjects in our study presented with a mixed disorder of both obstructive and restrictive type. We also found that there was a negative correlation of pulmonary function with that of the degree and duration of exposure to formalin. PMID:26015743

  1. Lung function and six-minute walk test performance in individuals with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Daniela G.; Ruas, Gualberto; Walsh, Isabel A. P.; Castro, Shamyr S.; Jamami, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), which is characterized by a mutation in the gene encoding beta hemoglobin, causes bodily dysfunctions such as impaired pulmonary function and reduced functional capacity. Objective To assess changes in pulmonary function and functional capacity in patients with SCD and to identify the relationships between these variables. Method We evaluated sociodemographic, anthropometric, lung function (spirometry), respiratory (manovacuometer), peripheral muscle strength (Handgrip strength - HS) and functional capacity (i.e., the six-minute walk test) parameters in 21 individuals with SCD (average age of 29±6 years). Shapiro-Wilk, paired Student's, Wilcoxon, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used for statistical analyses, and the significance threshold was set at p<0.05. Results A total of 47.6% of the study subjects exhibited an altered ventilation pattern, 42.8% had a restrictive ventilatory pattern (RVP) and 4.8% exhibited a mixed ventilatory pattern (MVP). The observed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) values were below the predicted values for women (64 cmH2O), and the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) values, HS values and distance walked during the 6MWT were below the predicted values for both men (103 cmH2O, 39 Kgf and 447 m, respectively) and women (64 cmH2O; 27 Kgf; 405 m, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and MEP (r=0.4; p=0.046); MVV and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.003); and between HS and MIP (r=0.7; p=0.001), MEP (r=0.6; p=0.002), MVV (r=0.5; p=0.015), distance walked in the 6MWT (r=0.4; p=0.038) and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.004). Conclusions SCD promoted changes in lung function and functional capacity, including RVPs and a reduction in the distance walked in the 6MWT when compared to the predictions. In addition, significant correlations between the variables were observed. PMID:24675916

  2. Artificial vision: needs, functioning, and testing of a retinal electronic prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Chader, Gerald J; Weiland, James; Humayun, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands around the world have poor vision or no vision at all due to inherited retinal degenerations (RDs) like retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Similarly, millions suffer from vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both of these allied diseases, the primary target for pathology is the retinal photoreceptor cells that dysfunction and die. Secondary neurons though are relatively spared. To replace photoreceptor cell function, an electronic prosthetic device can be used such that retinal secondary neurons receive a signal that simulates an external visual image. The composite device has a miniature video camera mounted on the patient's eyeglasses, which captures images and passes them to a microprocessor that converts the data to an electronic signal. This signal, in turn, is transmitted to an array of electrodes placed on the retinal surface, which transmits the patterned signal to the remaining viable secondary neurons. These neurons (ganglion, bipolar cells, etc.) begin processing the signal and pass it down the optic nerve to the brain for final integration into a visual image. Many groups in different countries have different versions of the device, including brain implants and retinal implants, the latter having epiretinal or subretinal placement. The device furthest along in development is an epiretinal implant sponsored by Second Sight Medical Products (SSMP). Their first-generation device had 16 electrodes with human testing in a Phase 1 clinical trial beginning in 2002. The second-generation device has 60+ electrodes and is currently in Phase 2/3 clinical trial. Increased numbers of electrodes are planned for future versions of the device. Testing of the device's efficacy is a challenge since patients admitted into the trial have little or no vision. Thus, methods must be developed that accurately and reproducibly record small improvements in visual function after implantation. Standard tests such as visual acuity, visual

  3. Artificial vision: needs, functioning, and testing of a retinal electronic prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Chader, Gerald J; Weiland, James; Humayun, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands around the world have poor vision or no vision at all due to inherited retinal degenerations (RDs) like retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Similarly, millions suffer from vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both of these allied diseases, the primary target for pathology is the retinal photoreceptor cells that dysfunction and die. Secondary neurons though are relatively spared. To replace photoreceptor cell function, an electronic prosthetic device can be used such that retinal secondary neurons receive a signal that simulates an external visual image. The composite device has a miniature video camera mounted on the patient's eyeglasses, which captures images and passes them to a microprocessor that converts the data to an electronic signal. This signal, in turn, is transmitted to an array of electrodes placed on the retinal surface, which transmits the patterned signal to the remaining viable secondary neurons. These neurons (ganglion, bipolar cells, etc.) begin processing the signal and pass it down the optic nerve to the brain for final integration into a visual image. Many groups in different countries have different versions of the device, including brain implants and retinal implants, the latter having epiretinal or subretinal placement. The device furthest along in development is an epiretinal implant sponsored by Second Sight Medical Products (SSMP). Their first-generation device had 16 electrodes with human testing in a Phase 1 clinical trial beginning in 2002. The second-generation device has 60+ electrodes and is currently in Phase 2/3 clinical trial. Increased numbers of electrodes are planned for future versions of the device. Testing of the device's efficacy is a challenge since patients admitted into the trial have little or no vision. Thus, methods must be developed that accurately and reproducibly record small improvements in visual function after implantation. Standard tests such as visual acuity, visual

  4. Scaling affordances for human reach actions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeg Joo; Mark, Leonard S

    2004-12-01

    A methodology developed by Cesari and Newell [Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (1999). The scaling of human grip configuration. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 25, 927-935; Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (2000). The body-scaling of grip configurations in children aged 6-12 years. Developmental Psychobiology 36, 301-310] was used to delineate the roles of an object's weight (W) and distance (D) as well as the actor's strength (S) in determining the macroscopic action used to reach for the object. Participants reached for objects of five different weights placed at 10 distances. The findings of a single discriminant analysis revealed that when object weight is scaled in terms of each individual's strength and reach distance is scaled in terms of each individual's maximum-seated reach distance, a single discriminant analysis was able to predict 90% of the reach modes used by both men and women. The result of the discriminant analysis was used to construct a body-scaled equation, K=lnD+ln(W/S)/36, similar in form to the one derived by Cesari and Newell, accurately predicted the reach action used. Our findings indicate that Cesari and Newell's method can identify a complex relationship between geometric and dynamic constraints that determine the affordances for different reach actions. PMID:15664673

  5. Platelet function tests, independent of platelet count, are associated with bleeding severity in ITP.

    PubMed

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Grace, Rachael F; Gerrits, Anja J; Berny-Lang, Michelle A; Brown, Travis; Carmichael, Sabrina L; Neufeld, Ellis J; Michelson, Alan D

    2015-08-13

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients with similarly low platelet counts differ in their tendency to bleed. To determine if differences in platelet function in ITP patients account for this variation in bleeding tendency, we conducted a single-center, cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with ITP. Bleeding severity (assessed by standardized bleeding score) and platelet function (assessed by whole blood flow cytometry) with and without agonist stimulation was evaluated in 57 ITP patients (median age, 9.9 years). After adjustment for platelet count, higher levels of thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP)-stimulated percent P-selectin- and activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa-positive platelets were significantly associated with a lower bleeding score, whereas higher levels of immature platelet fraction (IPF), TRAP-stimulated platelet surface CD42b, unstimulated platelet surface P-selectin, and platelet forward light scatter (FSC) were associated with a higher bleeding score. Thus, platelet function tests related to platelet age (IPF, FSC) and activation through the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) thrombin receptor (TRAP-stimulated P-selectin, activated GPIIb-IIIa, and CD42b), independent of platelet count, are associated with concurrent bleeding severity in ITP. These tests may be useful markers of future bleeding risk in ITP.

