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Sample records for functional strength training

  1. Strength Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... strengthens your heart and lungs. When you strength train with weights, you're using your muscles to ... see there are lots of different ways to train with weights. Try a few good basic routines ...

  2. Circuit strength training improves muscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

    PubMed

    Mazini Filho, Mauro L; Aidar, Felipe J; Gama de Matos, Dihogo; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo; Patrocínio de Oliveira, Cláudia E; de Oliveira Venturini, Gabriela R; Magalhães Curty, Victor; Menezes Touguinha, Henrique; Caputo Ferreira, Maria E

    2017-04-26

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of circuit strength training on the muscle strength, functional autonomy and anthropometric indicators of the elderly. Were included 65 women divided in two groups: strength training (TG, n= 34) and control group (CG, n = 31). The strength-training group was subjected to a circuit shaped training program, three days per week, for a period of 12 weeks. In each training session, the circuit was repeated three times. In each circuit, all exercises wereperformed once, with 8 to 12 repetitions per exercise, with 30-seconds intervals between each exercise. TG showed significantly changes in body composition post 12 weeks, as decreases in body weight (Δ -1.5±1.8 kg) and BMI (Δ-0.57 ±0.74 kg/m²), and decreases in abdominal (Δ -3±1.61 cm), waist (Δ -1 ± 1.61 cm), hip (Δ -2.75±1.44 cm) and waist hip ratio circumference (Δ -0.02 ± 0.15 cm). For functional autonomy, TG showed increases post 12 weeks by 30-second chair stand (Δ 3.5±0.4 reps), six minute walk (Δ60.95±7.91 m), back scratch (Δ 3.2 ± 1.36 cm), and time up and go tests (Δ -1,62 ±0,15s). TG also showed increases in muscle strength post 12 weeks in both leg press (Δ 11±1,29 kg) and lat pulldown (Δ11 ±0,75 Kg). For CG, Body composition, functional autonomy and muscle strength did not improved in any moment. Hence, circuit strength training provides significant improvements inmuscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

  3. Strength Development: Using Functional Isometrics in an Isotonic Strength Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study was made to determine if a combination of functional isometrics and standard isotonic training would be superior to a standard isotonic program in an instructional setting. The results provide support for functional isometrics as an enhancement where achievement of maximum strength is the goal. (Author/MT)

  4. Strength Development: Using Functional Isometrics in an Isotonic Strength Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study was made to determine if a combination of functional isometrics and standard isotonic training would be superior to a standard isotonic program in an instructional setting. The results provide support for functional isometrics as an enhancement where achievement of maximum strength is the goal. (Author/MT)

  5. Functional outcomes associated with expiratory muscle strength training: narrative review.

    PubMed

    Laciuga, Helena; Rosenbek, John C; Davenport, Paul W; Sapienza, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    This review presents the available evidence for the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) with the use of a pressure threshold device. The investigators used computerized database searches for studies reporting the outcomes of pressure threshold EMST published after 1994. A total of 24 selected articles presented outcomes related but not limited to respiratory function, such as speech, swallow, voice, and cough function in persons with neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and Lance-Adams syndrome; in persons with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and in healthy young adults and sedentary and active elderly. Several studies demonstrated promising outcomes of EMST as a non-task-specific training for airway protection in persons with dysphagia secondary to neuromuscular impairments; however, further research is needed to confirm and generalize the reported findings.

  6. Functional strength training: Seated machine vs standing cable training to improve physical function in elderly.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Anoop; Martins, Maria M; De Faveri, Frederico G; Alan, Ozgur; Cetinkaya, Funda; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-09-01

    The majority of the strength training studies in older adults have incorporated fixed-form exercises using seated resistance training machines. In light of the modest improvements in physical function shown in these studies, functional or task-specific exercises, involving movement patterns that mimic daily activities, have been studied. Free-form exercises, using free-weights or cable, is another form of functional strength training. Currently, no intervention studies exist comparing free-form exercises, using cable machines, and fixed-form exercises, using seated machines in older adults. A total of 29 independently-living older adults, 65years or older, were randomized into two groups, seated machine (SM, n=10) and standing cable (SC, n=12). After 12weeks of training twice per week, groups were compared. The primary outcome was the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), a measure of physical function. Secondary outcomes were lower and upper body strength and power, activities of daily living evaluated by multiple tests including: Physical Performance Test (PPT), pan carry and gallon jug transfers, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and self-reported function using Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Outcome assessors were blinded to participants' intervention assignments. The PPB (SC=0.23 points; SM=0.15 points) showed clinical and significant improvements, but there was no significant difference between the groups (g=0.2, 95% CI (-0.6, 1.0). For secondary outcomes, chair stand (g=0.7, 95% CI (0.2, 1.6), p=0.03) and pan carry (g=0.8, 95% CI (0.07, 1.07), p=0.04) favored SC, while chest press 1RM (g=0.2, 95% CI (0.06, 1.1), p=0.02) favored SM. There were no statistically significant group differences between PPB, gallon jug transfer, leg press 1RM, power, RPE or self-reported function. Standing cable training was not superior to seated machine training in improving physical performance in older adults. However, both training

  7. Functional strength training in child with cerebral palsy GMFCS IV: case report.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Adriana Neves; da Costa, Carolina Souza Neves; Golineleo, Maria Terezinha Baldessar; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a functional strength training. A nine-year-old child with Cerebral Palsy (CP) classified as level IV according to Gross Motor Function Classification System participated in the study. Assessments were at baseline, five weeks and 10 weeks post-intervention. Lower-extremity muscles strength was evaluated with an isokinetic dynamometer. Also, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and Timed up & Go (TUG) tests were assessed. A functional strength training protocol, four sessions a week, for 10 weeks was applied. Following functional strength training, it improvements were found in hip, knee and ankle muscles strength, as well as increase in GMFM-88 score and decrease in time for TUG test performance. Positives outcomes from functional strength training were obtained beyond improvements in strength, since improvements in functional motor performance were also achieved. Therefore, individualized, specific and functional strength training seems to be an alternative to rehabilitation of children with CP with high level of functional disability.

  8. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    PubMed

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Training-specific functional, neural, and hypertrophic adaptations to explosive- vs. sustained-contraction strength training.

    PubMed

    Balshaw, Thomas G; Massey, Garry J; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Training specificity is considered important for strength training, although the functional and underpinning physiological adaptations to different types of training, including brief explosive contractions, are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of 12 wk of explosive-contraction (ECT, n = 13) vs. sustained-contraction (SCT, n = 16) strength training vs. control (n = 14) on the functional, neural, hypertrophic, and intrinsic contractile characteristics of healthy young men. Training involved 40 isometric knee extension repetitions (3 times/wk): contracting as fast and hard as possible for ∼1 s (ECT) or gradually increasing to 75% of maximum voluntary torque (MVT) before holding for 3 s (SCT). Torque and electromyography during maximum and explosive contractions, torque during evoked octet contractions, and total quadriceps muscle volume (QUADSVOL) were quantified pre and post training. MVT increased more after SCT than ECT [23 vs. 17%; effect size (ES) = 0.69], with similar increases in neural drive, but greater QUADSVOL changes after SCT (8.1 vs. 2.6%; ES = 0.74). ECT improved explosive torque at all time points (17-34%; 0.54 ≤ ES ≤ 0.76) because of increased neural drive (17-28%), whereas only late-phase explosive torque (150 ms, 12%; ES = 1.48) and corresponding neural drive (18%) increased after SCT. Changes in evoked torque indicated slowing of the contractile properties of the muscle-tendon unit after both training interventions. These results showed training-specific functional changes that appeared to be due to distinct neural and hypertrophic adaptations. ECT produced a wider range of functional adaptations than SCT, and given the lesser demands of ECT, this type of training provides a highly efficient means of increasing function.

  10. Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals.

    PubMed

    Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon

    2017-08-15

    There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, P<0.05) and EX3 improved more than EX1 (P=0.007) at month 9. Compared to CON, EX3 improved in backward walk (P=0.047) and EX1 in timed-up-and-go (P=0.029) tests. No significant changes occurred in body composition. The present study found no evidence that higher training frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of high speed strength training with heavy and low workloads on neuromuscular function and maximal concentric quadriceps strength.

    PubMed

    Mazani, Ali A; Hamdinia, Mohamed R; Haghigi, Amir H; Hedayatpour, Nosratollah

    2017-02-14

    Dynamic strength training has been widely used to increase the ability of skeletal muscle to produce muscle force. Manipulating resistance training program variables has been commonly used as a tool to optimize maximum strength. This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of high-speed strength training with low and heavy workloads on muscle strength and neuromuscular function of quadriceps muscle. Thirty male subjects (age, mean ± SD, 20.6 ± 2.6 yr, body mass 70.4 ± 12.9 kg, height 1.76 ± 0.09 m) with no history of knee injury or trauma participated to the study. Subjects were randomly divided into two training groups, low workload training (40% 1RM) and heavy workload training (80% 1RM). One repetition of maximum leg-press measured before and after 12 weeks training. Moreover, surface electromyograpic signals were recorded from vastus medialis and lateralis muscle during one repetition of maximum leg-press before and after 12 weeks training. High speed training with heavy workload-low repetition resulted in a greater increase (41.8% ± 4.3) in maximal concentric quadriceps strength compared with high speed training with low workloads-high repetition (23.3% ± 2.7; F=3.8, P<0.035). Average rectified value of EMG after 12 weeks high speed training with heavy workload- low repetition was significantly larger than those observed after high speed training with low workload- high repetition (F=5.5, P<0.039). The result indicates that, high speed movement combined withheavy workload is an effective stimulus for neural adaptations to training, which in turn result in greater improvement in muscle strength.

  12. Strength training induced adaptations in neuromuscular function of premenopausal women with fibromyalgia: comparison with healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Hakkinen, A; Hakkinen, K; Hannonen, P; Alen, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the effects of 21 weeks' progressive strength training on neuromuscular function and subjectively perceived symptoms in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia (FM).
METHODS—Twenty one women with FM were randomly assigned to experimental (FMT) or control (FMC) groups. Twelve healthy women served as training controls (HT). The FMT and HT groups carried out progressive strength training twice a week for 21 weeks. The major outcome measures were muscle strength and electromyographic (EMG) recordings. Secondary outcome measures were pain, sleep, fatigue, physical function capacity (Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire), and mood (short version of Beck's depression index).
RESULTS—Female FMT subjects increased their maximal and explosive strength and EMG activity to the same extent as the HT group. Moreover, the progressive strength training showed immediate benefits on subjectively perceived fatigue, depression, and neck pain of training patients with FM.
CONCLUSIONS—The strength training data indicate comparable trainability of the neuromuscular system of women with FM and healthy women. Progressive strength training can safely be used in the treatment of FM to decrease the impact of the syndrome on the neuromuscular system, perceived symptoms, and functional capacity. These results confirm the opinion that FM syndrome has a central rather than a peripheral or muscular basis.

 PMID:11114277

  13. Effects of strength training on muscle strength characteristics, functional capabilities, and balance in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Holviala, Jarkko H S; Sallinen, Janne M; Kraemer, William J; Alen, Markku J; Häkkinen, Keijo K T

    2006-05-01

    Progressive strength training can lead to substantial increases in maximal strength and mass of trained muscles, even in older women and men, but little information is available about the effects of strength training on functional capabilities and balance. Thus, the effects of 21 weeks of heavy resistance training--including lower loads performed with high movement velocities--twice a week on isometric maximal force (ISOmax) and force-time curve (force produced in 500 milliseconds, F0-500) and dynamic 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength of the leg extensors, 10-m walking time (10WALK) and dynamic balance test (DYN.D) were investigated in 26 middle-aged (MI; 52.8 +/- 2.4 years) and 22 older women (O; 63.8 +/- 3.8 years). 1RM, ISOmax, and F0-500 increased significantly in MI by 28 +/- 10%, 20 +/- 19%, 31 +/- 34%, and in O by 27 +/- 8%, 20 +/- 16%, 18 +/- 45%, respectively. 10WALK (MI and O, p < 0.001) shortened and DYN.D improved (MI and O, p < 0.001). The present strength-training protocol led to large increases in maximal and explosive strength characteristics of leg extensors and in walking speed, as well to an improvement in the present dynamic balance test performance in both age groups. Although training-induced increase in explosive strength is an important factor for aging women, there are other factors that contribute to improvements in dynamic balance capacity. This study indicates that total body heavy resistance training, including explosive dynamic training, may be applied in rehabilitation or preventive exercise protocols in aging women to improve dynamic balance capabilities.

  14. Ankle Strength and Force Sense After a Progressive, 6-Week Strength-Training Program in People With Functional Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brent I.; Docherty, Carrie L.; Simon, Janet; Klossner, Joanne; Schrader, John

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although strength training is commonly used to rehabilitate ankle injuries, studies investigating the effects of strength training on proprioception have shown conflicting results. Objective: To determine the effects of a 6-week strength-training protocol on force sense and strength development in participants with functional ankle instability. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: University athletic training research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 40 participants with functional ankle instability were recruited. They were randomly placed into a training group (10 men, 10 women: age  =  20.9 ± 2.2 years, height  =  76.4 ± 16.1 cm, mass  =  173.0 ± 7.9 kg) or control group (10 men, 10 women: age  =  20.2 ± 2.1 years, height  =  78.8 ± 24.5 cm, mass  =  173.7 ± 8.2 kg). Intervention(s): Participants in the training group performed strength exercises with the injured ankle 3 times per week for 6 weeks. The protocol consisted of a combination of rubber exercise bands and the Multiaxial Ankle Exerciser, both clinically accepted strengthening methods for ankle rehabilitation. The progression of this protocol provided increasingly resistive exercise as participants changed either the number of sets or resistance of the Thera-Band or Multiaxial Ankle Exerciser. Main Outcome Measure(s): A load cell was used to measure strength and force sense. Inversion and eversion strength was recorded to the nearest 0.01 N. Force-sense reproduction was measured at 2 loads: 20% and 30% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Results: Increases in inversion (F1,38  =  11.59, P < 0.01, ηp2  =  0.23, power  =  0.91) and eversion (F1,38  =  57.68, P < .01, ηp2  =  0.60, power  =  0.99) strength were found in the training group at the posttest when compared with the control group. No significant improvements were noted in force-sense reproduction for either group. Conclusions

  15. Handgrip strength in cardiac rehabilitation: normative values, interaction with physical function, and response to training.

    PubMed

    Mroszczyk-McDonald, Alex; Savage, Patrick D; Ades, Philip A

    2007-01-01

    To determine normative values for handgrip (HG) strength at entry into cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to examine the relationship of HG strength with self-reported physical function and the response of HG strength to exercise training. HG strength was measured in 1,960 patients with coronary heart disease. Other measures obtained included oxygen consumption/ unit time (peak VO2), body composition, physical function and depression questionnaires, and assessment of comorbid conditions. Subsequently, HG strength and other measures were obtained in 666 participants who completed 36 sessions of CR exercise training. HG strength was significantly greater in men than in women (40.6 +/- 10.1 kg vs 22.6 +/- 6.5 kg, P < .0001), but diminished with age in both men and women from the third to the eight decade. Factors most strongly correlated with HG strength were gender (r = 0.40, P < .0001), height (r = 0.37, P < .0001), peak VO2 (r = 0.32, P < .0001), and age (r = -0.23, P < .0001). Baseline HG strength was correlated with physical function capacity in patients older than 65 years but not in younger patients. Following CR, HG strength increased overall by 4.6% in comparison with baseline values (34.9 +/- 11.4 to 36.5 +/- 11.6 kg, P < .0001). For the entire cohort, the increase in HG strength was associated with an increase in physical function score (P < .05). In patients with coronary heart disease, HG strength decreases with age and is lower in women, patients with diabetes, and patients with lower peak Vo2. It remains to be determined whether a training protocol that specifically focuses on increasing HG strength would have a greater impact on overall functional status.

  16. Weight training and strength, cardiorespiratory functioning and body composition of men.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, C M; Yeater, R A; Ullrich, I H

    1987-01-01

    Forty-five men (18-35 years) trained three times a week for eight weeks to determine the effects of four constant-resistant weight training programmes on muscular strength, endurance, body composition and cardiovascular functioning. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four programmes: Endurance (2 sets of 15 repetition maximum [RM]); Explosive (1 set of 15 RM); Strength 1 (3 sets of 6 RM); Strength 2 (1 set of 10 RM twice weekly and 1 set of 3 RM once weekly). All groups showed significant increases in elbow and shoulder flexion strength with elbow extension strength improved in the Explosive, Strength 2 and Endurance groups. Shoulder extension strength improved the Endurance group and in the Strength 2 group. Maximum oxygen uptake (L/min) and (ml X kg-1 min-1) improved significantly in the Endurance and Strength 2 groups. Lean body weight increased significantly in all groups except the Strength 1 group, but there was no change in % fat for any group. Due to a high drop out rate (55%) and injury related problems, the Explosive technique is not recommended. The Endurance and Strength 2 programmes were most effective for improving physiologic functioning, as assessed in this study. PMID:3580729

  17. Muscle strength training to improve gait function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Eek, Meta Nyström; Tranberg, Roy; Zügner, Roland; Alkema, Kristina; Beckung, Eva

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of muscle strength training on gait outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen children (two females, 14 males, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-II, mean age 12y 6mo, range 9y 4mo-15y 4mo) underwent muscle strength measurement using a handheld device, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) assessment, three-dimensional gait analysis, joint range of motion assessment, and grading of spasticity before and after 8 weeks of training. All participants had a diagnosis of spastic diplegia and could walk without aids. Training consisted of exercises for lower extremity muscles with free weights, rubber bands, and body weight for resistance, three times a week. Values for muscle strength below normal were identified in all children; this was most pronounced at the ankle, followed by the hip muscles. After training, muscle strength and GMFM scores increased, velocity was unchanged, stride length increased, and cadence was reduced. There was an increase in hip extensor moment and power generated at push off. Eight weeks of muscle strength training can increase muscle strength and improve gait function.

  18. Lower limb strength training in children with cerebral palsy – a randomized controlled trial protocol for functional strength training based on progressive resistance exercise principles

    PubMed Central

    Scholtes, Vanessa A; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Verschuren, Olaf; Tempelaars, Els; Hensen, Maartje; Becher, Jules G

    2008-01-01

    Background Until recently, strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) was considered to be inappropriate, because it could lead to increased spasticity or abnormal movement patterns. However, the results of recent studies suggest that progressive strength training can lead to increased strength and improved function, but low methodological quality and incomplete reporting on the training protocols hampers adequate interpretation of the results. This paper describes the design and training protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a school-based progressive functional strength training program for children with CP. Methods/Results Fifty-one children with Gross Motor Function Classification Systems levels I to III, aged of 6 to 13 years, were recruited. Using stratified randomization, each child was assigned to an intervention group (strength training) or a control group (usual care). The strength training was given in groups of 4–5 children, 3 times a week, for a period of 12 weeks. Each training session focussed on four exercises out of a 5-exercise circuit. The training load was gradually increased based on the child's maximum level of strength, as determined by the 8 Repetition Maximum (8 RM). To evaluate the effectiveness of the training, all children were evaluated before, during, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention period. Primary outcomes in this study were gross motor function (measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure and functional muscle strength tests) and walking ability (measured with the 10-meter, the 1-minute and the timed stair test). Secondary outcomes were lower limb muscle strength (measured with a 6 RM test, isometric strength tests, and a sprint capacity test), mobility (measured with a mobility questionnaire), and sport activities (measured with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment). Spasticity and range of motion were assessed to evaluate any adverse events

  19. Lower limb strength training in children with cerebral palsy--a randomized controlled trial protocol for functional strength training based on progressive resistance exercise principles.

    PubMed

    Scholtes, Vanessa A; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Verschuren, Olaf; Tempelaars, Els; Hensen, Maartje; Becher, Jules G

    2008-10-08

    Until recently, strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) was considered to be inappropriate, because it could lead to increased spasticity or abnormal movement patterns. However, the results of recent studies suggest that progressive strength training can lead to increased strength and improved function, but low methodological quality and incomplete reporting on the training protocols hampers adequate interpretation of the results. This paper describes the design and training protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a school-based progressive functional strength training program for children with CP. Fifty-one children with Gross Motor Function Classification Systems levels I to III, aged of 6 to 13 years, were recruited. Using stratified randomization, each child was assigned to an intervention group (strength training) or a control group (usual care). The strength training was given in groups of 4-5 children, 3 times a week, for a period of 12 weeks. Each training session focussed on four exercises out of a 5-exercise circuit. The training load was gradually increased based on the child's maximum level of strength, as determined by the 8 Repetition Maximum (8 RM). To evaluate the effectiveness of the training, all children were evaluated before, during, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention period. Primary outcomes in this study were gross motor function (measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure and functional muscle strength tests) and walking ability (measured with the 10-meter, the 1-minute and the timed stair test). Secondary outcomes were lower limb muscle strength (measured with a 6 RM test, isometric strength tests, and a sprint capacity test), mobility (measured with a mobility questionnaire), and sport activities (measured with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment). Spasticity and range of motion were assessed to evaluate any adverse events. Randomized clinical trials are

  20. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p < 0.001), extensors (21%, p < 0.001), lateral flexors (right: 48%, p < 0.001; left: 53%, p < 0.001) and left rotators (42%, p < 0.001) in favor of the INT group. Further, training-related improvements were found for spinal mobility in the sagittal (11%, p < 0.001) and coronal plane (11%, p = 0.06) directions, for stride velocity (9%, p < 0.05), the coefficient of variation in stride velocity (31%, p < 0.05), the Functional Reach test (20%, p < 0.05) and the Timed Up and Go test (4%, p < 0.05) in favor of the INT group. CIT proved to be a feasible exercise program for seniors with a high

  1. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P < 0.05). Long-term strength training led to increased concentric (14 %; P < 0.01) and isometric (23 %; P < 0.001) quadriceps and isometric hamstring strength (44 %; P < 0.0001), whereas football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P < 0.05) and RFD (89 %, P < 0.0001). Long-term (1 year) strength training led to increased quadriceps and hamstring strength, whereas the adaptations to football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles

  2. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  3. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  4. Efficiency of muscle strength training on motor function in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Jie; He, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Hai-Ying; Wang, Xue-Qiang; Zhu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Existing literature has shown that patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) can benefit greatly from the strength training; therefore, the strength training should play a more important role in cardiac rehabilitation. However, the medical community may still have conservation to apply the strength training owing to no comprehensive study so far to compare the effectiveness of the strength training to the other trainings, such as aerobic training. Objective: To evaluate the effect of strength training on motor function in patients with CAD. Methods: Published articles from the earliest date available to July 2015 were identified using electronic searches. Two reviewers selected independently relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating exercise program with strength training versus control interventions (exercise without strength training, including aerobic training and no exercise group) for the treatment of CAD patients. We examined effects of exercise with strength training versus control interventions on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), duration of exercise test and muscle strength. Two reviewers extracted data independently. Results: Twenty seven trials that represented 1151 participants passed the selection criteria and were evaluated for the effects of strength training in CAD patients. For improving VO2peak [SMD (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.11, 1.06)] and muscle strength [upper limb, SMD (95% CI) =0.44 (0.34, 0.55); lower limb, SMD (95% CI) =0.33 (0.16, 0.50)], exercise program with strength training were significantly more effective than one without it. But there is no significantly difference on duration of exercise test [SMD (95%CI) = 0.17 (-0.04, 0.39)] in strength training group than in control group. Conclusions: We conclude strength training is effective in improving muscle strength and VO2peak, in CAD patients, when compared to patients with control group. Furthermore, our evaluations suggest that strength training does not compromise

  5. Efficiency of muscle strength training on motor function in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Jie; He, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Hai-Ying; Wang, Xue-Qiang; Zhu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature has shown that patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) can benefit greatly from the strength training; therefore, the strength training should play a more important role in cardiac rehabilitation. However, the medical community may still have conservation to apply the strength training owing to no comprehensive study so far to compare the effectiveness of the strength training to the other trainings, such as aerobic training. To evaluate the effect of strength training on motor function in patients with CAD. Published articles from the earliest date available to July 2015 were identified using electronic searches. Two reviewers selected independently relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating exercise program with strength training versus control interventions (exercise without strength training, including aerobic training and no exercise group) for the treatment of CAD patients. We examined effects of exercise with strength training versus control interventions on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), duration of exercise test and muscle strength. Two reviewers extracted data independently. Twenty seven trials that represented 1151 participants passed the selection criteria and were evaluated for the effects of strength training in CAD patients. For improving VO2peak [SMD (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.11, 1.06)] and muscle strength [upper limb, SMD (95% CI) =0.44 (0.34, 0.55); lower limb, SMD (95% CI) =0.33 (0.16, 0.50)], exercise program with strength training were significantly more effective than one without it. But there is no significantly difference on duration of exercise test [SMD (95%CI) = 0.17 (-0.04, 0.39)] in strength training group than in control group. We conclude strength training is effective in improving muscle strength and VO2peak, in CAD patients, when compared to patients with control group. Furthermore, our evaluations suggest that strength training does not compromise clinical trial completion or safety.

  6. [Effects of education and strength training on functional tests among older people with osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Jiménez S, Christian Edgardo; Fernández G, Rubén; Zurita O, Félix; Linares G, Daniel; Farías M, Ariel

    2014-04-01

    Hip and knee osteoarthritis are important causes of pain and disability among older people. Education and strength training can alleviate symptoms and avoid functional deterioration. To assess muscle strength, fall risk and quality of life of older people with osteoarthritis and the effects of physiotherapy education and strength training on these variables. Thirty participants aged 78 ± 5 years (63% women) were randomly assigned to receive physiotherapy (Controls), physiotherapy plus education (Group 1) and physiotherapy plus strength training (group 2). At baseline and after 16 weeks of intervention, patients were evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test, Timed Up and Go and Quality of Life score short form (SF-36). During the intervention period, Senior Fitness Test and Timed Up and Go scores improved in all groups and SF-36 did not change. The improvement in Senior Fitness Test and Timed Up and Go was more marked in Groups 1 and 2 than in the control group. Education and strength training improve functional tests among older people with osteoarthritis.

  7. Effects of strength and neuromuscular training on functional performance in athletes after partial medial meniscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Min; Lou, Zhen; Liao, Bagen

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine an effective knee function rehabilitation program for athletes undergoing partial medial meniscectomy. Participants were randomly assigned to neuromuscular training (NT) or strength training (ST) group and subjected to functional assessments before surgery and again at 4, and 8 weeks post hoc. Functional knee assessment, such as Lysholm knee scoring, star excursion balance, and BTE PrimusRS isokinetic performance tests were evaluated in each group. All postoperational symptoms were significantly improved after 4 and 8 weeks of NT and ST. Both NT and ST programs showed effective knee function recovery seen as an increase in muscular strength and endurance. However, the NT program showed the most significant functional improvement of dynamic balance and coordination. PMID:28349042

  8. A Novel Application of Eddy Current Braking for Functional Strength Training during Gait

    PubMed Central

    Washabaugh, Edward P.; Claflin, Edward S.; Gillespie, R. Brent; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2016-01-01

    Functional strength training is becoming increasingly popular when rehabilitating individuals with neurological injury such as stroke or cerebral palsy. Typically, resistance during walking is provided using cable robots or weights that are secured to the distal shank of the subject. However, there exists no device that is wearable and capable of providing resistance across the joint, allowing over ground gait training. In this study, we created a lightweight and wearable device using eddy current braking to provide resistance to the knee. We then validated the device by having subjects wear it during a walking task through varying resistance levels. Electromyography and kinematics were collected to assess the biomechanical effects of the device on the wearer. We found that eddy current braking provided resistance levels suitable for functional strength training of leg muscles in a package that is both lightweight and wearable. Applying resistive forces at the knee joint during gait resulted in significant increases in muscle activation of many of the muscles tested. A brief period of training also resulted in significant aftereffects once the resistance was removed. These results support the feasibility of the device for functional strength training during gait. Future research is warranted to test the clinical potential of the device in an injured population. PMID:26817456

  9. A Novel Application of Eddy Current Braking for Functional Strength Training During Gait.

    PubMed

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Claflin, Edward S; Gillespie, R Brent; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2016-09-01

    Functional strength training is becoming increasingly popular when rehabilitating individuals with neurological injury such as stroke or cerebral palsy. Typically, resistance during walking is provided using cable robots or weights that are secured to the distal shank of the subject. However, there exists no device that is wearable and capable of providing resistance across the joint, allowing over ground gait training. In this study, we created a lightweight and wearable device using eddy current braking to provide resistance to the knee. We then validated the device by having subjects wear it during a walking task through varying resistance levels. Electromyography and kinematics were collected to assess the biomechanical effects of the device on the wearer. We found that eddy current braking provided resistance levels suitable for functional strength training of leg muscles in a package that is both lightweight and wearable. Applying resistive forces at the knee joint during gait resulted in significant increases in muscle activation of many of the muscles tested. A brief period of training also resulted in significant aftereffects once the resistance was removed. These results support the feasibility of the device for functional strength training during gait. Future research is warranted to test the clinical potential of the device in an injured population.

  10. Early-phase adaptations to intrahospital training in strength and functional mobility of children with leukemia.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Alejandro F; Fleck, Steven J; Chamorro-Viña, Carolina; Maté-Muñoz, José L; Moral, Susana; García-Castro, Javier; Ramírez, Manuel; Madero, Luis; Lucia, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    Improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy have contributed to the high survival rate (approximately 70%) of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, during treatment, lack of physical activity and treatment cause various short- to long-term side effects, such as muscle atrophy and physical deconditioning. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an intrahospital, short-duration (8 weeks) exercise training program on muscle strength and endurance and functional mobility of children with ALL. Seven children (4 boys and 3 girls; 4-7 years of age) who were in the maintenance phase of treatment for ALL were selected as subjects. Three training sessions of 90- to 120-minute duration were performed each week. Each session included 11 different strength exercises engaging the major muscle groups and aerobic training. Gains in strength and endurance were assessed with a 6 repetition maximum test for upper (seated bench press and seated lateral row) and lower extremities (leg press). Gains in functional mobility were assessed with the time up and go test (TUG) and the timed up and down stairs test (TUDS). Performance was significantly improved after the training program in all strength tests (p < 0.01 for seated bench press and p < 0.05 for both seated lateral row and seated leg press) and in the TUG test (p < 0.05). In summary, a period of time as short as 8 weeks is enough to produce clinically relevant early-phase adaptations in children receiving treatment against ALL (i.e., improved functional mobility and muscle strength). Although more research is needed in the area of exercise training and pediatric cancer, exercise sciences can play a beneficial role in assisting both oncologists in treating cancer and improving children's quality of life during and after treatment.

  11. Crew Strength Training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Train to develop your upper and lower body strength in your muscles and bones by performing body-weight squats and push-ups.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to...

  12. Assessment of neuromuscular function after different strength training protocols using tensiomyography.

    PubMed

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Á; Harms, Nico; Raeder, Christian; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze tensiomyography (TMG) sensitivity to changes in muscle force and neuromuscular function of the muscle rectus femoris (RF) using TMG muscle properties after 5 different lower-limb strength training protocols (multiple sets; DS = drop sets; eccentric overload; FW = flywheel; PL = plyometrics). After baseline measurements, 14 male strength trained athletes completed 1 squat training protocol per week over a 5-week period in a randomized controlled order. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), TMG measurements of maximal radial displacement of the muscle belly (Dm), contraction time between 10 and 90% of Dm (Tc), and mean muscle contraction velocities from the beginning until 10% (V10) and 90% of Dm (V90) were analyzed up to 0.5 (post-train), 24 (post-24), and 48 hours (post-48) after the training interventions. Significant analysis of variance main effects for measurement points were found for all TMG contractile properties and MVIC (p < 0.01). Dm and V10 post-train values were significantly lower after protocols DS and FW compared with protocol PL (p = 0.032 and 0.012, respectively). Dm, V10, and V90 decrements correlated significantly to the decreases in MVIC (r = 0.64-0.67, p ≤ 0.05). Some TMG muscle properties are sensitive to changes in muscle force, and different lower-limb strength training protocols lead to changes in neuromuscular function of RF. In addition, those protocols involving high and eccentric load and a high total time under tension may induce higher changes in TMG muscle properties.

  13. Strength Training and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength ... help prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using ...

  14. Effects of strength training and reduced training on functional performance and metabolic health indicators in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sallinen, J; Fogelholm, M; Volek, J S; Kraemer, W J; Alen, M; Häkkinen, K

    2007-10-01

    Changes in muscular fitness and metabolic health indicators were examined in 22 men (57.9 +/- 6.6 years, BMI 24.5 +/- 2.6 kg/m (2)) and 21 control men (58.2 +/- 6.1 years, BMI 25.4 +/- 2.8 kg/m (2)) during two consecutive 21-week periods: 1) whole body progressive strength training (ST: twice a week), and 2) continued reduced training (CRT: 3 ST sessions/2 weeks, n = 17 + 17). After the 21-week ST period, maximal strength of leg extensors increased in the ST group by 19.6 +/- 7.6 % vs. 2.8 +/- 4.4 % (p < 0.001) and also 10-m walking time and 10-step stair-climbing time shortened by - 17.2 +/- 7.6 % vs. 4.1 +/- 3.9 % (p < 0.01) and by - 8.2 +/- 6.8 % vs. - 3.0 +/- 6.8 % (p < 0.05) compared to the controls. Systolic blood pressure (BP) decreased in the ST group by - 4.4 +/- 6.7 % vs. 1.3 +/- 9.5 % (p < 0.05) compared to the controls after the ST period. Muscle strength as well as walking and stair-climbing times remained the same during the CRT. However, the changes in diastolic BP (- 8.9 +/- 8.7 % vs. - 1.0 +/- 6.6 %, p < 0.05) and fasting blood glucose concentrations (0.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/L vs. 0.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/L, p < 0.05) differed between the ST and control groups after the whole 42-week study period. Strength training has positive health effects in aging men by increasing maximal strength and functional performance and by decreasing resting blood pressure and high-intensity reduced strength training can maintain these health benefits.

