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Sample records for functional strength training

  1. Strength Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... strengthens your heart and lungs. When you strength train with weights, you're using your muscles to ... see there are lots of different ways to train with weights. Try a few good basic routines ...

  2. Functional outcomes associated with expiratory muscle strength training: narrative review.

    PubMed

    Laciuga, Helena; Rosenbek, John C; Davenport, Paul W; Sapienza, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    This review presents the available evidence for the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) with the use of a pressure threshold device. The investigators used computerized database searches for studies reporting the outcomes of pressure threshold EMST published after 1994. A total of 24 selected articles presented outcomes related but not limited to respiratory function, such as speech, swallow, voice, and cough function in persons with neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and Lance-Adams syndrome; in persons with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and in healthy young adults and sedentary and active elderly. Several studies demonstrated promising outcomes of EMST as a non-task-specific training for airway protection in persons with dysphagia secondary to neuromuscular impairments; however, further research is needed to confirm and generalize the reported findings.

  3. Training-specific functional, neural, and hypertrophic adaptations to explosive- vs. sustained-contraction strength training.

    PubMed

    Balshaw, Thomas G; Massey, Garry J; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Training specificity is considered important for strength training, although the functional and underpinning physiological adaptations to different types of training, including brief explosive contractions, are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of 12 wk of explosive-contraction (ECT, n = 13) vs. sustained-contraction (SCT, n = 16) strength training vs. control (n = 14) on the functional, neural, hypertrophic, and intrinsic contractile characteristics of healthy young men. Training involved 40 isometric knee extension repetitions (3 times/wk): contracting as fast and hard as possible for ∼1 s (ECT) or gradually increasing to 75% of maximum voluntary torque (MVT) before holding for 3 s (SCT). Torque and electromyography during maximum and explosive contractions, torque during evoked octet contractions, and total quadriceps muscle volume (QUADSVOL) were quantified pre and post training. MVT increased more after SCT than ECT [23 vs. 17%; effect size (ES) = 0.69], with similar increases in neural drive, but greater QUADSVOL changes after SCT (8.1 vs. 2.6%; ES = 0.74). ECT improved explosive torque at all time points (17-34%; 0.54 ≤ ES ≤ 0.76) because of increased neural drive (17-28%), whereas only late-phase explosive torque (150 ms, 12%; ES = 1.48) and corresponding neural drive (18%) increased after SCT. Changes in evoked torque indicated slowing of the contractile properties of the muscle-tendon unit after both training interventions. These results showed training-specific functional changes that appeared to be due to distinct neural and hypertrophic adaptations. ECT produced a wider range of functional adaptations than SCT, and given the lesser demands of ECT, this type of training provides a highly efficient means of increasing function.

  4. Strength training induced adaptations in neuromuscular function of premenopausal women with fibromyalgia: comparison with healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Hakkinen, A; Hakkinen, K; Hannonen, P; Alen, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the effects of 21 weeks' progressive strength training on neuromuscular function and subjectively perceived symptoms in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia (FM).
METHODS—Twenty one women with FM were randomly assigned to experimental (FMT) or control (FMC) groups. Twelve healthy women served as training controls (HT). The FMT and HT groups carried out progressive strength training twice a week for 21 weeks. The major outcome measures were muscle strength and electromyographic (EMG) recordings. Secondary outcome measures were pain, sleep, fatigue, physical function capacity (Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire), and mood (short version of Beck's depression index).
RESULTS—Female FMT subjects increased their maximal and explosive strength and EMG activity to the same extent as the HT group. Moreover, the progressive strength training showed immediate benefits on subjectively perceived fatigue, depression, and neck pain of training patients with FM.
CONCLUSIONS—The strength training data indicate comparable trainability of the neuromuscular system of women with FM and healthy women. Progressive strength training can safely be used in the treatment of FM to decrease the impact of the syndrome on the neuromuscular system, perceived symptoms, and functional capacity. These results confirm the opinion that FM syndrome has a central rather than a peripheral or muscular basis.

 PMID:11114277

  5. Effects of strength training on muscle strength characteristics, functional capabilities, and balance in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Holviala, Jarkko H S; Sallinen, Janne M; Kraemer, William J; Alen, Markku J; Häkkinen, Keijo K T

    2006-05-01

    Progressive strength training can lead to substantial increases in maximal strength and mass of trained muscles, even in older women and men, but little information is available about the effects of strength training on functional capabilities and balance. Thus, the effects of 21 weeks of heavy resistance training--including lower loads performed with high movement velocities--twice a week on isometric maximal force (ISOmax) and force-time curve (force produced in 500 milliseconds, F0-500) and dynamic 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength of the leg extensors, 10-m walking time (10WALK) and dynamic balance test (DYN.D) were investigated in 26 middle-aged (MI; 52.8 +/- 2.4 years) and 22 older women (O; 63.8 +/- 3.8 years). 1RM, ISOmax, and F0-500 increased significantly in MI by 28 +/- 10%, 20 +/- 19%, 31 +/- 34%, and in O by 27 +/- 8%, 20 +/- 16%, 18 +/- 45%, respectively. 10WALK (MI and O, p < 0.001) shortened and DYN.D improved (MI and O, p < 0.001). The present strength-training protocol led to large increases in maximal and explosive strength characteristics of leg extensors and in walking speed, as well to an improvement in the present dynamic balance test performance in both age groups. Although training-induced increase in explosive strength is an important factor for aging women, there are other factors that contribute to improvements in dynamic balance capacity. This study indicates that total body heavy resistance training, including explosive dynamic training, may be applied in rehabilitation or preventive exercise protocols in aging women to improve dynamic balance capabilities.

  6. Muscle strength training to improve gait function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Eek, Meta Nyström; Tranberg, Roy; Zügner, Roland; Alkema, Kristina; Beckung, Eva

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of muscle strength training on gait outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen children (two females, 14 males, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-II, mean age 12y 6mo, range 9y 4mo-15y 4mo) underwent muscle strength measurement using a handheld device, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) assessment, three-dimensional gait analysis, joint range of motion assessment, and grading of spasticity before and after 8 weeks of training. All participants had a diagnosis of spastic diplegia and could walk without aids. Training consisted of exercises for lower extremity muscles with free weights, rubber bands, and body weight for resistance, three times a week. Values for muscle strength below normal were identified in all children; this was most pronounced at the ankle, followed by the hip muscles. After training, muscle strength and GMFM scores increased, velocity was unchanged, stride length increased, and cadence was reduced. There was an increase in hip extensor moment and power generated at push off. Eight weeks of muscle strength training can increase muscle strength and improve gait function.

  7. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  8. Efficiency of muscle strength training on motor function in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Jie; He, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Hai-Ying; Wang, Xue-Qiang; Zhu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Existing literature has shown that patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) can benefit greatly from the strength training; therefore, the strength training should play a more important role in cardiac rehabilitation. However, the medical community may still have conservation to apply the strength training owing to no comprehensive study so far to compare the effectiveness of the strength training to the other trainings, such as aerobic training. Objective: To evaluate the effect of strength training on motor function in patients with CAD. Methods: Published articles from the earliest date available to July 2015 were identified using electronic searches. Two reviewers selected independently relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating exercise program with strength training versus control interventions (exercise without strength training, including aerobic training and no exercise group) for the treatment of CAD patients. We examined effects of exercise with strength training versus control interventions on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), duration of exercise test and muscle strength. Two reviewers extracted data independently. Results: Twenty seven trials that represented 1151 participants passed the selection criteria and were evaluated for the effects of strength training in CAD patients. For improving VO2peak [SMD (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.11, 1.06)] and muscle strength [upper limb, SMD (95% CI) =0.44 (0.34, 0.55); lower limb, SMD (95% CI) =0.33 (0.16, 0.50)], exercise program with strength training were significantly more effective than one without it. But there is no significantly difference on duration of exercise test [SMD (95%CI) = 0.17 (-0.04, 0.39)] in strength training group than in control group. Conclusions: We conclude strength training is effective in improving muscle strength and VO2peak, in CAD patients, when compared to patients with control group. Furthermore, our evaluations suggest that strength training does not compromise

  9. Effects of strength and neuromuscular training on functional performance in athletes after partial medial meniscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Min; Lou, Zhen; Liao, Bagen

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine an effective knee function rehabilitation program for athletes undergoing partial medial meniscectomy. Participants were randomly assigned to neuromuscular training (NT) or strength training (ST) group and subjected to functional assessments before surgery and again at 4, and 8 weeks post hoc. Functional knee assessment, such as Lysholm knee scoring, star excursion balance, and BTE PrimusRS isokinetic performance tests were evaluated in each group. All postoperational symptoms were significantly improved after 4 and 8 weeks of NT and ST. Both NT and ST programs showed effective knee function recovery seen as an increase in muscular strength and endurance. However, the NT program showed the most significant functional improvement of dynamic balance and coordination. PMID:28349042

  10. A Novel Application of Eddy Current Braking for Functional Strength Training During Gait.

    PubMed

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Claflin, Edward S; Gillespie, R Brent; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2016-09-01

    Functional strength training is becoming increasingly popular when rehabilitating individuals with neurological injury such as stroke or cerebral palsy. Typically, resistance during walking is provided using cable robots or weights that are secured to the distal shank of the subject. However, there exists no device that is wearable and capable of providing resistance across the joint, allowing over ground gait training. In this study, we created a lightweight and wearable device using eddy current braking to provide resistance to the knee. We then validated the device by having subjects wear it during a walking task through varying resistance levels. Electromyography and kinematics were collected to assess the biomechanical effects of the device on the wearer. We found that eddy current braking provided resistance levels suitable for functional strength training of leg muscles in a package that is both lightweight and wearable. Applying resistive forces at the knee joint during gait resulted in significant increases in muscle activation of many of the muscles tested. A brief period of training also resulted in significant aftereffects once the resistance was removed. These results support the feasibility of the device for functional strength training during gait. Future research is warranted to test the clinical potential of the device in an injured population.

  11. Crew Strength Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to develop your upper and lower body strength in your muscles and bones by performing body-weight squats and push-ups.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to...

  12. Early-phase adaptations to intrahospital training in strength and functional mobility of children with leukemia.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Alejandro F; Fleck, Steven J; Chamorro-Viña, Carolina; Maté-Muñoz, José L; Moral, Susana; García-Castro, Javier; Ramírez, Manuel; Madero, Luis; Lucia, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    Improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy have contributed to the high survival rate (approximately 70%) of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, during treatment, lack of physical activity and treatment cause various short- to long-term side effects, such as muscle atrophy and physical deconditioning. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an intrahospital, short-duration (8 weeks) exercise training program on muscle strength and endurance and functional mobility of children with ALL. Seven children (4 boys and 3 girls; 4-7 years of age) who were in the maintenance phase of treatment for ALL were selected as subjects. Three training sessions of 90- to 120-minute duration were performed each week. Each session included 11 different strength exercises engaging the major muscle groups and aerobic training. Gains in strength and endurance were assessed with a 6 repetition maximum test for upper (seated bench press and seated lateral row) and lower extremities (leg press). Gains in functional mobility were assessed with the time up and go test (TUG) and the timed up and down stairs test (TUDS). Performance was significantly improved after the training program in all strength tests (p < 0.01 for seated bench press and p < 0.05 for both seated lateral row and seated leg press) and in the TUG test (p < 0.05). In summary, a period of time as short as 8 weeks is enough to produce clinically relevant early-phase adaptations in children receiving treatment against ALL (i.e., improved functional mobility and muscle strength). Although more research is needed in the area of exercise training and pediatric cancer, exercise sciences can play a beneficial role in assisting both oncologists in treating cancer and improving children's quality of life during and after treatment.

  13. Assessment of neuromuscular function after different strength training protocols using tensiomyography.

    PubMed

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Á; Harms, Nico; Raeder, Christian; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze tensiomyography (TMG) sensitivity to changes in muscle force and neuromuscular function of the muscle rectus femoris (RF) using TMG muscle properties after 5 different lower-limb strength training protocols (multiple sets; DS = drop sets; eccentric overload; FW = flywheel; PL = plyometrics). After baseline measurements, 14 male strength trained athletes completed 1 squat training protocol per week over a 5-week period in a randomized controlled order. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), TMG measurements of maximal radial displacement of the muscle belly (Dm), contraction time between 10 and 90% of Dm (Tc), and mean muscle contraction velocities from the beginning until 10% (V10) and 90% of Dm (V90) were analyzed up to 0.5 (post-train), 24 (post-24), and 48 hours (post-48) after the training interventions. Significant analysis of variance main effects for measurement points were found for all TMG contractile properties and MVIC (p < 0.01). Dm and V10 post-train values were significantly lower after protocols DS and FW compared with protocol PL (p = 0.032 and 0.012, respectively). Dm, V10, and V90 decrements correlated significantly to the decreases in MVIC (r = 0.64-0.67, p ≤ 0.05). Some TMG muscle properties are sensitive to changes in muscle force, and different lower-limb strength training protocols lead to changes in neuromuscular function of RF. In addition, those protocols involving high and eccentric load and a high total time under tension may induce higher changes in TMG muscle properties.

  14. Strength Training and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength ... help prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using ...

  15. Chronic Effects of Strength Training Vs. Hydro Aerobics on Functional and Cardiorespiratory Ability in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Giovanni S.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Vilaça-Alves, José; Silva, Gabriel Costa e; Garrido, Nuno D.; Furtado, Hélio; Reis, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17) and a control group (CG; n = 7), where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002) were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05). With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. PMID:25713645

  16. Resistance Training and Vibration Improve Muscle Strength and Functional Capacity in Female Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Elham; Mostahfezian, Mina; Etemadifar, Masoud; Zafari, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eight-week progressive resistance training and vibration program on strength and ambulatory function in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods Twenty-Four female MS patients with the following demographics: age 27-45 years, and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) 2-4, participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The exercise group (n = 12) trained according to a progressive program, mainly consisting of resistance training and vibration, three times a week for eight weeks and compared with subjects in the control group (n = 12) that received no intervention. Subjects completed one set of 5-12 reps at%50-70 maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). After 5-10 minutes rest, six postures on plate vibration were done. Isotonic MVC of knee extensors, abduction of the scapula and downward rotation of the scapular girdle muscle groups were predicted by using the Brzycki formula. Right leg balance (RLB), left leg balance (LLB), and walking speed (10-Meter Walk Test) were assessed before and after the training program. Descriptive statistics and Co-variance were used for analyzing data. Results After eight weeks of training the exercise group showed significant increase in MVC of Knee extensors (32.3%), Abduction of the scapula (24.7%) and Downward Rotation Scapular (39.1%) muscle groups, RLB (33.5%), LLB (9.5%), and decrease in 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) (9.3%), (P<0.05). Conclusions The results of this study indicated this type of training can cause improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:23342227

  17. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  18. Effects of functional movement strength training on strength, muscle size, kinematics, and motor function in cerebral palsy: a 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ah; You, Joshua H; Kim, Dong A; Lee, Min Jin; Hwang, Pil Woo; Lee, Nam Gi; Park, Jeong Joon; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Hyun-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of comprehensive hand repetitive intensive strengthening training (CHRIST) on strength, morphological muscle size, kinematics, and associated motor functional changes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Ten children (5 boys, 5 girls; age range, 6-11 years, mean age, 8.6 years) participated in the study. The children were classified according to the Manual Ability Classification System: 5 were Level II, 2 were Level III, and 3 were Level IV. Quantitative biomechanical measurements were performed to determine muscle strength, muscle size, kinematics (normalized jerk score), and motor function using a dynamometer, ultrasound, Vicon motion analysis, and standardized clinical tests (Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, Functional Independence Measure, and Pediatric Motor Activity Log), respectively. Muscle strength, muscle size, kinematics, and motor function significantly improved after a 10-week intervention (3 times a week), and the long-term effects remained even at the 3-month follow-up. In conclusion, this is the first study highlighting the long-term efficacy of upper extremity strength training using the novel CHRIST system in children with CP, which will potentially open up new horizons for effective management in pediatric neurorehabilitation.

  19. Blood flow-restricted strength training displays high functional and biological efficacy in women: a within-subject comparison with high-load strength training.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Stian; Hammarström, Daniel; Strand, Tor A; Zacharoff, Erika; Whist, Jon E; Rauk, Irene; Nygaard, Håvard; Vegge, Geir; Hanestadhaugen, Marita; Wernbom, Mathias; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Rønning, Roar; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2015-10-01

    Limited data exist on the efficacy of low-load blood flow-restricted strength training (BFR), as compared directly to heavy-load strength training (HST). Here, we show that 12 wk of twice-a-week unilateral BFR [30% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to exhaustion] and HST (6-10RM) of knee extensors provide similar increases in 1RM knee extension and cross-sectional area of distal parts of musculus quadriceps femoris in nine untrained women (age 22 ± 1 yr). The two protocols resulted in similar acute increases in serum levels of human growth hormone. On the cellular level, 12 wk of BFR and HST resulted in similar shifts in muscle fiber composition in musculus vastus lateralis, evident as increased MyHC2A proportions and decreased MyHC2X proportions. They also resulted in similar changes of the expression of 29 genes involved in skeletal muscle function, measured both in a rested state following 12 wk of training and subsequent to singular training sessions. Training had no effect on myonuclei proportions. Of particular interest, 1) gross adaptations to BFR and HST were greater in individuals with higher proportions of type 2 fibers, 2) both BFR and HST resulted in approximately four-fold increases in the expression of the novel exercise-responsive gene Syndecan-4, and 3) BFR provided lesser hypertrophy than HST in the proximal half of musculus quadriceps femoris and also in CSApeak, potentially being a consequence of pressure from the tourniquet utilized to achieve blood flow restriction. In conclusion, BFR and HST of knee extensors resulted in similar adaptations in functional, physiological, and cell biological parameters in untrained women.

  20. Blood flow-restricted strength training displays high functional and biological efficacy in women: a within-subject comparison with high-load strength training

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Daniel; Strand, Tor A.; Zacharoff, Erika; Whist, Jon E.; Rauk, Irene; Nygaard, Håvard; Vegge, Geir; Hanestadhaugen, Marita; Wernbom, Mathias; Cumming, Kristoffer T.; Rønning, Roar; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on the efficacy of low-load blood flow-restricted strength training (BFR), as compared directly to heavy-load strength training (HST). Here, we show that 12 wk of twice-a-week unilateral BFR [30% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to exhaustion] and HST (6-10RM) of knee extensors provide similar increases in 1RM knee extension and cross-sectional area of distal parts of musculus quadriceps femoris in nine untrained women (age 22 ± 1 yr). The two protocols resulted in similar acute increases in serum levels of human growth hormone. On the cellular level, 12 wk of BFR and HST resulted in similar shifts in muscle fiber composition in musculus vastus lateralis, evident as increased MyHC2A proportions and decreased MyHC2X proportions. They also resulted in similar changes of the expression of 29 genes involved in skeletal muscle function, measured both in a rested state following 12 wk of training and subsequent to singular training sessions. Training had no effect on myonuclei proportions. Of particular interest, 1) gross adaptations to BFR and HST were greater in individuals with higher proportions of type 2 fibers, 2) both BFR and HST resulted in approximately four-fold increases in the expression of the novel exercise-responsive gene Syndecan-4, and 3) BFR provided lesser hypertrophy than HST in the proximal half of musculus quadriceps femoris and also in CSApeak, potentially being a consequence of pressure from the tourniquet utilized to achieve blood flow restriction. In conclusion, BFR and HST of knee extensors resulted in similar adaptations in functional, physiological, and cell biological parameters in untrained women. PMID:26202071

  1. The influence of short-term strength training on health-related quality of life and executive cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ken; Obuchi, Shuichi; Arai, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Hiroshi; Shiba, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Shuichiro; Kojima, Motonaga

    2010-01-01

    Strength training has been reported as a potentially useful exercise to improve psychological aspects in the elderly, but its effects remain controversial. This study investigated the effectiveness of strength training conducted twice a week for 12 weeks for improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and executive cognitive function. The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with assessments before and after intervention. HRQOL and executive function were assessed using the SF-36 Health Status Survey and a computerized neuro-cognitive assessment using task-switch reaction time trials, respectively. Subjects comprised 119 participants > or =65 years old, randomized to either strength training (n=65) or health education classes (controls, n=54). The strength training program was designed to strengthen the large muscle groups most important for functional activities and to improve balance. The effects of the intervention on the eight dimensions of the SF-36 in the control and training groups were analyzed. Only the mental health scale of the SF-36 was significantly improved for the training group compared with controls after 12 weeks. Task-switch reaction time and correct response rate remained unchanged. Short-term strength training might have modest positive effects on HRQOL, although this training period may not be sufficient to affect executive function in relatively healthy older people.

  2. Functional and muscular adaptations in an experimental model for isometric strength training in mice.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Karsten; Gessner, Denise K; Seimetz, Michael; Banisch, Jasmin; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Weissmann, Norbert; Mooren, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training induces muscular adaptations that are highly specific to the type of exercise. For a systematic study of the differentiated exercise adaptations on a molecular level mouse models have been used successfully. The aim of the current study was to develop a suitable mouse model of isometric strength exercise training characterized by specific adaptations known from strength training. C57BL/6 mice performed an isometric strength training (ST) for 10 weeks 5 days/week. Additionally, either a sedentary control group (CT) or a regular endurance training group (ET) groups were used as controls. Performance capacity was determined by maximum holding time (MHT) and treadmill spirometry, respectively. Furthermore, muscle fiber types and diameter, muscular concentration of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK), succinate dehydrogenase (SDHa), and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were determined. In a further approach, the effect of ST on glucose intolerance was tested in diabetic mice. In mice of the ST group we observed an increase of MHT in isometric strength tests, a type II fiber hypertrophy, and an increased GLUT4 protein content in the membrane fraction. In contrast, in mice of the ET group an increase of VO(2max), a shift to oxidative muscle fiber type and an increase of oxidative enzyme content was measured. Furthermore strength training was effective in reducing glucose intolerance in mice fed a high fat diet. An effective murine strength training model was developed and evaluated, which revealed marked differences in adaptations known from endurance training. This approach seems also suitable to test for therapeutical effects of strength training.

  3. Progressive resistance strength training for improving physical function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chiung-ju; Latham, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle weakness in old age is associated with physical function decline. Progressive resistance strength training (PRT) exercises are designed to increase strength. Objectives To assess the effects of PRT on older people and identify adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (to March 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to May 01, 2008), EMBASE (1980 to February 06 2007), CINAHL (1982 to July 01 2007) and two other electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles, reviewed conference abstracts and contacted authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials reporting physical outcomes of PRT for older people were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were pooled where appropriate. Main results One hundred and twenty one trials with 6700 participants were included. In most trials, PRT was performed two to three times per week and at a high intensity. PRT resulted in a small but significant improvement in physical ability (33 trials, 2172 participants; SMD 0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22). Functional limitation measures also showed improvements: e.g. there was a modest improvement in gait speed (24 trials, 1179 participants, MD 0.08 m/s, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.12); and a moderate to large effect for getting out of a chair (11 trials, 384 participants, SMD -0.94, 95% CI -1.49 to -0.38). PRT had a large positive effect on muscle strength (73 trials, 3059 participants, SMD 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.00). Participants with osteoarthritis reported a reduction in pain following PRT (6 trials, 503 participants, SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.13). There was no evidence from 10 other trials (587 participants) that PRT had an effect on bodily pain. Adverse events were poorly recorded but adverse events related to

  4. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  5. Strength Training and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  6. The Effectiveness of Basic Military Training To Improve Functional Lifting Strength in New Recruits.

    PubMed

    Drain, Jace R; Sampson, John A; Billing, Daniel C; Burley, Simon D; Linnane, Denise M; Groeller, Herbert

    2015-11-01

    Australian Army recruits are required to meet the incumbent baseline physical employment standards (PES) during basic military training. A box lift and place (BLP) assessment is included in the PES, and it assesses the ability to perform essential muscular strength tasks. Therefore, basic military training must provide sufficient training stimulus to enable recruits to achieve the baseline BLP standard. A study was undertaken to investigate changes in the performance of 1-repetition maximum BLP in male (n = 154; age, 21.4 years) and female (n = 20; age, 23.1 years) recruits over the first 8 weeks of a 12-week basic military training course. Both male and female recruits showed modest improvements (2.2 ± 5.9 kg and 3.0 ± 3.1 kg, respectively; p ≤ 0.05) in maximal BLP performance, and there were no differences between genders. The female recruits showed greater relative improvements compared with the male recruits (14.7 ± 7.8% vs. 6.5 ± 2.3%). Despite the modest improvements in BLP performance, 70% of female and 100% of male recruits achieved the baseline BLP standard (25 kg) during week 8. The 30% failure rate for female recruits, however, suggests that the basic training program should be improved. A training program that yields greater gains in muscular strength would likely increase female recruit BLP pass rates. Augmented muscular strength would also likely increase the number of recruits capable of achieving higher BLP standards for more physically demanding employment categories. A training program that yields greater improvements in muscular strength may also enable lower entry standards, thereby increasing the recruit pool.

  7. Heavy resistance training increases muscle size, strength and physical function in elderly male COPD-patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kongsgaard, M; Backer, V; Jørgensen, K; Kjaer, M; Beyer, N

    2004-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of heavy resistance training in elderly males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 18 Home-dwelling male patients (age range: 65-80 years), with a mean forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) of 46 +/- 3.4% of predicted value, were recruited. Baseline and post-training assessments included: Cross-sectional area (CSA) of quadriceps assessed by MRI, isometric and isokinetic knee extension strength, isometric trunk strength, leg extension power, normal and maximal gait-speed on a 30 m track, stair climbing time, number of chair stands in 30 s, lung function (FEV1) and self-reported health. Subjects were randomized to a resistance training group (RE, n = 9) or a control group conducting breathing exercises (CON, n = 9). RE performed heavy progressive resistance training twice a week for 12 weeks. 6 RE and 7 CON completed the study. In RE the following improved (P < 0.05): Quadriceps CSA: 4%, isometric knee extension strength: 14%, isokinetic knee extension strength at 60 degrees /s.: 18%, leg extension power: 19%, maximal gait speed: 14%, stair climbing time: 17%, isometric trunk flexion: 5% and self-reported health. In CON no changes were found. In conclusion, 12 weeks of heavy resistance training twice a week resulted in significant improvements in muscle size, knee extension strength, leg extension power, functional performance and self-reported health in elderly male COPD patients.

  8. Effects of 16-week functional movement screen training program on strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Sun; Woo, Seung-Seok; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Joo-Young

    2014-04-01

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a way to pretest functional movement. This study examined the effects of the FMS training program on the strength and flexibility of 62 elite male high school baseball players (31 in the training group, 31 in the control group). All players who received less than two points on each FMS test item had to join the 16-week, three times weekly FMS training program. To analyze results among the FMS participants, measures including intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and repeated measure ANOVA were utilized. The Kappa coefficient was 0.805 when the intraclass correlation coefficient of the three participants was inspected. Strength showed a significant interaction depending on time and group (hand grip strength: P=0.011, bench press and squat both for one-repetition maximum (1RM): P=0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). Back muscle strength did not show a significant difference (P=0.660). Trunk forward flexion showed no interaction depending on time and groups (P=0.983) but trunk extension backward showed significant differences depending on groups (P=0.004) and time (P=0.001). Splits showed a significant difference depending on time and groups (P=0.004). The FMS training program improved the strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.

  9. Strength Training. A Key to Athletic Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Patricia W.

    Characteristics of an effective strength training program are analyzed and descriptions are offered of different kinds of weight training activities. Comparisons are made between concentric, isometric, eccentric, and isokinetic training methods. The fundamentals and techniques of an exemplary training program are outlined and the organization and…

  10. Strength Training for Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

    This guide is designed to serve as a resource for developing strength training programs for children. Chapter 1 uses research findings to explain why strength training is appropriate for children. Chapter 2 explains some of the important physiological concepts involved in children's growth and development as they apply to developing strength…

  11. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    PubMed

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2016-08-03

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P < 0.05), respectively. Insulin resistance determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) was reduced (P < 0.05) by 18%. HR during submaximal cycling was 5% lower (P < 0.05), and maximal voluntary contraction force was 8% higher (P < 0.05). Total and visceral fat content was lowered (P < 0.05) by 5% and 14%, respectively, HR at rest was 8% lower (P < 0.05) and performance in four different functional capacity tests were better (P < 0.05) after compared to before the training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men.

  12. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  13. Strength Training in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper reviews the mechanisms underlying the inability to generate force in individuals with stroke and summarizes the effects of strength training in these individuals. In addition, a systematic review of studies that have incorporated progressive strengthening interventions in individuals with stroke is presented. Summary of Key Points Central (e.g., motor recruitment) and peripheral (e.g., muscle atrophy) sources may alter muscle strength in individuals with stroke and further investigations are needed to partition and quantify their effects. As to the effect of strength training interventions in individuals with stroke, the majority of studies (albeit with small samples) that evaluated muscle strength as an outcome demonstrated improvements. With regard to the effect of strength training on functional outcomes in individuals with stroke, positive outcomes were found in less rigorous pre-test/post-test studies, but more conflicting results with controlled trials. Conclusions Although there is some suggestion that strength training alone can improve muscle strength, further research is required to optimize strength training and the transfer of these strength gains to functional tasks in individuals with stroke. PMID:23255839

  14. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease.

  15. Strength Training and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... considering strength-training programs: An instructor-to-child ratio of no more than 1 to 10. The ... major muscle groups of the upper and lower body and core. Kids should start with no load ( ...

  16. Is exercise used as medicine? Association of meeting strength training guidelines and functional limitations among older US adults

    PubMed Central

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Ciccolo, Joseph T.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Lehman, Erik B.; Candotti, Carolina; Ballentine, Noel H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association between meeting strength training (ST) guidelines (≥ 2 times per week) and the presence of functional limitations among older adults. METHODS This cross-sectional study used data from older adult participants (n=6,763) of the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2011 in the United States. RESULTS Overall, 16.1% of older adults reported meeting ST guidelines. For each of nine functional limitations, those with the limitation were less likely to meet ST recommendations than those without the limitation. For example, 20.0% of those who reported no difficulty walking one-quarter mile met ST guidelines, versus only 10.1% of those who reported difficulty (p<.001). In sum, 21.7% of those with no limitations (33.7% of sample) met ST guidelines, versus only 15.9% of those reporting 1–4 limitations (38.5% of sample) and 9.8% of those reporting 5–9 limitations (27.8% of sample) (p<.001). CONCLUSION Strength training is uncommon among older adults and even less common among those who need it the most. The potential for ST to improve the public’s health is therefore substantial, as those who have the most to gain from ST participate the least. PMID:24878584

  17. Long-term strength training for community-dwelling people over 75: impact on muscle function, functional ability and life style.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Paolo; Capodaglio Edda, Maria; Facioli, Marco; Saibene, Francesco

    2007-07-01

    The objective was to determine the impact of a 1-year mixed strength-training programme on muscle function, functional ability, physical activity and life style. Twice-a-week hospital-based exercise classes and a once-a-week home session were conducted. Nineteen healthy community-dwelling training (T) men (76.6 +/- 3.1 years), 19 women (77.5 +/- 4.0 years) and 20 matched controls (C) participated in this study. Training was given with a two multi-gym machines for the lower limbs (Sitting calf and Leg press, TECHNOGYM, Italy) at 60% of the repetition maximum (1 RM) and at home it was with elastic bands. The following were the measurements made: muscle function-maximum isometric strength of the knee extensors (KE) and ankle plantar flexors (PF) measured with a Cybex Norm dynamometer, leg extensor power (LEP) with the Nottingham Power Rig; functional abilities-functional reach, chair rise, bed rise, 6-min walking test, stair climbing, get up and go, one-leg standing; physical activity-aerobic activities over 3 MET intensity (AA3), intensity classes; life-style-mean daily energy expenditure (MDEE). Significant gains in muscle function and functional abilities in both training females and males were observed, but females improved significantly more than males. Males (T + C) showed higher AA3 times than females (T + C) (P = 0.02), with females significantly more involved in light-intensity activities. We observed a 60% increase (t = 2.45) in AA3 time in T, but no increase in C. Trained males increased Class 2 physical activity time by 146% (t = 2.82) and trained females by 16% (t = 2.23). MDEE increased by 10% (t=2.62) in trained males. Our long-term mixed programme can improve muscle function and functional abilities in elderly females and functional abilities in males. It can positively affect the amount of habitual physical activity and the life-style of males and females over 75.

  18. Strength Training and Shoulder Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Salles, José Inácio; Velasques, Bruna; Cossich, Victor; Nicoliche, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Pedro; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Motta, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Context: Proprioception is essential to motor control and joint stability during daily and sport activities. Recent studies demonstrated that athletes have better joint position sense (JPS) when compared with controls matched for age, suggesting that physical training could have an effect on proprioception. Objective: To evaluate the result of an 8-week strength-training program on shoulder JPS and to verify whether using training intensities that are the same or divergent for the shoulder's dynamic-stabilizer muscles promote different effects on JPS. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: We evaluated JPS in a research laboratory and conducted training in a gymnasium. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 90 men, right handed and asymptomatic, with no history of any type of injury or shoulder instability. Intervention(s): For 8 weeks, the participants performed the strength-training program 3 sessions per week. We used 4 exercises (bench press, lat pull down, shoulder press, and seated row), with 2 sets each. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured shoulder JPS acuity by calculating the absolute error. Results: We found an interaction between group and time. To examine the interaction, we conducted two 1-way analyses of variance comparing groups at each time. The groups did not differ at pretraining; however, a difference among groups was noted posttraining. Conclusions: Strength training using exercises at the same intensity produced an improvement in JPS compared with exercises of varying intensity, suggesting that the former resulted in improvements in the sensitivity of muscle spindles and, hence, better neuromuscular control in the shoulder. PMID:25594912

  19. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  20. Effect of the tongue rotation exercise training on the oral functions in normal adults - Part 1 investigation of tongue pressure and labial closure strength.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, I; Koide, K; Takahashi, M; Mizuhashi, F

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the tongue rotation exercise training on the oral functions using the measurement of maximum tongue pressure (MTP) and labial closure strength (LCS) in normal adults. In experiment 1, the differences in MTP and LCS at the measurement point for both groups with and without tongue rotation exercise training were examined. We instructed subjects to perform the tongue rotation exercise for 2 months. We measured MTP and LCS at the point before training and at the points of 1 and 2 months after the beginning of training. In experiment 2, the changes of MTP and LCS based on the sex differences and the measurement points in training were examined. We instructed subjects to perform the tongue rotation exercise for 3 months, and measured MTP and LCS at the point before training and at the points of 2 weeks and 1, 2 and 3 months after the beginning of training. The results of experiment 1 showed MTP and LCS increased with the progress of continuous training. The results of experiment 2 showed MTP and LCS were always higher in men than in women and increased significantly at 2 weeks of training in both sexes (P < 0.01). These results might be suggested that the tongue rotation exercise training was effective for the recovery of the activity of the stomatognathic system.

  1. Effects of free leucine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and functional status in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Trabal, Joan; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Torres, Ferran; Rubio, Jordi; Prieto, Esther; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of free leucine supplementation combined with resistance training versus resistance training only on muscle strength and functional status in older adults. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study with two intervention groups. Thirty older adults were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g leucine/day (leucine group [LG], n=15) or a placebo (control group [CG], n=15), plus resistance training over a 12-week period. Maximal overcoming isometric leg strength, functional status, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, depression, and dietary intake were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks. Missing data at 12 weeks were handled using mixed models for repeated measurements for data imputation. Results Twenty-four subjects completed the 4-week assessment and eleven completed the 12-week intervention. Clinically significant gains were found in isometric leg strength at both assessment time points. Analysis of the effect size also showed how participants in LG outperformed those in CG for chair stands and the timed up and go test. No significant changes were observed for the rest of the outcomes. Conclusion Our combined analysis showed moderate changes in isometric leg muscle strength and certain components of functional status. The magnitude of changes found on these outcomes should be qualified as a positive effect of the concomitant intervention. PMID:25926725

  2. Impact of maximal strength training on work efficiency and muscle fiber type in the elderly: Implications for physical function and fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eivind; Nyberg, Stian Kwak; Hoff, Jan; Zhao, Jia; Leivseth, Gunnar; Tørhaug, Tom; Husby, Otto Schnell; Helgerud, Jan; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-02-21

    Although aging is typically associated with a decreased efficiency of locomotion, somewhat surprisingly, there is also a reduction in the proportion of less efficient fast-twitch Type II skeletal muscle fibers and subsequently a greater propensity for falls. Maximal strength training (MST), with an emphasis on velocity in the concentric phase, improves maximal strength, the rate of force development (RFD), and work efficiency, but the impact on muscle morphology in the elderly is unknown. Therefore we evaluated force production, walking work efficiency, and muscle morphology in 11 old (72±3years) subjects before and after MST of the legs. Additionally, for reference, the MST-induced morphometric changes were compared with 7 old (74±6years) subjects who performed conventional strength training (CST), with focus on hypertrophy, as well as 13 young (24±2years) controls. As expected, MST in the old improved maximal strength (68%), RFD (48%), and work efficiency (12%), restoring each to a level similar to the young. However, of importance, these MST-induced functional changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the size (66%) and shift toward a larger percentage (56%) of Type II skeletal muscle fibers, mirroring the adaptations in the hypertrophy trained old subjects, with muscle composition now being similar to the young. In conclusion, MST can increase both work efficiency and Type II skeletal muscle fiber size and percentage in the elderly, supporting the potential role of MST as a countermeasure to maintain both physical function and fall prevention in this population.

  3. Priming for Improved Hand Strength in Persons with Chronic Tetraplegia: A Comparison of Priming-Augmented Functional Task Practice, Priming Alone, and Conventional Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Tibbett, Jacqueline A.; Poe, Brandon P.; Field-Fote, Edelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Many everyday tasks cannot be accomplished without adequate grip strength, and corticomotor drive to the spinal motoneurons is a key determinant of grip strength. In persons with tetraplegia, damage to spinal pathways limits transmission of signals from motor cortex to spinal motoneurons. Corticomotor priming, which increases descending drive, should increase corticospinal transmission through the remaining spinal pathways resulting in increased grip strength. Since the motor and somatosensory cortices share reciprocal connections, corticomotor priming may also have potential to influence somatosensory function. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in grip (precision, power) force and tactile sensation associated with two different corticomotor priming approaches and a conventional training approach and to determine whether baseline values can predict responsiveness to training. Participants with chronic (≥1 year) tetraplegia (n = 49) were randomized to one of two corticomotor priming approaches: functional task practice plus peripheral nerve somatosensory stimulation (FTP + PNSS) or PNSS alone, or to conventional exercise training (CET). To assess whether baseline corticospinal excitability (CSE) is predictive of responsiveness to training, in a subset of participants, we assessed pre-intervention CSE of the thenar muscles. Participants were trained 2 h daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Thirty-seven participants completed the study. Following intervention, significant improvements in precision grip force were observed in both the stronger and weaker hand in the FTP + PNSS group (effect size: 0.51, p = 0.04 and 0.54, p = 0.03, respectively), and significant improvements in weak hand precision grip force were associated with both PNSS and CET (effect size: 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.75, p = 0.02, respectively). No significant changes were observed in power grip force or somatosensory scores in any group. Across all groups

  4. Priming for Improved Hand Strength in Persons with Chronic Tetraplegia: A Comparison of Priming-Augmented Functional Task Practice, Priming Alone, and Conventional Exercise Training.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Tibbett, Jacqueline A; Poe, Brandon P; Field-Fote, Edelle C

    2016-01-01

    Many everyday tasks cannot be accomplished without adequate grip strength, and corticomotor drive to the spinal motoneurons is a key determinant of grip strength. In persons with tetraplegia, damage to spinal pathways limits transmission of signals from motor cortex to spinal motoneurons. Corticomotor priming, which increases descending drive, should increase corticospinal transmission through the remaining spinal pathways resulting in increased grip strength. Since the motor and somatosensory cortices share reciprocal connections, corticomotor priming may also have potential to influence somatosensory function. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in grip (precision, power) force and tactile sensation associated with two different corticomotor priming approaches and a conventional training approach and to determine whether baseline values can predict responsiveness to training. Participants with chronic (≥1 year) tetraplegia (n = 49) were randomized to one of two corticomotor priming approaches: functional task practice plus peripheral nerve somatosensory stimulation (FTP + PNSS) or PNSS alone, or to conventional exercise training (CET). To assess whether baseline corticospinal excitability (CSE) is predictive of responsiveness to training, in a subset of participants, we assessed pre-intervention CSE of the thenar muscles. Participants were trained 2 h daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Thirty-seven participants completed the study. Following intervention, significant improvements in precision grip force were observed in both the stronger and weaker hand in the FTP + PNSS group (effect size: 0.51, p = 0.04 and 0.54, p = 0.03, respectively), and significant improvements in weak hand precision grip force were associated with both PNSS and CET (effect size: 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.75, p = 0.02, respectively). No significant changes were observed in power grip force or somatosensory scores in any group. Across all groups

  5. Effects of strength training aided by electrical stimulation on wrist muscle characteristics and hand function of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Daniela Virgínia; Mancini, Marisa Cotta; da Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira; Arantes, Nayara Flamini; Pinto, Tatiana Pessoa da Silva; de Araújo, Priscila Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    Nine children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy underwent 24 sessions of wrist muscles strengthening in the extended wrist range aided by electrostimulation. Isometric strength of flexors and extensors was registered in three wrist positions (30 degrees of flexion, neutral, and 30 degrees of extension) to infer on angle-torque curves. Passive stiffness of wrist flexors and wrist flexion angle during manual tasks and hand function were also documented. Significant strength gains were observed at 30 degrees of wrist extension for flexors (p= 0.029) and extensors (p= 0.024). No gains were observed at 30 degrees of flexion. The difference in extensor strength between the three test positions changed after intervention (p< 0.034), suggesting a shift in the angle-torque curve. No changes were observed in passive stiffness (p= 0.506), wrist angle (p< 0.586), or hand function (p= 0.525). Strength training in specific joint ranges may alter angle-torque relationships. For functional gains to be observed, however, a more aggressive intervention and contextualized task training would probably be needed.

  6. Effects of functional and analytical strength training on upper-extremity activity after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Graef, Patrícia; Michaelsen, Stella M.; Dadalt, Maria L. R.; Rodrigues, Daiana A. M. S.; Pereira, Franciele; Pagnussat, Aline S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of functional strengthening (using functional movements) and analytical strengthening (using repetitive movements) on level of activity and muscular strength gain in patients with chronic hemiparesis after stroke. Method A randomized, assessor-blinded trial was conducted in a therapist-supervised home rehabilitation program. Twenty-seven patients with chronic stroke were randomly allocated one of two groups: functional strengthening (FS) (n=13) and analytical strengthening (AS) (n=14). Each group received a five-week muscle strengthening protocol (30 minutes per day, three times per week) including functional movements or analytical movements, respectively. Pre-, post-, and ten-month follow-up outcomes included the Upper-Extremity Performance Test (primary outcome), Shoulder and Grip Strength, Active Shoulder Range of Motion (ROM), the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) (secondary outcomes). Results There was significant improvement in the Upper-Extremity Performance Test for the combined unilateral and bilateral task scores in the FS Group (mean difference 2.4; 95% CI=0.14 to 4.6) in the 10-month follow-up. No significant difference was observed between groups in the other outcomes (p>0.05). Conclusion A five-week home-based functional muscle strengthening induced positive results for the upper-extremity level of activity of patients with moderate impairment after chronic stroke. PMID:27683837

  7. Sources of strength-training information and strength-training behavior among Japanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2016-03-01

    The promotion of strength training is now recognized as an important component of public health initiatives for older adults. To develop successful communication strategies to increase strength-training behavior among older adults, the identification of effective communication channels to reach older adults is necessary. This study aimed to identify the information sources about strength training that were associated with strength-training behaviors among Japanese older adults. The participants were 1144 adults (60-74 years old) randomly sampled from the registry of residential addresses. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The independent variables were sources of strength-training information (healthcare providers, friends, families, radio, television, newspapers, newsletters, posters, books, magazines, booklets, the Internet, lectures, other sources), and the dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential relationships. After adjusting for demographic factors and all other information sources, strength-training information from healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet were positively related to regular strength-training behavior. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of strength-training behavior and the means of successful communication directed at increasing strength training among older adults. The results suggest that healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet are effective methods of communication for increasing strength-training behaviors among older adults.

  8. Effect of strength training of ankle plantarflexors on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee Woon; Her, Jin Gang; Ko, Jooyeon

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle plantarflexor strength training on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on changes in the strength and muscle activity of the ankle plantarflexors. [Methods] Six children aged between 4 and 10 years with CP participated in a 6 week strengthening program. The subjects were evaluated before and after the intervention in terms of ankle plantarflexor strength, muscle activity, gait velocity, cadence, step length, and D (standing) and E (walking, running, and jumping) dimensions of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). The data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. [Results] The strength of the plantarflexors increased in the majority of subjects. Significant and clinically meaningful post-intervention improvements in subject's gait velocity, cadence, and step length were found. [Conclusion] The controlled ankle plantarflexor strengthening program may lead to improvements in strength and spatiotemporal gait parameters of children with CP.

  9. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27390429

  10. Strength Training: A Natural Prescription for Staying Healthy and Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Raymond, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter highlights the importance of strength training in keeping older adults healthy and fit, explaining how it can forestall declines in strength and muscle mass, along with their attendant negative impact upon other metabolic functions and activities of daily living. Physical inactivity is common throughout the nation. Approximately 11…

  11. Weight Training for Strength and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

  12. FAST CP: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a 12-week combined Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training programme on muscle properties and mechanical gait deficiencies in adolescents and young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have muscles that are smaller, weaker and more resistant to stretch compared to typically developing people. Progressive resistance training leads to increases in muscle size and strength. In CP, the benefits of resistance training alone may not transfer to improve other activities such as walking; however, the transfer of strength improvements to improved mobility may be enhanced by performing training that involves specific functional tasks or motor skills. This study aims to determine the efficacy of combined functional anaerobic and strength training in (1) influencing muscle strength, structure and function and (2) to determine if any changes in muscle strength and structure following training impact on walking ability and gross motor functional capacity and performance in the short (following 3 months of training) and medium terms (a further 3 months post-training). Methods and analysis 40 adolescents and young adults with CP will be recruited to undertake a 12-week training programme. The training programme will consist of 3×75 min sessions per week, made up of 5 lower limb resistance exercises and 2–3 functional anaerobic exercises per session. The calf muscles will be specifically targeted, as they are the most commonly impacted muscles in CP and are a key muscle group involved in walking. If, as we believe, muscle properties change following combined strength and functional training, there may be long-term benefits of this type of training in slowing the deterioration of muscle function in people with spastic-type CP. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at The University of Queensland (2014000066) and Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/30). The findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and local research organisations’ media. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  13. Neuromuscular adaptations following prepubescent strength training.

    PubMed

    Ozmun, J C; Mikesky, A E; Surburg, P R

    1994-04-01

    Underlying mechanisms of prepubescent strength gains following resistance training are speculative. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 8 wk of resistance training on muscular strength, integrated EMG amplitude (IEMG), and arm anthropometrics of prepubescent youth. Sixteen subjects (8 males, 8 females) were randomly assigned to trained or control groups. All subjects (mean age = 10.3 yr) were of prepubertal status according to the criteria of Tanner. The trained group performed three sets (7-11 repetitions) of bicep curls with dumbbells three times per week for 8 wk. Pre- and posttraining measurements included isotonic and isokinetic strength of the elbow flexors, arm anthropometrics, and IEMG of the biceps brachii. Planned comparisons for a 2 x 2 (group by test) ANOVA model were used for data analysis. Significant isotonic (22.6%) and isokinetic (27.8%) strength gains were observed in the trained group without corresponding changes in arm circumference or skinfolds. The IEMG amplitude increased 16.8% (P < 0.05). The control group did not demonstrate any significant changes in the parameters measured. Early gains in muscular strength resulting from resistance training prepubescent children may be attributed to increased muscle activation.

  14. At-home resistance tubing strength training increases shoulder strength in the trained and untrained limb.

    PubMed

    Magnus, C R A; Boychuk, K; Kim, S Y; Farthing, J P

    2014-06-01

    The purpose was to determine if an at-home resistance tubing strength training program on one shoulder (that is commonly used in rehabilitation settings) would produce increases in strength in the trained and untrained shoulders via cross-education. Twenty-three participants were randomized to TRAIN (strength-trained one shoulder; n = 13) or CONTROL (no intervention; n = 10). Strength training was completed at home using resistance tubing and consisted of maximal shoulder external rotation, internal rotation, scaption, retraction, and flexion 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Strength was measured via handheld dynamometry and muscle size measured via ultrasound. For external rotation strength, the trained (10.9 ± 10.9%) and untrained (12.7 ± 9.6%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (1.6 ± 13.2%; -2.7 ± 12.3%; pooled across arm; P < 0.05). For internal rotation strength, the trained (14.8 ± 11.3%) and untrained (14.6 ± 10.1%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (6.4 ± 11.2%; 5.1 ± 8.8%; pooled across arm; P < 0.05). There were no significant differences for scaption strength (P = 0.056). TRAIN significantly increased muscle size in the training arm of the supraspinatus (1.90 ± 0.32 to 1.99 ± 0.31 cm), and the anterior deltoid (1.08 ± 0.37 to 1.21 ± 0.39 cm; P < 0.05). This study suggests that an at-home resistance tubing training program on one limb can produce increases in strength in both limbs, and has implications for rehabilitation after unilateral shoulder injuries.

  15. Strength training vs. aerobic training: cardiovascular tolerance in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Mota, Jorge; Soares, José M

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiovascular tolerance to two different types of exercise (strength training vs. aerobic training) in healthy elderly subjects. Nineteen healthy elderly subjects aged 65-81 were studied. All the subjects participated in a 6-month combined physical activity program of gymnastics (2 times/week; 50 min.) and strength training (2 times/week; 40-50 min.). The gymnastics sessions consisted of general physical activity that is usually offered to elderly people and included warm-up, aerobic exercises, strength training, some balance and coordination exercises, recreational games and cool-down. The strength training consisted of two sets of 10 to 12 repetitions at 70% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) for "women's double chest"; "leg extension"; "overhead press; "seated leg curl"; "lateral raise"; "leg press" and "abdominal machine". Cardiovascular tolerance was evaluated both by measuring heart rate (HR) continuously (Polar Vantage NV) during the sessions and by measuring systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with an electronic sphygmomanometer at five different times (baseline, after warm-up, 15-20 min., 30-40 min. and after cool-down). Moreover, in order to measure the response according to the type of exercise, in strength training sessions, SBP and DBP were also evaluated in different machines (legs vs. arms). Comparison between the two different types of exercise (gymnastics vs. strength training) and between different machines was performed by an unpaired Student's t test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The results showed no significant differences in HR, SBP and DBP values between the two training types. Both sessions were performed at appropriate intensity without exaggerated cardiovascular response. In strength training, exercises that involved the legs presented higher rises in SBP and DBP values than those performed with the arms. These data suggest that, if appropriate techniques are used

  16. Health and physical function predicting strength and balance training adoption: a community-based study among individuals aged 75 and older.