  6. Platelet function tests, independent of platelet count, are associated with bleeding severity in ITP

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Rachael F.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Brown, Travis; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients with similarly low platelet counts differ in their tendency to bleed. To determine if differences in platelet function in ITP patients account for this variation in bleeding tendency, we conducted a single-center, cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with ITP. Bleeding severity (assessed by standardized bleeding score) and platelet function (assessed by whole blood flow cytometry) with and without agonist stimulation was evaluated in 57 ITP patients (median age, 9.9 years). After adjustment for platelet count, higher levels of thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP)-stimulated percent P-selectin- and activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa–positive platelets were significantly associated with a lower bleeding score, whereas higher levels of immature platelet fraction (IPF), TRAP-stimulated platelet surface CD42b, unstimulated platelet surface P-selectin, and platelet forward light scatter (FSC) were associated with a higher bleeding score. Thus, platelet function tests related to platelet age (IPF, FSC) and activation through the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) thrombin receptor (TRAP-stimulated P-selectin, activated GPIIb-IIIa, and CD42b), independent of platelet count, are associated with concurrent bleeding severity in ITP. These tests may be useful markers of future bleeding risk in ITP. PMID:26138687

  7. A multi-functional testing instrument for heat assisted magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H. Z. Chen, Y. J.; Leong, S. H.; An, C. W.; Ye, K. D.; Hu, J. F.; Yin, M. J.

    2014-05-07

    With recent developments in heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR), characterization of HAMR media is becoming very important. We present a multi-functional instrument for testing HAMR media, which integrates HAMR writing, reading, and a micro-magneto-optic Kerr effect (μ-MOKE) testing function. A potential application of the present instrument is to make temperature dependent magnetic property measurement using a pump-probe configuration. In the measurement, the media is heated up by a heating (intense) beam while a testing (weak) beam is overlapped with the heating beam for MOKE measurement. By heating the media with different heating beam power, magnetic measurements by MOKE at different temperatures can be performed. Compared to traditional existing tools such as the vibrating sample magnetometer, the present instrument provides localized and efficient heating at the measurement spot. The integration of HAMR writing and μ-MOKE system can also facilitate a localized full investigation of the magnetic media by potential correlation of HAMR head independent write/read performance to localized magnetic properties.

  8. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them. PMID:26640800

  9. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them. PMID:26640800

  10. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them.

  11. Influence of specific training on spatio-temporal parameters at the onset of goal-directed reaching in infants: a controlled trial*

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Andréa B.; Woollacott, Marjorie; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that long-term experience can promote functional changes in infants. However, much remains unknown about how a short-term experience affects performance of a task. Objective This study aims to investigate the influence of a single training session at the onset of goal-directed reaching on the spatio-temporal parameters of reaching and whether there are differences in the effects of training across different reaching positions. Method Thirty-three infants were divided into three groups: 1) a control group; 2) a group that was reach trained in a reclined position; and 3) a group trained in the supine position. The infants were submitted to two assessments (pre- and post-training) in two testing positions (supine and reclined at 45°). Results The short-duration training sessions were effective in promoting shorter reaches in the specific position in which the training was conducted. Training in the reclined position was associated with shorter and faster reaches upon assessment in the reclined position. Conclusions A few minutes of reach training are effective in facilitating reaching behavior in infants at the onset of reaching. The improvements in reaching were specific to the position in which the infants were trained. PMID:24072228

  12. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  13. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  14. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  15. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  16. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  17. High-Resolution Time-Frequency Spectrum-Based Lung Function Test from a Smartphone Microphone

    PubMed Central

    Thap, Tharoeun; Chung, Heewon; Jeong, Changwon; Hwang, Ki-Eun; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a smartphone-based lung function test, developed to estimate lung function parameters using a high-resolution time-frequency spectrum from a smartphone built-in microphone is presented. A method of estimation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) based on the variable frequency complex demodulation method (VFCDM) is first proposed. We evaluated our proposed method on 26 subjects, including 13 healthy subjects and 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, by comparing with the parameters clinically obtained from pulmonary function tests (PFTs). For the healthy subjects, we found that an absolute error (AE) and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of the FEV1/FVC ratio were 4.49% ± 3.38% and 5.54%, respectively. For the COPD patients, we found that AE and RMSE from COPD patients were 10.30% ± 10.59% and 14.48%, respectively. For both groups, we compared the results using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and short-time Fourier transform (STFT), and found that VFCDM was superior to CWT and STFT. Further, to estimate other parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF), regression analysis was conducted to establish a linear transformation. However, the parameters FVC, FEV1, and PEF had correlation factor r values of 0.323, 0.275, and −0.257, respectively, while FEV1/FVC had an r value of 0.814. The results obtained suggest that only the FEV1/FVC ratio can be accurately estimated from a smartphone built-in microphone. The other parameters, including FVC, FEV1, and PEF, were subjective and dependent on the subject’s familiarization with the test and performance of forced exhalation toward the microphone. PMID:27548164