  15. Impact of training modality on strength and physical function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Misic, Mark M; Valentine, Rudy J; Rosengren, Karl S; Woods, Jeffrey A; Evans, Ellen M

    2009-01-01

    The importance of maintaining strength in older adults is well documented and various training modalities have been recommended; however, the effectiveness of various interventions with high translation to public health practice has not been completely characterized. Additionally, the interrelations among mode, strength, and lower extremity physical function (LEPF) changes in older adults warrant further investigation. The primary aims were to examine the effectiveness of cardiovascular endurance training (CVE) compared with balance and flexibility training (FLEX) and to explore the relationship of muscle strength to LEPF. Fifty-five adults (69.1 +/- 5.6 years, 35 female) were randomly assigned to 10 months of CVE or FLEX. Knee extension and flexion at 60 and 120 degrees s(-1) were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. LEPF was measured using a battery of tasks. The CVE group exercised using treadmills, cycles, and elliptical trainers. The FLEX group participated in a group exercise class that incorporated flexibility and balance activities. The CVE training group significantly improved peak oxygen consumption by 6% (p = 0.03), while the FLEX training group showed no change (p = 0.47). Participants significantly improved peak torque at both speeds and muscle actions by 21-65% (p 0.05). Both groups also significantly improved performance on all LEPF tasks included in this study (4-7%, p strength and improvements in LEPF including timed walk and peak torque extension and flexion at 60 degrees s(-1) (r = 0.40 and 0.27, respectively), obstacle walk and peak torque extension and flexion at 60 and 120 degrees s(-1) (r range 0.27-0.40), and stair ascent and peak torque extension at 120 degrees s(-1) (r = 0.37). Sedentary older adults achieve similar improvements in strength and LEPF with either CVE or FLEX training with the latter being related

  16. Chronic Effects of Strength Training Vs. Hydro Aerobics on Functional and Cardiorespiratory Ability in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Giovanni S.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Vilaça-Alves, José; Silva, Gabriel Costa e; Garrido, Nuno D.; Furtado, Hélio; Reis, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17) and a control group (CG; n = 7), where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002) were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05). With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. PMID:25713645

  17. Rehabilitation of Swallowing and Cough Functions Following Stroke: An Expiratory Muscle Strength Training Trial.

    PubMed

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Davenport, Paul W; Brandimore, Alexandra E; Singletary, Floris F; Troche, Michelle S

    2016-08-01

    To determine the effect of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on both cough and swallow function in stroke patients. Prospective pre-post intervention trial with 1 participant group. Two outpatient rehabilitation clinics. Adults (N=14) with a history of ischemic stroke in the preceding 3 to 24 months. EMST. The training program was completed at home and consisted of 25 repetitions per day, 5 days per week, for 5 weeks. Baseline and posttraining measures were maximum expiratory pressure, voluntary cough airflows, reflex cough challenge to 200μmol/L of capsaicin, sensory perception of urge to cough, and fluoroscopic swallow evaluation. Repeated measures and 1-way analyses of variance were used to determine significant differences pre- and posttraining. Maximum expiratory pressure increased in all participants by an average of 30cmH2O posttraining. At baseline, all participants demonstrated a blunted reflex cough response to 200μmol/L of capsaicin. After 5 weeks of training, measures of urge to cough and cough effectiveness increased for reflex cough; however, voluntary cough effectiveness did not increase. Swallow function was minimally impaired at baseline, and there were no significant changes in the measures of swallow function posttraining. EMST improves expiratory muscle strength, reflex cough strength, and urge to cough. Voluntary cough and swallow measures were not significantly different posttraining. It may be that stroke patients benefit from the training for upregulation of reflex cough and thus improved airway protection. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistance Training and Vibration Improve Muscle Strength and Functional Capacity in Female Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Elham; Mostahfezian, Mina; Etemadifar, Masoud; Zafari, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eight-week progressive resistance training and vibration program on strength and ambulatory function in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods Twenty-Four female MS patients with the following demographics: age 27-45 years, and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) 2-4, participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The exercise group (n = 12) trained according to a progressive program, mainly consisting of resistance training and vibration, three times a week for eight weeks and compared with subjects in the control group (n = 12) that received no intervention. Subjects completed one set of 5-12 reps at%50-70 maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). After 5-10 minutes rest, six postures on plate vibration were done. Isotonic MVC of knee extensors, abduction of the scapula and downward rotation of the scapular girdle muscle groups were predicted by using the Brzycki formula. Right leg balance (RLB), left leg balance (LLB), and walking speed (10-Meter Walk Test) were assessed before and after the training program. Descriptive statistics and Co-variance were used for analyzing data. Results After eight weeks of training the exercise group showed significant increase in MVC of Knee extensors (32.3%), Abduction of the scapula (24.7%) and Downward Rotation Scapular (39.1%) muscle groups, RLB (33.5%), LLB (9.5%), and decrease in 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) (9.3%), (P<0.05). Conclusions The results of this study indicated this type of training can cause improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:23342227

  19. Is exercise used as medicine? Association of meeting strength training guidelines and functional limitations among older US adults.

    PubMed

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Rovniak, Liza S; Lehman, Erik B; Candotti, Carolina; Ballentine, Noel H

    2014-09-01

    To determine the association between meeting strength training guidelines (≥2 times per week) and the presence of functional limitations among older adults. This cross-sectional study used data from older adult participants (N=6763) of the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2011 in the United States. Overall, 16.1% of older adults reported meeting strength training guidelines. For each of nine functional limitations, those with the limitation were less likely to meet strength training recommendations than those without the limitation. For example, 20.0% of those who reported no difficulty walking one-quarter mile met strength training guidelines, versus only 10.1% of those who reported difficulty (p<.001). In sum, 21.7% of those with no limitations (33.7% of sample) met strength training guidelines, versus only 15.9% of those reporting 1-4 limitations (38.5% of sample) and 9.8% of those reporting 5-9 limitations (27.8% of sample) (p<.001). Strength training is uncommon among older adults and even less common among those who need it the most. The potential for strength training to improve the public's health is therefore substantial, as those who have the most to gain from strength training participate the least. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Balance training improves postural balance, gait, and functional strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities: Single-blinded, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeongjin; Lee, Myungmo; Song, Changho

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disabilities often present with problems of balance and mobility. Balance training is an important component of physical activity interventions, with growing evidence that it can be beneficial for people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of balance training on postural balance, gait, and functional strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-two adolescents with intellectual disabilities aged 14-19 years were randomly assigned either to a balance training group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 16). Subjects in the balance training group underwent balance training for 40 min per day, two times a week, for 8 weeks. All subjects were assessed with posture sway and the one-leg stance test for postural balance; the timed up-and-go test and 10-m walk test for gait; and sit to stand test for functional strength. Postural balance and functional strength showed significant improvements in the balance training group (p < 0.05) as compared to baseline; however, postural balance and muscle strength showed no significant improvements in the control group. Further, postural balance and functional strength significantly improved in the balance training group compared with those in the control group. Balance training for adolescents with intellectual disabilities might be beneficial for improving postural balance and functional strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  2. Effects of functional movement strength training on strength, muscle size, kinematics, and motor function in cerebral palsy: a 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ah; You, Joshua H; Kim, Dong A; Lee, Min Jin; Hwang, Pil Woo; Lee, Nam Gi; Park, Jeong Joon; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Hyun-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of comprehensive hand repetitive intensive strengthening training (CHRIST) on strength, morphological muscle size, kinematics, and associated motor functional changes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Ten children (5 boys, 5 girls; age range, 6-11 years, mean age, 8.6 years) participated in the study. The children were classified according to the Manual Ability Classification System: 5 were Level II, 2 were Level III, and 3 were Level IV. Quantitative biomechanical measurements were performed to determine muscle strength, muscle size, kinematics (normalized jerk score), and motor function using a dynamometer, ultrasound, Vicon motion analysis, and standardized clinical tests (Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, Functional Independence Measure, and Pediatric Motor Activity Log), respectively. Muscle strength, muscle size, kinematics, and motor function significantly improved after a 10-week intervention (3 times a week), and the long-term effects remained even at the 3-month follow-up. In conclusion, this is the first study highlighting the long-term efficacy of upper extremity strength training using the novel CHRIST system in children with CP, which will potentially open up new horizons for effective management in pediatric neurorehabilitation.

  3. Effect of isokinetic training on strength, functionality and proprioception in athletes with functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Sekir, Ufuk; Yildiz, Yavuz; Hazneci, Bulent; Ors, Fatih; Aydin, Taner

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on strength, joint position sense and functionality in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI). Strength, proprioception and balance of 24 recreational athletes with unilateral FAI were evaluated by using isokinetic muscle strength measurement, ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test. The functional ability was evaluated using five different tests. These were; single limb hopping course (SLHC), one legged and triple legged hop for distance (OLHD-TLHD), and six and cross six meter hop for time (SMHT-CSMHT). Isokinetic peak torque of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were assessed eccentrically and concentrically at test speeds of 120 degrees /s. Isokinetic exercise protocol was carried out at an angular velocity of 120 degrees /s. The exercise session was repeated three times a week and lasted after 6 weeks. At baseline, concentric invertor strength was found to be significantly lower in the functionally unstable ankles compared to the opposite healthy ankles (p < 0.001). This difference was not present after executing the 6 weeks exercise sessions (p > 0.05). Ankle joint position sense in the injured ankles declined significantly from 2.35 +/- 1.16 to 1.33 +/- 0.62 degrees for 10 degrees of inversion angle (p < 0.001) and from 3.10 +/- 2.16 to 2.19 +/- 0.98 degrees for 20 degrees of inversion angle (p < 0.05) following the isokinetic exercise. One leg standing test score decreased significantly from 15.17 +/- 8.50 to 11.79 +/- 7.81 in the injured ankles (p < 0.001). Following the isokinetic exercise protocol, all of the worsened functional test scores in the injured ankles as compared to the opposite healthy ankles displayed a significant improvement (p < 0.01 for OLHD and CSMHT, p < 0.001 for SLHC, TLHD, and SMHT). These results substantiate the deficits of strength, proprioception, balance and functionality in recreational athletes with FAI. The

  4. Improved Walking Capacity and Muscle Strength After Functional Power-Training in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2017-09-01

    Strength training programs for children with cerebral palsy (CP) showed inconclusive evidence for improving walking, despite improvements in strength. Recent studies have suggested that strength training with high movement velocity is more effective for improving walking than traditional resistance training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of functional high-velocity resistance training (power-training) to improve muscle strength and walking capacity of children with CP. Twenty-two children with spastic CP participated (13 bilateral, Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] level I [n = 10] and II [n = 12], 7.5 years [SD 1.8, range 4-10 years]). Within-subjects changes in a 14-weeks usual care period were compared with changes in a 14-week functional power-training period (in groups, 3×/wk). Outcome measures were the muscle power sprint test (MPST), 1-minute walk test (1MWT), 10-m shuttle run test (SRT), gross motor function (GMFM-66), isometric strength of lower-limb muscles and dynamic ankle plantar flexor strength. Changes during the training period were significantly larger than changes in the usual care period for all outcome measures ( P < .05). Large improvements were found during the training period for walking capacity (ΔMPST [mean]: 27.6 W [95%CI 15.84-39.46, 83% increase], Δ1MWT: 9.4 m [95% CI 4.17-14.68, 13%], ΔSRT: 4.2 [95%CI 2.57-5.83, 56%], ΔGMFM-66: 5.5 [95% CI 3.33-7.74, 7%]) and muscle strength (18%-128%), while outcomes remained stable in the usual care period. The results indicate that functional power-training is an effective training for improving walking capacity in young children with cerebral palsy.

  5. Blood flow-restricted strength training displays high functional and biological efficacy in women: a within-subject comparison with high-load strength training.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Stian; Hammarström, Daniel; Strand, Tor A; Zacharoff, Erika; Whist, Jon E; Rauk, Irene; Nygaard, Håvard; Vegge, Geir; Hanestadhaugen, Marita; Wernbom, Mathias; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Rønning, Roar; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2015-10-01

    Limited data exist on the efficacy of low-load blood flow-restricted strength training (BFR), as compared directly to heavy-load strength training (HST). Here, we show that 12 wk of twice-a-week unilateral BFR [30% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to exhaustion] and HST (6-10RM) of knee extensors provide similar increases in 1RM knee extension and cross-sectional area of distal parts of musculus quadriceps femoris in nine untrained women (age 22 ± 1 yr). The two protocols resulted in similar acute increases in serum levels of human growth hormone. On the cellular level, 12 wk of BFR and HST resulted in similar shifts in muscle fiber composition in musculus vastus lateralis, evident as increased MyHC2A proportions and decreased MyHC2X proportions. They also resulted in similar changes of the expression of 29 genes involved in skeletal muscle function, measured both in a rested state following 12 wk of training and subsequent to singular training sessions. Training had no effect on myonuclei proportions. Of particular interest, 1) gross adaptations to BFR and HST were greater in individuals with higher proportions of type 2 fibers, 2) both BFR and HST resulted in approximately four-fold increases in the expression of the novel exercise-responsive gene Syndecan-4, and 3) BFR provided lesser hypertrophy than HST in the proximal half of musculus quadriceps femoris and also in CSApeak, potentially being a consequence of pressure from the tourniquet utilized to achieve blood flow restriction. In conclusion, BFR and HST of knee extensors resulted in similar adaptations in functional, physiological, and cell biological parameters in untrained women. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Blood flow-restricted strength training displays high functional and biological efficacy in women: a within-subject comparison with high-load strength training

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Daniel; Strand, Tor A.; Zacharoff, Erika; Whist, Jon E.; Rauk, Irene; Nygaard, Håvard; Vegge, Geir; Hanestadhaugen, Marita; Wernbom, Mathias; Cumming, Kristoffer T.; Rønning, Roar; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on the efficacy of low-load blood flow-restricted strength training (BFR), as compared directly to heavy-load strength training (HST). Here, we show that 12 wk of twice-a-week unilateral BFR [30% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to exhaustion] and HST (6-10RM) of knee extensors provide similar increases in 1RM knee extension and cross-sectional area of distal parts of musculus quadriceps femoris in nine untrained women (age 22 ± 1 yr). The two protocols resulted in similar acute increases in serum levels of human growth hormone. On the cellular level, 12 wk of BFR and HST resulted in similar shifts in muscle fiber composition in musculus vastus lateralis, evident as increased MyHC2A proportions and decreased MyHC2X proportions. They also resulted in similar changes of the expression of 29 genes involved in skeletal muscle function, measured both in a rested state following 12 wk of training and subsequent to singular training sessions. Training had no effect on myonuclei proportions. Of particular interest, 1) gross adaptations to BFR and HST were greater in individuals with higher proportions of type 2 fibers, 2) both BFR and HST resulted in approximately four-fold increases in the expression of the novel exercise-responsive gene Syndecan-4, and 3) BFR provided lesser hypertrophy than HST in the proximal half of musculus quadriceps femoris and also in CSApeak, potentially being a consequence of pressure from the tourniquet utilized to achieve blood flow restriction. In conclusion, BFR and HST of knee extensors resulted in similar adaptations in functional, physiological, and cell biological parameters in untrained women. PMID:26202071

  7. The influence of short-term strength training on health-related quality of life and executive cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ken; Obuchi, Shuichi; Arai, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Hiroshi; Shiba, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Shuichiro; Kojima, Motonaga

    2010-01-01

    Strength training has been reported as a potentially useful exercise to improve psychological aspects in the elderly, but its effects remain controversial. This study investigated the effectiveness of strength training conducted twice a week for 12 weeks for improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and executive cognitive function. The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with assessments before and after intervention. HRQOL and executive function were assessed using the SF-36 Health Status Survey and a computerized neuro-cognitive assessment using task-switch reaction time trials, respectively. Subjects comprised 119 participants > or =65 years old, randomized to either strength training (n=65) or health education classes (controls, n=54). The strength training program was designed to strengthen the large muscle groups most important for functional activities and to improve balance. The effects of the intervention on the eight dimensions of the SF-36 in the control and training groups were analyzed. Only the mental health scale of the SF-36 was significantly improved for the training group compared with controls after 12 weeks. Task-switch reaction time and correct response rate remained unchanged. Short-term strength training might have modest positive effects on HRQOL, although this training period may not be sufficient to affect executive function in relatively healthy older people.

  8. Effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise strength training on muscle strength and mobility in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Scholtes, Vanessa A; Becher, Jules G; Comuth, Anton; Dekkers, Hurnet; Van Dijk, Lieseke; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise (PRE) strength training on muscle strength and mobility in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifty-one children with spastic uni- and bilateral CP; (29 males, 22 females; mean age 10 y 5 mo, SD 1 y 10 mo, range 6 y 0 mo-13 y 10 mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III) were randomized to the intervention group (n=26) or the control group (n=25, receiving usual care). The intervention group trained for 12 weeks, three times a week, on a five-exercise circuit, which included a leg-press and functional exercises. The training load progressively increased based on the child's maximum level of strength, determined by the eight-repetition maximum. Muscle strength (measured with hand-held dynamometry and a six-repetition maximum leg-press test), mobility (measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure, two functional tests, and a mobility questionnaire), and spasticity (measured by the appearance of a catch) were evaluated before, during, directly after, and 6 weeks after the end of training by two blinded research assistants. Directly after training, there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) on muscle strength (knee extensors +12% [0.56 N/kg; 95% confidence interval {CI} 0.13-0.99]; hip abductors +11% [0.27 N/kg; 95% CI 0.00-0.54]; total +8% [1.30 N/kg; 95% CI 0.56-2.54]; six-repetition maximum +14% [14%; 95% CI 1.99-26.35]), but not on mobility or spasticity. A detraining effect was seen after 6 weeks. Twelve weeks of functional PRE strength training increases muscle strength up to 14%. This strength gain did not lead to improved mobility.

  9. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for you — and how to ... lean muscle mass and burn calories more efficiently? Strength training to the rescue! Strength training is a ...

  10. A randomized two-year study of the effects of dynamic strength training on muscle strength, disease activity, functional capacity, and bone mineral density in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, A; Sokka, T; Kotaniemi, A; Hannonen, P

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a 2-year program of strength training on muscle strength, bone mineral density (BMD), physical function, joint damage, and disease activity in patients with recent-onset (<2 years) rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this prospective trial, 70 RA patients were randomly assigned to perform either strength training (all major muscle groups of the lower and upper extremities and trunk, with loads of 50-70% of repetition maximum) or range of motion exercises (without resistance) twice a week; all were encouraged to engage in recreational activities 2-3 times a week. All patients completed training diaries (evaluated bi-monthly) and were examined at 6-month intervals. All were treated with medications to achieve disease remission. Maximum strength of the knee extensors, trunk flexors and extensors, and grip strength was measured with dynamometers. BMD was measured at the femoral neck and lumbar spine by dual x-ray densitometry. Disease activity was determined by the Disease Activity Score, the extent of joint damage by the Larsen score, and functional capacity by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ); walking speed was also measured. Sixty-two patients (31 per group) completed the study. Strength training compliance averaged 1.4-1.5 times/week. The maximum strength of all muscle groups examined increased significantly (19-59%) in the strength-training group, with statistically significant improvements in clinical disease activity parameters, HAQ scores, and walking speed. While muscle strength, disease activity parameters, and physical function also improved significantly in the control group, the changes were not as great as those in the strength-training group. BMD in the femoral neck and spine increased by a mean +/- SD of 0.51 +/- 1.64% and by 1.17 +/- 5.34%, respectively, in the strength-training group, but decreased by 0.70 +/- 2.25% and 0.91 +/- 4.07% in the controls. Femoral neck BMD in the 17 patients with high initial disease activity

  11. Different types of upper extremity exercise training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: effects on functional performance, strength, endurance, and ambulation.

    PubMed

    Alemdaroğlu, Ipek; Karaduman, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Öznur Tunca; Topaloğlu, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    We investigated and compared the effects of 2 different types of upper extremity exercise training on upper extremity function, strength, endurance, and ambulation in patients with early-stage Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The study group (n = 12) exercised with an arm ergometer under the supervision of a physiotherapist, whereas the control group (n = 12) underwent a strengthening range-of-motion (ROM) exercise program under the supervision of their families at home for 8 weeks. Upper extremity functional performance, strength, endurance, and ambulatory status were assessed before and after the training. Ambulation scores, endurance, and arm functions, as well as proximal muscle strength, were improved after the training in the study group (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that upper extremity training with an arm ergometer is more effective in preserving and improving the functional level of early-stage DMD patients compared to ROM exercises alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Functional and muscular adaptations in an experimental model for isometric strength training in mice.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Karsten; Gessner, Denise K; Seimetz, Michael; Banisch, Jasmin; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Weissmann, Norbert; Mooren, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training induces muscular adaptations that are highly specific to the type of exercise. For a systematic study of the differentiated exercise adaptations on a molecular level mouse models have been used successfully. The aim of the current study was to develop a suitable mouse model of isometric strength exercise training characterized by specific adaptations known from strength training. C57BL/6 mice performed an isometric strength training (ST) for 10 weeks 5 days/week. Additionally, either a sedentary control group (CT) or a regular endurance training group (ET) groups were used as controls. Performance capacity was determined by maximum holding time (MHT) and treadmill spirometry, respectively. Furthermore, muscle fiber types and diameter, muscular concentration of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK), succinate dehydrogenase (SDHa), and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were determined. In a further approach, the effect of ST on glucose intolerance was tested in diabetic mice. In mice of the ST group we observed an increase of MHT in isometric strength tests, a type II fiber hypertrophy, and an increased GLUT4 protein content in the membrane fraction. In contrast, in mice of the ET group an increase of VO(2max), a shift to oxidative muscle fiber type and an increase of oxidative enzyme content was measured. Furthermore strength training was effective in reducing glucose intolerance in mice fed a high fat diet. An effective murine strength training model was developed and evaluated, which revealed marked differences in adaptations known from endurance training. This approach seems also suitable to test for therapeutical effects of strength training.

  13. Strength training for the warfighter.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  14. Progressive resistance strength training for improving physical function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chiung-ju; Latham, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle weakness in old age is associated with physical function decline. Progressive resistance strength training (PRT) exercises are designed to increase strength. Objectives To assess the effects of PRT on older people and identify adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (to March 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to May 01, 2008), EMBASE (1980 to February 06 2007), CINAHL (1982 to July 01 2007) and two other electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles, reviewed conference abstracts and contacted authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials reporting physical outcomes of PRT for older people were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were pooled where appropriate. Main results One hundred and twenty one trials with 6700 participants were included. In most trials, PRT was performed two to three times per week and at a high intensity. PRT resulted in a small but significant improvement in physical ability (33 trials, 2172 participants; SMD 0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22). Functional limitation measures also showed improvements: e.g. there was a modest improvement in gait speed (24 trials, 1179 participants, MD 0.08 m/s, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.12); and a moderate to large effect for getting out of a chair (11 trials, 384 participants, SMD -0.94, 95% CI -1.49 to -0.38). PRT had a large positive effect on muscle strength (73 trials, 3059 participants, SMD 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.00). Participants with osteoarthritis reported a reduction in pain following PRT (6 trials, 503 participants, SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.13). There was no evidence from 10 other trials (587 participants) that PRT had an effect on bodily pain. Adverse events were poorly recorded but adverse events related to

  15. Prepubescent Strength Training. Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Joe W.; Holshouser, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    Under the careful supervision of a trained fitness professional, the benefits of prepubescent strength training (improved strength, power, muscular endurance, bone density) outweigh the risks (acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries). (CB)

  16. The Effectiveness of Basic Military Training To Improve Functional Lifting Strength in New Recruits.

    PubMed

    Drain, Jace R; Sampson, John A; Billing, Daniel C; Burley, Simon D; Linnane, Denise M; Groeller, Herbert

    2015-11-01

    Australian Army recruits are required to meet the incumbent baseline physical employment standards (PES) during basic military training. A box lift and place (BLP) assessment is included in the PES, and it assesses the ability to perform essential muscular strength tasks. Therefore, basic military training must provide sufficient training stimulus to enable recruits to achieve the baseline BLP standard. A study was undertaken to investigate changes in the performance of 1-repetition maximum BLP in male (n = 154; age, 21.4 years) and female (n = 20; age, 23.1 years) recruits over the first 8 weeks of a 12-week basic military training course. Both male and female recruits showed modest improvements (2.2 ± 5.9 kg and 3.0 ± 3.1 kg, respectively; p ≤ 0.05) in maximal BLP performance, and there were no differences between genders. The female recruits showed greater relative improvements compared with the male recruits (14.7 ± 7.8% vs. 6.5 ± 2.3%). Despite the modest improvements in BLP performance, 70% of female and 100% of male recruits achieved the baseline BLP standard (25 kg) during week 8. The 30% failure rate for female recruits, however, suggests that the basic training program should be improved. A training program that yields greater gains in muscular strength would likely increase female recruit BLP pass rates. Augmented muscular strength would also likely increase the number of recruits capable of achieving higher BLP standards for more physically demanding employment categories. A training program that yields greater improvements in muscular strength may also enable lower entry standards, thereby increasing the recruit pool.

  17. Heavy resistance training increases muscle size, strength and physical function in elderly male COPD-patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kongsgaard, M; Backer, V; Jørgensen, K; Kjaer, M; Beyer, N

    2004-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of heavy resistance training in elderly males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 18 Home-dwelling male patients (age range: 65-80 years), with a mean forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) of 46 +/- 3.4% of predicted value, were recruited. Baseline and post-training assessments included: Cross-sectional area (CSA) of quadriceps assessed by MRI, isometric and isokinetic knee extension strength, isometric trunk strength, leg extension power, normal and maximal gait-speed on a 30 m track, stair climbing time, number of chair stands in 30 s, lung function (FEV1) and self-reported health. Subjects were randomized to a resistance training group (RE, n = 9) or a control group conducting breathing exercises (CON, n = 9). RE performed heavy progressive resistance training twice a week for 12 weeks. 6 RE and 7 CON completed the study. In RE the following improved (P < 0.05): Quadriceps CSA: 4%, isometric knee extension strength: 14%, isokinetic knee extension strength at 60 degrees /s.: 18%, leg extension power: 19%, maximal gait speed: 14%, stair climbing time: 17%, isometric trunk flexion: 5% and self-reported health. In CON no changes were found. In conclusion, 12 weeks of heavy resistance training twice a week resulted in significant improvements in muscle size, knee extension strength, leg extension power, functional performance and self-reported health in elderly male COPD patients.

  18. Strength Training and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  19. Strength Training and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  20. Effects of 16-week functional movement screen training program on strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hong-Sun; Woo, Seung-Seok; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Joo-Young

    2014-01-01

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a way to pretest functional movement. This study examined the effects of the FMS training program on the strength and flexibility of 62 elite male high school baseball players (31 in the training group, 31 in the control group). All players who received less than two points on each FMS test item had to join the 16-week, three times weekly FMS training program. To analyze results among the FMS participants, measures including intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and repeated measure ANOVA were utilized. The Kappa coefficient was 0.805 when the intraclass correlation coefficient of the three participants was inspected. Strength showed a significant interaction depending on time and group (hand grip strength: P=0.011, bench press and squat both for one-repetition maximum (1RM): P=0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). Back muscle strength did not show a significant difference (P=0.660). Trunk forward flexion showed no interaction depending on time and groups (P=0.983) but trunk extension backward showed significant differences depending on groups (P=0.004) and time (P=0.001). Splits showed a significant difference depending on time and groups (P=0.004). The FMS training program improved the strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players. PMID:24877049

  1. Effects of 16-week functional movement screen training program on strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Sun; Woo, Seung-Seok; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Joo-Young

    2014-04-01

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a way to pretest functional movement. This study examined the effects of the FMS training program on the strength and flexibility of 62 elite male high school baseball players (31 in the training group, 31 in the control group). All players who received less than two points on each FMS test item had to join the 16-week, three times weekly FMS training program. To analyze results among the FMS participants, measures including intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and repeated measure ANOVA were utilized. The Kappa coefficient was 0.805 when the intraclass correlation coefficient of the three participants was inspected. Strength showed a significant interaction depending on time and group (hand grip strength: P=0.011, bench press and squat both for one-repetition maximum (1RM): P=0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). Back muscle strength did not show a significant difference (P=0.660). Trunk forward flexion showed no interaction depending on time and groups (P=0.983) but trunk extension backward showed significant differences depending on groups (P=0.004) and time (P=0.001). Splits showed a significant difference depending on time and groups (P=0.004). The FMS training program improved the strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.

  2. Strength Training, Not Only for the Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnings, Frances

    1993-01-01

    Research indicates that increased strength leads to improved balance and functional mobility and that nearly every senior patient can benefit from basic resistance training. The article provides guidelines for physicians on prescribing resistance training and for patients on increasing strength. (SM)

  3. Strength Training. A Key to Athletic Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Patricia W.

    Characteristics of an effective strength training program are analyzed and descriptions are offered of different kinds of weight training activities. Comparisons are made between concentric, isometric, eccentric, and isokinetic training methods. The fundamentals and techniques of an exemplary training program are outlined and the organization and…

  4. Strength Training. A Key to Athletic Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Patricia W.

    Characteristics of an effective strength training program are analyzed and descriptions are offered of different kinds of weight training activities. Comparisons are made between concentric, isometric, eccentric, and isokinetic training methods. The fundamentals and techniques of an exemplary training program are outlined and the organization and…

  5. Effects of eccentric-focused and conventional resistance training on strength and functional capacity of older adults.

    PubMed

    Dias, Caroline Pieta; Toscan, Rafael; de Camargo, Mainara; Pereira, Evelyn Possobom; Griebler, Nathália; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of eccentric training using a constant load with longer exposure time at the eccentric phase on knee extensor muscle strength and functional capacity of elderly subjects in comparison with a conventional resistance training program. Twenty-six healthy elderly women (age = 67 ± 6 years) were randomly assigned to an eccentric-focused training group (ETG; n = 13) or a conventional training group (CTG; n = 13). Subjects underwent 12 weeks of resistance training twice a week. For the ETG, concentric and eccentric phases were performed using 1.5 and 4.5 s, respectively, while for CTG, each phase lasted 1.5 s. Maximum dynamic strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test in the leg press and knee extension exercises, and for functional capacity, subjects performed specific tests (6-m walk test, timed up-and-go test, stair-climbing test, and chair-rising test). Both groups improved knee extension 1RM (24-26 %; p = 0.021), timed up-and-go test (11-16 %; p < 0.001), 6-m walk test (9-12 %; p = 0.004), stair-climbing test (8-13 %; p = 0.007), and chair-rising test (15-16 %; p < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between groups. In conclusion, the strategy of increasing the exposure time at the eccentric phase of movement using the same training volume and intensity does not promote different adaptations in strength or functional capacity compared to conventional resistance training in elderly woman.

  6. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Haff, Guy G; Häkkinen, Keijo; Newton, Robert U

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64-75 y). Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first) with short rest intervals (30-60 s between sets) at an intensity of 50-60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) for 15-20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM) and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests). Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01) and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. -3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05). But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: -5 ± 7% vs. -4 ± 3%, women: -5 ± 6% vs. -2 ± 5% both P > 0.05). While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  7. Strength Training for Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

    This guide is designed to serve as a resource for developing strength training programs for children. Chapter 1 uses research findings to explain why strength training is appropriate for children. Chapter 2 explains some of the important physiological concepts involved in children's growth and development as they apply to developing strength…

  8. Strength Training for Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

    This guide is designed to serve as a resource for developing strength training programs for children. Chapter 1 uses research findings to explain why strength training is appropriate for children. Chapter 2 explains some of the important physiological concepts involved in children's growth and development as they apply to developing strength…

  9. Living Longer Living Stronger™: a community-delivered strength training program improving function and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Vrantsidis, Freda; Hill, Keith; Haralambous, Betty; Renehan, Emma; Ledgerwood, Kay; Pinikahana, Jaya; Harper, Stephanie; Penberthy, Mitsuko

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated changes in function and quality of life for older adults participating in Living Longer Living Stronger™, a community-delivered strength training program for people aged over 50. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4 and 8 months using measures of function, balance, mobility, strength, mental health and quality of life. Thirty-five participants (mean age 66 years, 69% female) completed 4 months of the program; 24 completed 8 months. Using repeated-measures anova, significant improvements were found at 4 and 8 months for step test, gait stride length, 6-minute walk test, timed sit to stand, physical performance test and reported health transition (SF-36). At 4 months (n = 35), vitality (SF-36), quality of life and left shoulder abductor strength significantly improved; at 8 months (n = 24), role physical and mental health (SF-36) and gait velocity significantly improved. The program appears to be an effective community-delivered strength training program. © 2013 Council on the Ageing Victoria. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  10. Prepubescent Strength Training Gains Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have stimulated greater support for prepubescent weight training. There seems to be general agreement that strength and weight training, when practiced under properly controlled conditions, is safe and efficacious for prepubescents. Weight lifting is not supported. Recommendations for weight training are made, and reservations are…

  11. Effect of Electromyographic Biofeedback Training on Pain, Quadriceps Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Eid, Mohamed Ahmed Mahmoud; Aly, Sobhy M; El-Shamy, Shamekh M

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training on pain, quadriceps strength, and functional ability in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). This is a randomized controlled study; 36 children (11 boys and 25 girls) with polyarticular JRA, with ages ranging from 8 to 13 years, were selected and assigned randomly, using computer-generated random numbers, into 2 groups. The control group (n = 18) received the conventional physical therapy program, whereas the study group (n = 18) received the same program as the control group in addition to EMG biofeedback-guided isometric exercises for 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Pain, peak torque of quadriceps strength, and functional ability were evaluated before, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 12 weeks of the treatment program. By 6 weeks, significant differences were observed in the study group (P < 0.05) in all measured variables except pain levels, whereas nonsignificant differences were observed in all measured variables in the control group. By 12 weeks, each group demonstrated significant improvements in pain, quadriceps strength, and functional ability (P < 0.05), with significantly greater improvements seen in the study group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Both groups showed significant improvement at 12 weeks compared to that at 6 weeks. Electromyographic biofeedback may be a useful intervention modality to reduce pain, improve quadriceps strength, and functional performance in JRA.

  12. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    PubMed

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2016-08-03

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P < 0.05), respectively. Insulin resistance determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) was reduced (P < 0.05) by 18%. HR during submaximal cycling was 5% lower (P < 0.05), and maximal voluntary contraction force was 8% higher (P < 0.05). Total and visceral fat content was lowered (P < 0.05) by 5% and 14%, respectively, HR at rest was 8% lower (P < 0.05) and performance in four different functional capacity tests were better (P < 0.05) after compared to before the training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men.