    PubMed

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Lönnroos, Eija; Häkkinen, Arja

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of health and physical function that are associated with not starting strength and balance training (SBT). The study population consisted of 339 community-dwelling individuals (75-98 years, 72% female). As part of a population-based intervention study they received comprehensive geriatric assessment, physical activity counseling, and had the opportunity to take part in SBT at the gym once a week. Compared with the SBT-adopters, the nonadopters (n = 157, 46%) were older and less physically active, had more comorbidities and lower cognitive abilities, more often had sedative load of drugs or were at the risk of malnutrition, had lower grip strength and more instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) difficulties, and displayed weaker performance in Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go assessments. In multivariate models, higher age, impaired cognition, and lower grip strength were independently associated with nonadoption. In the future, more individually-tailored interventions are needed to overcome the factors that prevent exercise initiation.

  17. Strength and Endurance Training Prescription in Healthy and Frail Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Bottaro, Martim; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with declines in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is an age-associated biological syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors due to changes in several physiological systems, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the neuromuscular and cardiovascular declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle hypertrophy, strength and power output, as well as endurance performance. The first purpose of this review was discuss the neuromuscular adaptations to strength training, as well as the cardiovascular adaptations to endurance training in healthy and frail elderly subjects. In addition, the second purpose of this study was investigate the concurrent training adaptations in the elderly. Based on the results found, the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e., concurrent training) performed at moderate volume and moderate to high intensity in elderly populations is the most effective way to improve both neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, exercise interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to frail elderly in order to improve the overall physical status of this population and prevent disability. PMID:24900941

  18. Single- vs. Multiple-Set Strength Training in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlumberger, Andreas; Stec, Justyna; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Compared the effects of single- and multiple-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training. Both training groups had significant strength improvements in leg extension. In the seated bench press, only the three-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength. There were higher strength gains overall in the…

  19. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael H; Burns, Steve P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect strength training frequency has on improvements in lean mass and strength. Participants were 7 women and 12 men, age (χ̄= 34.64 years ± 6.91 years), with strength training experience, training age (χ̄= 51.16 months ± 39.02 months). Participants were assigned to one of two groups to equal baseline group demographics. High frequency training group (HFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist, 3 times per week, exercising with 3 sets per muscle group per session (3 total body workouts). Low frequency training group (LFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist one time per week, completing all 9 sets during that one workout. LFT consisted of a routine split over three days: 1) pectoralis, deltoids, and triceps; 2) upper back and biceps; 3) quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and abdominals. Following eight weeks of training, HFT increased lean mass by 1.06 kg ± 1.78 kg, (1.9%), and LFT increased lean mass by .99 kg ± 1.31 kg, (2.0%). HFT strength improvements on the chest press was 9.07 kg ± 6.33 kg, (11%), and hack squat 20.16 kg ± 11.59 kg, (21%). LFT strength improvements on chest press was 5.80kg ± 4.26 kg, (7.0%), and hack squat 21.83 kg ± 11.17 kg, (24 %). No mean differences between groups were significant. These results suggest that HFT and LFT of equal set totals result in similar improvements in lean mass and strength, following 8 weeks of strength training.

  20. Resistance Strength Training Exercise in Children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Weng, Cindy; Xue, Mei; Marcus, Robin L.; Gappmaier, Eduard; Viollet, Louis; Johnson, Barbara A.; White, Andrea T.; Viazzo-Trussell, Donata; Lopes, Philippe; Lane, Robert H.; Carey, John C.; Swoboda, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preliminary evidence in adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in SMA animal models suggests exercise has potential benefits in improving or stabilizing muscle strength and motor function. Methods We evaluated feasibility, safety, and effects on strength and motor function of a home-based, supervised progressive resistance strength training exercise program in children with SMA types II and III. Up to 14 bilateral proximal muscles were exercised 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Results Nine children with SMA, aged 10.4±3.8 years, completed the resistance training exercise program. Ninety percent of visits occurred per protocol. Training sessions were pain-free (99.8%), and no study-related adverse events occurred. Trends in improved strength and motor function were observed. Conclusions A 12-week supervised, home-based, 3 days/week progressive resistance training exercise program is feasible, safe, and well tolerated in children with SMA. These findings can inform future studies of exercise in SMA. PMID:25597614

  1. Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Thirty resistance trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body multijoint exercises, whereas endurance training consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower-body power, and endocrine factors were conducted pretraining and after 3 and 6 weeks. After the intervention, ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower-body strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p ≤ 0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper-body strength after training. The ST group observed greater increases in lower-body power than all other conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). After the final training session, CT1 elicited greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the inhibition of lower-body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower-body power was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.

  2. What does individual strength say about resistance training status?

    PubMed

    Buckner, Samuel L; Mouser, J Grant; Jessee, Matthew B; Dankel, Scott J; Mattocks, Kevin T; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-01-09

    The point at which an individual becomes resistance "trained" is not well defined in the literature. Some studies have defined training status as having engaged in consistent resistance training activities for a given period of time, whereas others base inclusion criteria on strength levels alone, or levels of strength in combination with training age/time. If the primary focus of a study is to examine adaptations in individuals with high levels of strength, then it may be appropriate to exclude the individuals who do not meet strength requirements. However, given the heterogeneity of the strength response to resistance training, strength cannot separate those who are "trained" from those who are "untrained." We suggest that, when determining resistance training status, training age (time) and the modality of training (specificity) should be the primary criteria considered. Muscle Nerve, 2016.

  3. Strength training increases training-specific multifinger coordination in humans.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Kun; Hsu, Jeffrey; Karol, Sohit; Hurley, Ben F

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of finger strength training (ST) on finger strength, independence, force control, and adaptations in multifinger coordination. Thirty-three healthy, young (23.0+/-2.9 years) subjects were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Group 1 (G1) trained all fingers together, Group 2 (G2) trained individual fingers without restricting movements of the nontraining fingers, and Group 3 (G3) trained individual fingers while restricting the movement of the nontraining fingers. The control group (G0) did not undergo any training. A vertically hanging load was attached to a spring that passed through a pulley. The other end of the string extended to the horizontal plane and had thimblesattached to it. Subjects were asked to rest their forearm on the table and lift the load by inserting their fingers into the thimbles. The training protocol lasted 6 weeks. Identical experimental tests were conducted 4 times, biweekly, across the 6-week training. Force coordination and moment coordination, defined as synergies stabilizing the resultant force and the resultant moment of all finger forces, in a multifinger pressing task were quantified using the Uncontrolled Manifold (UCM) analysis. The UCM analysis allocates motor variability into two components, one in the null space of a motor task and the other perpendicular to the null space. During multifinger pressing tasks, multifinger coordination exists when the variability in the null space is greater than the variability in the subspace perpendicular to the null space. The multifinger coordination was quantified as the difference between the variance within the null space and that perpendicular to the null space, normalized by the total variance. Thus, the coordination measure in our analysis is a unitless variable. A greater coordination measure indicates better multifinger coordination. Moment-stabilizing multifinger coordination increased only in G1 (from 1.197+/-0.004 to 1

  4. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2011-10-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there is substantial evidence to suggest that EST modifies the excitability of specific neural paths and such adaptations contribute to the increases in MVC force. Similar to strength training with voluntary contractions, EST increases MVC force after only a few sessions with some changes in muscle biochemistry but without overt muscle hypertrophy. There is some mixed evidence for spinal neural adaptations in the form of an increase in the amplitude of the interpolated twitch and in the amplitude of the volitional wave, with less evidence for changes in spinal excitability. Cross-sectional and exercise studies also suggest that the barrage of sensory and nociceptive inputs acts at the cortical level and can modify the motor cortical output and interhemispheric paths. The data suggest that neural adaptations mediate initial increases in MVC force after short-term EST.

  5. Strength Training for Arthritis Trial (START): design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    will compare the interventions’ effects on additional clinical measures of disease severity (e.g., function, mobility); disease progression measured by x-ray; thigh muscle and fat volume, measured by computed tomography (CT); components of thigh muscle function, including hip abductor strength and quadriceps strength, and power; additional measures of knee-joint loading; inflammatory and OA biomarkers; and health-related quality of life. Discussion Test-retest reliability for the thigh CT scan was: total thigh volume, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.99; total fat volume, ICC = 0.99, and total muscle volume, ICC = 0.99. ICC for both isokinetic concentric knee flexion and extension strength was 0.93, and for hip-abductor concentric strength was 0.99. The reliability of our 1RM testing was: leg press, ICC = 0.95; leg curl, ICC = 0.99; and leg extension, ICC = 0.98. Results of this trial will provide critically needed guidance for clinicians in a variety of health professions who prescribe and oversee treatment and prevention of OA-related complications. Given the prevalence and impact of OA and the widespread availability of this intervention, assessing the efficacy of optimal strength training has the potential for immediate and vital clinical impact. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01489462 PMID:23855596

  6. Examination of Strength Training and Detraining Effects in Expiratory Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine strength gains following expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and to determine detraining effects when the training stimulus is removed. Method: Thirty-two healthy participants were enrolled in an EMST program. Sixteen participants trained for 4 weeks (Group 1) and 16 participants trained…

  7. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Wayne L

    2012-01-01

    Inactive adults experience a 3% to 8% loss of muscle mass per decade, accompanied by resting metabolic rate reduction and fat accumulation. Ten weeks of resistance training may increase lean weight by 1.4 kg, increase resting metabolic rate by 7%, and reduce fat weight by 1.8 kg. Benefits of resistance training include improved physical performance, movement control, walking speed, functional independence, cognitive abilities, and self-esteem. Resistance training may assist prevention and management of type 2 diabetes by decreasing visceral fat, reducing HbA1c, increasing the density of glucose transporter type 4, and improving insulin sensitivity. Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, by reducing resting blood pressure, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Resistance training may promote bone development, with studies showing 1% to 3% increase in bone mineral density. Resistance training may be effective for reducing low back pain and easing discomfort associated with arthritis and fibromyalgia and has been shown to reverse specific aging factors in skeletal muscle.

  8. Corticospinal adaptations and strength maintenance in the immobilized arm following 3 weeks unilateral strength training.

    PubMed

    Pearce, A J; Hendy, A; Bowen, W A; Kidgell, D J

    2013-12-01

    Cross-education strength training has being shown to retain strength and muscle thickness in the immobilized contralateral limb. Corticospinal mechanisms have been proposed to underpin this phenomenon; however, no transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) data has yet been presented. This study used TMS to measure corticospinal responses following 3 weeks of unilateral arm training on the contralateral, immobilize arm. Participants (n = 28) were randomly divided into either immobilized strength training (Immob + train) immobilized no training (Immob) or control. Participants in the immobilized groups had their nondominant arm rested in a sling, 15 h/day for 3 weeks. The Immob + train group completed unilateral arm curl strength training, while the Immob and control groups did not undertake training. All participants were tested for corticospinal excitability, strength, and muscle thickness of both arms. Immobilization resulted in a group x time significant reduction in strength, muscle thickness and corticospinal excitability for the untrained limb of the Immob group. Conversely, no significant change in strength, muscle thickness, or corticospinal excitability occurred in the untrained limb of the Immob + train group. These results provide the first evidence of corticospinal mechanisms, assessed by TMS, underpinning the use of unilateral strength training to retain strength and muscle thickness following immobilization of the contralateral limb.

  9. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain.

  10. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain. PMID:25931693

  11. Safe and Effective Strength Training for Grades 3-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Kristy M.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, physical education instructors have been hesitant to include strength training activities in the elementary curriculum. This is a result of confusing and conflicting information regarding the safety and effectiveness of strength training for young children. Recent research published and compiled by well-informed physicians suggests…

  12. Women's Strength Training. Lifting the Limits of Aging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinque, Chris

    1990-01-01

    Strength training is considered a male activity, but physicians are recommending it to women who want to keep their musculoskeletal systems strong and flexible as they age. This article discusses goals and problems of strength training for women and suggests it as an adjunct to cardiovascular fitness exercises. (SM)

  13. Weighing the Risks. Strength Training for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    As weight training becomes increasingly popular with children and adolescents, physicians need to advise patients and parents about what is safe and what is not. Young people who adhere to a well-supervised, progressive strength training program can improve their strength and improve performance in other sports. (SM)

  14. Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, V. Mark; Moskowitz, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the first experimental demonstration was published showing that educators could improve significant challenging behavior in children with disabilities by replacing these behaviors with forms of communication that served the same purpose, a procedure called functional communication training (FCT). Since the publication of that…

  15. Effects of Eccentric Strength Training on Different Maximal Strength and Speed-Strength Parameters of the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Szilvas, Elena; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effects of an eccentric strength training protocol using supramaximal loads (>1 repetition maximum [1RM]) on different maximal and explosive strength parameters of the lower extremity. The eccentric maximal strength (EX max), maximal isometric strength ("maximal voluntary contraction" [MVC]), 1RM, explosive strength ("rate of force development" [RFD]), countermovement jump, and squat jump height were tested before and after a training period of 6 weeks. The training group was composed of 15 individuals with low-weight training experience and a control group of 13 subjects, also with a low-weight training experience. The lower extremities were trained 3 days per week using a 45° leg press. Each training session comprised 5 sets of 3 repetitions with a 6-minute rest between each set. The training weights were adjusted continuously during each training session and between training sessions. In each case, a load was chosen that could be lowered unilaterally in a controlled manner by the subjects. For the concentric part of the exercise, 2 investigators lifted the weight to the starting position. After 6 weeks, strength training with supramaximal loads showed a significant increase in EX max (28.2%, p < 0.001) and 1RM (31.1%, p < 0.001). The increases observed in the control group were not significant. Changes in MVC, RFD, and vertical jump heights were not significant in both groups. The results of this study suggest that in untrained subjects, unilateral eccentric strength training in the leg press generates equal and significant improvements in unilateral eccentric and bilateral eccentric-concentric maximal strength, with a nonsignificant transfer to vertical jump performances and unilateral isometric force production.

  16. Strength Training: Program Organization and Proper Neck Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan

    During the 1960s, weightlifters and bodybuilders were the primary source for strength training methods, and their techniques were used by coaches to train athletes. In weight-training, it is the responsibility of trainers and coaches to provide the athlete with a program that produces the best results, consumes the least amount of time, and best…

  17. Cervical Resistance Training: Effects on Isometric and Dynamic Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    report engaging in neck-specific strengthening exercises . It is generally believed that neck strengthening may result in fewer neck injuries. This study...was designed to investigate the effects of 12 wk of cervical strength training (3 d wk1) on isometric strength, dynamic strength, and hypertrophy ...for an F-16 career. Furthermore, only 26.9% of the pilots routinely performed exercises . Improvements in neck strength as a result of dynamic

  18. Single- vs. multiple-set strength training in women.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, A; Stec, J; Schmidtbleicher, D

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single-set and multiple-set strength training in women. Twenty-seven women (aged 20-40 years) with basic experience in strength training were randomly allocated to either a single-set group (n = 9), a 3-set group (n = 9), or a nontraining control group (n = 9). Both training groups underwent a whole-body strengthening program, exercising 2 days a week for 6 weeks. Exercises included bilateral leg extension, bilateral leg curl, abdominal crunch, seated hip adduction/abduction, seated bench press, and lateral pull-down. The single-set group's program consisted of only 1 set of 6-9 repetitions until failure, whereas the multiple-set group trained with 3 sets of 6-9 repetitions until failure (rest interval between sets, 2 minutes). Two times before and 3 days after termination of the training program, subjects were tested for their 1 repetition maximum strength on the bilateral leg extension and the seated bench press machine. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance, Scheffé tests, t-tests, and calculation of effect sizes. Both training groups made significant strength improvements in leg extension (multiple-set group, 15%; single-set group, 6%; p 0.05). However, in the seated bench press only the 3-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength (10%). Calculation of effect sizes and percentage gains revealed higher strength gains in the multiple-set group. No significant differences were found in the control group. These findings suggest superior strength gains occurred following 3-set strength training compared with single-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training.

  19. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max - energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7 ± 5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in

  20. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

  1. The influence of strength, flexibility, and simultaneous training on flexibility and strength gains.

    PubMed

    Simão, Roberto; Lemos, Adriana; Salles, Belmiro; Leite, Thalita; Oliveira, Élida; Rhea, Matthew; Reis, Victor Machado

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the strength and flexibility gains after isolated or simultaneous strength and flexibility training after 16 weeks. Eighty sedentary women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength training (ST; n = 20), flexibility training (FLEX) (n = 20), combination of both (ST + FLEX; n = 20) and control group (CG; n = 20). All the groups performed pre and posttraining sit and reach test to verify the flexibility level and 10RM test for leg press and bench press exercises. The training protocol for all groups, except for the CG, included 3 weekly sessions, in alternated days, totaling 48 sessions. Strength training was composed of 8 exercises for upper and lower body, executed in 3 sets of periodized training. The flexibility training was composed of static stretching exercises that involved upper and lower body. Results showed that ST (30 ± 2.0 to 36 ± 3.0 cm), ST + FLEX (31 ± 1.0 to 42 ± 4.0 cm), and FLEX (32 ± 3.0 to 43 ± 2.0 cm) significantly increased in flexibility in relation to baseline and to CG (30 ± 2.0 to 30 ± 2.0 cm); however, no significant differences were observed between the treatment conditions. Strength tests demonstrated that ST and ST + FLEX significantly increased 10RM when compared to baseline, FLEX, and the CG. In conclusion, short-term strength training increases flexibility and strength in sedentary adult women. Strength training may contribute to the development and maintenance of flexibility even without the inclusion of additional stretching, but strength and flexibility can be prescribed together to get optimal improvements in flexibility.

  2. Health-Promoting Effects of Serial vs. Integrated Combined Strength and Aerobic Training.

    PubMed

    Karatrantou, K; Gerodimos, V; Häkkinen, K; Zafeiridis, A

    2017-01-01

    Combined strength and aerobic training programs are widely used for improving markers of physical fitness and health. We compared the efficiency of a serial and an integrated combined training program on health and overall fitness in middle-aged females. 54 females (46.7±4.5yrs) were assigned to a serial (SCG) or an integrated (ICG) combined training group or to a control group (CG). The SCG and ICG performed a 3-month training combining aerobic dance and calisthenics. The 2 training programs differ in the sequence of aerobic and strength exercises. SCG performed the strength exercises prior to aerobic; in ICG, the aerobic and strength exercises were altered in a predetermined order. Body composition/circumferences, blood pressure, respiratory function, flexibility, balance, muscle strength/endurance, power and aerobic capacity were measured before and after training. SCG and ICG significantly increased muscle strength and endurance, power, aerobic capacity, flexibility, balance, fat-free mass and respiratory function (p<0.001-0.05), while significant reductions were observed for blood pressure, heart rate and body fat/circumferences (p<0.001-0.05). However, there were no significant differences between SCG and ICG after training. Serial and integrated combined training programs confer analogous adaptations and can be used interchangeably for counteracting the detrimental effects of sedentary lifestyle on indices of physical fitness and health.

  3. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  4. Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lynn Panton. She is a professor of exercise science at Florida State University in Tallahassee. "But we're finding that strength training can really help women recover from treatment and help prevent and reduce ...

  5. Key Strengths of an Innovative Volunteer Training Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellick, Angelika; Bournot-Trites, Monique; Reeder, Ken; Scales, Andrew; Smith, Mark; Zappa-Hollman, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The study involved 14 volunteer facilitators, four UBC staff members, and the researcher as participant; the data collected were observation notes, questionnaires, results from focus groups, and interviews. The study revealed that the key strengths of the training workshop lay in its approach to training, its focus on confidence and capacity…

  6. Strength and aerobic training in overweight females in Gdansk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sawczyn, Stanisław; Mishchenko, Viktor; Moska, Waldemar; Sawczyn, Michał; Jagiełło, Marina; Kuehne, Tatiana; Nowak, Robert; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effects of 16-week-training on rest metabolic rate, aerobic power, and body fat, and the post-exercise effects upon rest oxygen uptake and respiratory exchange ratio in overweight middle-aged females. Twenty nine overweight women (BMI 29.9 ± 1.2 kg*m−2) participated in training (3 days a week). The subjects were divided onto groups of aerobic (AT) and strength (ST) training. The results showed that the total body mass decrease and VO2 max increase did not differ in both groups. Decrease in waist circumference after 16 weeks was higher in the ST group. In the ST group fat-free mass increased during the first 8 weeks. Rest metabolic rate was increased significantly at 16th week compared to initial value in ST group only. Significant increase in post-exercise resting VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio at 12 and 36 h was observed after the strength training session only. Increase in rest metabolic rate and post-exercise rest energy expenditure occurred after strength training but not after aerobic training despite the similar increase in aerobic power. The effect of 8–16 weeks of strength training on body mass decrease was higher in comparison to aerobic training. PMID:28352690

  7. The Effect of an Educational Program on Strength-Training Adherence in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Jager, Johnna M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a strength-training program combined with an educational intervention on resistance-training knowledge, adherence, psychological parameters, and functionality in older individuals residing in assisted living facilities. Twenty-four (mean age: 83.8 ± 8.0 years) participants were divided into…

  8. Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 9) from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers. Key points Two weekly sessions of dry land strength training improves the

  9. [Health-related strength and power training in seniors: Purpose and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bopp, Micha; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    The proportion of older people in western societies rapidly increases. Aging-induced disease conditions accompanied with declines in cardiocirculatory and neuromuscular performance constitute a major individual and economic health burden. Besides decreasing vascular and cardiac function during the process of aging, a loss of skeletal muscle mass, muscle structure and function seem to mainly account for decreasing maximal strength, strength development and strength endurance. These findings adversely interfer with static and dynamic postural control and may lead to an increased risk of falling with impairments of autonomy and quality of life. Traditional strength training recommendations basing on health-related exercise prescriptions for elderly people have been proven to counteract or at least attenuate aging-induced declines of neuromuscular muscular function. Multimodal and combined strength and balance training deliver additional improvements of neuromuscular capacity. Recent evidence additionally underpin the need of trunk muscle training and claimed for regimes considering explosive and high-velocity strength training in seniors. High quality RCTs revealed notable strength training effects on mobility, autonomy, quality of life and the reduction of the risk of falling (up to 50%). Available evidence also indicates that various strength training regimes elicit preventive and therapeutic effects on osteoporosis, diabetes type 2 and other chronic diseases, with effect sizes comparable to medication intake. Thus, health care providers, health insurances, Employers' Liability Insurance Associations and politicians should promote infrastructural developments that enable feasible and cost-effective access to health-related fitness centers or other sport facilities (e. g. sport clubs). These environmental requirements should be embedded in multi-centric education programs and campaigns that might enable regularly conducted strength and endurance training perceived as

  10. Velocity during Strength and Power Training of the Ankle Plantar and Dorsiflexor Muscles in Older Patients Attending Day Hospital Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Pavithra; Porter, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Power training has been proposed as a more effective type of resistance training for older adults for functional performance. It is not yet known whether older adults respond appropriately to instructions for power versus strength training. The purpose of this study was to determine the velocity during strength and power training, with elastic resistance bands, in older adults attending a geriatric rehabilitation day program. It was hypothesized that power training would be faster than strength training, but that there would be large interindividual differences. Nine older patients (70 to 86 years) performed power and strength training of the ankle dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscles using elastic resistance bands. Training sessions were filmed to assess the velocity of training. Power training occurred at faster velocities as compared to strength training (P < 0.01) for both muscle groups. However, a wide variation was observed between participants in the training velocities. Older adults attending geriatric rehabilitation do have the potential to develop faster contractions during power training as compared to strength training. Nevertheless, the actual velocities achieved differed between individuals. This could explain some of the mixed findings of studies on power training. Hence, researchers should monitor velocity when comparing different types of resistance training.

  11. Impact of Expiratory Strength Training in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Plowman, Emily K.; Watts, Stephanie A.; Tabor, Lauren; Robison, Raele; Gaziano, Joy; Domer, Amanda S.; Richter, Joel; Vu, Tuan; Gooch, Clifton

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated the feasibility and impact of Expiratory Muscle Strength Training (EMST) on respiratory and bulbar function in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods 25 ALS patients participated in this delayed intervention open-label clinical trial. Following a lead-in period, patients completed a 5-week EMST protocol. Outcome measures included: maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), physiologic measures of swallow and cough, and Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores. Results Of those participants who entered the active phase of the study (n=15), EMST was well tolerated and led to significant increases in MEPs and maximum hyoid displacement during swallowing post-EMST (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed for PAS scores or cough spirometry measures. Discussion EMST was feasible and well tolerated in this small cohort of ALS patients and led to improvements in expiratory force-generating pressures and swallow kinematics. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:26599236

  12. Radiative Strength Functions and Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Voinov, A; Guttormsen, M; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Rekstad, J; Siem, S; Mitchell, G E; Tavukcu, E

    2002-08-28

    Radiative strength functions and level densities have been extracted from primary {gamma}-ray spectra for {sup 27,28}Si, {sup 56,57}Fe, {sup 96,97}Mo, and several rare earth nuclei. An unexpectedly strong ({approx} 1 mb MeV) resonance at 3 MeV in the radiative strength function has been observed for well-deformed rare earth nuclei. The physical origin of this resonance and its connection to the scissors mode is discussed.

  13. Detraining outcomes with expiratory muscle strength training in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Troche, Michelle S; Rosenbek, John C; Okun, Michael S; Sapienza, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) is efficacious for improving maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), cough function, and swallowing safety in Parkinson disease (PD). However, there are no published reports describing detraining effects following EMST in persons with PD. Moreover, there are no published reports describing detraining effects following any behavioral swallowing intervention. Ten participants with PD underwent 3 mo of detraining following EMST. Measures of MEP and swallowing safety were made prior to beginning EMST (baseline), posttreatment (predetraining), and 3 mo postdetraining. Participants demonstrated, on average, a 19% improvement in MEP from pre- to post-EMST. Following the 3 mo detraining period, MEP declined by 2% yet remained 17% above the baseline value. No statistically significant changes were found in swallowing safety from post-EMST to postdetraining period. Following the 3 mo detraining period, seven participants demonstrated no change in swallowing safety, one worsened, and two had improvements. This preliminary study highlights the need for the design of maintenance programs to sustain function following intensive periods of training.

  14. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Unilateral vs. Bilateral Strength Training in Women.

    PubMed

    Botton, Cíntia E; Radaelli, Regis; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Rech, Anderson; Brown, Lee E; Pinto, Ronei S

    2016-07-01

    Botton, CE, Radaelli, R, Wilhelm, EN, Rech, A, Brown, LE, and Pinto, RS. Neuromuscular adaptations to unilateral vs. bilateral strength training in women. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1924-1932, 2016-Considering the bilateral deficit, the sum of forces produced by each limb in a unilateral condition is generally greater than that produced by them in a bilateral condition. Therefore, it can be speculated that performing unilateral strength exercises may allow greater training workloads and subsequently greater neuromuscular adaptations when compared with bilateral training. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare neuromuscular adaptations with unilateral vs. bilateral training in the knee extensor muscles. Forty-three recreationally active young women were allocated to a control, unilateral (UG) or bilateral (BG) training group, which performed 2 times strength training sessions a week for 12 weeks. Knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), maximal isometric strength, muscle electrical activity, and muscle thickness were obtained before and after the study period. Muscle strength was measured in unilateral (right + left) and bilateral tests. Both UG and BG increased similarly their unilateral 1RM (33.3 ± 14.3% vs. 24.6 ± 11.9%, respectively), bilateral 1RM (20.3 ± 6.8% vs. 28.5 ± 12.3%, respectively), and isometric strength (14.7 ± 11.3% vs. 13.1 ± 12.5%, respectively). The UG demonstrated greater unilateral isometric strength increase than the BG (21.4 ± 10.5% vs. 10.3 ± 11.1%, respectively) and only the UG increased muscle electrical activity. Muscle thickness increased similarly for both training groups. Neither group exhibited pretesting 1RM bilateral deficit values, but at post-testing, UG showed a significant bilateral deficit (-6.5 ± 7.8%) whereas BG showed a significant bilateral facilitation (5.9 ± 9.0%). Thus, performing unilateral or bilateral exercises was not a decisive factor for improving morphological adaptations and bilateral

  15. Effects of different strength training methods on postexercise energetic expenditure.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Rodrigo Lavinas; Brentano, Michel Arias; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2010-08-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of strength training in increasing energetic expenditure (EE) both during and after training sessions, there are no studies available that analyze the influence on EE of the order in which exercises are performed. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to verify whether the order in which exercises are performed, represented by 2 different methods of strength training (circuit [CT] and pre-exhaustion [PE]), influences the magnitude of the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) as well as the EE. Eight nonstrength-trained women participated in the study. Two strength training sessions, with different orders of execution, were held with 7 exercises performed with loads of between 50% and 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). The oxygen uptake was measured before the training sessions, and the difference between the values found was taken as the EPOC of each training session and used in later analysis. No significant differences were found in either the EPOC (CT: 7.19 L +/- 6.17 an. PE: 7.22 +/- 5.84 L) or the postexercise EE (CT: 34.67 +/- 29.76 Kcal, PE: 34.77 +/- 28.15 Kcal) of the 2 training methodologies. Our results indicate that, in strength training, the magnitude of the EPOC is not linked to the order in which the exercises are performed. However, the absence of recovery periods between the sets and the exercises promotes an increase in the magnitude of the EPOC to the levels found in training sessions with higher percentages of 1RM.

  16. Improvements in skeletal muscle strength and cardiac function induced by resveratrol during exercise training contribute to enhanced exercise performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Dolinsky, Vernon W; Jones, Kelvin E; Sidhu, Robinder S; Haykowsky, Mark; Czubryt, Michael P; Gordon, Tessa; Dyck, Jason R B

    2012-06-01

    Exercise training (ET) improves endurance capacity by increasing both skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function, as well as contributing to favourable cardiac remodelling.Interestingly, some of the benefits of regular exercise can also be mimicked by the naturally occurring polyphenol, resveratrol (RESV). However, it is not known whether RESV enhances physiological adaptations to ET. To investigate this, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a control chow diet or a chow diet that contained RESV (4 g kg⁻¹ of diet) and subsequently subjected to a programme of progressive treadmill running for 12 weeks. ET-induced improvements in exercise performance were enhanced by 21% (P <0.001) by the addition of RESV to the diet. In soleus muscle, ET+RESV increased both the twitch (1.8-fold; P <0.05) and tetanic(1.2-fold; P <0.05) forces generated during isometric contraction, compared to ET alone. In vivo echocardiography demonstrated that ET+RESV also increased the resting left ventricular ejection fraction by 10% (P <0.05), and reduced left ventricular wall stress compared to ET alone.These functional changes were accompanied by increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (1.2-fold;P <0.05) and favourable changes in cardiac gene expression and signal transduction pathways that optimized the utilization of fatty acids in ET+RESV compared to ET alone. Overall, our findings provide evidence that the capacity for fatty acid oxidation is augmented by the addition of RESV to the diet during ET, and that this may contribute to the improved physical performance of rats following ET.

  17. Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vila-Chã, Carolina; Falla, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effects of strength and endurance training on motor unit discharge rate variability and force steadiness of knee extensor muscles. Thirty sedentary healthy men (age, 26.0±3.8yrs) were randomly assigned to strength training, endurance training or a control group. Conventional endurance and strength training was performed 3days per week, over a period of 6weeks. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), time to task failure (at 30% MVC), coefficient of variation (CoV) of force and of the discharges rates of motor units from the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis were determined as subjects performed 20% and 30% MVC knee extension contractions before and after training. CoV of motor unit discharges rates was significantly reduced for both muscles following strength training (P<0.001), but did not change in the endurance (P=0.875) or control group (P=0.995). CoV of force was reduced after the strength training intervention only (P<0.01). Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability and enhances force steadiness of the knee extensors. These results provide new insights into the neuromuscular adaptations that occur with different training methods.

  18. The Effect of Concentric Isokinetic Strength Training of the Quadriceps Femoris on Electromyography and Muscle Strength in the Trained and Untrained Limb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evetovich, Tammy K.; Housh, Terry J.; Housh, Dona J.; Johnson, Glen O.; Smith, Douglas B.; Ebersole, Kyle T.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of unilateral concentric isokinetic leg extension training on peak torque and electromyographic (EMG) responses in trained and untrained limbs. Adult men participated in training and control groups. Overall, unilateral concentric isokinetic strength training induced strength increases in trained as well as untrained limbs.…

  19. The Effect of Maximal- & Explosive-Strength Training on Performance Indicators in Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Kris; Carson, Brian P; Lyons, Mark; Kenny, Ian C

    2016-09-06

    Cycling economy (CE), power at maximal oxygen uptake (WV̇O2max) and anaerobic function (i.e. sprinting ability) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite road cyclists. In addition to cardiovascular function, these physiological indicators are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20 week maximal- and explosive-strength training intervention on strength (maximal- , explosive-strength & bike-specific explosive-strength), WV̇O2max, CE and body composition (body mass, fat & lean mass) in cyclists. Fifteen competitive road cyclists were divided into an intervention group (endurance training AND strength training: n = 6; 38.0 ± 10.2 years; 69.1 ± 3.6 kg; 1.77 ± 0.04 m) and a control group (endurance training ONLY: n = 9; 34.8 ± 8.5 years; 72.5 ± 7.2 kg; 1.78 ± 0.05 m). The intervention group strength trained for twenty weeks. Each participant completed three assessments: physiology (CE, WV̇O2max, power at 2mmol/L & W4mmol/L blood lactate [W2/4mmol/L BLa]), strength (isometric mid-thigh pull [IMTP], squat-jump height & 6s bike-sprint peak power) and body composition (body mass, fat mass, overall-lean & leg-lean). The results showed between- and within-group significant changes in the intervention group for maximal-strength, bike-specific explosive-strength, absolute WV̇O2max, body mass, overall-lean & leg-lean at week 20 (p < 0.05). The control group showed no significant within-group changes in strength, physiological or body composition measures. This study demonstrates that twenty weeks of strength training can significantly improve maximal-strength, bike-specific explosive-strength qualities and absolute WV̇O2max in competitive road cyclists.

  20. Effects of plyometric and pneumatic explosive strength training on neuromuscular function and dynamic balance control in 60-70year old males.

    PubMed

    Piirainen, Jarmo M; Cronin, Neil J; Avela, Janne; Linnamo, Vesa

    2014-04-01

    The present study compared neuromuscular adaptations to 12weeks of plyometric (PLY) or pneumatic (PNE) power training and their effects on dynamic balance control. Twenty-two older adults aged 60-70 (PLY n=9, PNE n=11) participated in the study. Measurements were conducted at Pre, 4, 8 and 12weeks. Dynamic balance was assessed as anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) displacement in response to sudden perturbations. Explosive isometric knee extension and plantar flexion maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) were performed. Maximal drop jump performance from optimal dropping height was measured in a sledge ergometer. Increases in knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor torque and muscle activity were higher and occurred sooner in PNE, whereas in drop jumping, PLY showed a clearer increase in optimal drop height (24%, p<0.01) after 8weeks of training and soleus muscle activity after 12weeks of training. In spite of these training mode specific adaptations, both groups showed similar improvements in dynamic balance control after 4weeks of training (PLY 38%, p<0.001; PNE 31%, p<0.001) and no change thereafter. These results show that although power and plyometric training may involve different neural adaptation mechanisms, both training modes can produce similar improvements in dynamic balance control in older individuals. As COP displacement was negatively correlated with rapid knee extension torque in both groups (PLY r=-0.775, p<0.05; PNE r=-0.734, p<0.05) after training, the results also highlight the importance of targeting rapid force production when training older adults to improve dynamic balance.

  1. Strength Training and Detraining in Different Populations: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Mário C.; Zajac, Adam; Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M.

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers have demonstrated that a specific strength training program can improve maximal strength and, the rate of force production, reduce the incidence of muscle-skeletal injury, and contribute to faster injury recovery times, thereby minimizing the number of missed practice sessions or competitions. Yet, to our best knowledge, there is no apparent consensus on the appropriate method of muscle strength and power training to enhance performance in distinct populations groups. Interruptions in training process because of illness, injury, holidays, post-season break or other factors are normal situations in any kind of sport. However, the detraining period and its consequences are not well reported in sports literature, and namely during puberty. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to discuss several case studies concerning different populations such us physical students, age-swimming competitors and elite power athletes. PMID:23487418

  2. Aging process, cognitive decline and Alzheimer`s disease: can strength training modulate these responses?

    PubMed

    Portugal, Eduardo Matta Mello; Vasconcelos, Poliane Gomes Torres; Souza, Renata; Lattari, Eduardo; Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Machado, Sergio; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

    2015-01-01

    Some evidence shows that aerobic training can attenuate the aging effects on the brain structures and functions. However, the strength exercise effects are poorly discussed. Thus, in the present study, the effects of strength training on the brain in elderly people and Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients were revised. Furthermore, it a biological explanation relating to strength training effects on the brain is proposed. Brain atrophy can be related to neurotransmission dysfunction, like oxidative stress, that generates mitochondrial damage and reduced brain metabolism. Another mechanism is related to amyloid deposition and amyloid tangles, that can be related to reductions on insulin-like growth factor I concentrations. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor also presents reduction during aging process and AD. These neuronal dysfunctions are also related to cerebral blood flow decline that influence brain metabolism. All of these alterations contribute to cognitive impairment and AD. After a long period of strength training, the oxidative stress can be reduced, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor I serum concentrations enhance, and the cognitive performance improves. Considering these results, we can infer that strength training can be related to increased neurogenesis, neuroplasticity and, consequently, counteracts aging effects on the brain. The effect of strength training as an additional treatment of AD needs further investigation.

  3. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if <70 kg or 16 kg if >70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  4. Strength training for plantar fasciitis and the intrinsic foot musculature: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Huffer, Dean; Hing, Wayne; Newton, Richard; Clair, Mike

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to critically evaluate the literature investigating strength training interventions in the treatment of plantar fasciitis and improving intrinsic foot musculature strength. A search of PubMed, CINHAL, Web of Science, SPORTSDiscus, EBSCO Academic Search Complete and PEDRO using the search terms plantar fasciitis, strength, strengthening, resistance training, intrinsic flexor foot, resistance training. Seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the modified Downs and Black checklist. All articles showed moderate to high quality, however external validity was low. A comparison of the interventions highlights significant differences in strength training approaches to treating plantar fasciitis and improving intrinsic strength. It was not possible to identify the extent to which strengthening interventions for intrinsic musculature may benefit symptomatic or at risk populations to plantar fasciitis. There is limited external validity that foot exercises, toe flexion against resistance and minimalist running shoes may contribute to improved intrinsic foot musculature function. Despite no plantar fascia thickness changes being observed through high-load plantar fascia resistance training there are indications that it may aid in a reduction of pain and improvements in function. Further research should use standardised outcome measures to assess intrinsic foot musculature strength and plantar fasciitis symptoms.

  5. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (p<.05). During the experimental welding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (p<.05). While no changes of neither cardiovascular nor metabolic parameters were found, subjects of the exercise group rated a significantly decreased rate of perceived exertion welding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  6. Greater Strength Gains after Training with Accentuated Eccentric than Traditional Isoinertial Loads in Already Strength-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J; Haff, G Gregory; Tufano, James J; Newton, Robert U; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s(-1)) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque

  7. Greater Strength Gains after Training with Accentuated Eccentric than Traditional Isoinertial Loads in Already Strength-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Haff, G. Gregory; Tufano, James J.; Newton, Robert U.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s−1) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque

  8. Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength.

    PubMed

    Morton, Sam K; Whitehead, James R; Brinkert, Ronald H; Caine, Dennis J

    2011-12-01

    Morton, SK, Whitehead, JR, Brinkert, RH, and Caine, DJ. Resistance training vs. static stretching: Effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3391-3398, 2011-The purpose of this study was to determine how full-range resistance training (RT) affected flexibility and strength compared to static stretching (SS) of the same muscle-joint complexes in untrained adults. Volunteers (n = 25) were randomized to an RT or SS training group. A group of inactive volunteers (n = 12) served as a convenience control group (CON). After pretesting hamstring extension, hip flexion and extension, shoulder extension flexibility, and peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, subjects completed 5-week SS or RT treatments in which the aim was to stretch or to strength train the same muscle-joint complexes over similar movements and ranges. Posttests of flexibility and strength were then conducted. There was no difference in hamstring flexibility, hip flexion, and hip extension improvement between RT and SS, but both were superior to CON values. There were no differences between groups on shoulder extension flexibility. The RT group was superior to the CON in knee extension peak torque, but there were no differences between groups on knee flexion peak torque. The results of this preliminary study suggest that carefully constructed full-range RT regimens can improve flexibility as well as the typical SS regimens employed in conditioning programs. Because of the potential practical significance of these results to strength and conditioning programs, further studies using true experimental designs, larger sample sizes, and longer training durations should be conducted with the aim of confirming or disproving these results.

  9. Influence of strength and flexibility training, combined or isolated, on strength and flexibility gains.

    PubMed

    Leite, Thalita; de Souza Teixeira, Arlindo; Saavedra, Francisco; Leite, Richard D; Rhea, Matthew R; Simão, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the strength and flexibility gains after 12 weeks of strength and flexibility training (FLEX), isolated or combined. Twenty-eight trained women (age = 46 ± 6.52 years; body mass = 56.8 ± 5.02 kg; height = 162 ± 5.58 cm; mean ± SD) were randomly divided into 4 groups: strength training (ST) (n = 7), FLEX (n = 7), combination of strength and flexibility (ST + FLEX) (n = 7), and combination of flexibility and strength (FLEX + ST) (n = 7). All groups were assessed before and after training for the sit and reach test, goniometry, and 10 repetition maximum in bench press (BP) and leg press (LP) exercises. The training protocol for all groups included training sessions on alternate days and was composed of 8 exercises performed at periodized intensities. The FLEX consisted of dynamic stretching performed for a total duration of 60 minutes. The results demonstrated significant strength gains in all groups in the LP exercise (FLEX: p = 0.0187; ST: p = 0.0001; FLEX + ST: p = 0.0034; ST + FLEX: p = 0.0021). All groups except the FLEX improved in BP strength (FLEX: p = 0.1757; ST: p = 0.0001; FLEX + ST: p = 0.0017; ST + FLEX: p = 0.0035). Statistical analyses did not show significant differences between groups; however, effect sizes demonstrated slightly different treatment effects for each group. Largest treatment effects were calculated for the ST group (LP: 2.72; BP: 1.25) and the lowest effects in the FLEX group (LP: 0.41; BP: -0.06). Both combination groups demonstrated lower effect sizes for both LP and BP as compared with the ST group. No significant differences in flexibility were seen in any group, in any of the comparisons (p > 0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that combining strength and FLEX is not detrimental to flexibility development; however, combined training may slightly reduce strength development, with little influence of order in which these exercises are performed.

  10. Influence of strength training on adult women's flexibility.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Walace David; Simão, Roberto; Polito, Marco Doederlein; Santana, Cleves Araújo; Chaves, Rogério Batista; Bezerra, Ewerton; Fleck, Steven J

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks of strength training on the flexibility of sedentary middle-aged women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to either a strength training group (n = 10; age, 37 +/- 1.7 years; body mass, 65.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height, 157.7 +/- 10.8 cm; and body mass index, 25.72 +/- 3.3 kg x m(-2)) or a control group (n = 10; age, 36.9 +/- 1.2 years; body mass, 64.54 +/- 10.18 kg; height, 158.1 +/- 8.9 cm; and body mass index, 26.07 +/- 2.8 kg x m(-2)). The strength training program was a total body session performed in a circuit fashion and consisted of 7 exercises performed for 3 circuits of 8 to 12 repetitions maximum (RM), except for the abdominal exercise which was performed for 15 to 20 RM. Flexibility measurements were taken for 10 articulation movements pre and post training: shoulder flexion and extension, shoulder horizontal adduction and abduction, elbow flexion, hip flexion and extension, knee flexion, and trunk flexion and extension. Pre and post training, 10 RM strength significantly increased (p < 0.05). Of the movements examined, only shoulder horizontal adduction, hip flexion and extension, and trunk flexion and extension demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05). Neither elbow nor knee flexion showed a significant change with weight training. The control group showed no significant change in any of the flexibility measures determined. In conclusion, weight training can increase flexibility in previously sedentary middle-aged women in some, but not all joint movements.

  11. Strength training for children and adolescents: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Davide; Zaccagni, Luciana

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity has proved to be an effective means of preventing several diseases and improving general health. In most cases, though, light to moderate efforts are suggested, for both youngsters and adults. Common sense advices call for late inception of intense, strength training-related activities, like weight lifting and plyometrics, which are usually postponed at the end of the growth age, even among sport practitioners. However, such advices seem to have a mainly anecdotal nature. The purpose of this review is to evaluate risks and benefits of early inception of strength training, at adolescence or even earlier and to verify whether concerns can be grounded scientifically. Current literature does not seem to have any particular aversion against the practice of strength training by children and adolescents, provided that some safety rules are followed, like medical clearance, proper instruction from a qualified professional and progressive overload. At the same time, several studies provide consistent findings supporting the benefits of repeated, intense physical efforts in young subjects. Improved motor skills and body composition, in terms of increased fat free mass, reduced fat mass and enhanced bone health, have been extensively documented, especially if sport practice began early, when the subjects were pubescent. It can be therefore concluded that strength training is a relatively safe and healthy practice for children and adolescents.

  12. Preservation of eccentric strength in older adults: Evidence, mechanisms and implications for training and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Roig, Marc; Macintyre, Donna L; Eng, Janice J; Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Reid, W Darlene

    2010-06-01

    Overall reductions in muscle strength typically accompany the aging process. However, older adults show a relatively preserved capacity of producing eccentric strength. The preservation of eccentric strength in older adults is a well-established phenomenon, occurring indiscriminately across different muscle groups, independent of age-related architectural changes in muscle structure and velocity of movement. The mechanisms for the preservation of eccentric strength appear to be mechanical and cellular in origin and include both passive and active elements regulating muscle stiffness. The age-related accumulation of non-contractile material in the muscle-tendon unit increases passive stiffness, which might offer mechanical advantage during eccentric contractions. In addition, the preserved muscle tension and increased instantaneous stiffness of old muscle fibers during stretch increase active stiffness, which might enhance eccentric strength. The fact that the preservation of eccentric strength is present in people with chronic conditions when compared to age-matched healthy controls indicates that the aging process per se does not exclusively mediate the preservation of eccentric strength. Physical inactivity, which is common in elderly and people with chronic conditions, is a potential factor regulating the preservation of eccentric strength. When compared to concentric strength, the magnitude of preservation of eccentric strength in older adults ranges from 2% to 48% with a mean value of 21.6% from all studies. This functional reserve of eccentric strength might be clinically relevant, especially to initiate resistance training and rehabilitation programs in individuals with low levels of strength.

  13. Preservation of eccentric strength in older adults: Evidence, mechanisms and implications for training and rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Marc; MacIntyre, Donna L.; Eng, Janice J.; Narici, Marco V.; Maganaris, Constantinos N.; Reid, W. Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Overall reductions in muscle strength typically accompany the aging process. However, older adults show a relatively preserved capacity of producing eccentric strength. The preservation of eccentric strength in older adults is a well-established phenomenon, occurring indiscriminately across different muscle groups, independent of age-related architectural changes in muscle structure and velocity of movement. The mechanisms for the preservation of eccentric strength appear to be mechanical and cellular in origin and include both passive and active elements regulating muscle stiffness. The age-related accumulation of non-contractile material in the muscle-tendon unit increases passive stiffness, which might offer mechanical advantage during eccentric contractions. In addition, the preserved muscle tension and increased instantaneous stiffness of old muscle fibers during stretch increase active stiffness, which might enhance eccentric strength. The fact that the preservation of eccentric strength is present in people with chronic conditions when compared to age-matched healthy controls indicates that the aging process per se does not exclusively mediate the preservation of eccentric strength. Physical inactivity, which is common in elderly and people with chronic conditions, is a potential factor regulating the preservation of eccentric strength. When compared to concentric strength, the magnitude of the preservation of eccentric strength in older adults ranges from 2% to 48% with a mean value from all studies of 21.6%. This functional reserve of eccentric strength might be clinically relevant, especially to initiate resistance training and rehabilitation programs in individuals with low levels of strength. PMID:20303404

  14. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance.

    PubMed

    Manocchia, Pasquale; Spierer, David K; Lufkin, Adrienne K S; Minichiello, Jacqueline; Castro, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    Kettlebells are a popular implement in many strength and conditioning programs, and their benefits are touted in popular literature, books, and videos. However, clinical data on their efficacy are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether kettlebell training transfers strength and power to weightlifting and powerlifting exercises and improves muscular endurance. Thirty-seven subjects were assigned to an experimental (EXP, n = 23; mean age = 40.9 ± 12.9 years) or a control group (CON; n = 14; mean age = 39.6 ± 15.8 years), range 18-72 years. The participants were required to perform assessments including a barbell clean and jerk, barbell bench press, maximal vertical jump, and 45° back extensions to volitional fatigue before and after a 10-week kettlebell training program. Training was structured in a group setting for 2 d·wk(-1) for 10 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine group × time interactions and main effects. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted when appropriate. Bench press revealed a time × group interaction and a main effect (p < 0.05). Clean and jerk and back extension demonstrated a trend toward a time × group interaction, but it did not reach significance (p = 0.053). However, clean and jerk did reveal a main effect for time (p < 0.05). No significant findings were reported for maximal vertical jump. The results demonstrate a transfer of power and strength in response to 10 weeks of training with kettlebells. Traditional training methods may not be convenient or accessible for strength and conditioning specialists, athletes, coaches, and recreational exercisers. The current data suggest that kettlebells may be an effective alternative tool to improve performance in weightlifting and powerlifting.

  15. A comparison of traditional and block periodized strength training programs in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Hoffman, Jay R; Merni, Franco; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different periodization models in strength and power athletes. Twenty-four experienced resistance trained men were randomly assigned to either a block periodization training program (BP; age = 24.2 ± 3.1 years, body mass = 78.5 ± 11.0 kg, height = 177.6 ± 4.9 cm) or to a traditional periodization program (TP; age = 26.2 ± 6.0 years, body mass = 80.5 ± 13.3 kg, height = 179.2 ± 4.6). Participants in both training programs performed 4 training sessions per week. Each training program consisted of the same exercises and same volume of training (total resistance lifted per session). The difference between the groups was in the manipulation of training intensity within each training phase. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE) and after 15 weeks (POST) of training. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare strength and power performance between the groups. Participants in BP were more likely (79.8%) to increase the area under the force-power curve than TP. Participants in BP also demonstrated a likely positive (92.76%) decrease in the load corresponding to maximal power at the bench press compared with TP group, and a possible improvement (∼60%) in maximal strength and power in the bench press. No significant changes were noted between groups in lower-body strength or jump power performance after the 15-week training period. Results of this study indicate that BP may enhance upper-body power expression to a greater extent than TP with equal volume; however, no differences were detected for lower-body performance and body composition measures.