  18. High-Resolution Time-Frequency Spectrum-Based Lung Function Test from a Smartphone Microphone.

    PubMed

    Thap, Tharoeun; Chung, Heewon; Jeong, Changwon; Hwang, Ki-Eun; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a smartphone-based lung function test, developed to estimate lung function parameters using a high-resolution time-frequency spectrum from a smartphone built-in microphone is presented. A method of estimation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV₁/FVC) based on the variable frequency complex demodulation method (VFCDM) is first proposed. We evaluated our proposed method on 26 subjects, including 13 healthy subjects and 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, by comparing with the parameters clinically obtained from pulmonary function tests (PFTs). For the healthy subjects, we found that an absolute error (AE) and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of the FEV₁/FVC ratio were 4.49% ± 3.38% and 5.54%, respectively. For the COPD patients, we found that AE and RMSE from COPD patients were 10.30% ± 10.59% and 14.48%, respectively. For both groups, we compared the results using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and short-time Fourier transform (STFT), and found that VFCDM was superior to CWT and STFT. Further, to estimate other parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁), and peak expiratory flow (PEF), regression analysis was conducted to establish a linear transformation. However, the parameters FVC, FEV1, and PEF had correlation factor r values of 0.323, 0.275, and -0.257, respectively, while FEV₁/FVC had an r value of 0.814. The results obtained suggest that only the FEV1/FVC ratio can be accurately estimated from a smartphone built-in microphone. The other parameters, including FVC, FEV1, and PEF, were subjective and dependent on the subject's familiarization with the test and performance of forced exhalation toward the microphone. PMID:27548164

  19. Individual muscle control using an exoskeleton robot for muscle function testing.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Jun; Ming, Ding; Krishnamoorthy, Vijaya; Shinohara, Minoru; Ogasawara, Tsukasa

    2010-08-01

    Healthy individuals modulate muscle activation patterns according to their intended movement and external environment. Persons with neurological disorders (e.g., stroke and spinal cord injury), however, have problems in movement control due primarily to their inability to modulate their muscle activation pattern in an appropriate manner. A functionality test at the level of individual muscles that investigates the activity of a muscle of interest on various motor tasks may enable muscle-level force grading. To date there is no extant work that focuses on the application of exoskeleton robots to induce specific muscle activation in a systematic manner. This paper proposes a new method, named "individual muscle-force control" using a wearable robot (an exoskeleton robot, or a power-assisting device) to obtain a wider variety of muscle activity data than standard motor tasks, e.g., pushing a handle by hand. A computational algorithm systematically computes control commands to a wearable robot so that a desired muscle activation pattern for target muscle forces is induced. It also computes an adequate amount and direction of a force that a subject needs to exert against a handle by his/her hand. This individual muscle control method enables users (e.g., therapists) to efficiently conduct neuromuscular function tests on target muscles by arbitrarily inducing muscle activation patterns. This paper presents a basic concept, mathematical formulation, and solution of the individual muscle-force control and its implementation to a muscle control system with an exoskeleton-type robot for upper extremity. Simulation and experimental results in healthy individuals justify the use of an exoskeleton robot for future muscle function testing in terms of the variety of muscle activity data.

  20. Effect of triiodothyronine on cyclic AMP and pulmonary function tests in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    abdel Khalek, K; el Kholy, M; Rafik, M; Fathalla, M; Heikal, E

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of triiodothyronine, determined by pulmonary function tests and c-AMP plasma and sputum levels, in asthmatic children. Twenty-three children clinically euthyroid and complaining of chronic bronchial asthma were given a triiodothyronine (T3) supply for a period of 30 days. Pulmonary function tests, plasma and sputum cyclic AMP and plasma T3 levels were performed prior to and after T3 therapy. Patients were requested to continue on their usual antiasthma medicines and to try reduction of the doses of the drugs they needed as possible. All patients tolerated well the T3 regimen without any adverse effect. They all reported at the end of the 30 days an obvious subjective improvement of their asthmatic conditions with a decrease in the number of exacerbations. Seven patients stopped their usual antiasthmatic medicines, being maintained on T3 only and 3 have decreased the amount of bronchodilators needed. A significant improvement of pulmonary function tests was noted in all patients. Also, significantly increased levels of plasma and sputum c-AMP were observed after T3 administration in comparison to the control and pretest values. No statistical differences were found in plasma T3 between the control and the patients either before or after T3 therapy. The study revealed that T3 administration to clinically euthyroid chronic asthmatic children induced a beneficial effect. This might be through improvement of c-AMP synthesis. T3 in the doses used is devoid of side effects, proves to be a useful adjuvant to classic antiasthma therapy, and may reduce the amount of bronchodilators needed.

  1. Method and apparatus for transfer function simulator for testing complex systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for testing the operation of a complex stabilization circuit in a closed loop system is presented. The method is comprised of a programmed analog or digital computing system for implementing the transfer function of a load thereby providing a predictable load. The digital computing system employs a table stored in a microprocessor in which precomputed values of the load transfer function are stored for values of input signal from the stabilization circuit over the range of interest. This technique may be used not only for isolating faults in the stabilization circuit, but also for analyzing a fault in a faulty load by so varying parameters of the computing system as to simulate operation of the actual load with the fault.

  2. Lung function testing in COPD: when everything is not so simple

    PubMed Central

    Barisione, Giovanni; Brusasco, Claudia; Garlaschi, Alessandro; Crimi, Emanuele; Brusasco, Vito

    2014-01-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema is a condition occurring mainly in male smokers, presenting different lung mechanics and gas exchange abnormalities than emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis alone. We report the case of an elderly man, former heavy smoker, who presented with progressive exertional dyspnea for 1 year. Lung function tests showed near normal spirometry and lung volumes but marked reduction of diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and even more nitric oxide. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen was reduced with a markedly increased alveolar-to-arterial difference. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed a pattern consistent with upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe pulmonary fibrosis. In conclusion, this case report confirms the limitations of a simplistic approach to lung function in the diagnosis of symptomatic smokers. PMID:25530864

  3. Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, PJ

    2001-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to present a survey of commercial brake materials and additives, and to indicate their typical properties and functions, especially as regards their use in heavy trucks. Most truck pad and shoe materials described here were designed to wear against cast iron. Brake material test methods are also briefly described. This report does not address issues associated with the fabrication and manufacturing of brake materials. Since there are literally thousands of brake material additives, and their combinations are nearly limitless, it is impractical to list them all here. Rather, an attempt has been made to capture the primary constituents and their functions. An Appendix contains thermo-physical properties of some current and potential brake materials.

  4. Testing the process dependence of the Sivers function via hadron distributions inside a jet

    SciTech Connect

    D Alesio U.; Kang Z.; Gamberg, L.; Murgia, F.; Pisano, C.

    2011-09-22

    We study the process dependence of the Sivers function by considering the impact of color-gauge invariant initial and final state interactions on transverse spin asymmetries in proton-proton scattering reactions within the framework of the transverse momentum dependent (TMD), generalized parton model. To this aim, we consider the azimuthal distribution of leading pions inside a fragmenting jet as well as single inclusive jet asymmetry in polarized proton-proton collisions. In contrast to single inclusive pion production, in both cases we can isolate the Sivers contribution and thereby study its process dependence. The predictions for the Sivers asymmetry obtained with and without inclusion of color gauge factors are comparable in size but with opposite signs. We conclude that both processes represent unique opportunities to discriminate among the two approaches and test the universality properties of the Sivers function in hadronic scattering reactions.