  13. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  14. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  15. Muscle training for bone strength.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Harri

    2006-04-01

    The main function of bone is to provide the mechanical integrity for locomotion and protection; accordingly, bone mass and architecture are adjusted to control the strains produced by mechanical load and muscular activity. Age-related patterns involve peak bone mass during growth, a plateau in adulthood, and bone loss during aging. The decline in bone mass and structural integrity results in increased risk of fractures, particularly in post-menopausal women. Athletes competing in strength and power events, such as weight-lifting and jumping, have superior bone mass and structure compared with their untrained counterparts in all age groups. Exercise seems to be most effective during rapid growth, the average gain in bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in controlled trials being of the order of 2-5% per year. The net gain of BMD after exercise interventions among older people is modest, at a level of 1-3% per year, but it is not clear whether positive effects can be maintained over a longer time. Although aerobic exercise is important in maintaining overall health, the resistance type of muscle training may be more applicable to the basic rules of bone adaptation and site-specific effects of exercise, have more favorable effects in maintaining or improving bone mass and architecture, and be safe and feasible for older people. It has been suggested that there is an opportunity for resistance training, for improved effects on BMD in postmenopausal women in bones which have less daily loading. In addition to BMC and BMD, bone geometry and mass distribution may also change as a result of training and other treatment, such as hormonal replacement therapy, thereby further improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Appropriate training regimens may reduce the risk of falls and the severity of fall-related injuries, and also constitute potential therapy to improve functional ability and the quality of life in osteoporotic patients. However, further research

  16. Strength Training in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper reviews the mechanisms underlying the inability to generate force in individuals with stroke and summarizes the effects of strength training in these individuals. In addition, a systematic review of studies that have incorporated progressive strengthening interventions in individuals with stroke is presented. Summary of Key Points Central (e.g., motor recruitment) and peripheral (e.g., muscle atrophy) sources may alter muscle strength in individuals with stroke and further investigations are needed to partition and quantify their effects. As to the effect of strength training interventions in individuals with stroke, the majority of studies (albeit with small samples) that evaluated muscle strength as an outcome demonstrated improvements. With regard to the effect of strength training on functional outcomes in individuals with stroke, positive outcomes were found in less rigorous pre-test/post-test studies, but more conflicting results with controlled trials. Conclusions Although there is some suggestion that strength training alone can improve muscle strength, further research is required to optimize strength training and the transfer of these strength gains to functional tasks in individuals with stroke. PMID:23255839

  17. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease.

  18. Strength Training and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... considering strength-training programs: An instructor-to-child ratio of no more than 1 to 10. The ... major muscle groups of the upper and lower body and core. Kids should start with no load ( ...

  19. Strength training induces muscle hypertrophy and functional gains in black prostate cancer patients despite androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Erik D; Sheaff, Andrew K; Sood, Suchi; Ma, Lei; Francis, Jack D; Goldberg, Andrew P; Hurley, Ben F

    2013-04-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with weakness, fatigue, sarcopenia, and reduced quality of life (QoL). Black men have a higher incidence and mortality from PCa than Caucasians. We hypothesized that despite ADT, strength training (ST) would increase muscle power and size, thereby improving body composition, physical function, fatigue levels, and QoL in older black men with PCa. Muscle mass, power, strength, endurance, physical function, fatigue perception, and QoL were measured in 17 black men with PCa on ADT before and after 12 weeks of ST. Within-group differences were determined using t tests and regression models. ST significantly increased total body muscle mass (2.7%), thigh muscle volume (6.4%), power (17%), and strength (28%). There were significant increases in functional performance (20%), muscle endurance (110%), and QoL scores (7%) and decreases in fatigue perception (38%). Improved muscle function was associated with higher functional performance (R (2) = 0.54) and lower fatigue perception (R (2) = 0.37), and both were associated with improved QoL (R (2) = 0.45), whereas fatigue perception tended to be associated with muscle endurance (R (2) = 0.37). ST elicits muscle hypertrophy even in the absence of testosterone and is effective in counteracting the adverse functional consequences of ADT in older black men with PCa. These improvements are associated with reduced fatigue perception, enhanced physical performance, and improved QoL. Thus, ST may be a safe and well-tolerated therapy to prevent the loss of muscle mass, strength, and power commonly observed during ADT.

  20. Is exercise used as medicine? Association of meeting strength training guidelines and functional limitations among older US adults

    PubMed Central

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Ciccolo, Joseph T.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Lehman, Erik B.; Candotti, Carolina; Ballentine, Noel H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association between meeting strength training (ST) guidelines (≥ 2 times per week) and the presence of functional limitations among older adults. METHODS This cross-sectional study used data from older adult participants (n=6,763) of the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2011 in the United States. RESULTS Overall, 16.1% of older adults reported meeting ST guidelines. For each of nine functional limitations, those with the limitation were less likely to meet ST recommendations than those without the limitation. For example, 20.0% of those who reported no difficulty walking one-quarter mile met ST guidelines, versus only 10.1% of those who reported difficulty (p<.001). In sum, 21.7% of those with no limitations (33.7% of sample) met ST guidelines, versus only 15.9% of those reporting 1–4 limitations (38.5% of sample) and 9.8% of those reporting 5–9 limitations (27.8% of sample) (p<.001). CONCLUSION Strength training is uncommon among older adults and even less common among those who need it the most. The potential for ST to improve the public’s health is therefore substantial, as those who have the most to gain from ST participate the least. PMID:24878584

  1. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Voet, Nicoline B M; van der Kooi, Elly L; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Lindeman, Eline; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Geurts, Alexander C H

    2013-07-09

    Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise training in people with a muscle disease. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (July 2012), CENTRAL (2012 Issue 3 of 4), MEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1974 to July 2012), EMBASE Classic (1947 to 1973) and CINAHL (January 1982 to July 2012). Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing strength training or aerobic exercise programmes, or both, to no training, and lasting at least six weeks, in people with a well-described diagnosis of a muscle disease.We did not use the reporting of specific outcomes as a study selection criterion. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data obtained from the full text-articles and from the original investigators. We collected adverse event data from included studies. We included five trials (170 participants). The first trial compared the effect of strength training versus no training in 36 people with myotonic dystrophy. The second trial compared aerobic exercise training versus no training in 14 people with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. The third trial compared strength training versus no training in a factorial trial that also compared albuterol with placebo, in 65 people with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The fourth trial compared combined strength training and aerobic exercise versus no training in 18 people with mitochondrial myopathy. The fifth trial compared combined strength training and aerobic exercise versus no training in 35 people with myotonic dystrophy type 1.In both myotonic dystrophy trials and the dermatomyositis and polymyositis trial there were no significant differences

  2. Strength training and shoulder proprioception.

    PubMed

    Salles, José Inácio; Velasques, Bruna; Cossich, Victor; Nicoliche, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Pedro; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Motta, Geraldo

    2015-03-01

    Proprioception is essential to motor control and joint stability during daily and sport activities. Recent studies demonstrated that athletes have better joint position sense (JPS) when compared with controls matched for age, suggesting that physical training could have an effect on proprioception. To evaluate the result of an 8-week strength-training program on shoulder JPS and to verify whether using training intensities that are the same or divergent for the shoulder's dynamic-stabilizer muscles promote different effects on JPS. Randomized controlled clinical trial. We evaluated JPS in a research laboratory and conducted training in a gymnasium. A total of 90 men, right handed and asymptomatic, with no history of any type of injury or shoulder instability. For 8 weeks, the participants performed the strength-training program 3 sessions per week. We used 4 exercises (bench press, lat pull down, shoulder press, and seated row), with 2 sets each. We measured shoulder JPS acuity by calculating the absolute error. We found an interaction between group and time. To examine the interaction, we conducted two 1-way analyses of variance comparing groups at each time. The groups did not differ at pretraining; however, a difference among groups was noted posttraining. Strength training using exercises at the same intensity produced an improvement in JPS compared with exercises of varying intensity, suggesting that the former resulted in improvements in the sensitivity of muscle spindles and, hence, better neuromuscular control in the shoulder.

  3. Mediation of Cognitive Function Improvements by Strength Gains After Resistance Training in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Outcomes of the Study of Mental and Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Mavros, Yorgi; Gates, Nicola; Wilson, Guy C; Jain, Nidhi; Meiklejohn, Jacinda; Brodaty, Henry; Wen, Wei; Singh, Nalin; Baune, Bernhard T; Suo, Chao; Baker, Michael K; Foroughi, Nasim; Wang, Yi; Sachdev, Perminder S; Valenzuela, Michael; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2peak ) and strength after progressive resistance training (PRT) mediate improvements in cognitive function. Randomized, double-blind, double-sham, controlled trial. University research facility. Community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥55) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (N = 100). PRT and cognitive training (CT), 2 to 3 days per week for 6 months. Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog); global, executive, and memory domains; peak strength (1 repetition maximum); and VO2peak . PRT increased upper (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.47, 0.91), lower (SMD = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.69-1.20) and whole-body (SMD = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.62-1.05) strength and percentage change in VO2peak (8.0%, 95% CI = 2.2-13.8) significantly more than sham exercise. Higher strength scores, but not greater VO2peak , were significantly associated with improvements in cognition (P < .05). Greater lower body strength significantly mediated the effect of PRT on ADAS-Cog improvements (indirect effect: β = -0.64, 95% CI = -1.38 to -0.004; direct effect: β = -0.37, 95% CI = -1.51-0.78) and global domain (indirect effect: β = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.22; direct effect: β = -0.003, 95% CI = -0.17-0.16) but not for executive domain (indirect effect: β = 0.11, 95% CI = -0.04-0.26; direct effect: β = 0.03, 95% CI = -0.17-0.23). High-intensity PRT results in significant improvements in cognitive function, muscle strength, and aerobic capacity in older adults with MCI. Strength gains, but not aerobic capacity changes, mediate the cognitive benefits of PRT. Future investigations are warranted to determine the physiological mechanisms linking strength gains and cognitive benefits. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Long-term strength training for community-dwelling people over 75: impact on muscle function, functional ability and life style.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Paolo; Capodaglio Edda, Maria; Facioli, Marco; Saibene, Francesco

    2007-07-01

    The objective was to determine the impact of a 1-year mixed strength-training programme on muscle function, functional ability, physical activity and life style. Twice-a-week hospital-based exercise classes and a once-a-week home session were conducted. Nineteen healthy community-dwelling training (T) men (76.6 +/- 3.1 years), 19 women (77.5 +/- 4.0 years) and 20 matched controls (C) participated in this study. Training was given with a two multi-gym machines for the lower limbs (Sitting calf and Leg press, TECHNOGYM, Italy) at 60% of the repetition maximum (1 RM) and at home it was with elastic bands. The following were the measurements made: muscle function-maximum isometric strength of the knee extensors (KE) and ankle plantar flexors (PF) measured with a Cybex Norm dynamometer, leg extensor power (LEP) with the Nottingham Power Rig; functional abilities-functional reach, chair rise, bed rise, 6-min walking test, stair climbing, get up and go, one-leg standing; physical activity-aerobic activities over 3 MET intensity (AA3), intensity classes; life-style-mean daily energy expenditure (MDEE). Significant gains in muscle function and functional abilities in both training females and males were observed, but females improved significantly more than males. Males (T + C) showed higher AA3 times than females (T + C) (P = 0.02), with females significantly more involved in light-intensity activities. We observed a 60% increase (t = 2.45) in AA3 time in T, but no increase in C. Trained males increased Class 2 physical activity time by 146% (t = 2.82) and trained females by 16% (t = 2.23). MDEE increased by 10% (t=2.62) in trained males. Our long-term mixed programme can improve muscle function and functional abilities in elderly females and functional abilities in males. It can positively affect the amount of habitual physical activity and the life-style of males and females over 75.

  5. Strength Training and Shoulder Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Salles, José Inácio; Velasques, Bruna; Cossich, Victor; Nicoliche, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Pedro; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Motta, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Context: Proprioception is essential to motor control and joint stability during daily and sport activities. Recent studies demonstrated that athletes have better joint position sense (JPS) when compared with controls matched for age, suggesting that physical training could have an effect on proprioception. Objective: To evaluate the result of an 8-week strength-training program on shoulder JPS and to verify whether using training intensities that are the same or divergent for the shoulder's dynamic-stabilizer muscles promote different effects on JPS. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: We evaluated JPS in a research laboratory and conducted training in a gymnasium. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 90 men, right handed and asymptomatic, with no history of any type of injury or shoulder instability. Intervention(s): For 8 weeks, the participants performed the strength-training program 3 sessions per week. We used 4 exercises (bench press, lat pull down, shoulder press, and seated row), with 2 sets each. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured shoulder JPS acuity by calculating the absolute error. Results: We found an interaction between group and time. To examine the interaction, we conducted two 1-way analyses of variance comparing groups at each time. The groups did not differ at pretraining; however, a difference among groups was noted posttraining. Conclusions: Strength training using exercises at the same intensity produced an improvement in JPS compared with exercises of varying intensity, suggesting that the former resulted in improvements in the sensitivity of muscle spindles and, hence, better neuromuscular control in the shoulder. PMID:25594912

  6. Short-term effects of upper extremity circuit resistance training on muscle strength and functional independence in patients with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Adem; Sürücü, Gülseren Dost; Karamercan, Ayşe; Gedik, Dilay Eken; Atci, Nermin; Dülgeroǧlu, Deniz; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2016-11-21

    A number of exercises to strengthen the upper extremities are recommended to increase functional independence and quality of life (QoL) in patients with paraplegia. Circuit resistance training (CRT) is a type of progressive resistive exercise performed repeatedly at fixed mechanical exercise stations. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of CRT for upper extremity muscle strength, functional independence, and QoL in patients with paraplegia. Twenty-six patients with paraplegia who were participating in a conventional rehabilitation program at a tertiary education and research hospital were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. The exercise group participated in the CRT program, which consisted of repetitive exercises for the upper extremities performed at fixed mechanical stations 5 sessions per week for 6 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Participants in the control group received only conventional rehabilitation over the same period. We compared the groups with respect to QoL, as well as isokinetic muscle test outcomes in the upper extremities, using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Borg's scale. We observed significant increases in scores on the physical component of the FIM, Borg's scale, and QoL in both the exercise and control groups. Furthermore, the large majority of isokinetic values were significantly more improved in the exercise group compared to the control group. When post-treatment outcomes were compared between the groups, improvements in scores on the physical component of the FIM and in most isokinetic values were significantly greater in the exercise group. This study showed that CRT has positive effects on muscle strength in the upper extremities and the physical disability components of the FIM when added to conventional rehabilitation programs for paraplegic patients. However, we observed no significant improvement in QoL scores after adding CRT

  7. Effects of Foot Muscles Training on Plantar Pressure Distribution during Gait, Foot Muscle Strength, and Foot Function in Persons with Flexible Flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Panichawit, Chutimon; Bovonsunthonchai, Sunee; Vachalathiti, Roongtiwa; Limpasutirachata, Khompakorn

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a foot-muscle trainingprogram on plantarpressure distribution, foot muscle strength, and foot function in persons with flexible flatfoot. Participants received foot-muscle training 3 times weekly, over 8 weeks. Training consisted of gastrosolues muscle stretching and strengthening the muscles around the ankle and the intrinsic muscles. The contact area andpeak pressure under the hallux, first metatarsal, and medial midfoot were assessed by the Force Distribution Measurement Plaform while walking. Strength ofthe tibialis posterior and peroneus longus muscles were assessed by handheld dynamometer. Foot function regarding difficulty in activities of daily living was assessed. All measures were assessed at pre-training, intermediate-training, and post-training. Friedman ANOVA was used for testing mean differences among the variables. Five participants with flexible flatfoot were recruited in the study. Results demonstrated significant increases in tibialis posterior (p = 0.018) and peroneus longus muscles strength (p = 0.007), and significant decrease infootfunction score (p = 0.021). In addition, no significant difference in contact area and peak pressure was observed among testing periods. Foot-muscle strength and foot function in persons with flexible flatfoot can be improved significantly after receiving foot-muscle training.

  8. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  9. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  10. In hip osteoarthritis, Nordic Walking is superior to strength training and home-based exercise for improving function.

    PubMed

    Bieler, T; Siersma, V; Magnusson, S P; Kjaer, M; Christensen, H E; Beyer, N

    2017-08-01

    This observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared the short- and long-term effects of 4 months of supervised strength training (ST) in a local fitness center, supervised Nordic Walking (NW) in a local park, and unsupervised home-based exercise (HBE, control) on functional performance in 60+-year-old persons (n = 152) with hip osteoarthritis (OA) not awaiting hip replacement. Functional performance [i.e., 30-s chair stand test (primary outcome), timed stair climbing, and 6-min walk test] and self-reported outcomes (i.e., physical function, pain, physical activity level, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life) were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, and 12 months. Based on intention-to-treat-analyses improvements [mean (95% CI)] after intervention in number of chair stands were equal in all three groups at 4 months [ST: 0.9 (0.2-1.6), NW: 1.9 (0.8-3.0), HBE: 1.1 (0.1-2.0)] but greater in the NW group [1.4 (0.02-2.8)] than in the ST group at 12 months. Generally, improvements in functional performance were greater (P < 0.001-P < 0.03) after NW compared with HBE and ST at all follow-up time points. Furthermore, NW was superior (P < 0.01) to HBE for improving vigorous physical activity and to both ST and HBE for improving (P < 0.01) mental health. These data suggest that NW is the recommended exercise modality compared with ST and HBE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A 9-Week Aerobic and Strength Training Program Improves Cognitive and Motor Function in Patients with Dementia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bossers, Willem J R; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Scherder, Erik J A; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2015-11-01

    To compare training and follow-up effects of combined aerobic and strength training versus aerobic-only training on cognitive and motor function in institutionalized patients with dementia and to explore whether improved motor function mediates improved cognitive function. Using a 9-week, parallel, three-group, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial with a follow-up assessment at week 18, we assessed 109 patients with dementia (age 85.5 ± 5.1 years) in a psycho-geriatric nursing home. Each 9-week intervention consisted of 36, 30-minute sessions. A combined group (N = 37) received and completed two strength and two walking sessions per week, an aerobic group (N = 36) completed four walking sessions, and a social group (N = 36) completed four social visits per week. Cognitive and motor functions were assessed at baseline, after the 9-week intervention, and after a consecutive 9 weeks of usual care. Baseline corrected post-test scores in the combined versus the social group were higher for global cognition, visual memory, verbal memory, executive function, walking endurance, leg muscle strength, and balance. Aerobic versus social group scores were higher for executive function. Follow-up effects reversed toward baseline values. Motor improvement did not significantly mediate cognitive improvement. Compared with a nonexercise control group, a combination of aerobic and strength training is more effective than aerobic-only training in slowing cognitive and motor decline in patients with dementia. No mediating effects between improvements in cognitive function via improved motor function were found. Future research into the underlying mechanistic associations is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of elastic band-based high-speed power training on cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength in older women with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kang, Dongheon; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Jin-Soo; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of resistance training in improving cognitive function in older adults is well demonstrated. In particular, unconventional high-speed resistance training can improve muscle power development. In the present study, the effectiveness of 12 weeks of elastic band-based high-speed power training (HSPT) was examined. Participants were randomly assigned into a HSPT group (n = 14, age 75.0 ± 0.9 years), a low-speed strength training (LSST) group (n = 9, age 76.0 ± 1.3 years) and a control group (CON; n = 7, age 78.0 ± 1.0 years). A 1-h exercise program was provided twice a week for 12 weeks for the HSPT and LSST groups, and balance and tone exercises were carried out by the CON group. Significant increases in levels of cognitive function, physical function, and muscle strength were observed in both the HSPT and LSST groups. In cognitive function, significant improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were seen in both the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In physical functions, Short Physical Performance Battery scores were increased significantly in the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In the 12 weeks of elastic band-based training, the HSPT group showed greater improvements in older women with mild cognitive impairment than the LSST group, although both regimens were effective in improving cognitive function, physical function and muscle strength. We conclude that elastic band-based HSPT, as compared with LSST, is more efficient in helping older women with mild cognitive impairment to improve cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 765-772. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  14. [Effect of muscle strength training on urinary incontinence and physical function: a randomized controlled trial in long-term care facilities].

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyekyung; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son

    2015-02-01

    This study was done to determine whether muscle strength training programs have an impact on improving symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) and physical function among elderly women with UI who reside in long-term care facilities. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants had to be over 65 years, score over 15 score on the mini-mental state examination, and be able to walk alone or with an assistant. Seventy residents were randomly allocated to either the training group (n=35) or control group (n=35). The program consisted of 50 minutes, twice a week for 8 weeks, and included Kegel's exercise, Thera-band training and indoor walking. Main outcomes were UI symptoms, peak vaginal pressure and physical functions measured with timed up and go test (TUG), one leg standing test (OLST), activities of daily living (ADL) and grip strength. Changes in outcome measurements were calculated from baseline to 4 weeks and to 8 weeks using repeated measures ANOVA. There were significant differences in peak vaginal pressure (p<.001), TUG (p<.001), OLST (p=.012) and grip strength (p<.001) in the interaction between groups and time. Future studies are suggested to confirm the effect of muscle strength training in long-term care facilities where elderly women with UI reside.

  15. Effects of free leucine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and functional status in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Trabal, Joan; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Torres, Ferran; Rubio, Jordi; Prieto, Esther; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effect of free leucine supplementation combined with resistance training versus resistance training only on muscle strength and functional status in older adults. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study with two intervention groups. Thirty older adults were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g leucine/day (leucine group [LG], n=15) or a placebo (control group [CG], n=15), plus resistance training over a 12-week period. Maximal overcoming isometric leg strength, functional status, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, depression, and dietary intake were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks. Missing data at 12 weeks were handled using mixed models for repeated measurements for data imputation. Twenty-four subjects completed the 4-week assessment and eleven completed the 12-week intervention. Clinically significant gains were found in isometric leg strength at both assessment time points. Analysis of the effect size also showed how participants in LG outperformed those in CG for chair stands and the timed up and go test. No significant changes were observed for the rest of the outcomes. Our combined analysis showed moderate changes in isometric leg muscle strength and certain components of functional status. The magnitude of changes found on these outcomes should be qualified as a positive effect of the concomitant intervention.

  16. Effects of free leucine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and functional status in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Trabal, Joan; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Torres, Ferran; Rubio, Jordi; Prieto, Esther; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of free leucine supplementation combined with resistance training versus resistance training only on muscle strength and functional status in older adults. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study with two intervention groups. Thirty older adults were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g leucine/day (leucine group [LG], n=15) or a placebo (control group [CG], n=15), plus resistance training over a 12-week period. Maximal overcoming isometric leg strength, functional status, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, depression, and dietary intake were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks. Missing data at 12 weeks were handled using mixed models for repeated measurements for data imputation. Results Twenty-four subjects completed the 4-week assessment and eleven completed the 12-week intervention. Clinically significant gains were found in isometric leg strength at both assessment time points. Analysis of the effect size also showed how participants in LG outperformed those in CG for chair stands and the timed up and go test. No significant changes were observed for the rest of the outcomes. Conclusion Our combined analysis showed moderate changes in isometric leg muscle strength and certain components of functional status. The magnitude of changes found on these outcomes should be qualified as a positive effect of the concomitant intervention. PMID:25926725

  17. Effect of the tongue rotation exercise training on the oral functions in normal adults - Part 1 investigation of tongue pressure and labial closure strength.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, I; Koide, K; Takahashi, M; Mizuhashi, F

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the tongue rotation exercise training on the oral functions using the measurement of maximum tongue pressure (MTP) and labial closure strength (LCS) in normal adults. In experiment 1, the differences in MTP and LCS at the measurement point for both groups with and without tongue rotation exercise training were examined. We instructed subjects to perform the tongue rotation exercise for 2 months. We measured MTP and LCS at the point before training and at the points of 1 and 2 months after the beginning of training. In experiment 2, the changes of MTP and LCS based on the sex differences and the measurement points in training were examined. We instructed subjects to perform the tongue rotation exercise for 3 months, and measured MTP and LCS at the point before training and at the points of 2 weeks and 1, 2 and 3 months after the beginning of training. The results of experiment 1 showed MTP and LCS increased with the progress of continuous training. The results of experiment 2 showed MTP and LCS were always higher in men than in women and increased significantly at 2 weeks of training in both sexes (P < 0.01). These results might be suggested that the tongue rotation exercise training was effective for the recovery of the activity of the stomatognathic system.

  18. Impact of maximal strength training on work efficiency and muscle fiber type in the elderly: Implications for physical function and fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eivind; Nyberg, Stian Kwak; Hoff, Jan; Zhao, Jia; Leivseth, Gunnar; Tørhaug, Tom; Husby, Otto Schnell; Helgerud, Jan; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-02-21

    Although aging is typically associated with a decreased efficiency of locomotion, somewhat surprisingly, there is also a reduction in the proportion of less efficient fast-twitch Type II skeletal muscle fibers and subsequently a greater propensity for falls. Maximal strength training (MST), with an emphasis on velocity in the concentric phase, improves maximal strength, the rate of force development (RFD), and work efficiency, but the impact on muscle morphology in the elderly is unknown. Therefore we evaluated force production, walking work efficiency, and muscle morphology in 11 old (72±3years) subjects before and after MST of the legs. Additionally, for reference, the MST-induced morphometric changes were compared with 7 old (74±6years) subjects who performed conventional strength training (CST), with focus on hypertrophy, as well as 13 young (24±2years) controls. As expected, MST in the old improved maximal strength (68%), RFD (48%), and work efficiency (12%), restoring each to a level similar to the young. However, of importance, these MST-induced functional changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the size (66%) and shift toward a larger percentage (56%) of Type II skeletal muscle fibers, mirroring the adaptations in the hypertrophy trained old subjects, with muscle composition now being similar to the young. In conclusion, MST can increase both work efficiency and Type II skeletal muscle fiber size and percentage in the elderly, supporting the potential role of MST as a countermeasure to maintain both physical function and fall prevention in this population.

  19. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    El-Shamy, S

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of whole body vibration training on quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia. Thirty children with hemophilia with age ranging from 9 to 13 years were selected and randomly assigned to either the study group that received whole body vibration training (30-40 Hz, 2-4 mm of peak-to-peak vertical plate displacement for 15 minutes/day, 3 days/week/ 12 weeks) plus the conventional physical therapy program or the control group that performed a conventional physical therapy program only. Outcomes included quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and the functional capacity. Children in the study group showed a significant improvement in all outcomes compared with the control group. The quadriceps peak torque after treatment was 70.26 and 56.46 Nm for the study and control group, respectively (p⟨0.001). The lumbar spine bone mineral density after treatment was 0.85 and 0.72 g/cm(2) for the study and control group, respectively (p⟨0.001). The functional capacity after treatment was 325 and 290 m for the study and control group, respectively (p=0.006). Whole body vibration training is an effective modality in increasing quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia.

  20. The effects of resistance training on muscle strength, joint pain, and hand function in individuals with hand osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Magni, Nicoló Edoardo; McNair, Peter John; Rice, David Andrew

    2017-06-13

    Hand osteoarthritis is a common condition characterised by joint pain and muscle weakness. These factors are thought to contribute to ongoing disability. Some evidence exists that resistance training decreases pain, improves muscle strength, and enhances function in people with knee and hip osteoarthritis. However, there is currently a lack of consensus regarding its effectiveness in people with hand osteoarthritis. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish whether resistance training in people with hand osteoarthritis increases grip strength, decreases joint pain, and improves hand function. Seven databases were searched from 1975 until July 1, 2016. Randomised controlled trials were included. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess studies' methodological quality. The Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system was adopted to rate overall quality of evidence. Suitable studies were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Five studies were included with a total of 350 participants. The majority of the training programs did not meet recommended intensity, frequency, or progression criteria for muscle strengthening. There was moderate-quality evidence that resistance training does not improve grip strength (mean difference = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.84, 3.54; I (2) = 50%; p = 0.23 ). Low-quality evidence showed significant improvements in joint pain (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.23; 95% CI = -0.42, -0.04; I (2) = 0%; p = 0.02) which were not clinically relevant. Low-quality evidence demonstrated no improvements in hand function following resistance training (SMD = -0.1; 95% CI = -0.33, 0.13; I (2) = 28%; p = 0.39). There is no evidence that resistance training has a significant effect on grip strength or hand function in people with hand osteoarthritis. Low-quality evidence suggests it has a small, clinically

  1. Priming for Improved Hand Strength in Persons with Chronic Tetraplegia: A Comparison of Priming-Augmented Functional Task Practice, Priming Alone, and Conventional Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Tibbett, Jacqueline A.; Poe, Brandon P.; Field-Fote, Edelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Many everyday tasks cannot be accomplished without adequate grip strength, and corticomotor drive to the spinal motoneurons is a key determinant of grip strength. In persons with tetraplegia, damage to spinal pathways limits transmission of signals from motor cortex to spinal motoneurons. Corticomotor priming, which increases descending drive, should increase corticospinal transmission through the remaining spinal pathways resulting in increased grip strength. Since the motor and somatosensory cortices share reciprocal connections, corticomotor priming may also have potential to influence somatosensory function. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in grip (precision, power) force and tactile sensation associated with two different corticomotor priming approaches and a conventional training approach and to determine whether baseline values can predict responsiveness to training. Participants with chronic (≥1 year) tetraplegia (n = 49) were randomized to one of two corticomotor priming approaches: functional task practice plus peripheral nerve somatosensory stimulation (FTP + PNSS) or PNSS alone, or to conventional exercise training (CET). To assess whether baseline corticospinal excitability (CSE) is predictive of responsiveness to training, in a subset of participants, we assessed pre-intervention CSE of the thenar muscles. Participants were trained 2 h daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Thirty-seven participants completed the study. Following intervention, significant improvements in precision grip force were observed in both the stronger and weaker hand in the FTP + PNSS group (effect size: 0.51, p = 0.04 and 0.54, p = 0.03, respectively), and significant improvements in weak hand precision grip force were associated with both PNSS and CET (effect size: 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.75, p = 0.02, respectively). No significant changes were observed in power grip force or somatosensory scores in any group. Across all groups

  2. Priming for Improved Hand Strength in Persons with Chronic Tetraplegia: A Comparison of Priming-Augmented Functional Task Practice, Priming Alone, and Conventional Exercise Training.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Tibbett, Jacqueline A; Poe, Brandon P; Field-Fote, Edelle C

    2016-01-01

    Many everyday tasks cannot be accomplished without adequate grip strength, and corticomotor drive to the spinal motoneurons is a key determinant of grip strength. In persons with tetraplegia, damage to spinal pathways limits transmission of signals from motor cortex to spinal motoneurons. Corticomotor priming, which increases descending drive, should increase corticospinal transmission through the remaining spinal pathways resulting in increased grip strength. Since the motor and somatosensory cortices share reciprocal connections, corticomotor priming may also have potential to influence somatosensory function. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in grip (precision, power) force and tactile sensation associated with two different corticomotor priming approaches and a conventional training approach and to determine whether baseline values can predict responsiveness to training. Participants with chronic (≥1 year) tetraplegia (n = 49) were randomized to one of two corticomotor priming approaches: functional task practice plus peripheral nerve somatosensory stimulation (FTP + PNSS) or PNSS alone, or to conventional exercise training (CET). To assess whether baseline corticospinal excitability (CSE) is predictive of responsiveness to training, in a subset of participants, we assessed pre-intervention CSE of the thenar muscles. Participants were trained 2 h daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Thirty-seven participants completed the study. Following intervention, significant improvements in precision grip force were observed in both the stronger and weaker hand in the FTP + PNSS group (effect size: 0.51, p = 0.04 and 0.54, p = 0.03, respectively), and significant improvements in weak hand precision grip force were associated with both PNSS and CET (effect size: 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.75, p = 0.02, respectively). No significant changes were observed in power grip force or somatosensory scores in any group. Across all groups

  3. Effectiveness of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chloe Lau Ha; Thilarajah, Shamala; Tan, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence investigating the effectiveness of resistance training on strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease. Seven electronic databases (COCHRANE, CINAHL, Medline ISI, Psycinfo, Scopus, Web of Science ISI and Embase) were systematically searched for full-text articles published in English between 1946 and November 2014 using relevant search terms. Only randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease were considered. The PEDro scale was used to assess study quality. Studies with similar outcomes were pooled by calculating standardized mean differences (SMD) using fixed or random effects model, depending on study heterogeneity. Seven studies, comprising of 401 participants with early to advanced disease (Hoehn & Yahr stage 1 to 4), were included. The median quality score was 6/10. The meta-analyses demonstrated significant SMD in favour of resistance training compared to non-resistance training or no intervention controls for muscle strength (0.61; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.87; P <0.001), balance (0.36; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.64; P = 0.01) and parkinsonian motor symptoms (0.48; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.75; P < 0.001) but not for gait, balance confidence and quality of life. This review demonstrates that moderate intensity progressive resistance training, 2-3 times per week over 8-10 weeks can result in significant strength, balance and motor symptoms gains in people with early to moderate Parkinson's disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Effects of Respiratory Muscle Training on Respiratory Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Exercise Tolerance in Patients Poststroke: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Ribeiro, Nildo; Conceição, Cristiano Sena

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effects of respiratory muscle training on respiratory function, respiratory muscle strength, and exercise tolerance in patients poststroke. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, SciELO, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and CINAHL (from the earliest date available to November 2015) for trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effects of respiratory muscle training versus nonrespiratory muscle training in patients poststroke. Two reviewers selected studies independently. Extracted data from the published RCTs. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro Scale. Weighted mean differences (WMDs), standard mean differences (SMDs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Eight studies met the study criteria. Respiratory muscle training improved maximal inspiratory pressure WMDs (7.5; 95% CI, 2.7-12.4), forced vital capacity SMDs (2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-3.4), forced expiratory volume at 1 second SMDs (1.2; 95% CI, 0.6-1.9), and exercise tolerance SMDs (0.7; 95% CI, 0.2-1.2). No serious adverse events were reported. Respiratory muscle training should be considered an effective method of improving respiratory function, inspiratory muscle strength, and exercise tolerance in patients poststroke. Further research is needed to determine optimum dosages and duration of effect. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of strength training aided by electrical stimulation on wrist muscle characteristics and hand function of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Daniela Virgínia; Mancini, Marisa Cotta; da Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira; Arantes, Nayara Flamini; Pinto, Tatiana Pessoa da Silva; de Araújo, Priscila Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    Nine children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy underwent 24 sessions of wrist muscles strengthening in the extended wrist range aided by electrostimulation. Isometric strength of flexors and extensors was registered in three wrist positions (30 degrees of flexion, neutral, and 30 degrees of extension) to infer on angle-torque curves. Passive stiffness of wrist flexors and wrist flexion angle during manual tasks and hand function were also documented. Significant strength gains were observed at 30 degrees of wrist extension for flexors (p= 0.029) and extensors (p= 0.024). No gains were observed at 30 degrees of flexion. The difference in extensor strength between the three test positions changed after intervention (p< 0.034), suggesting a shift in the angle-torque curve. No changes were observed in passive stiffness (p= 0.506), wrist angle (p< 0.586), or hand function (p= 0.525). Strength training in specific joint ranges may alter angle-torque relationships. For functional gains to be observed, however, a more aggressive intervention and contextualized task training would probably be needed.