  16. Measurement of power in selectorized strength-training equipment.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    The author derived the exact analytical expression of the instantaneous joint power in exercises with single-joint, variable-resistance, selectorized strength-training equipment, taking into account all the relevant geometric, kinematic, and dynamic variables of both the movable equipment elements (resistance input lever, cam-pulley system, weight stack) and of the user's exercising limb. A numerical algorithm was also designed to express, in the presence of a cam, the rectilinear kinematic variables of the weight stack as a function of the rotational kinematic variables of the resistance input lever, and vice versa. Given that information, one can measure the value of the instantaneous and mean joint power exclusively by means of a linear encoder placed on the weight stack or, alternatively, only by the use of an angular encoder placed on the rotational axis of the resistance lever. The results highlight that, for knee extension exercises with leg extension equipment, the real values of both instantaneous and mean joint power may differ by more than 50% in comparison with the values obtained by taking into account only the mass and velocity of the weight stack. These differences are notable not only in explosive exercises, but also whenever considerable joint velocities/accelerations occur within the range of motion.

  17. Effects of ankle biofeedback training on strength, balance, and gait in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-jin; Cho, Hwi-young; Kim, Kyung-hoon; Lee, Suk-min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of ankle biofeedback training on muscle strength of the ankle joint, balance, and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven subjects who had had a stroke were randomly allocated to either the ankle biofeedback training group (n=14) or control group (n=13). Conventional therapy, which adhered to the neurodevelopmental treatment approach, was administered to both groups for 30 minutes. Furthermore, ankle strengthening exercises were performed by the control group and ankle biofeedback training by the experimental group, each for 30 minutes, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. To test muscle strength, balance, and gait, the Biodex isokinetic dynamometer, functional reach test, and 10 m walk test, respectively, were used. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed a significant increase in muscle strength on the affected side and improved balance and gait. Significantly greater improvements were observed in the balance and gait of the ankle biofeedback training group compared with the control group, but not in the strength of the dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscles of the affected side. [Conclusion] This study showed that ankle biofeedback training significantly improves muscle strength of the ankle joint, balance, and gait in patients with stroke. PMID:27799701

  18. Concurrent strength and endurance training exercise sequence does not affect neuromuscular adaptations in older men.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Rech, Anderson; Minozzo, Felipe; Botton, Cintia Ehlers; Radaelli, Regis; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Concurrent training is an effective method for increasing skeletal muscle performance in aging individuals, but controversy exists as to whether chronic neuromuscular and functional adaptations are affected by the intra-session exercise sequence. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training exercise sequence on muscular and functional adaptations of older participants. Thirty-six healthy older men not engaged in systematic exercise training programs for at least 6 months were divided into a control group (CON; 65.8±5.3 years), or in the training groups: endurance-strength (ES; 63.2±3.3 years), or strength-endurance (SE; 67.1±6.1 years). Training groups underwent 12 weeks of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training, starting every exercise session with either endurance (in ES) or strength (in SE) exercises. Measurements included knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), knee extension power, 30 second sit-to-stand test (30SS), maximum vastus lateralis surface electromyographic activity, and rectus femoris echo intensity (RFEI). Significant increases in maximal strength (ES +18±11.3%; SE +14.2±6.0%; p≤0.05), peak power (ES +22.2±19.4%; SE +26.3±31.3%; p≤0.05), and 30SS performance (ES +15.2±7.2%; SE +13.2±11.8%; p≤0.05) were observed only in the training groups, with no differences between ES and SE. Maximum muscular activity was greater after 12weeks at training groups (p≤0.05), and reductions in RFEI were found only in ES and SE (p≤0.05). These results demonstrate that concurrent strength and endurance training performed twice a week effectively increases muscular performance and functional capacity in older men, independent of the intra-session exercise sequence. Additionally, the RFEI decreases indicate an additional adaptation to concurrent training.

  19. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Purpose Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Methods Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8–12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. Results The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 34.6%; 3-SET: 35.8%) and MIP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 13.7%; 3-SET: 11.2%). Both groups also improved in the sit-to-stand test (P<0.05; 1-SET: 10.6%; 3-SET: 17.1%). After 24 training sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (P<0.0001; 40%–80%) in both groups. An intergroup comparison did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the parameters analyzed. Conclusion Single- and multiple-set resistance training programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health. PMID:25342896

  20. RESURGENCE OF MANDS FOLLOWING FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    BERG, WENDY K.; RINGDAHL, JOEL E.; RYAN, STEPHEN E.; ING, ANNA D.; LUSTIG, NICOLE; ROMANI, PATRICK; WACKER, DAVID P.; ANDERSEN, JENNIFER K.; DURAKO, EMILY

    2015-01-01

    Experimental conditions similar to those described by Lieving and Lattal (2003) were used within two experiments to evaluate the resurgence of mands with humans. Two mands from the same operant class were trained with three participants with developmental disabilities during Experiment 1 and with two participants with developmental disabilities and a history of problem behavior during Experiment 2. The two mands were then placed on extinction. Both persisted, but showed different response strength during extinction. The mand with the weaker response strength was targeted for additional functional communication training and the alternative mand was placed on extinction. Following steady levels of occurrence of the targeted mand and no occurrences of the alternative mand, both mands were placed on extinction again. At least one instance of resurgence of the alternative mand occurred with every participant and resurgence of problem behavior occurred for both participants during Experiment 2. PMID:26640311

  1. Effects of different strength training frequencies during reduced training period on strength and muscle cross-sectional area.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lucas Duarte; de Souza, Eduardo Oliveira; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Laurentino, Gilberto Candido; Roschel, Hamilton; Aihara, André Yui; Cardoso, Fabiano Nassar; Tricoli, Valmor

    2017-03-19

    This study investigated the effects of different reduced strength training (RST) frequencies on half-squat 1 RM and quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA). Thirty-three untrained males (24.7 ± 3.9 years; 1.73 ± 0.08 m; 74.6 ± 8.4 kg) underwent a 16-week experimental period (i.e. eight weeks of strength training [ST] followed by additional eight weeks of RST). During the ST period, the participants performed 3-4 sets of 6-12 RM, three sessions/week in half-squat and knee extension exercises. Following ST, the participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: reduced strength training with one (RST1) or two sessions per week (RST2), and ceased training (CT). Both RST1 and RST2 groups had their training frequency and total training volume-load (i.e. RST1 = 50.3% and RST2 = 57.1%) reduced, while the CT group stopped training completely. Half-squat 1 RM (RST1 = 27.9%; RST2 = 26.7%; and CT = 28.4%) and QCSA (RST1 = 6.1%; RST2 = 6.9%; and CT = 5.8%) increased significantly (p < .05) in all groups after eight weeks of ST. No significant changes were observed in 1 RM and QCSA for RST1 and RST2 groups after the RST period, while the CT group demonstrated a decrease in half-squat 1 RM (22.6%) and QCSA (5.4%) when compared to the ST period (p < .05). In conclusion, different RST frequencies applied were able to maintain muscle mass and strength performance obtained over the regular ST period. Thus, it appears that RST frequency does not affect the maintenance of muscle mass and strength in untrained males, as long as volume-load is equated between frequencies.

  2. Maximal strength training in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Mats P; Kaehler, Nils; Stunes, Astrid K; Hoff, Jan; Syversen, Unni

    2013-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities, preferably strength training for improving skeletal health in patients with osteoporosis. What type of strength training that is most beneficial for these patients is not established. Maximal strength training (MST) is known to improve 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD), which are considered as important covariables for skeletal health. Squat exercise MST might serve as an effective intervention for patients with low bone mass. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of squat exercise MST would improve 1RM and RFD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia and that these changes would coincide with improved bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone metabolism. The participants were randomized to a training group (TG, n = 10) or control group (CG, n = 11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised squat exercise MST, 3 times a week, with emphasis on rapid initiation of the concentric part of the movement. The CG was encouraged to follow current exercise guidelines. Measurements included 1RM, RFD, BMD, BMC, and serum bone metabolism markers; type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX). At posttest, 8 participants remained in each group for statistical analyses. The TG improved the 1RM and RFD by 154 and 52%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC increased by 2.9 and 4.9%. The ratio of serum P1NP/CTX tended to increase (p = 0.09), indicating stimulation of bone formation. In conclusion, squat exercise MST improved 1RM, RFD, and skeletal properties in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The MST can be implemented as a simple and effective training method for patients with reduced bone mass.

  3. Effects and mechanisms of strength training in children.

    PubMed

    Granacher, U; Goesele, A; Roggo, K; Wischer, T; Fischer, S; Zuerny, C; Gollhofer, A; Kriemler, S

    2011-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that strength training can be organized in children in a safe and effective way. However, there is limited data regarding its impact on muscle hypertrophy. This study investigated the effects of a high-intensity strength training (HIS) on knee extensor/flexor strength, countermovement (CMJ) jumping height, postural control, soft lean mass and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the dominant leg in prepubertal children. Thirty-two children participated in this study and were assigned to an intervention (INT; N=17) or a control class ( N=15). The INT participated in 10 weeks of weight-machine based HIS integrated in physical education. Pre/post tests included the measurements of peak torque of the knee extensors/flexors at 60 and 180°/s, CMJ jumping height, postural sway, soft lean mass of the leg by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and CSA (m. quadriceps) by magnetic resonance imaging. HIS resulted in significant increases in knee extensor/flexor peak torque (60°/s and 180°/s). HIS did not produce significant changes in CMJ jumping height, postural sway, soft lean mass, and CSA. Although HIS was effective at increasing peak torque of the knee extensors/flexors in children, it was unable to affect muscle size. It appears that neural factors rather than muscle hypertrophy account for the observed strength gains in children.

  4. Effects of 8 Weeks’ Specific Physical Training on the Rotator Cuff Muscle Strength and Technique of Javelin Throwers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers. PMID:25364111

  5. Effects of plyometric training volume and training surface on explosive strength.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different volume and training surfaces during a short-term plyometric training program on neuromuscular performance. Twenty-nine subjects were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control group (CG, n = 5), moderate volume group (MVG, n = 9, 780 jumps), moderate volume hard surface group (MVGHS, n = 8, 780 jumps), and high volume group (HVG, n = 7, 1,560 jumps). A series of tests were performed by the subjects before and after 7 weeks of plyometric training. These tests were measurement of maximum strength (5 maximum repetitions [5RMs]), drop jumps (DJs) of varying heights (20, 40, and 60 cm), squat and countermovement jumps (SJ and CMJ, respectively), timed 20-m sprint, agility, body weight, and height. The results of the present study suggest that high training volume leads to a significant increase in explosive performance that requires fast stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions (such as DJ and sprint) in comparison to what is observed after a moderate training volume regimen. Second, when plyometric training is performed on a hard training surface (high-impact reaction force), a moderate training volume induces optimal stimulus to increase explosive performance requiring fast SSC actions (e.g., DJ), maximal dynamic strength enhancement, and higher training efficiency. Thus, a finding of interest in the study was that after 7 weeks of plyometric training, performance enhancement in maximal strength and in actions requiring fast SSC (such as DJ and sprint) were dependent on the volume of training and the surface on which it was performed. This must be taken into account when using plyometric training on different surfaces.

  6. CCL2 and CCR2 variants are associated with skeletal muscle strength and change in strength with resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Brennan T.; Orkunoglu-Suer, E. Funda; Adham, Kasra; Larkin, Justin S.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Thompson, Paul D.; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.; Gordon, Paul M.; Moyna, Niall M.; Pescatello, Linda S.; Visich, Paul S.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Hubal, Monica J.; Tosi, Laura L.; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2010-01-01

    Baseline muscle size and muscle adaptation to exercise are traits with high variability across individuals. Recent research has implicated several chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of many conditions that are influenced by inflammatory processes, including muscle damage and repair. One specific chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), is expressed by macrophages and muscle satellite cells, increases expression dramatically following muscle damage, and increases expression further with repeated bouts of exercise, suggesting that CCL2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. The present study hypothesizes that genetic variations in CCL2 and its receptor (CCR2) may help explain muscle trait variability. College-aged subjects [n = 874, Functional Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Muscle Size and Strength (FAMUSS) cohort] underwent a 12-wk supervised strength-training program for the upper arm muscles. Muscle size (via MR imaging) and elbow flexion strength (1 repetition maximum and isometric) measurements were taken before and after training. The study participants were then genotyped for 11 genetic variants in CCL2 and five variants in CCR2. Variants in the CCL2 and CCR2 genes show strong associations with several pretraining muscle strength traits, indicating that inflammatory genes in skeletal muscle contribute to the polygenic system that determines muscle phenotypes. These associations extend across both sexes, and several of these genetic variants have been shown to influence gene regulation. PMID:20947712

  7. Study of gamma-ray strength functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

    1980-08-07

    The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

  8. The effectiveness of traditional and sling exercise strength training in women.

    PubMed

    Dannelly, Bethany D; Otey, Sarah C; Croy, Ted; Harrison, Blain; Rynders, Corey A; Hertel, Jay N; Weltman, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Strength training often combines closed-kinetic-chain exercises (CKCEs) and open kinetic-chain exercises (OKCEs). The CKCE may be more effective for improving performance in lower-body training. Recently, we reported upper-body CKCE (using a commercially available system of ropes and slings, Redcord AS, Staubo, Norway) was as effective as OKCE training for strength gains and that CKCE was more effective than OKCE for improving throwing performance. To our knowledge the effectiveness of a strength training program that uses exclusively CKCE is unknown. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of CKCE vs. OKCE strength training programs in women enrolled in an introductory strength training program. Twenty-six participants were randomized to OKCE (traditional exercises) or CKCE (sling-based exercises). Participants completed 6 sets per week for 13 weeks. Pre and posttraining evaluations included the following: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) leg and bench press; sling exercise push-ups; isokinetic dynamometry; lateral step-down test; and the Star Excursion Balance Test. Both groups significantly improved bench press (by an average of 4-6 kg) and leg press (by an average of 23-35 kg) (p < 0.001). There was a significant group × time interaction (p < 0.001) for sling exercise push-ups (OKCE pre = 5.5 ± 8.6, OKCE post = 6.1 ± 8.2, CKCE pre = 6.8 ± 6.0, CKCE post = 16.9 ± 6.6). Isokinetic measures of knee extension, knee flexion, shoulder internal rotation, and shoulder external rotation increased (improvements ranged from 2.7 to 27.7%), with no group differences. Both OKCE and CKCE strength training elicited similar changes in balance. We conclude that CKCE training is equally as effective as OKCE training during the initial phases of a strength training program in women. The fact that only CKCE improved sling exercise push-ups supports previous findings suggesting functional superiority of CKCE.

  9. Can balance training promote balance and strength in prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Maestrini, Lea; Zahner, Lukas; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of balance training (BT) followed by detraining on postural control, plantar flexor strength, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Thirty grade 1 school children participated in this study and were assigned to either an intervention class (INT, n = 15, age 6.7 ± 0.5 years) or a control class (n = 15, age 6.6 ± 0.5 years). The INT participated in 4 weeks of BT (3 per week) integrated in their physical education lessons. Pre, post, and follow-up tests included the measurements of postural sway on a balance platform, maximal torque and rate of force development of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, and jumping height on a force platform. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Balance training resulted in tendencies in terms of small to medium interaction effects yet not statistically significant improvements in postural sway (f = 0.14; p > 0.05), force production of the plantar flexors (f = 0.18; p> 0.05), and jumping height (f = 0.25; p> 0.05). Immaturity of the postural control system and deficits in attentional focus during practice of balance exercises could be responsible for the nonsignificant findings in this study. Thus, other training regimen (e.g., resistance training) should be applied alone or in combination with BT, which may have the potential to promote balance and strength in children.

  10. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Ataee, Jalil; Koozehchian, Majid S; Kreider, Richard B; Zuo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes. Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu) and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test. Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04). No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the strength and

  11. Effects of hamstring-emphasized neuromuscular training on strength and sprinting mechanics in football players.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, J; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Morin, J B; Samozino, P; Edouard, P; Alcaraz, P E; Esparza-Ros, F; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training program combining eccentric hamstring muscle strength, plyometrics, and free/resisted sprinting exercises on knee extensor/flexor muscle strength, sprinting performance, and horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running in football (soccer) players. Sixty footballers were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Twenty-seven players completed the EG and 24 players the CG. Both groups performed regular football training while the EG performed also a neuromuscular training during a 7-week period. The EG showed a small increases in concentric quadriceps strength (ES = 0.38/0.58), a moderate to large increase in concentric (ES = 0.70/0.74) and eccentric (ES = 0.66/0.87) hamstring strength, and a small improvement in 5-m sprint performance (ES = 0.32). By contrast, the CG presented lower magnitude changes in quadriceps (ES = 0.04/0.29) and hamstring (ES = 0.27/0.34) concentric muscle strength and no changes in hamstring eccentric muscle strength (ES = -0.02/0.11). Thus, in contrast to the CG (ES = -0.27/0.14), the EG showed an almost certain increase in the hamstring/quadriceps strength functional ratio (ES = 0.32/0.75). Moreover, the CG showed small magnitude impairments in sprinting performance (ES = -0.35/-0.11). Horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running remained typically unchanged in both groups. These results indicate that a neuromuscular training program can induce positive hamstring strength and maintain sprinting performance, which might help in preventing hamstring strains in football players.

  12. Relations of Strength Training to Body Image among a Sample of Female University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine; Hilton, Wanda; Pituch, Keenan

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated college women enrolled in a strength training class before and after completion of the class, using a combination of physical fitness measures, to determine the relationship between strength training and body image. Strength training generally did not substantially change participants' weight, percentage of fat, or circumferences. Most…

  13. An Analysis of Isotonic and Isokinetic Strength-Training Methods and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Randall E.

    This annotated bibliography documents traditional isotonic strength training and nontraditional isotonic strength training (isokinetics) to aid the athletic coach in deciding which type and scheme of training will best develop strength. A glossary of terms is provided. Appendices include muscle action charts and tables, body position charts, a…

  14. Combined Plyometric & Strength Training Improves Ice-hockey Players` On-ice Sprint.

    PubMed

    Dæhlin, Torstein E; Haugen, Ole C; Haugerud, Simen; Hollan, Ivana; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2016-12-05

    Combined plyometric and strength training have previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training has not been previously been compared to the effects of strength training only.

  15. Effects of strength training with eccentric overload on muscle adaptation in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Bauer, Timm; Kinscherf, Ralf; Vorwald, Silke; Klute, Konstanze; Bischoff, Dirk; Müller, Helmut; Weber, Marc-André; Metz, Jürgen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Billeter, Rudolf

    2010-03-01

    In classic concentric/eccentric exercise, the same absolute load is applied in concentric and eccentric actions, which infers a smaller relative eccentric load. We compared the effects of 6 weeks of classic concentric/eccentric quadriceps strength training (CON/ECC, 11 subjects) to eccentric overload training (CON/ECC+, 14 subjects) in athletes accustomed to regular strength training. The parameters determined included functional tests, quadriceps and fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), fibre type distribution by ATPase staining, localisation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform mRNAs by situ hybridization and the steady-state levels of 48 marker mRNAs (RT-PCR) in vastus lateralis biopsies taken before and after training. Both training forms had anabolic effects with significant increases in quadriceps CSA, maximal strength, ribosomal RNA content and the levels of mRNAs involved in growth and regeneration. Only the CON/ECC+ training led to significantly increased height in a squat jump test. This was accompanied by significant increases in IIX fibre CSA, in the percentage of type IIA fibres expressing MHC IIx mRNA, in the level of mRNAs preferentially expressed in fast, glycolytic fibres, and in post-exercise capillary lactate. The enhanced eccentric load apparently led to a subtly faster gene expression pattern and induced a shift towards a faster muscle phenotype plus associated adaptations that make a muscle better suited for fast, explosive movements.

  16. Core stability training on lower limb balance strength.

    PubMed

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Padulo, Johnny; Ayalon, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of core stability training on lower limbs' muscular asymmetries and imbalances in team sport. Twenty footballers were divided into two groups, either core stability or control group. Before each daily practice, core stability group (n = 10) performed a core stability training programme, while control group (n = 10) did a standard warm-up. The effects of the core stability training programme were assessed by performing isokinetic tests and single-leg countermovement jumps. Significant improvement was found for knee extensors peak torque at 3.14 rad · s(-1) (14%; P < 0.05), knee flexors peak torque at 1.05 and 3.14 rad · s(-1) (19% and 22% with P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively) and peak torque flexors/extensors ratios at 1.05 and 3.14 rad · s(-1) (7.7% and 8.5% with P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively) only in the core stability group. The jump tests showed a significant reduction in the strength asymmetries in core stability group (-71.4%; P = 0.02) while a concurrent increase was seen in the control group (33.3%; P < 0.05). This study provides practical evidence in combining core exercises for optimal lower limbs strength balance development in young soccer players.

  17. Neuromuscular adaptations during combined strength and endurance training in endurance runners: maximal versus explosive strength training or a mix of both.

    PubMed

    Taipale, R S; Mikkola, J; Vesterinen, V; Nummela, A; Häkkinen, K

    2013-02-01

    This study compared the effects of mixed maximal strength and explosive strength training with maximal strength training and explosive strength training combined with endurance training over an 8-week training intervention. Male subjects (age 21-45 years) were divided into three strength training groups, maximal (MAX, n = 11), explosive (EXP, 10) and mixed maximal and explosive (MIX, 9), and a circuit training control group, (CON, 7). Strength training one to two times a week was performed concurrently with endurance training three to four times a week. Significant increases in maximal dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), maximal muscle activation during 1RM in MAX and during CMJ in EXP, peak running speed (S (peak)) and running speed at respiratory compensation threshold (RCT(speed)) were observed in MAX, EXP and MIX. Maximal isometric strength and muscle activation, rate of force development (RFD), maximal oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and running economy (RE) at 10 and 12 km hr(-1) did not change significantly. No significant changes were observed in CON in maximal isometric strength, RFD, CMJ or muscle activation, and a significant decrease in 1RM was observed in the final 4 weeks of training. RE in CON did not change significantly, but significant increases were observed in S (peak), RCT(speed) and [Formula: see text] Low volume MAX, EXP and MIX strength training combined with higher volume endurance training over an 8-week intervention produced significant gains in strength, power and endurance performance measures of S (peak) and RCT(speed), but no significant changes were observed between groups.

  18. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  19. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:27065561

  20. TRX Suspension Training: A New Functional Training Approach for Older Adults – Development, Training Control and Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    GAEDTKE, ANGUS; MORAT, TOBIAS

    2015-01-01

    Because of its proximity to daily activities functional training becomes more important for older adults. Sling training, a form of functional training, was primarily developed for therapy and rehabilitation. Due to its effects (core muscle activation, strength and balance improvements), sling training may be relevant for older adults. However, to our knowledge no recent sling training program for healthy older adults included a detailed training control which is indeed an essential component in designing and implementing this type of training to reach positive effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a TRX Suspension Training for healthy older adults (TRX-OldAge) and to evaluate its feasibility. Eleven participants finished the 12 week intervention study. All participants trained in the TRX-OldAge whole-body workout which consists of seven exercises including 3–4 progressively advancing stages of difficulty for every exercise. At each stage, intensity could be increased through changes in position. Feasibility data was evaluated in terms of training compliance and a self-developed questionnaire for rating TRX-OldAge. The training compliance was 85 %. After study period, 91 % of the participants were motivated to continue with the program. The training intensity, duration and frequency were rated as optimal. All participants noted positive effects whereas strength gains were the most. On the basis of the detailed information about training control, TRX-OldAge can be individually adapted for each older adult appropriate to its precondition, demands and preference. PMID:27182415

  1. Alterations in Strength and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Consequent to Nautilus Circuit Weight Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, Stephen P.; Dill, Mary Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    The study compared the effects on muscular strength and maximal oxygen uptake of a Nautilus circuit weight training program, a free weight strength training program, and a running program. Nautilus circuit weight training appears to be equally effective for a training period of short duration. (MT)

  2. Changes in muscle activation following ankle strength training in children with spastic cerebral palsy: an electromyography feasibility case report.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jamie E; Ross, Sandy A; Foreman, Matthew H; Engsberg, Jack R

    2013-05-01

    ABSTRACT Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are likely to experience decreased participation in activities and less competence in activities of daily living. Studies of children with spastic CP have shown that strengthening programs produce positive results in strength, gait, and functional outcomes (measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure). No investigations have analyzed electromyography (EMG) activity before and after strength training to determine whether any changes occur in the GMFM.  This feasibility case report quantified dorsiflexor and plantarflexor muscle activation changes during performance of 3-5 selected GMFM items following a plantarflexor strength training in two children with cerebral palsy. Increased plantarflexor strength and increased ability to selectively activate muscles were found. Little carryover to performance on GMFM items was observed. It is feasible to use EMG during performance on selected GMFM items to evaluate motor control changes following strength training in children with CP.

  3. Effects of strength training on osteogenic differentiation and bone strength in aging female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Singulani, Monique Patricio; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Santos, Leandro Figueiredo; Morais, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha; Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2017-01-01

    The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ). The production of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was lower in BMSCs of the aged exercised group. The ST practice was able to improve the bone mechanical properties in aged female rats, increasing the potential for osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, reducing the adipogenic differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine level. In summary, the data achieved in this study showed that strength training triggers physiological responses that result in changes in the bone microenvironment and bring benefits to biomechanical parameters of bone tissue, which could reduce the risk of fractures during senescent. PMID:28211481

  4. Effects of strength training on osteogenic differentiation and bone strength in aging female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Singulani, Monique Patricio; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Santos, Leandro Figueiredo; Morais, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha; Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2017-02-17

    The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ). The production of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was lower in BMSCs of the aged exercised group. The ST practice was able to improve the bone mechanical properties in aged female rats, increasing the potential for osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, reducing the adipogenic differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine level. In summary, the data achieved in this study showed that strength training triggers physiological responses that result in changes in the bone microenvironment and bring benefits to biomechanical parameters of bone tissue, which could reduce the risk of fractures during senescent.

  5. Treadmill Training with Virtual Reality Improves Gait, Balance, and Muscle Strength in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chunhee; Hwang, Wonjeong; Hwang, Sujin; Chung, Yijung

    2016-01-01

    Independent walking is an important goal of clinical and community-based rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Virtual reality-based rehabilitation therapy is effective in motivating children with CP. This study investigated the effects of treadmill training with virtual reality on gait, balance, muscular strength, and gross motor function in children with CP. Eighteen children with spastic CP were randomly divided into the virtual reality treadmill training (VRTT) group (9 subjects, mean age, 10.2 years) and treadmill training (TT) group (9 subjects, mean age, 9.4 years). The groups performed their respective programs as well as conventional physical therapy 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Muscle strength was assessed using a digitalized manual muscle tester. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Functional Measure (GMFM). Balance was assessed using the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Gait speed was assessed using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and gait endurance was assessed using the 2-minute walk test (2MWT). After training, gait and balance was improved in the VRTT compared to the TT group (P < 0.05). Muscular strength was significantly greater in the VRTT group than the TT group, except for right hamstring strength. The improvements in GMFM (standing) and PBS scores were greater in the VRTT group than the TT group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the VRTT group showed the higher values of 10MWT and 2MWT compared to the TT group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, VRTT programs are effective for improving gait, balance, muscular strength, and gross motor function in children with CP.

  6. Effects of strength and endurance exercise order on endocrine responses to concurrent training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of strength and endurance training order on the endocrine milieu associated with strength development and performance during concurrent training. A randomised, between-groups design was employed with 30 recreationally resistance-trained males completing one of four acute experimental training protocols; strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), endurance followed by strength training (END-ST) or no training (CON). Blood samples were taken before each respective exercise protocol, immediately upon cessation of exercise, and 1 h post cessation of exercise. Blood samples were subsequently analysed for total testosterone, cortisol and lactate concentrations. Ability to maintain 80% 1RM during strength training was better in ST and ST-END than END-ST (both p < .05). Immediately following the respective exercise protocols all training interventions elicited significant increases in testosterone (p < .05). ST and END-ST resulted in greater increases in cortisol than ST-END (both p < .05). The testosterone:cortisol ratio was similar following the respective exercise protocols. Blood lactate concentrations post-training were greater following END-ST and ST than ST-END (both p < .05). Conducting endurance exercise prior to strength training resulted in impaired strength training performance. Blood cortisol and lactate concentrations were greater when endurance training was conducted prior to strength training than vice versa. As such, it may be suggested that conducting endurance prior to strength training may result in acute unfavourable responses to strength training when strength training is conducted with high loads.

  7. Health enhancing strength training in nonagenarians (STRONG): rationale, design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Rexach, José A Serra; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Bustamante-Ara, Natalia; Villarán, Margarita Hierro; Gil, Pedro González; Sanz Ibáñez, Maria J; Sanz, Nekane Blanco; Santamaría, Victor Ortega; Sanz, Natalia Gutiérrez; Prada, Ana B Marín; Gallardo, Cristian; Romo, Gabriel Rodríguez; Lucia, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Background The Health Enhancing Strength Training in Nonagenarians (STRONG) is a randomised control trial to assess the effectiveness of an aerobic and strength training program for improving muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in nonagenarians. Methods Sixty (51 women) nonagenarians (age range: 90–102 years) who live in a geriatric nursing home will be randomly assigned to either a usual care (control) group (n = 30) or an intervention (training) group (n = 30). Participants allocated in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention group will also enrol in three weekly non-consecutive individualized training sessions (~45–50 min each) during 8 weeks. The exercise program will consist of muscular strength [with a special focus on leg press at 30% (start of the program) to 70% 1 repetition maximum (end)] and aerobic exercises (cycle-ergometry during 3–5 to 15 minutes at 12–14 points in the rate of perceived exertion scale). Results Results from STRONG will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of the oldest population groups. Conclusion The increase in life expectancy together with the dramatic decrease in birth rates in industrialized countries calls the attention to health care systems and public health policymakers to focus attention on promoting healthy lifestyle in the highest sector of the population pyramid. Our study attempts to improve functional capacity and QOL of nonagenarians by implementing an individualised aerobic and strength training program in a geriatric residential care. Results from STRONG will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well being even in persons aged 90 years or over. Trail Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00848978 PMID:19470176

  8. Respiratory muscle strength and training in stroke and neurology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Ross D; Rafferty, Ged F; Moxham, John; Kalra, Lalit

    2013-02-01

    We undertook two systematic reviews to determine the levels of respiratory muscle weakness and effects of respiratory muscle training in stroke patients. Two systematic reviews were conducted in June 2011 using a number of electronic databases. Review 1 compared respiratory muscle strength in stroke and healthy controls. Review 2 was expanded to include randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of respiratory muscle training on stroke and other neurological conditions. The primary outcomes of interest were maximum inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressure (maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure, respectively). Meta-analysis of four studies revealed that the maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure were significantly lower (P < 0·00001) in stroke patients compared with healthy individuals (weighted mean difference -41·39 and -54·62 cmH(2) O, respectively). Nine randomized controlled trials indicate a significantly (P = 0·0009) greater effect of respiratory muscle training on maximum inspiratory pressure in neurological patients compared with control subjects (weighted mean difference 6·94 cmH(2) O) while no effect on maximum expiratory pressure. Respiratory muscle strength appears to be impaired after stroke, possibly contributing to increased incidence of chest infection. Respiratory muscle training can improve inspiratory but not expiratory muscle strength in neurological conditions, although the paucity of studies in the area and considerable variability between them is a limiting factor. Respiratory muscle training may improve respiratory muscle function in neurological conditions, but its clinical benefit remains unknown.

  9. The Effect of Strength Training on Performance Indicators in Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Kris; Carson, Brian P; Lyons, Mark; Rossiter, Antonia; Kenny, Ian C

    2017-01-01

    Beattie, K, Carson, BP, Lyons, M, Rossiter, A, and Kenny, IC. The effect of strength training on performance indicators in distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 9-23, 2017-Running economy (RE) and velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite distance runners. In addition to cardiovascular function, RE and VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 40-week strength training intervention on strength (maximal and reactive strength), VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, economy, and body composition (body mass, fat, and lean mass) in competitive distance runners. Twenty competitive distance runners were divided into an intervention group (n = 11; 29.5 ± 10.0 years; 72.8 ± 6.6 kg; 1.83 ± 0.08 m) and a control group (n = 9; 27.4 ± 7.2 years; 70.2 ± 6.4 kg; 1.77 ± 0.04 m). During week 0, 20, and 40, each subject completed 3 assessments: physiology (V2 mmol·L BLa, V2 mmol·L BLa [blood lactate], V4 mmol·L BLa, RE, VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), strength (1 repetition maximum back squat; countermovement jump and 0.3 m drop jump), and body composition (body mass, fat mass, overall lean, and leg lean). The intervention group showed significant improvements in maximal and reactive strength qualities, RE, and VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, at weeks 20 (p ≤ 0.05) and 40 (p ≤ 0.05). The control group showed no significant changes at either time point. There were no significant changes in body composition variables between or within groups. This study demonstrates that 40 weeks of strength training can significantly improve maximal and reactive strength qualities, RE, and VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, without concomitant hypertrophy, in competitive distance runners.

  10. Eccentric resistance training increases and retains maximal strength, muscle endurance, and hypertrophy in trained men.

    PubMed

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Schena, Federico

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different resistance training protocols on muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy after training and detraining. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomized in concentric-only (CONC), eccentric-only (ECC), traditional concentric-eccentric (TRAD) bench press resistance training or control group. The training volume was equalized among the intervention groups. Bench press of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)/body mass, maximum number of repetitions (MNR), and chest circumference were evaluated at the baseline, after 6 weeks of training, and after 6 weeks of detraining. All intervention groups reported significant 1RM/body mass increases after training (CONC baseline: 1.04 ± 0.06, post-training: 1.12 ± 0.08, p < 0.05; ECC baseline: 1.08 ± 0.04, post-training: 1.15 ± 0.05, p < 0.05; TRAD baseline: 1.06 ± 0.08, post-training: 1.11 ± 0.10, p < 0.05). After detraining, only ECC retained 1RM/body mass above the baseline (1.17 ± 0.07, p < 0.05), while CONC and TRAD returned to baseline values. Only ECC improved and retained MNR (baseline: 22 ± 3; post-training: 25 ± 3, and post-detraining: 25 ± 4, p < 0.05 compared with baseline) and chest circumference (baseline: 98.3 ± 2.4 cm, post-training: 101.7 ± 2.2 cm and post-detraining: 100.7 ± 2.3 cm. p < 0.05 compared with baseline), while no significant changes occurred in both CONC and TRAD. The incorporation of eccentric training can be recommended for counteracting the negative effects of detraining or forced physical inactivity.

  11. Balance Training Exercises Decrease Lower-Limb Strength Asymmetry in Young Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Sannicandro, Italo; Cofano, Giacomo; Rosa, Rosa A.; Piccinno, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The issue of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports. The presence of strength asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young athletes practicing various sporting disciplines is considered an intrinsic risk factor for injury; in such cases, compensation strategies should thus be implemented aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the degree of asymmetry in order to avoid the negative consequences asymmetries can have upon the health of young sportsmen and women on the long-term. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drill performance and to test a specific balance-training programme in its capacity to effectively reduce such asymmetries. Twenty-three young tennis players were randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG) (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; 13.2 ± 0.9 years; 50.8 ± 8.9 Kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m) or Comparison Group (CG) (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; 13.0 ± 0.9 years; 51.1 ± 9.2 Kg; 1.61 ± 0.09 m). To quantify percent asymmetries in lower-limb strength before (T0) and following (T1) training, performances were assessed in the one-leg hop test (OLH), side-hop test (SH) and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF). Performances in the 10 and 20m sprint tests and the Foran test were also assessed. The EG completed a total of 12 training sessions directed at balance training: two 30-minute sessions/week over a 6-week period. The CG followed an identical training schedule, but training sessions consisted of tennis-specific drills only. The results reveal significant differences between pre- and post-training tests in the EG only: the degree of lower-limb asymmetry was decreased in the EG following completion of the training programme, as assessed using the OLH test (p < 0.001), SH test (p < 0.001) and 4m-SSF test (p < 0

  12. Adapted Resistance Training Improves Strength in Eight Weeks in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer L; Fritz, Nora; Chiang, Chen Chun; Jiang, Allen; Thompson, Tziporah; Cornet, Nicole; Newsome, Scott D; Calabresi, Peter A; Zackowski, Kathleen

    2016-01-29

    Hip weakness is a common symptom affecting walking ability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is known that resistance strength training (RST) can improve strength in individuals with MS, however; it remains unclear the duration of RST that is needed to make strength gains and how to adapt hip strengthening exercises for individuals of varying strength using only resistance bands. This paper describes the methodology to set up and implement an adapted resistance strength training program, using resistance bands, for individuals with MS. Directions for pre- and post-strength tests to evaluate efficacy of the strength-training program are included. Safety features and detailed instructions outline the weekly program content and progression. Current evidence is presented showing that significant strength gains can be made within 8 weeks of starting a RST program. Evidence is also presented showing that resistance strength training can be successfully adapted for individuals with MS of varying strength with little equipment.

  13. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-08-28

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).

  14. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-08-28

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens,more » violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).« less

  15. Photon strength function of 97Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, Shea; Couture, Aaron; Lee, Hye Young

    2015-10-01

    Some of the major questions in stockpile stewardship require nuclear reaction rates on fission fragments where there are few or no experimental constraints. Theoretical calculations are an alternative, but their reliability is ultimately limited by our incomplete understanding of such physics inputs as the photon strength function. 96Zr lies near the light mass peak for 239Pu fission, and neutron capture on and near this nucleus is of great importance for applications. The DANCE array at LANSCE and the Apollo array coupled to HELIOS at Argonne National Laboratory offer complementary probes into the neutron capture reaction, and an experimental campaign is underway to study 96Zr(n, γ) and 96Zr(d , p) with these instruments. The status of these reaction studies will be presented.

  16. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-11-01

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).

  17. Comparison of resistance and concurrent resistance and endurance training regimes in the development of strength.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina; Brown, Gregory A

    2009-12-01

    Resistance and endurance training are often performed concurrently in most exercise programs and in rehabilitative settings in an attempt to acquire gains in more than 1 physiologic system. However, it has been proposed that by simultaneously performing these 2 modes of exercise training, the strength gains achieved by resistance training alone may be impaired. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of 16 weeks of resistance training and concurrent resistance and endurance training on muscular strength development in 38 sedentary, apparently healthy males (25 yr +/- 8 mo). Subjects were age-matched and randomly assigned to either a control (Con) group (n = 12), resistance training (Res) group (n = 13), or concurrent resistance and endurance training (Com) group (n = 13). After 16 weeks, no changes were found in the strength of the subjects in the Con group. Resistance training and concurrent resistance and endurance training significantly (p < or = 0.05) improved strength in all of the 8 prescribed exercises. The data also indicated that 16 weeks of concurrent resistance training and endurance training was as effective in eliciting improvements in strength as resistance training alone in previously sedentary males. As such, concurrent resistance and endurance training does not impede muscular strength gains and can be prescribed simultaneously for the development of strength in sedentary, apparently healthy males and thus may invoke all the physiologic adaptations of resistance and endurance training at once.

  18. Effect of heavy strength training on muscle thickness, strength, jump performance, and endurance performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Kojedal, Oystein; Losnegard, Thomas; Kvamme, Bent; Raastad, Truls

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplemental heavy strength training on muscle thickness and determinants of performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes. Seventeen well-trained Nordic Combined athletes were assigned to either usual training supplemented with heavy strength training (STR; n = 8) or to usual training without heavy strength training (CON; n = 9). The strength training performed by STR consisted of one lower-body exercise and two upper-body exercises [3-5 repetition maximum (RM) sets of 3-8 repetitions], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. Architectural changes in m. vastus lateralis, 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, squat jump (SJ) height, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), work economy during submaximal treadmill skate rollerskiing, and performance in a 7.5-km rollerski time trial were measured before and after the intervention. STR increased 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, muscle thickness, and SJ performance more than CON (p < 0.05). There was no difference between groups in change in work economy. The two groups showed no changes in total body mass, VO(2max), or time-trial performance. In conclusion, 12 weeks of supplemental strength training improved determinants of performance in Nordic Combined by improving the athletes' strength and vertical jump ability without increasing total body mass or compromising the development of VO(2max).

  19. Statistical technique for analysing functional connectivity of multiple spike trains.

    PubMed

    Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Borisyuk, Roman

    2011-03-15

    A new statistical technique, the Cox method, used for analysing functional connectivity of simultaneously recorded multiple spike trains is presented. This method is based on the theory of modulated renewal processes and it estimates a vector of influence strengths from multiple spike trains (called reference trains) to the selected (target) spike train. Selecting another target spike train and repeating the calculation of the influence strengths from the reference spike trains enables researchers to find all functional connections among multiple spike trains. In order to study functional connectivity an "influence function" is identified. This function recognises the specificity of neuronal interactions and reflects the dynamics of postsynaptic potential. In comparison to existing techniques, the Cox method has the following advantages: it does not use bins (binless method); it is applicable to cases where the sample size is small; it is sufficiently sensitive such that it estimates weak influences; it supports the simultaneous analysis of multiple influences; it is able to identify a correct connectivity scheme in difficult cases of "common source" or "indirect" connectivity. The Cox method has been thoroughly tested using multiple sets of data generated by the neural network model of the leaky integrate and fire neurons with a prescribed architecture of connections. The results suggest that this method is highly successful for analysing functional connectivity of simultaneously recorded multiple spike trains.

  20. Strength-training behavior and perceived environment among Japanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Nakamura, Yoshio; Inoue, Shigeru; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2011-07-01

    The authors examined the relationship between strength-training behavior and perceived environment in older Japanese adults. An Internet-based survey was conducted of 293 adults age 68.2 ± 2.8 yr. The dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. The IPAQ environment module, access to facilities for strength training, and home equipment for strength training were environmental factors. Logistic-regression analysis was employed. After demographic variables (gender, age, educational background, household income, body-mass index, self-rated health status, smoking habit, and residential area) were adjusted for, home equipment for strength training (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.50-3.06), access to facilities for strength training (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.32-4.85), and observing active people (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.06-4.58) were positively correlated with regular strength-training behavior. In conclusion, environmental factors associated with strength-training behavior were access to facilities for strength training, having home equipment for strength training, and observing active people.

  1. Shoulder Mobility, Muscular Strength, and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Luk, W S; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Tsang, William W N; Chow, Lina P Y

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the shoulder mobility, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer survivors with and without Tai Chi (TC) Qigong training to those of healthy individuals and to explore the associations between shoulder impairments and QOL in breast cancer survivors with regular TC Qigong training. Methods. Eleven breast cancer survivors with regular TC Qigong training, 12 sedentary breast cancer survivors, and 16 healthy participants completed the study. Shoulder mobility and rotator muscle strength were assessed by goniometry and isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. QOL was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) questionnaire. Results. Goniometric measurements of the active range of motion in the flexion, abduction, and hand-behind-the-back directions were similar among the three groups. The TC Qigong-trained breast cancer survivors had significantly higher isokinetic peak torques of the shoulder rotator muscles (at 180°/s) than untrained survivors, and their isokinetic shoulder muscular strength reached the level of healthy individuals. Greater shoulder muscular strength was significantly associated with better functional wellbeing in breast cancer survivors with TC Qigong training. However, no significant between-group difference was found in FACT-B total scores. Conclusions. TC Qigong training might improve shoulder muscular strength and functional wellbeing in breast cancer survivors.

  2. Performance and neuromuscular adaptations following differing ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2013-12-01

    The interference effect attenuates strength and hypertrophic responses when strength and endurance training are conducted concurrently; however, the influence of training frequency on these responses remain unclear when varying ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training are performed. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the strength, limb girth, and neuromuscular adaptations to varying ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training. Twenty-four men with >2 years resistance training experience completed 6 weeks of 3 days per week of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON) in an isolated limb model. Assessments of maximal voluntary contraction by means of isokinetic dynamometry leg extensions (maximum voluntary suppression [MVC]), limb girth, and neuromuscular responses through electromyography (EMG) were conducted at baseline, mid-intervention, and postintervention. After training, ST and CT3 conditions elicited greater MVC increases than CT1 and CON conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Strength training resulted in significantly greater increases in limb girth than both CT1 and CON conditions (p = 0.05 and 0.004, respectively). The CT3 induced significantly greater limb girth adaptations than CON condition (p = 0.04). No effect of time or intervention was observed for EMG (p > 0.05). In conclusion, greater frequencies of endurance training performed increased the magnitude of the interference response on strength and limb girth responses after 6 weeks of 3 days a week of training. Therefore, the frequency of endurance training should remain low if the primary focus of the training intervention is strength and hypertrophy.

  3. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of strength training in individuals with multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Travis M; Reyes, Alvaro R; Ziman, Melanie R

    2015-01-01

    disease after strength training. Furthermore, significant improvements in fatigue (8.2%), functional capacity (21.5%), quality of life (8.3%), power (17.6%), and electromyography activity (24.4%) were found in individuals with multiple sclerosis after strength training. The limitations of the study were the heterogeneity of interventions and study outcomes in Parkinson disease and multiple sclerosis trials. Strength training is useful for increasing muscle strength in Parkinson disease and to a lesser extent multiple sclerosis.

  5. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  6. Progressive resistance strength training and the related injuries in older adults: the susceptibility of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Monteiro, Graça; Abrantes, Catarina

    2014-06-01

    The benefits of progressive resistance training (PRT) among the older adults are evident, especially in the prevention of sarcopenia and improving muscle strength, which reverse the age-related loss of functional ability. However, PRT carries some risk, particularly when participants are older adults with a certain degree of muscle weakness. The purpose of this article is to discuss the PRT-related injuries, and present an overview of documented shoulder injuries among the elderly, discerning possible mechanisms of injury and risk factors. A literature search was conducted in the PUBMED database to identify the relevant literature using combinations of keywords: strength-training injuries, resistance-training injuries, sports injuries in the elderly, shoulder complex, shoulder injury, and shoulder disorder. Acute and chronic injuries attributed to PRT have been cited in the epidemiological literature. The shoulder complex, has been alluded to as one of the most prevalent regions of injury, particularly in exercises that place the arm extended above the head and posterior to the trunk. However, the risk for injuries appears to be higher for testing than for training itself. One-repetition maximum strength testing may result in a greater injury risk. This technique, though acceptable, needs additional precautions in inexperience older adults to prevent injury. Thus, the best treatment for PRT age-related injuries is prevention. Appropriate and individualized training programs, the use of safe equipment, careful warming up and cooling down, correct range of motion, progressive intensity training, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness are essential aspects of injury prevention among the elderly.

  7. Effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training and motor skills training on strength of children with meningomyelocele: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Liese M; Lahay, Erin R; Stueck, Kailey A; White, Erin; Williams, Lindsay; Harris, Susan R

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review provides a critical synthesis of research regarding the effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training, and motor skills training on muscle strength in children with meningomyelocele. Nine databases were searched using terms related to meningomyelocele and physical therapy interventions. Of 298 potentially relevant citations, six met the inclusion criteria. Each was rated using the systematic review guidelines of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. Two studies examined changes in quadriceps muscle torque following electrical stimulation, three investigated upper extremity exercise training, and one evaluated quadriceps strength after motor skills training. Although the limited evidence suggests improvements in strength when using these interventions, much of the evidence is of low methodological quality and all studies were published more than 10 years ago. Further research is needed regarding various strength-training interventions for children with meningomyelocele and the relationship between increased strength and improved activity and participation.

  8. Influence of the number of sets at a strength training in the flexibility gains.

    PubMed

    Júnior, Roberto S; Leite, Thalita; Reis, Victor M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of strength training with different number of sets and their influence on flexibility of young men. Sixty men were divided into three groups as follows: group that trained 1 set per exercise (G1S), group that trained 3 sets per exercise (G3S) and control group (CG). The training lasted 10 weeks, totaling 30 training sessions. The training groups performed 8 to 12 repetitions per set for each exercise. The flexibility at Sit and Reach Test was evaluated pre and post-training. Both trained groups showed significant increase in flexibility when compared to pre-training and the G3S showed significant difference when compared to CG post-training. According to this study, the strength training carried out without flexibility training promotes flexibility gains regardless the number of sets.

  9. Increases in muscle volume after plantarflexor strength training in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    McNee, Anne E; Gough, Martin; Morrissey, Matt C; Shortland, Adam P

    2009-06-01

    Children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) have small, weak muscles. However, change in muscle size due to resistance training in this group is unknown. We investigated the effect of plantarflexor strengthening on muscle volume, gait, and function in 13 ambulant children with spastic CP (seven males, six females; mean age 10 y 11 mo, SD 3 y 0 mo, range 6 y 11 mo-16 y 11 mo; eight with diplegia, five with hemiplegia; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, six; level II, five; level III, two). Assessments were performed before training, 5 and 10 weeks into training, and at a 3-month follow-up. Medial and lateral gastrocnemius volumes were computed from three-dimensional ultrasound images. The number of unilateral heel raises able to be achieved on each side was assessed. Function was measured using three-dimensional gait analysis, the 'timed up and go' test, the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire, and the Functional Mobility Scale. Training involved heel raises or Thera-Band resistance, 4 times a week for 10 weeks. Medial and lateral gastrocnemius volumes increased by 17 and 14% at week 5 (p=0.03, p=0.028). This increase was maintained at week 10 and follow-up (medial gastrocnemius p=0.001, p<0.001; lateral gastrocnemius p=0.006, p=0.007). Heel raises (mean number) increased by week 5 (p=0.002). This was maintained at week 10 and follow-up (p<0.001; p<0.001). No significant change in measured function was observed. Muscle volume increased in response to training in children with spastic CP. The role of progressive strength training in maintaining long-term function is discussed.