  5. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions.

  6. Development of a New Method for Platelet Function Test and Its Shearing Condition in Microfludic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoyoon; Kim, Gyehyu; Choi, Seawhan; Shin, Sehyun; Korea University Department of Mechanical Engineering Team

    2015-11-01

    Platelet is a crucial blood cell on hemostasis. As platelet exposed to high shear stress, it can be activated showing morphological and functional changes to stop bleeding. When platelet is abnormal, there is high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, quick and precise assay for platelet function is important in clinical treatment. In this study, we design a microfluidic system, which can test platelet function exposed with the stimulation of shear and agonists. The microfluidic system consists of three parts: 1) a shear mechanism with rotating stirrer; 2) multiple microchannels to flow samples and to stop; 3) camera-interfaced migration distance(MD) analyzing system. When sheared blood is driven by pressure through the microchannel, shear-activated platelets adhere to a collagen-coated surface, causing blood flow to significantly slow and eventually stop. As the micro-stirrer speed increases, MD decreases exponentially at first, but it increases beyond a critical rpm after all. These results are coincident with data measured by FACS flowcytometry. These results imply that the present system could quantitatively measure the degree of activation, aggregation and adhesion of platelets and that blood MD is potent index for measuring the shear-dependence of platelet function.

  7. Estimation of automobile-driver describing function from highway tests using the double steering wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, P.; Crossman, E. R. F. W.; Szostak, H.

    1972-01-01

    The automobile-driver describing function for lateral position control was estimated for three subjects from frequency response analysis of straight road test results. The measurement procedure employed an instrumented full size sedan with known steering response characteristics, and equipped with a lateral lane position measuring device based on video detection of white stripe lane markings. Forcing functions were inserted through a servo driven double steering wheel coupling the driver to the steering system proper. Random appearing, Gaussian, and transient time functions were used. The quasi-linear models fitted to the random appearing input frequency response characterized the driver as compensating for lateral position error in a proportional, derivative, and integral manner. Similar parameters were fitted to the Gabor transformed frequency response of the driver to transient functions. A fourth term corresponding to response to lateral acceleration was determined by matching the time response histories of the model to the experimental results. The time histories show evidence of pulse-like nonlinear behavior during extended response to step transients which appear as high frequency remnant power.

  8. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions. PMID:22371207

  9. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology. PMID:26724077

  10. Phenolsulfonphthalein test in healthy sheep and in sheep with reductions in functional renal mass.

    PubMed

    Filippich, L J; English, P B; Ainscow, J

    1985-03-01

    The phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) plasma clearance and urinary excretion tests were applied to sheep before and after 50% and 75% reductions in functional renal mass. The PSP determinants found most useful as indicators of renal mass reduction were the 15-minute urinary excretion percentage and the 60-minute (PSP60) plasma concentration. Although both of these determinants could be used to detect renal mass reduction, the 15-minute PSP excretion percentage was the more sensitive. The PSP60 value was influenced by factors other than reduced nephron numbers; the contraction of the PSP volume of distribution that occurred after renal mass reduction was one important influencing factor. Overall, the PSP tests more accurately reflected the volume of blood delivered to the kidney than the proximal tubular secretory capacity.

  11. Technique of Functional and Motility Test: How to Perform Antroduodenal Manometry

    PubMed Central

    Patcharatrakul, Tanisa

    2013-01-01

    Antroduodenal manometry is one of the methods to evaluate stomach and duodenal motility. This test is a valuable diagnostic tool for gastrointestinal motility disorders especially small intestinal pseudo-obstruction which is difficult to make definite diagnosis by clinical manifestations or radiologic findings. Manometric findings that have no evidence of mechanical obstruction and suggestive of pseudo-obstruction with neuropathy or myopathy can avoid unnecessary surgery and the treatment can be directly targeted. Moreover, among patients who have clinically suspected small intestinal pseudo-obstruction but with normal manometric findings, the alternative diagnosis including psychiatric disorder or other organic disease should be considered. The application of this test to the patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms especially to find the association of motor abnormalities to the symptom has less impressive yield. Antroduodenal manometry is now readily available only in some tertiary care centers. The aim of this review is to describe the antroduodenal manometry technique, interpretation and clinical utility. PMID:23875108

  12. Thyroid function testing in eastern Nepal and the impact of CME on subsequent requests.

    PubMed

    Baral, N; Koner, B C; Lamsal, M; Niraula, I; Dhungel, S

    2001-07-01

    This study reveals 1 year's experience of the introduction of thyroid function tests (TFT) in B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), a Medical University situated in eastern Nepal. These were performed on theadvice of doctors working in this region. The rational TFT advice by the medical practitioners was evaluated according to how closely the advice was in line with the algorithms recommended in the textbooks. Only about 14% of the TFT advice followed some rational strategy. A retrospective analysis showed that rational TFT advice could have reduced the cost of a TFT investigation to 43.11% without altering the patient management and disease outcome. Continuing medical education (CME) lectures arranged for a limited number of doctors were found to improve the quality of the subsequentTFT advising pattern. This emphasizes the importance of CME while introducing a costly laboratory test panel (e.g.TFT, lipid profile) needing a strategic approach. PMID:11444339

  13. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology.

  14. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology.

  15. Models of spontaneous wave function collapse: what they are, and how they can be tested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    There are few proposals, which explicitly allow for (experimentally testable) deviations from standard quantum theory. Collapse models are among the most-widely studied proposals of this kind. The Schrödinger equation is modified by including nonlinear and stochastic terms, which describe the collapse of the wave function in space. These spontaneous collapses are rare for microscopic systems, hence their quantum properties are left almost unaltered. On the other hand, collapses become more and more frequent, the larger the object, to the point that macroscopic superpositions are rapidly suppressed. The main features of collapse models will be reviewed. An update of the most promising experimental tests will be presented.

  16. Manufacturing, Structure Control, and Functional Testing of Ti-Nb-Based SMA for Medical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoshkin, S.; Brailovski, V.; Dubinskiy, S.; Zhukova, Y.; Sheremetyev, V.; Konopatsky, A.; Inaekyan, K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the development and characterization of Ni-free shape memory alloys, more specifically, Ti-Nb-based alloys for biomedical applications. It starts by describing the smelting technology used to produce small and medium size ingots of selected compositions. Thermomechanical treatments: structure interrelations are discussed next. Finally, the results of their mechanical, electrochemical, and in vitro cytotoxicity testing are presented to allow a general assessment of the mechanical, chemical, and biological aspects of compatibility of these alloys, and of the methods to control their functional properties.