  6. Health condition and physical function as predictors of adherence in long-term strength and balance training among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Lönnroos, Eija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Häkkinen, Arja

    2015-01-01

    Strength and balance training (SBT) has remarkable health benefits, but little is known regarding exercise adherence in older adults. We examined the adherence to strength and balance training and determinants of adherence among ≥75 year old adults. 182 community-dwelling individuals (aged 75-98 years, 71% female) began group-based SBT as part of a population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly study. Training was offered once a week for 2.3 years. Adherence was defined as the proportion of attended sessions relative to offered sessions. Participants were classified based on their adherence level into low (≤33.3%), moderate (33.4-66.5%) and high (≥66.6%) adherers. The mean length of training was 19 ± 9 months, and 68% continued participation for at least two years. The mean training adherence was 55 ± 29% for all participants and 18%, 53% and 82% for low, moderate and high adherers, respectively. High adherence was predicted by female sex; younger age; better cognition; independence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; higher knee extension strength; faster walking speed; and better performance on the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go tests. Poorer self-perceived health and the use of a walking aid were related to low adherence. Long-term continuation of training is possible for older community-dwelling adults, although poorer health and functional limitations affect training adherence. Our findings have implications for tailoring interventions and support for older adults to optimize their exercise adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of isolated ankle strengthening and functional balance training on strength, running mechanics, postural control and injury prevention in novice runners: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baltich, Jennifer; Emery, Carolyn A; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-12-04

    Risk factors have been proposed for running injuries including (a) reduced muscular strength, (b) excessive joint movements and (c) excessive joint moments in the frontal and transverse planes. To date, many running injury prevention programs have focused on a "top down" approach to strengthen the hip musculature in the attempt to reduce movements and moments at the hip, knee, and/or ankle joints. However, running mechanics did not change when hip muscle strength increased. It could be speculated that emphasis should be placed on increasing the strength of the ankle joint for a "ground up" approach. Strengthening of the large and small muscles crossing the ankle joint is assumed to change the force distribution for these muscles and to increase the use of smaller muscles. This would be associated with a reduction of joint and insertion forces, which could have a beneficial effect on injury prevention. However, training of the ankle joint as an injury prevention strategy has not been studied. Ankle strengthening techniques include isolated strengthening or movement-related strengthening such as functional balance training. There is little knowledge about the efficacy of such training programs on strength alteration, gait or injury reduction. Novice runners will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: an isolated ankle strengthening group (strength, n = 40), a functional balance training group (balance, n = 40) or an activity-matched control group (control, n = 40). Isokinetic strength will be measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Running kinematics and kinetics will be assessed using 3D motion analysis and a force platform. Postural control will be assessed by quantifying the magnitude and temporal structure of the center of pressure trace during single leg stance on a force platform. The change pre- and post-training in isokinetic strength, running mechanics, and postural control variables will be compared following the interventions

  8. Effects of functional and analytical strength training on upper-extremity activity after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Graef, Patrícia; Michaelsen, Stella M.; Dadalt, Maria L. R.; Rodrigues, Daiana A. M. S.; Pereira, Franciele; Pagnussat, Aline S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of functional strengthening (using functional movements) and analytical strengthening (using repetitive movements) on level of activity and muscular strength gain in patients with chronic hemiparesis after stroke. Method A randomized, assessor-blinded trial was conducted in a therapist-supervised home rehabilitation program. Twenty-seven patients with chronic stroke were randomly allocated one of two groups: functional strengthening (FS) (n=13) and analytical strengthening (AS) (n=14). Each group received a five-week muscle strengthening protocol (30 minutes per day, three times per week) including functional movements or analytical movements, respectively. Pre-, post-, and ten-month follow-up outcomes included the Upper-Extremity Performance Test (primary outcome), Shoulder and Grip Strength, Active Shoulder Range of Motion (ROM), the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) (secondary outcomes). Results There was significant improvement in the Upper-Extremity Performance Test for the combined unilateral and bilateral task scores in the FS Group (mean difference 2.4; 95% CI=0.14 to 4.6) in the 10-month follow-up. No significant difference was observed between groups in the other outcomes (p>0.05). Conclusion A five-week home-based functional muscle strengthening induced positive results for the upper-extremity level of activity of patients with moderate impairment after chronic stroke. PMID:27683837

  9. Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Menz, Stacy M; Hatten, Kristin; Grant-Beuttler, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate difficulty with feedforward motor control and use varied compensatory strategies. To examine gross motor function changes following strength training in a child with motor control difficulties. A girl aged 6 years 11 months, with apraxia and hypotonia, and demonstrating motor delays consistent with DCD. Twenty-four strength training sessions were completed using a universal exercise unit. Postintervention scores significantly improved on the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition, and the Canadian occupational performance measure scores and raised the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire, revised 2007, scores above the range where DCD is suspected. Nonsignificant changes in strength were observed. Improved function and significant gains in manual coordination were observed following blocked practice of isolated, simple joint movements during strength training. Improved motor skills may be because of effective use of feedforward control and improved stabilization. Strength training does not rehearse skills using momentum, explaining nonsignificant changes in locomotor or locomotion areas.

  10. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-11-07

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P < 0.0001, I² = 36%), and arm muscle strength (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.70, P = 0.04, I² = 72%), but the quality of the

  11. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving generic activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, Jan; Hädrich, Anja; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Pohl, Marcus

    2012-06-13

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and might help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving generic activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in patients after stroke. We will also assess the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched July 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1950 to July 2011), EMBASE (1980 to July 2011), CINAHL (1982 to July 2011), AMED (1985 to July 2011), SPORTDiscus (1949 to July 2011), PEDro (searched August 2011), COMPENDEX (1972 to July 2011), and INSPEC (1969 to July 2011). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for patients after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 19 trials (involving 666 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training did improve activities of daily living (SMD 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.75, P = 0.009, I(2) = 67%) as well as arm function (SMD 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.69, P = 0.0004, I(2) = 45%), but arm muscle strength did not improve (SMD 0.48, 95% CI -0.06 to 1.03, P = 0.08, I(2) = 79

  12. Effects of Leg-Press Training With Moderate Vibration on Muscle Strength, Pain, and Function After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bily, Walter; Franz, Carlo; Trimmel, Lukas; Loefler, Stefan; Cvecka, Jan; Zampieri, Sandra; Kasche, Waltraud; Sarabon, Nejc; Zenz, Peter; Kern, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of a time-saving leg-press training program with moderate vibration on strength parameters, pain, and functional outcomes of patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in comparison with functional physiotherapy. Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient rehabilitation department at a university teaching hospital. Patients (N=55) with TKA were randomly allocated into 2 rehabilitation groups. Six weeks after TKA, participants either underwent isokinetic leg-press training combined with moderate vibration (n=26) of 15 minutes per session or functional physiotherapy (n=29) of 30 minutes per session. Both groups received therapy twice a week for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were evaluated at baseline (6wk after TKA) and after the 6-week rehabilitation program. The main outcome measure was maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the involved leg. Secondary outcome measures were pain assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS), range of motion, stair test, timed Up and Go test, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Both groups showed statistically significant improvements in MVC of knee extensors measured on the knee dynamometer (leg-press group: from 0.8±.06 to 1±.09Nm/kg body weight [BW], physiotherapy group: from 0.7±.06 to 0.9±.06Nm/kg BW; P<.05) and in closed kinetic chain on the leg press (leg-press group: from 8.9±.77 to 10.3±1.06N/kg BW, physiotherapy group: from 6.7±.54 to 9.1±.70N/kg BW; P<.05) and in pain at rest (leg-press group: from 2±.36 to 1.3±.36 on the VAS, physiotherapy group: from 1.2±.28 to 1.1±.31; P<.05), WOMAC scores, and functional measurements after 6 weeks of training. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups concerning strength, pain, and functional outcomes after training (P>.05). Isokinetic leg-press training with moderate vibration and functional physiotherapy are both effective in regaining muscle strength and function after TKA; however, isokinetic

  13. Sources of strength-training information and strength-training behavior among Japanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2016-03-01

    The promotion of strength training is now recognized as an important component of public health initiatives for older adults. To develop successful communication strategies to increase strength-training behavior among older adults, the identification of effective communication channels to reach older adults is necessary. This study aimed to identify the information sources about strength training that were associated with strength-training behaviors among Japanese older adults. The participants were 1144 adults (60-74 years old) randomly sampled from the registry of residential addresses. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The independent variables were sources of strength-training information (healthcare providers, friends, families, radio, television, newspapers, newsletters, posters, books, magazines, booklets, the Internet, lectures, other sources), and the dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential relationships. After adjusting for demographic factors and all other information sources, strength-training information from healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet were positively related to regular strength-training behavior. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of strength-training behavior and the means of successful communication directed at increasing strength training among older adults. The results suggest that healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet are effective methods of communication for increasing strength-training behaviors among older adults.

  14. Feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program and its effects on cognitive and physical function in institutionalized dementia patients. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bossers, Willem J R; Scherder, Erik J A; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2014-01-01

    We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this non-randomized pilot study (25 women; age = 85.2±4.9 years; Mini Mental State Examination = 16.8±4.0). In phase 1 of the study, seventeen patients in the Exercise group (EG) received a combined aerobic and strength training program for six weeks, five times per week, 30 minutes per session, in an individually supervised format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. In phase 2 of the study, sixteen patients in the Social group (SG) received social visits at the same frequency, duration, and format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. Indices of feasibility showed that the recruitment and adherence rate, respectively were 46.2% and 86.3%. All EG patients completed the exercise program according to protocol without adverse events. After the six-week program, no significant differences on cognitive function tests were found between the EG and SG. There was a moderate effect size in favor for the EG for the Visual Memory Span Forward; a visual attention test. There were significant differences between groups in favor for the EG with moderate to large effects for the physical tests Walking Speed (p = .003), Six-Minute Walk Test (p = .031), and isometric quadriceps strength (p = .012). The present pilot study showed that it is feasible to conduct a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized patients with dementia. The selective cognitive visual attention improvements and more robust changes in motor function in favor of EG vs. SG could serve as a basis for large randomized clinical trials. trialregister.nl 1230.

  15. Feasibility of a Combined Aerobic and Strength Training Program and Its Effects on Cognitive and Physical Function in Institutionalized Dementia Patients. A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. Methods Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this non-randomized pilot study (25 women; age = 85.2±4.9 years; Mini Mental State Examination = 16.8±4.0). In phase 1 of the study, seventeen patients in the Exercise group (EG) received a combined aerobic and strength training program for six weeks, five times per week, 30 minutes per session, in an individually supervised format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. In phase 2 of the study, sixteen patients in the Social group (SG) received social visits at the same frequency, duration, and format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. Results Indices of feasibility showed that the recruitment and adherence rate, respectively were 46.2% and 86.3%. All EG patients completed the exercise program according to protocol without adverse events. After the six-week program, no significant differences on cognitive function tests were found between the EG and SG. There was a moderate effect size in favor for the EG for the Visual Memory Span Forward; a visual attention test. There were significant differences between groups in favor for the EG with moderate to large effects for the physical tests Walking Speed (p = .003), Six-Minute Walk Test (p = .031), and isometric quadriceps strength (p = .012). Conclusions The present pilot study showed that it is feasible to conduct a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized patients with dementia. The selective cognitive visual attention improvements and more robust changes in motor function in favor of EG vs. SG could serve as a basis for large randomized clinical trials. Trial Registration trialregister.nl 1230 PMID:24844772

  16. Effect of strength training of ankle plantarflexors on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee Woon; Her, Jin Gang; Ko, Jooyeon

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle plantarflexor strength training on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on changes in the strength and muscle activity of the ankle plantarflexors. [Methods] Six children aged between 4 and 10 years with CP participated in a 6 week strengthening program. The subjects were evaluated before and after the intervention in terms of ankle plantarflexor strength, muscle activity, gait velocity, cadence, step length, and D (standing) and E (walking, running, and jumping) dimensions of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). The data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. [Results] The strength of the plantarflexors increased in the majority of subjects. Significant and clinically meaningful post-intervention improvements in subject's gait velocity, cadence, and step length were found. [Conclusion] The controlled ankle plantarflexor strengthening program may lead to improvements in strength and spatiotemporal gait parameters of children with CP.

  17. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27390429

  18. The Effects of 6 Months of Progressive High Effort Resistance Training Methods upon Strength, Body Composition, Function, and Wellbeing of Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Raubold, Kristin; Gentil, Paulo; Giessing, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study examined the progressive implementation of a high effort resistance training (RT) approach in older adults over 6 months and through a 6-month follow-up on strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing of older adults. Methods Twenty-three older adults (aged 61 to 80 years) completed a 6-month supervised RT intervention applying progressive introduction of higher effort set end points. After completion of the intervention participants could choose to continue performing RT unsupervised until 6-month follow-up. Results Strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing all significantly improved over the intervention. Over the follow-up, body composition changes reverted to baseline values, strength was reduced though it remained significantly higher than baseline, and wellbeing outcomes were mostly maintained. Comparisons over the follow-up between those who did and those who did not continue with RT revealed no significant differences for changes in any outcome measure. Conclusions Supervised RT employing progressive application of high effort set end points is well tolerated and effective in improving strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing in older adults. However, whether participants continued, or did not, with RT unsupervised at follow-up had no effect on outcomes perhaps due to reduced effort employed during unsupervised RT. PMID:28676855

  19. Strength Training: A Natural Prescription for Staying Healthy and Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Raymond, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter highlights the importance of strength training in keeping older adults healthy and fit, explaining how it can forestall declines in strength and muscle mass, along with their attendant negative impact upon other metabolic functions and activities of daily living. Physical inactivity is common throughout the nation. Approximately 11…

  20. Respiratory training improved ventilatory function and respiratory muscle strength in patients with multiple sclerosis and lateral amyotrophic sclerosis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gustavo D; Costa, Ana Cecília C; Plentz, Rodrigo D M; Coronel, Christian C; Sbruzzi, Graciele

    2016-09-01

    Among neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have a high rate of respiratory disability. To analyze the effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on ventilatory function, muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with MS or ALS. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed. The sources were MEDLINE, PEDro, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, and LILACS, from inception to January 2015. The following were included: RCTs of patients with neurodegenerative diseases (MS or lateral ALS) who used the intervention as RMT (inspiratory/expiratory), comparison with controls who had not received RMT full time or were receiving training without load, and evaluations of ventilatory function (forced vital capacity - FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second - FEV1, maximum voluntary ventilation - MVV), respiratory muscle strength (maximal expiratory pressure/maximum inspiratory pressure - MEP/MIP) and functional capacity (6-minute walk test - 6MWT). The review included nine papers, and a total of 194 patients. It was observed that RMT significantly increased at MIP (23.50cmH2O; 95% CI: 7.82 to 39.19), MEP (12.03cmH2O; 95% CI: 5.50 to 18.57) and FEV1 (0.27L; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.42) compared to the control group, but did not differ in FVC (0.48L; 95% CI: -0.15 to 1.10) and distance in 6MWT (17.95m; 95% CI: -4.54 to 40.44). RMT can be an adjunctive therapy in the rehabilitation of neurodegenerative diseases improving ventilatory function and respiratory strength. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. FAST CP: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a 12-week combined Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training programme on muscle properties and mechanical gait deficiencies in adolescents and young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2015-06-26

    Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have muscles that are smaller, weaker and more resistant to stretch compared to typically developing people. Progressive resistance training leads to increases in muscle size and strength. In CP, the benefits of resistance training alone may not transfer to improve other activities such as walking; however, the transfer of strength improvements to improved mobility may be enhanced by performing training that involves specific functional tasks or motor skills. This study aims to determine the efficacy of combined functional anaerobic and strength training in (1) influencing muscle strength, structure and function and (2) to determine if any changes in muscle strength and structure following training impact on walking ability and gross motor functional capacity and performance in the short (following 3 months of training) and medium terms (a further 3 months post-training). 40 adolescents and young adults with CP will be recruited to undertake a 12-week training programme. The training programme will consist of 3 × 75 min sessions per week, made up of 5 lower limb resistance exercises and 2-3 functional anaerobic exercises per session. The calf muscles will be specifically targeted, as they are the most commonly impacted muscles in CP and are a key muscle group involved in walking. If, as we believe, muscle properties change following combined strength and functional training, there may be long-term benefits of this type of training in slowing the deterioration of muscle function in people with spastic-type CP. Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at The University of Queensland (2014000066) and Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/30). The findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and local research organisations' media. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614001217695). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  2. FAST CP: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a 12-week combined Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training programme on muscle properties and mechanical gait deficiencies in adolescents and young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have muscles that are smaller, weaker and more resistant to stretch compared to typically developing people. Progressive resistance training leads to increases in muscle size and strength. In CP, the benefits of resistance training alone may not transfer to improve other activities such as walking; however, the transfer of strength improvements to improved mobility may be enhanced by performing training that involves specific functional tasks or motor skills. This study aims to determine the efficacy of combined functional anaerobic and strength training in (1) influencing muscle strength, structure and function and (2) to determine if any changes in muscle strength and structure following training impact on walking ability and gross motor functional capacity and performance in the short (following 3 months of training) and medium terms (a further 3 months post-training). Methods and analysis 40 adolescents and young adults with CP will be recruited to undertake a 12-week training programme. The training programme will consist of 3×75 min sessions per week, made up of 5 lower limb resistance exercises and 2–3 functional anaerobic exercises per session. The calf muscles will be specifically targeted, as they are the most commonly impacted muscles in CP and are a key muscle group involved in walking. If, as we believe, muscle properties change following combined strength and functional training, there may be long-term benefits of this type of training in slowing the deterioration of muscle function in people with spastic-type CP. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at The University of Queensland (2014000066) and Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/30). The findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and local research organisations’ media. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  3. Weight Training for Strength and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

  4. The effect of progressive resistance training on leg strength, aerobic capacity and functional tasks of daily living in persons with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Patrick M; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Baynard, Tracy; Heffernan, Kevin S; Jae, Sae Young; Hsu, Sharon; Lee, Miyoung; Pitetti, Kenneth H; Reiman, Michael P; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of progressive resistance training on leg strength, aerobic capacity and physical function in persons with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty persons with DS (age 28 SD 8 years) were assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group performed resistance training 2 days per week for 10 weeks. Participants performed tests to measure isometric and isokinetic knee extensor and flexor peak torque, peak aerobic capacity and timed performance on chair rise, walking and stair ascent and descent. Persons with DS receiving the intervention significantly increased their isokinetic knee extensor and flexor peak torque [Absolute change (post minus pre-value) was 17.0 SD 29.6 and 12.6 SD 18.9 N m, respectively] and isometric knee extensor peak torque at angles of 45° (2.9 SD 23.2 N m), 60° (3.0 SD 22.9 N m) and 75° (14.2 SD 30.0 N m). These changes were significantly greater than in the control group. In addition, the time to ascend (-0.3 SD 0.8 s) and descend (-0.6 SD 0.9 s) stairs significantly decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group. These findings show that progressive resistance training is an effective intervention for persons with DS to improve leg strength and stair-climbing ability.

  5. Combined training (strength plus aerobic) potentiates a reduction in body fat but only functional training reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in postmenopausal women with a similar training load.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia S; Neves, Lucas M; Diniz, Tiego A; de Castro, Marcela R; Buonani, Camila; Mota, Jorge; Freitas, Ismael F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combined (CT; strength plus aerobic) and functional training (FT) on the body composition and metabolic profile with a similar training load in postmenopausal women. The participants were divided into three groups: CT (n=20), FT (n=17), and control group (CG, n=15). The trunk FM, fat mass (FM), percentage of FM (FM%), and fat-free mass were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The metabolic profile, glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were assessed. There were main effects of time in trunk fat, FM, and FM% (P<0.05). There were statistically significant interaction for FM (P=0.015), FM% (P=0.017) with lower values for CT group. For LDL-c, there was significant interaction (P=0.002) with greater values for FT group in relation to CG and CT. Furthermore, when performed the post hoc test on the "mean absolute differences" (Δ), it can observed statistically significant difference between FT, CT, and CG (-13.0±16.5 mg/dL vs. 4.8±18.4 mg/dL vs. 9.2±18.8 mg/dL, P<0.05). In conclusion, when training loads are equivalent CT potentiated a reduction in FM and FM%, however, only FT reduced LDL-c in postmenopausal women.

  6. Strength training for wheelchair users.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, G M; Shephard, R J

    1990-01-01

    Sedentary adult males with spinal lesions, all habitual wheelchair users, were allocated to exercise (n = 11) and control (n = 4) groups. A Cybex II dynamometer was used to assess peak power, average power, total work and muscular endurance for elbow flexion/extension, shoulder flexion/extension and shoulder abduction/adduction at five angular velocities, on recruitment and after eight and 16 weeks of forearm ergometer training (three days/week). Small sub-groups of the exercised subjects were assigned to high or low intensity endurance effort (70 or 40 per cent of maximal oxygen intake) and long or short training sessions (40 or 20 minutes per session). Despite the aerobic nature of the activity, gains of average power were registered by the two muscle groups most involved in the ergometer task (shoulder extension and elbow flexion). In keeping with current theories of training, gains were largest with prolonged, high intensity activity at angular velocities approximating those adopted during training. PMID:2350664

  7. Neuromuscular adaptations following prepubescent strength training.

    PubMed

    Ozmun, J C; Mikesky, A E; Surburg, P R

    1994-04-01

    Underlying mechanisms of prepubescent strength gains following resistance training are speculative. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 8 wk of resistance training on muscular strength, integrated EMG amplitude (IEMG), and arm anthropometrics of prepubescent youth. Sixteen subjects (8 males, 8 females) were randomly assigned to trained or control groups. All subjects (mean age = 10.3 yr) were of prepubertal status according to the criteria of Tanner. The trained group performed three sets (7-11 repetitions) of bicep curls with dumbbells three times per week for 8 wk. Pre- and posttraining measurements included isotonic and isokinetic strength of the elbow flexors, arm anthropometrics, and IEMG of the biceps brachii. Planned comparisons for a 2 x 2 (group by test) ANOVA model were used for data analysis. Significant isotonic (22.6%) and isokinetic (27.8%) strength gains were observed in the trained group without corresponding changes in arm circumference or skinfolds. The IEMG amplitude increased 16.8% (P < 0.05). The control group did not demonstrate any significant changes in the parameters measured. Early gains in muscular strength resulting from resistance training prepubescent children may be attributed to increased muscle activation.

  8. Effects of Respiratory Muscle Strength Training in Classically Trained Singers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Christin; Trudeau, Michael D; McCoy, Scott

    2017-09-25

    Many voice pedagogy practices revolve around the notion of controlling airflow and lung volumes and focus heavily on the concepts of breath support and breath control. Despite this emphasis, the effects of increased respiratory muscle strength on airflow and phonation patterns in trained singers remain unknown. This study addressed whether singers could increase respiratory muscle strength with progressive threshold training and whether respiratory muscle strength increases had measurable effect on voice outcomes. A single-subject design was used to answer the research questions. Improved breath support was hypothesized to manifest in differences in airflow and phonetogram characteristics. Six graduate-level singing students were recruited to complete the protocol, which consisted of a baseline phase followed by either inspiratory muscle strength training followed by expiratory muscle strength training or vice versa. Results showed that these singers had increased respiratory muscle strength after completing the training program. Consistent changes in measures of aerodynamics and voice were not present among subjects, although some individual changes were noted. Future research may focus on the effects of respiratory muscle strength training in less advanced singers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  10. At-home resistance tubing strength training increases shoulder strength in the trained and untrained limb.

    PubMed

    Magnus, C R A; Boychuk, K; Kim, S Y; Farthing, J P

    2014-06-01

    The purpose was to determine if an at-home resistance tubing strength training program on one shoulder (that is commonly used in rehabilitation settings) would produce increases in strength in the trained and untrained shoulders via cross-education. Twenty-three participants were randomized to TRAIN (strength-trained one shoulder; n = 13) or CONTROL (no intervention; n = 10). Strength training was completed at home using resistance tubing and consisted of maximal shoulder external rotation, internal rotation, scaption, retraction, and flexion 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Strength was measured via handheld dynamometry and muscle size measured via ultrasound. For external rotation strength, the trained (10.9 ± 10.9%) and untrained (12.7 ± 9.6%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (1.6 ± 13.2%; -2.7 ± 12.3%; pooled across arm; P < 0.05). For internal rotation strength, the trained (14.8 ± 11.3%) and untrained (14.6 ± 10.1%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (6.4 ± 11.2%; 5.1 ± 8.8%; pooled across arm; P < 0.05). There were no significant differences for scaption strength (P = 0.056). TRAIN significantly increased muscle size in the training arm of the supraspinatus (1.90 ± 0.32 to 1.99 ± 0.31 cm), and the anterior deltoid (1.08 ± 0.37 to 1.21 ± 0.39 cm; P < 0.05). This study suggests that an at-home resistance tubing training program on one limb can produce increases in strength in both limbs, and has implications for rehabilitation after unilateral shoulder injuries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (CircuitHIIT) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuitcombined) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk(-1)) of either CircuitHIIT (n = 11), or Circuitcombined (n = 8). Peak oxygen uptake and perception of physical pain were increased to a greater extent (p < 0.05) by CircuitHIIT, whereas Circuitcombined improved perception of general health more (p < 0.05). Both interventions lowered body mass, body-mass-index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass, and enhanced fat-free mass; decreased ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal treadmill running; improved the numbers of push-ups, burpees, one-legged squats, and 30-s skipping performed, as well as the height of counter-movement jumps; and improved physical and social functioning, role of physical limitations, vitality, role of emotional limitations, and mental health to a similar extent (all p < 0.05). Either forms of these multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiple-joint training can be employed to improve body composition, selected variables of functional strength, and certain dimensions of quality of life in overweight women. However, CircuitHIIT improves peak oxygen uptake to a greater extent, but with more perception of pain, whereas Circuitcombined results in better perception of general health.

  12. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (CircuitHIIT) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuitcombined) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk−1) of either CircuitHIIT (n = 11), or Circuitcombined (n = 8). Peak oxygen uptake and perception of physical pain were increased to a greater extent (p < 0.05) by CircuitHIIT, whereas Circuitcombined improved perception of general health more (p < 0.05). Both interventions lowered body mass, body-mass-index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass, and enhanced fat-free mass; decreased ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal treadmill running; improved the numbers of push-ups, burpees, one-legged squats, and 30-s skipping performed, as well as the height of counter-movement jumps; and improved physical and social functioning, role of physical limitations, vitality, role of emotional limitations, and mental health to a similar extent (all p < 0.05). Either forms of these multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiple-joint training can be employed to improve body composition, selected variables of functional strength, and certain dimensions of quality of life in overweight women. However, CircuitHIIT improves peak oxygen uptake to a greater extent, but with more perception of pain, whereas Circuitcombined results in better perception of general health. PMID:28420999

  13. Health and physical function predicting strength and balance training adoption: a community-based study among individuals aged 75 and older.

    PubMed

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Lönnroos, Eija; Häkkinen, Arja

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of health and physical function that are associated with not starting strength and balance training (SBT). The study population consisted of 339 community-dwelling individuals (75-98 years, 72% female). As part of a population-based intervention study they received comprehensive geriatric assessment, physical activity counseling, and had the opportunity to take part in SBT at the gym once a week. Compared with the SBT-adopters, the nonadopters (n = 157, 46%) were older and less physically active, had more comorbidities and lower cognitive abilities, more often had sedative load of drugs or were at the risk of malnutrition, had lower grip strength and more instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) difficulties, and displayed weaker performance in Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go assessments. In multivariate models, higher age, impaired cognition, and lower grip strength were independently associated with nonadoption. In the future, more individually-tailored interventions are needed to overcome the factors that prevent exercise initiation.

  14. Combined training (strength plus aerobic) potentiates a reduction in body fat but only functional training reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in postmenopausal women with a similar training load

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia S.; Neves, Lucas M.; Diniz, Tiego A.; de Castro, Marcela R.; Buonani, Camila; Mota, Jorge; Freitas, Ismael F.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combined (CT; strength plus aerobic) and functional training (FT) on the body composition and metabolic profile with a similar training load in postmenopausal women. The participants were divided into three groups: CT (n=20), FT (n=17), and control group (CG, n=15). The trunk FM, fat mass (FM), percentage of FM (FM%), and fat-free mass were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The metabolic profile, glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were assessed. There were main effects of time in trunk fat, FM, and FM% (P<0.05). There were statistically significant interaction for FM (P=0.015), FM% (P=0.017) with lower values for CT group. For LDL-c, there was significant interaction (P=0.002) with greater values for FT group in relation to CG and CT. Furthermore, when performed the post hoc test on the “mean absolute differences” (Δ), it can observed statistically significant difference between FT, CT, and CG (−13.0±16.5 mg/dL vs. 4.8±18.4 mg/dL vs. 9.2±18.8 mg/dL, P<0.05). In conclusion, when training loads are equivalent CT potentiated a reduction in FM and FM%, however, only FT reduced LDL-c in postmenopausal women. PMID:28702444

  15. Strength and Endurance Training Prescription in Healthy and Frail Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Bottaro, Martim; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with declines in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is an age-associated biological syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors due to changes in several physiological systems, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the neuromuscular and cardiovascular declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle hypertrophy, strength and power output, as well as endurance performance. The first purpose of this review was discuss the neuromuscular adaptations to strength training, as well as the cardiovascular adaptations to endurance training in healthy and frail elderly subjects. In addition, the second purpose of this study was investigate the concurrent training adaptations in the elderly. Based on the results found, the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e., concurrent training) performed at moderate volume and moderate to high intensity in elderly populations is the most effective way to improve both neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, exercise interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to frail elderly in order to improve the overall physical status of this population and prevent disability. PMID:24900941

  16. Strength and endurance training prescription in healthy and frail elderly.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Bottaro, Martim; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-06-01

    Aging is associated with declines in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is an age-associated biological syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors due to changes in several physiological systems, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the neuromuscular and cardiovascular declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle hypertrophy, strength and power output, as well as endurance performance. The first purpose of this review was discuss the neuromuscular adaptations to strength training, as well as the cardiovascular adaptations to endurance training in healthy and frail elderly subjects. In addition, the second purpose of this study was investigate the concurrent training adaptations in the elderly. Based on the results found, the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e., concurrent training) performed at moderate volume and moderate to high intensity in elderly populations is the most effective way to improve both neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, exercise interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to frail elderly in order to improve the overall physical status of this population and prevent disability.

  17. Strength training vs. aerobic training: cardiovascular tolerance in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Mota, Jorge; Soares, José M

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiovascular tolerance to two different types of exercise (strength training vs. aerobic training) in healthy elderly subjects. Nineteen healthy elderly subjects aged 65-81 were studied. All the subjects participated in a 6-month combined physical activity program of gymnastics (2 times/week; 50 min.) and strength training (2 times/week; 40-50 min.). The gymnastics sessions consisted of general physical activity that is usually offered to elderly people and included warm-up, aerobic exercises, strength training, some balance and coordination exercises, recreational games and cool-down. The strength training consisted of two sets of 10 to 12 repetitions at 70% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) for "women's double chest"; "leg extension"; "overhead press; "seated leg curl"; "lateral raise"; "leg press" and "abdominal machine". Cardiovascular tolerance was evaluated both by measuring heart rate (HR) continuously (Polar Vantage NV) during the sessions and by measuring systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with an electronic sphygmomanometer at five different times (baseline, after warm-up, 15-20 min., 30-40 min. and after cool-down). Moreover, in order to measure the response according to the type of exercise, in strength training sessions, SBP and DBP were also evaluated in different machines (legs vs. arms). Comparison between the two different types of exercise (gymnastics vs. strength training) and between different machines was performed by an unpaired Student's t test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The results showed no significant differences in HR, SBP and DBP values between the two training types. Both sessions were performed at appropriate intensity without exaggerated cardiovascular response. In strength training, exercises that involved the legs presented higher rises in SBP and DBP values than those performed with the arms. These data suggest that, if appropriate techniques are used

  18. Strength Training Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Larson, Janet; Kujath, Amber; Peace, David; Rondelli, Damiano; Gaston, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) experience considerable reductions in physical activity and deterioration of their health status. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effects of strength training compared to usual activity on physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions, and quality of life following HSCT. Interventions/Methods Nineteen subjects were randomized to the exercise or control group. Moderate intensity strength training began following discharge from the hospital. Dependent variables included physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions and quality of life. Variables were measured prior to admission to the hospital for HSCT, day 8 following HSCT, and six weeks following discharge from the hospital. Results Significant time effects were noted for many variables with anticipated declines in physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, and health status perceptions immediately after HSCT with subsequent improvements six weeks following hospital discharge. One group effect was noted with subjects in the exercise group reporting less fatigue than subjects in the control group. Although no significant interactions were detected, the trends suggest that the exercise group may be more physically active following the intervention compared to the usual activity group. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential positive effects of strength training on physical activity, fatigue, and quality of life in people receiving high-dose chemotherapy and HSCT. Implications for Practice Preliminary evidence is provided for using strength training to enhance early recovery following HSCT. Elastic resistance bands are easy to use and relatively inexpensive. PMID:21116175

  19. Progressive resistance muscle strength training of hospitalized frail elderly.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D H; Wall, P T; Bariola, J R; Bopp, M M; Frost, Y M

    2001-07-01

    To determine whether frail elderly patients recuperating from acute illnesses could safely participate in and gain appreciable improvement in muscle strength from progressive resistance muscle strength training. Muscle strength (one repetition maximum), functional abilities (sit-to-stand maneuver and 20-sec maximal safe gait speed), and body composition were measured before and at the conclusion of a 10-wk program of lower limb progressive resistance muscle strength training. The nonrandomized study was conducted in a 30-bed geriatric rehabilitation unit of a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital and a 28-bed transitional care unit of a community nursing home. Participants included 19 recuperating elderly subjects (14 male, 5 female; 13 ambulatory, 6 nonambulatory) >64 yr (mean age, 82.8+/-7.9 yr). The one repetition maximum increased an average of 74%+/-49% (median, 70%; interquartile range, 38%-95%, and an average of 20+/-13 kg (P = 0.0001). Sit-to-stand maneuver times improved in 15 of 19 cases (79%). Maximum safe gait speeds improved in 10 of 19 cases (53%). Four of the six nonambulatory subjects progressed to ambulatory status. No subject experienced a complication. A carefully monitored program of progressive resistance muscle strength training to regain muscle strength is a safe and possibly effective method for frail elderly recuperating from acute illnesses. A randomized control study is needed to examine the degree to which progressive resistance muscle strength training offers advantages, if any, over routine posthospital care that includes traditional low-intensity physical therapy.