  10. Strength Training to Enhance Early Recovery after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Collins, Eileen; Park, Chang; Peters, Tara; Patel, Pritesh; Rondelli, Damiano

    2017-04-01

    Intensive cancer treatment followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) results in moderate to severe fatigue and physical inactivity, leading to diminished functional ability. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an exercise intervention, strength training to enhance early recovery (STEER), on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life after HCT. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial compared strength training (n = 33) to usual care plus attention control with health education (UC + AC with HE) (n = 34). Subjects were stratified by type of transplantation and age. STEER consisted of a comprehensive program of progressive resistance introduced during hospitalization and continued for 6 weeks after hospital discharge. Fatigue, physical activity, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life were assessed before HCT hospital admission and after intervention completion. Data were analyzed using split-plot analysis of variance. Significant time × group interactions effects were noted for fatigue (P = .04). The STEER group reported improvement in fatigue from baseline to after intervention whereas the UC + AC with HE group reported worsened fatigue from baseline to after intervention. Time (P < .001) and group effects (P = .05) were observed for physical activity. Physical activity declined from baseline to 6 weeks after hospitalization. The STEER group was more physically active. Functional ability tests (timed stair climb and timed up and go) resulted in a significant interaction effect (P = .03 and P = .05, respectively). Subjects in the UC + AC with HE group were significantly slower on both tests baseline to after intervention, whereas the STEER group's time remained stable. The STEER group completed both tests faster than the UC + AC with HE group after intervention. Study findings support the use of STEER after intensive cancer treatment and HCT

  11. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  12. Comparison of effects of strength and endurance training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco; Toral, Javier; Cejudo, Pilar; Villagomez, Rafael; Sánchez, Hildegard; Castillo, José; Montemayor, Teodoro

    2002-09-01

    We determined the effect of different exercise training modalities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including strength training (n = 17), endurance training (n = 16), and combined strength and endurance (n = 14) (half of the endurance and half of the strengthening exercises). Data were compared at baseline, the end of the 12-week exercise-training program, and 12 weeks later. Improvement in the walking distance was only significant in the strength group. Increases in submaximal exercise capacity for the endurance group were significantly higher than those observed in the strength group but were of similar magnitude than those in the combined training modality, which in turn were significantly higher than for the strength group. Increases in the strength of the muscle groups measured in five weight lifting exercises were significantly higher in the strength group than in the endurance group but were of similar magnitude than in the combined training group, which again showed significantly higher increases than subjects in the endurance group. Any training modality showed significant improvements of the breathlessness score and the dyspnea dimension of the chronic respiratory questionnaire. In conclusion, the combination of strength and endurance training seems an adequate training strategy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  13. Concurrent training in elite male runners: the influence of strength versus muscular endurance training on performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Marín, Pedro J; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Much recent attention has been given to the compatibility of combined aerobic and anaerobic training modalities. However, few of these studies have reported data related to well-trained runners, which is a potential limitation. Therefore, because of the limited evidence available for this population, the main aim was to determine which mode of concurrent strength-endurance training might be the most effective at improving running performance in highly trained runners. Eighteen well-trained male runners (age 23.7 ± 1.2 years) with a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) more than 65 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomly assigned into 1 of the 3 groups: Endurance-only Group (n = 6), who continued their usual training, which included general strength training with Thera-band latex-free exercise bands and endurance training; Strength Group (SG; n = 6) who performed combined resistance and plyometric exercises and endurance training; Endurance-SG (ESG; n = 6) who performed endurance-strength training with loads of 40% and endurance training. The study comprised 12 weeks of training in which runners trained 8 times a week (6 endurance and 2 strength sessions) and 5 weeks of detraining. The subjects were tested on 3 different occasions (countermovement jump height, hopping test average height, 1 repetition maximum, running economy (RE), VO2max, maximal heart rate [HRmax], peak velocity (PV), rating of perceived exertion, and 3-km time trial were measured). Findings revealed significant time × group interaction effects for almost all tests (p < 0.05). We can conclude that concurrent training for both SG and ESG groups led to improved maximal strength, RE, and PV with no significant effects on the VO2 kinetics pattern. The SG group also seems to show improvements in 3-km time trial tests.

  14. COMPREHENSIVE STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM FOR A RECREATIONAL SENIOR GOLFER 11-MONTHS AFTER A ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Erik P.; En Gilpin, Hui; Brunette, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Golf is a popular sport played by hundreds of thousands of individuals of all ages and of varying skill levels. An orthopedic or sports-related injury and/or surgery may limit an individual's sport participation, require him/her to complete a course of rehabilitation, and initiate (or resume) a sport-specific training program. Unlike the availability of evidence to guide postsurgical rehabilitation and sport-specific training of athletes from sports other than golf, there have only been two reports describing outcomes after surgery and for golfers. The purpose of this case report is to present a post-rehabilitation return to sport-training program for a recreational golfer 11-months after a rotator cuff repair. Case Description: The subject, a 67-year old female, injured her right shoulder requiring a rotator cuff repair 11-months prior to her participation in a golf fitness training program. The subject participated in six training sessions over seven week period consisting of general strengthening exercises (including exercises for the rotator cuff), exercises for the core, plyometrics, and power exercises. Outcomes: The subject made improvements in power and muscular endurance of the core. She was able to resume golf at the completion of the training program. Discussion: The subject was able to make functional improvements and return to golf after participation in a comprehensive strength program. Additional studies are necessary to improve program design for golfers who wish to return to sport after shoulder surgery. PMID:22163096

  15. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10−30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20−50%) increased 24–48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM+ satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM+- and Pax7+-positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinaseThr421/Ser424 increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. Key points Cold water immersion is a popular strategy to recover from exercise. However, whether regular cold water immersion influences muscle adaptations to strength training is not well understood. We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on changes in muscle mass and strength after 12 weeks of strength training. We also examined the effects of these

  16. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  17. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  18. Muscle strength enhancement following home-based virtual cycling training in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Liaw, Mei-Yun; Chung, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chung-Yao

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first well-designed randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a novel home-based virtual cycling training (hVCT) program for improving muscle strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-12 years were randomly assigned to an hVCT group (n=13) or a control group (n=15). Outcome measures, including gross motor function of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) and muscle strength (isokinetic torque of knee extensor and flexor muscle), were administered before and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at post-treatment showed that, compared to the control group, the hVCT group had significantly higher isokinetic torque in the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60°/s and 120°/s angular velocities (p<0.05). At post-treatment, the hVCT group also showed greater isokinetic strength improvement in the knee flexor than in the knee extensor at 60°/s (knee flexor: 41%; knee extensor: 19%) and at 120°/s (knee flexor: 36%; knee extensor: 30%). However, the BOTMP scores at post-treatment did not differ between the two groups. Although the proposed 12-week hVCT protocol does not improve gross motor function, it enhances knee muscle strength in children with CP. The protocol obtains larger gains in the knee flexor than in the knee extensor at different angular velocities. The study findings will help clinicians to provide more effective and efficient strategies for muscle strength training in children with CP.

  19. Similarity in adaptations to high-resistance circuit vs. traditional strength training in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Pedro E; Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Chavarrias, Manuel; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    To compare the effects of 8 weeks of high-resistance circuit (HRC) training (3-6 sets of 6 exercises, 6 repetition maximum [RM], ∼35-second interset recovery) and traditional strength (TS) training (3-6 sets of 6 exercises, 6RM, 3-minute interset recovery) on physical performance parameters and body composition, 33 healthy men were randomly assigned to HRC, TS, or a control group. Training consisted of weight lifting 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training, 1RM strength on bench press and half squat exercises, bench press peak power output, and body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry ) were determined. Shuttle run and 30-second Wingate tests were also completed. Upper limb (UL) and lower limb 1RM increased equally after both TS and HRC training. The UL peak power at various loads was significantly higher at posttraining for both groups (p ≤ 0.01). Shuttle-run performance was significantly better after both HRC and TS training, however peak cycling power increased only in TS training (p ≤ 0.05). Significant decreases were found in % body fat in the HRC group only; HRC and TS training both resulted in an increased lean but not bone mass. The HRC training was as effective as TS for improving weight lifting 1RM and peak power, shuttle-run performance and lean mass. Thus, HRC training promoted a similar strength-mass adaptation as traditional training while using a shorter training session duration.

  20. Lifelong strength training mitigates the age-related decline in efferent drive.

    PubMed

    Unhjem, Runar; Nygård, Mona; van den Hoven, Lene T; Sidhu, Simranjit K; Hoff, Jan; Wang, Eivind

    that strength training may be particularly beneficial for counteracting age-related loss of neuromuscular function.

  1. Strategies to optimize concurrent training of strength and aerobic fitness for rowing and canoeing.

    PubMed

    García-Pallarés, Jesús; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2011-04-01

    During the last several decades many researchers have reported an interference effect on muscle strength development when strength and endurance were trained concurrently. The majority of these studies found that the magnitude of increase in maximum strength was higher in the group that performed only strength training compared with the concurrent training group, commonly referred to as the 'interference phenomenon'. Currently, concurrent strength and endurance training has become essential to optimizing athletic performance in middle- and long-distance events. Rowing and canoeing, especially in the case of Olympic events, with exercise efforts between 30 seconds and 8 minutes, require high amounts of maximal aerobic and anaerobic capacities as well as high levels of maximum strength and muscle power. Thus, strength training, in events such as rowing and canoeing, is integrated into the training plan. However, several studies indicate that the degree of interference is affected by the training protocols and there may be ways in which the interference effect can be minimized or avoided. Therefore, the aim of this review is to recommend strategies, based on research, to avoid or minimize any interference effect when training to optimize performance in endurance sports such as rowing and canoeing.

  2. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  3. Increases in muscle strength and balance using a resistance training program administered via a telecommunications system in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cos...

  4. Effects of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Loud, Rita LaRosa; O'Connell, Jill; Glover, Scott; O'Connell, Jason; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of four resistance training protocols on upper body strength and muscular endurance development in children. Untrained children trained twice per week for 8 weeks, using general conditioning exercises and different upper-body conditioning protocols. Results indicated that higher-repetition training protocols enhanced…

  5. Early-phase strength gains during traditional resistance training compared with an upper-body air-resistance training device.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Cian; Jensen, Randall L; Byrne, Ciarán A; Shafat, Amir

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the early-phase adaptations of traditional dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) training vs. a portable upper-body training device (Fortex). The Fortex is a concentric training device based on air resistance. Contractions using this device are slow (1.5-3 s) and have a limited range of motion. The exercises potentially allow maximal muscle action during each contraction. Healthy, sedentary men (n = 30) were assigned to begin either 8 weeks of weight training (W, n = 12) or 8 weeks of Fortex training (F, n = 9), and were compared with a control group (C, n = 9). Exercises were chosen for the W group that would train similar muscle groups and contain a similar volume of repetitions as the F group. However, movement patterns and force curves were not identical. Increases in the upper-arm cross-sectional area were not detected in any of the groups. Both training groups showed strength gains in the various strength tests that were distinct from each other. Our results indicate that both Fortex and DCER training proved effective in eliciting strength gains in sedentary men over an 8-week training period. There are, however, limitations with the Fortex in terms of progression needs and training asymmetry that indicate it should be used as a complement to other training.

  6. Outcomes of tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training for dysphagia following acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure treatment outcomes in a group of six adults with chronic dysphagia following acquired brain injury, who each completed 24 sessions of tongue-pressure resistance training, over a total of 11–12 weeks. The treatment protocol emphasized both strength and accuracy. Biofeedback was provided using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Amplitude accuracy targets were set between 20–90% of the patient's maximum isometric pressure capacity. Single subject methods were used to track changes in tongue strength (maximum isometric pressures), with functional swallowing outcomes measured using blinded ratings of a standard pre- and post-treatment videofluoroscopy protocol. Improvements were seen in post-treatment measures of tongue pressure and penetration–aspiration. No improvements were seen in pharyngeal residues, indeed worsening residue was seen in some patients. PMID:23336825

  7. Influence of Strength, Sprint Running, and Combined Strength and Sprint Running Training on Short Sprint Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, M C; Gabbett, T J; Marinho, D A; Blazevich, A J; Sousa, A; van den Tillaar, R; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of transference of 6 weeks of full squat vs. full squat plus sprint running training to short (ranged from 0-10 to 0-30 m) sprint running performance in non-athletes. We hypothesized that a speed-full-squat training regimen could enhance squat strength and power with simultaneous improvements in short sprint performance. 122 physically active adults (age: 20.5±2.5 years; body mass: 65.8±6.1 kg; height: 1.71±0.08 m) were randomly divided into 4 groups: full squat training (n=36), combined full squat and sprint training (n=32), speed training only (n=34) and non-training control group (n=20). Each training group completed 2 sessions per week over 6 weeks, while the control group performed only their normal physical activity. Sprint performance was improved after sprint running or full squat training alone (1.7% and 1.8% P<0.05, respectively), however larger enhancements (2.3%; P<0.01) were observed after the combined full squat plus sprint training intervention. These results suggest that in recreationally active adults, combined full squat and sprint training provides a greater stimulus for improving sprint performance than either modality alone.

  8. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; Katch, F I; Lachance, P F

    1991-03-01

    This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We

  9. Neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, J; Rusko, H; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E M; Häkkinen, K

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on neuromuscular and endurance characteristics compared to strength or endurance training alone. Previously untrained men were divided into strength (S: n=16), endurance (E: n=11) or concurrent strength and endurance (SE: n=11) training groups. S and E trained 2 times and SE 2 + 2 times a week for strength and endurance during the 21-week period. Maximal unilateral isometric and bilateral concentric forces of leg muscles increased similarly in S and SE by 20-28% (p<0.01) and improvements in isometric forces were accompanied by increases (p<0.05) of maximal muscle activation. Rate of force development of isometric action (p<0.05) improved only in S. The increase in muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris in SE (11%, p<0.001) were greater than in S (6%, p<0.001) or in E (2%, p<0.05). SE and E increased maximal cycling power (SE: 17% and E: 11%, p<0.001) and VO(2MAX) (SE: 17%, p<0.001 and E: 5%, ns.). These results suggest that the present moderate volume 21-week concurrent SE training in previously untrained men optimizes the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy, maximal strength and endurance development, but interferes explosive strength development, compared with strength or endurance training alone.

  10. Systematic review on strength training in Parkinson’s disease: an unsolved question

    PubMed Central

    Ramazzina, Ileana; Bernazzoli, Benedetta; Costantino, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of strength training, performed against a different resistance from body weight, in improving motor and nonmotor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Web of Science. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Thirteen high-quality randomized controlled trials were included. Strength training performed against external resistance is well tolerated and appears to be a suitable physical activity to improve both physical parameters and quality of life parameters of PD subjects. However, although the study intervention included strength training, only a few selected studies assessed the improvement of muscle strength. Despite the encouraging results, it is difficult to establish a correlation between strength training and the improvements made. Our review highlights the lack of common intent in terms of study design and the presence of different primary and secondary outcomes. Accordingly, further studies are needed to support the beneficial effects of different types of strength training in PD subjects and to underline the superiority of strength training in PD patients with respect to other training.

  11. The effects of accentuated eccentric loading on strength, muscle hypertrophy, and neural adaptations in trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Jason P; Docherty, David

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the strength and neuromuscular adaptations for dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) training and dynamic accentuated external resistance (DAER) training (resistance training employing an accentuated load during eccentric actions). Male subjects active in resistance training were assigned to either a DCER training group (n = 10) or a DAER training group (n = 8) for 9 weeks. Subjects in the DCER group performed 4 sets of 10 repetitions with a load of 75% concentric 1 repetition maximum (RM). Subjects in the DAER group performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions with a concentric load of 75% of 1RM and an eccentric load of approximately 120% of concentric 1RM. Three measures reflecting adaptation of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded pretraining and posttraining: concentric 1RM, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and specific tension. Strength was assessed at midtraining periods. No significant changes in muscle CSA were observed in either group. Both training groups experienced significant increases in concentric 1RM and specific tension of both the elbow flexors and extensors, but compared with DCER training, DAER training produced significantly greater increases in concentric 1RM of the elbow extensors. These results suggest that, for some exercises, DAER training may be more effective than DCER training in developing strength within a 9-week training phase. However, for trained subjects, neither protocol is effective in eliciting muscle hypertrophy.

  12. Effects of an 18-week strength training program on low-handicap golfers' performance.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María; Sedano, Silvia; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 18-week strength training program on variables related to low-handicap golfers' performance. Ten right-handed male golfers, reporting a handicap of 5 or less, were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CG) (N = 5, age: 23.9 ± 6.7 years) and the treatment group (TG) (N = 5, age: 24.2 ± 5.4 years). CG players followed the standard physical conditioning program for golf, which was partially modified for the TG. The TG participated in an 18-week strength training program divided into three parts: maximal strength training including weightlifting exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks), explosive strength training with combined weights and plyometric exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks), and golf-specific strength training, including swings with a weighted club and accelerated swings with an acceleration tubing system (3 days a week for 6 weeks). Body mass, body fat, muscle mass, jumping ability, isometric grip strength, maximal strength (RM), ball speed, and golf club mean acceleration were measured on five separate occasions. The TG demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in maximal and explosive strength after 6 weeks of training and in driving performance after 12 weeks. These improvements remained unaltered during the 6-week golf-specific training period and even during a 5-week detraining period. It may be concluded that an 18-week strength training program can improve maximal and explosive strength and these increases can be transferred to driving performance; however, golfers need time to transfer the gains.

  13. Effects of Electrical Stimulation, Exercise Training and Motor Skills Training on Strength of Children with Meningomyelocele: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagenais, Liese M.; Lahay, Erin R.; Stueck, Kailey A.; White, Erin; Williams, Lindsay; Harris, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review provides a critical synthesis of research regarding the effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training, and motor skills training on muscle strength in children with meningomyelocele. Nine databases were searched using terms related to meningomyelocele and physical therapy interventions. Of 298 potentially relevant…

  14. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development) were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001), while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001). The maximal isometric force showed no statistically significant result for the repeated measures factor, while the rate of force development of the squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance. PMID:28149424

  15. Photon strength functions from photon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwengner, Ronald

    2015-10-01

    We present photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ rays at the HI γS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) in Durham. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we include intensity in the quasi-continuum and perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HI γS. Photoabsorption cross sections deduced in this way are presented for selected nuclides. Strength in the energy region of the so-called pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) is considered in nuclei around mass 80 and in xenon isotopes. In collaboration with Ralph Massarczyk, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  16. Does Intrasession Concurrent Strength and Aerobic Training Order Influence Training-Induced Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in Prepubescent Children?

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-12-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, C, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Does intrasession concurrent strength and aerobic training order influence training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children?. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3267-3277, 2016-The aim of this study was to analyze the interference of strength and aerobic training order over an 8-week period on explosive skills and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. One hundred twenty-eight prepubescent children aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5 years) were randomly selected and assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: intrasession concurrent aerobic before (GAS: n = 39) or after strength training (GSA: n = 45) or control group (GC: n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained their baseline level performance, and training-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Increases were found in the 1-kg and 3-kg medicine ball throws: GAS: +3%, +5.5%, p ≤ 0.05, p < 0.001; GSA: +5.7%, +8.7%, p < 0.001, respectively; in the counter movement jump height and standing long jump length: GAS: +6.5%, +3.4%, p ≤ 0.05; GSA: +7%, +4.5%, p < 0.001, respectively; in the 20-m shuttle-run time: GAS: +2.3%; GSA: +4.6%, p < 0.001; and, in the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: GAS: +7.3%, p < 0.001; GSA: +3.8%, p < 0.001 from pretraining to post-training. All programs were effective, but GSA produced better results than GAS for muscle strength variables, and GAS produced better results than GSA for aerobic capacity variables. The present study explored an unknown issue and added useful information to the literature in this area. These training methods should be taken into consideration to optimize explosive strength and cardiorespiratory fitness training in school-based programs and sports club programs.

  17. Variable Resistance Training Promotes Greater Strength and Power Adaptations Than Traditional Resistance Training in Elite Youth Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Maxence; Louit, Loic; Strokosch, Alasdair; Seitz, Laurent B

    2017-04-01

    Rivière, M, Louit, L, Strokosch, A, and Seitz, LB. Variable resistance training promotes greater strength and power adaptations than traditional resistance training in elite youth rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 947-955, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, velocity, and power adaptations in youth rugby league players in response to a variable resistance training (VRT) or traditional free-weight resistance training (TRAD) intervention. Sixteen elite youth players were assigned to a VRT or TRAD group and completed 2 weekly upper- and lower-body strength and power sessions for 6 weeks. Training programs were identical except that the VRT group trained the bench press exercise with 20% of the prescribed load coming from elastic bands. Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and bench press mean velocity and power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM were measured before and after the training intervention, and the magnitude of the changes was determined using effect sizes (ESs). The VRT group experienced larger increases in both absolute (ES = 0.46 vs. 0.20) and relative (ES = 0.41 vs. 0.19) bench press 1RM. Similar results were observed for mean velocity as well as both absolute and relative mean power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM. Furthermore, both groups experienced large gains in both velocity and power in the heavier loads but small improvements in the lighter loads. The improvements in both velocity and power against the heavier loads were larger for the VRT group, whereas smaller differences existed between the 2 groups in the lighter loads. Variable resistance training using elastic bands may offer a greater training stimulus than traditional free-weight resistance training to improve upper-body strength, velocity, and power in elite youth rugby league players.

  18. Strength and Conditioning and Concurrent Training Practices in Elite Rugby Union.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Smith, Andrew; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; French, Duncan N

    2016-12-01

    Jones, TW, Smith, A, Macnaughton, LS, and French, DN. Strength and Conditioning and Concurrent Training Practices in Elite Rugby Union. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3354-3366, 2016-There is limited published research on strength and conditioning (S&C) practices in elite rugby union (RU). Information regarding testing batteries and programme design would provide valuable information to both applied practitioners and researchers investigating the influence of training interventions or preperformance strategies. The aim of this study was to detail the current practices of S&C coaches and sport scientists working in RU. A questionnaire was developed that comprised 7 sections: personal details, physical testing, strength and power development, concurrent training, flexibility development, unique aspects of the programme, and any further relevant information regarding prescribed training programmes. Forty-three (41 men, 2 women; age: 33.1 ± 5.3 years) of 52 (83%) coaches responded to the questionnaire. The majority of practitioners worked with international level and/or professional RU athletes. All respondents believed strength training benefits RU performance and reported that their athletes regularly performed strength training. The clean and back squat were rated the most important prescribed exercises. Forty-one (95%) respondents reported prescribing plyometric exercises and 38 (88%) indicated that periodization strategies were used. Forty-two (98%) practitioners reported conducting physical testing, with body composition being the most commonly tested phenotype. Thirty-three (77%) practitioners indicated that the potential muted strength development associated with concurrent training was considered when programming and 27 (63%) believed that strength before aerobic training was more favorable for strength development than vice versa. This research represents the only published survey to date of S&C practices in northern and southern hemisphere RU.

  19. Effects of 4 weeks of traditional resistance training vs. superslow strength training on early phase adaptations in strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity in college-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eonho; Dear, Alexis; Ferguson, Steven L; Seo, Dongil; Bemben, Michael G

    2011-11-01

    This study compared SuperSlow resistance training (SRT) to traditional resistance training (TRT) during early phase adaptations in strength, aerobic capacity, and flexibility in college-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to SRT (n = 14); TRT (n = 13); or control (CON; n = 8) groups. To equalize training times, TRT trained 3 times per week for 25 minutes each session, whereas SRT trained twice a week for 35 minutes each session. Both groups trained for 4 weeks, whereas the CON group maintained normal daily activities. Workouts consisted of 5 exercises: shoulder press, chest press, leg press, low row, and lat pull down. The SRT group completed 1 set of each exercise at 50% 1RM until momentary failure with a 10-second concentric and a 10-second eccentric phase. The TRT group completed 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 80% 1RM for each exercise, with 4 seconds of contraction time for each repetition. Groups were statistically similar at baseline. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effect for flexibility with the greatest improvements occurring for the training groups (SRT 14.7% and TRT 11%). All strength tests had significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effects but no group or group by time interactions. Both training groups had large percent improvements in strength compared to CON, but the large variability associated with the SRT group resulted in only the TRT group being significantly different from the CON group. In conclusion, percent improvements were similar for the TRT and SRT groups, but only the TRT group reached statistical significance for the strength improvements, and both groups were equally effective for improving flexibility.

  20. Effects of a Strength Training Session After an Exercise Inducing Muscle Damage on Recovery Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; Lamblin, Julien; McCall, Alan; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Abaïdia, A-E, Delecroix, B, Leduc, C, Lamblin, J, McCall, A, Baquet, G, and Dupont, G. Effects of a strength training session after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery kinetics. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 115-125, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an upper-limb strength training session the day after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery of performance. In a randomized crossover design, subjects performed the day after the exercise, on 2 separate occasions (passive vs. active recovery conditions) a single-leg exercise (dominant in one condition and nondominant in the other condition) consisting of 5 sets of 15 eccentric contractions of the knee flexors. Active recovery consisted of performing an upper-body strength training session the day after the exercise. Creatine kinase, hamstring strength, and muscle soreness were assessed immediately and 20, 24, and 48 hours after exercise-induced muscle damage. The upper-body strength session, after muscle-damaging exercise accelerated the recovery of slow concentric force (effect size = 0.65; 90% confidence interval = -0.06 to 1.32), but did not affect the recovery kinetics for the other outcomes. The addition of an upper-body strength training session the day after muscle-damaging activity does not negatively affect the recovery kinetics. Upper-body strength training may be programmed the day after a competition.

  1. Gamma-ray strength functions and their relation to astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Buerger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J. B.; Renstroem, T.; Rose, S. J.; Ruud, I. E.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Wikan, K.; Algin, E.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Goergen, A.

    2011-10-28

    The nuclear {gamma}-ray strength function is one of the indispensable inputs needed for reaction-rate calculations, and is particularly important for the neutron-capture cross section. The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract simultaneously nuclear level density and {gamma}-ray strength function from particle-{gamma} coincidence measurements. Data on the strength functions of Sn nuclei as well as for lighter elements are presented. The Sn isotopes all display a resonance-like structure close to the neutron threshold, that could possibly be due to the neutron-skin oscillation mode. This so-called pygmy dipole resonance greatly influences the neutron-capture rates. In the lighter nuclei, an enhancement of the strength function at low {gamma} energies is observed. The possible impact of this increase on Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates has been investigated.

  2. Gamma-ray strength functions and their relation to astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Goriely, S.; Algin, E.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Lönnroth, T.; Mitchell, G. E.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J. B.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Ruud, I. E.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wikan, K.

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear γ-ray strength function is one of the indispensable inputs needed for reaction-rate calculations, and is particularly important for the neutron-capture cross section. The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract simultaneously nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function from particle-γ coincidence measurements. Data on the strength functions of Sn nuclei as well as for lighter elements are presented. The Sn isotopes all display a resonance-like structure close to the neutron threshold, that could possibly be due to the neutron-skin oscillation mode. This so-called pygmy dipole resonance greatly influences the neutron-capture rates. In the lighter nuclei, an enhancement of the strength function at low γ energies is observed. The possible impact of this increase on Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates has been investigated.

  3. Ankle control and strength training for children with cerebral palsy using the Rutgers Ankle CP: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cioi, Daniel; Kale, Angad; Burdea, Grigore; Engsberg, Jack; Janes, William; Ross, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to develop and feasibility test the Rutgers Ankle CP, aimed at ankle strengthening and improved control for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The system was an upgrade in hardware (new foot attachment, new robot controller) and software (new games and programming language) of the earlier Rutgers Ankle in order to permit training of children with CP. The new Rutgers Ankle CP was used to train ankle strength and motor control in a 7 year old boy with CP during 36 rehabilitation sessions (12 weeks, 3 times/week). Assessments for impairment, function and quality of life were taken before and after training. Results indicated improvements in both strength and motor control. Gait function improved substantially in ankle kinematics, speed and endurance. Overall function (GMFM) indicated improvements that were typical of other ankle strength training programs. Quality of life increased beyond what would be considered a minimal clinical important difference. While these results are only for a single participant, they are very encouraging toward improving the function and quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. Further research with a larger number of participants is planned.

  4. Effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Reichert, Thais; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Almada, Bruna Pereira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults. Thirty-four older adults men were placed into two groups: deep water endurance training (ET; n = 16; 66 ± 4 years) and deep water strength prior to endurance training (concurrent training: CT; n = 18; 64 ± 4 years). The training period lasted 12 weeks, with three sessions a week. The resting heart rate and the oxygen uptake at peak (VO2peak) and at the second ventilatory threshold (VO2VT2) were evaluated during a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer before and after training. In addition, maximal dynamic strength (one repetition maximum test--1RM) and local muscular resistance (maximum repetitions at 60% 1RM) of the knee extensors and flexors were evaluated. After the training period, the heart rate at rest decreased significantly, while the VO2peak and VO2VT2 showed significant increases in both groups (p<0.05). Only the VO2VT2 resulted in significantly greater values for the ET compared to the CT group after the training (p<0.05). In addition, after training, there was a significant increase in the maximal dynamic strength of the knee extensors and the local muscular endurance of the knee extensors and flexors, with no difference between the groups (p > 0.05). In summary, the two training programs were effective at producing significant improvements in cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adult men. However, deep water endurance training at high intensities provides increased cardiorespiratory responses compared to CT and results in similar muscular strength responses.

  5. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Eric S; Volek, Jeff S

    2003-11-01

    Creatine monohydrate has become the supplement of choice for many athletes striving to improve sports performance. Recent data indicate that athletes may not be using creatine as a sports performance booster per se but instead use creatine chronically as a training aid to augment intense resistance training workouts. Although several studies have evaluated the combined effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance, these data have not been analyzed collectively. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle strength and weightlifting performance when ingested concomitant with resistance training. The effects of gender, interindividual variability, training status, and possible mechanisms of action are discussed. Of the 22 studies reviewed, the average increase in muscle strength (1, 3, or 10 repetition maximum [RM]) following creatine supplementation plus resistance training was 8% greater than the average increase in muscle strength following placebo ingestion during resistance training (20 vs. 12%). Similarly, the average increase in weightlifting performance (maximal repetitions at a given percent of maximal strength) following creatine supplementation plus resistance training was 14% greater than the average increase in weightlifting performance following placebo ingestion during resistance training (26 vs. 12%). The increase in bench press 1RM ranged from 3 to 45%, and the improvement in weightlifting performance in the bench press ranged from 16 to 43%. Thus there is substantial evidence to indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance training is more effective at increasing muscle strength and weightlifting performance than resistance training alone, although the response is highly variable.

  6. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance During 30-day 6 deg Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Bond, M.; Bulbulian, R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if an intensive, intermittent, isokinetic, lower extremity exercise training program would attenuate or eliminate the decrease of muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bed rest (BR). The 19 male subjects (36 +/- 1 yr, 178 +/- 2 cm, 76.5 +/- 1.7 kg) were allocated into a no exercise (NOE) training group (N = 5), an isotonic (lower extremity cycle orgometer) exercise (ITE) training group (N = 7), and an isokinetic (isokinetic knee flexion-extension) exercise (IKE) training group (N = 7). Peak knee (flexion and extension) and shoulder (abduction-adduction) functions were measured weekly in all groups with one 5-repetition set. After BR, average knee extension total work decreased by 16% with NOE, increased by 27% with IKE, and was unchanged with ITE. Average knee flexion total work and peak torque (strength) responses were unchanged in all groups. Force production increased by 20% with IKE and was unchanged with NOE and ITE. Shoulder total work was unchanged in all groups, while gross average peak torque increased by 27% with ITE and by 22% with IKE, and was unchanged with NOE. Thus, while ITE training can maintain some isokinetic functions during BR, maximal intermittent IKE training can increase other functions above pre-BR control levels.

  7. Isokinetic strength and endurance during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Bulbulian, R.; Bond, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if an intensive, intermittent, isokinetic, lower extremity exercise training program would attenuate or eliminate the decrease of muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bed rest (BR). The 19 male subjects (36 +/- 1 yr, 178 +/- 2 cm, 76.5 +/- 1.7 kg) were allocated into a no exercise (NOE) training group (N = 5), an isotonic (lower extremity cycle ergometer) exercise (ITE) training group (N = 7), and an isokinetic (isokinetic knee flexion-extension) exercise (IKE) training group (N = 7). Peak knee (flexion and extension) and shoulder (abduction-adduction) functions were measured weekly in all groups with one 5-repetition set. After BR, average knee extension total work decreased by 16% with NOE, increased by 27% with IKE, and was unchanged with ITE. Average knee flexion total work and peak torque (strength) responses were unchanged in all groups. Force production increased by 20% with IKE and was unchanged with NOE and ITE. Shoulder total work was unchanged in all groups, while gross average peak torque increased by 27% with ITE and by 22% with IKE, and was unchanged with NOE. Thus, while ITE training can maintain some isokinetic functions during BR, maximal intermittent IKE training can increase other functions above pre-BR control levels.

  8. [Benefits of strength training for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia].

    PubMed

    Padilla Colon, Carlos J; Sanchez Collado, Pilar; Cuevas, Maria Jose

    2014-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by a gradual loss and generalized skeletal muscle mass and strength at risk for adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life and mortality. It has several contributing factors: the aging process throughout life, influences on development in the early stages of life, eating sub optimal, bed rest or sedentary lifestyle, chronic diseases and certain drug treatments. Sarcopenia represents a deterioration of health status with a high personal cost: mobility disorders, increased risk of falls and fractures, impaired ability to perform everyday activities, disability, loss of independence and increased risk of death. The strength training is currently one of the most effective methods for combating sarcopenia by stimulating hypertrophy and increase strength. The strength training programs in older people themselves are probably one of the most effective preventive measures to delay the onset of sarcopenia. In this literature review different factors related sarcopenia and strength training as a preventive method is analyzed.

  9. Concurrent strength and endurance training: the influence of dependent variable selection.

    PubMed

    Leveritt, Michael; Abernethy, Peter J; Barry, Ben; Logan, Peter A

    2003-08-01

    Twenty-six active university students were randomly allocated to resistance (R, n = 9), endurance (E, n = 8), and concurrent resistance and endurance (C, n = 9) training conditions. Training was completed 3 times per week in all conditions, with endurance training preceding resistance training in the C group. Resistance training involved 4 sets of upper- and lower-body exercises with loads of 4-8 repetition maximum (RM). Each endurance training session consisted of five 5-minute bouts of incremental cycle exercise at between 40 and 100% of peak oxygen uptake (.VO2peak). Parameters measured prior to and following training included strength (1RM and isometric and isokinetic [1.04, 3.12, 5.20, and 8.67 rad.s(-1)] strength), .VO2peak and Wingate test performance (peak power output [PPO], average power, and relative power decline). Significant improvements in 1RM strength were observed in the R and C groups following training. .VO2peak significantly increased in E and C but was significantly reduced in R after training. Effect size (ES) transformations on the other dependent variables suggested that performance changes in the C group were not always similar to changes in the R or E groups. These ES data suggest that statistical power and dependent variable selection are significant issues in enhancing our insights into concurrent training. It may be necessary to assess a range of performance parameters to monitor the relative effectiveness of a particular concurrent training regimen.

  10. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group-trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group-trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group-no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants' elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P <0.001), the MET group also had significant strength gain (13.8%, P <0.001), which was not statistically different from that of the CST group even though the exercise intensity for the MET group was only at 30% MVC level. The CTRL group did not have significant strength changes. Surprisingly, only the MET group demonstrated a significant augmentation in the MRCP (29.3%, P <0.001); the MRCP increase in CST group was at boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

  11. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K.; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group—trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group—trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group—no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants’ elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P <0.001), the MET group also had significant strength gain (13.8%, P <0.001), which was not statistically different from that of the CST group even though the exercise intensity for the MET group was only at 30% MVC level. The CTRL group did not have significant strength changes. Surprisingly, only the MET group demonstrated a significant augmentation in the MRCP (29.3%, P <0.001); the MRCP increase in CST group was at boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training. PMID:27310942

  12. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass.

  13. Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Otto, William H; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Spiering, Barry A

    2012-05-01

    Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition. J Strength Cond Res 26(5): 1199-1202, 2012-The present study compared the effects of 6 weeks of weightlifting plus traditional heavy resistance training exercises vs. kettlebell training on strength, power, and anthropometric measures. Thirty healthy men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (a) weightlifting (n = 13; mean ± SD: age, 22.92 ± 1.98 years; body mass, 80.57 ± 12.99 kg; height, 174.56 ± 5.80 cm) or (b) kettlebell (n = 17; mean ± SD: age, 22.76 ± 1.86 years; body mass, 78.99 ± 10.68 kg; height, 176.79 ± 5.08 cm) and trained 2 times a week for 6 weeks. A linear periodization model was used for training; at weeks 1-3 volume was 3 × 6 (kettlebell swings or high pull), 4 × 4 (accelerated swings or power clean), and 4 × 6 (goblet squats or back squats), respectively, and the volume increased during weeks 4-6 to 4 × 6, 6 × 4, and 4 × 6, respectively. Participants were assessed for height (in centimeters), body mass (in kilograms), and body composition (skinfolds). Strength was assessed by the back squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM), whereas power was assessed by the vertical jump and power clean 1RM. The results of this study indicated that short-term weightlifting and kettlebell training were effective in increasing strength and power. However, the gain in strength using weightlifting movements was greater than that during kettlebell training. Neither method of training led to significant changes in any of the anthropometric measures. In conclusion, 6 weeks of weightlifting induced significantly greater improvements in strength compared with kettlebell training. No between-group differences existed for the vertical jump or body composition.

  14. The Effects of a Non-Traditional Strength Training Program on the Health-Related Fitness Outcomes of Youth Strength Training Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Wendy; Foster, Byron

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a non-traditional strength training program will impact the health-related fitness of youth. Researchers hypothesized that the strengthening program would positively affect the fitness outcomes. Participant physical education classes incorporated strengthening exercises three days…

  15. Effects of a heavy and a moderate resistance training on functional performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kalapotharakos, Vasilios I; Michalopoulos, Maria; Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Godolias, George; Gourgoulis, Vasilios

    2005-08-01

    Resistance training can improve strength and functional performance, but there is little information about the effect of training intensity on functional performance in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 12 weeks of heavy (80% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and moderate (60% of 1RM) resistance training on functional performance in healthy, inactive older adults, ages 60-74 years. Volunteer subjects were assigned randomly to a control group (CS, n = 10), heavy resistance training group (HRT, n = 11), or moderate resistance training group (MRT, n = 12) and participated in 12 weeks of strength training, 3 times per week. Performance measurements included 1RM lower-body strength, chair-rising time, walking velocity, stair-climbing time, and flexibility. Significant differences between HRT and MRT were found for 1RM strength of the lower limbs after the training period. Functional performance improved similarly for both HRT and MRT after the training period. Functional performance can be improved significantly with either heavy or moderate resistance training, without significant differences in the effectiveness of the 2 training protocols.

  16. Heavy strength training improves running and cycling performance following prolonged submaximal work in well-trained female athletes.

    PubMed

    Vikmoen, Olav; Rønnestad, Bent R; Ellefsen, Stian; Raastad, Truls

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding heavy strength training to female duathletes' normal endurance training on both cycling and running performance. Nineteen well-trained female duathletes (VO2max cycling: 54 ± 3 ml∙kg(-1)∙min(-1), VO2max running: 53 ± 3 ml∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four lower body exercises [3 × 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)] twice a week for 11 weeks. Running and cycling performance were assessed using 5-min all-out tests, performed immediately after prolonged periods of submaximal work (3 h cycling or 1.5 h running). E+S increased 1RM in half squat (45 ± 22%) and lean mass in the legs (3.1 ± 4.0%) more than E Performance during the 5-min all-out test increased in both cycling (7.0 ± 4.5%) and running (4.7 ± 6.0%) in E+S, whereas no changes occurred in E The changes in running performance were different between groups. E+S reduced oxygen consumption and heart rate during the final 2 h of prolonged cycling, whereas no changes occurred in E No changes occurred during the prolonged running in any group. Adding strength training to normal endurance training in well-trained female duathletes improved both running and cycling performance when tested immediately after prolonged submaximal work.

  17. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit–stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by “The Montreal Cognitive Assessment” questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality. PMID:27330282

  18. Effects of combined training vs aerobic training on cognitive functions in COPD: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; di Cagno, Alessandra; Vardaro, Angela; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Moffa, Stefano; Di Costanzo, Alfonso; De Simone, Giuseppe; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity aerobic training combined with resistance training (ie, combined training [CT]) on cognitive function in patients with COPD. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian male patients (68.35±9.64 years; mean ± SD) with COPD were recruited and randomized into two groups, AT and CT. Both groups performed physical reconditioning for 4 weeks, with a frequency of five training sessions per week. The CT group completed two daily sessions of 30 minutes: one aerobic session and one strength session, respectively; The AT group performed two 30-minute aerobic endurance exercise sessions on treadmill. Physical and cognitive function tests were performed before and after the training intervention performances. Results Exercise training improved the following cognitive functions: long-term memory, verbal fluency, attentional capacity, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.01). Moreover, the improvements in the CT group were significantly greater than those in the AT group in long-term memory, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.05). Conclusion CT may be a possible strategy to prevent cognitive decline and associated comorbidities in male patients with COPD. PMID:27110107

  19. Impairment of Performance Variables After In-Season Strength-Training Cessation in Elite Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Joar; Hollan, Ivana; Spencer, Matt; Ellefsen, Stian

    2016-09-01

    The current study investigated the effects of 8 wk of strength-training cessation after 25 wk of strength training on strength- and cycling-performance characteristics. Elite cyclists were randomly assigned to either 25 wk of endurance training combined with heavy strength training (EXP, n = 7, maximal oxygen uptake [V̇O2max] 77 ± 6 mL . kg(-1) . min(-1); 3 × 4-10 RM, 1 to 2 d/wk) or to endurance training only (CON, n = 7, V̇O2max 73 ± 5 mL . kg(-1) . min(-1)). Thereafter, both groups performed endurance training only for 8 wk, coinciding with the initial part of the competition season. Data were assessed for practical significance using magnitude-based inferences. During the 25-wk preparatory period, EXP had a larger positive impact on maximal isometric half-squat force, squat jump (SJ), maximal aerobic power (Wmax), power output at 4 mmol/L [La], and mean power in 30-s Wingate test than did CON (ES = 0.46-0.74). Conversely, during the 8-wk competition period EXP had a reduction in SJ, Wmax, and mean power in the 30-s Wingate test compared with CON (ES = 0.49-0.84). The present findings suggest rapid decline of adaptations on termination of strength training during the first 8 wk of the competition period in elite cyclists.

  20. Maximal Strength Training Improves Surfboard Sprint and Endurance Paddling Performance in Competitive and Recreational Surfers.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Joseph O C; Tran, Tai T; Secomb, Josh L; Lundgren, Lina E; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Coyne, JOC, Tran, TT, Secomb, JL, Lundgren, LE, Farley, ORL, Newton, RU, and Sheppard, JM. Maximal strength training improves surfboard sprint and endurance paddling performance in competitive and recreational surfers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 244-253, 2017-Upper-body (UB) strength has very high correlations with faster surfboard paddling speeds. However, there is no research examining the effects of improving UB strength has on surfboard paddling ability. This study aimed to determine the influence that improvements in UB closed-kinetic chain maximal strength have on surfboard paddling in both competitive and recreational surfers. Seventeen competitive and recreational male surfers (29.7 ± 7.7 years, 177.4 ± 7.4 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg) participated in a repeated-measures, parallel control study design. Anthropometry; 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint; and 400-m endurance surfboard paddling tests along with pull-up and dip 1 repetition maximum strength tests were assessed pre- and postintervention. Subjects in the training group performed 5 weeks of maximal strength training in the pull-up and dip. Differences between the training and control groups were examined postintervention. The training group increased their speed over the 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint, whereas the control group became slower (d = 0.71, 0.51, and 0.4, respectively). The training group also displayed faster endurance paddling performance compared with the control group (d = 0.72). Short-term exposure to maximal strength training elicits improvements in paddling performance measures. However, the magnitude of performance increases seems to be dependent on initial strength levels with differential responses between strong and weaker athletes. Although a longer maximal strength training period may have produced more significant paddling improvements in stronger subjects, practitioners are unlikely to have any more than 5 weeks in an uninterrupted block with competitive surfing athletes. This study reveals

  1. Physical Self-Concept and Strength Changes in College Weight Training Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vorst, John G.; Buckworth, Janet; Mattern, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical self-concept of participants in a college strength training class based on self-classification into exercise stage of change at the beginning of class. Data from the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire indicated that upper body strength and self-report of physical activity were significantly lower for participants in the…

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Periodized Versus Nonperiodized Strength and Power Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Matthew R.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively combine and examine the results of studies examining the effectiveness of periodized (PER) compared to nonperiodized (Non-PER) training programs for strength and/or power development. Two analyses were conducted to (a) examine the magnitude of treatment effect elicited by PER strength training…

  3. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  4. Effects of concurrent training on explosive strength and VO(2max) in prepubescent children.

    PubMed

    Marta, C; Marinho, D A; Barbosa, T M; Izquierdo, M; Marques, M C

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an 8-weeks training period of resistance training alone (GR), combined resistance and endurance training (GCON) and a control group (GC) on explosive strength and V(O2max) in a large sample of prepubescent boys and girls. 125 healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls), aged 10-11 years old (10.8±0.4 years) were assigned into 2 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GR (19 boys, 22 girls), GCON (21 boys, 24 girls) and a control group (GC: 18 boys, 21 girls; no training program). A significant but medium-sized increase from pre- to the post-training in the vertical jump (Effect size=0.22, F=34.44, p<0.01) and V(O2max) (Effect size=0.19, F=32.89, p<0.01) was observed. A significant large increase in the 1 kg (Effect size=0.53, F=202.17, p<0.01) and 3 kg (Effect size=0.48, F=132.1, p<0.01) ball throwing, standing long jump (Effect size=0.53, F=72.93, p<0.01) and running speed (Effect size=0.45, F=122.21, p<0.01) was also observed. The training group (GR and GCON) and sex factors did not significantly influence the evolution of strength variables from pre- to the post-training. The V(O2max) increased significantly only in GCON. Concurrent training is equally effective on training-induced explosive strength, and more efficient than resistance training only for V(O2max), in prepubescent boys and girls. This should be taken into consideration in order to optimize strength training school-based programs.

  5. Specific Training Effects of Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Exercises Depend on Recovery Duration.

    PubMed

    Robineau, Julien; Babault, Nicolas; Piscione, Julien; Lacome, Mathieu; Bigard, André X

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the duration (0, 6, or 24 hours) of recovery between strength and aerobic sequences influences the responses to a concurrent training program. Fifty-eight amateur rugby players were randomly assigned to control (CONT), concurrent training (C-0h, C-6h, or C-24h), or strength training (STR) groups during a 7-week training period. Two sessions of each quality were proposed each week with strength always performed before aerobic training. Neuromuscular and aerobic measurements were performed before and immediately after the overall training period. Data were assessed for practical significance using magnitude-based inference. Gains in maximal strength for bench press and half squat were lower in C-0h compared with that in C-6h, C-24h, and STR. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) during isokinetic knee extension at 60°·s(-1) was likely higher for C-24h compared with C-0h. Changes in MVC at 180°·s(-1) was likely higher in C-24h and STR than in C-0h and C-6h. Training-induced gains in isometric MVC for C-0h, C-6h, C-24h, and STR were unclear. V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak increased in C-0h, C-6h, and C-24h. Training-induced changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak were higher in C-24h than in C-0h and C-6h. Our study emphasized that the interference on strength development depends on the recovery delay between the 2 sequences. Daily training without a recovery period between sessions (C-0h) and, to a lesser extent, training twice a day (C-6h), is not optimal for neuromuscular and aerobic improvements. Fitness coaches should avoid scheduling 2 contradictory qualities, with less than 6-hour recovery between them to obtain full adaptive responses to concurrent training.

  6. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Almenning, Ida; Rieber-Mohn, Astrid; Lundgren, Kari Margrethe; Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Moholdt, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and Methods Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks. Results The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20), equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014). After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5) mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04). Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0) %, between-group difference (p = 0.08). Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4) pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04). There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group. Conclusions High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and

  7. Effect of Strength Training on Rate of Force Development in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurjao, Andre Luiz Demantova; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Carneiro, Nelson Hilario; Goncalves, Raquel; Ferreira de Moura, Rodrigo; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Altimari, Leandro Ricardo; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of an 8-week strength training (ST) program on the rate of force development (RFD) and electromyographic activity (EMG) in older women. Seventeen women (M age = 63.4 years, SD = 4.9) without previous ST experience were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 7) or training (n = 10) group. A leg-press isometric test was…

  8. National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement: Health Aspects of Resistance Exercise and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Michael S.; Rozenek, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, improve body composition, increase bone mineral density, reduce anxiety and depression, reduce the risk of injury during other sports, and increase muscular strength and endurance. The paper describes the effects of resistance training on: the cardiovascular system, energy expenditure and body…

  9. Influence of moderately intense strength training on flexibility in sedentary young women.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa; Rhea, Matthew R; Simão, Roberto; Dias, Ingrid; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Novaes, Jefferson; Leite, Thalita; Blair, Jeff C; Bunker, Derek J

    2010-11-01

    The present study is the first to examine whether moderately intense resistance training improves flexibility in an exclusively young, sedentary women population. Twenty-four, young, sedentary women were divided into 3 groups as follows: agonist/antagonist (AA) training group, alternated strength training (AST) group, or a control group (CG). Training occurred every other day for 8 weeks for a total of 24 sessions. Training groups performed 3 sets of 10 to 12 repetitions per set except for abdominal training where 3 sets of 15 to 20 reps were performed. Strength (1 repetition maximum bench press) and flexibility were assessed before and after the training period. Flexibility was assessed on 6 articular movements: shoulder flexion and extension, horizontal shoulder adduction and abduction, and trunk flexion and extension. Both groups increased strength and flexibility significantly from baseline and significantly when compared with the CG (p ≤ 0.05). The AST group increased strength and flexibility significantly more than the AA group (p ≤ 0.05) in all but one measurement. This study shows that resistance training can improve flexibility in young sedentary women in 8 weeks.

  10. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  11. Effects of Three Resistance Training Programs on Muscular Strength and Absolute and Relative Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tim; Kearney, Jay T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of three resistance training programs on male college students' muscular strength and absolute and relative muscular endurance were investigated. Results show that human skeletal muscle makes both general and specific adaptations to a training stimulus, and that the balance of these adaptations is to some extent dependent upon the…

  12. An examination of athletes' self-efficacy and strength training effort during an entire off-season.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Todd A; Cisco Reyes, G F; Curnock, Lindsey E

    2012-02-01

    Over the past 30-plus years in which self-efficacy (or confidence at a task) has been researched, findings have shown that in almost every domain of human functioning, self-efficacy positively relates to effort, persistence, and other adaptive behaviors. However, in the past decade, new research postulating that too much self-efficacy can lead to complacency and a subsequent downturn in behavior or performance has also experienced resurgence in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test these opposing viewpoints regarding self-efficacy and effort for Division I athletes in a strength and conditioning domain over off-season training, a procedure yet to be undertaken. Subjects (N = 99), from 4 different sports (M(ag)e = 20.0 years, SD = 1.2 years), completed self-efficacy and effort measures at 4 distinct time points during off-season training. In addition, strength and conditioning coaches also rated each subject's effort--at each time point--so that a more valid measure of this construct could be attained. Results were analyzed using a multilevel approach and revealed that self-efficacy was positively, and significantly, related to the current effort that athletes exerted in strength training sessions. Consequently, practitioners are advised to structure strength and conditioning training sessions and the overall environment in ways that will positively impact the 4 proven sources of self-efficacy.