  17. A comparison of pulmonary function tests for postthoracotomy pain using cryoanalgesia and transcutaneous nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rooney, S M; Jain, S; McCormack, P; Bains, M S; Martini, N; Goldiner, P L

    1986-02-01

    The beneficial effects of transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS) and cryoanalgesia for post-thoracotomy pain were compared against each other and against a control group through pulmonary function testing in the immediate and delayed postoperative period. Patients receiving cryoanalgesia did not perform well in the first 24 hours after operation. However, by the fifth postoperative day, they did as well as or even better than the TNS patients. Both cryoanalgesia and TNS were significantly effective in the management of postoperative pain as compared with controls. PMID:3484939

  18. The use of a tracking test battery in the quantitative evaluation of neurological function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repa, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    A number of tracking tasks that have proven useful to control engineers and psychologists measuring skilled performance have been evaluated for clinical use. Normal subjects as well as patients with previous diagnoses of Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy were used in the evaluation. The tests that were studied included step tracking, random tracking, and critical tracking. The results of the present experiments encourage the continued use of tracking tasks as assessment precedures in a clinical environment. They have proven to be reliable, valid, and sensitive measures of neurological function.

  19. Synthesis of nanodiamond derivatives carrying amino functions and quantification by a modified Kaiser test

    PubMed Central

    Jarre, Gerald; Heyer, Steffen; Memmel, Elisabeth; Meinhardt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nanodiamonds functionalized with different organic moieties carrying terminal amino groups have been synthesized. These include conjugates generated by Diels–Alder reactions of ortho-quinodimethanes formed in situ from pyrazine and 5,6-dihydrocyclobuta[d]pyrimidine derivatives. For the quantification of primary amino groups a modified photometric assay based on the Kaiser test has been developed and validated for different types of aminated nanodiamond. The results correspond well to values obtained by thermogravimetry. The method represents an alternative wet-chemical quantification method in cases where other techniques like elemental analysis fail due to unfavourable combustion behaviour of the analyte or other impediments. PMID:25550737

  20. Testing peatland water-table depth transfer functions using high-resolution hydrological monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Holden, Joseph; Raby, Cassandra L.; Turner, T. Edward; Blundell, Antony; Charman, Dan J.; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-07-01

    Transfer functions are now commonly used to reconstruct past environmental variability from palaeoecological data. However, such approaches need to be critically appraised. Testate amoeba-based transfer functions are an established method for the quantitative reconstruction of past water-table variations in peatlands, and have been applied to research questions in palaeoclimatology, peatland ecohydrology and archaeology. We analysed automatically-logged peatland water-table data from dipwells located in England, Wales and Finland and a suite of three year, one year and summer water-table statistics were calculated from each location. Surface moss samples were extracted from beside each dipwell and the testate amoebae community composition was determined. Two published transfer functions were applied to the testate-amoeba data for prediction of water-table depth (England and Europe). Our results show that estimated water-table depths based on the testate amoeba community reflect directional changes, but that they are poor representations of the real mean or median water-table magnitudes for the study sites. We suggest that although testate amoeba-based reconstructions can be used to identify past shifts in peat hydrology, they cannot currently be used to establish precise hydrological baselines such as those needed to inform management and restoration of peatlands. One approach to avoid confusion with contemporary water-table determinations is to use residuals or standardised values for peatland water-table reconstructions. We contend that our test of transfer functions against independent instrumental data sets may be more powerful than relying on statistical testing alone.

  1. Reaching the Overlooked Student in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri; Esslinger, Travis; Bagshaw, Jarad

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of live action role-playing, or "LARPing," as a non-traditional activity that has the potential to reach students who are not interested in traditional physical education.

  2. Specialized sperm function tests in varicocele and the future of andrology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ahmad; Esteves, Sandro C; Gosálvez, Jaime; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common medical condition entangled with many controversies. Though it is highly prevalent in men with infertility, still it marks its presence in males who do have normal fertility. Determining which patients are negatively affected by varicocele would enable clinicians to better select those men who benefitted the most from surgery. Since conventional semen analysis has been limited in its ability to evaluate the negative effects of varicocele on fertility, a multitude of specialized laboratory tests have emerged. In this review, we examine the role and significance of specialized sperm function tests with regards to varicocele. Among the various tests, analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation and measurements of oxidative stress markers provide an independent measure of fertility in men with varicocele. These diagnostic modalities have both diagnostic and prognostic information complementary to, but distinct from conventional sperm parameters. Test results can guide management and aid in monitoring intervention outcomes. Proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics are areas; though still developing, holding promise to revolutionize our understanding of reproductive physiology, including varicocele. PMID:26780873

  3. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Changes and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Microgravity-induced physiological changes could impair a crewmember s performance upon return to a gravity environment. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in mission-critical tasks. The Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST) simulates one such task, measuring the ability to recover from a prone position and the cardiovascular response to orthostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes during the FTT. METHODS: Five astronauts participated in the FTT before 10-15 day missions, on landing day (R+0), and one (R+1), six (R+6) and thirty (R+30) days after landing. The RFST consisted of a 2-minute prone rest followed by a 3-minute stand during which heart rate (HR, Holter) and continuous blood pressure (BP, Finometer) were measured. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated during the RFST to approximate autonomic function. Statistical analysis was performed with two-factor repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: During RFST, HR was higher on R+0 than preflight (p<0.004). This increase in HR persisted on R+1 and R+6 during the stand portion of RFST (p<0.026). BP was well-regulated on all test days. Parasympathetic activity was diminished on R+0 (p=0.035). Sympathovagal balance tended to be affected by spaceflight (main effect, p=0.072), appearing to be slightly elevated during postflight RFST except on R+30. Additionally, analysis of HR during the functional tasks yielded a higher HR on R+0 than preflight during 8 of 11 tasks analyzed, where all tasks had HR return to preflight values by R+30 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Spaceflight causes an increase in HR, decrease in parasympathetic activity, and increase in sympathovagal balance, which we confirmed during RFST. These spaceflight-induced changes seen in the RFST, along with the increased postflight HR in most functional tasks, can be used to assess functional performance after short-duration spaceflight.

  4. Testing the Jacob's ladder of density functionals for electronic structure and magnetism of rutile VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bing; Sun, Jianwei; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Perdew, John P.