  20. Muscular strength and physical function.

    PubMed

    Brill, P A; Macera, C A; Davis, D R; Blair, S N; Gordon, N

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association of muscular strength and endurance at baseline with the prevalence of functional limitations at follow-up. Study participants were 3,069 men and 589 women (30-82 yr) who received a clinical examination including a strength evaluation at the Cooper Clinic between 1980 and 1989 and responded to a 1990 mail-back survey. Participants also had to achieve at least 85% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate on a maximal exercise treadmill test and have no history of heart attack, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, or arthritis at their first visit. A strength index composite score (0-6) was calculated using age- and sex-specific tertiles from bench press, leg press, and sit-up tests. Those scoring 5 or 6 were categorized in the high strength group. Functional health status was assessed by responses to questions about the participant's ability to perform light, moderate, and strenuous recreational, household, daily living, and personal care tasks. After an average follow-up of 5 yr, 7% of men and 12% of women reported at least one functional limitation. A logistic regression model including age, aerobic fitness, body mass index, and new health problems at follow-up found that, relative to those with lower levels of strength, the odds of reporting functional limitations at follow-up in men and women categorized as having higher levels of strength were 0.56 (95%CI = 0.34, 0.93) and 0.54 (95%CI = 0.21, 1.39), respectively. These findings, if replicated in other populations, suggest that maintenance of strength throughout the lifespan may reduce the prevalence of functional limitations.

  1. Single- vs. Multiple-Set Strength Training in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlumberger, Andreas; Stec, Justyna; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Compared the effects of single- and multiple-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training. Both training groups had significant strength improvements in leg extension. In the seated bench press, only the three-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength. There were higher strength gains overall in the…

  2. Single- vs. Multiple-Set Strength Training in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlumberger, Andreas; Stec, Justyna; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Compared the effects of single- and multiple-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training. Both training groups had significant strength improvements in leg extension. In the seated bench press, only the three-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength. There were higher strength gains overall in the…

  3. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael H; Burns, Steve P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect strength training frequency has on improvements in lean mass and strength. Participants were 7 women and 12 men, age (χ̄= 34.64 years ± 6.91 years), with strength training experience, training age (χ̄= 51.16 months ± 39.02 months). Participants were assigned to one of two groups to equal baseline group demographics. High frequency training group (HFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist, 3 times per week, exercising with 3 sets per muscle group per session (3 total body workouts). Low frequency training group (LFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist one time per week, completing all 9 sets during that one workout. LFT consisted of a routine split over three days: 1) pectoralis, deltoids, and triceps; 2) upper back and biceps; 3) quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and abdominals. Following eight weeks of training, HFT increased lean mass by 1.06 kg ± 1.78 kg, (1.9%), and LFT increased lean mass by .99 kg ± 1.31 kg, (2.0%). HFT strength improvements on the chest press was 9.07 kg ± 6.33 kg, (11%), and hack squat 20.16 kg ± 11.59 kg, (21%). LFT strength improvements on chest press was 5.80kg ± 4.26 kg, (7.0%), and hack squat 21.83 kg ± 11.17 kg, (24 %). No mean differences between groups were significant. These results suggest that HFT and LFT of equal set totals result in similar improvements in lean mass and strength, following 8 weeks of strength training.

  4. Resistance strength training exercise in children with spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J; Stoddard, Gregory J; Weng, Cindy; Xue, Mei; Marcus, Robin L; Gappmaier, Eduard; Viollet, Louis; Johnson, Barbara A; White, Andrea T; Viazzo-Trussell, Donata; Lopes, Philippe; Lane, Robert H; Carey, John C; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-10-01

    Preliminary evidence in adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in SMA animal models suggests exercise has potential benefits in improving or stabilizing muscle strength and motor function. We evaluated feasibility, safety, and effects on strength and motor function of a home-based, supervised progressive resistance strength training exercise program in children with SMA types II and III. Up to 14 bilateral proximal muscles were exercised 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Nine children with SMA, aged 10.4 ± 3.8 years, completed the resistance training exercise program. Ninety percent of visits occurred per protocol. Training sessions were pain-free (99.8%), and no study-related adverse events occurred. Trends in improved strength and motor function were observed. A 12-week supervised, home-based, 3-day/week progressive resistance training exercise program is feasible, safe, and well tolerated in children with SMA. These findings can inform future studies of exercise in SMA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Resistance Strength Training Exercise in Children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Weng, Cindy; Xue, Mei; Marcus, Robin L.; Gappmaier, Eduard; Viollet, Louis; Johnson, Barbara A.; White, Andrea T.; Viazzo-Trussell, Donata; Lopes, Philippe; Lane, Robert H.; Carey, John C.; Swoboda, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preliminary evidence in adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in SMA animal models suggests exercise has potential benefits in improving or stabilizing muscle strength and motor function. Methods We evaluated feasibility, safety, and effects on strength and motor function of a home-based, supervised progressive resistance strength training exercise program in children with SMA types II and III. Up to 14 bilateral proximal muscles were exercised 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Results Nine children with SMA, aged 10.4±3.8 years, completed the resistance training exercise program. Ninety percent of visits occurred per protocol. Training sessions were pain-free (99.8%), and no study-related adverse events occurred. Trends in improved strength and motor function were observed. Conclusions A 12-week supervised, home-based, 3 days/week progressive resistance training exercise program is feasible, safe, and well tolerated in children with SMA. These findings can inform future studies of exercise in SMA. PMID:25597614

  6. Is Enhanced-Eccentric Resistance Training Superior to Traditional Training for Increasing Elbow Flexor Strength?

    PubMed Central

    Barstow, Ian K.; Bishop, Mark D.; Kaminski, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Protocols for strengthening muscle are important for fitness, rehabilitation, and the prevention of myotendinous injuries. In trained individuals, the optimal method of increasing strength remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a traditional method of strengthening with a method that allowed for enhanced-eccentric training, on changes in elbow flexor strength in trained subjects. Thirty-nine (8 male, 31 female) trained subjects with normal elbow function participated in this study. Subjects were rank-ordered according to isometric force production and randomly assigned to one of three training groups: control (CONT), traditional concentric/eccentric (TRAD), and concentric/enhanced-eccentric (NEG). The training groups completed 24 training sessions. An evaluator blinded to training group performed all testing. Mixed model ANOVA techniques were used to determine if differences existed in concentric one repetition maximum strength, and isometric force production among groups. Changes in peak and average isokinetic force production were also compared. Type 1 error was maintained at 5%. While both groups improved concentric one repetition maximum (NEG = 15.5%, TRAD = 13.8%) neither training group statistically differed from changes demonstrated by the CONT group. Nor did either training group show significant improvements in isometric or isokinetic force production over the CONT group. These results do not support the superiority of enhanced-eccentric training for increasing force production in trained subjects. PMID:24616612

  7. Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Thirty resistance trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body multijoint exercises, whereas endurance training consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower-body power, and endocrine factors were conducted pretraining and after 3 and 6 weeks. After the intervention, ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower-body strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p ≤ 0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper-body strength after training. The ST group observed greater increases in lower-body power than all other conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). After the final training session, CT1 elicited greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the inhibition of lower-body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower-body power was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.

  8. What does individual strength say about resistance training status?

    PubMed

    Buckner, Samuel L; Mouser, J Grant; Jessee, Matthew B; Dankel, Scott J; Mattocks, Kevin T; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-04-01

    The point at which an individual becomes resistance "trained" is not well defined in the literature. Some studies have defined training status as having engaged in consistent resistance training activities for a given period of time, whereas others base inclusion criteria on strength levels alone, or levels of strength in combination with training age/time. If the primary focus of a study is to examine adaptations in individuals with high levels of strength, then it may be appropriate to exclude the individuals who do not meet strength requirements. However, given the heterogeneity of the strength response to resistance training, strength cannot separate those who are "trained" from those who are "untrained." We suggest that, when determining resistance training status, training age (time) and the modality of training (specificity) should be the primary criteria considered. Muscle Nerve 55: 455-457, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Strength training increases training-specific multifinger coordination in humans.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Kun; Hsu, Jeffrey; Karol, Sohit; Hurley, Ben F

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of finger strength training (ST) on finger strength, independence, force control, and adaptations in multifinger coordination. Thirty-three healthy, young (23.0+/-2.9 years) subjects were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Group 1 (G1) trained all fingers together, Group 2 (G2) trained individual fingers without restricting movements of the nontraining fingers, and Group 3 (G3) trained individual fingers while restricting the movement of the nontraining fingers. The control group (G0) did not undergo any training. A vertically hanging load was attached to a spring that passed through a pulley. The other end of the string extended to the horizontal plane and had thimblesattached to it. Subjects were asked to rest their forearm on the table and lift the load by inserting their fingers into the thimbles. The training protocol lasted 6 weeks. Identical experimental tests were conducted 4 times, biweekly, across the 6-week training. Force coordination and moment coordination, defined as synergies stabilizing the resultant force and the resultant moment of all finger forces, in a multifinger pressing task were quantified using the Uncontrolled Manifold (UCM) analysis. The UCM analysis allocates motor variability into two components, one in the null space of a motor task and the other perpendicular to the null space. During multifinger pressing tasks, multifinger coordination exists when the variability in the null space is greater than the variability in the subspace perpendicular to the null space. The multifinger coordination was quantified as the difference between the variance within the null space and that perpendicular to the null space, normalized by the total variance. Thus, the coordination measure in our analysis is a unitless variable. A greater coordination measure indicates better multifinger coordination. Moment-stabilizing multifinger coordination increased only in G1 (from 1.197+/-0.004 to 1

  10. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2011-10-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there is substantial evidence to suggest that EST modifies the excitability of specific neural paths and such adaptations contribute to the increases in MVC force. Similar to strength training with voluntary contractions, EST increases MVC force after only a few sessions with some changes in muscle biochemistry but without overt muscle hypertrophy. There is some mixed evidence for spinal neural adaptations in the form of an increase in the amplitude of the interpolated twitch and in the amplitude of the volitional wave, with less evidence for changes in spinal excitability. Cross-sectional and exercise studies also suggest that the barrage of sensory and nociceptive inputs acts at the cortical level and can modify the motor cortical output and interhemispheric paths. The data suggest that neural adaptations mediate initial increases in MVC force after short-term EST.

  11. An overview of strength training injuries: acute and chronic.

    PubMed

    Lavallee, Mark E; Balam, Tucker

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the history of strength training, explains the many different styles of strength training, and discusses common injuries specific to each style. Strength training is broken down into five disciplines: basic strength or resistance training, bodybuilding, power lifting, style-dependant strength sports (e.g., strongman competitions, Highland games, field events such as shot put, discus, hammer throw, and javelin), and Olympic-style weightlifting. Each style has its own principal injuries, both acute and chronic, related to the individual technique. Acute injuries should be further categorized as emergent or nonemergent. Specific age-related populations (i.e., the very young and the aging athlete) carry additional considerations.

  12. Strength Training for Arthritis Trial (START): design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    will compare the interventions’ effects on additional clinical measures of disease severity (e.g., function, mobility); disease progression measured by x-ray; thigh muscle and fat volume, measured by computed tomography (CT); components of thigh muscle function, including hip abductor strength and quadriceps strength, and power; additional measures of knee-joint loading; inflammatory and OA biomarkers; and health-related quality of life. Discussion Test-retest reliability for the thigh CT scan was: total thigh volume, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.99; total fat volume, ICC = 0.99, and total muscle volume, ICC = 0.99. ICC for both isokinetic concentric knee flexion and extension strength was 0.93, and for hip-abductor concentric strength was 0.99. The reliability of our 1RM testing was: leg press, ICC = 0.95; leg curl, ICC = 0.99; and leg extension, ICC = 0.98. Results of this trial will provide critically needed guidance for clinicians in a variety of health professions who prescribe and oversee treatment and prevention of OA-related complications. Given the prevalence and impact of OA and the widespread availability of this intervention, assessing the efficacy of optimal strength training has the potential for immediate and vital clinical impact. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01489462 PMID:23855596

  13. Strength Training. Rationale for Current Guidelines for Adult Fitness Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenbaum, Matthew S.; Pollock, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    Strength training is an effective method of developing musculoskeletal strength and is often prescribed for fitness, health, and for prevention and rehabilitation of orthopedic injuries. This paper describes and presents a rationale for the population-specific strength training guidelines established by major health organizations. (SM)

  14. Examination of Strength Training and Detraining Effects in Expiratory Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine strength gains following expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and to determine detraining effects when the training stimulus is removed. Method: Thirty-two healthy participants were enrolled in an EMST program. Sixteen participants trained for 4 weeks (Group 1) and 16 participants trained…

  15. Examination of Strength Training and Detraining Effects in Expiratory Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine strength gains following expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and to determine detraining effects when the training stimulus is removed. Method: Thirty-two healthy participants were enrolled in an EMST program. Sixteen participants trained for 4 weeks (Group 1) and 16 participants trained…

  16. Combining strength training and botulinum neurotoxin intervention in children with cerebral palsy: the impact on muscle morphology and strength.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sîan A; Elliott, Catherine; Valentine, Jane; Gubbay, Anna; Shipman, Peter; Reid, Siobhan

    2013-04-01

    Investigate the combination effects of strength training and Botulinum Toxin Type-A (BoNT-A) on muscle strength and morphology in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Fifteen children receiving BoNT-A, classified as Spastic Diplegic CP, GMFCS I-II, and aged 5-12 years were recruited for this study. Randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training either before or after BoNT-A, children were assessed over 6 months. Eight of the 15 children also completed a control period. The Modified Ashworth Scale measured spasticity. The Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) assessed achievement of functional goals. Magnetic Resonance Imaging assessed muscle volume (MV). Instrumented dynamometry assessed strength. Spasticity was significantly reduced following BoNT-A injection (p = 0.033). Children made significant isokinetic strength gains (mean p = 0.022, ES = 0.57) in the intervention period compared to the control period (mean p = 0.15, ES = 0.56). Irrespective of timing, significant strength improvements were seen immediately (10 weeks) and over 6 months for all children. This was also the case for improvements in the GAS (immediately: mean p = 0.007, ES = 4.17, 6 months: mean p = 0.029, ES = 0.99), and improvements in MV in all assessed muscles. The simultaneous use of BoNT-A and strength training was successful in spasticity reduction, improving strength and achieving functional goals, over and above treatment with BoNT-A alone. Muscles targeted for BoNT-A injection should be included in strength training. Cerebral Palsy• Botulinum toxin type-A (BoNT-A) and strength training are available interventions that, on their own have found success in managing spasticity and muscle weakness (both significant motor impairments), respectively in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). • This study has demonstrated that the concurrent treatment of BoNT-A and strength training can achieve positive outcomes in terms of strength, spasticity and for the achievement of set functional goals. • The

  17. Effects of an integrated health education and elastic band resistance training program on physical function and muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly women: Healthy Aging and Happy Aging II study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Lyul; Kim, Hee-Jae; Woo, Shinae; Cho, Be-Long; Song, Misoon; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Lim, Jae-Young; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of an integrated health education and elastic band resistance training program on body composition, physical function, muscle strength and quality in community-dwelling elderly women. We recruited participants with eligibility inclusion criteria, and randomly assigned them to either the control group (n = 19) or the intervention group (n = 19). The integrated intervention program comprised of health education and individual counseling, and elastic band training for 18 weeks (8 weeks of supervised training and 10 weeks of self-directed training). We assessed body composition, muscle strength and quality, and physical function at pre-, after 8 weeks (mid-) and 18 weeks (post-training). After the intervention, there were no significant changes in skeletal muscle index, fat free mass, total lean mass and total fat mass for both the control group and intervention group. However, the interaction effect was significantly different in SPPB score (P < 0.05), isokinetic strength (60 deg/s, P < 0.001; 120 deg/s; P < 0.05) and muscle quality (P < 0.05) after 18 weeks of intervention relative to the baseline of the control and intervention groups. The supervised elastic band training of 8 weeks did not improve short physical performance battery score and isokinetic strength, whereas there was a significant increase of those outcomes (10.6% improvement, 9.8~23.5% improvement) after 10 weeks of following self-directed exercise compared with the baseline. These results show the effectiveness of following self-directed resistance training with health education after supervised training cessation in improvement of short physical performance battery and leg muscle strength. This intervention program might be an effective method to promote muscle strength and quality, and to prevent frailty in elderly women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 825-833. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Wrist Resistance Training Improves Motor Control And Strength.

    PubMed

    Chu, Edward; Kim, You-Sin; Hill, Genevieve; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Kim, Chang Kook; Shim, Jae Kun

    2017-07-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 6-week direction specific resistance training program on isometric torque control and isokinetic torque strength of the wrist joint. Nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to either the wrist training group (n=9) or the control group (n=10). The training group performed wrist exercises in six directions (flexion, extension, pronation, supination, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation) while the control group did not. Data were collected on the isometric torque control, one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength, and isokinetic maximum torque (angular velocity of 60°/s wrist movements) before and after six weeks of resistance training and at two-week intervals during training. The training group showed significant decreases in isometric torque control error in all six directions after 2 weeks of resistance training, while the control group did not show significant increase or decrease. After 4 weeks of training, the training group showed significant increases in maximum strength in all six directions as assessed by 1-RM strength and isokinetic strength tests, while the control group did not show any statistically significant changes. This study shows that motor control significantly improves within the first two weeks of resistance training, while the wrist strength significantly improves within the first four weeks of resistance training. Based on the findings of this study, coaches and trainers should consider wrist resistance training to improve athletes' muscular strength and control of the wrist muscles.

  19. Corticospinal adaptations and strength maintenance in the immobilized arm following 3 weeks unilateral strength training.

    PubMed

    Pearce, A J; Hendy, A; Bowen, W A; Kidgell, D J

    2013-12-01

    Cross-education strength training has being shown to retain strength and muscle thickness in the immobilized contralateral limb. Corticospinal mechanisms have been proposed to underpin this phenomenon; however, no transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) data has yet been presented. This study used TMS to measure corticospinal responses following 3 weeks of unilateral arm training on the contralateral, immobilize arm. Participants (n = 28) were randomly divided into either immobilized strength training (Immob + train) immobilized no training (Immob) or control. Participants in the immobilized groups had their nondominant arm rested in a sling, 15 h/day for 3 weeks. The Immob + train group completed unilateral arm curl strength training, while the Immob and control groups did not undertake training. All participants were tested for corticospinal excitability, strength, and muscle thickness of both arms. Immobilization resulted in a group x time significant reduction in strength, muscle thickness and corticospinal excitability for the untrained limb of the Immob group. Conversely, no significant change in strength, muscle thickness, or corticospinal excitability occurred in the untrained limb of the Immob + train group. These results provide the first evidence of corticospinal mechanisms, assessed by TMS, underpinning the use of unilateral strength training to retain strength and muscle thickness following immobilization of the contralateral limb.

  20. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Wayne L

    2012-01-01

    Inactive adults experience a 3% to 8% loss of muscle mass per decade, accompanied by resting metabolic rate reduction and fat accumulation. Ten weeks of resistance training may increase lean weight by 1.4 kg, increase resting metabolic rate by 7%, and reduce fat weight by 1.8 kg. Benefits of resistance training include improved physical performance, movement control, walking speed, functional independence, cognitive abilities, and self-esteem. Resistance training may assist prevention and management of type 2 diabetes by decreasing visceral fat, reducing HbA1c, increasing the density of glucose transporter type 4, and improving insulin sensitivity. Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, by reducing resting blood pressure, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Resistance training may promote bone development, with studies showing 1% to 3% increase in bone mineral density. Resistance training may be effective for reducing low back pain and easing discomfort associated with arthritis and fibromyalgia and has been shown to reverse specific aging factors in skeletal muscle.

  1. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain.

  2. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain. PMID:25931693

  3. Effectiveness and feasibility of eccentric and task-oriented strength training in individuals with stroke.

    PubMed

    Folkerts, Mireille A; Hijmans, Juha M; Elsinghorst, Anne L; Mulderij, Yvon; Murgia, Alessio; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    Strength training can increase function in individuals with stroke. However it is unclear which type of strength training is most effective and feasible. To assess the effect and feasibility of an intervention combining eccentric and task-oriented strength training in individuals with chronic stroke. Eleven participants were randomly assigned to a group first receiving four weeks of eccentric strength training and then four weeks of task-oriented strength training (EST-TOST) or vice versa (TOST-EST). Strength and upper limb function were administered with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) respectively. Feasibility was evaluated with the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), the adherence and drop-out rate. Significant increases were found in ARAT score (mean difference 7.3; p < 0.05) and in shoulder and elbow strength (mean difference respectively 23.96 N; p < 0.001 and 27.41 N; p < 0.003). Participants rated both EST and TOST with 81% on the IMI, the adherence rate was high and there was one drop-out. The results of this study show that a combination of eccentric and task-oriented strength training is an effective and feasible training method to increase function and strength in individuals with chronic stroke.

  4. Cervical Resistance Training: Effects on Isometric and Dynamic Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    skinfold thicknesses . San Diego, CA: Naval Health Research Center; 1984. Report No: 84–39. 3. Coakwell MR, Bloswick DS, Moser R Jr. High-risk head and...Strength, Dynamic Strength, and Neck Circumference Isometric strength values are displayed in Table I. For isometric strength-flexion, the 2 2 ANOVA...Also, a main effect was observed TABLE I. RESISTANCE TRAINING VS. CONTROL GROUPS: ISOMETRIC STRENGTH (LB). RT Group (n 5) C Group (n 5) FLX EXT

  5. Whole-body strength training with Huber Motion Lab and traditional strength training in cardiac rehabilitation: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Labrunée, Marc; Besnier, Florent; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Pillard, Fabien; Rivière, Daniel; Richard, Lisa; Laroche, Davy; Sanguignol, Frédéric; Pathak, Atul; Gayda, Mathieu; Gremeaux, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Isometric strengthening has been rarely studied in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), mainly because of possible potential side effects and lack of appropriate and reliable devices. We aimed to compare 2 different modes of resistance training, an isometric mode with the Huber Motion Lab (HML) and traditional strength training (TST), in CHD patients undergoing a cardiac rehabilitation program. We randomly assigned 50 patients to HML or TST. Patients underwent complete blinded evaluation before and after the rehabilitation program, including testing for cardiopulmonary exercise, maximal isometric voluntary contraction, endothelial function and body composition. After 4 weeks of training (16 sessions), the groups did not differ in body composition, anthropometric characteristics, or endothelial function. With HML, peak power output (P=0.035), maximal heart rate (P<0.01) and gain of force measured in the chest press position (P<0.02) were greater after versus before training. Both protocols appeared to be well tolerated, safe and feasible for these CHD patients. A training protocol involving 6s phases of isometric contractions with 10s of passive recovery on an HML device could be safely implemented in rehabilitation programs for patients with CHD and improve functional outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Increased cross-education of muscle strength and reduced corticospinal inhibition following eccentric strength training.

    PubMed

    Kidgell, D J; Frazer, A K; Daly, R M; Rantalainen, T; Ruotsalainen, I; Ahtiainen, J; Avela, J; Howatson, G

    2015-08-06

    Strength training of one limb results in a substantial increase in the strength of the untrained limb, however, it remains unknown what the corticospinal responses are following either eccentric or concentric strength training and how this relates to the cross-education of strength. The aim of this study was to determine if eccentric or concentric unilateral strength training differentially modulates corticospinal excitability, inhibition and the cross-transfer of strength. Changes in contralateral (left limb) concentric strength, eccentric strength, motor-evoked potentials, short-interval intracortical inhibition and silent period durations were analyzed in groups of young adults who exercised the right wrist flexors with either eccentric (N=9) or concentric (N=9) contractions for 12 sessions over 4weeks. Control subjects (N=9) did not train. Following training, both groups exhibited a significant strength gain in the trained limb (concentric group increased concentric strength by 64% and eccentric group increased eccentric strength by 62%) and the extent of the cross-transfer of strength was 28% and 47% for the concentric and eccentric group, respectively, which was different between groups (P=0.031). Transcranial magnetic stimulation revealed that eccentric training reduced intracortical inhibition (37%), silent period duration (15-27%) and increased corticospinal excitability (51%) compared to concentric training for the untrained limb (P=0.033). There was no change in the control group. The results show that eccentric training uniquely modulates corticospinal excitability and inhibition of the untrained limb to a greater extent than concentric training. These findings suggest that unilateral eccentric contractions provide a greater stimulus in cross-education paradigms and should be an integral part of the rehabilitative process following unilateral injury to maximize the response. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weighing the Risks. Strength Training for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    As weight training becomes increasingly popular with children and adolescents, physicians need to advise patients and parents about what is safe and what is not. Young people who adhere to a well-supervised, progressive strength training program can improve their strength and improve performance in other sports. (SM)

  8. Women's Strength Training. Lifting the Limits of Aging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinque, Chris

    1990-01-01

    Strength training is considered a male activity, but physicians are recommending it to women who want to keep their musculoskeletal systems strong and flexible as they age. This article discusses goals and problems of strength training for women and suggests it as an adjunct to cardiovascular fitness exercises. (SM)

  9. Weighing the Risks. Strength Training for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    As weight training becomes increasingly popular with children and adolescents, physicians need to advise patients and parents about what is safe and what is not. Young people who adhere to a well-supervised, progressive strength training program can improve their strength and improve performance in other sports. (SM)

  10. Safe and Effective Strength Training for Grades 3-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Kristy M.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, physical education instructors have been hesitant to include strength training activities in the elementary curriculum. This is a result of confusing and conflicting information regarding the safety and effectiveness of strength training for young children. Recent research published and compiled by well-informed physicians suggests…

  11. Safe and Effective Strength Training for Grades 3-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Kristy M.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, physical education instructors have been hesitant to include strength training activities in the elementary curriculum. This is a result of confusing and conflicting information regarding the safety and effectiveness of strength training for young children. Recent research published and compiled by well-informed physicians suggests…

  12. Strength training for athletes: does it really help sports performance?

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Michael R; Wright, Glenn A; Fleck, Steven J

    2012-03-01

    The use of strength training designed to increase underlying strength and power qualities in elite athletes in an attempt to improve athletic performance is commonplace. Although the extent to which strength and power are important to sports performance may vary depending on the activity, the associations between these qualities and performance have been well documented in the literature. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of strength training research to determine if it really helps improve athletic performance. While there is a need for more research with elite athletes to investigate the relationship between strength training and athletic performance, there is sufficient evidence for strength training programs to continue to be an integral part of athletic preparation in team sports.

  13. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    PubMed

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2017-06-03

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of expiratory muscle strength training on the oral and respiratory functions of community-dwelling older people: An analysis using the swallowing, oral, phonatory, and respiratory muscle function indices.

    PubMed

    Ito, Naoko; Watanabe, Shuichiro

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on the oral and respiratory functions of community-dwelling older people. Older people using a visiting-rehabilitation center were divided into an intervention group of 31 subjects and a control group of 15 subjects. Those in the intervention group were assigned home training for 8 weeks, which included 5 sets of 5 breaths per day with a 75% load of the maximum expiratory pressure using an EMST device. The outcome indices included (1) oral functions, evaluated by the cumulative time spent swallowing three times and the maximum phonation time (MPT) and (2) respiratory functions, evaluated by the maximum expiratory pressure and maximum inspiratory pressure (MEP/MIP). An independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. The cumulative time spent swallowing three times was lower in the intervention group than in the control group. This difference remained significant even after adjusting for sex, age, and baseline values. The MPT was 2.1 seconds higher than baseline in the intervention group but 0.4 seconds lower than baseline in the control group. An average increase of 5.7 cmH2O in the PEmax was observed in the intervention group compared with an average decrease of 4.6 cmH2O in the control group, indicating a significant difference. These results suggest that EMST improves the oral and respiratory functions of community elderly subjects. This may be explained by the fact that the pathway for swallowing is partially shared with that for phonation, which contributes to a shortened swallowing time by repeated suprahyoid muscle contractions.

  15. Improved skeletal muscle mass and strength after heavy strength training in very old individuals.

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, Rasmus Leidesdorff; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær; Gliese, Bjørn; Beyer, Nina; Mackey, Abigail L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Kjær, Michael; Holm, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Age-related loss of muscle mass and function represents personal and socioeconomic challenges. The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptation of skeletal musculature in very old individuals (83+ years) performing 12weeks of heavy resistance training (3×/week) (HRT) compared to a non-training control group (CON). Both groups received similar protein supplementations. We studied 26 participants (86.9±3.2 (SD) (83-94, range) years old) per-protocol. Quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) differed between groups at post-test (P<0.05) and increased 1.5±0.7cm(2) (3.4%) (P<0.05) in HRT only. The increase in CSA is correlated inversely with the baseline level of CSA (R(2)=0.43, P<0.02). Thigh muscle isometric strength, isokinetic peak torque and power increased significantly only in HRT by 10-15%, whereas knee extension one-repetition maximum (1 RM) improved by 91%. Physical functional tests, muscle fiber type distribution and size did not differ significantly between groups. We conclude that in protein supplemented very old individuals, heavy resistance training can increase muscle mass and strength, and that the relative improvement in mass is more pronounced when initial muscle mass is low. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Strength training and physical activity in boys: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Udo; Witassek, Fabienne; Petrò, Renato; Fritz, Chris; Eiholzer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    In developed societies levels of daily physical activity (PA) among school-age children are decreasing. This implies risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Specific strategies to improve levels of PA are needed. In prepubertal boys there is evidence that strength training increases spontaneous PA outside of training. A total of 102 schoolchildren (age 10-14 years) in Switzerland were randomly assigned to physical education classes or to participate twice weekly at a guided strength training program for 19 weeks. Spontaneous PA energy expenditure (PAEE; 3axial accelerometry for 7 days), leg and arm strength, and body composition (dual energy radiograph absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, after 19 weeks of training intervention, and after 3 months of washout. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group, PAEE increased by 10% from baseline to end of training in boys (P = .02), but not in girls. Leg and arm strength were increased owing to training intervention in both boys and girls. All other variables were unchanged. Baseline PAEE was significantly negatively correlated with changes of PAEE. Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous PA behavior in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase in spontaneous PAEE. Girls showed a similar increase in strength, but not in spontaneous PAEE. This may be explained by their earlier pubertal development. Strength training may be a promising strategy in schools to counteract decreasing levels of PA.

  17. Effects of Eccentric Strength Training on Different Maximal Strength and Speed-Strength Parameters of the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Szilvas, Elena; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effects of an eccentric strength training protocol using supramaximal loads (>1 repetition maximum [1RM]) on different maximal and explosive strength parameters of the lower extremity. The eccentric maximal strength (EX max), maximal isometric strength ("maximal voluntary contraction" [MVC]), 1RM, explosive strength ("rate of force development" [RFD]), countermovement jump, and squat jump height were tested before and after a training period of 6 weeks. The training group was composed of 15 individuals with low-weight training experience and a control group of 13 subjects, also with a low-weight training experience. The lower extremities were trained 3 days per week using a 45° leg press. Each training session comprised 5 sets of 3 repetitions with a 6-minute rest between each set. The training weights were adjusted continuously during each training session and between training sessions. In each case, a load was chosen that could be lowered unilaterally in a controlled manner by the subjects. For the concentric part of the exercise, 2 investigators lifted the weight to the starting position. After 6 weeks, strength training with supramaximal loads showed a significant increase in EX max (28.2%, p < 0.001) and 1RM (31.1%, p < 0.001). The increases observed in the control group were not significant. Changes in MVC, RFD, and vertical jump heights were not significant in both groups. The results of this study suggest that in untrained subjects, unilateral eccentric strength training in the leg press generates equal and significant improvements in unilateral eccentric and bilateral eccentric-concentric maximal strength, with a nonsignificant transfer to vertical jump performances and unilateral isometric force production.

  18. Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, V. Mark; Moskowitz, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the first experimental demonstration was published showing that educators could improve significant challenging behavior in children with disabilities by replacing these behaviors with forms of communication that served the same purpose, a procedure called functional communication training (FCT). Since the publication of that…

  19. Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, V. Mark; Moskowitz, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the first experimental demonstration was published showing that educators could improve significant challenging behavior in children with disabilities by replacing these behaviors with forms of communication that served the same purpose, a procedure called functional communication training (FCT). Since the publication of that…

  20. Beyond a Deficit Model of Strengths Training in Schools: Teaching Targeted Strength Use to Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates-Krakoff, Justine; McGrath, Robert E.; Graves, Karen; Ochs, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Prior literature on the use of character strengths suggests that both deficiencies and excesses in the use of strengths can be problematic. While most school-based training in character strengths tends to focus on the former issue, an example is provided of a school-based program offered by the Mayerson Academy in partnership with the VIA…

  1. Maximal strength training improves work economy, rate of force development and maximal strength more than conventional strength training.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Jørn; Fimland, Marius S; Helgerud, Jan; Hoff, Jan

    2013-06-01

    This study compared maximal strength training (MST) with equal training volume (kg × sets × repetitions) of conventional strength training (CON) primarily with regard to work economy, and second one repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) of single leg knee extension. In an intra-individual design, one leg was randomized to knee-extension MST (4 or 5RM) and the other leg to CON (3 × 10RM) three times per week for 8 weeks. MST was performed with maximal concentric mobilization of force while CON was performed with moderate velocity. Eight untrained or moderately trained men (26 ± 1 years) completed the study. The improvement in gross work economy was -0.10 ± 0.08 L min(-1) larger after MST (P = 0.011, between groups). From pre- to post-test the MST and CON improved net work economy with 31 % (P < 0.001) and 18 % (P = 0.01), respectively. Compared with CON, the improvement in 1RM and dynamic RFD was 13.7 ± 8.4 kg (P = 0.002) and 587 ± 679 N s(-1) (P = 0.044) larger after MST, whereas isometric RFD was of borderline significance 3,028 ± 3,674 N s(-1) (P = 0.053). From pre- to post-test, MST improved 1RM and isometric RFD with 50 % (P < 0.001) and 155 % (P < 0.001), respectively whereas CON improved 1RM and isometric RFD with 35 % (P < 0.001) and 83 % (P = 0.028), respectively. Anthropometric measures of quadriceps femoris muscle mass and peak oxygen uptake did not change. In conclusion, 8 weeks of MST was more effective than CON for improving work economy, 1RM and RFD in untrained and moderately trained men. The advantageous effect of MST to improve work economy could be due to larger improvements in 1RM and RFD.