  13. Growing Effective Strength without Growing End Strength: Operational Utilization of the Reserve Component during Training Periods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    kept RC training separate from operational missions. The laws and policies now allow and advocate utilizing the RC to augment operations while in a...allow and advocate utilizing the RC to augment operations while in a training status, but DoD must consolidate and codify guidance to... realities . Unfortunately, DoD does not always get to dictate which operations to execute, and the enemy always gets a vote. Likewise, elected leaders

  14. Investigating the Effects of Typical Rowing Strength Training Practices on Strength and Power Development and 2,000 m Rowing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Nicholas; Christian Gibbon, Karl; Howatson, Glyn; Grant Thompson, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the effects of a short-term, strength training intervention, typically undertaken by club-standard rowers, on 2,000 m rowing performance and strength and power development. Twenty-eight male rowers were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. All participants performed baseline testing involving assessments of muscle soreness, creatine kinase activity (CK), maximal voluntary contraction (leg-extensors) (MVC), static-squat jumps (SSJ), counter-movement jumps (CMJ), maximal rowing power strokes (PS) and a 2,000 m rowing ergometer time-trial (2,000 m) with accompanying respiratory-exchange and electromyography (EMG) analysis. Intervention group participants subsequently performed three identical strength training (ST) sessions, in the space of five days, repeating all assessments 24 h following the final ST. The control group completed the same testing procedure but with no ST. Following ST, the intervention group experienced significant elevations in soreness and CK activity, and decrements in MVC, SSJ, CMJ and PS (p < 0.01). However, 2,000 m rowing performance, pacing strategy and gas exchange were unchanged across trials in either condition. Following ST, significant increases occurred for EMG (p < 0.05), and there were non-significant trends for decreased blood lactate and anaerobic energy liberation (p = 0.063 – 0.086). In summary, club-standard rowers, following an intensive period of strength training, maintained their 2,000 m rowing performance despite suffering symptoms of muscle damage and disruption to muscle function. This disruption likely reflected the presence of acute residual fatigue, potentially in type II muscle fibres as strength and power development were affected. PMID:28149354

  15. Investigating the Effects of Typical Rowing Strength Training Practices on Strength and Power Development and 2,000 m Rowing Performance.

    PubMed

    Ian Gee, Thomas; Caplan, Nicholas; Christian Gibbon, Karl; Howatson, Glyn; Grant Thompson, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a short-term, strength training intervention, typically undertaken by club-standard rowers, on 2,000 m rowing performance and strength and power development. Twenty-eight male rowers were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. All participants performed baseline testing involving assessments of muscle soreness, creatine kinase activity (CK), maximal voluntary contraction (leg-extensors) (MVC), static-squat jumps (SSJ), counter-movement jumps (CMJ), maximal rowing power strokes (PS) and a 2,000 m rowing ergometer time-trial (2,000 m) with accompanying respiratory-exchange and electromyography (EMG) analysis. Intervention group participants subsequently performed three identical strength training (ST) sessions, in the space of five days, repeating all assessments 24 h following the final ST. The control group completed the same testing procedure but with no ST. Following ST, the intervention group experienced significant elevations in soreness and CK activity, and decrements in MVC, SSJ, CMJ and PS (p < 0.01). However, 2,000 m rowing performance, pacing strategy and gas exchange were unchanged across trials in either condition. Following ST, significant increases occurred for EMG (p < 0.05), and there were non-significant trends for decreased blood lactate and anaerobic energy liberation (p = 0.063 - 0.086). In summary, club-standard rowers, following an intensive period of strength training, maintained their 2,000 m rowing performance despite suffering symptoms of muscle damage and disruption to muscle function. This disruption likely reflected the presence of acute residual fatigue, potentially in type II muscle fibres as strength and power development were affected.

  16. A Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Strength Test Score Variability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-02

    Wiswell, R. A., Marcus, R. (1991). Muscle hypertrophy response to resistance training in older women. J Appl Physiol, 70, 1912-1916. *Chilibeck, P. D...Taxildaris, K., Aggelousis, N., Kostopoulus, N., et al. (2000). Evaluation of plyometric exercise training, weight training, and their combination...2003). Effect of resistance exercise volume and complexity on EMG, strength, and regional body composition. Eur J Appl Physiol, 90, 626-632

  17. Comparison of strength training, aerobic training, and additional physical therapy as supplementary treatments for Parkinson’s disease: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alessandro; Barbirato, Dannyel; Araujo, Narahyana; Martins, Jose Vicente; Cavalcanti, Jose Luiz Sá; Santos, Tony Meireles; Coutinho, Evandro S; Laks, Jerson; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical rehabilitation is commonly used in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) to improve their health and alleviate the symptoms. Objective We compared the effects of three programs, strength training (ST), aerobic training (AT), and physiotherapy, on motor symptoms, functional capacity, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in PD patients. Methods Twenty-two patients were recruited and randomized into three groups: AT (70% of maximum heart rate), ST (80% of one repetition maximum), and physiotherapy (in groups). Subjects participated in their respective interventions twice a week for 12 weeks. The assessments included measures of disease symptoms (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]), functional capacity (Senior Fitness Test), and EEG before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results The PD motor symptoms (UPDRS-III) in the group of patients who performed ST and AT improved by 27.5% (effect size [ES]=1.25, confidence interval [CI]=−0.11, 2.25) and 35% (ES=1.34, CI=−0.16, 2.58), respectively, in contrast to the physiotherapy group, which showed a 2.9% improvement (ES=0.07, CI=−0.85, 0.99). Furthermore, the functional capacity of all three groups improved after the intervention. The mean frequency of the EEG analysis mainly showed the effect of the interventions on the groups (F=11.50, P=0.0001). Conclusion ST and AT in patients with PD are associated with improved outcomes in disease symptoms and functional capacity. PMID:25609935

  18. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women.

  19. Training-Induced Functional Gains following SCI

    PubMed Central

    Ward, P. J.; Herrity, A. N.; Harkema, S. J.; Hubscher, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that daily, hour-long training sessions significantly improved both locomotor (limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns) and nonlocomotor (bladder function and at-level mechanical allodynia) functions following a moderate contusive spinal cord injury. The amount of training needed to achieve this recovery is unknown. Furthermore, whether this recovery is induced primarily by neuronal activity below the lesion or other aspects related to general exercise is unclear. Therefore, the current study objectives were to (1) test the efficacy of 30 minutes of step training for recovery following a clinically relevant contusion injury in male Wistar rats and (2) test the efficacy of training without hindlimb engagement. The results indicate that as little as 30 minutes of step training six days per week enhances overground locomotion in male rats with contusive spinal cord injury but does not alter allodynia or bladder function. Thirty minutes of forelimb-only exercise did not alter locomotion, allodynia, or bladder function, and neither training protocol altered the amount of in-cage activity. Taken together, locomotor improvements were facilitated by hindlimb step training for 30 minutes, but longer durations of training are required to affect nonlocomotor systems. PMID:27403345

  20. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  1. Relationship between Depression and Strength Training in Survivors of the Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aidar, Felipe José; de Matos, Dihogo Gama; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Carneiro, André Luiz; Cabral, Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinôco; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva; Reis, Victor Machado

    2014-01-01

    The Cerebral Vascular Accident is responsible for a significant increase in the mortality rate in individuals who have suffered this condition, regardless of the level of subsequent disability. This study aimed to analyze the influence of a strength training program on indicators of depression in survivors of the ischemic stroke. The study sample included subjects from both genders who were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG) consisting of 11 subjects aged 51.7 8.0 years, and a control group (CG) consisting of 13 subjects aged 52.5 7.7 years. The EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training. Assessment was made in the pre-test before training and at the re-test after 12 weeks of training. We used the Beck Depression Inventory and evaluated 1RM. Significant differences in depression were found between post-test and pretest measurements (Δ% = −21.47%, p = 0,021) in the EG; furthermore, there were significant differences in all indicators of depression between the EG and CG after completing 12 weeks of training. There were significant gains in strength of the EG in relation to the CG. There was a negative correlation between the strength gains as determined with the 1RM test and the levels of depression, especially in lower-limb exercises. The results of this study suggest that improvements in strength are negatively correlated with levels of depression. Improvements in strength are therefore associated with a reduction in levels of depression. PMID:25713639

  2. A comparison of the effects of 6 weeks of traditional resistance training, plyometric training, and complex training on measures of strength and anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Christopher J; Lamont, Hugh S; Garner, John C

    2012-02-01

    Complex training (CT; alternating between heavy and lighter load resistance exercises with similar movement patterns within an exercise session) is a form of training that may potentially bring about a state of postactivation potentiation, resulting in increased dynamic power (Pmax) and rate of force development during the lighter load exercise. Such a method may be more effective than either modality, independently for developing strength. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT), plyometric training (PT), and CT on lower body strength and anthropometrics. Thirty recreationally trained college-aged men were trained using 1 of 3 methods: resistance, plyometric, or complex twice weekly for 6 weeks. The participants were tested pre, mid, and post to assess back squat strength, Romanian dead lift (RDL) strength, standing calf raise (SCR) strength, quadriceps girth, triceps surae girth, body mass, and body fat percentage. Diet was not controlled during this study. Statistical measures revealed a significant increase for squat strength (p = 0.000), RDL strength (p = 0.000), and SCR strength (p = 0.000) for all groups pre to post, with no differences between groups. There was also a main effect for time for girth measures of the quadriceps muscle group (p = 0.001), the triceps surae muscle group (p = 0.001), and body mass (p = 0.001; post hoc revealed no significant difference). There were main effects for time and group × time interactions for fat-free mass % (RT: p = 0.031; PT: p = 0.000). The results suggest that CT mirrors benefits seen with traditional RT or PT. Moreover, CT revealed no decrement in strength and anthropometric values and appears to be a viable training modality.

  3. 10 weeks of heavy strength training improves performance-related measurements in elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Joar; Nygaard, Håvard

    2016-08-02

    Elite cyclists have often a limited period of time available during their short preparation phase to focus on development of maximal strength; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10-week heavy strength training on lean lower-body mass, leg strength, determinants of cycling performance and cycling performance in elite cyclists. Twelve cyclists performed heavy strength training and normal endurance training (E&S) while 8 other cyclists performed normal endurance training only (E). Following the intervention period E&S had a larger increase in maximal isometric half squat, mean power output during a 30-s Wingate sprint (P < 0.05) and a tendency towards larger improvement in power output at 4 mmol ∙ L(-1) [la(-)] than E (P = 0.068). There were no significant difference between E&S and E in changes in 40-min all-out trial (4 ± 6% vs. -1 ± 6%, respectively, P = 0.13). These beneficial effects may encourage elite cyclists to perform heavy strength training and the short period of only 10 weeks should make it executable even in the compressed training and competition schedule of elite cyclists.

  4. The effect of combined resisted agility and repeated sprint training vs. strength training on female elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Tore A; Enoksen, Eystein; Tønnessen, Espen

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of in-season combined resisted agility and repeated sprint training with strength training on soccer players' agility, linear single sprint speed, vertical jump, repeated sprint ability (RSA), and aerobic capacity. Twenty well-trained elite female soccer players of age ± SD 19.4 ± 4.4 years volunteered to participate in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to either the agility and repeated sprint training group or to the strength training group. All the participants were tested before and after a 10-week specific conditioning program. The pretest and posttest were conducted on 3 separate days with 1 day of low-intensity training in between. Test day 1 consisted of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and RSA. Test day 2 consisted of a 40-m maximal linear sprint and an agility test, whereas a Beep test was conducted on test day 3 to assess aerobic capacity. The agility and repeated sprint training implemented in this study did not have a significant effect on agility, although there was a tendency for moderate improvements from 8.23 ± 0.32 to 8.06 ± 0.21 seconds (d = 0.8). There was a significant (p < 0.01) and moderate-positive effect on Beep-test performance from level 9.6 ± 1.4 to level 10.8 ± 1.0, and only a trivial small effect on all other physical variables measured in this study. The strength training group had a positive, moderate, and significant (p < 0.01) effect on Beep-test performance from level 9.7 ± 1.3 to level 10.9 ± 1.2 (d = 1.0) and a significant (p < 0.05) but small effect (d = 0.5) on SJ performance (25.9 ± 2.7 to 27.5 ± 4.1 cm). Furthermore, the strength training implemented in this study had a trivial and negative effect on agility performance (d = -0.1). No between-group differences were observed. The outcome of this study indicates the importance of a well-planned program of conditioning that does not result in a decreased performance of the players, the

  5. Effects on strength, power, and flexibility in adolescents of nonperiodized vs. daily nonlinear periodized weight training.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Eveline; Fleck, Steven J; Ricardo Dias, Marcelo; Simão, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 models of resistance training (RT) programs, nonperiodized (NP) training and daily nonlinear periodized (DNLP) training, on strength, power, and flexibility in untrained adolescents. Thirty-eight untrained male adolescents were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a control group, NP RT program, and DNLP program. The subjects were tested pretraining and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) resistances in the bench press and 45° leg press, sit and reach test, countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). Both training groups performed the same sequence of exercises 3 times a week for a total of 36 sessions. The NP RT consisted of 3 sets of 10-12RM throughout the training period. The DNLP training consisted of 3 sets using different training intensities for each of the 3 training sessions per week. The total volume of the training programs was not significantly different. Both the NP and DNLP groups exhibited a significant increase in the 1RM for the bench press and 45° leg press posttraining compared with that pretraining, but there were no significant differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05). The DNLP group's 1RM changes showed greater percentage improvements and effect sizes. Training intensity for the bench press and 45° leg press did not significantly change during the training. In the CMVJ and SLJ tests, NP and DNLP training showed no significant change. The DNLP group showed a significant increase in the sit and reach test after 8 and 12 weeks of training compared with pretraining; this did not occur with NP training. In summary, in untrained adolescents during a 12-week training period, a DNLP program can be used to elicit similar and possible superior maximal strength and flexibility gains compared with an NP multiset training model.

  6. Effect of concurrent training, flexible nonlinear periodization, and maximal-effort cycling on strength and power.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2013-06-01

    Although there is considerable research on concurrent training, none has integrated flexible nonlinear periodization and maximal-effort cycling in the same design. The purpose of this investigation was to test outcome measures of strength and power using a pretest-posttest randomized groups design. A strength and endurance (SE) group was compared with a strength, endurance, and maximal-effort cycling (SEC) group. Both groups used a flexible nonlinear periodization design. Thirteen male and 7 female students (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.5 ± 12.4 cm; weight, 79.4 ± 20.2 kg; strength training experience, 2.4 ± 2.2 years) participated in this study. Groups were not matched for age, height, weight, strength training experience, or sex, but were randomly assigned to an SE (n = 10) or SEC (n = 10) group. All training was completed within 45 minutes, twice per week (Monday and Wednesday), over 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned 6.75 total hours of aerobic conditioning, and 13.5 hours of free weight and machine exercises totaling 3,188 repetitions ranging from 5 to 20 repetition maximums. The SEC group performed 2 cycling intervals per workout ranging from 10 to 45 seconds. Pretest and posttest measures included chest press and standing broad jump. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences between the SE and SEC groups on measures of chest press or standing broad jump performance (p, not significant). Paired sample t-tests (p = 0.05) showed significant improvement in strength and power in all groups (pretest to posttest), except for SE jump performance (p, not significant). In conclusion, adding maximal-effort cycling does not provide additional strength or power benefits to a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program. However, an exercise professional can take confidence that a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program can increase strength and power in healthy individuals.

  7. A Strength Training Program for Primary Care Patients, Central Pennsylvania, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vijay A.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Messina, Dino A.; Stuckey, Heather L.; Curry, William J.; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Sherwood, Lisa L.; Hess, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Primary care providers can recommend strength training programs to use “Exercise as Medicine,” yet few studies have examined the interest of primary care patients in these programs. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of primary care patients in central Pennsylvania. Interest in participating in free group-based strength training and weight control programs was assessed, in addition to patient demographics, medical history, and quality of life. Results Among 414 patients, most (61.0%) were aged 54 or older, and 64.0% were female. More patients were interested in a strength training program (55.3%) than in a weight control program (45.4%). Nearly three-quarters (72.8%) of those reporting 10 or more days of poor physical health were interested in a strength training program compared with 49.5% of those reporting no days of poor physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, those reporting poorer physical health had 2.7 greater odds (95% confidence interval, 1.4–5.1) of being interested in a strength training program compared with those reporting better physical health. Patients with hypertension, diabetes, or high cholesterol were not more interested in a strength training program than those without these conditions. Conclusion Primary care practices may consider offering or referring patients to community-based strength training programs. This study observed high levels of interest in these widely available programs. Practices may also consider screening and referring those with poorer physical health, as they may be the most interested and have the most to gain from participating. PMID:24967829

  8. Different molecular and structural adaptations with eccentric and conventional strength training in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Matthias; Breil, Fabio Andreas; Lurman, Glenn; Klossner, Stephan; Flück, Martin; Billeter, Rudolf; Däpp, Christoph; Hoppeler, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Reprogramming of gene expression contributes to structural and functional adaptation of muscle tissue in response to altered use. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms for observed improvements in leg extension strength, gain in relative thigh muscle mass and loss of body and thigh fat content in response to eccentric and conventional strength training in elderly men (n = 14) and women (n = 14; average age of the men and women: 80.1 ± 3.7 years) by means of structural and molecular analyses. Biopsies were collected from m. vastus lateralis in the resting state before and after 12 weeks of training with two weekly resistance exercise sessions (RET) or eccentric ergometer sessions (EET). Gene expression was analyzed using custom-designed low-density PCR arrays. Muscle ultrastructure was evaluated using EM morphometry. Gain in thigh muscle mass was paralleled by an increase in muscle fiber cross-sectional area (hypertrophy) with RET but not with EET, where muscle growth is likely occurring by the addition of sarcomeres in series or by hyperplasia. The expression of transcripts encoding factors involved in muscle growth, repair and remodeling (e.g., IGF-1, HGF, MYOG, MYH3) was increased to a larger extent after EET than RET. MicroRNA 1 expression was decreased independent of the training modality, and was paralleled by an increased expression of IGF-1 representing a potential target. IGF-1 is a potent promoter of muscle growth, and its regulation by microRNA 1 may have contributed to the gain of muscle mass observed in our subjects. EET depressed genes encoding mitochondrial and metabolic transcripts. The changes of several metabolic and mitochondrial transcripts correlated significantly with changes in mitochondrial volume density. Intramyocellular lipid content was decreased after EET concomitantly with total body fat. Changes in intramyocellular lipid content correlated with changes in body fat content with both RET and EET. In the elderly, RET and

  9. Functions within the Naval Air Training Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-15

    flight officer training for Navy , Marine Corps and Coast Guard Personnel and selected foreign nationals. Supervise and coordinate the functions of...Chief_gf_Naval_Air_Irainin9. The duties are those defined in the U.S. Navy Regulation, Chief of Naval Education and Training Regulations, current...Upon invitation, will represent the command and the Navy by participating in community and civic functions. NOO-26 Travels throughout the NATRACOM

  10. A proposed model for examining the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic and strength training.

    PubMed

    Docherty, D; Sporer, B

    2000-12-01

    A review of the current research on the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic and strength training indicates modest support for the model proposed in this article. However, it is clear that without a systematic approach to the investigation of the phenomenon there is lack of control and manipulation of the independent variables, which makes it difficult to test the validity of the model. To enhance the understanding of the interference phenomenon, it is important that researchers are precise and deliberate in their choice of training protocols. Clear definition of the specific training objectives for strength (muscle hypertrophy or neural adaptation) and aerobic power (maximal aerobic power or anaerobic threshold) are required. In addition, researchers should equate training volumes as much as possible for all groups. Care needs to be exercised to avoid overtraining individuals. There should be adequate recovery and regeneration between the concurrent training sessions as well as during the training cycle. The model should be initially tested by maintaining the same protocols throughout the duration of the study. However, it is becoming common practice to use a periodised approach in a training mesocycle in which there is a shift from high volume and moderate intensity training to tower volume and higher intensity. The model should be evaluated in the context of a periodised mesocycle provided the investigators are sensitive to the potential impact of the loading parameters on the interference phenomenon. It may be that the periodised approach is one way of maintaining the training stimulus and minimising the amount of interference. The effects of gender, training status, duration and frequency of training, and the mode of training need to be regarded as potential factors effecting the training response when investigating the interference phenomenon. Other experimental design factors such as unilateral limb training or training the upper body for one

  11. Resistance Training for Explosive and Maximal Strength: Effects on Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Felipe B.D.; Oliveira, Anderson S.C.; Rizatto, Guilherme F.; Denadai, Benedito S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD). Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10), and 2 min separated each set (3). Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC), RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s-1) in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm) increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p < 0.001) after training. In addition, RFD (Nm·s-1) increased by 22-28% at time epochs up to 20 ms from the contraction onset (0-10 ms = 1679. 1 ± 597.1 vs. 2159.2 ± 475.2, p < 0.001; 0-20 ms = 1958.79 ± 640.3 vs. 2398.4 ± 479.6, p < 0. 01), with no changes verified in later time epochs. However, no training effects on RFD were found for the training group when RFD was normalized to MVC. No changes were found in the control group. In conclusion, very early and late RFD responded differently to a short period of resistance training for explosive and maximal strength. This time-specific RFD adaptation highlight that resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport. Key Points The time-specific RFD adaptation evoked by resistance training highlight that the method of analyzing RFD is essential for the interpretation of results. Confirming previous data, maximal contractile RFD and maximal force can be differently influenced by resistance training. Thus, the resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport

  12. Time course of low- and high-volume strength training on neuromuscular adaptations and muscle quality in older women.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, Regis; Botton, Cíntia E; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Bottaro, Martim; Brown, Lee E; Lacerda, Fabiano; Gaya, Anelise; Moraes, Kelly; Peruzzolo, Amanda; Pinto, Ronei S

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of low- and high-volume strength trainings on neuromuscular adaptations of lower- and upper-body muscles in older women after 6 weeks (6WE), 13 weeks (13WE), and 20 weeks (20WE) of training. Healthy older women were assigned to low-volume (LV) or high-volume (HV) training groups. The LV group performed one set of each exercise, while the HV group performed three sets, 2 days/week. Knee extension and elbow flexion one-repetition maximum (1-RM), maximal isometric strength, maximal muscle activation, and muscle thickness (MT) of the lower- and upper-body muscles, as well as lower-body muscle quality (MQ) obtained by ultrasonography, were evaluated. Knee extension and elbow flexion 1-RM improved at all time points for both groups; however, knee extension 1-RM gains were greater for the HV group after 20WE. Maximal isometric strength of the lower body for both groups increased only at 20WE, while upper-body maximal isometric strength increased after 13WE and 20WE. Maximal activation of the lower and upper body for both groups increased only after 20WE. Both groups showed significant increases in MT of their lower and upper body, with greater gains in lower-body MT for the HV group at 20WE. MQ improved in both groups after 13WE and 20WE, whereas the HV group improved more than the LV group at 20WE. These results showed that low- and high-volume trainings have a similar adaptation time course in the muscular function of upper-body muscles. However, high-volume training appears to be more efficient for lower-body muscles after 20 weeks of training.

  13. Undulatory physical resistance training program increases maximal strength in elderly type 2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Gilberto Monteiro; Montrezol, Fábio Tanil; Pauli, Luciana Santos Souza; Sartori-Cintra, Angélica Rossi; Colantonio, Emilson; Gomes, Ricardo José; Marinho, Rodolfo; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of a specific protocol of undulatory physical resistance training on maximal strength gains in elderly type 2 diabetics. Methods The study included 48 subjects, aged between 60 and 85 years, of both genders. They were divided into two groups: Untrained Diabetic Elderly (n=19) with those who were not subjected to physical training and Trained Diabetic Elderly (n=29), with those who were subjected to undulatory physical resistance training. The participants were evaluated with several types of resistance training’s equipment before and after training protocol, by test of one maximal repetition. The subjects were trained on undulatory resistance three times per week for a period of 16 weeks. The overload used in undulatory resistance training was equivalent to 50% of one maximal repetition and 70% of one maximal repetition, alternating weekly. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.05) between pre-test and post-test over a period of 16 weeks. Results The average gains in strength were 43.20% (knee extension), 65.00% (knee flexion), 27.80% (supine sitting machine), 31.00% (rowing sitting), 43.90% (biceps pulley), and 21.10% (triceps pulley). Conclusion Undulatory resistance training used with weekly different overloads was effective to provide significant gains in maximum strength in elderly type 2 diabetic individuals. PMID:25628192

  14. Perceived Strengths and Weaknesses of Highly Realistic Training and Live Tissue Training for Navy Corpsmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-08

    raises about the proper use and care of animals .10–12 For three decades, activists have tried to end the practice of Highly Realistic and Live Tissue...Training 4 using live animals for medical training. Although live tissue training continues to be widely used in the training of military medical...compared. It was concluded that “modern simulation is reaching parity with live animal training models.”14 Similarly, Hall and colleagues found that

  15. Muscle mechanical properties of strength and endurance athletes and changes after one week of intensive training.

    PubMed

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Álvaro; Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The study investigates whether tensiomyography (TMG) is sensitive to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue after either one week of intensive strength (ST) or endurance (END) training. Fourteen strength (24.1±2.0years) and eleven endurance athletes (25.5±4.8years) performed an intensive training period of 6days of ST or END, respectively. ST and END groups completed specific performance tests as well as TMG measurements of maximal radial deformation of the muscle belly (Dm), deformation time between 10% and 90% Dm (Tc), rate of deformation development until 10% Dm (V10) and 90% Dm (V90) before (baseline), after training period (post1), and after 72h of recovery (post2). Specific performance of both groups decreased from baseline to post1 (P<0.05) and returned to baseline values at post2 (P<0.05). The ST group showed higher countermovement jump (P<0.05) and shorter Tc (P<0.05) at baseline. After training, Dm, V10, and V90 were reduced in the ST (P<0.05) while TMG changes were less pronounced in the END. TMG could be a useful tool to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue and recovery especially in strength training.

  16. Shoulder muscle strength in paraplegics before and after kayak ergometer training.

    PubMed

    Bjerkefors, Anna; Jansson, Anna; Thorstensson, Alf

    2006-07-01

    The purpose was to investigate if shoulder muscle strength in post-rehabilitated persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) was affected by kayak ergometer training and to compare shoulder strength in persons with SCI and able-bodied persons. Ten persons with SCI (7 males and 3 females, injury levels T3-T12) performed 60 min kayak ergometer training three times a week for 10 weeks with progressively increased intensity. Maximal voluntary concentric contractions were performed during six shoulder movements: flexion and extension (range of motion 65 degrees ), abduction and adduction (65 degrees ), and external and internal rotation (60 degrees ), with an angular velocity of 30 degrees s(-1). Position specific strength was assessed at three shoulder angles (at the beginning, middle and end of the range of motion) in the respective movements. Test-retests were performed for all measurements before the training and the mean intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.941 (95% CI 0.928-0.954). There was a main effect of kayak ergometer training with increased shoulder muscle strength after training in persons with SCI. The improvements were independent of shoulder movement, and occurred in the beginning and middle positions. A tendency towards lower shoulder muscle strength was observed in the SCI group compared to a matched reference group of able-bodied persons. Thus, it appears that post-rehabilitated persons with SCI have not managed to fully regain/maintain their shoulder muscle strength on a similar level as that of able-bodied persons, and are able to improve their shoulder muscle strength after a period of kayak ergometer training.

  17. Effects of a shoulder injury prevention strength training program on eccentric external rotator muscle strength and glenohumeral joint imbalance in female overhead activity athletes.

    PubMed

    Niederbracht, Yvonne; Shim, Andrew L; Sloniger, Mark A; Paternostro-Bayles, Madeline; Short, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    Imbalance of the eccentrically-activated external rotator cuff muscles versus the concentrically-activated internal rotator cuff muscles is a primary risk factor for glenohumeral joint injuries in overhead activity athletes. Nonisokinetic dynamometer based strength training studies, however, have focused exclusively on resulting concentric instead of applicable eccentric strength gains of the external rotator cuff muscles. Furthermore, previous strength training studies did not result in a reduction in glenoumeral joint muscle imbalance, thereby suggesting that currently used shoulder strength training programs do not effectively reduce the risk of shoulder injury to the overhead activity athlete. Two collegiate women tennis teams, consisting of 12 women, participated in this study throughout their preseason training. One team (n = 6) participated in a 5-week, 4 times a week, external shoulder rotator muscle strength training program next to their preseason tennis training. The other team (n = 6) participated in a comparable preseason tennis training program, but did not conduct any upper body strength training. Effects of this strength training program were evaluated by comparing pre- and posttraining data of 5 maximal eccentric external immediately followed by concentric internal contractions on a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer (Chattecx Corp., Hixson, Tennessee). Overall, the shoulder strength training program significantly increased eccentric external total work without significant effects on concentric internal total work, concentric internal mean peak force, or eccentric external mean peak force. In conclusion, by increasing the eccentric external total exercise capacity without a subsequent increase in the concentric internal total exercise capacity, this strength training program potentially decreases shoulder rotator muscle imbalances and the risk for shoulder injuries to overhead activity athletes.

  18. Effect of preseason concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity interval training in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pui-lam; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Dellal, Alexandre; Wisloff, Ulrik

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity running interval training on professional soccer players' explosive performances and aerobic endurance. Thirty-nine players participated in the study, where both the experimental group (EG, n = 20) and control group (CG, n = 19) participated in 8 weeks of regular soccer training, with the EG receiving additional muscular strength and high-intensity interval training twice per week throughout. Muscular strength training consisted of 4 sets of 6RM (repetition maximum) of high-pull, jump squat, bench press, back half squat, and chin-up exercises. The high-intensity interval training consisted of 16 intervals each of 15-second sprints at 120% of individual maximal aerobic speed interspersed with 15 seconds of rest. EG significantly increased (p < or = 0.05) 1RM back half squat and bench press but showed no changes in body mass. Within-subject improvement was significantly higher (p < or = 0.01) in the EG compared with the CG for vertical jump height, 10-m and 30-m sprint times, distances covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and maximal aerobic speed test, and maximal aerobic speed. High-intensity interval running can be concurrently performed with high load muscular strength training to enhance soccer players' explosive performances and aerobic endurance.

  19. Isokinetic Strength Responses to Season-long Training and Competition in Turkish Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Eniseler, Niyazi; Şahan, Çağatay; Vurgun, Hikmet; Mavi, Hasan Fehmi

    2012-01-01

    There are not enough studies that describe the isokinetic strength of professional soccer players at high angular velocities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in isokinetic strength of Turkish professional soccer players (n=14) over the course of a 24-week soccer season. The isokinetic strength of players who underwent usual soccer training and weekly competition throughout the soccer season was assessed by means of the Biodex System 3 dynamometer with the knee attachment. The peak torque of knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured at angular velocities of 60°/s, 300°/s and 500°/s. Players were tested at the beginning and end of the competitive season. While the first- and second-test measurements did not show significant changes at 60°/s and 300°/s angular velocities, at the end of the training period, players’ knee strength changed significantly at 500°/s angular velocities. In addition, the H/Q ratio improved significantly for the dominant as well as non-dominant leg at 500°/s. Significant bilateral strength improvements for knee flexors were also observed at 500°/s. The findings of this study suggest that usual daily soccer training (technical, tactical, power, strength, endurance, flexibility, etc.) and weekly competition might produce changes in knee strength at high angular velocities. PMID:23487507

  20. Effects of combined endurance and strength training on muscle strength, power and hypertrophy in 40-67-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, A; Sillanpää, E; García-López, D; Kauhanen, A; Haapasaari, A; Alen, M; Pakarinen, A; Kraemer, W J; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E; Häkkinen, K

    2011-06-01

    Both strength and endurance training have several positive effects on aging muscle and physical performance of middle-aged and older adults, but their combination may compromise optimal adaptation. This study examined the possible interference of combined strength and endurance training on neuromuscular performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained 40-67-year-old men. Maximal strength and muscle activation in the upper and lower extremities, maximal concentric power, aerobic capacity and muscle fiber size and distribution in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after a 21-week training period. Ninety-six men [mean age 56 (SD 7) years] completed high-intensity strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (SE) four times per week or served as controls (C). SE and S led to similar gains in one repetition maximum strength of the lower extremities [22 (9)% and 21 (8)%, P<0.001], whereas E and C showed minor changes. Cross-sectional area of type II muscle fibers only increased in S [26 (22)%, P=0.002], while SE showed an inconsistent, non-significant change [8 (35)%, P=0.73]. Combined training may interfere with muscle hypertrophy in aging men, despite similar gains in maximal strength between the strength and the combined training groups.

  1. Functionalization enhancement on interfacial shear strength between graphene and polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yikuang; Duan, Fangli; Mu, Xiaojing

    2016-11-01

    Pull-out processes were simulated to investigate the interfacial mechanical properties between the functionalized graphene sheet (FGS) and polyethylene (PE) matrix by using molecular dynamics simulation with ReaxFF reactive force field. The interfacial structure of polymer and the interfacial interaction in the equilibrium FGS/PE systems were also analyzed to reveal the enhancement mechanism of interfacial shear strength. We observed the insertion of functional groups into polymer layer in the equilibrium FGS/PE systems. During the pull-out process, some interfacial chains were attached on the FGS and pulled out from the polymer matrix. The behavior of these pulled out chains was further analyzed to clarify the different traction action of functional groups applied on them. The results show that the traction effect of functional groups on the pulled-out chains is agreement with their enhancement influence on the interfacial shear strength of the FGS/PE systems. They both are basically dominated by the size of functional groups, suggesting the enhancement mechanism of mechanical interlocking. However, interfacial binding strength also exhibits an obvious influence on the interfacial shear properties of the hybrid system. Our simulation show that geometric constrains at the interface is the principal contributor to the enhancement of interfacial shear strength in the FGS/PE systems, which could be further strengthened by the wrinkled morphology of graphene in experiments.

  2. Effects of Vibration Training and Detraining on Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Pedro J.; Martín-López, Aurora; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Angulo-Carrere, MT; García-Pastor, Teresa; Garatachea, Nuria; Chicharro, José L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 2 days/week versus 4 days/week of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) during eight weeks of WBV training on health-related quality of life (SF-36), balance and lower body strength, as well as short-term detraining (3 weeks) on balance and lower body strength among older adults. Thirty-four older adults were randomly assigned to a control group (Control; n = 11) or to one of the vibration training groups: WBV 2 days/week (WBV_2d; n = 11) or WBV 4 days/week (WBV_4d; n = 12). The WBV groups exercised for 8 weeks, following 3 weeks of detraining. Lower body strength increased significantly (p < 0.05) for both groups, WBV_2d and WBV_4d, after 8-week training. A significant reduction in strength was observed following 3 weeks of detraining only in WBV_2d group (p < 0.05). All variables of the SF-36 and the balance test did not change after intervention in any group. 2 days/week and 4 days/week of WBV during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV. Key points 2 days and 4 days per week of WBV training during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV exercise. 3 weeks of detraining did reverse the gains in strength made during 16 sessions of WBV exercise. PMID:24150633

  3. Sleep monitoring of a six-day microcycle in strength and high-intensity training.

    PubMed

    Kölling, Sarah; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of microcycles in eccentric strength and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on sleep parameters and subjective ratings. Forty-two well-trained athletes (mean age 23.2 ± 2.4 years) were either assigned to the strength (n = 21; mean age 23.6 ± 2.1 years) or HIT (n = 21; mean age 22.8 ± 2.6 years) protocol. Sleep monitoring was conducted with multi-sensor actigraphy (SenseWear Armband™, Bodymedia, Pittsburg, PA, USA) and sleep log for 14 days. After a five-day baseline phase, participants completed either eccentric accented strength or high-intensity interval training for six days, with two training sessions per day. This training phase was divided into two halves (part 1 and 2) for statistical analyses. A three-day post phase concluded the monitoring. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes was applied at baseline, end of part 2, and at the last post-day. Mood ratings were decreased during training, but returned to baseline values afterwards in both groups. Sleep parameters in the strength group remained constant over the entire process. The HIT group showed trends of unfavourable sleep during the training phase (e.g., objective sleep efficiency at part 2: mean = 83.6 ± 7.8%, F3,60 = 2.57, P = 0.06, [Formula: see text] = 0.114) and subjective improvements during the post phase for awakenings (F3,60 = 2.96, P = 0.04, [Formula: see text] = 0.129) and restfulness of sleep (F3,60 = 9.21, P < 0.001, [Formula: see text] = 0.315). Thus, the HIT protocol seems to increase higher recovery demands than strength training, and sufficient sleep time should be emphasised and monitored.

  4. Adaptations to long-term strength training of ankle joint muscles in old age.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Emilie; Martin, Alain; Van Hoecke, Jacques

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to enquire whether older adults, who continue plantar-flexion (PF) strength training for an additional 6-month period, would achieve further improvements in neuromuscular performance, in the ankle PFs, and in the antagonist dorsi-flexors (DFs). Twenty-three healthy older volunteers (mean age 77.4 +/- 3.7 years) took part in this investigation and 12 of them followed a 1-year strength-training program. Both neural and muscular factors were examined during isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torques in ankle PF and DF pre-training, post 6 and post 12 months. The main finding was that 6 months of additional strength training of the PFs, beyond 6 months, allowed further improvements in neuromuscular performance at the ankle joint in older adults. Indeed, during the first 6 months of progressive resistance training, there was an increase in the PF MVC torque of 11.1 +/- 19.9 N m, and then of 11.1 +/- 17.9 N m in the last 6-month period. However, it was only after 1 year that there was an improvement in the evoked contraction at rest in PF (+ 8%). The strength training of the agonist PF muscles appeared to have an impact on the maximal resultant torque in DF. However, it appeared that this gain was first due to modifications occurring in the trained PFs muscles, then, it seemed that the motor drive of the DFs per se was altered. In conclusion, long-term strength training of the PFs resulted in continued improvements in neuromuscular performance at the ankle joint in older adults, beyond the initial 6 months.

  5. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2013-11-20

    This study evaluated how five weeks of inertial training using two different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The two training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training three times per week for five weeks using the new Inertial Training Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included three exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), while the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2% and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2% and 27%), CMJ (3.8% and 6.7%), SJ (2.2% and 6.1%), PVT (8% and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8% and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass.

  6. Effect of resistance training on strength, postural control, and gait velocity among older adults.

    PubMed

    Topp, R; Mikesky, A; Dayhoff, N E; Holt, W

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 14-week resistance training program on the ankle strength, training intensity, postural control, and gait velocity of older adults. Forty-two older adults (mean age = 72), 21 in the resistance and control groups, completed the 14-week project. The resistance training group participated in 14 weeks of resistance training three times per week using elastic bands (Theraband) for resistance. Isokinetic ankle strength, training intensity, postural stability, and gait velocity were measured prior to and following the 14-week intervention. Following the training, the resistance group exhibited improved ankle dorsiflexion, training resistances, and gait velocity, but showed no change in plantar flexion or postural control. The control group also exhibited improvements in dorsiflexion, but these gains were approximately one-half of the gains observed in the resistance training group. Finally, when adjusted for baseline differences, subjects in the resistance training group demonstrated no changes in the dependent measures over the control group.

  7. Effects of combined strength and endurance training on treadmill load carrying walking performance in aging men.

    PubMed

    Holviala, Jarkko; Häkkinen, Arja; Karavirta, Laura; Nyman, Kai; Izquierdo, Mikel; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Avela, Janne; Korhonen, Janne; Knuutila, Veli-Pekka; Kraemer, William J; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of twice weekly total body strength training (ST), endurance cycling (ET), and combined ST and ET (2+2 times a week) (SET) training on the load carrying walking test performance on the treadmill (TM) and changes in neuromuscular and endurance performance during a 21-week training period in aging men. Forty healthy men (54.8+/-8.0 years) were divided into 3 training groups (ET n=9, ST n=11, SET n=11) and a control group (C, n=9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured before and after a 21-week training program using a graded TM and maximal incremental bicycle ergometer (BE) tests. Isometric forces, vertical jump, and electromyographic activity of leg extensor and/or forearm flexor (F) muscles were measured before and after training and the TM tests. Increases of 20-21% in strength and of 7-12% in cycling BE VO2peak occurred in the training groups, whereas the changes of C remained minor. VO2peak was associated, both before and after training, with TM exercise time in all groups (from r=0.65, p=0.030 to r=0.93, p<0.001). Only SET showed a significant training-induced increase (p=0.011) in exercise time of the TM walking with no significant increase in TM VO2peak. The present data suggest that in older men ET and SET induced specific increases in BE VO2peak and ST and SET in strength. However, only SET increased walking exercise time indicating improved load carrying walking performance because of large individual differences in the magnitude of the development of either strength or endurance capacities.

  8. Effect of Sequencing Strength and Endurance Training in Young Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Issam; Castagna, Carlo; Manzi, Vincenzo; Laurencelle, Louis; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the effects of strength and endurance training sequence (strength before or after endurance) on relevant fitness variables in youth soccer players. Fifty-seven young elite-level male field soccer players (13.7 ± 0.5 years; 164 ± 8.3 cm; 53.5 ± 8.6 kg; body fat; 15.6 ± 3.9%) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 14, CG) and 3 experimental training groups (twice a week for 12 weeks) strength before (SE, n = 15), after (ES, n = 14) or on alternate days (ASE, n = 14) with endurance training. A significant (p = 0.001) intervention main effect was detected. There were only trivial training sequence differences (ES vs. SE) for all variables (p > 0.05). The CG showed large squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and medium sprint, change of direction ability, and jump improvements. ASE demonstrated a trivial difference in endurance performance with ES and SE (p > 0.05). Large to medium greater improvements for SE and ES were reported compared with ASE for sprinting over 10 and 30 m (p < 0.02). The SE squat 1RM was higher than in ASE (moderate, p < 0.02). Postintervention differences between ES and SE with CG fitness variables were small to medium (p ≤ 0.05) except for a large SE advantage with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (p < 0.001, large). This study showed no effect of intrasession training sequence on soccer fitness-relevant variables. However, combining strength and endurance within a single training session provided superior results vs. training on alternate days. Concurrent training may be considered as an effective and safe training method for the development of the prospective soccer player.

  9. Effects of complex rehabilitation training on low back strength in chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaeyong; Lee, Jung Chul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of complex rehabilitation training on chronic low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Complex rehabilitation training for lumbar isometric muscle strength was conducted for 12 weeks for males (n=10) and females (n=10) with chronic low back pain, who were aged in their 30s. [Results] Isometric strength of lumbar extension was increased post-test, and significant differences were found between males and females, at MedX angle of 0, 48, and 60. [Conclusion] This study showed that complex rehabilitation training had a beneficial effect on the muscle strength of lumbar extension in patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:27942128

  10. Effects of hyperthyroidism on hand grip strength and function.

    PubMed

    Erkol İnal, Esra; Çarlı, Alparslan Bayram; Çanak, Sultan; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Köroğlu, Banu Kale; Savaş, Serpil

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a pathologic condition in which the body is exposed to excessive amounts of circulating thyroid hormones. Skeletal muscle is one of the major target organs of thyroid hormones. We evaluated hand grip strength and function in patients with overt hyperthyroidism. Fifty-one patients newly diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and 44 healthy controls participated in this study. Age, height, weight, and dominant hand of all participants were recorded. The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was confirmed by clinical examination and laboratory tests. Hand grip strength was tested at the dominant hand with a Jamar hand dynamometer. The grooved pegboard test (PGT) was used to evaluate hand dexterity. The Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) was used to assess hand function. No significant differences were found in terms of clinical and demographic findings between the patients with hyperthyroidism and healthy controls (p > 0.05). Significant differences were found between the patients with hyperthyroidism and healthy controls regarding PGT and DHI scores (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroidism seemed to affect hand dexterity and function more than hand grip strength and seemed to be associated with reduced physical function more than muscle strength. This may also indicate that patients with hyperthyroidism should be evaluated by multidisplinary modalities.

  11. The Effect of Maximal Strength Training on Strength, Walking, and Balance in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sarah; Park, David; Wright, Charles; Zervas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is little literature examining the use of maximal strength training (MST) in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). This pretest-posttest study examined the effects of a MST program on strength, walking, balance, and fatigue in a sample of pwMS. Seven pwMS (median EDSS 3.0, IQR 1.5) participated in a MST program twice weekly for eight weeks. Strength was assessed with 1-repetition maximum (1RM) on each leg. Walking and balance were measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), respectively. Fatigue was measured during each week of the program with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). The program was well tolerated, with an attendance rate of 96.4%. Participants had significant improvements in right leg 1RM (t(6) = −6.032, P = 0.001), left leg 1RM (t(6) = −5.388, P = 0.002), 6MWT distance (t(6) = −2.572, P = 0.042), and BBS score (Z = −2.371, P = 0.018) after the MST intervention. There was no significant change in FSS scores (F(1, 3.312) = 2.411, P = 0.092). Participants in the MST program experienced improved balance and walking without an increase in fatigue. This MST program may be utilized by rehabilitation clinicians to improve lower extremity strength, balance, and mobility in pwMS. PMID:28116161

  12. Effects of strength, endurance and combined training on muscle strength, walking speed and dynamic balance in aging men.

    PubMed

    Holviala, J; Kraemer, W J; Sillanpää, E; Karppinen, H; Avela, J; Kauhanen, A; Häkkinen, A; Häkkinen, K

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine effects of 21-week twice weekly strength (ST), endurance (ET) and combined (ST + ET 2 + 2 times a week) (SET) training on neuromuscular, endurance and walking performances as well as balance. 108 healthy men (56.3 ± 9.9 years) were divided into three training (ST; n = 30, ET; n = 26, SET; n = 31) groups and controls (C n = 21). Dynamic 1RM and explosive leg presses (1RMleg, 50%1RMleg), peak oxygen uptake using a bicycle ergometer (VO(2peak)), 10 m loaded walking time (10WALK) and dynamic balance distance (DYND) were measured. Significant increases were observed in maximal 1RMleg of 21% in ST (p < 0.001) and 22% in SET (p < 0.001) and in explosive 50%1RMleg of 7.5% in ST (p = 0.005) and 10.2% in SET (p < 0.001). VO(2peak) increased by 12.5% in ET (p = 0.001) and 9.8% in SET (p < 0.001). Significant decreases occurred in 10WALK in ST (p < 0.001) and SET (p = 0.003) and also in DYND of -10.3% in ST (p = 0.002) and -8% in SET (p = 0.028). The changes in C remained minor in all variables. In conclusion, ST and SET training produced significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, walking speed and balance without any interference effect in SET. Significant but moderate relationships were observed between strength and dynamic balance and walking speed, while no corresponding correlations were found in the ET group.

  13. Effects of a combined aerobic and strength training program in youth patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Perondi, Maria Beatriz; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Gianini; de Salles Painelli, Vítor; Filho, Vicente Odone; Netto, Gabrieli; Muratt, Mavi; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    Cure rates of youth with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) have increased in the past decades, but survivor's quality of life and physical fitness has become a growing concern. Although previous reports showed that resistance training is feasible and effective, we hypothesized that a more intense exercise program would also be feasible, but more beneficial than low- to moderate-intensity training programs. We aimed to examine the effects of an exercise program combining high-intensity resistance exercises and moderate-intensity aerobic exercises in young patients undergoing treatment for ALL. A quasi-experimental study was conducted. The patients (n = 6; 5-16 years of age) underwent a 12-week intra-hospital training program involving high-intensity strength exercises and aerobic exercise at 70% of the peak oxygen consumption. At baseline and after 12 weeks, we assessed sub-maximal strength (10 repetition-maximum), quality of life and possible adverse effects. A significant improvement was observed in the sub maximal strength for bench press (71%), lat pull down (50%), leg press (73%) and leg extension (64%) as a result of the training (p < 0.01). The parents' evaluations of their children's quality of life revealed an improvement in fatigue and general quality of life, but the children's self-reported quality of life was not changed. No adverse effects occurred. A 12-week in-hospital training program including high-intensity resistance exercises promotes marked strength improvements in patients during the maintenance phase of the treatment for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia without side-effects. Parents' evaluations of their children revealed an improvement in the quality of life. Key pointsPatients with ALL present low muscle strength and poor quality of life.High-intensity resistance exercises combined with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improved muscle strength and quality of life during the maintenance phase of ALL treatment.The exercise training program

  14. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  15. Concurrent Strength and Interval Endurance Training in Elite Water Polo Players.

    PubMed

    Botonis, Petros G; Toubekis, Argyris G; Platanou, Theodoros I

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervals performed concurrently with strength and specific water polo training on performance indices of elite players. During the precompetition season, 2 water polo clubs were assigned to either HIIT of 4 × 4 minutes (n = 7, HIIT4 × 4) or HIIT of 16 × 100-m swimming efforts (n = 7, HIIT16 × 100). Both clubs applied the swimming (6% above the speed corresponding to blood lactate concentration of 4.0 mmol · L) and strength training (85-90% of 1 repetition maximum, 5 repetitions, 4 sets) twice per week concurrently with specific water polo training. Before and after the 8-week intervention period, maximal bench press strength was measured and a speed-lactate test (5 × 200 m) was performed to determine the speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mmol · L(-1). Maximal strength was improved in both groups (HIIT4 × 4: 14 ± 4% vs. HIIT16 × 100: 19 ± 10%). Improvements in speed corresponding to 4.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mmol · L(-1) were shown only after HIIT4 × 4 (9 ± 5, 8 ± 3, 7 ± 2%, respectively; p < 0.01). However, HIIT16 × 100 was more effective in the differential velocity between 10.0 and 5.0 mmol · L(-) development (19 ± 20%, p = 0.03). During the precompetition season, HIIT and strength training together with specific water polo training performed concurrently improves muscle strength and allows specific adaptations enhancing swimming performance of elite water polo players.

  16. Feasibility and efficacy of progressive electrostimulation strength training for competitive tennis players.

    PubMed

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Bramanti, Jacopo; Jubeau, Marc; Bizzini, Mario; Deley, Gaëlle; Cometti, Gilles

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to show the feasibility of electrostimulation (ES) strength exercise incorporated into tennis sessions during the preparatory season of competitive players, and its impact on anaerobic performance. Twelve tennis players (5 men, 7 women) completed 9 sessions of quadriceps ES (duration: 16 minutes; frequency: 85 Hz; on-off ratio: 5.25-25 seconds) during 3 weeks. The ES sessions were integrated into tennis training sessions. Subjects were baseline tested and retested 1 (week 4), 2 (week 5), 3 (week 6), and 4 weeks (week 7) after the ES training program for maximal quadriceps strength, vertical jump height, and shuttle sprint time. Participants were able to progressively increase ES current amplitude and evoked force throughout the 9 training sessions, with an optimal treatment compliance of 100%. Maximal quadriceps strength significantly increased during the entire duration of the experiment (p < 0.001). Countermovement jump height at week 5 (+5.3%) and week 6 (+6.4%) was significantly higher than at baseline (p < 0.05). In addition, 2 x 10-m sprint time at week 6 was significantly shorter (-3.3%; p = 0.004) compared with pretraining. The 3-week ES strength training program was successfully incorporated into preseason tennis training with a linear progression in all training parameters. Throughout the study period, a delayed enhancement of anaerobic power and stretch-shortening cycle performance was observed. Progressive ES strength training may be safely included in the early tennis season and can lead to improvements in the anaerobic performance of men and women players.