    2014-08-01

    We employ semilocal density functionals [local spin-density approximation (LSDA), Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and meta-GGAs)], LSDA plus Hubbard U (LSDA+U) theory, a nonlocal range-separated Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional (HSE06), and the random-phase approximation (RPA) to assess their performances for the ground-state magnetism and electronic structure of a strongly correlated metal, rutile VO2. Using recent quantum Monte Carlo results as the benchmark, all tested semilocal and hybrid functionals as well as the RPA (with PBE inputs) predict the correct magnetic ground states for rutile VO2. The observed paramagnetism could arise from temperature-disordered local spin moments or from the thermal destruction of these moments. All semilocal functionals also give the correct ground-state metallicity for rutile VO2. However, in the ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases, LSDA+U and HSE06 incorrectly predict rutile VO2 to be a Mott-Hubbard insulator. For the computed electronic structures of FM and AFM phases, we find that the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) and revised TPSS (revTPSS) meta-GGAs give strong 2p-3d hybridizations, resulting in a depopulation of the 2p bands of O atoms, in comparison with other tested meta-GGAs. The regularized TPSS (regTPSS) and meta-GGAs made simple, i.e., MGGA_MS0 and MGGA_MS2, which are free of the spurious order-of-limits problem of TPSS and revTPSS, give electronic states close to those of the PBE GGA and LSDA. In comparison to experiment, semilocal functionals predict better equilibrium cell volumes for rutile VO2 in FM and AFM states than in the spin-unpolarized state. For meta-GGAs, a monotonic decrease of the exchange enhancement factor Fx(s,α) with α for small s, as in the MGGA_MS functionals, leads to large (probably too large) local magnetic moments in spin-polarized states.

  5. Test functions for three-dimensional control-volume mixed finite-element methods on irregular grids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.; Russell, T.F.; Wilson, J.D.; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2000-01-01

    Numerical methods based on unstructured grids, with irregular cells, usually require discrete shape functions to approximate the distribution of quantities across cells. For control-volume mixed finite-element methods, vector shape functions are used to approximate the distribution of velocities across cells and vector test functions are used to minimize the error associated with the numerical approximation scheme. For a logically cubic mesh, the lowest-order shape functions are chosen in a natural way to conserve intercell fluxes that vary linearly in logical space. Vector test functions, while somewhat restricted by the mapping into the logical reference cube, admit a wider class of possibilities. Ideally, an error minimization procedure to select the test function from an acceptable class of candidates would be the best procedure. Lacking such a procedure, we first investigate the effect of possible test functions on the pressure distribution over the control volume; specifically, we look for test functions that allow for the elimination of intermediate pressures on cell faces. From these results, we select three forms for the test function for use in a control-volume mixed method code and subject them to an error analysis for different forms of grid irregularity; errors are reported in terms of the discrete L2 norm of the velocity error. Of these three forms, one appears to produce optimal results for most forms of grid irregularity.

  6. ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    burn, at 09:45 (CEST), Venus Express will disappear behind the planet and will not be visible from Earth. This is known as its ‘occultation’ period. The spacecraft will re-emerge from behind Venus’s disc some ten minutes later. So, even with the low gain antenna’s signal, it will only be visible during the first half of the burn and the last six minutes. Receiving the spacecraft signal after the occultation period will be the first positive sign of successful orbit insertion. 11 April, h 11:13 (CEST), re-establish communication with Earth. At the end of the burn, Venus Express still has to perform a few automatic operations. These re-orient the solar panels towards the sun and one of the high gain antennas (the smaller High Gain Antenna 2) towards Earth. If everything goes as expected, at 11:13 the spacecraft should be able to establish its first communication link with ESA’s Cebreros ground station near Madrid. Over the next few hours, it will send much-awaited information about its state of health. Information about its actual trajectory will be available from ESOC’s flight dynamics team around 12:30 (CEST). 12 to 13 April 2006, full reactivation starts. During the 24 hours following orbital capture, time will be devoted to reactivating all spacecraft functions, including all internal monitoring capacity. By the morning of the 13th, the larger ‘High Gain Antenna 1, hitherto unused, will be oriented and fed by the transmitter to communicate with Earth. The two high gain antennas, located on different sides of the spacecraft, will be used alternately during the mission, to avoid exposure to the sun of critical equipment on the outside. Reaching final orbit A series of further manoeuvres and many more days will be required to settle Venus Express into its final orbit. The preliminary nine-day orbit is elliptical, ranging from 350 000 kilometres at its furthest point from the planet (apocentre) to less than 400 kilometres at its closest (pericentre). During

  7. Utility of preoperative in vitro platelet function tests for predicting bleeding risk in patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A-Jin; Kim, Sang-Gyung

    2016-01-01

    Background It is necessary to predict the bleeding risk in patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). To evaluate the adequacy of primary hemostasis, preoperative hemostatic screening tests are used. In the present study, we determined whether there is a positive correlation between prolonged closure time (CT) with collagen/epinephrine (CT-epi), prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and bleeding during FESS. Patients and methods We reviewed the medical records of 90 patients without bleeding histories who had undergone FESS from March 2013 to June 2014. More than 200 mL of blood loss was defined as moderate bleeding during surgery. With respect to bleeding during surgery, we determined the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) of CT-epi, PT, INR and aPTT. Results Of the 90 patients, 17 (18.9%) patients had preoperative prolonged CT values and three (17.6%) patients had bleeding. In comparison, five (6.8%) of the 73 (81.1%) patients who had undergone FESS with preoperative normal PFA values experienced bleeding (P=0.171). On the other hand, patients with prolonged PT values (2, 2.2%), prolonged INR values (3, 3.3%) or prolonged PTT values (1, 1.1%) had no bleeding episode. Preoperative CT had low sensitivity (44.4%) and PPV (23.5%). Conclusion During preoperative period, the hemostatic screening may not be helpful to detect the bleeding tendency in adult patients undergoing FESS. Routine measurement of CT-epi, PT, INR and aPTT for preoperative screening may not be recommended for FESS patients. PMID:27799837

  8. [Common prediction equations of respiratory function tests from children to adults in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tamura, Gen; Aizawa, Hisamichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    In order to make common prediction equations of respiratory function tests (RFTs) from children to adults in Japan, we combined data of RFTs accumulated for "Reference values of spirogram and arterial blood gas levels in Japanese" reported in 2001 at the Japanese Respiratory Society congress and those for "An attempt to establish reference vales of respiratory function tests for Japanese children and adolescents" reported in 2006 from the Tohoku district. We then conducted multiple regression analysis on forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), V50, V25, and Gaensler's FEV1%, since they were measured under the same condition in the both reports. With all the combinations of 5 dependent variables (age, height, age2, height2, and age x height), multiple regression analysis was performed for each RFT. Judging by both evaluation indices of adjusted R-square and Mallows's Cp statistic, the equation using 4 dependent variables of age, height, age2, and age x height demonstrated roughly high efficiency for all RFTs. Therefore, we decided the equation excluding a dependent variable of height2 as common prediction equations for all RFTs and demonstrated the prediction equation for each RFT by sex.