  2. Strength Training: Program Organization and Proper Neck Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan

    During the 1960s, weightlifters and bodybuilders were the primary source for strength training methods, and their techniques were used by coaches to train athletes. In weight-training, it is the responsibility of trainers and coaches to provide the athlete with a program that produces the best results, consumes the least amount of time, and best…

  3. Effects of resistive training on strength gains in older adults.

    PubMed

    Brandon, L J; Sharon, B F; Boyette, L W; Anderson, K A; Stiles, R

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a moderate intensity, 16-week resistive strength training program on the rate and pattern of strength changes in trunk, upper, and lower extremity muscle groups. This study was also designed to determine the importance of muscle mass on strength gains during a training intervention with older adults. A repeated measures experimental design was employed with 43 experimental (ES) and 42 comparison subjects (CS). The active older sample had a relatively high level of strength for their age (72.1 yr) and had no contraindications for strength training. The ES trained five upper, three trunk, and three lower extremity muscle groups. Both ES and CS received pre- and post-testing assessments for muscle strength, muscle morphology, body composition, flexibility, and balance. The ES also received intermittent testing for one repetition maximum (1RM). ANOVA and Scheffé HSD tests were used to evaluate the data. The ES experienced significant strength gains (over 41% for each body segment) following the intervention. The rate of gain in this study was less than but the absolute strength gain was reasonably similar to values reported by studies in the literature [1,2]. There was no change in muscle mass (p>.05) following training. These results suggests that stronger active older adults have a muscle mass sufficient for greater strength and that training enables them to use available muscle mass more effectively. These results further suggest that muscle hypertrophy may be possible following strength training but it is not always necessary for strength improvement in older adults.

  4. Single- vs. multiple-set strength training in women.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, A; Stec, J; Schmidtbleicher, D

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single-set and multiple-set strength training in women. Twenty-seven women (aged 20-40 years) with basic experience in strength training were randomly allocated to either a single-set group (n = 9), a 3-set group (n = 9), or a nontraining control group (n = 9). Both training groups underwent a whole-body strengthening program, exercising 2 days a week for 6 weeks. Exercises included bilateral leg extension, bilateral leg curl, abdominal crunch, seated hip adduction/abduction, seated bench press, and lateral pull-down. The single-set group's program consisted of only 1 set of 6-9 repetitions until failure, whereas the multiple-set group trained with 3 sets of 6-9 repetitions until failure (rest interval between sets, 2 minutes). Two times before and 3 days after termination of the training program, subjects were tested for their 1 repetition maximum strength on the bilateral leg extension and the seated bench press machine. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance, Scheffé tests, t-tests, and calculation of effect sizes. Both training groups made significant strength improvements in leg extension (multiple-set group, 15%; single-set group, 6%; p 0.05). However, in the seated bench press only the 3-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength (10%). Calculation of effect sizes and percentage gains revealed higher strength gains in the multiple-set group. No significant differences were found in the control group. These findings suggest superior strength gains occurred following 3-set strength training compared with single-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training.

  5. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max - energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7 ± 5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in

  6. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

  7. Acute Strength Training Increases Responses to Stimulation of Corticospinal Axons.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, James L; Barry, Benjamin K; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2016-01-01

    Acute strength training of forearm muscles increases resting twitch forces from motor cortex stimulation. It is unclear if such effects are spinal in origin and if they also occur with training of larger muscles. With the use of subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons, the current study examined if one session of strength training of the elbow flexor muscles leads to spinal cord changes and if the type of training is important. In experiment 1, 10 subjects completed ballistic isometric training, ballistic concentric training, and no training (control) on separate days. In experiment 2, 13 subjects completed ballistic isometric training and slow-ramp isometric training. Before and after training, transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralateral motor cortex elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the resting biceps brachii, and electrical stimulation of corticospinal tract axons at the cervicomedullary junction elicited cervicomedullary motor-evoked potentials (CMEPs). Motor-evoked potential and CMEP twitch forces were also measured. In experiment 1, CMEPs and CMEP twitch forces were significantly facilitated after ballistic isometric training compared to control. In experiment 2, MEPs, MEP twitch forces, CMEPs, and CMEP twitch forces increased for 15 to 25 min after ballistic and slow-ramp isometric training. Via processes within the spinal cord, one session of strength training of the elbow flexors increases net output from motoneurons projecting to the trained muscles. Likely mechanisms include increased efficacy of corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses or increased motoneuron excitability. However, the rate of force generation during training is not important for inducing these changes. A concomitant increase in motor cortical excitability is likely. These short-term changes may represent initial neural adaptations to strength training.

  8. The influence of strength, flexibility, and simultaneous training on flexibility and strength gains.

    PubMed

    Simão, Roberto; Lemos, Adriana; Salles, Belmiro; Leite, Thalita; Oliveira, Élida; Rhea, Matthew; Reis, Victor Machado

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the strength and flexibility gains after isolated or simultaneous strength and flexibility training after 16 weeks. Eighty sedentary women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength training (ST; n = 20), flexibility training (FLEX) (n = 20), combination of both (ST + FLEX; n = 20) and control group (CG; n = 20). All the groups performed pre and posttraining sit and reach test to verify the flexibility level and 10RM test for leg press and bench press exercises. The training protocol for all groups, except for the CG, included 3 weekly sessions, in alternated days, totaling 48 sessions. Strength training was composed of 8 exercises for upper and lower body, executed in 3 sets of periodized training. The flexibility training was composed of static stretching exercises that involved upper and lower body. Results showed that ST (30 ± 2.0 to 36 ± 3.0 cm), ST + FLEX (31 ± 1.0 to 42 ± 4.0 cm), and FLEX (32 ± 3.0 to 43 ± 2.0 cm) significantly increased in flexibility in relation to baseline and to CG (30 ± 2.0 to 30 ± 2.0 cm); however, no significant differences were observed between the treatment conditions. Strength tests demonstrated that ST and ST + FLEX significantly increased 10RM when compared to baseline, FLEX, and the CG. In conclusion, short-term strength training increases flexibility and strength in sedentary adult women. Strength training may contribute to the development and maintenance of flexibility even without the inclusion of additional stretching, but strength and flexibility can be prescribed together to get optimal improvements in flexibility.

  9. Effects of strength training on mobility in adults with cerebral palsy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ross, Samantha Mae; MacDonald, Megan; Bigouette, John Paul

    2016-07-01

    Many adults with cerebral palsy report experiencing early-onset decline in mobility and independence. The role of strength training to combat this is not well understood. To examine the effects of strength-training interventions on muscle strength and functional outcomes for adults with CP using the ICF framework. A systematic review was conducted following standardized guidelines and using key words including: adults, cerebral palsy in combination with resistance or strength training, and ambulation and function related key words. Selection criteria included: (a) adults (mean age 18+ years) with CP, (b) strength training intervention, and (c) at least one activity or participation outcome measure. 26 retrieved articles were retained for full review. Data on strength training protocols were extracted and compared to national guidelines. Outcome measures were classified within ICF domains. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles were of high research quality and consistent with recommended training protocols for adults with CP. Positive gains in muscle strength were reported across studies. Changes within the activity ICF dimension were inconsistent, with 2 of the 6 studies observing increases in self-selected walking speed. Findings indicate training benefits for adults with CP. However, a small sample (n = 111 across all included studies) and the absence of extended training regimens and follow-up hindered conclusive results. High consistency in training protocols and outcome measures allowed for critical discussion on key research questions regarding the impact of strength training and subsequent gains in function within ICF domains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Health-Promoting Effects of Serial vs. Integrated Combined Strength and Aerobic Training.

    PubMed

    Karatrantou, K; Gerodimos, V; Häkkinen, K; Zafeiridis, A

    2017-01-01

    Combined strength and aerobic training programs are widely used for improving markers of physical fitness and health. We compared the efficiency of a serial and an integrated combined training program on health and overall fitness in middle-aged females. 54 females (46.7±4.5yrs) were assigned to a serial (SCG) or an integrated (ICG) combined training group or to a control group (CG). The SCG and ICG performed a 3-month training combining aerobic dance and calisthenics. The 2 training programs differ in the sequence of aerobic and strength exercises. SCG performed the strength exercises prior to aerobic; in ICG, the aerobic and strength exercises were altered in a predetermined order. Body composition/circumferences, blood pressure, respiratory function, flexibility, balance, muscle strength/endurance, power and aerobic capacity were measured before and after training. SCG and ICG significantly increased muscle strength and endurance, power, aerobic capacity, flexibility, balance, fat-free mass and respiratory function (p<0.001-0.05), while significant reductions were observed for blood pressure, heart rate and body fat/circumferences (p<0.001-0.05). However, there were no significant differences between SCG and ICG after training. Serial and integrated combined training programs confer analogous adaptations and can be used interchangeably for counteracting the detrimental effects of sedentary lifestyle on indices of physical fitness and health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  12. Manual Resistance versus Conventional Resistance Training: Impact on Strength and Muscular Endurance in Recreationally Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Rial, Tamara; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M.; Alakhdar, Yasser; La Scala Teixeira, Caue V.; Masiá-Tortosa, Laura; Dorgo, Sandor

    2017-01-01

    Manual resistance training (MRT) has been widely used in the field of physical therapy. It has also been used as a strength training method due to the accommodating resistance nature of this modality. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week MRT program on maximum strength and muscular endurance in comparison to conventional resistance training in recreationally trained men. Twenty healthy recreationally trained male subjects were recruited and divided into a MRT training group and a conventional training (CT) group. CT group performed bench press and lat pull-down exercises, and the MRT group performed similar movements with resistance provided by a personal trainer. Both groups completed similar training protocol and training load: 2 training sessions weekly for 3 sets of 8 repetitions at an intensity of 8 to 10 on the perceived exertion scale of 0-10. Initial maximum strength differences were not significant between the groups. Neither group showed significant changes in muscular strength or endurance. Despite the statistically non-significant pre- to post differences, a trend for improvement was observed and effect size (ES) calculations indicated greater magnitude of effects for strength and endurance changes in the MRT group in lat pulldown (g=0.84) compared to CT group. Effectiveness of MRT is similar to CT for improving muscular strength and endurance. MRT can be used as a supplemental or alternative strength training modality for recreationally trained subjects, or be considered by personal trainers especially in low equipped facility conditions. Key points Resistance training promotes improvement in muscular strength and endurance MRT is an effective alternative form of resistance training for recreationally trained men. MRT can be effective to improve muscular strength and endurance in recreationally trained men. MRT should be considered as alternative form of resistance training by personal trainers and coaches. PMID:28912651

  13. Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lynn Panton. She is a professor of exercise science at Florida State University in Tallahassee. "But we're finding that strength training can really help women recover from treatment and help prevent and reduce ...

  14. The effect of Nordic hamstring strength training on muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength.

    PubMed

    Seymore, Kayla D; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick M; Kulas, Anthony S

    2017-05-01

    Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or control group. Control participants performed static stretching, while experimental participants performed static stretching and NH training for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included: hamstring muscle architecture and stiffness using ultrasound imaging and elastography, and maximal hamstring strength measured on a dynamometer. The experimental group, but not the control group, increased volume (131.5 vs. 145.2 cm(3), p < 0.001) and physiological cross-sectional area (16.1 vs. 18.1 cm(2), p = 0.032). There were no significant changes to muscle fascicle length, stiffness, or eccentric hamstring strength. The NH intervention was an effective training method for muscle hypertrophy, but, contrary to common literature findings for other modes of eccentric training, did not increase fascicle length. The data suggest that the mechanism behind NH eccentric strength training mitigating hamstring injury risk could be increasing volume rather than increasing muscle length. Future research is, therefore, warranted to determine if muscle hypertrophy induced by NH training lowers future hamstring strain injury risk.

  15. Concentric Versus Enhanced Eccentric Hamstring Strength Training: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Wabbersen, Chuck V.; Murphy, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Hamstring injuries can be quite debilitating and often result in chronic problems. Eccentric muscle actions are often the last line of defense against muscle injury and ligament disruption. Traditionally, the focus of hamstring strength rehabilitation has been on concentric muscle actions. The purpose of our study was to compare hamstring muscle strength gains in concentric and eccentric hamstring strength training. Design and Setting: A randomized-group design was used to examine differences in 1-repetition maximum (1 RM) and isokinetic strength values among 3 groups of subjects. Subjects were tested in a biomechanics laboratory using an isokinetic dynamometer, while training was carried out in a physical therapy outpatient clinic. Subjects: Twenty-seven healthy male subjects (age = 22.9 ± 3.1 years, wt = 81.8 ± 12.9 kg, ht = 178.6 ± 7.2 cm) participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: eccentric training, concentric training, or control. Measurements: Subjects performed hamstring curls using an isotonic weight training device. Pretest 1 RM weight values were determined for all subjects using a standardized 1 RM protocol. In addition, maximum concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength values for knee-flexion strength were determined. Control group subjects refrained from weight training for 6 weeks. Subjects in the training groups trained 2 days per week for 6 weeks (12 sessions). After 6 weeks of training, all subjects returned for 1RM and isokinetic posttesting. Results: The concentric group improved 19%, while the eccentric group improved 29%. The control group subjects did not show any significant change over the 6 weeks. In addition, there were improvements in eccentric isokinetic peak torque/ body weight ratios at both 60 °s and 180° from pretesting to posttesting in the eccentric training group only. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of isotonic strength training on the

  16. Manual Resistance versus Conventional Resistance Training: Impact on Strength and Muscular Endurance in Recreationally Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Rial, Tamara; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; Alakhdar, Yasser; La Scala Teixeira, Caue V; Masiá-Tortosa, Laura; Dorgo, Sandor

    2017-09-01

    Manual resistance training (MRT) has been widely used in the field of physical therapy. It has also been used as a strength training method due to the accommodating resistance nature of this modality. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week MRT program on maximum strength and muscular endurance in comparison to conventional resistance training in recreationally trained men. Twenty healthy recreationally trained male subjects were recruited and divided into a MRT training group and a conventional training (CT) group. CT group performed bench press and lat pull-down exercises, and the MRT group performed similar movements with resistance provided by a personal trainer. Both groups completed similar training protocol and training load: 2 training sessions weekly for 3 sets of 8 repetitions at an intensity of 8 to 10 on the perceived exertion scale of 0-10. Initial maximum strength differences were not significant between the groups. Neither group showed significant changes in muscular strength or endurance. Despite the statistically non-significant pre- to post differences, a trend for improvement was observed and effect size (ES) calculations indicated greater magnitude of effects for strength and endurance changes in the MRT group in lat pulldown (g=0.84) compared to CT group. Effectiveness of MRT is similar to CT for improving muscular strength and endurance. MRT can be used as a supplemental or alternative strength training modality for recreationally trained subjects, or be considered by personal trainers especially in low equipped facility conditions.

  17. The Effects of Strength Training on Strength and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damush, Teresa M.; Damush, Joseph G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the short-term effects of an accessible exercise intervention on the strength and health-related quality of life among older women. Results of an 8-week resistance training intervention revealed significant increases in three major muscles. However, there were no significant changes on either mental or physical health functioning.…

  18. Strength and aerobic training in overweight females in Gdansk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sawczyn, Stanisław; Mishchenko, Viktor; Moska, Waldemar; Sawczyn, Michał; Jagiełło, Marina; Kuehne, Tatiana; Nowak, Robert; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effects of 16-week-training on rest metabolic rate, aerobic power, and body fat, and the post-exercise effects upon rest oxygen uptake and respiratory exchange ratio in overweight middle-aged females. Twenty nine overweight women (BMI 29.9 ± 1.2 kg*m−2) participated in training (3 days a week). The subjects were divided onto groups of aerobic (AT) and strength (ST) training. The results showed that the total body mass decrease and VO2 max increase did not differ in both groups. Decrease in waist circumference after 16 weeks was higher in the ST group. In the ST group fat-free mass increased during the first 8 weeks. Rest metabolic rate was increased significantly at 16th week compared to initial value in ST group only. Significant increase in post-exercise resting VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio at 12 and 36 h was observed after the strength training session only. Increase in rest metabolic rate and post-exercise rest energy expenditure occurred after strength training but not after aerobic training despite the similar increase in aerobic power. The effect of 8–16 weeks of strength training on body mass decrease was higher in comparison to aerobic training. PMID:28352690

  19. Key Strengths of an Innovative Volunteer Training Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellick, Angelika; Bournot-Trites, Monique; Reeder, Ken; Scales, Andrew; Smith, Mark; Zappa-Hollman, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The study involved 14 volunteer facilitators, four UBC staff members, and the researcher as participant; the data collected were observation notes, questionnaires, results from focus groups, and interviews. The study revealed that the key strengths of the training workshop lay in its approach to training, its focus on confidence and capacity…

  20. Key Strengths of an Innovative Volunteer Training Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellick, Angelika; Bournot-Trites, Monique; Reeder, Ken; Scales, Andrew; Smith, Mark; Zappa-Hollman, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The study involved 14 volunteer facilitators, four UBC staff members, and the researcher as participant; the data collected were observation notes, questionnaires, results from focus groups, and interviews. The study revealed that the key strengths of the training workshop lay in its approach to training, its focus on confidence and capacity…

  1. The Effect of an Educational Program on Strength-Training Adherence in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Jager, Johnna M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a strength-training program combined with an educational intervention on resistance-training knowledge, adherence, psychological parameters, and functionality in older individuals residing in assisted living facilities. Twenty-four (mean age: 83.8 ± 8.0 years) participants were divided into…

  2. The Effect of an Educational Program on Strength-Training Adherence in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Jager, Johnna M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a strength-training program combined with an educational intervention on resistance-training knowledge, adherence, psychological parameters, and functionality in older individuals residing in assisted living facilities. Twenty-four (mean age: 83.8 ± 8.0 years) participants were divided into…

  3. Radiative Strength Functions and Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Voinov, A; Guttormsen, M; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Rekstad, J; Siem, S; Mitchell, G E; Tavukcu, E

    2002-08-28

    Radiative strength functions and level densities have been extracted from primary {gamma}-ray spectra for {sup 27,28}Si, {sup 56,57}Fe, {sup 96,97}Mo, and several rare earth nuclei. An unexpectedly strong ({approx} 1 mb MeV) resonance at 3 MeV in the radiative strength function has been observed for well-deformed rare earth nuclei. The physical origin of this resonance and its connection to the scissors mode is discussed.

  4. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training.

    PubMed

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Both experimental groups showed significant (P < or = 0.05) improvements in jump and sprint performances after training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% +/- 9.3%, PT = 17.6% +/- 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% +/- 1.9%, PT = 3.6% +/- 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% +/- 11.3%, PT = 4.5% +/- 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P < or = 0.05) changes in the force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength

  5. A preliminary study into the effect of jumping-landing training and strength training on frontal plane projection angle.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Lee; Munro, Allan; Comfort, Paul

    2015-10-01

    The presence of increased knee valgus angles during functional tasks has been associated with a range of knee pathologies. A number of different exercise interventions have been undertaken to improve knee alignment during functional tasks. The most successful of these interventions are multi-modal incorporating both strength and jump-landing training. Little research has been undertaken to compare these elements individually to assess if success is due to an individual element or the training as a whole. The study assessed the between group effects of strength training or jump-landing training alone on knee valgus alignment during a number of functional tasks, using a cohort specific treatment superiority design. Thirty asymptomatic female participants undertook a 6 week (minimum 15 sessions) strength or jump-landing programme, the effects of which were examined by assessing for any change in frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) during single leg squat and landing and bilateral drop jump landing. Both training methods had positive effects of FPPA during some but not all of the tasks. Strength training brought about significant changes in FPPA during single leg squat and landing, whilst jump-landing training significantly influenced single leg landing and drop jump landing performance. The changes reported, therefore appear to be related to the nature of the training and the tasks undertaken during that training. The findings indicating that a combined training protocol incorporating both strengthening and jump-landing training may bring about the greatest improvement across a spectrum of tasks for the patient, supporting the previous work on multimodal training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Health-related strength and power training in seniors: Purpose and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bopp, Micha; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    The proportion of older people in western societies rapidly increases. Aging-induced disease conditions accompanied with declines in cardiocirculatory and neuromuscular performance constitute a major individual and economic health burden. Besides decreasing vascular and cardiac function during the process of aging, a loss of skeletal muscle mass, muscle structure and function seem to mainly account for decreasing maximal strength, strength development and strength endurance. These findings adversely interfer with static and dynamic postural control and may lead to an increased risk of falling with impairments of autonomy and quality of life. Traditional strength training recommendations basing on health-related exercise prescriptions for elderly people have been proven to counteract or at least attenuate aging-induced declines of neuromuscular muscular function. Multimodal and combined strength and balance training deliver additional improvements of neuromuscular capacity. Recent evidence additionally underpin the need of trunk muscle training and claimed for regimes considering explosive and high-velocity strength training in seniors. High quality RCTs revealed notable strength training effects on mobility, autonomy, quality of life and the reduction of the risk of falling (up to 50%). Available evidence also indicates that various strength training regimes elicit preventive and therapeutic effects on osteoporosis, diabetes type 2 and other chronic diseases, with effect sizes comparable to medication intake. Thus, health care providers, health insurances, Employers' Liability Insurance Associations and politicians should promote infrastructural developments that enable feasible and cost-effective access to health-related fitness centers or other sport facilities (e. g. sport clubs). These environmental requirements should be embedded in multi-centric education programs and campaigns that might enable regularly conducted strength and endurance training perceived as

  7. Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 9) from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers. Key points Two weekly sessions of dry land strength training improves the

  8. Maximal strength, power, and aerobic endurance adaptations to concurrent strength and sprint interval training.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Gregory S; Schilling, Brian K; Paquette, Max R; Murlasits, Zsolt

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to examine whether concurrent sprint interval and strength training (CT) would result in compromised strength development when compared to strength training (ST) alone. In addition, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion (TTE) were measured to determine if sprint interval training (SIT) would augment aerobic performance. Fourteen recreationally active men completed the study. ST (n = 7) was performed 2 days/week and CT (n = 7) was performed 4 days/week for 12 weeks. CT was separated by 24 h to reduce the influence of acute fatigue. Body composition was analyzed pre- and post-intervention. Anaerobic power, one-repetition maximum (1RM) lower- and upper-body strength, VO2max and TTE were analyzed pre-, mid-, and post-training. Training intensity for ST was set at 85 % 1RM and SIT trained using a modified Wingate protocol, adjusted to 20 s. Upper- and lower-body strength improved significantly after training (p < 0.001) with no difference between the groups (p > 0.05). VO2max increased 40.9 ± 8.4 to 42.3 ± 7.1 ml/kg/min (p < 0.05) for CT, whereas ST remained unchanged. A significant difference in VO2max (p < 0.05) was observed between groups post-intervention (CT: 42.3 ± 7.1 vs. ST: 36.0 ± 3.0 ml/kg/min). A main effect for time and group was observed in TTE (p < 0.05). A significant main effect for time was observed in average power (p < 0.05). Preliminary findings suggest that performing concurrent sprint interval and strength training does not attenuate the strength response when compared to ST alone, while also improves aerobic performance measures, such as VO2max at the same time.

  9. Monopole Strength Function of Deformed Superfluid Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Stoitsov, M. V.; Kortelainen, E. M.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Losa, C.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2011-01-01

    We present an efficient method for calculating strength functions using the finite amplitude method (FAM) for deformed superfluid heavy nuclei within the framework of the nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrate that FAM reproduces strength functions obtained with the fully self-consistent quasi-particle random-phase approximation (QRPA) at a fraction of computational cost. As a demonstration, we compute the isoscalar and isovector monopole strength for strongly deformed configurations in ^{240}Pu by considering huge quasi-particle QRPA spaces. Our approach to FAM, based on Broyden's iterative procedure, opens the possibility for large-scale calculations of strength distributions in well-bound and weakly bound nuclei across the nuclear landscape.

  10. Effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance in sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Sekendiz, Betül; Cuğ, Mutlu; Korkusuz, Feza

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on trunk extensor (abdominal)/flexor (lower back) and lower limb extensor (quadriceps)/flexor (hamstring) muscular strength, abdominal, lower back and leg endurance, flexibility and dynamic balance in sedentary women (n = 21; age = 34 ± 8.09; height = 1.63 ± 6.91 cm; weight = 64 ± 8.69 kg) trained for 45 minutes, 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Results of multivariate analysis revealed significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between pre and postmeasures of 60 and 90° s trunk flexion/extension, 60 and 240° s-1 lower limb flexion/extension (Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer), abdominal endurance (curl-up test), lower back muscular endurance (modified Sorensen test), lower limb endurance (repetitive squat test), lower back flexibility (sit and reach test), and dynamic balance (functional reach test). The results support the fact that Swiss-ball core strength training exercises can be used to provide improvement in the aforementioned measures in sedentary women. In conclusion, this study provides practical implications for sedentary individuals, physiotherapists, strength and conditioning specialists who can benefit from core strength training with Swiss balls.

  11. Velocity during Strength and Power Training of the Ankle Plantar and Dorsiflexor Muscles in Older Patients Attending Day Hospital Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Pavithra; Porter, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Power training has been proposed as a more effective type of resistance training for older adults for functional performance. It is not yet known whether older adults respond appropriately to instructions for power versus strength training. The purpose of this study was to determine the velocity during strength and power training, with elastic resistance bands, in older adults attending a geriatric rehabilitation day program. It was hypothesized that power training would be faster than strength training, but that there would be large interindividual differences. Nine older patients (70 to 86 years) performed power and strength training of the ankle dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscles using elastic resistance bands. Training sessions were filmed to assess the velocity of training. Power training occurred at faster velocities as compared to strength training (P < 0.01) for both muscle groups. However, a wide variation was observed between participants in the training velocities. Older adults attending geriatric rehabilitation do have the potential to develop faster contractions during power training as compared to strength training. Nevertheless, the actual velocities achieved differed between individuals. This could explain some of the mixed findings of studies on power training. Hence, researchers should monitor velocity when comparing different types of resistance training.

  12. Impact of Expiratory Strength Training in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Plowman, Emily K.; Watts, Stephanie A.; Tabor, Lauren; Robison, Raele; Gaziano, Joy; Domer, Amanda S.; Richter, Joel; Vu, Tuan; Gooch, Clifton

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated the feasibility and impact of Expiratory Muscle Strength Training (EMST) on respiratory and bulbar function in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods 25 ALS patients participated in this delayed intervention open-label clinical trial. Following a lead-in period, patients completed a 5-week EMST protocol. Outcome measures included: maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), physiologic measures of swallow and cough, and Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores. Results Of those participants who entered the active phase of the study (n=15), EMST was well tolerated and led to significant increases in MEPs and maximum hyoid displacement during swallowing post-EMST (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed for PAS scores or cough spirometry measures. Discussion EMST was feasible and well tolerated in this small cohort of ALS patients and led to improvements in expiratory force-generating pressures and swallow kinematics. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:26599236

  13. Detraining outcomes with expiratory muscle strength training in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Troche, Michelle S; Rosenbek, John C; Okun, Michael S; Sapienza, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) is efficacious for improving maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), cough function, and swallowing safety in Parkinson disease (PD). However, there are no published reports describing detraining effects following EMST in persons with PD. Moreover, there are no published reports describing detraining effects following any behavioral swallowing intervention. Ten participants with PD underwent 3 mo of detraining following EMST. Measures of MEP and swallowing safety were made prior to beginning EMST (baseline), posttreatment (predetraining), and 3 mo postdetraining. Participants demonstrated, on average, a 19% improvement in MEP from pre- to post-EMST. Following the 3 mo detraining period, MEP declined by 2% yet remained 17% above the baseline value. No statistically significant changes were found in swallowing safety from post-EMST to postdetraining period. Following the 3 mo detraining period, seven participants demonstrated no change in swallowing safety, one worsened, and two had improvements. This preliminary study highlights the need for the design of maintenance programs to sustain function following intensive periods of training.

  14. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Unilateral vs. Bilateral Strength Training in Women.

    PubMed

    Botton, Cíntia E; Radaelli, Regis; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Rech, Anderson; Brown, Lee E; Pinto, Ronei S

    2016-07-01

    Botton, CE, Radaelli, R, Wilhelm, EN, Rech, A, Brown, LE, and Pinto, RS. Neuromuscular adaptations to unilateral vs. bilateral strength training in women. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1924-1932, 2016-Considering the bilateral deficit, the sum of forces produced by each limb in a unilateral condition is generally greater than that produced by them in a bilateral condition. Therefore, it can be speculated that performing unilateral strength exercises may allow greater training workloads and subsequently greater neuromuscular adaptations when compared with bilateral training. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare neuromuscular adaptations with unilateral vs. bilateral training in the knee extensor muscles. Forty-three recreationally active young women were allocated to a control, unilateral (UG) or bilateral (BG) training group, which performed 2 times strength training sessions a week for 12 weeks. Knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), maximal isometric strength, muscle electrical activity, and muscle thickness were obtained before and after the study period. Muscle strength was measured in unilateral (right + left) and bilateral tests. Both UG and BG increased similarly their unilateral 1RM (33.3 ± 14.3% vs. 24.6 ± 11.9%, respectively), bilateral 1RM (20.3 ± 6.8% vs. 28.5 ± 12.3%, respectively), and isometric strength (14.7 ± 11.3% vs. 13.1 ± 12.5%, respectively). The UG demonstrated greater unilateral isometric strength increase than the BG (21.4 ± 10.5% vs. 10.3 ± 11.1%, respectively) and only the UG increased muscle electrical activity. Muscle thickness increased similarly for both training groups. Neither group exhibited pretesting 1RM bilateral deficit values, but at post-testing, UG showed a significant bilateral deficit (-6.5 ± 7.8%) whereas BG showed a significant bilateral facilitation (5.9 ± 9.0%). Thus, performing unilateral or bilateral exercises was not a decisive factor for improving morphological adaptations and bilateral

  15. Improvements in skeletal muscle strength and cardiac function induced by resveratrol during exercise training contribute to enhanced exercise performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Dolinsky, Vernon W; Jones, Kelvin E; Sidhu, Robinder S; Haykowsky, Mark; Czubryt, Michael P; Gordon, Tessa; Dyck, Jason R B

    2012-06-01

    Exercise training (ET) improves endurance capacity by increasing both skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function, as well as contributing to favourable cardiac remodelling.Interestingly, some of the benefits of regular exercise can also be mimicked by the naturally occurring polyphenol, resveratrol (RESV). However, it is not known whether RESV enhances physiological adaptations to ET. To investigate this, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a control chow diet or a chow diet that contained RESV (4 g kg⁻¹ of diet) and subsequently subjected to a programme of progressive treadmill running for 12 weeks. ET-induced improvements in exercise performance were enhanced by 21% (P <0.001) by the addition of RESV to the diet. In soleus muscle, ET+RESV increased both the twitch (1.8-fold; P <0.05) and tetanic(1.2-fold; P <0.05) forces generated during isometric contraction, compared to ET alone. In vivo echocardiography demonstrated that ET+RESV also increased the resting left ventricular ejection fraction by 10% (P <0.05), and reduced left ventricular wall stress compared to ET alone.These functional changes were accompanied by increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (1.2-fold;P <0.05) and favourable changes in cardiac gene expression and signal transduction pathways that optimized the utilization of fatty acids in ET+RESV compared to ET alone. Overall, our findings provide evidence that the capacity for fatty acid oxidation is augmented by the addition of RESV to the diet during ET, and that this may contribute to the improved physical performance of rats following ET.

  16. Effects of different strength training methods on postexercise energetic expenditure.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Rodrigo Lavinas; Brentano, Michel Arias; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2010-08-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of strength training in increasing energetic expenditure (EE) both during and after training sessions, there are no studies available that analyze the influence on EE of the order in which exercises are performed. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to verify whether the order in which exercises are performed, represented by 2 different methods of strength training (circuit [CT] and pre-exhaustion [PE]), influences the magnitude of the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) as well as the EE. Eight nonstrength-trained women participated in the study. Two strength training sessions, with different orders of execution, were held with 7 exercises performed with loads of between 50% and 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). The oxygen uptake was measured before the training sessions, and the difference between the values found was taken as the EPOC of each training session and used in later analysis. No significant differences were found in either the EPOC (CT: 7.19 L +/- 6.17 an. PE: 7.22 +/- 5.84 L) or the postexercise EE (CT: 34.67 +/- 29.76 Kcal, PE: 34.77 +/- 28.15 Kcal) of the 2 training methodologies. Our results indicate that, in strength training, the magnitude of the EPOC is not linked to the order in which the exercises are performed. However, the absence of recovery periods between the sets and the exercises promotes an increase in the magnitude of the EPOC to the levels found in training sessions with higher percentages of 1RM.