  17. Neuromuscular adaptations to different modes of combined strength and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Eklund, D; Pulverenti, T; Bankers, S; Avela, J; Newton, R; Schumann, M; Häkkinen, K

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated neuromuscular adaptations between same-session combined strength and endurance training with 2 loading orders and different day combined training over 24 weeks. 56 subjects were divided into different day (DD) combined strength and endurance training (4-6 d·wk(-1)) and same-session combined training: endurance preceding strength (E+S) or vice versa (S+E) (2-3 d·wk(-1)). Dynamic and isometric strength, EMG, voluntary activation, muscle cross-sectional area and endurance performance were measured. All groups increased dynamic one-repetition maximum (p<0.001; DD 13±7%, E+S 12±9% and S+E 17±12%) and isometric force (p<0.05-0.01), muscle cross-sectional area (p<0.001) and maximal power output during cycling (p<0.001). DD and S+E increased voluntary activation during training (p<0.05-0.01). In E+S no increase in voluntary activation was detected after 12 or 24 weeks. E+S also showed unchanged and S+E increased maximum EMG after 24 weeks during maximal isometric muscle actions. A high correlation (p<0.001, r=0.83) between the individual changes in voluntary activation and maximal knee extension force was found for E+S during weeks 13-24. Neural adaptations showed indications of being compromised and highly individual relating to changes in isometric strength when E+S-training was performed, while gains in one-repetition maximum, endurance performance and hypertrophy did not differ between the training modes.

  18. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Presents Higher Sympathetic Cardiac Autonomic Modulation that is not altered by Strength Training

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, VICTOR B.; KOGURE, GISLAINE S.; REIS, ROSANA M.; GASTALDI, ADA C.; DE ARAÚJO, JOÃO E.; MAZON, JOSÉ H.; BORGHI, AUDREY; SOUZA, HUGO C.D.

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may present important comorbidities, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which are often preceded by changes in cardiac autonomic modulation. Different types of physical exercises are frequently indicated for the prevention and treatment of PCOS. However, little is known about the effects of strength training on the metabolic, hormonal, and cardiac autonomic parameters. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of strength training on the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV) and its relation to endocrine-metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. Fifty-three women were divided into two groups: CONTROL (n=26) and PCOS (n=27). The strength training lasted 4 months, which was divided into mesocycles of 4 weeks each. The training load started with 70% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Blood samples were collected before and after intervention for analysis of fasting insulin and glucose, HOMA-IR, testosterone, androstenedione and testosterone/androstenedione (T/A) ratio. Spectral analysis of HRV was performed to assess cardiac autonomic modulation indexes. The PCOS group presented higher insulin and testosterone levels, T/A ratio, along with increased sympathetic cardiac autonomic modulation before intervention. The training protocol used did not cause any change of endocrine-metabolic parameters in the CONTROL group. Interestingly, in the PCOS group, reduced testosterone levels and T/A ratio. Additionally, strength training did not have an effect on the spectral parameter values of HRV obtained in both groups. Strength training was not able to alter HRV autonomic modulation in women with PCOS, however may reduce testosterone levels and T/A ratio. PMID:27990221

  19. Side-Alternating Vibration Training for Balance and Ankle Muscle Strength in Untrained Women

    PubMed Central

    Spiliopoulou, Styliani I.; Amiridis, Ioannis G.; Tsigganos, Georgios; Hatzitaki, Vassilia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Side-alternating vibration (SAV) may help reduce the risk of falling by improving body balance control. Such training has been promoted as a strength-training intervention because it can increase muscle activation through an augmented excitatory input from the muscle spindles. Objective: To determine the effect of SAV training on static balance during 3 postural tasks of increasing difficulty and lower limb strength. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 21 healthy women were divided into training (n = 11; age = 43.35 ± 4.12 years, height = 169 ± 6.60 cm, mass = 68.33 ± 11.90 kg) and control (n = 10; age = 42.31 ± 3.73 years, height = 167 ± 4.32 cm, mass = 66.29 ± 10.74 kg) groups. Intervention(s): The training group completed a 9-week program during which participants performed 3 sessions per week of ten 15-second isometric contractions with a 30-second active rest of 3 exercises (half-squat, wide-stance squat, 1-legged half-squat) on an SAV plate (acceleration = 0.91–16.3g). The control group did not participate in any form of exercise over the 9-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We evaluated isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee extensors and flexors and ankle plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, and evertors. Static balance was assessed using 3 tasks of increasing difficulty (quiet bipedal stance, tandem stance, 1-legged stance). The electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus was recorded during postural task performance, baseline and pretraining, immediately posttraining, and 15 days posttraining. Results: After training in the training group, ankle muscle strength improved (P = .03), whereas knee muscle strength remained unaltered (P = .13). Improved ankle-evertor strength was observed at all angular velocities (P = .001). Postural sway decreased in both directions but was greater

  20. Strength training combined with plyometric jumps in adults: sex differences in fat-bone axis adaptations.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, A; Perez-Gomez, J; Olmedillas, H; Chavarren, J; Dorado, C; Santana, A; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Calbet, J A L

    2009-04-01

    Leptin and osteocalcin play a role in the regulation of the fat-bone axis and may be altered by exercise. To determine whether osteocalcin reduces fat mass in humans fed ad libitum and if there is a sex dimorphism in the serum osteocalcin and leptin responses to strength training, we studied 43 male (age 23.9 2.4 yr, mean +/- SD) and 23 female physical education students (age 23.2 +/- 2.7 yr). Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: training (TG) and control (CG). TG followed a strength combined with plyometric jumps training program during 9 wk, whereas the CG did not train. Physical fitness, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and serum concentrations of hormones were determined pre- and posttraining. In the whole group of subjects (pretraining), the serum concentration of osteocalcin was positively correlated (r = 0.29-0.42, P < 0.05) with whole body and regional bone mineral content, lean mass, dynamic strength, and serum-free testosterone concentration (r = 0.32). However, osteocalcin was negatively correlated with leptin concentration (r = -0.37), fat mass (r = -0.31), and the percent body fat (r = -0.44). Both sexes experienced similar relative improvements in performance, lean mass (+4-5%), and whole body (+0.78%) and lumbar spine bone mineral content (+1.2-2%) with training. Serum osteocalcin concentration was increased after training by 45 and 27% in men and women, respectively (P < 0.05). Fat mass was not altered by training. Vastus lateralis type II MHC composition at the start of the training program predicted 25% of the osteocalcin increase after training. Serum leptin concentration was reduced with training in women. In summary, while the relative effects of strength training plus plyometric jumps in performance, muscle hypertrophy, and osteogenesis are similar in men and women, serum leptin concentration is reduced only in women. The osteocalcin response to strength training is, in part, modulated by the muscle phenotype (MHC

  1. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Robert W.; Oikawa, Sara Y.; Wavell, Christopher G.; Mazara, Nicole; McGlory, Chris; Quadrilatero, Joe; Baechler, Brittany L.; Baker, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    We reported, using a unilateral resistance training (RT) model, that training with high or low loads (mass per repetition) resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements in RT-naïve subjects. Here we aimed to determine whether the same was true in men with previous RT experience using a whole-body RT program and whether postexercise systemic hormone concentrations were related to changes in hypertrophy and strength. Forty-nine resistance-trained men (23 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) performed 12 wk of whole-body RT. Subjects were randomly allocated into a higher-repetition (HR) group who lifted loads of ∼30-50% of their maximal strength (1RM) for 20–25 repetitions/set (n = 24) or a lower-repetition (LR) group (∼75–90% 1RM, 8–12 repetitions/set, n = 25), with all sets being performed to volitional failure. Skeletal muscle biopsies, strength testing, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and acute changes in systemic hormone concentrations were examined pretraining and posttraining. In response to RT, 1RM strength increased for all exercises in both groups (P < 0.01), with only the change in bench press being significantly different between groups (HR, 9 ± 1, vs. LR, 14 ± 1 kg, P = 0.012). Fat- and bone-free (lean) body mass and type I and type II muscle fiber cross-sectional area increased following training (P < 0.01) with no significant differences between groups. No significant correlations between the acute postexercise rise in any purported anabolic hormone and the change in strength or hypertrophy were found. In congruence with our previous work, acute postexercise systemic hormonal rises are not related to or in any way indicative of RT-mediated gains in muscle mass or strength. Our data show that in resistance-trained individuals, load, when exercises are performed to volitional failure, does not dictate hypertrophy or, for the most part, strength gains. PMID:27174923

  2. Stiffness and strength of oxygen-functionalized graphene with vacancies

    SciTech Connect

    Zandiatashbar, A.; Ban, E.; Picu, R. C.

    2014-11-14

    The 2D elastic modulus (E{sup 2D}) and strength (σ{sup 2D}) of defective graphene sheets containing vacancies, epoxide, and hydroxyl functional groups are evaluated at 300 K by atomistic simulations. The fraction of vacancies is controlled in the range 0% to 5%, while the density of functional groups corresponds to O:C ratios in the range 0% to 25%. In-plane modulus and strength diagrams as functions of vacancy and functional group densities are generated using models with a single type of defect and with combinations of two types of defects (vacancies and functional groups). It is observed that in models containing only vacancies, the rate at which strength decreases with increasing the concentration of defects is largest, followed by models containing only epoxide groups and those with only hydroxyl groups. The effect on modulus of vacancies and epoxides present alone in the model is similar, and much stronger than that of hydroxyl groups. When the concentration of defects is large, the combined effect of the functional groups and vacancies cannot be obtained as the superposition of individual effects of the two types of defects. The elastic modulus deteriorates faster (slower) than predicted by superposition in systems containing vacancies and hydroxyl groups (vacancies and epoxide groups)

  3. Radial basis function network learns ceramic processing and predicts related strength and density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Vary, Alex; Tjia, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Radial basis function (RBF) neural networks were trained using the data from 273 Si3N4 modulus of rupture (MOR) bars which were tested at room temperature and 135 MOR bars which were tested at 1370 C. Milling time, sintering time, and sintering gas pressure were the processing parameters used as the input features. Flexural strength and density were the outputs by which the RBF networks were assessed. The 'nodes-at-data-points' method was used to set the hidden layer centers and output layer training used the gradient descent method. The RBF network predicted strength with an average error of less than 12 percent and density with an average error of less than 2 percent. Further, the RBF network demonstrated a potential for optimizing and accelerating the development and processing of ceramic materials.

  4. PAKs supplement improves immune status and body composition but not muscle strength in resistance trained individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mixed formula supplements are very popular among recreational and professional weightlifters. They are usually known as PAKs and they are supposed to have a synergistic effect of their different nutrients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic (4 weeks) PAKS supplementation in combination with strength training on body composition, immune status and performance measures in recreationally trained individuals with or without PAKs supplementation. Methods: Twelve male subjects (Placebo n = 6 and PAKs supplement n = 6) were recruited for this study. The body composition, one maximum strength repetition tests and immune status were assessed before and after 4 week supplementation. Our data showed that, 4 week PAK supplementation associated with strength exercise not was effective in change strength than compared with placebo group. However, we observed that, PAK supplement was able to improve immune status and reduced body composition when compared with placebo group. These results indicate that, a mixed formula supplement is able to improve immune status and body composition but not maximum strength in recreational strength trained subjects in a 4 weeks period. PMID:21059194

  5. Laterality of handgrip strength: age- and physical training-related changes in Lithuanian schoolchildren and conscripts.

    PubMed

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Schiefenhövel, Wulf

    2013-06-01

    Laterality in handgrip strength was assessed by analyzing dynamometric data of the right and left hand in three samples of Lithuanian boys and girls aged 7-20 years. In addition, the influence of general physical training on the laterality of handgrip strength was explored in a sample of conscripts. A negative secular trend in handgrip strength of schoolchildren has been detected since 1965, and with increasing age, right-handedness has become more pronounced. Children that were ambidextrous (by grip strength) showed negative deviations in physical status more often than their right- or left-handed peers. During one year of physical training, the conscripts had a larger increase in grip strength of the left than in the right hand, and a marked shift in handgrip laterality toward left-handed and ambidextrous individuals was observed. The different impact of schooling and physical training on handgrip strength laterality might partly explain variations in the prevalence of handedness in different societies with divergent cultures and lifestyles (e.g., more or less sedentary).

  6. High-load strength training improves outcome in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rathleff, M S; Mølgaard, C M; Fredberg, U; Kaalund, S; Andersen, K B; Jensen, T T; Aaskov, S; Olesen, J L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of shoe inserts and plantar fascia-specific stretching vs shoe inserts and high-load strength training in patients with plantar fasciitis. Forty-eight patients with ultrasonography-verified plantar fasciitis were randomized to shoe inserts and daily plantar-specific stretching (the stretch group) or shoe inserts and high-load progressive strength training (the strength group) performed every second day. High-load strength training consisted of unilateral heel raises with a towel inserted under the toes. Primary outcome was the foot function index (FFI) at 3 months. Additional follow-ups were performed at 1, 6, and 12 months. At the primary endpoint, at 3 months, the strength group had a FFI that was 29 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI): 6-52, P = 0.016] compared with the stretch group. At 1, 6, and 12 months, there were no differences between groups (P > 0.34). At 12 months, the FFI was 22 points (95% CI: 9-36) in the strength group and 16 points (95% CI: 0-32) in the stretch group. There were no differences in any of the secondary outcomes. A simple progressive exercise protocol, performed every second day, resulted in superior self-reported outcome after 3 months compared with plantar-specific stretching. High-load strength training may aid in a quicker reduction in pain and improvements in function.

  7. Effects of the lower extremities muscle activation during muscular strength training on an unstable platform with magneto-rheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, YongJun; Choi, YounJung; Kim, JungJa; Kwan, TaeKyu; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2009-03-01

    Adequate postural balance depends on the spatial and temporal integration of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory information. Especially, the musculoskeletal function (range of joint, flexibility of spine, muscular strength) is essential in maintaining the postural balance. Muscular strength training methods include the use of commercialized devices and repeatable resistance training tools (rubber band, ball, etc). These training systems cost high price and can't control of intensity. Thus we suggest a new training system which can adjust training intensity and indicate the center of pressure of a subject while the training was passively controlled by applying controlled electric current to the Magneto- Rheological damper. And we performed experimental studies on the muscular activities in the lower extremities during maintaining, moving and pushing exercises on an unstable platform with Magneto rheological dampers. A subject executed the maintaining, moving and pushing exercises which were displayed in a monitor. The electromyographic signals of the eight muscles in lower extremities were recorded and analyzed in the time and frequency domain: the muscles of interest were rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tensor fasciae latae, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and soleus. The experimental results showed the difference of muscular activities at the four moving exercises and the nine maintaining exercises. The rate of the increase in the muscular activities was affected by the condition of the unstable platform with MR dampers for the maintaining and moving exercises. The experimental results suggested the choice of different maintaining and moving exercises could selectively train different muscles with varying intensity. Furthermore, the findings also suggested the training using this system can improve the ability of postural balance.

  8. A NEW CLINICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION TEST FOR ASSESSMENT OF HIP EXTERNAL ROTATION STRENGTH: AUGUSTSSON STRENGTH TEST

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non–athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test. Methods Fifty–three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test–retest reliability. Results No significant test–retest differences were observed. Intra–class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93–0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76–4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156). Conclusions The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip

  9. Shank Muscle Strength Training Changes Foot Behaviour during a Sudden Ankle Supination

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Marco; Lescher, Stephanie; Gerhardt, Andreas; Lahner, Matthias; Felber, Stephan; Hennig, Ewald M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The peroneal muscles are the most effective lateral stabilisers whose tension braces the ankle joint complex against excessive supination. The purpose of this study was to identify the morphological and biomechanical effects of two machine-based shank muscle training methods. Methods Twenty-two healthy male recreationally active sports students performed ten weeks of single-set high resistance strength training with 3 training sessions per week. The subjects conducted subtalar pronator/supinator muscle training (ST) with the right leg by using a custom-made apparatus; the left foot muscles were exercised with machine-based talocrural plantar and dorsiflexor training (TT). Muscle strength (MVIC), muscle volume and foot biomechanics (rearfoot motion, ground reaction forces, muscle reaction times) during a sudden ankle supination were recorded before and after the intervention. Results Compared to TT, ST resulted in significantly higher pronator (14% vs. 8%, P<0.01) and supinator MVIC (25% vs. 12%, P<0.01). During sudden foot inversions, both ST and TT resulted in reduced supination velocity (-12%; P<0.01). The muscle reaction onset time was faster after the training in peroneus longus (PL) (P<0.01). Muscle volume of PL (P<0.01) and TA (P<0.01) increased significantly after both ST and TT. Conclusion After both ST and TT, the ankle joint complex is mechanically more stabilised against sudden supinations due to the muscle volume increase of PL and TA. As the reduced supination velocities indicate, the strength training effects are already present during free-fall. According to a sudden ankle supination in standing position, both machine-based dorsiflexor and pronator strength training is recommended for enhancing the mechanical stability of the ankle. PMID:26110847

  10. Expression of genes related to muscle plasticity after strength and power training regimens.

    PubMed

    Lamas, L; Aoki, M S; Ugrinowitsch, C; Campos, G E R; Regazzini, M; Moriscot, A S; Tricoli, V

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of 8-week progressive strength and power training regimens on strength gains and muscle plasticity [muscle fiber hypertrophy and phenotype shift, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (RAPTOR), rapamycin-insensitive companion of m-TOR (RICTOR), calcineurin and calcipressin gene expression]. Twenty-nine physically active subjects were divided into three groups: strength training (ST), power training (PT) and control (C). Squat 1 RM and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period. Strength increased similarly for both ST and PT groups (P<0.001). Fiber types I, IIa and IIb presented hypertrophy main time effect (P<0.05). Only type IIb percentage decreased from pre- to post-test (main time effect, P<0.05). mTOR and RICTOR mRNA expression increased similarly from pre- to post-test (P<0.01). RAPTOR increased after training for both groups (P<0.0001), but to a greater extent in the ST (P<0.001) than in the PT group. 4EBP-1 decreased after training when the ST and PT groups were pooled (P<0.05). Calcineurin levels did not change after training, while calcipressin increased similarly from pre- to post-test (P<0.01). In conclusion, our data indicate that these training regimens produce similar performance improvements; however, there was a trend toward greater hypertrophy-related gene expression and muscle fiber hypertrophy in the ST group.

  11. Effects of follicular versus luteal phase-based strength training in young women.

    PubMed

    Sung, Eunsook; Han, Ahreum; Hinrichs, Timo; Vorgerd, Matthias; Manchado, Carmen; Platen, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle (MC) may influence trainability of strength. We investigated the effects of a follicular phase-based strength training (FT) on muscle strength, muscle volume and microscopic parameters, comparing it to a luteal phase-based training (LT). Eumenorrheic women without oral contraception (OC) (N = 20, age: 25.9 ± 4.5 yr, height: 164.2 ± 5.5 cm, weight: 60.6 ± 7.8 kg) completed strength training on a leg press for three MC, and 9 of them participated in muscle biopsies. One leg had eight training sessions in the follicular phases (FP) and only two sessions in the luteal phases (LP) for follicular phase-based training (FT), while the other leg had eight training sessions in LP and only two sessions in FP for luteal phase-based training (LT). Estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), total testosterone (T), free testosterone (free T) and DHEA-s were analysed once during FP (around day 11) and once during LP (around day 25). Maximum isometric force (Fmax), muscle diameter (Mdm), muscle fibre composition (No), fibre diameter (Fdm) and cell nuclei-to-fibre ratio (N/F) were analysed before and after the training intervention. T and free T were higher in FP compared to LP prior to the training intervention (P < 0.05). The increase in Fmax after FT was higher compared to LT (P <0.05). FT also showed a higher increase in Mdm than LT (P < 0.05). Moreover, we found significant increases in Fdm of fibre type ΙΙ and in N/F only after FT; however, there was no significant difference from LT. With regard to change in fibre composition, no differences were observed between FT and LT. FT showed a higher gain in muscle strength and muscle diameter than LT. As a result, we recommend that eumenorrheic females without OC should base the periodization of their strength training on their individual MC.

  12. Kinematic, strength, and stiffness adaptations after a short-term sled towing training in athletes.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, P E; Elvira, J L L; Palao, J M

    2014-04-01

    One of the most frequently used methods for training the sprint-specific strength is the sled towing. To date, no studies have been conducted to explore the effects of this method after a training period in well-trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of resisted sprint training with sled towing. Twenty-two trained athletes experienced in the use of weighted sled (WS) participated in the study. They conducted the same 3-week training to level their initial condition. After that they were distributed in two groups, unresisted (UR) and WS training. They carried out the same 4-week, 2 days/week sprint-specific training, only differing in that the experimental group performed sprints with a (WS) which caused a reduction of 7.5% of their maximum velocity. Pre- and posttest were conducted which included the measurement of sprint kinematics, muscular strength (including isoinertial, isokinetic, and jump measurements), and sprinting stiffness (leg and vertical). Results show different adaptations in the groups although no interaction effect was found. The WS group improved the velocity in the transition phase, while the UR group improved the velocity in the maximum velocity phase. No improvements in the height of the jump tests were found.

  13. The effect of resisted sprint training on speed and strength performance in male rugby players.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew J; Bourke, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that resistance sprint (RS) training can produce significant changes in running speed and running kinematics. The longer-term training adaptations after RS training remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an RS training intervention would enhance the running speed and dynamic strength measures in male rugby players. Fifteen male rugby players aged 20.5 (+/- 2.8) years who were proficient in resisted sledge training took part in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to control or RS groups. The RS group performed two sessions per week of RS training for 6 weeks, and the control group did no RS training. Pre- and postintervention tests were carried out for 30-m sprint, drop, squat, and rebound jumps on a force sledge system. A laser measurement device was used to obtain velocities and distance measures during all running trials. The results show a statistically significant decrease in time to 5 m for the 30-m sprint for the RS group (p = 0.02). The squat jump and drop jump variables also showed significant increases in starting strength (p = 0.004) and height jumped (p = 0.018) for the RS group from pre- to post-testing sessions. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to employ an RS training intervention with the aim of increasing initial acceleration from a static start for sprinting.

  14. Motor Imagery Training on Muscle Strength and Gait Performance in Ambulant Stroke Subjects-A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, M.; Kedambadi, Rakshith

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ultimate goal of physiotherapy in stroke rehabilitation is focused towards physical independence and to restore their functional ability during activities of daily living (ADLs). Motor imagery (MI) is an active process during which a specific action is reproduced within working memory without any actual movements. MI training enhances motor learning, neural reorganization and cortical activation in stroke. The efficacy of MI training involving lower extremity mobility tasks need to be assessed. Aim To evaluate the effects of combining motor imagery with physical practice in paretic Lower Extremity Muscles Strength and Gait Performance in Ambulant Stroke subjects. Materials and Methods A Randomized Clinical Trial was conducted in Department of Physical Therapy, Tertiary Care Hospitals, Mangalore, India which includes 40 hemi paretic subjects (>3 months post-stroke) who were ambulant with good imagery ability in both KVIQ-20 ≥ 60 and Time dependent MI screening test were recruited and randomly allocated into task-oriented training group (n=20) and task-oriented training group plus MI group (n=20). Subjects in both groups underwent task orientated training for lower extremity 45-60 minutes, 4 days per week for 3 weeks. In addition, the experimental group received 30 minutes of audio-based lower extremity mobility tasks for MI practice. Isometric muscle strength of Hip, Knee and Ankle using a hand-held dynamometer and self-selected 10 m gait speed were assessed before and after 3 weeks of intervention. Results Both the groups had found a significant change for all the outcome measures following 3 weeks of interventions with p <.05. The experimental group had shown a significant improvement in paretic hip muscles (both flexors and extensors), knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors and gait speed compare to control group with p < .05 between group analyses. Conclusion Additional task specific MI training improves paretic muscle strength and gait

  15. Responsiveness of muscle size and strength to physical training in very elderly people: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, V H; Saunders, D H; Greig, C A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether very elderly muscle (>75 years) hypertrophies in response to physical training. The databases MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL Plus and SPORTDiscus were systematically literature searched with reference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews. Controlled trials (inactive elderly control group) involving healthy elderly participants over 75 years participating in an intervention complying with an established definition of physical training were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the PEDro scale. Data analysis was performed on muscle size and strength using RevMan (software version 5.1). Four studies were included of which four of four measured changes in gross muscle size. Training induced increases in muscle size from 1.5%-15.6% were reported in three of four studies, and one of four studies reported a decrease in muscle size (3%). The greatest gain in muscle mass was observed in a study of whole body vibration training. Meta-analysis of three studies found an increase of thigh muscle cross-sectional area (mean difference 2.31 cm(2) or 0.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62 to 4.00; P = 0.008) and muscle strength (standardized mean difference 1.04, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.43; P < 0.001). Physical training when delivered as resistance training has the ability to elicit hypertrophy and increase muscle strength in very elderly muscle.

  16. Transference of Traditional Versus Complex Strength and Power Training to Sprint Performance

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different strength-power training models on sprint performance. Forty-eight soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG: n = 15, age: 20.2 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m, and body mass: 66.7 ± 9.8 kg), a traditional training group (TT: n = 18, age: 20.1 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.05 m, and body mass: 64.2 ± 4.7 kg), and a complex training group (CT: n = 15, age: 20.3 ± 0.8 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; and body mass: 64.0 ± 8.8 kg). Maximum strength (25% and 26%), CMJ height (36% and 39%), mean power (30% and 35%) and mean propulsive power (22% and 28%) in the loaded jump squat exercise, and 20-m sprint speed (16% and 14%) increased significantly (p≤0.05) following the TT and CT, respectively. However, the transfer effect coefficients (TEC) of strength and power performances to 20-m sprint performance following the TT were greater than the CT throughout the 9-week training period. Our data suggest that TT is more effective than CT to improve sprint performance in moderately trained subjects. PMID:25114753

  17. Strength Training Reduces Injury Rate in Elite Young Soccer Players During One Season.

    PubMed

    Zouita, Sghair; Zouita, Amira B M; Kebsi, Wiem; Dupont, Grégory; Ben Abderrahman, Abderraouf; Ben Salah, Fatma Z; Zouhal, Hassane

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of strength training on physical fitness parameters and injuries occurrence in young elite soccer players. Fifty-two elite young soccer players (13-14 years) were divided on a randomized order into experimental group (EG, n = 26) and control group (CG, n = 26). For EG, 2 to 3 sessions of strength training (90 minutes) were introduced weekly in their training program for 12 weeks (4 × 3 weeks separated by 1-week recovery). Sprint tests (10-20-30 m), T-test time, and jumping tests were measured at the start (T0), at the middle (T1), and at the end of the experiment period (T2). The injury rate was recorded by the medical and fitness training staff throughout the soccer season. Compared to CG, EG performed significantly better in sprint running and T-test time at T2 (p < 0.01). Similarly, the improvement amount for jumping tests was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) in EG than in CG. A total of 17 injuries were recorded over the soccer season. The rate was higher in CG (13 injuries) than in training group (4 injuries). This study showed that strength training accurately and efficiently scheduled in youth soccer players, induced performance improvement, and reduced the rate of injuries.

  18. Training Effects on Immune Function in Judoists

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu; Hyung, Gu Am; Park, Jeong Hun; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Han Byeol; Jung, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that high intensity long term training in elite athletes may increase risk of immune function. Objectives: This study is to examine training effects on immunoglobulin and changes of physiological stress and physical fitness level induced by increased cold stress during 12-week winter off-season training in elite Judoists. Patients and Methods: Twenty-nine male participants (20 ± 1 years) were assigned to only Judo training (CG, n = 9), resistance training combined with Judo training (RJ, n = 10), and interval training combined with Judo training (IJ, n = 10). Blood samples collected at rest, immediately after all-out exercise, and 30-minute recovery period were analyzed for testing IgA, IgG, and IgM, albumin and catecholamine levels. Results: VO2max and anaerobic mean power in IJ (P < 0.05) and anaerobic power in RJ (P < 0.05) were significantly increased after 12-week training compared to CG. There was no significant interaction effect (group × period) in albumin after 12-week training; however, there was a significant interaction effect (group × period) in epinephrine after 12-week training (F (4, 52) = 3.216, P = 0.002) and immediately after all-out exercise and at 30-minute recovery (F (2, 26) = 14.564, P = 0.008). There was significantly higher changes in epinephrine of RJ compared to IJ at 30-minute recovery (P = 0.045). There was a significant interaction effect (group × period) in norepinephrine after 12-week training (F (4, 52) = 8.141, P < 0.0001), at rest and immediately after all-out exercise (F (2, 26) = 9.570, P = 0.001), and immediately after all-out exercise and at 30-minute recovery (F (2, 26) = 8.862, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Winter off-season training of IJ increased physical fitness level as well as physical stress induced by overtraining. Along with increased physical stress, all groups showed reduced trend of IgA; however, there was no group difference based on different training methods. PMID:26448852

  19. Strength Training Does Not Affect Vagal-cardiac Control or Cardiovagal Baroreflex Sensitivity in Young Healthy Subjects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE William H. Cooke Æ Jason R. Carter Strength training does not affect vagal– cardiac control or cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity in...to test the hypothesis that high-intensity strength training in- creases vagal– cardiac control and cardiovagal barore- flex sensitivity. Twenty-two...adaptations to resistance training, our results demonstrate that resistance train- ing does not affect vagal– cardiac control or cardiovagal baroreflex

  20. Effects of Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Well-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Peterson, Mark D; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, Gul T

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low- versus high-load resistance training (RT) on muscular adaptations in well-trained subjects. Eighteen young men experienced in RT were matched according to baseline strength and then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a low-load RT routine (LL) where 25-35 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9) or a high-load RT routine (HL) where 8-12 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9). During each session, subjects in both groups performed 3 sets of 7 different exercises representing all major muscles. Training was performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days, for a total of 8 weeks. Both HL and LL conditions produced significant increases in thickness of the elbow flexors (5.3 vs. 8.6%, respectively), elbow extensors (6.0 vs. 5.2%, respectively), and quadriceps femoris (9.3 vs. 9.5%, respectively), with no significant differences noted between groups. Improvements in back squat strength were significantly greater for HL compared with LL (19.6 vs. 8.8%, respectively), and there was a trend for greater increases in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (6.5 vs. 2.0%, respectively). Upper body muscle endurance (assessed by the bench press at 50% 1RM to failure) improved to a greater extent in LL compared with HL (16.6 vs. -1.2%, respectively). These findings indicate that both HL and LL training to failure can elicit significant increases in muscle hypertrophy among well-trained young men; however, HL training is superior for maximizing strength adaptations.

  1. Effects of instability versus traditional resistance training on strength, power and velocity in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key PointsSimilar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs.Both the stability and instability approaches seem

  2. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    PubMed Central

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J. Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key Points Similar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs. Both the stability and instability approaches

  3. Influence of resistance training on cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle power and strength in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar; Radovanovic, D; Stankovic, R; Marković, Z; Kocic, J

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of additional resistance training on cardiorespiratory endurance in young (15.8 ± 0.8 yrs) male basketball players. Experimental group subjects (n=23) trained twice per week for 12 weeks using a variety of general free-weight and machine exercises designed for strength acquisition, beside ongoing regular basketball training program. Control group subject (n=23) participated only in basketball training program. Oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and related gas exchange measures were determined continuously during maximal exercise test using an automated cardiopulmonary exercise system. Muscle power of the extensors and flexors was measured by a specific computerized tensiometer. Results from the experimental group (VO(2max) 51.6 ± 5.7 ml.min(-1).kg(-1) pre vs. 50.9 ± 5.4 ml.min(-1).kg(-1) post resistance training) showed no change (p>0.05) in cardiorespiratory endurance, while muscle strength and power of main muscle groups increased significantly. These data demonstrate no negative cardiorespiratory performance effects on adding resistance training to ongoing regular training program in young athletes.

  4. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  5. Effects of Balance Training on Postural Sway, Leg Extensor Strength, and Jumping Height in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Kriemler, Susi

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in strength of the lower extremities and postural control have been associated with a high risk of sustaining sport-related injuries. Such injuries often occur during physical education (PE) classes and mostly affect the lower extremities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of balance training on postural…

  6. The Evaluation of Strength Training and Body Plyometric Effects on the Male Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayram, Metin

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the effects of resistance training with upper body plyometric effects on the performance of male basketball players. Sixteen males in the physical education and sport science faculty of Ataturk University were randomly determined into two groups. The experimental group performed a combined strength and plyometric training…

  7. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Eccentric Strength Training in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Siobhan; Hamer, Peter; Alderson, Jacqueline; Lloyd, David

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine the neuromuscular outcomes of an eccentric strength-training programme for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: In this randomised, parallel-group trial with waiting control, 14 participants with CP (six males, eight females; mean age 11y, SD 2y range 9-15y), diagnosed with upper-limb spasticity were…

  8. Weight Lifted in Strength Training Predicts Bone Change in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, Ellen C.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.; Houtkooper, Linda B.; Metcalfe, Lauve L.; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G.; Harris, Robin B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between weight lifted in one year of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) among calcium-supplemented, postmenopausal women. BMD was measured at baseline and after one year. Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted during the 1-year…

  9. Strength and Agility Training in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hsiu-Ching; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a proposed strength and agility training program of adolescents with Down syndrome. Ninety-two adolescents were recruited and evenly randomized to two intervention groups (exercise group vs. control group). The mean age for the exercise and the control group was 10.6 plus or minus 3.2 and…

  10. Science and Practice of Coaching a Strength Training Program for Novice and Intermediate-Level Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Addresses various aspects of the athletic coaching process in strength training, including: teaching and coaching exercises to novice and intermediate level athletes (typical high school and younger college aged athletes); technical analysis and modification of student technique; student motivation; goal setting; reinforcement; and the overall…

  11. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Concurrent Strength and HIIT Training in Octogenarians with COPD.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Aznar-Laín, Susana; Mañas, Asier; Castellanos, Juan; Alcázar, Julián; Ara, Ignacio; Mata, Esmeralda; Daimiel, Rosa; García-García, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the short- and long-term effects of concurrent strength and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on octogenarian COPD patients, nine males (age = 84.2 ± 2.8 years, BMI = 29.3 ± 2.3) with low to severe COPD levels (2.1 ± 1.5 BODE index) underwent a supervised 9-week strength and HIIT exercise program. Training had a significant (p < .05) impact on senior fitness test scores (23-45%), 30-m walking speed (from 1.29 ± 0.29-1.62 ± 0.33 m/s), leg and chest press 1RM (38% and 45% respectively), maximal isometric strength (30-35%), and 6-min walking test (from 286.1 ± 107.2-396.2 ± 106.5 m), and tended to increase predicted forced vital capacity by 14% (p = .07). One year after the intervention all training-induced gains returned to their preintervention values except for the chest press 1RM (p <.05). Short-term concurrent strength and HIIT training increases physical fitness in the oldest-old COPD patients, and has potential long-term benefits.

  12. University of Miami Hurricane Football Team Off-Season Strength Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Ray

    The off-season football strength training and conditioning program at the University of Miami was developed to emphasize commitment and continued intensity of effort on the part of the individual player. The program emphasizes the intrinsic rewards of physical conditioning, positive reinforcement for effort, and individual responsibility for…

  13. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  14. Experience in resistance training does not prevent reduction in muscle strength evoked by passive static stretching.

    PubMed

    Serra, Andrey J; Silva, José A; Marcolongo, Alessandra A; Manchini, Martha T; Oliveira, João V A; Santos, Luis F N; Rica, Roberta L; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2013-08-01

    This study examined whether passive static stretching reduces the maximum muscle strength achieved by different body segments in untrained and resistance-trained subjects. Twenty adult men were assigned to 1 of the following groups: untrained (UT, N = 9) and resistance-trained (RT, N = 11) groups. The subjects performed six 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load tests of the following exercises: horizontal bench press, lat pull-downs, bicep curls, and 45° leg press. The results achieved in the last two 1RM tests were used for statistical analyses. A passive static stretching program was incorporated before the sixth 1RM test. The body fat content was significantly higher in the UT group compared with the RT group (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the RT group showed significantly higher proportion of lean body mass compared with the UT group (p < 0.0001). Maximum muscle strength on all 4 exercises was significantly reduced in both groups after stretching (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the magnitude of muscle strength reduction was similar for the UT and the RT groups. The exception was for barbell curls, in which the muscle strength depression was significantly higher in the UT group compared with the RT group (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the passive static stretching program was detrimental to upper- and lower-body maximal muscle strength performance in several body segments. The negative effects of stretching were similar for subjects participating in resistance training regimens.

  15. Characteristics associated with improved knee extension after strength training for individuals with cerebral palsy and crouch gait.

    PubMed

    Steele, K M; Damiano, D L; Eek, M N; Unger, M; Delp, S L

    2012-01-01

    Muscle weakness may contribute to crouch gait in individuals with cerebral palsy, and some individuals participate in strength training programs to improve crouch gait. Unfortunately, improvements in muscle strength and gait are inconsistent after completing strength training programs. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in knee extensor strength and knee extension angle during walking after strength training in individuals with cerebral palsy who walk in crouch gait and to determine subject characteristics associated with these changes. A literature review was performed of studies published since January 2000 that included strength training, three-dimensional motion analysis, and knee extensor strength measurements for individuals with cerebral palsy. Three studies met these criteria and individual subject data was obtained from the authors for thirty crouch gait subjects. Univariate regression analyses were performed to determine which of ten physical examination and motor performance variables were associated with changes in strength and knee extension during gait. Change in knee extensor strength ranged from a 25% decrease to a 215% increase, and change in minimum knee flexion angle during gait ranged from an improvement of 9° more knee extension to 15° more knee flexion. Individuals without hamstring spasticity had greater improvement in knee extension after strength training. Hamstring spasticity was associated with an undesired increase in knee flexion during walking. Subject-specific factors such as hamstring spasticity may be useful for predicting which subjects will benefit from strength training to improve crouch gait.

  16. Virtual reality training improves balance function

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function. PMID:25368651

  17. Virtual reality training improves balance function.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-09-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  18. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2016-09-23

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P < 0.05) and REC (type I: 10.0 ± 2.7%, type IIA: 14.8 ± 4.3% type IIX: 20.8 ± 6.0%, P < 0.05). In contrast, RFD decreased and fascicle angle increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. Capillary density and estimated aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. These results suggest that high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes.

  19. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the

  20. Assessment of grip strength with the modified sphygmomanometer test: association between upper limb global strength and motor function

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Júlia C.; Aguiar, Larissa T.; Lara, Eliza M.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Faria, Christina D. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Grip strength, commonly evaluated with the handgrip dynamometer, is a good indicator of upper limb (UL) function in stroke subjects and may reflect the global strength deficits of the whole paretic UL. The Modified Sphygmomanometer Test (MST) also provides objective and adequate measures at low-cost. Objective: To assess whether grip strength values obtained by using the MST and those obtained by using a handgrip dynamometer would present similar correlations with the global strength and motor function of the paretic UL in subjects with stroke, both in the subacute and chronic phases. Method: Measures of grip strength (MST and handgrip dynamometer), UL global strength (MST and hand-held dynamometer), and UL motor function (Fugl-Meyer motor assessment scale) were obtained with 33 subacute and 44 chronic stroke subjects. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated and Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate predictor variables of grip strength (α=0.05). Results: Significant correlations of similar magnitude were found between measures of global strength of the paretic UL and grip strength assessed with both the MST (0.66≤r≤0.78) and handgrip dynamometer (0.66≤r≤0.78) and between UL motor function and grip strength assessed with both the MST (0.50≤rs≤0.51) and hand-held dynamometer (0.50≤rs≤0.63) in subacute and chronic stroke subjects. Only global strength remained as a significant predictor variable of grip strength for the MST (0.43≤R2≤0.61) and for the handgrip dynamometer (0.44≤R2≤0.61) for both stroke subgroups. Conclusion: Grip strength assessed with the MST could be used to report paretic UL global strength. PMID:26647752

  1. Strength Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Nutrition & Fitness Center Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Compulsive Exercise Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries Are Steroids Worth the Risk? Sports Supplements Kickboxing Yoga A Guide to Eating for Sports Contact Us ...

  2. Effects of short-term training combining strength and balance exercises on maximal strength and upright standing steadiness in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Penzer, Félix; Duchateau, Jacques; Baudry, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two training programmes of 6 weeks combining strength and balance exercises in different proportions. One training programme [n=10; 71.4 (6.3) years] consisted mainly of strength exercises (ST) and the other programme [n=8; 71.4 (6.4) years] included a majority of balance exercises (BT). Maximal strength of lower leg muscles and centre of pressure (CoP) steadiness during upright stance in various sensory conditions were measured before and after training. The input-output relation of motor evoked potential (MEP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation and H reflex was also assessed in soleus during upright standing. The maximal strength of the ankle plantar flexor muscles increased after training programmes (p<0.001) with a trend for greater gain in ST (+35.7%) compared with BT (+20.8%, p=0.055). The gain in strength was positively correlated with the increase in voluntary activation (p<0.001). Both training programmes decreased maximal amplitude and mean fluctuations of CoP displacements recorded in the backward-forward direction when standing on a foam mat (p<0.05) but not on a rigid surface. The electromyographic activity of the ankle plantar flexor muscles during upright standing decreased (p<0.05) after training but not for the tibialis anterior. Results obtained for H reflex and MEP input-output relations suggest an increased efficacy of Ia afferents to activate low-threshold motor neurones and a decrease in corticospinal excitability after training. This study indicates that short-term training combining strength and balance exercises increases maximal strength and induces change in the neural control of lower leg muscles during upright standing.

  3. Motor unit synchronization in FDI and biceps brachii muscles of strength-trained males.

    PubMed

    Fling, Brett W; Christie, Anita; Kamen, Gary

    2009-10-01

    Motor unit (MU) synchronization is the simultaneous or near-simultaneous firing of two MUs which occurs more often than would be expected by chance. The present study sought to investigate the effects of exercise training, muscle group, and force level, by comparing the magnitude of synchronization in the biceps brachii (BB) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles of untrained and strength-trained college-aged males at two force levels, 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 80% MVC. MU action potentials were recorded directly via an intramuscular needle electrode. The magnitude of synchronization was assessed using previously-reported synchronization indices: k', E, and CIS. Synchronization was significantly higher in the FDI than in the BB. Greater synchronization was observed in the strength-trained group with CIS, but not with E or k'. Also, synchronization was significantly greater at 80% MVC than at 30% MVC with E, but only moderately greater with CIS and there was no force difference with k'. Synchronization prevalence was found to be greater in the BB (80.1%) than in the FDI (71.5%). Thus, although the evidence is a bit equivocal, it appears that MU synchronization is greater at higher forces, and greater in strength-trained individuals than in untrained subjects.

  4. Alterations of Muscular Strength and Left and Right Limb Balance in Weightlifters after an 8-week Balance Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Hwun; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Kwi Baek; Lee, Sung Soo; Shin, Ki ok

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Balance is generally defined as the ability to maintain the body's center of gravity within its base of support and may be categorized by either static or dynamic balance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of balance training on strength, and the functional balance ability of elite weightlifters. [Subjects] Thirty-two elite weightlifters were recruited for the present study. They were divided into exercise groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students) and control groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students). [Methods] Body compositions were measured by the electrical impedance method, and a Helmas system was used to measure basic physical capacities. The muscular function test was conducted using a Cybex 770. [Results] There were no significant changes in body composition after the training. In contrast, significant changes were found in the number of push-ups, one-leg standing time with eyes closed, and upper body back extension. Interestingly, only the left arm external rotation value after the exercise training program showed a statistically significant difference from the baseline value. [Conclusion] The peak torque values of shoulder internal rotation and knee extension were significantly changed compared to the baseline values, which mean subjects showed balance of their muscular power. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that an 8-week balance-training program would positively affect elite weightlifters' balance ability and flexibility. We think that well-balanced muscular functionality may enhance athletes' sport performance. PMID:24259879

  5. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; [Formula: see text], 44 ± 11 mL kg(-1)·min(-1)) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk(-1)) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P < 0.001), HIT+RT (28.7 ± 5.3%; ES, 1.17 ± 0.19; P < 0.001), and MICT+RT (27.5 ± 4.6%, ES, 0.81 ± 0.12; P < 0.001); however, the magnitude of this change was greater for RT vs. both HIT+RT (7.4 ± 8.7%; ES, 0.40 ± 0.40) and MICT+RT (8.2 ± 9.9%; ES, 0.60 ± 0.45). There were no substantial between-group differences in 1-RM bench press strength gain. RT induced greater changes in peak CMJ force vs. HIT+RT (6.8 ± 4.5%; ES, 0.41 ± 0.28) and MICT+RT (9.9 ± 11.2%; ES, 0.54 ± 0.65), and greater improvements in maximal CMJ rate of force development (RFD) vs. HIT+RT (24.1 ± 26.1%; ES, 0.72 ± 0.88). Lower-body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower

  6. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Jackson J.; Bartlett, Jonathan D.; Hanson, Erik D.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Bishop, David J.

    2016-01-01

    We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; V˙O2peak, 44 ± 11 mL kg−1·min−1) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk−1) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P < 0.001), HIT+RT (28.7 ± 5.3%; ES, 1.17 ± 0.19; P < 0.001), and MICT+RT (27.5 ± 4.6%, ES, 0.81 ± 0.12; P < 0.001); however, the magnitude of this change was greater for RT vs. both HIT+RT (7.4 ± 8.7%; ES, 0.40 ± 0.40) and MICT+RT (8.2 ± 9.9%; ES, 0.60 ± 0.45). There were no substantial between-group differences in 1-RM bench press strength gain. RT induced greater changes in peak CMJ force vs. HIT+RT (6.8 ± 4.5%; ES, 0.41 ± 0.28) and MICT+RT (9.9 ± 11.2%; ES, 0.54 ± 0.65), and greater improvements in maximal CMJ rate of force development (RFD) vs. HIT+RT (24.1 ± 26.1%; ES, 0.72 ± 0.88). Lower-body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower

  7. Combined Aerobic/Strength Training and Energy Expenditure in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Bickel, C. Scott; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William; McCarthy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of three different frequencies of combined resistance and aerobic training on total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) in a group of older adults. Methods Seventy-two women, 60 – 74 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 day/week of aerobic and 1 day/week of resistance (1+1); 2 days/week of aerobic and 2 days/week resistance (2+2); or 3 days/week aerobic and 3 days/week resistance (3+3). Body composition (DXA), feeling of fatigue, depression, and vigor (questionnaire), strength (1RM), serum cytokines (ELISA), maximal oxygen uptake (progressive treadmill test), resting energy expenditure, and TEE were measured before and after 16 weeks of training. Aerobic training consisted of 40 minutes of aerobic exercise at 80% maximum heart rate and resistance training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions for 10 different exercises at 80% of one repetition maximum. Results All groups increased fat free mass, strength and aerobic fitness and decreased fat mass. No changes were observed in cytokines or perceptions of fatigue/depression. No time by group interaction was found for any fitness/body composition variable. TEE and AEE increased with the 2+2 group but not with the other two groups. Non-exercise training AEE (NEAT) increased significantly in the 2+2 group (+200 kcal/day), group 1×1 showed a trend for an increase (+68 kcal/day) and group 3+3 decreased significantly (−150 kcal/day). Conclusion Results indicate that 3+3 training may inhibit NEAT by being too time consuming and does not induce superior training adaptations to 1+1 and 2+2 training. Key words: physical activity, older adults, total energy expenditure, maximum oxygen uptake. PMID:23774582

  8. Influences of Fascicle Length During Isometric Training on Improvement of Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Araki, Kojiro; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    Tanaka, H, Ikezoe, T, Umehara, J, Nakamura, M, Umegaki, H, Kobayashi, T, Nishishita, S, Fujita, K, Araki, K, and Ichihashi, N. Influences of fascicle length during isometric training on improvement of muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3249-3255, 2016-This study investigated whether low-intensity isometric training would elicit a greater improvement in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at the same fascicle length, rather than the joint angle, adopted during training. Sixteen healthy women (21.8 ± 1.5 years) were randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group. Before (Pre) and after (Post) training, isometric plantarflexion MVCs were measured every 10° through the range of ankle joint position from 20° dorsiflexion to 30° plantarflexion (i.e., 6 ankle angles). Medial gastrocnemius fascicle length was also measured at each position, using B-mode ultrasound under 3 conditions of muscle activation: at rest, 30%MVC at respective angles, and MVC. Plantarflexion resistance training at an angle of 20° plantarflexion was performed 3 days a week for 4 weeks at 30%MVC using 3 sets of twenty 3-second isometric contractions. Maximum voluntary contraction in the intervention group increased at 0 and 10° plantarflexion (0°; Pre: 81.2 ± 26.5 N·m, Post: 105.0 ± 21.6 N·m, 10°; Pre: 63.0 ± 23.6 N·m, Post: 81.3 ± 20.3 N·m), which was not the angle used in training (20°). However, the fascicle length adopted in training at 20° plantarflexion and 30%MVC was similar to the value at 0 or 10° plantarflexion at MVC. Low-intensity isometric training at a shortened muscle length may be effective for improving MVC at a lengthened muscle length because of specificity of the fascicle length than the joint angle.

  9. Molecular impact of clenbuterol and isometric strength training on rat EDL muscles.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Rémi; Cavalié, Hélian; Lac, Gérard; Clottes, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Clenbuterol, a beta2-adrenergic-receptor agonist, is known to provoke muscle hypertrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype change. A more glycolytic phenotype should be paralleled by changes in muscle glycolytic metabolism. Two groups (n=16 for each) of 3-month-old male Wistar rats (UCL: untrained clenbuterol, and ECL: exercised clenbuterol) received a chronic administration of clenbuterol (2 mg/kg body weight/day). Two other groups of animals (U: untrained and E: exercised), were given a 0.9% NaCl solution instead of clenbuterol. E and ECL animals followed an 8-week progressive isometric force strength-training program. Both clenbuterol administration and training resulted in an increase in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) mass despite the fact that this muscle was indirectly mobilised during isometric force strength training. Clenbuterol and training induced a consistent slow-to-fast phenotype change without drastically increasing specific activities of glycolytic enzymes. Except for GAPDH and hexokinase, modifications in glycolytic-enzyme-specific activities were not explained by transcriptional changes. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was not affected by clenbuterol but was strongly augmented by training. In EDL of ECL rats, both treatments presented an opposite effect compensating each other. GLUT1 mRNA expression was augmented in EDL of UCL and ECL animals, whereas monocarboxylate transporter 1 mRNA amounts were decreased in EDL of UCL rats. Citrate synthase activity was reduced by clenbuterol treatment but remained unchanged in EDL of E animals. Creatine kinase activity was enhanced only by clenbuterol alone. These data show that clenbuterol-induced muscle hypertrophy and slow-to-fast phenotype changes are not associated with a glycolytic-enzyme-activity increase. They also suggest that in EDL isometric force strength training can reverse clenbuterol-induced molecular adaptations.

  10. Changes in unilateral upper limb muscular strength and EMG activity following a 16 week strength training intervention survivors of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hagstrom, Amanda D; Shorter, Kathleen A; Marshall, Paul W M

    2017-03-08

    Upper limb strength deficits are frequently observed following breast cancer and its treatments. It is currently unknown whether these unilateral deficits can be corrected by a standard bilateral strength training intervention. Twenty three survivors of breast cancer were included in this analysis. Fourteen performed a 16 week resistance training (RT) intervention, 9 were assigned to a usual care waitlist control group. Electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii were monitored during three maximal isometric contractions and a fatiguing endurance task. Muscular strength was significantly different between limbs at the start of the intervention (p = 0.02). EMG amplitude and median frequency did not differ between limbs at the start of the intervention. Muscular strength was significantly different between limbs in the RT group at the end of the intervention (p = 0.01). EMG amplitude did not differ between limbs or groups at the end of the intervention. Bilateral strength training did not correct the unilateral strength deficit observed in this group of survivors of breast cancer. Periods of unilateral strength training should be implemented into periodised RT programs in this cohort.