  9. A study on quantifying COPD severity by combining pulmonary function tests and CT image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method that can evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity by combining measurements of pulmonary function tests and measurements obtained from CT image analysis. There is no cure for COPD. However, with regular medical care and consistent patient compliance with treatments and lifestyle changes, the symptoms of COPD can be minimized and progression of the disease can be slowed. Therefore, many diagnosis methods based on CT image analysis have been proposed for quantifying COPD. Most of diagnosis methods for COPD extract the lesions as low-attenuation areas (LAA) by thresholding and evaluate the COPD severity by calculating the LAA in the lung (LAA%). However, COPD is usually the result of a combination of two conditions, emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Therefore, the previous methods based on only LAA% do not work well. The proposed method utilizes both of information including the measurements of pulmonary function tests and the results of the chest CT image analysis to evaluate the COPD severity. In this paper, we utilize a multi-class AdaBoost to combine both of information and classify the COPD severity into five stages automatically. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method was 88.9% (resubstitution scheme) and 64.4% (leave-one-out scheme).

  10. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight needs to be better understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a crew member s urine can evaluate the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross-contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross-contamination (<0.7 mL urine) and has volume accuracy of 2% between 100 to 1000 mL urine voids. Designed to provide a non-invasive means to collect urine samples from crew members, the ISS UMS operates in-line with the Node 3 Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). The ISS UMS has undergone modifications required to interface with the WHC, including material changes, science algorithm improvements, and software platform revisions. Integrated functional testing was performed to determine the pressure drop, air flow rate, and the maximum amount of fluid capable of being discharged from the UMS to the WHC. This paper will detail the results of the science and the functional integration tests.

  11. Healthy centenarian subjects: the effect of red wine consumption on liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Pinzani, P; Petruzzi, E; Orlando, C; Malentacchi, F; Petruzzi, I; Pazzagli, M; Masotti, G

    2005-01-01

    Liver function is well maintained with increasing age. The aim of our study was to investigate if long-term moderate (tests of liver function in healthy centenarians. Wine consumption habits were classified as moderate red wine drinkers (D) (tests revealed low levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). AST was higher in A (Mean+/-SE=8.40+/-0.32 U/l) in comparison to D (Mean+/-SE=6.25+/-0.72 U/l), but this difference was not statistically significant. Total-bilirubin (Tbil), alkaline phosphatase (AlkP), gamma- glutamyltransferase (GGT) and pseudocholinesterase (CHE) were in the normal range, and there was no difference between D and A. We conclude that red wine consumption in centenarians had no negative effect on circulating liver enzyme activities.

  12. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  13. Routine liver function tests and serum amylase determinations after biliary lithotripsy: are they necessary?

    PubMed

    Goodacre, B W; Malone, D E; Fache, J S; Rawat, B; Burhenne, H J

    1990-10-01

    Shock-wave-induced soft-tissue damage after biliary extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (BESWL) has been reported. Every patient treated in Vancouver has, therefore, had liver function tests and serum amylase levels measured before and within 6 days after BESWL. All patients had symptomatic cholecystolithiasis with normal pre-BESWL biochemistry. Analysis of 311 patients after treatment with the Siemens Lithostar unit showed elevation of one or more laboratory value in 19% (60/311). Serum aspartate transaminase level was most frequently abnormal (38 cases). The majority of abnormalities were mild, less than two times normal levels. Clinically significant complications occurred in five patients (three pancreatitis, one cholecystitis, one common bile duct obstruction); four of these occurred 1 week or more after treatment. The results of routine laboratory tests could not be used to predict complications. No correlation was seen between abnormal values and number of shock waves administered or peak shock-wave pressure. Of 112 patients surveyed at the time of post-BESWL enzyme measurement, 49 (44%) reported a degree of pain, which was severe in eight cases. Presence of severe pain correlated strongly (p less than .001) with abnormal laboratory findings, however not with the degree of abnormality. As results of these laboratory tests are nonspecific, have not been shown to correlate with the degree of severity of BESWL-induced tissue damage, and do not predict complications, the tests are of little value in the absence of clinical signs and symptoms. These conclusions, however, apply only to the Siemens Lithostar Plus with patients treated in the steep left posterior oblique position. Cost savings can be expected if routine post-BESWL biochemical tests are abandoned.

  14. [Prediction of G-load (Gz) tolerance based on various functional tests].

    PubMed

    Suvorov, P M; Karlov, V N; Sidorova, K A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze and sum up the data on the methods of predicting g-tolerance (+Gz) utilizing various functional tests within the program of medical flight certification. The study involved 478 fighter pilots who were examined at the Central Military Scientific/Research Aviation Hospital. The age of examinates varied from 25 to 50 years (35 yr. on the average). Along with healthy subjects there were also pilots with the history of vascular-autonomous instability, anamnesis of syncope, myocardiodystrophy, myocardiac and atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis, and some other disorders. As a result, a correlation was established between the tolerance of lower body negative pressure at -50 mm Hg and standing tests. No link was noted between tolerance of the subjects to moderate hypoxia (H = 5,000 m for 30 minutes) and +Gz-loads at 3 and 5 units for 30 seconds. Neither was there evidence of correlation between tolerance of standing tests including their modifications and g-loads. Pearson association coefficient ra = 0.01. Comparison of the tolerance to +Gz at 3, 5, and 6 units without the anti-gravity suit and static loads at 120, 160, 200, and 240 kg/s during 30 seconds each gave an agreement of 67%. However, the statoergometry test revealed a poor tolerance of static loads only in 17.2% out of 29 pilots with low g-loads tolerance. Hence, the association coefficient appeared to be equal to 0.06 denying any predictive link. This absence of reliable predictive correlation between the tests in use was extenuated by different physiological mechanisms of adaptation.

  15. [Prediction of G-load (Gz) tolerance based on various functional tests].