  17. Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vila-Chã, Carolina; Falla, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effects of strength and endurance training on motor unit discharge rate variability and force steadiness of knee extensor muscles. Thirty sedentary healthy men (age, 26.0±3.8yrs) were randomly assigned to strength training, endurance training or a control group. Conventional endurance and strength training was performed 3days per week, over a period of 6weeks. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), time to task failure (at 30% MVC), coefficient of variation (CoV) of force and of the discharges rates of motor units from the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis were determined as subjects performed 20% and 30% MVC knee extension contractions before and after training. CoV of motor unit discharges rates was significantly reduced for both muscles following strength training (P<0.001), but did not change in the endurance (P=0.875) or control group (P=0.995). CoV of force was reduced after the strength training intervention only (P<0.01). Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability and enhances force steadiness of the knee extensors. These results provide new insights into the neuromuscular adaptations that occur with different training methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Maximal- & Explosive-Strength Training on Performance Indicators in Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Kris; Carson, Brian P; Lyons, Mark; Kenny, Ian C

    2016-09-06

    Cycling economy (CE), power at maximal oxygen uptake (WV̇O2max) and anaerobic function (i.e. sprinting ability) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite road cyclists. In addition to cardiovascular function, these physiological indicators are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20 week maximal- and explosive-strength training intervention on strength (maximal- , explosive-strength & bike-specific explosive-strength), WV̇O2max, CE and body composition (body mass, fat & lean mass) in cyclists. Fifteen competitive road cyclists were divided into an intervention group (endurance training AND strength training: n = 6; 38.0 ± 10.2 years; 69.1 ± 3.6 kg; 1.77 ± 0.04 m) and a control group (endurance training ONLY: n = 9; 34.8 ± 8.5 years; 72.5 ± 7.2 kg; 1.78 ± 0.05 m). The intervention group strength trained for twenty weeks. Each participant completed three assessments: physiology (CE, WV̇O2max, power at 2mmol/L & W4mmol/L blood lactate [W2/4mmol/L BLa]), strength (isometric mid-thigh pull [IMTP], squat-jump height & 6s bike-sprint peak power) and body composition (body mass, fat mass, overall-lean & leg-lean). The results showed between- and within-group significant changes in the intervention group for maximal-strength, bike-specific explosive-strength, absolute WV̇O2max, body mass, overall-lean & leg-lean at week 20 (p < 0.05). The control group showed no significant within-group changes in strength, physiological or body composition measures. This study demonstrates that twenty weeks of strength training can significantly improve maximal-strength, bike-specific explosive-strength qualities and absolute WV̇O2max in competitive road cyclists.

  19. The Effect of Concentric Isokinetic Strength Training of the Quadriceps Femoris on Electromyography and Muscle Strength in the Trained and Untrained Limb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evetovich, Tammy K.; Housh, Terry J.; Housh, Dona J.; Johnson, Glen O.; Smith, Douglas B.; Ebersole, Kyle T.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of unilateral concentric isokinetic leg extension training on peak torque and electromyographic (EMG) responses in trained and untrained limbs. Adult men participated in training and control groups. Overall, unilateral concentric isokinetic strength training induced strength increases in trained as well as untrained limbs.…

  20. The Effect of Concentric Isokinetic Strength Training of the Quadriceps Femoris on Electromyography and Muscle Strength in the Trained and Untrained Limb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evetovich, Tammy K.; Housh, Terry J.; Housh, Dona J.; Johnson, Glen O.; Smith, Douglas B.; Ebersole, Kyle T.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of unilateral concentric isokinetic leg extension training on peak torque and electromyographic (EMG) responses in trained and untrained limbs. Adult men participated in training and control groups. Overall, unilateral concentric isokinetic strength training induced strength increases in trained as well as untrained limbs.…

  1. Effects of plyometric and pneumatic explosive strength training on neuromuscular function and dynamic balance control in 60-70year old males.

    PubMed

    Piirainen, Jarmo M; Cronin, Neil J; Avela, Janne; Linnamo, Vesa

    2014-04-01

    The present study compared neuromuscular adaptations to 12weeks of plyometric (PLY) or pneumatic (PNE) power training and their effects on dynamic balance control. Twenty-two older adults aged 60-70 (PLY n=9, PNE n=11) participated in the study. Measurements were conducted at Pre, 4, 8 and 12weeks. Dynamic balance was assessed as anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) displacement in response to sudden perturbations. Explosive isometric knee extension and plantar flexion maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) were performed. Maximal drop jump performance from optimal dropping height was measured in a sledge ergometer. Increases in knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor torque and muscle activity were higher and occurred sooner in PNE, whereas in drop jumping, PLY showed a clearer increase in optimal drop height (24%, p<0.01) after 8weeks of training and soleus muscle activity after 12weeks of training. In spite of these training mode specific adaptations, both groups showed similar improvements in dynamic balance control after 4weeks of training (PLY 38%, p<0.001; PNE 31%, p<0.001) and no change thereafter. These results show that although power and plyometric training may involve different neural adaptation mechanisms, both training modes can produce similar improvements in dynamic balance control in older individuals. As COP displacement was negatively correlated with rapid knee extension torque in both groups (PLY r=-0.775, p<0.05; PNE r=-0.734, p<0.05) after training, the results also highlight the importance of targeting rapid force production when training older adults to improve dynamic balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strength Training and Detraining in Different Populations: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Mário C.; Zajac, Adam; Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M.

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers have demonstrated that a specific strength training program can improve maximal strength and, the rate of force production, reduce the incidence of muscle-skeletal injury, and contribute to faster injury recovery times, thereby minimizing the number of missed practice sessions or competitions. Yet, to our best knowledge, there is no apparent consensus on the appropriate method of muscle strength and power training to enhance performance in distinct populations groups. Interruptions in training process because of illness, injury, holidays, post-season break or other factors are normal situations in any kind of sport. However, the detraining period and its consequences are not well reported in sports literature, and namely during puberty. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to discuss several case studies concerning different populations such us physical students, age-swimming competitors and elite power athletes. PMID:23487418

  3. Strength training improves performance and pedaling characteristics in elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Hollan, I; Ellefsen, S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effect of 25 weeks heavy strength training in young elite cyclists. Nine cyclists performed endurance training and heavy strength training (ES) while seven cyclists performed endurance training only (E). ES, but not E, resulted in increases in isometric half squat performance, lean lower body mass, peak power output during Wingate test, peak aerobic power output (W(max)), power output at 4 mmol L(-1)[la(-)], mean power output during 40-min all-out trial, and earlier occurrence of peak torque during the pedal stroke (P < 0.05). ES achieved superior improvements in W(max) and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial compared with E (P < 0.05). The improvement in 40-min all-out performance was associated with the change toward achieving peak torque earlier in the pedal stroke (r = 0.66, P < 0.01). Neither of the groups displayed alterations in VO2max or cycling economy. In conclusion, heavy strength training leads to improved cycling performance in elite cyclists as evidenced by a superior effect size of ES training vs E training on relative improvements in power output at 4 mmol L(-1)[la(-)], peak power output during 30-s Wingate test, W(max), and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Strength function under the absorbing boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, M.; Otani, R.; Ito, M.

    2014-12-01

    The strength function of the linear response by the external field is calculated in the formalism of the absorbing boundary condition (ABC). The dipole excitation of a schematic two-body system is treated in the present study. The extended completeness relation, which is assumed on the analogy of the formulation in the complex scaling method (CSM), is applied to the calculation of the strength function. The calculation of the strength function is successful in the present formalism and hence, the extended completeness relation seems to work well in the ABC formalism. The contributions from the resonance and the non-resonant continuum is also analyzed according to the decomposition of the energy levels in the extended completeness relation.

  5. Aging process, cognitive decline and Alzheimer`s disease: can strength training modulate these responses?

    PubMed

    Portugal, Eduardo Matta Mello; Vasconcelos, Poliane Gomes Torres; Souza, Renata; Lattari, Eduardo; Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Machado, Sergio; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

    2015-01-01

    Some evidence shows that aerobic training can attenuate the aging effects on the brain structures and functions. However, the strength exercise effects are poorly discussed. Thus, in the present study, the effects of strength training on the brain in elderly people and Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients were revised. Furthermore, it a biological explanation relating to strength training effects on the brain is proposed. Brain atrophy can be related to neurotransmission dysfunction, like oxidative stress, that generates mitochondrial damage and reduced brain metabolism. Another mechanism is related to amyloid deposition and amyloid tangles, that can be related to reductions on insulin-like growth factor I concentrations. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor also presents reduction during aging process and AD. These neuronal dysfunctions are also related to cerebral blood flow decline that influence brain metabolism. All of these alterations contribute to cognitive impairment and AD. After a long period of strength training, the oxidative stress can be reduced, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor I serum concentrations enhance, and the cognitive performance improves. Considering these results, we can infer that strength training can be related to increased neurogenesis, neuroplasticity and, consequently, counteracts aging effects on the brain. The effect of strength training as an additional treatment of AD needs further investigation.

  6. Strength training for plantar fasciitis and the intrinsic foot musculature: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Huffer, Dean; Hing, Wayne; Newton, Richard; Clair, Mike

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to critically evaluate the literature investigating strength training interventions in the treatment of plantar fasciitis and improving intrinsic foot musculature strength. A search of PubMed, CINHAL, Web of Science, SPORTSDiscus, EBSCO Academic Search Complete and PEDRO using the search terms plantar fasciitis, strength, strengthening, resistance training, intrinsic flexor foot, resistance training. Seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the modified Downs and Black checklist. All articles showed moderate to high quality, however external validity was low. A comparison of the interventions highlights significant differences in strength training approaches to treating plantar fasciitis and improving intrinsic strength. It was not possible to identify the extent to which strengthening interventions for intrinsic musculature may benefit symptomatic or at risk populations to plantar fasciitis. There is limited external validity that foot exercises, toe flexion against resistance and minimalist running shoes may contribute to improved intrinsic foot musculature function. Despite no plantar fascia thickness changes being observed through high-load plantar fascia resistance training there are indications that it may aid in a reduction of pain and improvements in function. Further research should use standardised outcome measures to assess intrinsic foot musculature strength and plantar fasciitis symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strength vs aerobic training in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, David M; Hovell, Melbourne F; Mulvihill, Mary; Keating, Kristen K; Hofstetter, C Richard; Kelsey, Sheryl; Morris, Kimberly; Nixon, Patricia A

    2004-10-01

    Exercise has the potential to improve the ability of a patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) to cope with the physical demands of everyday life, and may improve prognosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a home-based, semi-supervised, upper-body strength-training regimen with a similarly structured aerobic training regimen. Data were collected during a 1-year randomized clinical trial. Counselors conducted in-home visits with the participants once per week for the first 8 weeks followed by monthly visits for the remainder of the study. Sixty-seven patients with CF, aged 8 to 18 years, participated in the trial. Participants in both exercise conditions were encouraged to exercise at least three times per week for 1 year. Each child in the aerobic group was given a stair-stepping machine, and each child in the upper-body strength training group was given an upper-body-only weight-resistance machine. Aerobic fitness, pulmonary function, quality of life, and strength were measured at baseline, at 6 months, and at 12 months. Strength training increased the maximum weight lifted for biceps curls significantly more than aerobic training (p < 0.02). However, this differential did not remain significant after control for increase in height. Both training procedures were associated with increased strength (p < 0.002) and physical work capacity (PWC) [p < 0.033]. We concluded that strength and aerobic training may increase upper-body strength, and that both types of training may increase PWC for children with CF. Future trials should be conducted with no-training control subjects and larger samples to increase statistical power.

  8. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (p<.05). During the experimental welding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (p<.05). While no changes of neither cardiovascular nor metabolic parameters were found, subjects of the exercise group rated a significantly decreased rate of perceived exertion welding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  9. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if <70 kg or 16 kg if >70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  10. Maximal and explosive strength training elicit distinct neuromuscular adaptations, specific to the training stimulus.

    PubMed

    Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2014-02-01

    To compare the effects of short-term maximal (MST) vs. explosive (EST) strength training on maximal and explosive force production, and assess the neural adaptations underpinning any training-specific functional changes. Male participants completed either MST (n = 9) or EST (n = 10) for 4 weeks. In training participants were instructed to: contract as fast and hard as possible for ~1 s (EST); or contract progressively up to 75% maximal voluntary force (MVF) and hold for 3 s (MST). Pre- and post-training measurements included recording MVF during maximal voluntary contractions and explosive force at 50-ms intervals from force onset during explosive contractions. Neuromuscular activation was assessed by recording EMG RMS amplitude, normalised to a maximal M-wave and averaged across the three superficial heads of the quadriceps, at MVF and between 0-50, 0-100 and 0-150 ms during the explosive contractions. Improvements in MVF were significantly greater (P < 0.001) following MST (+21 ± 12%) than EST (+11 ± 7%), which appeared due to a twofold greater increase in EMG at MVF following MST. In contrast, early phase explosive force (at 100 ms) increased following EST (+16 ± 14%), but not MST, resulting in a time × group interaction effect (P = 0.03), which appeared due to a greater increase in EMG during the early phase (first 50 ms) of explosive contractions following EST (P = 0.052). These results provide evidence for distinct neuromuscular adaptations after MST vs. EST that are specific to the training stimulus, and demonstrate the independent adaptability of maximal and explosive strength.

  11. Greater Strength Gains after Training with Accentuated Eccentric than Traditional Isoinertial Loads in Already Strength-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Haff, G. Gregory; Tufano, James J.; Newton, Robert U.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s−1) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque

  12. Greater Strength Gains after Training with Accentuated Eccentric than Traditional Isoinertial Loads in Already Strength-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J; Haff, G Gregory; Tufano, James J; Newton, Robert U; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s(-1)) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque

  13. Influence of strength and flexibility training, combined or isolated, on strength and flexibility gains.

    PubMed

    Leite, Thalita; de Souza Teixeira, Arlindo; Saavedra, Francisco; Leite, Richard D; Rhea, Matthew R; Simão, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the strength and flexibility gains after 12 weeks of strength and flexibility training (FLEX), isolated or combined. Twenty-eight trained women (age = 46 ± 6.52 years; body mass = 56.8 ± 5.02 kg; height = 162 ± 5.58 cm; mean ± SD) were randomly divided into 4 groups: strength training (ST) (n = 7), FLEX (n = 7), combination of strength and flexibility (ST + FLEX) (n = 7), and combination of flexibility and strength (FLEX + ST) (n = 7). All groups were assessed before and after training for the sit and reach test, goniometry, and 10 repetition maximum in bench press (BP) and leg press (LP) exercises. The training protocol for all groups included training sessions on alternate days and was composed of 8 exercises performed at periodized intensities. The FLEX consisted of dynamic stretching performed for a total duration of 60 minutes. The results demonstrated significant strength gains in all groups in the LP exercise (FLEX: p = 0.0187; ST: p = 0.0001; FLEX + ST: p = 0.0034; ST + FLEX: p = 0.0021). All groups except the FLEX improved in BP strength (FLEX: p = 0.1757; ST: p = 0.0001; FLEX + ST: p = 0.0017; ST + FLEX: p = 0.0035). Statistical analyses did not show significant differences between groups; however, effect sizes demonstrated slightly different treatment effects for each group. Largest treatment effects were calculated for the ST group (LP: 2.72; BP: 1.25) and the lowest effects in the FLEX group (LP: 0.41; BP: -0.06). Both combination groups demonstrated lower effect sizes for both LP and BP as compared with the ST group. No significant differences in flexibility were seen in any group, in any of the comparisons (p > 0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that combining strength and FLEX is not detrimental to flexibility development; however, combined training may slightly reduce strength development, with little influence of order in which these exercises are performed.

  14. The efficacy of incorporating partial squats in maximal strength training.

    PubMed

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Sato, Kimitake; Wassinger, Craig A; Lamont, Hugh S; Stone, Michael H

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of 2 different training methods on dynamic and isometric measures of maximal strength. Seventeen recreationally trained men (1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat: 146.9 ± 22.4 kg) were assigned to 2 groups: full range of motion (ROM) squat (F) and full ROM with partial ROM squat (FP) for the 7-week training intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that there was a statistically significant group-by-time interaction for impulse scaled at 50, 90, and 250 milliseconds at 90° of knee flexion and rate of force development at 200 milliseconds with 120° of knee flexion (p ≤ 0.05). There was also a statistically significant time effect (p ≤ 0.05) for the 1RM squat, 1RM partial squat, isometric squat peak force allometrically scaled (IPFa) 90°, IPFa 120°, and impulse allometrically scaled at 50, 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds at 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Additionally, the FP group achieved statistically larger relative training intensities (%1RM) during the final 3 weeks of training (p ≤ 0.05). There was a trend for FP to improve over F in 1RM squat (+3.1%, d = 0.53 vs. 0.32), 1RM partial squat (+4.7%, d = 0.95 vs. 0.69), IPFa 120° (+5.7%, d = 0.52 vs. 0.12), and impulse scaled at 50, 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds at 90° (+6.3 to 13.2%, d = 0.50-1.01 vs. 0.30-0.57) and 120° (+3.4 to 16.8%, d = 0.45-1.11 vs. 0.08-0.37). These larger effect sizes in the FP group can likely be explained their ability to train at larger relative training intensities during the final 3 weeks of training resulting in superior training adaptations. Our findings suggest that partial ROM squats in conjunction with full ROM squats may be an effective training method for improving maximal strength and early force-time curve characteristics in men with previous strength training experience. Practically, partial squats may be beneficial for strength and power athletes during a strength-speed mesocycle while peaking

  15. Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength.

    PubMed

    Morton, Sam K; Whitehead, James R; Brinkert, Ronald H; Caine, Dennis J

    2011-12-01

    Morton, SK, Whitehead, JR, Brinkert, RH, and Caine, DJ. Resistance training vs. static stretching: Effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3391-3398, 2011-The purpose of this study was to determine how full-range resistance training (RT) affected flexibility and strength compared to static stretching (SS) of the same muscle-joint complexes in untrained adults. Volunteers (n = 25) were randomized to an RT or SS training group. A group of inactive volunteers (n = 12) served as a convenience control group (CON). After pretesting hamstring extension, hip flexion and extension, shoulder extension flexibility, and peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, subjects completed 5-week SS or RT treatments in which the aim was to stretch or to strength train the same muscle-joint complexes over similar movements and ranges. Posttests of flexibility and strength were then conducted. There was no difference in hamstring flexibility, hip flexion, and hip extension improvement between RT and SS, but both were superior to CON values. There were no differences between groups on shoulder extension flexibility. The RT group was superior to the CON in knee extension peak torque, but there were no differences between groups on knee flexion peak torque. The results of this preliminary study suggest that carefully constructed full-range RT regimens can improve flexibility as well as the typical SS regimens employed in conditioning programs. Because of the potential practical significance of these results to strength and conditioning programs, further studies using true experimental designs, larger sample sizes, and longer training durations should be conducted with the aim of confirming or disproving these results.

  16. Treadmill Training or Progressive Strength Training to Improve Walking in People with Multiple Sclerosis? A Randomized Parallel Group Trial.

    PubMed

    Braendvik, Siri Merete; Koret, Teija; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Lorås, Håvard; Bråthen, Geir; Hovdal, Harald Olav; Aamot, Inger Lise

    2016-12-01

    The most effective treatment approach to improve walking in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is not known. The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of treadmill training and progressive strength training on walking in people with MS. A single blinded randomized parallel group trial was carried out. Eligible participants were adults with MS with Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤6. A total of 29 participants were randomized and 28 received the allocated exercise intervention, treadmill (n = 13) or strength training (n = 15). Both groups exercised 30 minutes, three times a week for 8 weeks. Primary outcome was The Functional Ambulation Profile evaluated by the GAITRite walkway. Secondary outcomes were walking work economy and balance control during walking, measured by a small lightweight accelerometer connected to the lower back. Testing was performed at baseline and the subsequent week after completion of training. Two participants were lost to follow-up, and 11 (treadmill) and 15 (strength training) were left for analysis. The treadmill group increased their Functional Ambulation Profile score significantly compared with the strength training group (p = .037). A significant improvement in walking work economy (p = .024) and a reduction of root mean square of vertical acceleration (p = .047) also favoured the treadmill group. The results indicate that task-specific training by treadmill walking is a favourable approach compared with strength training to improve walking in persons with mild and moderate MS. Implications for Physiotherapy practice, this study adds knowledge for the decision of optimal treatment approaches in people with MS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Arm strength training improves activities of daily living and occupational performance in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Arikan, Hulya; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Oksuz, Cigdem; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Savci, Sema; Duger, Tulin; Coplu, Lutfi

    2015-12-01

    Arm strength training may improve functional performance for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This trial investigated the effects of arm strength training on arm exercise capacity, activities of daily living (ADL) and occupational performance in patients with COPD. These was a randomized controlled trial in an outpatient clinic. Forty-two stable patients with COPD were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The treatment group underwent an 8-week (23 sessions) arm strength training programme. Both groups completed daily breathing exercises at home. Tests included hand grip strength, arm ergometer test, the Glittre-ADL and ADL Simulation tests and measures included the Milliken ADL Scale (MAS) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Statistically significant increases were detected in hand grip strength and %hand grip strength values, peak arm ergometer workload and the number of ADL simulation test cycles for the treatment group (p < 0.05). Significant decreases were also found in dyspnea and arm fatigue perception during arm ergometer test, and heart rate and dyspnea perception during Glittre-ADL test in the treatment group (p < 0.05). The treatment group also showed significant increases in MAS-house cleaning and laundry and MAS-other activities integrated scores and COPM-performance and satisfaction scores (p < 0.05). Arm strength training increases peripheral muscle strength, arm exercise capacity, ADL performance and patients' ADL performance satisfaction. Training decreases dyspnea and arm fatigue perception during supported arm exercises, and dyspnea perception during ADL. Arm strength training is a reliable and feasible treatment for COPD patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of Training Attendance on Muscle Strength of Young Men after 11 Weeks of Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Gentil, Paulo; Bottaro, Martim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT) program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males. Methods Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and knee extensors peak torque (PT) were measured before and after the training period. After the training period, a two step cluster analysis was used to classify the participants in accordance to training attendance, resulting in three groups, defined as high (92 to 100%), intermediate (80 to 91%) and low (60 to 79%) training attendance. Results According to the results, there were no significant correlations between strength gains and training attendance, however, when attendance groups were compared, the low training attendance group showed lower increases in 1RM bench press (8.8%) than the other two groups (17.6% and 18.0% for high and intermediate attendance, respectively). Conclusions Although there is not a direct correlation between training attendance and muscle strength gains, it is suggested that a minimum attendance of 80% is necessary to ensure optimal gains in upper body strength. PMID:23802051

  19. Influence of strength training on adult women's flexibility.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Walace David; Simão, Roberto; Polito, Marco Doederlein; Santana, Cleves Araújo; Chaves, Rogério Batista; Bezerra, Ewerton; Fleck, Steven J

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks of strength training on the flexibility of sedentary middle-aged women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to either a strength training group (n = 10; age, 37 +/- 1.7 years; body mass, 65.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height, 157.7 +/- 10.8 cm; and body mass index, 25.72 +/- 3.3 kg x m(-2)) or a control group (n = 10; age, 36.9 +/- 1.2 years; body mass, 64.54 +/- 10.18 kg; height, 158.1 +/- 8.9 cm; and body mass index, 26.07 +/- 2.8 kg x m(-2)). The strength training program was a total body session performed in a circuit fashion and consisted of 7 exercises performed for 3 circuits of 8 to 12 repetitions maximum (RM), except for the abdominal exercise which was performed for 15 to 20 RM. Flexibility measurements were taken for 10 articulation movements pre and post training: shoulder flexion and extension, shoulder horizontal adduction and abduction, elbow flexion, hip flexion and extension, knee flexion, and trunk flexion and extension. Pre and post training, 10 RM strength significantly increased (p < 0.05). Of the movements examined, only shoulder horizontal adduction, hip flexion and extension, and trunk flexion and extension demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05). Neither elbow nor knee flexion showed a significant change with weight training. The control group showed no significant change in any of the flexibility measures determined. In conclusion, weight training can increase flexibility in previously sedentary middle-aged women in some, but not all joint movements.

  20. Strength training for children and adolescents: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Davide; Zaccagni, Luciana

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity has proved to be an effective means of preventing several diseases and improving general health. In most cases, though, light to moderate efforts are suggested, for both youngsters and adults. Common sense advices call for late inception of intense, strength training-related activities, like weight lifting and plyometrics, which are usually postponed at the end of the growth age, even among sport practitioners. However, such advices seem to have a mainly anecdotal nature. The purpose of this review is to evaluate risks and benefits of early inception of strength training, at adolescence or even earlier and to verify whether concerns can be grounded scientifically. Current literature does not seem to have any particular aversion against the practice of strength training by children and adolescents, provided that some safety rules are followed, like medical clearance, proper instruction from a qualified professional and progressive overload. At the same time, several studies provide consistent findings supporting the benefits of repeated, intense physical efforts in young subjects. Improved motor skills and body composition, in terms of increased fat free mass, reduced fat mass and enhanced bone health, have been extensively documented, especially if sport practice began early, when the subjects were pubescent. It can be therefore concluded that strength training is a relatively safe and healthy practice for children and adolescents.

  1. Resistance Training for Muscle Weakness in Multiple Sclerosis: Direct Versus Contralateral Approach in Individuals With Ankle Dorsiflexors' Disparity in Strength.

    PubMed

    Manca, Andrea; Cabboi, Maria Paola; Dragone, Daniele; Ginatempo, Francesca; Ortu, Enzo; De Natale, Edoardo Rosario; Mercante, Beniamina; Mureddu, Giovanni; Bua, Guido; Deriu, Franca

    2017-07-01

    To compare effects of contralateral strength training (CST) and direct strength training of the more affected ankle dorsiflexors on muscle performance and clinical functional outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibiting interlimb strength asymmetry. Randomized controlled trial. University hospital. Individuals with relapsing-remitting MS (N=30) and mild-to-moderate disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤6) presenting with ankle dorsiflexors' strength disparity. Participants were randomly assigned to a CST (n=15) or direct strength training (n=15) group performing 6 weeks of maximal intensity strength training of the less or more affected dorsiflexors, respectively. Maximal strength, endurance to fatigue, and mobility outcomes were assessed before, at the intervention end, and at 12-week follow-up. Strength and fatigue parameters were measured after 3 weeks of training (midintervention). In the more affected limb of both groups, pre- to postintervention significant increases in maximal strength (P≤.006) and fatigue endurance (P≤.04) were detected along with consistent retention of these improvements at follow-up (P≤.04). At midintervention, the direct strength training group showed significant improvements (P≤.002), with no further increase at postintervention, despite training continuation. Conversely, the CST group showed nonsignificant strength gains, increasing to significance at postintervention (P≤.003). In both groups, significant pre- to postintervention improvements in mobility outcomes (P≤.03), not retained at follow-up, were observed. After 6 weeks of training, CST proved as effective as direct strength training in enhancing performance of the more affected limb with a different time course, which may have practical implications in management of severely weakened limbs where direct strength training is not initially possible. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Functional isokinetic strength ratios in baseball players with injured elbows.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Chou; Thompson, Angela; Kung, Jung-Tang; Chieh, Liang-Wei; Chou, Shih-Wei; Lin, Jung-Charng

    2010-02-01

    Elbow injuries are widely reported among baseball players. The elbow is susceptible to injury when elbow-flexor and -extensor forces are imbalanced during pitching or throwing. Assessment of muscle-strength ratios may prove useful for diagnosing elbow injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the elbow-flexor and -extensor functional isokinetic ratios and elbow injury in baseball players. Retrospective study. Biomechanics laboratory. College baseball players with (n = 9) and without (n = 12) self-reported elbow pain or loss of strength were recruited. Trials were conducted using a dynamometer to assess dominant-arm flexor and extensor concentric and eccentric strength at angular velocities of 60 degrees and 240 degrees/s. Functional isokinetic ratios were calculated and compared between groups. Regression analysis revealed that a ratio of biceps concentric to triceps concentric strength greater than 0.76 (the median value) significantly predicted elbow injury (P = .01, odds ratio of injury = 24). No other ratios or variables (including position played) were predictive of injury status. These findings suggest that the ratio of biceps concentric to triceps concentric functional strength strongly predicts elbow-injury status in baseball players. Assessment of this ratio may prove useful in a practical setting for training purposes and both injury diagnosis and rehabilitation.

  3. Preservation of eccentric strength in older adults: Evidence, mechanisms and implications for training and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Roig, Marc; Macintyre, Donna L; Eng, Janice J; Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Reid, W Darlene

    2010-06-01

    Overall reductions in muscle strength typically accompany the aging process. However, older adults show a relatively preserved capacity of producing eccentric strength. The preservation of eccentric strength in older adults is a well-established phenomenon, occurring indiscriminately across different muscle groups, independent of age-related architectural changes in muscle structure and velocity of movement. The mechanisms for the preservation of eccentric strength appear to be mechanical and cellular in origin and include both passive and active elements regulating muscle stiffness. The age-related accumulation of non-contractile material in the muscle-tendon unit increases passive stiffness, which might offer mechanical advantage during eccentric contractions. In addition, the preserved muscle tension and increased instantaneous stiffness of old muscle fibers during stretch increase active stiffness, which might enhance eccentric strength. The fact that the preservation of eccentric strength is present in people with chronic conditions when compared to age-matched healthy controls indicates that the aging process per se does not exclusively mediate the preservation of eccentric strength. Physical inactivity, which is common in elderly and people with chronic conditions, is a potential factor regulating the preservation of eccentric strength. When compared to concentric strength, the magnitude of preservation of eccentric strength in older adults ranges from 2% to 48% with a mean value of 21.6% from all studies. This functional reserve of eccentric strength might be clinically relevant, especially to initiate resistance training and rehabilitation programs in individuals with low levels of strength.

  4. Preservation of eccentric strength in older adults: Evidence, mechanisms and implications for training and rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Marc; MacIntyre, Donna L.; Eng, Janice J.; Narici, Marco V.; Maganaris, Constantinos N.; Reid, W. Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Overall reductions in muscle strength typically accompany the aging process. However, older adults show a relatively preserved capacity of producing eccentric strength. The preservation of eccentric strength in older adults is a well-established phenomenon, occurring indiscriminately across different muscle groups, independent of age-related architectural changes in muscle structure and velocity of movement. The mechanisms for the preservation of eccentric strength appear to be mechanical and cellular in origin and include both passive and active elements regulating muscle stiffness. The age-related accumulation of non-contractile material in the muscle-tendon unit increases passive stiffness, which might offer mechanical advantage during eccentric contractions. In addition, the preserved muscle tension and increased instantaneous stiffness of old muscle fibers during stretch increase active stiffness, which might enhance eccentric strength. The fact that the preservation of eccentric strength is present in people with chronic conditions when compared to age-matched healthy controls indicates that the aging process per se does not exclusively mediate the preservation of eccentric strength. Physical inactivity, which is common in elderly and people with chronic conditions, is a potential factor regulating the preservation of eccentric strength. When compared to concentric strength, the magnitude of the preservation of eccentric strength in older adults ranges from 2% to 48% with a mean value from all studies of 21.6%. This functional reserve of eccentric strength might be clinically relevant, especially to initiate resistance training and rehabilitation programs in individuals with low levels of strength. PMID:20303404

  5. Maximal strength training as physical rehabilitation for patients with substance use disorder; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Unhjem, Runar; Flemmen, Grete; Hoff, Jan; Wang, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Patients with substance use disorder (SUD) suffer from multiple health and psychosocial problems. Because poor physical capacities following an inactive lifestyle may indeed contribute to these problems, physical training is often suggested as an attractive supplement to conventional SUD treatment. Strength training is shown to increase muscle strength and effectively improve health and longevity. Therefore we investigated the feasibility and effect of a maximal strength training intervention for SUD patients in clinical treatment. 16 males and 8 females were randomized into a training group (TG) and a control group (CG). The TG performed lower extremities maximal strength training (85-90 % of 1 repetition maximum (1RM)) 3 times a week for 8 weeks, while the CG participated in conventional clinical activities. The TG increased hack squat 1RM (88 ± 54 %), plantar flexion 1RM (26 ± 20 %), hack squat rate of force development (82 ± 29 %) and peak force (11 ± 5 %). Additionally, the TG improved neural function, expressed as voluntary V-wave (88 ± 83 %). The CG displayed no change in any physical parameters. The TG also reduced anxiety and insomnia, while the CG reduced anxiety. Maximal strength training was feasible for SUD patients in treatment, and improved multiple risk factors for falls, fractures and lifestyle related diseases. As conventional treatment appears to have no effect on muscle strength, systematic strength training should be implemented as part of clinical practice. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02218970 (August 14, 2014).

  6. Strength training adaptations after cold-water immersion.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Michael; Faude, Oliver; Klein, Markus; Pieter, Andrea; Emrich, Eike; Meyer, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Several studies analyzed the effectiveness of cold-water immersion (CWI) to support recovery after strenuous exercise, but the overall results seem to be conflicting. Most of these studies analyzed only short-term recovery effects, whereas the adaptational aspect has been widely neglected. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of repeated cooling after training sessions (CWI) on adaptations to strength training. Seventeen trained male students volunteered the study. After a 2-week familiarization period, a pretest (T1) of 1 repetition maximum (RM) and 12RM was conducted followed by the 5-week strength training period (within-subject design). After the posttest (T2) and a 2-week detraining period, a retention test (T3) was carried out. Directly after each training session, CWI was applied for 1 randomly assigned leg. Cooling consisted of 3 4-minute intervals with a 30-second rest period. The other leg was not cooled. A significant increase in 1RM and 12RM from baseline to T2 and T3 (p < 0.001), respectively, and a further significant increase in 12RM from T2 to T3 (p ≤ 0.05) were observed. In addition, a tendency for a large leg effect with higher values for the "control leg" in both parameters (p = 0.08 each) and a moderate time × leg interaction in favor of the control leg was found (1RM: p = 0.11; 12RM: p = 0.09). The percentage change differences between both conditions were 1.6% for the increase in 1RM from T1 to T2 and 2.0% from T1 to T3 in favor of the control leg. Long-term strength training adaptations in trained subjects can be negatively affected by CWI. However, effects were small, and the practical relevance relative to possible recovery effects needs to be considered in a sports practical setting.