  11. Elastic Bands in Combination With Free Weights in Strength Training: Neuromuscular Effects.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Kolnes, Maria K; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the effects of a variable vs. a constant lower limb resistance training program on muscle strength, muscle activation, and ballistic muscle performance at different knee angles. Thirty-two females were randomized to a constant resistance training free-weight group (FWG) or a variable resistance training group using free weights in combination with elastic bands (EBG). Two variations of the squat exercise (back squat and split) were performed 2 days per week for 10 weeks. Knee extensor maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and countermovement jump were assessed at knee angles of 60, 90, and 120° before and after the intervention. During the MVCs, muscle activation of the superficial knee extensor muscles was measured using surface electromyography. The FWG increased their MVCs at 60 and 90° (24 and 15%, respectively), whereas the EBG only increased significantly at 60° (15%). The FWG increased their jump height significantly at all angles (12-16%), whereas the EBG only improved significantly at 60 and 90° (15 and 10%, respectively). Both groups improved their 6-repetition maximum free-weight squat performance (EBG: 25% and FWG: 23%). There were no significant changes in muscle activation. In conclusion, constant and variable resistance training provided similar increases in dynamic and isometric strength, and ballistic muscle performance, albeit most consistently for the group training only with free weights.

  12. The effect of training during treatment with chemotherapy on muscle strength and endurance capacity: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Moll, Christel C A; Schep, Goof; Vreugdenhil, Art; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Husson, Olga

    2016-05-01

    Background Treatment of cancer with chemotherapy decreases endurance capacity and muscle strength. Training during chemotherapy might prevent this. There are no clear guidelines concerning which type of training and which training dose are effective. This review aims to gain insight into the different training modalities during chemotherapy and the effects of such training to improve endurance capacity and muscle strength in order to obtain the knowledge to compose a future training program which trains cancer patients in the most effective way. Material and methods A systematic search of PubMed was carried out. In total, 809 studies of randomized controlled trials studying the effects of training during chemotherapy on endurance capacity and muscle strength were considered. Only 14 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The studies were assessed on methodological quality by using Cochrane criteria for randomized controlled trials. Results The quality of the studies was generally poor and the study populations varied considerably as the training programs were very heterogeneous. Variables of endurance capacity reported beneficial effects in 10 groups (59%). Increases due to training ranged from 8% to 31%. Endurance capacity decreased in nine of 13 control groups (69%), which ranged from 1% to 32%. Muscle strength improved significantly in 17 of 18 intervention groups (94%), ranging from 2% to 38%. Muscle strength also improved in 11 of 14 control groups (79%), but this increase was only minimal, ranging from 1.3% to 6.5%. Conclusions This review indicates that training during chemotherapy may help in preventing the decrease in muscle strength and endurance capacity. It is important to know which training intensity and duration is the most effective in training cancer patients, to provide a training program suitable for every cancer patient. Training should be based on good research and should be implemented into international guidelines and daily practice. More

  13. Investigating the Photon Strength Function to Discrete Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedeking, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Burke, J. T.; Hatarik, R.; Lesher, S. R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Krtička, M.; Allmond, J. M.; Basunia, M. S.; Fallon, P.; Firestone, R. B.; Goldblum, B. L.; Lake, P. T.; Lee, I.-Y.; Paschalis, S.; Petri, M.; Phair, L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade several measurements in medium mass nuclei have reported a low-energy enhancement in the photon strength function. Although, much effort has been invested in unravelling the mysteries of this effect, its physical origin is still not understood. Here, a completely model-independent experimental approach to investigate the possible existence of this enhancement is presented. The experiment was designed to study statistical feeding from the quasi-continuum (below the neutron separation energy) to individual low-lying discrete levels in 95Mo produced in the (d,p) reaction. A key aspect to successfully study gamma decay from the region of high level-density is the detection and extraction of correlated particle-gamma-gamma events which was accomplished using an array of Clover HPGe detectors and large area annular silicon detectors. The entrance channel excitation energy into the residual nucleus produced in the reaction was inferred from the detected proton energies in the silicon detectors. Gating on gamma-transitions originating from low-lying discrete levels specifies the state fed by statistical gamma-rays. Any particle-gamma-gamma event in combination with specific energy sum requirements ensures a clean and unambiguous determination of the initial and final state of the observed gamma rays. With these requirements the statistical feeding to individual discrete levels is extracted on an event-by-event basis. The latest results are presented and compared to 95Mo photon strength function data measured at the University of Oslo by Guttormsen et al. In particular, questions regarding the existence of the low-energy enhancement in the photon strength function are addressed.

  14. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Functional Capacity in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, André Luiz Lisboa; de Melo, Thiago Araújo; Neves, Daniela; Luna, Julianne; Esquivel, Mateus Souza; Guimarães, André Raimundo França; Borges, Daniel Lago; Petto, Jefferson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac surgery is a highly complex procedure which generates worsening of lung function and decreased inspiratory muscle strength. The inspiratory muscle training becomes effective for muscle strengthening and can improve functional capacity. Objective To investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods This is a clinical randomized controlled trial with patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia. Patients were divided into two groups: control group and training. Preoperatively, were assessed the maximum inspiratory pressure and the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test. From the third postoperative day, the control group was managed according to the routine of the unit while the training group underwent daily protocol of respiratory muscle training until the day of discharge. Results 50 patients, 27 (54%) males were included, with a mean age of 56.7±13.9 years. After the analysis, the training group had significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure (69.5±14.9 vs. 83.1±19.1 cmH2O, P=0.0073) and 6-minute walk test (422.4±102.8 vs. 502.4±112.8 m, P=0.0031). Conclusion We conclude that inspiratory muscle training was effective in improving functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in this sample of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:27556313

  15. Adaptations in upper-body maximal strength and power output resulting from long-term resistance training in experienced strength-power athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to observe changes in maximal upper-body strength and power and shifts in the load-power curve across a multiyear period in experienced resistance trainers. Twelve professional rugby league players who regularly performed combined maximal strength and power training were observed across a 4-year period with test data reported every 2 years (years 1998, 2000, and 2002). Upper-body strength was assessed by the 1 repetition maximum bench press and maximum power during bench press throws (BT Pmax) with various barbell resistances of 40-80 kg. During the initial testing, players also were identified as elite (n = 6) or subelite (n = 6), depending upon whether they participated in the elite first-division national league or second-division league. This subgrouping allowed for a comparison of the scope of changes dependent upon initial strength and training experience. The subelite group was significantly younger, less strong, and less powerful than the elite group, but no other difference existed in height or body mass in 1998. Across the 4-year period, significant increases in strength occurred for the group as a whole and larger increases were observed for the subelite than the elite group, verifying the limited scope that exists for strength gain in more experienced, elite resistance-trained athletes. A similar trend occurred for changes in BT Pmax. This long-term observation confirms that the rate of progress in strength and power development diminishes with increased strength levels and resistance training experience. Furthermore, it also indicates that strength and power can still be increased despite a high volume of concurrent resistance and endurance training.

  16. Heterogeneity in resistance training-induced muscle strength and mass responses in men and women of different ages.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Juha P; Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Holviala, Jarkko; Sillanpää, Elina; Karavirta, Laura; Sallinen, Janne; Mikkola, Jussi; Valkeinen, Heli; Mero, Antti; Hulmi, Juha J; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity recommendations for public health include typically muscle-strengthening activities for a minimum of 2 days a week. The range of inter-individual variation in responses to resistance training (RT) aiming to improve health and well-being requires to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify high and low responders for RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength and to examine possible effects of age and sex on these responses. Previously collected data of untrained healthy men and women (age 19 to 78 years, n = 287 with 72 controls) were pooled for the present study. Muscle size and strength changed during RT are 4.8 ± 6.1 % (range from -11 to 30 %) and 21.1 ± 11.5 % (range from -8 to 60 %) compared to pre-RT, respectively. Age and sex did not affect to the RT responses. Fourteen percent and 12 % of the subjects were defined as high responders (>1 standard deviation (SD) from the group mean) for the RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength, respectively. When taking into account the results of non-training controls (upper 95 % CI), 29 and 7 % of the subjects were defined as low responders for the RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength, respectively. The muscle size and strength responses varied extensively between the subjects regardless of subject's age and sex. Whether these changes are associated with, e.g., functional capacity and metabolic health improvements due to RT requires further studies.

  17. The effect of training volume and intensity on improvements in muscular strength and size in resistance-trained men

    PubMed Central

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Townsend, Jeremy R; Wells, Adam J; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Boone, Carleigh H; Miramonti, Amelia A; Wang, Ran; LaMonica, Michael B; Fukuda, David H; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    This investigation compared the effect of high-volume (VOL) versus high-intensity (INT) resistance training on stimulating changes in muscle size and strength in resistance-trained men. Following a 2-week preparatory phase, participants were randomly assigned to either a high-volume (VOL; n = 14, 4 × 10–12 repetitions with ∼70% of one repetition maximum [1RM], 1-min rest intervals) or a high-intensity (INT; n = 15, 4 × 3–5 repetitions with ∼90% of 1RM, 3-min rest intervals) training group for 8 weeks. Pre- and posttraining assessments included lean tissue mass via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, muscle cross-sectional area and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles via ultrasound images, and 1RM strength in the back squat and bench press (BP) exercises. Blood samples were collected at baseline, immediately post, 30 min post, and 60 min postexercise at week 3 (WK3) and week 10 (WK10) to assess the serum testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), cortisol, and insulin concentrations. Compared to VOL, greater improvements (P < 0.05) in lean arm mass (5.2 ± 2.9% vs. 2.2 ± 5.6%) and 1RM BP (14.8 ± 9.7% vs. 6.9 ± 9.0%) were observed for INT. Compared to INT, area under the curve analysis revealed greater (P < 0.05) GH and cortisol responses for VOL at WK3 and cortisol only at WK10. Compared to WK3, the GH and cortisol responses were attenuated (P < 0.05) for VOL at WK10, while the IGF1 response was reduced (P < 0.05) for INT. It appears that high-intensity resistance training stimulates greater improvements in some measures of strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men during a short-term training period. PMID:26272733

  18. Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kraemer, William J; Blimkie, Cameron J R; Jeffreys, Ian; Micheli, Lyle J; Nitka, Mike; Rowland, Thomas W

    2009-08-01

    Faigenbaum, AD, Kraemer, WJ, Blimkie, CJR, Jeffreys, I, Micheli, LJ, Nitka, M, and Rowland, TW. Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S60-S79, 2009-Current recommendations suggest that school-aged youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate and enjoyable and involves a variety of activities (). Not only is regular physical activity essential for normal growth and development, but also a physically active lifestyle during the pediatric years may help to reduce the risk of developing some chronic diseases later in life (). In addition to aerobic activities such as swimming and bicycling, research increasingly indicates that resistance training can offer unique benefits for children and adolescents when appropriately prescribed and supervised (). The qualified acceptance of youth resistance training by medical, fitness, and sport organizations is becoming universal ().Nowadays, comprehensive school-based programs are specifically designed to enhance health-related components of physical fitness, which include muscular strength (). In addition, the health club and sport conditioning industry is getting more involved in the youth fitness market. In the U.S.A., the number of health club members between the ages of 6 and 17 years continues to increase () and a growing number of private sport conditioning centers now cater to young athletes. Thus, as more children and adolescents resistance train in schools, health clubs, and sport training centers, it is imperative to determine safe, effective, and enjoyable practices by which resistance training can improve the health, fitness, and sports performance of younger populations.The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) recognizes and supports the premise that many of the benefits associated with adult resistance training

  19. Effects of resistance training under hypoxic conditions on muscle hypertrophy and strength.

    PubMed

    Kurobe, Kazumichi; Huang, Zhong; Nishiwaki, Masato; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Ogita, Futoshi

    2015-05-01

    It has been reported that exercise under hypoxic conditions elevates acute growth hormone secretion after exercise compared with that under normoxic conditions. This study examined the influence of resistance training under moderate hypoxic conditions on muscle thickness, strength and hormonal responses. Thirteen healthy men were assigned into two groups matched for physical fitness level and then randomized into two groups that performed exercise under normoxic (FiO2  = 20·9%) or hypoxic (FiO2  = 12·7%) conditions. Three sets of elbow extensions with unilateral arm were performed to exhaustion at a workload of a 10 repetition maximum with 1-minute intervals for 3 days per week for 8 weeks. The thickness of the biceps and triceps brachii was determined using B-mode ultrasound before and after training. Blood sampling was carried out before and after exercise, as well as during the first and last training sessions. Increase in the thickness of the triceps brachii in trained arm was significantly greater in the hypoxic group than in the normoxic group. The 10 repetition maximum was significantly increased not only in the trained arm but also in the untrained arm in both groups. Serum growth hormone concentrations after exercise were significantly higher in the hypoxic group than in the normoxic group on both the first and last training sessions. These findings suggest that hypoxic resistance training elicits more muscle hypertrophy associated with a higher growth hormone secretion, but that the greater muscle hypertrophy did not necessarily contribute a greater gain of muscle strength.

  20. Increased inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength following respiratory muscle strength training (RMST) in two patients with late-onset Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Harrison N; Moss, Tronda; Edwards, Laurie; Kishnani, Priya S

    2011-11-01

    Respiratory muscle strength training (RMST) is an exercise-based intervention which targets respiratory muscle weakness. We implemented RMST in two patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD), both who had received long-term enzyme replacement therapy and had severe respiratory weakness. Over 16-32 weeks, inspiratory muscle strength increased by 73-74%. Expiratory muscle strength increased 31-48% over 12-22 weeks. These findings suggest that RMST may increase respiratory muscle strength, even in the setting of LOPD and severe baseline weakness.

  1. Muscle Strength Enhancement Following Home-Based Virtual Cycling Training in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Liaw, Mei-Yun; Chung, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chung-Yao

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first well-designed randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a novel home-based virtual cycling training (hVCT) program for improving muscle strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-12 years were randomly assigned to an hVCT group (n = 13) or a…

  2. Cardiorespiratory Adaptations during Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Training in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Yli-Peltola, Kaisu; Abbiss, Chris R; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance followed by strength training (ES, men n = 16; women n = 15), the reverse exercise order (SE, men n = 18, women n = 13) and concurrent endurance and strength training performed on alternating days (AD, men n = 21, women n = 18) on cardiorespiratory parameters. Peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak) and oxygen consumption at sub-maximal power outputs ([Formula: see text]O2submax) of 50 to 175 Watts in men and 50 to 125 Watts in women were assessed during an incremental cycling test both before and after 24 weeks of training. Increases in [Formula: see text]O2peak in both men and women were statistically larger in AD (18±9% and 25±11%) compared to ES (7±9% and 12±12%, p = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively) and SE (7±9% and 10±8%, p = 0.005 and 0.008, respectively). No statistical group interaction was observed for [Formula: see text]O2submax in men, but in women [Formula: see text]O2submax was statistically lower at week 24 in ES compared to AD at 75 W (-2±6% vs. +3±6%, p = 0.027) and 125 W (-4±5% vs. +2±5%, p = 0.010). These findings indicate that endurance and strength training performed on alternating days may optimize the adaptations in [Formula: see text]O2peak in both sexes, while performing ES training in women may optimize cardiorespiratory fitness at sub-maximal power outputs.

  3. Cardiorespiratory Adaptations during Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Training in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Moritz; Yli-Peltola, Kaisu; Abbiss, Chris R.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance followed by strength training (ES, men n = 16; women n = 15), the reverse exercise order (SE, men n = 18, women n = 13) and concurrent endurance and strength training performed on alternating days (AD, men n = 21, women n = 18) on cardiorespiratory parameters. Peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) and oxygen consumption at sub-maximal power outputs (V˙O2submax) of 50 to 175 Watts in men and 50 to 125 Watts in women were assessed during an incremental cycling test both before and after 24 weeks of training. Increases in V˙O2peak in both men and women were statistically larger in AD (18±9% and 25±11%) compared to ES (7±9% and 12±12%, p = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively) and SE (7±9% and 10±8%, p = 0.005 and 0.008, respectively). No statistical group interaction was observed for V˙O2submax in men, but in women V˙O2submax was statistically lower at week 24 in ES compared to AD at 75 W (-2±6% vs. +3±6%, p = 0.027) and 125 W (-4±5% vs. +2±5%, p = 0.010). These findings indicate that endurance and strength training performed on alternating days may optimize the adaptations in V˙O2peak in both sexes, while performing ES training in women may optimize cardiorespiratory fitness at sub-maximal power outputs. PMID:26418015

  4. The reliability of evaluation of hip muscle strength in rehabilitation robot walking training.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuchen; Zhou, Yue; Yu, Lili; Gu, Rui; Cui, Yao; Hu, Chunying

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraclass correlation coefficient in obtaining the torque of the hip muscle strength during a robot-assisted rehabilitation treatment. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients (15 males, 9 females) with spinal cord injury participated in the study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to walk during robot-assisted rehabilitation, and the torque of the muscle strength which was measured at hip joint flexion angles of -15, -10, -5, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient of the torque of the hip muscle strength measured by the rehabilitation training robot was excellent. [Conclusion] Our results show that measurement of torque can be used as an objective assessment of treatment with RAT.

  5. The reliability of evaluation of hip muscle strength in rehabilitation robot walking training

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiuchen; Zhou, Yue; Yu, Lili; Gu, Rui; Cui, Yao; Hu, Chunying

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraclass correlation coefficient in obtaining the torque of the hip muscle strength during a robot-assisted rehabilitation treatment. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients (15 males, 9 females) with spinal cord injury participated in the study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to walk during robot-assisted rehabilitation, and the torque of the muscle strength which was measured at hip joint flexion angles of −15, −10, −5, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient of the torque of the hip muscle strength measured by the rehabilitation training robot was excellent. [Conclusion] Our results show that measurement of torque can be used as an objective assessment of treatment with RAT. PMID:26644646

  6. Effects of 12-week concurrent high-intensity interval strength and endurance training programme on physical performance in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Laredo-Aguilera, José A; Muñoz-Jiménez, Marcos; Latorre-Román, Pedro A

    2017-03-13

    This study aimed to analyse the effect of 12-week low-volume HIIT-based concurrent training programme on body composition, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, mobility and balance in older adults, as well as to compare it with a low- moderate-intensity continuous training. 90 active older adults were randomly assigned to experimental (EG, n=47), and control (CG, n=43) groups. Body composition and physical functioning were assessed before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a 12-week intervention. A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for an interaction between training programme and groups. The time x group interaction revealed no significant between-group differences at pre-test (p≥0.05). The group x time interaction showed significant improvements for the EG in body composition parameters (p<0.05) and physical functioning (muscle strength: p<0.001; mobility: p<0.001; and balance: p<0.05); while the CG remained unchanged (p≥0.05). This HIIT-based concurrent training programme led to greater improvements in body composition, muscle strength, mobility and balance in healthy older people than a regular low- moderate-intensity continuous training, despite the reduction in overall training volume.

  7. AT1 receptors are necessary for eccentric training-induced hypertrophy and strength gains in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McBride, Todd A

    2006-03-01

    This study was undertaken to measure the response of skeletal muscle to eccentric contractions (EC) in the presence of the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, losartan. It was hypothesized that blocking AT1 receptors prior to an initial bout of EC would prevent the muscle from developing the normal adaptation to EC as demonstrated by the repeated bout effect. It was also hypothesized that continuous AT1 receptor blockade during EC training would significantly reduce muscle hypertrophy and strength gains that occur with repeated EC. Rats received losartan in their drinking water at either a low dose (20 mg (kg body weight)-1 day-1) or a high dose (40 mg (kg body weight)-1 day-1). Each bout of EC consisted of a total of 24 contractions. Rats were assigned to four groups: a single acute bout of EC (n=6); two bouts of EC separated by 14 days (n=8); and 4 weeks of training twice a week on the low dose (n=5) or the high dose (n=9). There was no effect of AT1 receptor blockade on the initial loss of function following a single acute bout of EC, or on the repeated bout effect following a second exposure to EC. AT1 receptor blockade did alter the results of EC training, in both the low and high dose groups. Losartan treatments prevented EC training-induced increases in muscle wet and dry weights compared to untreated rats. Finally, the low and high dose losartan treatments also prevented an increase in muscle contractile force following EC training compared to the untreated group. Functional AT1 receptors are therefore not necessary for an acute adaptation to EC as demonstrated by the repeated bout effect, but are necessary for muscle hypertrophy and increased contractile force associated with EC training.

  8. Effects of strength training on motor performance skills in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Michael; Vom Heede, Andreas; Matthews, Maria; Mester, Joachim

    2011-05-01

    The recent literature delineates resistance training in children and adolescents to be effective and safe. However, only little is known about the transfer of achieved strength gains to athletic performance. The present meta-analysis revealed a combined mean effect size for motor skill types jumping, running, and throwing of 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33-0.71). Effect sizes for each of aforementioned skill types separately were 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34-0.74), 0.53 (95% CI: 0.23-0.83), and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.19-1.79) respectively. Furthermore, it could be shown that younger subjects and nonathletes showed higher gains in motor performance following resistance training than their counterparts and that specific resistance training regimes were not advantageous over traditional resistance training programs. Finally, a positive dose response relationship for "intensity" could be found in subgroups using traditional training regimens. These results emphasize that resistance training provides an effective way for enhancing motor performance in children and adolescents.

  9. Muscle conduction velocity, strength, neural activity, and morphological changes after eccentric and concentric training.

    PubMed

    Cadore, E L; González-Izal, M; Pallarés, J G; Rodriguez-Falces, J; Häkkinen, K; Kraemer, W J; Pinto, R S; Izquierdo, M

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the effects of concentric and eccentric training on neuromuscular adaptations in young subjects. Twenty-two men and women were assigned to one of two groups: concentric (CON, n = 11) and eccentric (ECC, n = 11) training. Training consisted of 6 weeks of isokinetic exercise, performed twice weekly, starting with two sets of eight repetitions, and progressing to five sets of 10 repetitions. Subjects were tested in strength variables [concentric, eccentric, and isometric peak torque (PT), and rate of force development (RFD)], muscle conduction velocity (CV), neuromuscular activity, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle thickness, and echo intensity as determined by ultrasonography. There were similar increases in the concentric and eccentric PTs in both the CON and ECC groups (P < 0.01), but only the ECC group showed an increase in isometric PT (P < 0.001). Similarly, both groups exhibited increased VL muscle thickness, CV, and RFD, and reduced VL echo intensity (P < 0.05). Significant correlations were observed among the relative changes in the neuromuscular outcomes and training variables (e.g., total work, average PT) (r = 0.68-0.75, P < 0.05). The results showed that both training types similarly improved dynamic PT, CV, RFD, and muscle thickness and quality during the early weeks of training.

  10. The Effects of Eccentric, Velocity-Based Training on Strength and Power in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    DOLEZAL, SAMANTHA M.; FRESE, DEREK L.; LLEWELLYN, TAMRA L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat. There were no significant differences between the VBT results and the VEB results. However, there were significant improvements between the pre-test and post-test measures for each group. There were increases in 1RM projected squat for VEB men, VBT men, and VBT women. There were also significant improvements in the VEB male vertical jump and medicine ball put test pre- to post-intervention. For track and field athletes, both programs may result in strength and power gains, however, the results cannot be used to conclude that one resistance training program is superior. PMID:27990226

  11. The Effects of Eccentric, Velocity-Based Training on Strength and Power in Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Samantha M; Frese, Derek L; Llewellyn, Tamra L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat. There were no significant differences between the VBT results and the VEB results. However, there were significant improvements between the pre-test and post-test measures for each group. There were increases in 1RM projected squat for VEB men, VBT men, and VBT women. There were also significant improvements in the VEB male vertical jump and medicine ball put test pre- to post-intervention. For track and field athletes, both programs may result in strength and power gains, however, the results cannot be used to conclude that one resistance training program is superior.

  12. Effect of strength training on human patella tendon mechanical properties of older individuals

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, N D; Maganaris, C N; Narici, M V

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of strength training on the mechanical properties of the human patella tendon of older individuals. Subjects were assigned to training (n = 9; age 74.3 ± 3.5 years, body mass 69.7 ± 14.8 kg and height 163.4 ± 9.1 cm, mean ±s.d.) and control (n = 9; age 67.1 ± 2 years, body mass 73.5 ± 14.9 kg and height 168.3 ± 11.5 cm) groups. Strength training (two series of 10 repetitions at 80 % of five-repetition maximum) was performed three times per week for 14 weeks using leg extension and leg press exercises. Measurements of tendon elongation during a ramp isometric knee extension were performed before and after training and control periods in vivo using ultrasonography. Training caused a decreased tendon elongation and strain at all levels of force and stress (P < 0.01). Baseline tendon elongation and strain at maximal tendon load were 4.7 ± 1.1 mm and 9.9 ± 2.2 %, respectively (maximum force: 3346 ± 1168 N; maximum stress: 40 ± 11 MPa). After training, these values decreased to 2.9 ± 1.2 mm and 5.9 ± 2.4 % (P < 0.01), respectively (maximum force: 3555 ± 1257 N; maximum stress: 42 ± 11 MPa). Tendon stiffness increased by 65 % (2187 ± 713 to 3609 ± 1220 N mm−1; P < 0.05) and Young's modulus increased by 69 % (1.3 ± 0.3 to 2.2 ± 0.8 GPa; P < 0.01). As a result of these changes, the rate of torque development increased by 27 % (482.8 ± 302.5 to 612.6 ± 401 N m s−1; P < 0.01) following training. No significant changes occurred in any measured variables in the control group (P > 0.05). This study shows for the first time that strength training in old age increases the stiffness and Young's modulus of human tendons. This may reduce the risk of tendon injury in old age and has implications for contractile force production and the rapid execution of motor tasks. PMID:12626673

  13. Modulation of inflammatory response arising from high-intensity intermittent and concurrent strength training in physically active males.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; de Oliveira, Flaviane Poleto; Peres, Fernando Pierin; Rosa-Neto, José Cesar; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2017-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine: (i) the extent of an acute session of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) followed by a concurrent strength session (Conc) on the increase of systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and (ii) whether eight weeks of high intensity interval training plus concurrent strength training alters the acute inflammatory response and immune status. Ten recreationally active males (aged 26.9±4.3years) performed two experimental exercise sessions interspersed by eight weeks of HIIT plus concurrent strength training. The experimental exercise session was composed of a 5-km run on a treadmill (1:1 at 100% of maximal aerobic speed (MAS)), and after 10min of passive recovery, back squat exercises were performed (80% 1RM, four sets until exhaustion). Serum samples were collected after fasting, pre-HIIE, post-HIIE, Pre-Conc, Post-Conc, and 30 and 60min post-exercise session. The comparison between both concurrent exercise sessions was performed using repeated measure ANOVA, with the Bonferroni Post-hoc when necessary. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) presented a moment effect (F=6.72; p<0.05), with Post-Conc significantly higher than pre-HIIE, Post-HIIE, and 60min, only a tendency was found between pre-HIIE and post-HIIE (difference=-5.99; p=0.09). MCP-1 and IL-1ra did not present effects for condition, moment, or interaction. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) presented both moment and interaction effects (F=5.31 and 2.50; p=0.005 and 0.036). Pre-Conc and Post-Conc were significantly higher than Pre-HIIE. The interaction between before and after eight weeks of concurrent training probably occurred at Post-Conc (11.42±3.09pgmL(-1) and 8.88±1.29pgmL(-1)). In addition, maintenance of immune function was observed. Therefore, HIIE and concurrent strength exercise lead to an increase in cytokines response, but eight weeks of training program promoted anti-inflammatory response after an acute session of concurrent exercise.

  14. A component analysis of schedule thinning during functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Betz, Alison M; Fisher, Wayne W; Roane, Henry S; Mintz, Joslyn C; Owen, Todd M

    2013-01-01

    One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can effectively address this limitation. However, the extent to which each of these components contributes to the effectiveness of the overall approach remains uncertain. In the current investigation, we evaluated the first component by comparing rates of the FCR and problem behavior under mixed and multiple schedules and evaluated the second component by rapidly switching from dense mixed and multiple schedules to lean multiple schedules without gradually thinning the density of reinforcement. Results indicated that multiple schedules decreased the overall rate of reinforcement for the FCR and maintained the strength of the FCR and low rates of problem behavior without gradually thinning the reinforcement schedule.

  15. Maximal strength on different resistance training rowing exercises predicts start phase performance in elite kayakers.

    PubMed

    Ualí, Ismael; Herrero, Azael J; Garatachea, Nuria; Marín, Pedro J; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso; García-López, David

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship existing between maximum strength values in 2 common resistance training row exercises (bilateral bench pull [BBP] and one-arm cable row [OACR]) and short sprint performance in elite kayakers. Ten junior kayakers (5 women and 5 men) were tested on different days for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction in both exercises. Moreover, a 12-m sprint kayak was performed in a dew pond to record split times (2, 5, and 10 m), peak velocity, distance completed considering the first 8 strokes, and mean acceleration induced by right blade and left blade strokes. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed when right and left arms were compared in sprint testing or strength testing variables. Maximal strength values in BBP and OACR were significantly correlated with short sprint performance variables, showing the bilateral exercise with slightly stronger correlation coefficients than the unilateral seated row. Moreover, the relationship between strength testing and sprint testing variables is stronger when maximal force is measured through a dynamic approach (1RM) in comparison with an isometric approach. In conclusion, maximal strength in BBP and OACR is a good predictor of the start phase performance in elite sprint kayakers, mainly the 1RM value in BBP.

  16. Relationships between strength, sprint, and jump performance in well-trained youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; Stewart, Al; Bloom, Laurence; Clarkson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a clear relationship between absolute and relative strength and sprint and jump performance in adult athletes; however, this relationship in younger athletes has been less extensively studied. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the relationships between strength, sprint, and jump performances in well-trained youth soccer players. Thirty-four young male soccer players (17.2 ± 0.6 years; body mass, 72.62 ± 7.42 kg; height, 179.27 ± 6.58 cm) performed a predicted maximal squat test, 20-m sprints, squat jumps (SJs), and countermovement jumps (CMJs). Absolute strength showed the strongest correlations with 5-m sprint times (r = -0.596, p < 0.001, power = 0.99), SJ height (r = 0.762, p < 0.001, power = 1.00), and CMJ height (r = 0.760, p < 0.001, power = 1.00), whereas relative strength demonstrated the strongest correlation with 20-m sprint times (r = -0.672, p < 0.001, power = 0.99). The results of this study illustrate the importance of developing high levels of lower-body strength to enhance sprint and jump performance in youth soccer players, with stronger athletes demonstrating superior sprint and jump performances.

  17. Short-Term Performance Effects of Three Different Low-Volume Strength-Training Programmes in College Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José; Krustrup, Peter; Rebelo, António

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.3±1.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training group (n=12), complex training group (n=12), or a control group (n=21). In the mid-season, players underwent a 9-week strength-training programme, with two 20 min training sessions per week. Short-term effects on strength, sprint, agility, and vertical jump abilities were measured. All training groups increased 1-RM squat (range, 17.2–24.2%), plantar flexion (29.1–39.6%), and knee extension (0.5–22.2%) strength compared with the control group (p<0.05). The resistance-training group increased concentric peak torque of the knee extensor muscles by 9.9–13.7%, and changes were greater compared with the control group (p<0.05). The complex training group presented major increments (11.7%) in eccentric peak torque of the knee flexor muscles on the non-dominant limb compared with the control group and plyometric training group (p<0.05). All training groups improved 20-m sprint performance by 4.6–6.2% (p<0.001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players. PMID:25031680

  18. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  19. Radiative strength functions in {sup 163,164}Dy

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhus, H. T.; Siem, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Buerger, A.; Syed, N. U. H.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.

    2010-02-15

    The nuclei {sup 163,164}Dy have been investigated using the Oslo method on data from the pickup reaction {sup 164}Dy({sup 3}He,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 163}Dy and the inelastic scattering {sup 164}Dy({sup 3}He,{sup 3}He{sup '}{gamma}){sup 164}Dy, respectively. The radiative strength functions for both nuclei have been extracted, and a small resonance centered around E{sub {gamma}}approx =3 MeV is observed in both cases. The parameters of this so-called pygmy M1 resonance (the scissors mode) are compared with previous results on {sup 160,161,162}Dy using the Oslo method, and with data on {sup 163}Dy measured by the Prague group using the two-step cascade method. In particular, the integrated reduced transition probability B(M1arrow up) of the pygmy resonance is compared with neighboring dysprosium isotopes. We also observe an enhanced strength in the region above E{sub {gamma}}approx =5 MeV in {sup 164}Dy. Possible origins of this feature are discussed.

  20. The acute effect of whole body vibration training on flexibility and explosive strength of young gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Dallas, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n = 15), whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration) group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17). Flexibility (sit and reach test) and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and single leg squat (right leg (RL) and left leg (LL))] were performed initially (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15). Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG) and time (pre, post 1, and post 15) with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p < 0.05). However, no significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to flexibility, CMJ, RL and LL after the end of the intervention programme (p > 0.05). Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme.

  1. Short-term periodized aerobic training does not attenuate strength capacity or jump performance in recreational endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Suárez, V J; González-Ravé, J M; Navarro-Valdivielso, F

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three different distributions of aerobic training on the isokinetic strength and vertical jump performance [SJ, CMJ and Abalakov (ABA)] in thirty middle-aged endurance athletes (38.7 ± 9.8 yrs; 174.7 ± 6.5 cm; 72.0 ± 9.8 kg). Three zones of training were required to quantify volume of training: Zone 1, low-intensity-training < VT1; Zone 2, threshold-training, between VT1 and VT2; and Zone 3, high-intensity-training > VT2. The INC group (n = 10) began training in the Zone 1 and then gradually built up training in Zone 2 and Zone 3, thereby increasing the intensity of aerobic activity over the 4-week training period. The CON group (n = 10) performed the same activity every week in Zones 1, 2 and 3. The FRE group followed a free distribution of endurance training loads (n = 10). The results showed significant decreases in peak torque knee extension 30° (p < 0.05) in CON group and significant decreases (p < 0.05) in ABA in FRE group. Results provide a physiological basis to support several performance studies that consistently indicate 5 d·wk(-1) endurance training does not impair strength development over the short term. In conclusion, variations in volume and intensity in training groups did not interfere with isokinetic strength and vertical jump performance.

  2. The effect of maturation on adaptations to strength training and detraining in 11-15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meylan, C M P; Cronin, J B; Oliver, J L; Hopkins, W G; Contreras, B

    2014-06-01

    To investigate how maturity status modifies the effects of strength training and detraining on performance, we subjected 33 young men to 8 weeks of strength training twice per week followed by 8 weeks without training. Changes in performance tests were analyzed in three maturity groups based on years from/to age of predicted peak height velocity (PHV): pre-PHV (-1.7 ± 0.4 years; n = 10), mid-PHV (-0.2 ± 0.4 years; n = 11), and post-PHV (1.0 ± 0.4 years; n = 12). Mean training effects on one repetition maximum strength (3.6-10.0%), maximum explosive power (11-20%), jump length (6.5-7.4%), and sprint times (-2.1% to -4.7%) ranged from small to large, with generally greater changes in mid- and post-PHV groups. Changes in force-velocity relationships reflected generally greater increases in strength at faster velocities. In the detraining period, the pre-PHV group showed greatest loss of strength and power, the post-PHV group showed some loss of sprint performance, but all groups maintained or improved jump length. Strength training was thus generally less effective before the growth spurt. Maintenance programs are needed for most aspects of explosive performance following strength training before the growth spurt and for sprint speed after the growth spurt.

  3. Is there a low energy enhancement in the photon strength function in molybdenum?

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, S A

    2008-01-30

    Recent claims of a low energy enhancement in the photon strength function of {sup 96}Mo are investigated. Using the DANCE detector the gamma-ray spectra following resonance neutron capture was measured. The spectrum fitting method was used to indirectly extract a photon strength function from the gamma-ray spectra. No strong low energy enhancement in the photon strength function was found.

  4. Dielectronic recombination as a function of electric field strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisenfeld, Daniel B.

    1992-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) is the dominant recombination mechanism at coronal temperatures and densities. We present a procedure for calculating DR rate coefficients as a function of electric field strength and apply this method to carbon ions. We focus on the competing effects of enhancement by plasma microfields and rate decrease through collisional excitation and ionization. We find that, in the case of C(3+), a significant rate enhancement results, leading to a reinterpretation of C IV emission-line intensities in the sun and late-type stars. We further consider how macroscopic electric fields, in particular motional electric fields, can affect DR rate coefficients, demonstrating dramatic rate increases for a number of the carbon ions.

  5. Effects of dry-land vs. in-water specific strength training on professional male water polo players' performance.

    PubMed

    de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, G Gregory; Ramos-Veliz, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    We compared the effects of 6-week dry-land and in-water specific strength training combined with a water polo (WP) program on 7 sport-specific performance parameters. Nineteen professional players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: in-water strength group (WSG) (in-water training only) and dry-land strength group (LSG). The program included 3 weekly strength training sessions and 5 days of WP training per week for 6 weeks during the preseason. Ten-meter T-agility test, 20-m maximal sprint swim, maximal dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum), bench press (BP) and full squat (FS), in-water boost, countermovement jump (CMJ), and WP throwing speed were measured. Significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) were found in the experimental groups in some variables: CMJ in the LSG and WSG (2.35 cm, 9.07%, effect size [ES] = 0.89; and 2.6 cm, 7.6%, ES = 0.83, respectively), in-water boost increased in the WSG group (4.1 cm; 11.48%; ES = 0.70), and FS and BP increased (p ≤ 0.05) only in the LSG group (12.1 kg; 11.27%; ES = 1.15 and 8.3 kg; 9.55%; ES = 1.30, respectively). There was a decrease of performance in agility test (-0.55 seconds; 5.60%; ES = 0.74). Both dry-land and in-water specific strength training and high-intensity training in these male WP players produced medial to large effects on most WP-specific performance parameters. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for WP players in preseason to include both the training programs (dry-land and in-water specific strength training and high-intensity training) for athlete preparation in this sport.

  6. The effects of strength training and raloxifene on bone health in aging ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Singulani, Monique Patrício; Santos, Leandro Figueiredo; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Nakamune, Ana Cláudia Stevanato; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Rossi, Ana Cláudia; Ervolino, Edilson; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training (ST) and raloxifene (Ral), alone or in combination, on the prevention of bone loss in an aging estrogen-deficient rat model. Aging Wistar female rats were ovariectomized at 14months and allocated to four groups: (1) non-trained and treated with vehicle, NT-Veh; (2) strength training and treated with vehicle, ST-Veh; (3) non-trained and treated with raloxifene, NT-Ral; and (4) strength training and treated with raloxifene, ST-Ral. ST was performed on a ladder three times per week and Ral was administered daily by gavage (1mg/kg/day), both for 120days. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), strength, microarchitecture, and biomarkers (osteocalcin, OCN; osteoprotegerin, OPG; and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, TRAP) were assessed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), OCN, OPG, TRAP, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). The rats that performed ST (ST-Veh) or were treated with Ral (NT-Ral) showed significant improvements in aBMD (p=0.001 and 0.004), bone strength (p=0.001), and bone microarchitecture, such as BV/TV (%) (p=0.001), BS/TV (mm(2)/mm(3)) (p=0.023 and 0.002), Conn.Dn (1/mm(3)) (p=0.001), Tb.N (1/mm) (p=0.012 and 0.011), Tb.Th (1/mm) (p=0.001), SMI (p=0.001 and 0.002), Tb.Sp (p=0.001), and DA (p=0.002 and 0.007); there was also a significant decrease in plasma levels of OCN (p=0.001 and 0.002) and OPG (p=0.003 and 0.014), compared with animals in the NT-Veh group. Ral, with or without ST, promoted an increased immunolabeling pattern for RUNX2 (p=0.0105 and p=0.0006) and OSX (p=0.0105), but a reduced immunolabeling pattern for TRAP (p=0.0056) and RANKL (p=0.033 and 0.004). ST increased the immunolabeling pattern for RUNX2 (p=0.0105), and association with Ral resulted in an increased immunolabeling pattern for OPG (p=0.0034) and OCN (p=0.0024). In summary, ST and Ral administration in aged, estrogen

  7. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-06-13

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease's rehabilitative treatment.

  8. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment. PMID:27478558

  9. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  10. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content. PMID:25114739

  11. Effects of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training session on strength and athletic performance in team-handball players.

    PubMed

    Sabido, Rafael; HernáNdez-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Navarro, Angel; Tous-Fajardo, Julio

    2017-02-02

    To investigate the influence of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training (EOT) session in several athletic performance's tests, 18 team-handball players were assigned either to an EOT (n = 11) or a Control (n = 7) group. Both groups continued to perform the same habitual strength training, but the EOT group added one session/week during a 7-week training programme consisting of four sets of eight repetitions for the bilateral half-squat and unilateral lunge exercises. The test battery included handball throwing velocity, maximum dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 m sprint, triple hop for distance, and eccentric/concentric power in both the half-squat and lunge exercises. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Both groups improved their 1RM in the half squat, 20 m sprint time, and CMJ performance to a similar extent, but the EOT group showed a beneficial effect for both right [(42/58/0), possibly positive] and left [(99/1/0), very likely positive] triple hop for distance performance. In addition, the EOT group showed greater power output improvements in both eccentric and concentric phases of the half-squat (difference in percent of change ranging from 6.5% to 22.0%) and lunge exercises (difference in per cent of change ranging from 13.1% to 24.9%). Nevertheless, no group showed changes in handball throwing velocity. Selected variables related to team-handball performance (i.e. functional jumping performance, power output) can be improved by adding a single EOT session per week, highlighting the usefulness of this low-volume/high-intensity training when aiming at optimizing dynamic athletic performance.

  12. Effect of endurance and/or strength training on muscle fiber size, oxidative capacity, and capillarity in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael I; Fournier, Mario; Wang, Huiyuan; Storer, Thomas W; Casaburi, Richard; Kopple, Joel D

    2015-10-15

    We previously reported reduced limb muscle fiber succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and capillarity density and increased cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of all fiber types in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients compared with matched controls that may contribute to their effort intolerance and muscle weakness. This study evaluated whether endurance training (ET), strength training (ST), or their combination (EST) alters these metabolic and morphometric aberrations as a mechanism for functional improvement. Five groups were evaluated: 1) controls; 2) MHD/no training; 3) MHD/ET; 4) MHD/ST; and 5) MHD/EST. Training duration was 21.5 ± 0.7 wk. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained after HD at baseline and at study end. Muscle fibers were classified immunohistochemically, and fiber CSAs were computed. Individual fiber SDH activity was determined by a microdensitometric assay. Capillaries were identified using antibodies against endothelial cells. Type I and IIA fiber CSAs decreased significantly (10%) with EST. In the ET group, SDH activity increased 16.3% in type IIA and 19.6% in type IIX fibers. Capillary density increased significantly by 28% in the EST group and 14.3% with ET. The number of capillaries surrounding individual fiber type increased significantly in EST and ET groups. Capillary-to-fiber ratio increased significantly by 11 and 9.6% in EST and ET groups, respectively. We conclude that increments in capillarity and possibly SDH activity in part underlie improvements in endurance of MHD patients posttraining. We speculate that improved specific force and/or neural adaptations to exercise underlie improvements in limb muscle strength of MHD patients.

  13. Effect of endurance and/or strength training on muscle fiber size, oxidative capacity, and capillarity in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Mario; Wang, Huiyuan; Storer, Thomas W.; Casaburi, Richard; Kopple, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported reduced limb muscle fiber succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and capillarity density and increased cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of all fiber types in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients compared with matched controls that may contribute to their effort intolerance and muscle weakness. This study evaluated whether endurance training (ET), strength training (ST), or their combination (EST) alters these metabolic and morphometric aberrations as a mechanism for functional improvement. Five groups were evaluated: 1) controls; 2) MHD/no training; 3) MHD/ET; 4) MHD/ST; and 5) MHD/EST. Training duration was 21.5 ± 0.7 wk. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained after HD at baseline and at study end. Muscle fibers were classified immunohistochemically, and fiber CSAs were computed. Individual fiber SDH activity was determined by a microdensitometric assay. Capillaries were identified using antibodies against endothelial cells. Type I and IIA fiber CSAs decreased significantly (10%) with EST. In the ET group, SDH activity increased 16.3% in type IIA and 19.6% in type IIX fibers. Capillary density increased significantly by 28% in the EST group and 14.3% with ET. The number of capillaries surrounding individual fiber type increased significantly in EST and ET groups. Capillary-to-fiber ratio increased significantly by 11 and 9.6% in EST and ET groups, respectively. We conclude that increments in capillarity and possibly SDH activity in part underlie improvements in endurance of MHD patients posttraining. We speculate that improved specific force and/or neural adaptations to exercise underlie improvements in limb muscle strength of MHD patients. PMID:26183484

  14. The Functions and Methods of Mental Training on Competitive Sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jianshe

    Mental training is the major training method of the competitive sports and the main factor of athletes skill and tactics level.By combining the psychological factor with the current competitive sports characteristics, this paper presents the function of mental training forward athletes, and how to improve the comprehensive psychological quality by using mental training.

  15. Effects of strength and power training on neuromuscular variables in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Lilian França; Tricoli, Valmor; Barroso, Renato; Rodacki A, L F; Russo, Luciano; Aihara, André Yui; da Rocha Correa Fernandes, Artur; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular adaptations produced by strength-training (ST) and power-training (PT) regimens in older individuals. Participants were balanced by quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg-press 1-repetition maximum and randomly assigned to an ST group (n = 14; 63.6 ± 4.0 yr, 79.7 ± 17.2 kg, and 163.9 ± 9.8 cm), a PT group (n = 16; 64.9 ± 3.9 yr, 63.9 ± 11.9 kg, and 157.4 ± 7.7 cm), or a control group (n = 13; 63.0 ± 4.0 yr, 67.2 ± 10.8 kg, and 159.8 ± 6.8 cm). ST and PT were equally effective in increasing (a) maximum dynamic and isometric strength (p < .05), (b) increasing quadriceps muscle CSA (p < .05), and (c) decreasing electrical mechanical delay of the vastus lateralis muscle (p < .05). There were no significant changes in neuromuscular activation after training. The novel finding of the current study is that PT seems to be an attractive alternative to regular ST to maintain and improve muscle mass.

  16. Effect of isokinetic training on muscle strength and postural balance in children with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eid, Mohamed A; Aly, Sobhy M; Huneif, Mohamed A; Ismail, Dina K

    2017-01-31

    Children with Down's syndrome (DS) often have greater postural sway and delay in motor development. Muscle weakness and hypotonia, particularly of the lower extremities, are theorized to impair their overall physical health and ability to perform daily activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic training on muscle strength and postural balance in children with DS. Thirty-one children with DS ranging in age from 9 to 12 years were assigned randomly into two groups. The control group received the conventional physical therapy, whereas the study group received the same therapy as the control group in addition to the isokinetic training 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Measurement of stability indices using the Biodex Stability System as well as peak torque of knee flexors and extensors of both sides using the isokinetic dynamometer was performed before and after 12 weeks of the treatment program. Each group showed significant improvements in postural balance and peak torque of knee flexors and extensors (P<0.05), with significantly greater improvements observed in the study group compared with the control group (P<0.05). These outcomes indicated that participation in the isokinetic training program induced greater improvements in muscle strength and postural balance in children with DS.

  17. Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance during Eight Weeks of Training Affect Muscle Strength and Lean Tissue Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, K. L.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laughlin, M. S.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    Coupling concentric and eccentric muscle contractions appears to be important in the development of muscle strength and hypertrophy. The interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) currently used aboard the International Space Station does not seem to be as effective as free weight training in ambulatory subjects and has not completely protected against muscular deconditioning due to space flight. The lack of protection during space flight could be caused by iRED's proportionally lower eccentric resistance (60-70%) compared to concentric resistance. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of 8 wks of lower body resistive exercise training using five levels of eccentric resistance on muscle strength and lean tissue mass. METHODS: Forty untrained males (34.9 +/- 7 yrs, 80.9 +/- 9.8 kg, 178.2 +/- 7.1 cm; mean +/- SD) completed three 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength tests for both the supine leg press (LP) and supine heel raise (HR) prior to training; subjects were matched for LP strength and randomly assigned to one of five training groups. Concentric load (% 1-RM) was constant across groups during training, but each group trained with different levels of eccentric load (0%, 33%, 66%, 100%, or 138% of concentric). Subjects trained 3 d / wk for 8 wks using a periodized program for LP and HR based on percentages of the highest pre-training 1-RM. LP and HR 1-RM and leg lean mass (LLM; assessed by DEXA) were measured pre- and post-training. A two-way ANOVA was used to analyze all dependent measures. Tukey's post hoc tests were used to test significant main effects. Within group pre- to post-training changes were compared using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni adjustment. Statistical significance was set a priori at p 0.05. All data are expressed as mean +/- SE. RESULTS: LP 1-RM strength increased significantly in all groups pre- to post-training. The 138% group increase (20.1 +/- 3.7%) was significantly greater than the 0% (7.9 +/- 2.8%), 33% (7.7 +/- 4.6%), and 66% (7.5 +/- 4

  18. Muscle Strength, Power, and Morphologic Adaptations After 6 Weeks of Compound vs. Complex Training in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Gloumis, Giorgos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Blazevich, Anthony J; Zaras, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of compound vs. complex resistance training on strength, high-speed movement performance, and muscle composition. Eighteen young men completed compound (strength and power sessions on alternate days) or complex training (strength and power sets within a single session) 3 times per week for 6 weeks using bench press, leg press, Smith machine box squat, and jumping exercises. Pre- and posttraining, jumping and throwing performance and maximum bench press, leg press, and Smith machine box squat strength were evaluated. The architecture of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Vastus lateralis morphology was assessed from muscle biopsies. Jumping (4 ± 3%) and throwing (9 ± 8%) performance increased only with compound training (p < 0.02). Bench press (5 vs. 18%), leg press (17 vs. 28%), and Smith machine box squat (27 vs. 35%) strength increased after both compound and complex training. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicle angle and gastrocnemius fascicle angle were increased with both compound and complex training. Gastrocnemius fascicle length decreased only after complex training (-11.8 ± 9.4%, p = 0.006). Muscle fiber cross-sectional areas increased only after complex training (p ≤ 0.05). Fiber type composition was not affected by either intervention. These results suggest that short-term strength and power training on alternate days is more effective for enhancing lower-limb and whole-body power, whereas training on the same day may induce greater increases in strength and fiber hypertrophy.

  19. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance.