    PubMed

    Suvorov, P M; Karlov, V N; Sidorova, K A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze and sum up the data on the methods of predicting g-tolerance (+Gz) utilizing various functional tests within the program of medical flight certification. The study involved 478 fighter pilots who were examined at the Central Military Scientific/Research Aviation Hospital. The age of examinates varied from 25 to 50 years (35 yr. on the average). Along with healthy subjects there were also pilots with the history of vascular-autonomous instability, anamnesis of syncope, myocardiodystrophy, myocardiac and atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis, and some other disorders. As a result, a correlation was established between the tolerance of lower body negative pressure at -50 mm Hg and standing tests. No link was noted between tolerance of the subjects to moderate hypoxia (H = 5,000 m for 30 minutes) and +Gz-loads at 3 and 5 units for 30 seconds. Neither was there evidence of correlation between tolerance of standing tests including their modifications and g-loads. Pearson association coefficient ra = 0.01. Comparison of the tolerance to +Gz at 3, 5, and 6 units without the anti-gravity suit and static loads at 120, 160, 200, and 240 kg/s during 30 seconds each gave an agreement of 67%. However, the statoergometry test revealed a poor tolerance of static loads only in 17.2% out of 29 pilots with low g-loads tolerance. Hence, the association coefficient appeared to be equal to 0.06 denying any predictive link. This absence of reliable predictive correlation between the tests in use was extenuated by different physiological mechanisms of adaptation. PMID:8974598

  16. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Respiratory Function Tests and Blood Parameters in Radiology Staff

    PubMed Central

    Saygin, M; Yasar, S; Kayan, M; Balci, UG; Öngel, K

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate pulmonary function tests and blood parameters and their relationship with sociodemographic data for radiology staff continuously exposed to ionizing radiation. Subjects and Method: Thirty-eight personnel from Suleyman Demirel University Training and Research Hospital, Radiology Unit, were included in this study. Sociodemographic data were evaluated by a questionnare that was developed by the researchers. Height and weight measurements were performed with a standard scale and meter. Routine blood parameters and spirometric lung function measurements of the cases were recorded. Statistical significances were determined by independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), bivariate correlation and Kruskal-Wallis tests using SPSS 18.0. Results: The mean age was 32.42 ± 5.5 years; 19 patients (50%) were male and 19 patients (50%) were female. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as 25.68 ± 0.47 for men and 24.58 ± 1.13 for women. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and maximum mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75) showed statistically significant differences between gender (p < 0.01). In addition, FEV1 and FEF25-75 also demonstrated statistically negatively significant difference with the type of task (p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative difference was found between FEF25-75 value and time to start smoking (p < 0.05). Among FVC, FEV1, PEF and FEF25-75 values and alcohol usage, statistically significant positive difference was detected (p < 0.05). Statistically significant positive difference was found among FVC, PEF and FEF25-75 values and sports activity (p < 0.05). According to BMI groups, statistically significant positive difference with FVC, FEV1 and PEF values were found (p < 0.05). Statistically significant correlations were found among FVC value and haemoglobin level (Hgb), haematocrit level (Hct) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), among FEV1 value and Hgb, MCV, among

  17. Effectiveness of Combining Statistical Tests and Effect Sizes When Using Logistic Discriminant Function Regression to Detect Differential Item Functioning for Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Benito, Juana; Hidalgo, Maria Dolores; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article was to find an optimal decision rule for identifying polytomous items with large or moderate amounts of differential functioning. The effectiveness of combining statistical tests with effect size measures was assessed using logistic discriminant function analysis and two effect size measures: R[superscript 2] and…

  18. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

  19. [Memory function in patients with Parkinson's disease: in relation to neuropsychological tests and cerebral blood flow].

    PubMed

    Shibuya, N; Tachibana, H; Kawabata, K; Sugita, M

    2001-03-01

    We conducted a neuropsychological comparison between Parkinson's disease (PD; n = 24) and healthy control subjects (n = 12) using Rey's auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT) and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test (RCFT) assessing memory function. In addition, to determine the function of cortical and subcortical areas, we measured the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using N-isopropyl-p[123I]-iodoamhetamine (123I-IMP) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and analyzed the relationships between brain regions and memory function. On the RAVLT, significant group differences in recall words were found on all learning trials between patients with PD and control subjects, whereas recognition, learning rate and forgetting rate were basically the same. In addition, the primacy/recency effect was statistically equal for both groups. Results suggest faulty retrieval mechanisms in PD, whereas encoding and retention procesess did not prove to be affected. There were significant correlations between perfusion of the prefrontal and parietal cortices and total number of free recall in five trials. On the RCFT, recalls after 30 sec and 30 min were impaired in patients with PD although no significant difference in accuracy scores obtained in copy was noted. A percent recall score calculated using the formula 100 x [1 - (copy-recall)/copy] was also decreased in patients with PD. There were significant correlations between perfusion of the occipital and parietal cortices and percent recall score. Our data suggest that auditory memory deficits based on the RAVLT in PD may be mainly related to frontal and parietal cortical dysfunction, while visual recall deficits based on the RCFT may be related to the parieto-occipital cortical dysfunction.

  20. Pulmonary Function Tests Do Not Predict Pulmonary Complications After Thoracoscopic Lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Mark F.; Villamizar-Ortiz, Nestor R.; Tong, Betty C.; Burfeind, William R.; Harpole, David H.; D’Amico, Thomas A.; Onaitis, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) predict respiratory complications and mortality after lung resection via thoracotomy. We sought to determine the impact of PFTs upon complications after thoracoscopic lobectomy. METHODS A model for morbidity including published preoperative risk factors and surgical approach was developed by multivariable logistic regression. All patients who underwent lobectomy for primary lung cancer between December, 1999 and October, 2007 with preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≤ 60% predicted were reviewed. Preoperative, histopathologic, perioperative, and outcome variables were assessed using standard descriptive statistics. Pulmonary complications were defined as atelectasis requiring bronchoscopy, pneumonia, reintubation, and tracheostomy. RESULTS During the study period, 340 patients (median age 67) with DLCO or FEV1 ≤ 60% (mean % predicted FEV1 55±1, mean % predicted DLCO 61±1) underwent lobectomy (173 thoracoscopy, 167 thoracotomy). Operative mortality was 5% (17 patients) and overall morbidity was 48% (164 patients). At least one pulmonary complication occurred in 57 patients (17%). Significant predictors of pulmonary complications by multivariable analysis for all patients included DLCO (odds ratio 1.03, p=0.003), FEV1 (odds ratio 1.04, p=0.003) and thoracotomy as surgical approach (odds ratio 3.46,p=0.0007). When patients were analyzed according to operative approach, DLCO and FEV1 remained significant predictors of pulmonary morbidity for patients undergoing thoracotomy but not thoracoscopy. CONCLUSIONS In patients with impaired pulmonary function, preoperative pulmonary function tests are predictors of pulmonary complications when lobectomy for lung cancer is performed via thoracotomy but not via thoracoscopy. PMID:20338305