  20. Strength Training Improves Fatigue Resistance and Self-Rated Health in Workers with Chronic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is widespread in the working population and leads to muscular fatigue, reduced work capacity, and fear of movement. While ergonomic intervention is the traditional approach to the problem, physical exercise may be an alternative strategy. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual care ergonomic training (control). At baseline and follow-up, participants performed a handgrip muscular fatigue test (time above 50% of maximal voluntary contraction force) with simultaneous recording of electromyography. Additionally, participants replied to a questionnaire regarding self-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P < 0.05). Time to fatigue increased by 97% following strength training and this change was correlated to the reduction in fear avoidance (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.

  1. Strength Training Improves Fatigue Resistance and Self-Rated Health in Workers with Chronic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Jay, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is widespread in the working population and leads to muscular fatigue, reduced work capacity, and fear of movement. While ergonomic intervention is the traditional approach to the problem, physical exercise may be an alternative strategy. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual care ergonomic training (control). At baseline and follow-up, participants performed a handgrip muscular fatigue test (time above 50% of maximal voluntary contraction force) with simultaneous recording of electromyography. Additionally, participants replied to a questionnaire regarding self-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P < 0.05). Time to fatigue increased by 97% following strength training and this change was correlated to the reduction in fear avoidance (Spearman's rho = −0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267. PMID:27830144

  2. Radiative Strength Functions in 172Yb below 8 Me V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Hill, T S; McNabb, D P; Younes, W; Tavukcu, E; Vomov, A; Guttormsen, M; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2002-02-06

    We have measured prompt {gamma} rays after thermal and resonant neutron capture in {sup 171}Yb. The {gamma} rays were measured with three high resolution ({approx}3 keV) and high efficiency (two {approx}80% Ge(HP) and one {approx}200% segmented Clover) detectors. We have obtained singles and two-fold coincidence spectra as function of neutron energy using the time-of-flight technique. Two-fold coincidences where the summed energy adds up to the neutron binding energy B{sub n} or to B{sub n} minus the energy of the first excited stated ({approx}79 keV) will be used to determine the multipolarity of the pygmy resonance in {sup 172}Yb. This pygmy resonance is a resonant structure in the radiative strength function around {approx}3 MeV in deformed rare earth nuclei [1]. The following goals were met: (1) We have shown the feasibility of prompt, high-resolution {gamma} spectroscopy at FP14 after thermal as well as resonant neutron capture. (2) Online analysis shows that sufficient statistics ({approx}7000 counts) are expected in each of the two relevant peaks in the summed-energy spectrum. Analysis of the experiment is in progress. It still remains to show that the multipolarity of the pygmy resonance can be determined experimentally from two-step cascade intensities.

  3. Transfer effect of strength and power training to the sprinting kinematics of international rugby players.

    PubMed

    Barr, Matthew J; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Agar-Newman, Dana J; Newton, Robert U

    2014-09-01

    Increasing lower-body strength is often considered to be important for improving the sprinting speed of rugby players. This concept was examined in a group (n = 40) of international rugby players in a 2-part study. The players were tested for body mass (BM), 1 repetition maximum power clean (PC), and front squat, as well as triple broad jump and broad jump. In addition, speed over 40 m was tested, with timing gates recording the 0- to 10-m and 30- to 40-m sections to assess acceleration and maximal velocity. Two video cameras recorded the 2 splits for later analysis of sprinting kinematics. The players were divided into a fast group (n = 20) and a slow group (n = 20) for both acceleration and maximal velocity. In the second part of the study, a group (n = 15) of players were tracked over a 1-year period to determine how changes in strength corresponded with changes in sprinting kinematics. The fast groups for both acceleration and maximal velocity showed greater levels of strength (d = 0.5-1.8), lower ground contact times (d = 0.8-2.1), and longer stride lengths (d = 0.5-1.3). There was a moderate improvement over 1 year in PC/BM (0.08 kg·kg, p = 0.008, d = 0.6), and this had a strong relationship with the change in maximal velocity stride length (r = 0.70). Acceleration stride length also had a large improvement over 1 year (0.09 m, p = 0.003, d = 0.81). Although increasing lower-body strength is likely important for increasing sprinting speed of players with low training backgrounds, it may not have the same effect with highly trained players.

  4. Virtual Reality Training with Three-dimensional Video Games Improves Postural Balance and Lower Extremity Strength in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongwoo; Choi, Wonjae; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho; Lee, Seungwon

    2017-03-14

    Avatar-based three-dimensional technology is a new approach to improve physical function in older adults. The aim of this study was to use three-dimensional video gaming technology in virtual reality training to improve postural balance and lower extremity strength in a population of community-dwelling older adults. The experimental group participated in the virtual reality training program for 60 minutes, twice a week, for 6 weeks. Both experimental and control groups were given 3 times for falls prevention education at the first, third, and fifth weeks. The experimental group showed significant improvements not only in static and dynamic postural balance but also lower extremity strength (p < .05). Furthermore, the experimental group was improved to overall parameters compared with control group (p < .05). Therefore, three-dimensional video gaming technology might be beneficial for improving postural balance, and lower extremity strength in community-dwelling older adults.

  5. A Top Level Analysis of Training Management Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to conduct a top-level analysis of training management functions to identify problems within a training system resulting from rapid growth, the acquisition of new departments, or mergers. The data gathering process and analyses are explained, training management functions and activities are described, and root causes and solutions…

  6. An Evaluation of Generalization of Mands during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Wacker, David P.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Vinquist, Kelly; Dutt, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalization of mands during functional communication training (FCT) and sign language training across functional contexts (i.e., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement). A secondary purpose was to evaluate a training procedure based on stimulus control to teach manual signs. During…

  7. Training Residential Staff to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Kunnavatana, S. Shanun; Collins, Shawnee D.; Clay, Casey J.

    2013-01-01

    We taught 6 supervisors of a residential service provider for adults with developmental disabilities to train 9 house managers to conduct trial-based functional analyses. Effects of the training were evaluated with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Results suggest that house managers can be trained to conduct trial-based functional analyses with…

  8. Fitness, body composition and blood lipids following 3 concurrent strength and endurance training modes.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Daniela; Häkkinen, Arja; Laukkanen, Jari Antero; Balandzic, Milica; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated changes in physical fitness, body composition, and blood lipid profile following 24 weeks of 3 volume-equated concurrent strength and endurance training protocols. Physically active, healthy male and female participants (aged 18-40 years) performed strength and endurance sessions on different days (DD; men, n = 21; women, n = 18) or in the same session with endurance preceding strength (ES; men, n = 16; women, n = 15) or vice versa (SE; men, n = 18; women, n = 14). The training volume was matched in all groups. Maximal leg press strength (1-repetition maximum (1RM)) and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption during cycling), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and blood lipids were measured. 1RM and maximal oxygen consumption increased in all groups in men (12%-17%, p < 0.001; and 7%-18%, p < 0.05-0.001, respectively) and women (13%-21%, p < 0.01-0.001; and 10%-25%, p < 0.01-0.001, respectively). Maximal oxygen consumption increased more in DD vs. ES and SE both in men (p = 0.003-0.008) and women (p = 0.008-0.009). Total body lean mass increased in all groups (3%-5%, p < 0.01-0.001). Only DD led to decreased total body fat (men, -14% ± 15%, p < 0.001; women, -13% ± 14%, p = 0.009) and abdominal-region fat (men, -18% ± 14%, p = 0.003; women, -17% ± 15%, p = 0.003). Changes in blood lipids were correlated with changes in abdominal-region fat in the entire group (r = 0.283, p = 0.005) and in DD (r = 0.550, p = 0.001). In conclusion, all modes resulted in increased physical fitness and lean mass, while only DD led to decreases in fat mass. Same-session SE and ES combined training is effective in improving physical fitness while volume-equated, but more frequent DD training may be more suitable for optimizing body composition and may be possibly useful in early prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  9. Effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on muscle thickness and strength in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Sell, Katie M; Ghigiarelli, Jamie J; Kelly, Christopher F; Shone, Edward W; Accetta, Matthew R; Baum, Jamie B; Mangine, Gerald T

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation on muscle thickness and strength following an 8 week supervised resistance-training program. Fifteen resistance trained men (22.8 ± 3.5 years; 80.6 ± 8.7 kg; 178.1 ± 5.6 cm; 14.6% ± 8.8% body fat) were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed 750 mg of PA or a placebo (PL). Testing was carried out before (PRE) and after (POST) training/supplementation for muscle thickness and strength. Muscle thickness of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles were measured via ultrasonography, along with 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of squat, deadlift, and bench press. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using PRE values as the covariate, did not reveal any group differences for measures of muscle thickness in the RF (PA: 3.6% ± 5.2%; PL: 3.2% ± 4.2%, p = 0.97), VL (PA: 23.4% ± 18.1%, PL: 12.5% ± 15.4%, p = 0.37), BB (PA: 3.7% ± 6.4%, PL: 9.6% ± 12.4%, p = 0.86), or TB (PA: 15.1% ± 17.9%, PL: 10.7% ± 19.3%, p = 0.79). Likewise, no group differences were observed in changes in squat (PA: 8.4% ± 4.1%, PL: 8.1% ± 4.2%, p = 0.79), deadlift (PA: 10.1% ± 10.1%, PL: 8.9% ± 9.5%, p = 0.66), or bench press (PA: 5.7% ± 5.5%, PL: 5.1% ± 3.0%, p = 0.76) exercises. Collectively, however, all participants experienced significant (p < 0.05) improvements in each measure of muscle thickness and strength. Results of this study suggest that PA supplementation, in combination with a 3 days·week(-1) resistance-training program for 8 weeks, did not have a differential effect compared with PL on changes in muscle thickness or 1RM strength.

  10. Low level laser therapy associated with a strength training program on muscle performance in elderly women: a randomized double blind control study.

    PubMed

    Toma, Renata Luri; Vassão, Patrícia Gabrielli; Assis, Livia; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2016-08-01

    The aging process leads to a gradual loss of muscle mass and muscle performance, leading to a higher functional dependence. Within this context, many studies have demonstrated the benefits of a combination of physical exercise and low level laser therapy (LLLT) as an intervention that enhances muscle performance in young people and athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination of LLLT and strength training on muscle performance in elderly women. For this, a hundred elderly women were screened, and 48 met all inclusion criteria to participate in this double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Volunteers were divided in three groups: control (CG = 15), strength training associated with placebo LLLT (TG = 17), and strength training associated with active LLLT (808 nm, 100 mW, 7 J) (TLG = 16). The strength training consisted of knee flexion-extension performed with 80 % of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) during 8 weeks. Several outcomes related to muscle performance were analyzed through the 6-min walk test (6-MWT), isokinetic dynamometry, surface electromyography (SEMG), lactate concentration, and 1-RM. The results revealed that a higher work (p = 0.0162), peak torque (p = 0.0309), and power (p = 0.0223) were observed in TLG compared to CG. Furthermore, both trained groups increased the 1-RM load (TG vs CG: p = 0.0067 and TLG vs CG: p < 0.0001) and decreased the lactate concentration in the third minute after isokinetic protocol (CG vs TLG: p = 0.0289 and CG vs TG: p = 0.0085). No difference in 6-MWT and in fatigue levels were observed among the groups. The present findings suggested that LLLT in combination with strength training was able to improve muscle performance in elderly people.

  11. Haematological and iron-related parameters of male endurance and strength trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Spodaryk, K

    1993-01-01

    To obtain more information on the effects of long-lasting endurance and strength training on the constituents of the blood, several haematological and iron-related parameters were measured at rest in 39 male athletes from the Polish team who participated in the Olympics in Seoul in 1988. The athletes were divided into two groups: endurance-trained subjects (group E, cyclists, canoeists and rowers; n = 22) and strength-trained subjects (group S, wrestlers and judo; n = 17). The control group was composed of untrained male subjects (n = 48). Blood samples were taken from an antecubital vein with the subject at rest for determinations of haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte (RBC) and reticulocyte count, plasma free haemoglobin concentration, haptoglobin concentration, serum iron, transferrin concentration and ferritin concentrations ([Ferr]); red blood cells were used for estimation of glutamato-oxalate transaminase (GOT) activity and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration ([FEP]). The mean [Hb], PVC, RBC measured in the E athletes were significantly lower than in the control group but were comparable to those obtained in the S atheletes. There were no significantly differences in the haematological indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean copuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration] between the groups of atheletes and the control group. A significant increase in reticulocytosis and GOT activity was observed in the endurance-trained athletes. No impairment of erythropoiesis was observed as indicated by several sensitive markers of haemoglobin formation (FEP, MCV and inspection of blood smears) in the athletes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Seasonal Strength Performance and Its Relationship with Training Load on Elite Runners

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos M.; del Campo-Vecino, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the time-course of force production of elite middle and long-distance runners throughout an entire season and at the end of the off-season, as well as its relationships with training load and hormonal responses. Training load was recorded daily throughout an entire season by measuring and evaluating the session distance (km), training zone and session-RPE in a group of 15 elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3 ± 5.1yrs, BMI = 19.7 ± 1.1). Also, basal salivary-free cortisol levels were measured weekly, and 50-metre sprints, mean propulsive velocity (MPV), mean propulsive power (MPP), repetition maximum (RM) and peak rate of force development (RFD) of half-squats were measured 4 times during the season, and once more after the off-season break. There were no significant variations in force production during the season or after the off-season break, except for the RFD (-30.2%, p = 0.005) values, which changed significantly from the beginning to the end of the season. Significant correlations were found between session-RPE and MPV (r = -0.650, p = 0.004), MPP (r = -0.602, p = 0.009), RM (r = -0.650, p = 0.004), and the 50-metre sprint (r = 0.560, p = 0.015). Meanwhile, salivary-free cortisol correlated significantly with the 50-metre sprint (r = 0.737, p < 0.001) and the RM ( r = -0.514, p = 0.025). Finally, the training zone correlated with the 50-metre sprint (r = -0.463, p = 0.041). Session-RPE, training zone and salivary-free cortisol levels are related to force production in elite middle and long-distance runners. Monitoring these variables could be a useful tool in controlling the training programs of elite athletes. Key points Session-RPE, training zone and salivary free cortisol levels correlate significantly with strength-related variables in middle and long-distance elite runners. A month of active rest during the off-season break is enough to prevent decreases in force production of such

  13. Seasonal strength performance and its relationship with training load on elite runners.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos M; Del Campo-Vecino, Juan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the time-course of force production of elite middle and long-distance runners throughout an entire season and at the end of the off-season, as well as its relationships with training load and hormonal responses. Training load was recorded daily throughout an entire season by measuring and evaluating the session distance (km), training zone and session-RPE in a group of 15 elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3 ± 5.1yrs, BMI = 19.7 ± 1.1). Also, basal salivary-free cortisol levels were measured weekly, and 50-metre sprints, mean propulsive velocity (MPV), mean propulsive power (MPP), repetition maximum (RM) and peak rate of force development (RFD) of half-squats were measured 4 times during the season, and once more after the off-season break. There were no significant variations in force production during the season or after the off-season break, except for the RFD (-30.2%, p = 0.005) values, which changed significantly from the beginning to the end of the season. Significant correlations were found between session-RPE and MPV (r = -0.650, p = 0.004), MPP (r = -0.602, p = 0.009), RM (r = -0.650, p = 0.004), and the 50-metre sprint (r = 0.560, p = 0.015). Meanwhile, salivary-free cortisol correlated significantly with the 50-metre sprint (r = 0.737, p < 0.001) and the RM ( r = -0.514, p = 0.025). Finally, the training zone correlated with the 50-metre sprint (r = -0.463, p = 0.041). Session-RPE, training zone and salivary-free cortisol levels are related to force production in elite middle and long-distance runners. Monitoring these variables could be a useful tool in controlling the training programs of elite athletes. Key pointsSession-RPE, training zone and salivary free cortisol levels correlate significantly with strength-related variables in middle and long-distance elite runners.A month of active rest during the off-season break is enough to prevent decreases in force production of such

  14. Short-term effects of strength and plyometric training on sprint and jump performance in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ronnestad, Bent R; Kvamme, Nils H; Sunde, Arnstein; Raastad, Truls

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of combined strength and plyometric training with strength training alone on power-related measurements in professional soccer players. Subjects in the intervention team were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group ST (n = 6) performed heavy strength training twice a week for 7 weeks in addition to 6 to 8 soccer sessions a week. Group ST+P (n = 8) performed a plyometric training program in addition to the same training as the ST group. The control group (n = 7) performed 6 to 8 soccer sessions a week. Pretests and posttests were 1 repetition maximum (1RM) half squat, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), 4-bounce test (4BT), peak power in half squat with 20 kg, 35 kg, and 50 kg (PP20, PP35, and PP50, respectively), sprint acceleration, peak sprint velocity, and total time on 40-m sprint. There were no significant differences between the ST+P group and ST group. Thus, the groups were pooled into 1 intervention group. The intervention group significantly improved in all measurements except CMJ, while the control group showed significant improvements only in PP20. There was a significant difference in relative improvement between the intervention group and control group in 1RM half squat, 4BT, and SJ. However, a significant difference between groups was not observed in PP20, PP35, sprint acceleration, peak sprinting velocity, and total time on 40-m sprint. The results suggest that there are no significant performance-enhancing effects of combining strength and plyometric training in professional soccer players concurrently performing 6 to 8 soccer sessions a week compared to strength training alone. However, heavy strength training leads to significant gains in strength and power-related measurements in professional soccer players.

  15. Muscle strength and hypertrophy occur independently of protein supplementation during short-term resistance training in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Boone, Carleigh H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-08-01

    Short-term resistance training has consistently demonstrated gains in muscular strength, but not hypertrophy. Post-resistance training protein ingestion is posited to augment the acute anabolic stimulus, thus potentially accelerating changes in muscle size and strength. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of resistance training with protein supplementation on strength and muscle morphology changes in untrained men. Participants (mean ± SD; N = 18; age, 22.0 ± 2.5 years; body mass index, 25.1 ± 5.4 kg · m(-2)) were randomly assigned to a resistance training + protein group (n = 9; whey (17 g) + colostrum (3 g) + leucine (2 g)) or a resistance training + placebo group (n = 9). One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength in the leg press (LP) and leg extension (LE) exercises, maximal isometric knee extensor strength (MVIC), and muscle morphology (thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle) of the dominant rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) was assessed before and after training. Participants performed LP and LE exercises (3 × 8-10; at 80% 1RM) 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Four weeks of resistance training resulted in significant increases in LP (p < 0.001), LE (p < 0.001), MVIC (p < 0.001), RF MT (p < 0.001), RF CSA (p < 0.001), VL MT (p < 0.001), and VL CSA (p < 0.001). No between-group differences were observed. Although nutrition can significantly affect training adaptations, these results suggest that short-term resistance training augments muscle strength and size in previously untrained men with no additive benefit from postexercise protein supplementation.

  16. An evaluation of generalization of mands during functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Falcomata, Terry S; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Vinquist, Kelly; Dutt, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalization of mands during functional communication training (FCT) and sign language training across functional contexts (i.e., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement). A secondary purpose was to evaluate a training procedure based on stimulus control to teach manual signs. During the treatment evaluation, we implemented sign language training in 1 functional context (e.g., positive reinforcement by attention) while continuing the functional analysis conditions in 2 other contexts (e.g., positive reinforcement by tangible item; negative reinforcement by escape). During the generalization evaluation, we tested for the generalization of trained mands across functional contexts (i.e., positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement) by implementing extinction in the 2 nontarget contexts. The results suggested that the stimulus control training procedure effectively taught manual signs and treated destructive behavior. Specific patterns of generalization of trained mands and destructive behavior also were observed.

  17. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Beller, Noah A.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Spatz, Gregory E.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Ross, Ryan E.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key points Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women. Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press

  18. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance.

    PubMed

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Beller, Noah A; Gonzalez, Adam M; Spatz, Gregory E; Hoffman, Jay R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects' peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s(-1) [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key pointsMultiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women.Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press (by

  19. Muscular endurance repetitions to predict bench press strength in men of different training levels.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Prinster, J L; Ware, J S; Zimmer, D L; Arabas, J R; Bemben, M G

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of predicting maximal bench press (BP) strength (1-RM) from relative endurance performance in various groups of men. The subjects included untrained students (n = 35), resistance trained students (n = 28), college wrestlers (n = 21), soccer players (n = 22), football players (n = 51), high school students (n = 35), and resistance-trained middle-aged men (n = 24). Each subject performed a 1-RM test according to the same standard procedure. Within 4-10 days, the subject selected a weight to perform as many repetitions as possible to failure. Six relative endurance prediction equations produced validity coefficients of r = 0.86 to 0.98 in each group and r = 0.82 to 0.98 in the composite group (n = 220). In subjects completing < or = 10 repetitions-to-failure, three equations significantly overpredicted and two significantly underpredicted 1-RM scores. The Brzycki equation was the most accurate. In subjects completing > 10 repetitions to failure, three equations significantly overpredicted and three significantly underpredicted 1-RM scores. While caution should be used when employing relative muscular endurance performance to estimate 1-RM strength in the bench press, the average of two equations may reduce the error.

  20. Effects of plyometric training on endurance and explosive strength performance in competitive middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Alvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Baez, Eduardo B; Martínez, Cristian; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term plyometric training program on explosive strength and endurance performance in highly competitive middle- and long-distance runners. Athletes were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 18, 12 men) and an explosive strength training group (TG, n = 18, 10 men). Drop jump (DJ) from 20 (DJ20) and 40 cm (DJ40), countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-m sprint time, and 2.4-km endurance run time test were carried out before and after 6 weeks of explosive strength training. Also, the combined standardized performance (CSP) in the endurance and explosive strength test was analyzed. After intervention, the CG did not show any significant change in performance, whereas the TG showed a significant reduction in 2.4-km endurance run time (-3.9%) and 20-m sprint time (-2.3%) and an increase in CMJA (+8.9%), DJ20 (+12.7%), and DJ40 (16.7%) explosive performance. Strength training group also exhibited a significant increase in CSP, although the CG showed significant reduction. We conclude that properly programmed concurrent explosive strength and endurance training could be advantageous for middle- and long-distance runners in their competitive performance, especially in events characterized by sprinting actions with small time differences at the end of the race.

  1. Combined strength and power training in high-level amateur football during the competitive season: a randomised-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Roth, Ralf; Di Giovine, Dario; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the effects of combined strength and power training during the competitive season on physical fitness in high-level amateur football players. Sixteen male players (22.5 (SD 2.5) years, 1.79 (0.05) m, 76.8 (6.1) kg) from one team were randomly assigned to either a strength training (ST, N = 8) or a control (CON, N = 8) group. ST conducted lower extremity resistance exercises combined with plyometrics and/or sprints 2 × 30 min per week for 7 weeks. CON performed technical-tactical training during the same time period. Before and after training several physical fitness parameters were assessed: one-repetition maximum (1-RM, half squat), isometric peak strength and rate of force development (RFD, leg press), jump height (countermovement, CMJ, drop jump, DJ), sprint times, agility, and intermittent endurance. Large significant test × group interactions were found for 1-RM, CMJ, and DJ reactivity index with increases in CT relative to CON(+11 to 18%). Although not significant (P < 0.20), likely practically relevant effects were observed for isometric peak strength and RFD (+24 to 29%). We found no relevant interaction effects for agility, sprint times, and intermittent endurance. A 7-week in-season combined strength and power training program can improve relevant strength and jump parameters in high-level amateur football players.

  2. Effects of different resistance training volumes on strength and power in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Naclerio, Fernando; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Perez-Bibao, Txomin; Kang, Jie; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Triplett, N T

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different volume of resistance training (RT) on maximum strength and average power in college team sport athletes with no previous RT experience. Thirty-two subjects (20 men and 12 women, age = 23.1 ± 1.57 years) were randomly divided into 4 groups: low volume (LV; n = 8), 1 set per exercise and 3 sets per muscle group; moderate volume (MV; n = 8), 2 sets per exercise and 6 sets per muscle group; high volume (HV; n = 8), 3 sets per exercise and 9 sets per muscle group; and a non-RT control group (n = 8). The 3 intervention groups were trained for 6 weeks thrice weekly after a nonperiodized RT program differentiated only by the volume. Before (T1) and after training (T2), 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal average power (AP) produced on the bench press (BP), upright row (UR), and squat (SQ) were assessed by progressive resistance tests. One repetition maximum-BP and 1RM-UR increased significantly in the 3 interventions groups (p < 0.05), whereas only the HV group significantly improved 1RM-SQ (p < 0.01). The MV and HV groups increased AP-BP (p < 0.05), whereas only the LV group improved AP-SQ (p < 0.01). Moderate effect sizes (ES; >0.20 < 0.60) were observed for the 1RM-BP and 1RM-UR in the 3 training groups. High-volume group showed the larger ES for 1RM-BP (0.45), 1RM-UR (0.60), and 1RM-SQ (0.47), whereas the LV produced the higher ES for SQ-AP (0.53). During the initial adaptation period, a HV RT program seems to be a better strategy for improving strength, whereas during the season, an LV RT could be a reasonable option for maintaining strength and enhancing lower-body AP in team sport athletes.

  3. Effort, performance, and motivation: insights from robot-assisted training of human golf putting and rat grip strength.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Jaime E; Gebrekristos, Berkenesh; Perez, Sergi; Rowe, Justin B; Sharp, Kelli; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Robotic devices can modulate success rates and required effort levels during motor training, but it is unclear how this affects performance gains and motivation. Here we present results from training unimpaired humans in a virtual golf-putting task, and training spinal cord injured (SCI) rats in a grip strength task using robotically modulated success rates and effort levels. Robotic assistance in golf practice increased trainees feelings of competence, and, paradoxically, increased their sense effort, even though it had mixed effects on learning. Reducing effort during a grip strength training task led rats with SCI to practice the task more frequently. However, the more frequent practice of these rats did not cause them to exceed the strength gains achieved by rats that exercised less often at higher required effort levels. These results show that increasing success and decreasing effort with robots increases motivation, but has mixed effects on performance gains.

  4. Effect of Acute Effort on Isometric Strength and Body Balance: Trained vs. Untrained Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Sterkowicz, Stanisław; Jaworski, Janusz; Lech, Grzegorz; Pałka, Tomasz; Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Bujas, Przemysław; Pięta, Paweł; Mościński, Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Years of training in competitive sports leads to human body adaptation to a specific type of exercise. In judo bouts, maintaining hand grip on an opponent's clothes and postural balance is essential for the effective technical and tactical actions. This study compares changes after maximal anaerobic exercise among judo athletes and untrained subjects regarding 1) maximum isometric handgrip strength (HGSmax) and accuracy at the perceived 50% maximum handgrip force (1/2HGSmax) and 2) the balance of 13 judo athletes at national (n = 8) and international (n = 5) competitive levels and 19 untrained university students. The groups did not differ in age, body height, and weight. Body mass index (BMI) and body composition (JAWON) were evaluated. The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT, Monark 875E) measured recommended anaerobic capacity indices. Hand grip strength (Takei dynamometer) and balance (biplate balance platform) were measured before warm-up (T1), before the WAnT test (T2), and after (T3). Parametric or non-parametric tests were performed after verifying the variable distribution assumption. Judoists had higher BMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI) than the students. The athletes also showed higher relative total work and relative peak power and lower levels of lactic acid. The difference in judoists between HGSmax at T1 and HGSmax at T3 was statistically significant. Before warm-up (T1), athletes showed higher strength (more divergent from the calculated ½HGSmax value) compared to students. Substantial fatigue after the WAnT test significantly deteriorated the body stability indices, which were significantly better in judo athletes at all time points. The findings suggest specific body adaptations in judoists, especially for body composition, anaerobic energy system efficiency, and postural balance. These characteristics could be trained for specifically by judo athletes to meet the time-motion and anaerobic demands of contemporary bouts.

  5. Effect of Acute Effort on Isometric Strength and Body Balance: Trained vs. Untrained Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Sterkowicz, Stanisław; Jaworski, Janusz; Lech, Grzegorz; Pałka, Tomasz; Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Bujas, Przemysław; Pięta, Paweł; Mościński, Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Years of training in competitive sports leads to human body adaptation to a specific type of exercise. In judo bouts, maintaining hand grip on an opponent’s clothes and postural balance is essential for the effective technical and tactical actions. This study compares changes after maximal anaerobic exercise among judo athletes and untrained subjects regarding 1) maximum isometric handgrip strength (HGSmax) and accuracy at the perceived 50% maximum handgrip force (1/2HGSmax) and 2) the balance of 13 judo athletes at national (n = 8) and international (n = 5) competitive levels and 19 untrained university students. The groups did not differ in age, body height, and weight. Body mass index (BMI) and body composition (JAWON) were evaluated. The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT, Monark 875E) measured recommended anaerobic capacity indices. Hand grip strength (Takei dynamometer) and balance (biplate balance platform) were measured before warm-up (T1), before the WAnT test (T2), and after (T3). Parametric or non-parametric tests were performed after verifying the variable distribution assumption. Judoists had higher BMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI) than the students. The athletes also showed higher relative total work and relative peak power and lower levels of lactic acid. The difference in judoists between HGSmax at T1 and HGSmax at T3 was statistically significant. Before warm-up (T1), athletes showed higher strength (more divergent from the calculated ½HGSmax value) compared to students. Substantial fatigue after the WAnT test significantly deteriorated the body stability indices, which were significantly better in judo athletes at all time points. The findings suggest specific body adaptations in judoists, especially for body composition, anaerobic energy system efficiency, and postural balance. These characteristics could be trained for specifically by judo athletes to meet the time-motion and anaerobic demands of contemporary bouts. PMID:27218258

  6. Test-Retest Reliability of a Novel Isokinetic Squat Device With Strength-Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, Lee A; McGuigan, Michael R; Gill, Nicholas D; Dulson, Deborah K

    2016-11-01

    Bridgeman, LA, McGuigan, MR, Gill, ND, and Dulson, DK. Test-retest reliability of a novel isokinetic squat device with strength-trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3261-3265, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of a novel multijoint isokinetic squat device. The subjects in this study were 10 strength-trained athletes. Each subject completed 3 maximal testing sessions to assess peak concentric and eccentric force (N) over a 3-week period using the Exerbotics squat device. Mean differences between eccentric and concentric force across the trials were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation (CVs) for the variables of interest were calculated using an excel reliability spreadsheet. Between trials 1 and 2 an 11.0 and 2.3% increase in mean concentric and eccentric forces, respectively, was reported. Between trials 2 and 3 a 1.35% increase in the mean concentric force production and a 1.4% increase in eccentric force production was reported. The mean concentric peak force CV and ICC across the 3 trials was 10% (7.6-15.4) and 0.95 (0.87-0.98) respectively. However, the mean eccentric peak force CV and ICC across the trials was 7.2% (5.5-11.1) and 0.90 (0.76-0.97), respectively. Based on these findings it is suggested that the Exerbotics squat device shows good test-retest reliability. Therefore practitioners and investigators may consider its use to monitor changes in concentric and eccentric peak force.

  7. Effect of compensatory acceleration training in combination with accommodating resistance on upper body strength in collegiate athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Margaret T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of inclusion of a band or chain compensatory acceleration training (CAT), in a 5-week training phase, on maximal upper body strength during a 14-week off-season strength and conditioning program for collegiate male athletes. Patients and methods Twenty-four National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collegiate baseball players, who were familiar with the current strength and conditioning program and had a minimum of 1 year of formal collegiate strength and conditioning experience, participated in this off-season training study. None of the men had participated in CAT before. Subjects were matched following a maximal effort (1-repetition maximum [1-RM]) bench press test in week 1, then were randomly assigned into a band-based CAT group or a chain-based CAT group and participated in a 5-week training phase that included bench pressing twice per week. Upper body strength was measured by 1-RM bench press again at week 6. A 2 × 2 mixed factorial (method × time) analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences across groups. The alpha level was set at P<0.05. Results No difference (F1,22=0.04, P=0.84) existed between the band-based CAT and chain-based CAT groups. A significant difference was observed between pre- and posttests of 1-RM bench (F1,22=88.46, P=0.001). Conclusion A 5-week band CAT or chain CAT training program used in conjunction with an off-season strength and conditioning program can increase maximal upper body strength in collegiate baseball athletes. Using band CAT and/or chain CAT as a training modality in the off-season will vary the training stimulus from the traditional and likely help to maintain the athlete’s interest. PMID:25177154

  8. The effect of high-speed strength training on physical performance in young soccer players of different ages.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rosell, David; Franco-Márquez, Felipe; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2016-10-28

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of low-load, low-volume weight training combined with plyometrics on strength, sprint and jump performance in soccer players of different ages. Eighty-six soccer players from the same academy were categorized into 3 groups by age (under 13 year, U13, n = 30; under 15, U15, n = 28; under 17, U17, n = 28) and then randomly assigned into two subgroups: a strength training group (STG) and a control group (CG). The strength training program was performed twice a week for 6 weeks and consisted of full squats (load: 45-60% 1RM; volume: 3 set of 8-4 repetitions), jumps and straight line sprint exercises. After training intervention, the STGs showed significant improvements in maximal strength (7.5-54.5%; p < 0.001), jump height (5.7-12.5%; p < 0.01 - 0.001) and sprint time (-3.7 to -1.2%; p < 0.05 - 0.001), whereas no significant gains were found for any variable in the CGs. Comparison between experimental groups resulted in a greater magnitude of change for U13 compared to U15 (ES: 0.10-0.53) and U17 (ES: 0.14-1.41) soccer players in most variables, whereas U15 showed higher improvements in jump and strength parameters than U17 (ES: 0.25-0.90) soccer players. Thus, although our results indicates that a combined weight training and plyometrics program may be effective in eliciting gains in strength, jump and sprint in soccer players of different ages, the training program used appears to be generally less effective as the age of the soccer players increased. Therefore, it appears that training characteristics (mainly volume, intensity and type of exercise) should be modified in relation to maturity status and initial strength level.

  9. Differential Effects of Heavy Versus Moderate Loads on Measures of Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Peterson, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance training (RT) with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY) that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 10) or a hypertrophy-type RT routine (MODERATE) that trained in a loading range of 8-12 repetitions per set (n = 9). Training was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 7 exercises for the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body. Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for: 1 repetition maximum (RM) strength in the bench press and squat, upper body muscle endurance, and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and lateral thigh. Results showed statistically greater increases in 1RM squat strength favoring HEAVY compared to MODERATE. Alternatively, statistically greater increases in lateral thigh muscle thickness were noted for MODERATE versus HEAVY. These findings indicate that heavy load training is superior for maximal strength goals while moderate load training is more suited to hypertrophy-related goals when an equal number of sets are performed between conditions.

  10. Strength training and light physical activity reduces the apnea-hypopnea index in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Bliwise, Donald L.; Puri, Shipra; Rogers, Sandy; Richards, Kathy C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of 7-weeks of resistance training and walking on the apneahypopnea index (AHI) in institutionalized older adults compared to a usual care control group. Design Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled-trial. Setting Ten nursing and three assisted living facilities in Arkansas. Participants Institutionalized older adults. Interventions Exercise group (EG) performed supervised resistance training to arm and hip extensors on 3 days a week with additional 2 days a week of light walking. Usual care group (UC) participated in the usual activities provided within their living facility. Measurements 2 nights of polysomnography before and following 7-week intervention. Results Adjusted means in the EG group showed a decrease in AHI from 20.2 (SD±1.3) at baseline to 16.7 (SD±0.9) at 7 weeks. Absolute strength gains were not associated with improved AHI. Conclusion Supervised resistance training and light walking reduced the severity of OSA in institutionalized older adults. PMID:25294621

  11. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Versus Volitional Isometric Strength Training in Children With Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Stackhouse, Scott K.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.; Stackhouse, Carrie A.; McCarthy, James J.; Prosser, Laura A.; Lee, Samuel C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, no reports have investigated neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to increase muscle force production of children with cerebral palsy (CP) using high-force contractions and low repetitions. Objective The aims of this study were to determine if isometric NMES or volitional training in children with CP could increase muscle strength and walking speed and to examine the mechanisms that may contribute to increased force production. Methods Eleven children with spastic diplegia were assigned to an NMES training group or to a volitional training group. Participants in the NMES group had electrodes implanted percutaneously to activate the quadriceps femoris and triceps surae muscles. The volitional group trained with maximal effort contractions. Both groups performed a 12-week isometric strength-training program. Maximum voluntary isometric contract ion (MVIC) force, voluntary muscle activation, quadriceps and triceps surae cross-sectional area (CSA), and walking speed were measured pre- and post-strength training. Results The NMES-trained group had greater increases in normalized force production for both die quadriceps femoris and triceps surae. Similarly only the NMES group showed an increase in walking speed after training. Changes in voluntary muscle activation explained approximately 67% and 37% of the changes seen in the MVIC of the NMES and volitional groups, respectively. Quadriceps femoris maximum CSA increased significantly for the NMES group only. Conclusions This study was the first to quantitatively show strength gains with the use of NMES in children with CP. These results support the need for future experimental studies that will examine the clinical effectiveness of NMES strength training. PMID:17369515

  12. Effects of heavy-resistance strength and balance training on unilateral and bilateral leg strength performance in old adults.

    PubMed

    Beurskens, Rainer; Gollhofer, Albert; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Cardinale, Marco; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    The term "bilateral deficit" (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20-30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to investigate training-specific effects of resistance vs. balance training on MIF and BLD of the leg extensors in old adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to resistance training (n = 19), balance training (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). Bilateral heavy-resistance training for the lower extremities was performed for 13 weeks (3 × / week) at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Balance training was conducted using predominately unilateral exercises on wobble boards, soft mats, and uneven surfaces for the same duration. Pre- and post-tests included uni- and bilateral measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force. At baseline, young subjects outperformed older adults in uni- and bilateral MIF (all p < .001; d = 2.61-3.37) and in measures of BLD (p < .001; d = 2.04). We also found significant increases in uni- and bilateral MIF after resistance training (all p < .001, d = 1.8-5.7) and balance training (all p < .05, d = 1.3-3.2). In addition, BLD decreased following resistance (p < .001, d = 3.4) and balance training (p < .001, d = 2.6). It can be concluded that both training regimens resulted in increased MIF and decreased BLD of the leg extensors (HRT-group more than BAL-group), almost reaching the levels of young adults.

  13. Effects of Heavy-Resistance Strength and Balance Training on Unilateral and Bilateral Leg Strength Performance in Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beurskens, Rainer; Gollhofer, Albert; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Cardinale, Marco; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    The term “bilateral deficit” (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20–30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to investigate training-specific effects of resistance vs. balance training on MIF and BLD of the leg extensors in old adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to resistance training (n = 19), balance training (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). Bilateral heavy-resistance training for the lower extremities was performed for 13 weeks (3 × / week) at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Balance training was conducted using predominately unilateral exercises on wobble boards, soft mats, and uneven surfaces for the same duration. Pre- and post-tests included uni- and bilateral measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force. At baseline, young subjects outperformed older adults in uni- and bilateral MIF (all p < .001; d = 2.61–3.37) and in measures of BLD (p < .001; d = 2.04). We also found significant increases in uni- and bilateral MIF after resistance training (all p < .001, d = 1.8-5.7) and balance training (all p < .05, d = 1.3-3.2). In addition, BLD decreased following resistance (p < .001, d = 3.4) and balance training (p < .001, d = 2.6). It can be concluded that both training regimens resulted in increased MIF and decreased BLD of the leg extensors (HRT-group more than BAL-group), almost reaching the levels of young adults. PMID:25695770

  14. Muscular strength, functional performances and injury risk in professional and junior elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Lehance, C; Binet, J; Bury, T; Croisier, J L

    2009-04-01

    Muscle strength and anaerobic power of the lower extremities are neuromuscular variables that influence performance in many sports activities, including soccer. Despite frequent contradictions in the literature, it may be assumed that muscle strength and balance play a key role in targeted acute muscle injuries. The purpose of the present study was to provide and compare pre-season muscular strength and power profiles in professional and junior elite soccer players throughout the developmental years of 15-21. One original aspect of our study was that isokinetic data were considered alongside the past history of injury in these players. Fifty-seven elite and junior elite male soccer players were assigned to three groups: PRO, n=19; U-21, n=20 and U-17, n=18. Players benefited from knee flexor and extensor isokinetic testing consisting of concentric and eccentric exercises. A context of lingering muscle disorder was defined using statistically selected cut-offs. Functional performance was evaluated throughout a squat jump and 10 m sprint. The PRO group ran faster and jumped higher than the U-17 group (P<0.05). No significant difference in isokinetic muscle strength performance was observed between the three groups when considering normalized body mass parameters. Individual isokinetic profiles enabled the identification of 32/57 (56%) subjects presenting lower limb muscular imbalance. Thirty-six out of 57 players were identified as having sustained a previous major lower limb injury. Of these 36 players, 23 still showed significant muscular imbalance (64%). New trends in rational training could focus more on the risk of imbalance and implement antagonist strengthening aimed at injury prevention. Such an intervention would benefit not only athletes recovering from injury, but also uninjured players. An interdisciplinary approach involving trainers, a physical coach, and medical staff would be of interest to consider in implementing a prevention programme.

  15. Adaptations in muscular activation of the knee extensor muscles with strength training in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Knight, C A; Kamen, G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the extent of muscular activation during maximal voluntary knee extension contractions in old and young individuals and to examine the effects of resistance training on muscular activation in each group. The interpolated twitch technique was used to estimate muscular activation during two pre-training baseline tests, and after two and six weeks of resistance training. Throughout the study, the older group was 30% less strong than the young group (p=0.02). The training protocol was effective in both groups with overall isometric strength gains of 30 and 36% in the older (p=0.01) and young (p<0.01) groups, respectively. 10-RM training loads increased by 66% in the old group (p<0.01) and by 77% in the young group (p<0.01) throughout training. At the first baseline test, a 2% difference in muscular activation between groups (p=0.3) did not explain the large disparity in strength. Muscular activation increased by 2% in both groups throughout training (p<0.01). Despite considerably less muscular strength in the older group, muscular activation was greater than 95% of maximum and appears to be equal in both young and older individuals. Both groups demonstrated similar but small increases in muscular activation throughout training.

  16. Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation during resistance training on strength, body composition, and muscle damage in trained and untrained young men: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, David S; Thomson, Jasmine S

    2009-05-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular supplement in the resistance training community, with its use supported by claims of increased strength, muscle growth, and improved recovery; however, research outcomes are variable. Therefore, we meta-analyzed the effectiveness of HMB on strength, body composition, and muscle damage. Nine qualifying studies yielded 14 comparisons subcategorized by training experience (trained, untrained) to provide 12-13 estimates of strength (upper body, lower body, overall average), 13 estimates of fat and fat-free mass, and 7 estimates of the muscle-damage marker creatine kinase. The meta-analysis comprised 394 subjects (age 23 +/- 2 years, mean +/- between-study SD) with 5 +/- 2 weeks' intervention and 5 +/- 6 h.wk of training. The estimates were analyzed using a meta-analytic mixed model with study sample size as the weighting factor that included the main-effect covariates to control for between-study differences in HMB dose, intervention duration, training load, and dietary cointervention. To interpret magnitudes, meta-analyzed effects were standardized using the composite baseline between-subject SD and were qualified using modified Cohen effect size thresholds. There were small benefits to lower-body (mean +/- 90% confidence limit: 9.9% +/- 5.9%) and average strength (6.6 +/- 5.7%), but only negligible gains for upper-body strength (2.1 +/- 5.5%) were observed in untrained lifters. In trained lifters, all strength outcomes were trivial. Combined (all studies), the overall average strength increase was trivial (3.7 +/- 2.4%), although uncertainty allows for a small benefit. Effects on fat and fat-free mass were trivial, and results regarding creatine kinase were unclear. Supplementation with HMB during resistance training incurs small but clear overall and leg strength gains in previously untrained men, but effects in trained lifters are trivial. The HMB effect on body composition is inconsequential. An explanation for

  17. Upper extremity function and its relation with hand sensation and upper extremity strength in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Citaker, Seyit; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the upper extremity functions, upper extremity strength and hand sensation in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Twenty-two patients with MS (mean age: 38.5 ± 8.31 years, median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): 2) and 10 healthy subjects were included. Upper extremity function was measured with the Nine-hole peg test, upper extremity strength (shoulder flexion-abduction, elbow flexion, pinch and grip) with hand-held dynamometer, hand grip dynamometer and manual pinch meter, threshold of light touch-pressure with Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, duration of vibration with 128-Hz frequency tuning fork, and distance of two-point discrimination with an aesthesiometer. Strength and functional level of the upper extremity, light touch-pressure, two-point discrimination, vibration sensations of the hand were lower in patients with MS compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05). Light touch-pressure sensation of thumb and index fingers, two-point discrimination of index finger and elbow flexion strength were found to be related with upper extremity function in patients with MS (p< 0.05). These results indicate that the hand sensation, upper extremity strength and function were affected in MS patients. Additionally upper extremity functions seem to be related with light touch-pressure and two-point discrimination sensations of the hand and elbow flexion strength. Upper extremity strengthening and sensorial training of the hand may contribute to the upper extremity function in patients with MS.

  18. Differential Effects of Heavy Versus Moderate Loads on Measures of Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D.; Peterson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance training (RT) with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY) that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 10) or a hypertrophy-type RT routine (MODERATE) that trained in a loading range of 8-12 repetitions per set (n = 9). Training was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 7 exercises for the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body. Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for: 1 repetition maximum (RM) strength in the bench press and squat, upper body muscle endurance, and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and lateral thigh. Results showed statistically greater increases in 1RM squat strength favoring HEAVY compared to MODERATE. Alternatively, statistically greater increases in lateral thigh muscle thickness were noted for MODERATE versus HEAVY. These findings indicate that heavy load training is superior for maximal strength goals while moderate load training is more suited to hypertrophy-related goals when an equal number of sets are performed between conditions. Key points Heavy loads maximize muscular strength when the numbers of sets are equated. Moderate loads maximize muscle hypertrophy when the number of sets are equated Volume load appears to be more important to increases in muscle hypertrophy compared to absolute strength PMID:27928218

  19. Is there a low-energy enhancement in the photon strength function in molybdenum?

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, S. A.

    2008-04-17

    Recent claims of a low-energy enhancement in the photon strength function of {sup 96}Mo are investigated. Using the DANCE detector the gamma-ray spectra following resonance neutron capture was measured. The spectrum fitting method was used to indirectly extract a photon strength function from the gamma-ray spectra. No strong low energy enhancement in the photon strength function was found.

  20. Effects of Strength Training on Running Economy in Highly Trained Runners: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Grivas, Gerasimos V

    2016-08-01

    Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Santos-Concejero, J, and Grivas, GV. Effects of strength training on running economy in highly trained runners: a systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2361-2368, 2016-The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials to determine the effect of strength training programs on the running economy (RE) of high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four electronic databases were searched in September 2015 (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and CINAHL) for original research articles. After analyzing 699 resultant original articles, studies were included if the following criteria were met: (a) participants were competitive middle- or long-distance runners; (b) participants had a V[Combining Dot Above]O2max >60 ml·kg·min; (c) studies were controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals; (d) studies analyzed the effects of strength training programs with a duration greater than 4 weeks; and (e) RE was measured before and after the strength training intervention. Five studies met the inclusion criteria, resulting in a total sample size of 93 competitive, high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four of the 5 included studies used low to moderate training intensities (40-70% one repetition maximum), and all of them used low to moderate training volume (2-4 resistance lower-body exercises plus up to 200 jumps and 5-10 short sprints) 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks. The meta-analyzed effect of strength training programs on RE in high-level middle- and long-distance runners showed a large, beneficial effect (standardized mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -1.42 [-2.23 to -0.60]). In conclusion, a strength training program including low to high intensity resistance exercises and plyometric exercises performed 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks is an appropriate strategy to improve RE in highly trained middle- and long-distance runners.

  1. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p < 0.001) and 24 (-13% ± 5%, p < 0.001 and -9% ± 5%, p = 0.001). Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p < 0.001) were similar between E and E+S. This study showed no endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.

  2. Effects of two and five days of creatine loading on muscular strength and anaerobic power in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Law, Yu Li Lydia; Ong, Wee Sian; GillianYap, Tsien Lin; Lim, Su Ching Joselin; Von Chia, Ee

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of 2 and 5 days of creatine loading, coupled with resistance training, on muscular strength and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Seventeen trained men were randomly assigned to a creatine or a placebo group. The creatine supplementation group consumed 20 g of creatine per day (4 doses of 5 g per day), whereas the placebo group was given a placebo similar in appearance and taste over the 5-day supplementation duration. Anaerobic power and strength performance measures, in addition to blood and urine analysis, were conducted in the morning before the supplementation began and on the third and sixth day to establish the effect of 2 and 5 days of creatine loading, respectively. The study found that a 5-day creatine loading regime coupled with resistance training resulted in significant improvements in both average anaerobic power, as measured by the 30-second Wingate test and back squat strength compared with just training alone. However, 2 days of supplementation was not sufficient to produce similar performance gains as that observed at the end of 5 days of loading in trained men, despite increases in creatine uptake in the body. The standard 5-day loading regime should hence be prescribed to individuals supplementing with creatine for enhanced strength and power.

  3. Effects of training using video games on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyuchang

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Fourteen stroke patients were recruited. They were randomly allocated into two groups; the experimental group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). [Methods] The experimental group performed training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect together with conventional occupational therapy for 6 weeks (1 hour/day, 3 days/week), and the control group received conventional occupational therapy only for 6 weeks (30 min/day, 3 days/week). Before and after the intervention, the participants were measured for muscle strength, muscle tone, and performance of activities of daily living. [Results] There were significant differences pre- and post-test in muscle strength of the upper extremities, except the wrist, and performance of activities of daily living in the experimental group. There were no significant differences between the two groups at post-test. [Conclusion] The training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect had a positive effect on the motor function and performance of activities of daily living. This study showed that training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect may be an effective intervention for the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  4. Determinants of olympic fencing performance and implications for strength and conditioning training.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony; James, Nic; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Greenhalgh, Andy; Moody, Jeremy; Fulcher, David; Mias, Eduard; Kilduff, Liam

    2014-10-01

    Fencing is one of only a few sports that have featured at every modern Olympic games. Despite this, there is still much the sport science team does not know regarding competition demands and athlete physical characteristics. This review aims to undertake an analysis of the current literature to identify what is known, and questions that must be answered to optimize athlete support in this context. In summary, fencing is an explosive sport requiring energy production predominately from anaerobic sources. Lunging and change-of-direction speed seem vital to performance, and strength and power qualities underpin this. In the elimination rounds, fencers are likely to accumulate high levels of blood lactate, and so high-intensity interval training is recommended to reduce the intolerance to and the accumulation of hydrogen ions. Injury data report the hamstrings as a muscle group that should be strengthened and address imbalances caused by continuous fencing in an asymmetrical stance.

  5. Improved functional vasodilation in obese Zucker rats following exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sebai, Mohamad; Lu, Silu; Xiang, Lusha; Hester, Robert L

    2011-09-01

    Obese individuals exhibit impaired functional vasodilation and exercise performance. We have demonstrated in obese Zucker rats (OZ), a model of morbid obesity, that insulin resistance impairs functional vasodilation via an increased thromboxane receptor (TP)-mediated vasoconstriction. Chronic treadmill exercise training improves functional vasodilation in