  7. Aerobic training alone or combined with strength training affects fitness in elderly: Randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Burich, Rasmus; Teljigović, Sanel; Boyle, Eleanor; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if combined strength and aerobic training can enhance aerobic capacity in the elderly to a similar extent as aerobic training alone when training duration is matched. Elderly men and women (age 63.2 ± 4.7) were randomized into two intervention groups: an aerobic group (AG, n = 17) and a combined group (CG, n = 16). Subjects trained 40 minutes three times a week for 12 weeks. Both groups trained 20 minutes at 65% of heart rate reserve on ergometer cycles followed by another 20 minutes on the ergometer cycles for AG and 20-minute strength training for the lower body for CG. The primary outcome was VO2max. Secondary outcomes were maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in isometric knee extension, 1 repetition maximum in three leg exercises, body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure and score on the Health Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36). Both groups improved VO2max (p < .01) and MVC (p < .001). VO2max increased 17% confidence interval (CI) [7.4-26] in CG and 26% CI [14.1-38.2] in AG, with no significant difference between groups. MVC increased 22% CI [16.3-27.7] in CG and 9% CI [4.6-13.5] in AG with CG improving MVC more than AG (p < .01). CG's score on the general health dimension on the SF-36 health survey improved more than AG's score. Elderly can substitute a part of their aerobic training with strength training and still improve VO2max to a clinically significant degree when strength training is performed with large muscle groups subsequently to the aerobic training. Combined training additionally improves strength and self-assessed general health more than aerobic training alone.

  8. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance.

    PubMed

    Manocchia, Pasquale; Spierer, David K; Lufkin, Adrienne K S; Minichiello, Jacqueline; Castro, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    Kettlebells are a popular implement in many strength and conditioning programs, and their benefits are touted in popular literature, books, and videos. However, clinical data on their efficacy are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether kettlebell training transfers strength and power to weightlifting and powerlifting exercises and improves muscular endurance. Thirty-seven subjects were assigned to an experimental (EXP, n = 23; mean age = 40.9 ± 12.9 years) or a control group (CON; n = 14; mean age = 39.6 ± 15.8 years), range 18-72 years. The participants were required to perform assessments including a barbell clean and jerk, barbell bench press, maximal vertical jump, and 45° back extensions to volitional fatigue before and after a 10-week kettlebell training program. Training was structured in a group setting for 2 d·wk(-1) for 10 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine group × time interactions and main effects. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted when appropriate. Bench press revealed a time × group interaction and a main effect (p < 0.05). Clean and jerk and back extension demonstrated a trend toward a time × group interaction, but it did not reach significance (p = 0.053). However, clean and jerk did reveal a main effect for time (p < 0.05). No significant findings were reported for maximal vertical jump. The results demonstrate a transfer of power and strength in response to 10 weeks of training with kettlebells. Traditional training methods may not be convenient or accessible for strength and conditioning specialists, athletes, coaches, and recreational exercisers. The current data suggest that kettlebells may be an effective alternative tool to improve performance in weightlifting and powerlifting.

  9. Measurement of power in selectorized strength-training equipment.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    The author derived the exact analytical expression of the instantaneous joint power in exercises with single-joint, variable-resistance, selectorized strength-training equipment, taking into account all the relevant geometric, kinematic, and dynamic variables of both the movable equipment elements (resistance input lever, cam-pulley system, weight stack) and of the user's exercising limb. A numerical algorithm was also designed to express, in the presence of a cam, the rectilinear kinematic variables of the weight stack as a function of the rotational kinematic variables of the resistance input lever, and vice versa. Given that information, one can measure the value of the instantaneous and mean joint power exclusively by means of a linear encoder placed on the weight stack or, alternatively, only by the use of an angular encoder placed on the rotational axis of the resistance lever. The results highlight that, for knee extension exercises with leg extension equipment, the real values of both instantaneous and mean joint power may differ by more than 50% in comparison with the values obtained by taking into account only the mass and velocity of the weight stack. These differences are notable not only in explosive exercises, but also whenever considerable joint velocities/accelerations occur within the range of motion.

  10. A comparison of traditional and block periodized strength training programs in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Hoffman, Jay R; Merni, Franco; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different periodization models in strength and power athletes. Twenty-four experienced resistance trained men were randomly assigned to either a block periodization training program (BP; age = 24.2 ± 3.1 years, body mass = 78.5 ± 11.0 kg, height = 177.6 ± 4.9 cm) or to a traditional periodization program (TP; age = 26.2 ± 6.0 years, body mass = 80.5 ± 13.3 kg, height = 179.2 ± 4.6). Participants in both training programs performed 4 training sessions per week. Each training program consisted of the same exercises and same volume of training (total resistance lifted per session). The difference between the groups was in the manipulation of training intensity within each training phase. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE) and after 15 weeks (POST) of training. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare strength and power performance between the groups. Participants in BP were more likely (79.8%) to increase the area under the force-power curve than TP. Participants in BP also demonstrated a likely positive (92.76%) decrease in the load corresponding to maximal power at the bench press compared with TP group, and a possible improvement (∼60%) in maximal strength and power in the bench press. No significant changes were noted between groups in lower-body strength or jump power performance after the 15-week training period. Results of this study indicate that BP may enhance upper-body power expression to a greater extent than TP with equal volume; however, no differences were detected for lower-body performance and body composition measures.

  11. Effects of ankle biofeedback training on strength, balance, and gait in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-jin; Cho, Hwi-young; Kim, Kyung-hoon; Lee, Suk-min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of ankle biofeedback training on muscle strength of the ankle joint, balance, and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven subjects who had had a stroke were randomly allocated to either the ankle biofeedback training group (n=14) or control group (n=13). Conventional therapy, which adhered to the neurodevelopmental treatment approach, was administered to both groups for 30 minutes. Furthermore, ankle strengthening exercises were performed by the control group and ankle biofeedback training by the experimental group, each for 30 minutes, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. To test muscle strength, balance, and gait, the Biodex isokinetic dynamometer, functional reach test, and 10 m walk test, respectively, were used. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed a significant increase in muscle strength on the affected side and improved balance and gait. Significantly greater improvements were observed in the balance and gait of the ankle biofeedback training group compared with the control group, but not in the strength of the dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscles of the affected side. [Conclusion] This study showed that ankle biofeedback training significantly improves muscle strength of the ankle joint, balance, and gait in patients with stroke. PMID:27799701

  12. Neural adaptations to submaximal isokinetic eccentric strength training.

    PubMed

    Barrué-Belou, Simon; Amarantini, David; Marque, Philippe; Duclay, Julien

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the neural adaptations following submaximal isokinetic eccentric strength training of the plantar flexors. The modulation of electromyographic (EMG) activity and spinal excitability were compared in the soleus muscle (SOL) during isometric, concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) before and after submaximal isokinetic eccentric training. Eighteen healthy subjects were divided into a training group (n = 8) and a control group (n = 10). The training protocol consisted of sixteen sessions of isokinetic eccentric strength training during 8 weeks. Normalized EMG was used to assess the activity of SOL and medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG). For SOL, maximal Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) and compound motor potential were evoked during isometric, concentric and eccentric actions at rest (Hmax and Mmax, respectively) and during MVC (Hsup and Msup, respectively). The results showed that the torque and normalized EMG of SOL significantly increased after training during eccentric (+20.5 and +28.8 %, respectively) and isometric (+18.2 and +23.0 %, respectively) MVC (p < 0.05). Hmax/Mmax and Hsup/Msup ratios were not significantly modified after training for SOL (p > 0.05), and remained significantly depressed during eccentric compared to isometric and concentric actions (p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant difference was observed on normalized EMG of MG (p > 0.05). These results suggested that the increase in voluntary torque after submaximal isokinetic eccentric training can be at least partly ascribed to enhanced neural drive for SOL that does not affect the H-reflex pathway.

  13. Concurrent strength and endurance training exercise sequence does not affect neuromuscular adaptations in older men.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Rech, Anderson; Minozzo, Felipe; Botton, Cintia Ehlers; Radaelli, Regis; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Concurrent training is an effective method for increasing skeletal muscle performance in aging individuals, but controversy exists as to whether chronic neuromuscular and functional adaptations are affected by the intra-session exercise sequence. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training exercise sequence on muscular and functional adaptations of older participants. Thirty-six healthy older men not engaged in systematic exercise training programs for at least 6 months were divided into a control group (CON; 65.8±5.3 years), or in the training groups: endurance-strength (ES; 63.2±3.3 years), or strength-endurance (SE; 67.1±6.1 years). Training groups underwent 12 weeks of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training, starting every exercise session with either endurance (in ES) or strength (in SE) exercises. Measurements included knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), knee extension power, 30 second sit-to-stand test (30SS), maximum vastus lateralis surface electromyographic activity, and rectus femoris echo intensity (RFEI). Significant increases in maximal strength (ES +18±11.3%; SE +14.2±6.0%; p≤0.05), peak power (ES +22.2±19.4%; SE +26.3±31.3%; p≤0.05), and 30SS performance (ES +15.2±7.2%; SE +13.2±11.8%; p≤0.05) were observed only in the training groups, with no differences between ES and SE. Maximum muscular activity was greater after 12weeks at training groups (p≤0.05), and reductions in RFEI were found only in ES and SE (p≤0.05). These results demonstrate that concurrent strength and endurance training performed twice a week effectively increases muscular performance and functional capacity in older men, independent of the intra-session exercise sequence. Additionally, the RFEI decreases indicate an additional adaptation to concurrent training.

  14. Lower Limb Strength in Professional Soccer Players: Profile, Asymmetry, and Training Age

    PubMed Central

    Fousekis, Konstantinos; Tsepis, Elias; Vagenas, George

    2010-01-01

    Kicking and cutting skills in soccer are clearly unilateral, require asymmetrical motor patterns and lead to the development of asymmetrical adaptations in the musculoskeletal function of the lower limbs. Assuming that these adaptations constitute a chronicity-dependent process, this study examined the effects of professional training age (PTA) on the composite strength profile of the knee and ankle joint in soccer players. One hundred soccer players (n=100) with short (5-7 years), intermediate (8-10 years) and long (>11 years) PTA were tested bilaterally for isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles. Knee flexion-extension was tested concentrically at 60°, 180° and 300 °/sec and eccentrically at 60° and 180 °/sec. Ankle dorsal and plantar flexions were tested at 60 °/sec for both the concentric and eccentric mode of action. Bilaterally averaged muscle strength [(R+L)/2] increased significantly from short training age to intermediate and stabilized afterwards. These strength adaptations were mainly observed at the concentric function of knee extensors at 60°/sec (p = 0. 023), knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.042) and 180°/sec (p = 0.036), and ankle plantar flexors at 60o/sec (p = 0.044). A linear trend of increase in isokinetic strength with PTA level was observed for the eccentric strength of knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.02) and 180°/sec (p = 0.03). Directional (R/L) asymmetries decreased with PTA, with this being mainly expressed in the concentric function of knee flexors at 180°/sec (p = 0.04) and at 300 °/sec (p = 0.03). These findings confirm the hypothesis of asymmetry in the strength adaptations that take place at the knee and ankle joint of soccer players mainly along with short and intermediate PTA. Players with a longer PTA seem to adopt a more balanced use of their lower extremities to cope with previously developed musculoskeletal asymmetries and possibly reduce injury risk. This has certain implications

  15. Aerobic and Strength Training Reduces Adiposity in Overweight Latina Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    DAVIS, JAIMIE N.; TUNG, AMY; CHAK, SALVA S.; VENTURA, EMILY E.; BYRD-WILLIAMS, COURTNEY E.; ALEXANDER, KATHARINE E.; LANE, CHRISTIANNE J.; WEIGENSBERG, MARC J.; SPRUIJT-METZ, DONNA; GORAN, MICHAEL I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To date, no study has examined the synergistic effects of a nutrition and combination of aerobic and strength training (CAST) on both adiposity and metabolic parameters in overweight Latina adolescent females. The goal was to assess if a 16-wk nutrition plus CAST pilot study had stronger effects on reducing adiposity and on improving glucose/insulin indices compared with control (C), nutrition only (N), and a nutrition plus strength training (N + ST) groups. Methods In a 16-wk randomized trial, 41 overweight Latina girls (15.2 ± 1.1 yr) were randomly assigned to C (n = 7), N (n = 10), N + ST (n = 9), or N + CAST (n = 15). All intervention groups received modified carbohydrate nutrition classes (once a week), whereas the N + ST also received strength training (twice a week) and the N + CAST received a combination of strength and aerobic training (twice a week). The following were measured before and after intervention: strength by one repetition maximum, physical activity by the 7-d accelerometry and the 3-d physical activity recall, dietary intake by 3-d records, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), glucose/insulin indices by oral glucose tolerance test, and intravenous glucose tolerance test with minimal modeling. Across intervention group, effects were tested using ANCOVA with post hoc pairwise comparisons. Results There were significant overall intervention effects for all adiposity measures (weight, body mass index [BMI], BMI z-scores, and DEXA total body fat), with a decrease of 3% in the N + CAST group compared with a 3% increase in the N + ST group (P ≤ 0.05). There was also an intervention effect for fasting glucose with the N group increasing by 3% and the N + CAST group decreasing by 4% (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The CAST was more effective than nutrition alone or nutrition plus strength training for reducing multiple adiposity outcomes and fasting glucose in overweight Latina girls. However, further research investigating

  16. Aerobic and strength training reduces adiposity in overweight Latina adolescents.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jaimie N; Tung, Amy; Chak, Salva S; Ventura, Emily E; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Alexander, Katharine E; Lane, Christianne J; Weigensberg, Marc J; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I

    2009-07-01

    To date, no study has examined the synergistic effects of a nutrition and combination of aerobic and strength training (CAST) on both adiposity and metabolic parameters in overweight Latina adolescent females. The goal was to assess if a 16-wk nutrition plus CAST pilot study had stronger effects on reducing adiposity and on improving glucose/insulin indices compared with control (C), nutrition only (N), and a nutrition plus strength training (N + ST) groups. In a 16-wk randomized trial, 41 overweight Latina girls (15.2 +/- 1.1 yr) were randomly assigned to C (n = 7), N (n = 10), N + ST (n = 9), or N + CAST (n = 15). All intervention groups received modified carbohydrate nutrition classes (once a week), whereas the N + ST also received strength training (twice a week) and the N + CAST received a combination of strength and aerobic training (twice a week). The following were measured before and after intervention: strength by one repetition maximum, physical activity by the 7-d accelerometry and the 3-d physical activity recall, dietary intake by 3-d records, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), glucose/insulin indices by oral glucose tolerance test, and intravenous glucose tolerance test with minimal modeling. Across intervention group, effects were tested using ANCOVA with post hoc pairwise comparisons. There were significant overall intervention effects for all adiposity measures (weight, body mass index [BMI], BMI z-scores, and DEXA total body fat), with a decrease of 3% in the N + CAST group compared with a 3% increase in the N + ST group (P < or = 0.05). There was also an intervention effect for fasting glucose with the N group increasing by 3% and the N + CAST group decreasing by 4% (P < or = 0.05). The CAST was more effective than nutrition alone or nutrition plus strength training for reducing multiple adiposity outcomes and fasting glucose in overweight Latina girls. However, further research investigating and identifying

  17. Study of gamma-ray strength functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

    1980-08-07

    The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

  18. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8-12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 34.6%; 3-SET: 35.8%) and MIP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 13.7%; 3-SET: 11.2%). Both groups also improved in the sit-to-stand test (P<0.05; 1-SET: 10.6%; 3-SET: 17.1%). After 24 training sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (P<0.0001; 40%-80%) in both groups. An intergroup comparison did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the parameters analyzed. Single- and multiple-set resistance training programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health.

  19. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Purpose Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Methods Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8–12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. Results The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 34.6%; 3-SET: 35.8%) and MIP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 13.7%; 3-SET: 11.2%). Both groups also improved in the sit-to-stand test (P<0.05; 1-SET: 10.6%; 3-SET: 17.1%). After 24 training sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (P<0.0001; 40%–80%) in both groups. An intergroup comparison did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the parameters analyzed. Conclusion Single- and multiple-set resistance training programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health. PMID:25342896

  20. RESURGENCE OF MANDS FOLLOWING FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    BERG, WENDY K.; RINGDAHL, JOEL E.; RYAN, STEPHEN E.; ING, ANNA D.; LUSTIG, NICOLE; ROMANI, PATRICK; WACKER, DAVID P.; ANDERSEN, JENNIFER K.; DURAKO, EMILY

    2015-01-01

    Experimental conditions similar to those described by Lieving and Lattal (2003) were used within two experiments to evaluate the resurgence of mands with humans. Two mands from the same operant class were trained with three participants with developmental disabilities during Experiment 1 and with two participants with developmental disabilities and a history of problem behavior during Experiment 2. The two mands were then placed on extinction. Both persisted, but showed different response strength during extinction. The mand with the weaker response strength was targeted for additional functional communication training and the alternative mand was placed on extinction. Following steady levels of occurrence of the targeted mand and no occurrences of the alternative mand, both mands were placed on extinction again. At least one instance of resurgence of the alternative mand occurred with every participant and resurgence of problem behavior occurred for both participants during Experiment 2. PMID:26640311

  1. Effects of different strength training frequencies during reduced training period on strength and muscle cross-sectional area.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lucas Duarte; de Souza, Eduardo Oliveira; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Laurentino, Gilberto Candido; Roschel, Hamilton; Aihara, André Yui; Cardoso, Fabiano Nassar; Tricoli, Valmor

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of different reduced strength training (RST) frequencies on half-squat 1 RM and quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA). Thirty-three untrained males (24.7 ± 3.9 years; 1.73 ± 0.08 m; 74.6 ± 8.4 kg) underwent a 16-week experimental period (i.e. eight weeks of strength training [ST] followed by additional eight weeks of RST). During the ST period, the participants performed 3-4 sets of 6-12 RM, three sessions/week in half-squat and knee extension exercises. Following ST, the participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: reduced strength training with one (RST1) or two sessions per week (RST2), and ceased training (CT). Both RST1 and RST2 groups had their training frequency and total training volume-load (i.e. RST1 = 50.3% and RST2 = 57.1%) reduced, while the CT group stopped training completely. Half-squat 1 RM (RST1 = 27.9%; RST2 = 26.7%; and CT = 28.4%) and QCSA (RST1 = 6.1%; RST2 = 6.9%; and CT = 5.8%) increased significantly (p < .05) in all groups after eight weeks of ST. No significant changes were observed in 1 RM and QCSA for RST1 and RST2 groups after the RST period, while the CT group demonstrated a decrease in half-squat 1 RM (22.6%) and QCSA (5.4%) when compared to the ST period (p < .05). In conclusion, different RST frequencies applied were able to maintain muscle mass and strength performance obtained over the regular ST period. Thus, it appears that RST frequency does not affect the maintenance of muscle mass and strength in untrained males, as long as volume-load is equated between frequencies.

  2. Effects and mechanisms of strength training in children.

    PubMed

    Granacher, U; Goesele, A; Roggo, K; Wischer, T; Fischer, S; Zuerny, C; Gollhofer, A; Kriemler, S

    2011-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that strength training can be organized in children in a safe and effective way. However, there is limited data regarding its impact on muscle hypertrophy. This study investigated the effects of a high-intensity strength training (HIS) on knee extensor/flexor strength, countermovement (CMJ) jumping height, postural control, soft lean mass and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the dominant leg in prepubertal children. Thirty-two children participated in this study and were assigned to an intervention (INT; N=17) or a control class ( N=15). The INT participated in 10 weeks of weight-machine based HIS integrated in physical education. Pre/post tests included the measurements of peak torque of the knee extensors/flexors at 60 and 180°/s, CMJ jumping height, postural sway, soft lean mass of the leg by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and CSA (m. quadriceps) by magnetic resonance imaging. HIS resulted in significant increases in knee extensor/flexor peak torque (60°/s and 180°/s). HIS did not produce significant changes in CMJ jumping height, postural sway, soft lean mass, and CSA. Although HIS was effective at increasing peak torque of the knee extensors/flexors in children, it was unable to affect muscle size. It appears that neural factors rather than muscle hypertrophy account for the observed strength gains in children. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Maximal strength training in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Mats P; Kaehler, Nils; Stunes, Astrid K; Hoff, Jan; Syversen, Unni

    2013-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities, preferably strength training for improving skeletal health in patients with osteoporosis. What type of strength training that is most beneficial for these patients is not established. Maximal strength training (MST) is known to improve 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD), which are considered as important covariables for skeletal health. Squat exercise MST might serve as an effective intervention for patients with low bone mass. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of squat exercise MST would improve 1RM and RFD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia and that these changes would coincide with improved bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone metabolism. The participants were randomized to a training group (TG, n = 10) or control group (CG, n = 11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised squat exercise MST, 3 times a week, with emphasis on rapid initiation of the concentric part of the movement. The CG was encouraged to follow current exercise guidelines. Measurements included 1RM, RFD, BMD, BMC, and serum bone metabolism markers; type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX). At posttest, 8 participants remained in each group for statistical analyses. The TG improved the 1RM and RFD by 154 and 52%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC increased by 2.9 and 4.9%. The ratio of serum P1NP/CTX tended to increase (p = 0.09), indicating stimulation of bone formation. In conclusion, squat exercise MST improved 1RM, RFD, and skeletal properties in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The MST can be implemented as a simple and effective training method for patients with reduced bone mass.

  4. Endurance training improves fitness and strength in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sveen, Marie Louise; Jeppesen, Tina D; Hauerslev, Simon; Køber, Lars; Krag, Thomas O; Vissing, John

    2008-11-01

    Studies in a dystrophinopathy model (the mdx mouse) suggest that exercise training may be deleterious for muscle integrity, but exercise has never been studied in detail in humans with defects of dystrophin. We studied the effect of endurance training on conditioning in patients with the dystrophinopathy, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Eleven patients with BMD and seven matched, healthy subjects cycled 50, 30 min sessions at 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) over 12 weeks, and six patients continued cycling for 1 year. VO(2max), muscle biopsies, echocardiography, plasma creatine kinase (CK), lower extremity muscle strength and self-reported questionnaires were evaluated before, after 12 weeks and 1 year of training. Endurance training for 12 weeks, improved VO(2max) by 47 +/- 11% and maximal workload by 80 +/- 19% in patients (P < 0.005). This was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (16 +/- 2% and 17 +/- 2%). CK levels did not increase with training, and number of central nuclei, necrotic fibres and fibres expressing neonatal myosin heavy chain did not change in muscle biopsies. Strength in muscles involved in cycle exercise (knee extension, and dorsi- and plantar-flexion) increased significantly by 13-40%. Cardiac pump function, measured by echocardiography, did not change with training. All improvements and safety markers were maintained after 1 year of training. Endurance training is a safe method to increase exercise performance and daily function in patients with BMD. The findings support an active approach to rehabilitation of patients with BMD.

  5. Effects of 8 Weeks’ Specific Physical Training on the Rotator Cuff Muscle Strength and Technique of Javelin Throwers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers. PMID:25364111

  6. CCL2 and CCR2 variants are associated with skeletal muscle strength and change in strength with resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Brennan T.; Orkunoglu-Suer, E. Funda; Adham, Kasra; Larkin, Justin S.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Thompson, Paul D.; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.; Gordon, Paul M.; Moyna, Niall M.; Pescatello, Linda S.; Visich, Paul S.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Hubal, Monica J.; Tosi, Laura L.; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2010-01-01

    Baseline muscle size and muscle adaptation to exercise are traits with high variability across individuals. Recent research has implicated several chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of many conditions that are influenced by inflammatory processes, including muscle damage and repair. One specific chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), is expressed by macrophages and muscle satellite cells, increases expression dramatically following muscle damage, and increases expression further with repeated bouts of exercise, suggesting that CCL2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. The present study hypothesizes that genetic variations in CCL2 and its receptor (CCR2) may help explain muscle trait variability. College-aged subjects [n = 874, Functional Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Muscle Size and Strength (FAMUSS) cohort] underwent a 12-wk supervised strength-training program for the upper arm muscles. Muscle size (via MR imaging) and elbow flexion strength (1 repetition maximum and isometric) measurements were taken before and after training. The study participants were then genotyped for 11 genetic variants in CCL2 and five variants in CCR2. Variants in the CCL2 and CCR2 genes show strong associations with several pretraining muscle strength traits, indicating that inflammatory genes in skeletal muscle contribute to the polygenic system that determines muscle phenotypes. These associations extend across both sexes, and several of these genetic variants have been shown to influence gene regulation. PMID:20947712

  7. Comparison of muscle hypertrophy following 6-month of continuous and periodic strength training.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Riki; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Ishii, Naokata; Abe, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    To compare the effects of a periodic resistance training (PTR) program with those of a continuous resistance training (CTR) program on muscle size and function, 14 young men were randomly divided into a CTR group and a PTR group. Both groups performed high-intensity bench press exercise training [75 % of one repetition maximum (1-RM); 3 sets of 10 reps] for 3 days per week. The CTR group trained continuously over a 24-week period, whereas the PTR group performed three cycles of 6-week training (or retraining), with 3-week detraining periods between training cycles. After an initial 6 weeks of training, increases in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles and maximum isometric voluntary contraction of the elbow extensors and 1-RM were similar between the two groups. In the CTR group, muscle CSA and strength gradually increased during the initial 6 weeks of training. However, the rate of increase in muscle CSA and 1-RM decreased gradually after that. In the PTR group, increase in muscle CSA and strength during the first 3-week detraining/6-week retraining cycle were similar to that in the CTR group during the corresponding period. However, increase in muscle CSA and strength during the second 3-week detraining/6-week retraining cycle were significantly higher in the PTR group than in the CTR group. Thus, overall improvements in muscle CSA and strength were similar between the groups. The results indicate that 3-week detraining/6-week retraining cycles result in muscle hypertrophy similar to that occurring with continuous resistance training after 24 weeks.

  8. Combined isometric and vibration training does not enhance strength beyond that of isometric training alone.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Van-Dongen, M; Sutherland, R

    2015-09-01

    Research considering combined vibration and strength training is extensive yet results are equivocal. However, to date there appears no research which has considered the combination of both direct vibration and whole-body vibration when used in an isometric deadlift position. The aim of this study was to compare groups performing isometric training with and without direct and whole-body vibration. Twenty four participants (19-24 years) were randomly divided into: isometric training with vibration (ST+VT: N.=8), isometric training without vibration (ST: N.=8), and control (CON: N.=8). Within the training groups participants trained twice per week, for 6 weeks, performing 6-sets of maximal isometric deadlift contractions, increasing in duration from 30 seconds to 40 seconds (weeks 1-6). Hip and knee angle was maintained at 60° and 110°, respectively for both testing and training. Training sessions for ST+VT were identical to ST with the addition of a direct vibratory stimulus through hand-held straps and whole-body vibration via standing on vibration a platform. The amplitude remained constant (2 mm) throughout the intervention whilst the frequency increased from 35Hz to 50Hz. Pre- and post-test isometric strength was measured using an isometric deadlift dynamometer. Results revealed significant increases in isometric strength for both ST+VT (P<0.001, 23.8%) and ST (P<0.001, 32.5%) compared to CON, with no significant differences between ST+VT and ST training groups. The present study provides evidence to suggest that there are no greater gains to be incurred by the addition of a vibratory stimulus to traditional strength training.

  9. Effects of plyometric training volume and training surface on explosive strength.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different volume and training surfaces during a short-term plyometric training program on neuromuscular performance. Twenty-nine subjects were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control group (CG, n = 5), moderate volume group (MVG, n = 9, 780 jumps), moderate volume hard surface group (MVGHS, n = 8, 780 jumps), and high volume group (HVG, n = 7, 1,560 jumps). A series of tests were performed by the subjects before and after 7 weeks of plyometric training. These tests were measurement of maximum strength (5 maximum repetitions [5RMs]), drop jumps (DJs) of varying heights (20, 40, and 60 cm), squat and countermovement jumps (SJ and CMJ, respectively), timed 20-m sprint, agility, body weight, and height. The results of the present study suggest that high training volume leads to a significant increase in explosive performance that requires fast stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions (such as DJ and sprint) in comparison to what is observed after a moderate training volume regimen. Second, when plyometric training is performed on a hard training surface (high-impact reaction force), a moderate training volume induces optimal stimulus to increase explosive performance requiring fast SSC actions (e.g., DJ), maximal dynamic strength enhancement, and higher training efficiency. Thus, a finding of interest in the study was that after 7 weeks of plyometric training, performance enhancement in maximal strength and in actions requiring fast SSC (such as DJ and sprint) were dependent on the volume of training and the surface on which it was performed. This must be taken into account when using plyometric training on different surfaces.

  10. Caffeine enhances upper body strength in resistance-trained women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research has indicated that low-to-moderate dosages of caffeine supplementation are ergogenic for sustained endurance efforts as well as high-intensity exercise. The effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance are equivocal, with some studies indicating a benefit and others demonstrating no change in performance. The majority of research that has examined the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance has been carried out in both trained and untrained men. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of caffeine supplementation on strength and muscular endurance in resistance-trained women. Methods In a randomized manner, 15 women consumed caffeine (6 mg/kg) or placebo (PL) seven days apart. Sixty min following supplementation, participants performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) barbell bench press test and repetitions to failure at 60% of 1RM. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed at rest, 60 minutes post-consumption, and immediately following completion of repetitions to failure. Results Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significantly greater bench press maximum with caffeine (p ≤ 0.05) (52.9 ± 11.1 kg vs. 52.1 ± 11.7 kg) with no significant differences between conditions in 60% 1RM repetitions (p = 0.81). Systolic blood pressure was significantly greater post-exercise, with caffeine (p < 0.05) (116.8 ± 5.3 mmHg vs. 112.9 ± 4.9 mmHg). Conclusions These findings indicate a moderate dose of caffeine may be sufficient for enhancing strength performance in resistance-trained women. PMID:20470411

  11. Contralateral Effects After Unilateral Strength Training: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Training Loads

    PubMed Central

    Cirer-Sastre, Rafel; Beltrán-Garrido, Jose V.; Corbi, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    There is solid evidence on the cross-training phenomenon, but the training load required to achieve it has yet to be established. The aim of this meta-analysis was to deduce which unilateral strength training load (duration, frequency, intensity, rest and type) would enable the biggest strength increases to be obtained in the inactive contralateral limb. The examined studies were limited to those written in the English language within the Web of Science, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases. Ten of the 43 eligible studies were included, covering a total of 409 participants. The studies included in the meta-analysis showed a low risk of bias and had an estimated pooled effect size of 0.56 (95% CI from 0.34 to 0.78). Greater effect sizes were observed in lengthy protocols involving fast eccentric exercises using designs of 3 sets of 10 repetitions and a 2-minute rest time. Effect size did not relate to absolute volume, relative intensity, absolute duration and speed of execution. In conclusion, to optimize contralateral strength improvements, cross-training sessions should involve fast eccentric sets with moderate volumes and rest intervals. Key points Inter-limb transfer of the strength is more effective in high speed eccentric exercises. Muscular endurance training is not advisable to induce contralateral adaptations. Cross-education effect may depend more on volume of training than on load. PMID:28630570

  12. Neural adaptations to strength training: moving beyond transcranial magnetic stimulation and reflex studies.

    PubMed

    Carroll, T J; Selvanayagam, V S; Riek, S; Semmler, J G

    2011-06-01

    It has long been believed that training for increased strength not only affects muscle tissue, but also results in adaptive changes in the central nervous system. However, only in the last 10 years has the use of methods to study the neurophysiological details of putative neural adaptations to training become widespread. There are now many published reports that have used single motor unit recordings, electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, and non-invasive stimulation of the human brain [i.e. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)] to study neural responses to strength training. In this review, we aim to summarize what has been learned from single motor unit, reflex and TMS studies, and identify the most promising avenues to advance our conceptual understanding with these methods. We also consider the few strength training studies that have employed alternative neurophysiological techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. The nature of the information that these techniques can provide, as well as their major technical and conceptual pitfalls, are briefly described. The overall conclusion of the review is that the current evidence regarding neural adaptations to strength training is inconsistent and incomplete. In order to move forward in our understanding, it will be necessary to design studies that are based on a rigorous consideration of the limitations of the available techniques, and that are specifically targeted to address important conceptual questions. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  13. The effectiveness of traditional and sling exercise strength training in women.

    PubMed

    Dannelly, Bethany D; Otey, Sarah C; Croy, Ted; Harrison, Blain; Rynders, Corey A; Hertel, Jay N; Weltman, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Strength training often combines closed-kinetic-chain exercises (CKCEs) and open kinetic-chain exercises (OKCEs). The CKCE may be more effective for improving performance in lower-body training. Recently, we reported upper-body CKCE (using a commercially available system of ropes and slings, Redcord AS, Staubo, Norway) was as effective as OKCE training for strength gains and that CKCE was more effective than OKCE for improving throwing performance. To our knowledge the effectiveness of a strength training program that uses exclusively CKCE is unknown. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of CKCE vs. OKCE strength training programs in women enrolled in an introductory strength training program. Twenty-six participants were randomized to OKCE (traditional exercises) or CKCE (sling-based exercises). Participants completed 6 sets per week for 13 weeks. Pre and posttraining evaluations included the following: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) leg and bench press; sling exercise push-ups; isokinetic dynamometry; lateral step-down test; and the Star Excursion Balance Test. Both groups significantly improved bench press (by an average of 4-6 kg) and leg press (by an average of 23-35 kg) (p < 0.001). There was a significant group × time interaction (p < 0.001) for sling exercise push-ups (OKCE pre = 5.5 ± 8.6, OKCE post = 6.1 ± 8.2, CKCE pre = 6.8 ± 6.0, CKCE post = 16.9 ± 6.6). Isokinetic measures of knee extension, knee flexion, shoulder internal rotation, and shoulder external rotation increased (improvements ranged from 2.7 to 27.7%), with no group differences. Both OKCE and CKCE strength training elicited similar changes in balance. We conclude that CKCE training is equally as effective as OKCE training during the initial phases of a strength training program in women. The fact that only CKCE improved sling exercise push-ups supports previous findings suggesting functional superiority of CKCE.

  14. Can balance training promote balance and strength in prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Maestrini, Lea; Zahner, Lukas; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of balance training (BT) followed by detraining on postural control, plantar flexor strength, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Thirty grade 1 school children participated in this study and were assigned to either an intervention class (INT, n = 15, age 6.7 ± 0.5 years) or a control class (n = 15, age 6.6 ± 0.5 years). The INT participated in 4 weeks of BT (3 per week) integrated in their physical education lessons. Pre, post, and follow-up tests included the measurements of postural sway on a balance platform, maximal torque and rate of force development of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, and jumping height on a force platform. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Balance training resulted in tendencies in terms of small to medium interaction effects yet not statistically significant improvements in postural sway (f = 0.14; p > 0.05), force production of the plantar flexors (f = 0.18; p> 0.05), and jumping height (f = 0.25; p> 0.05). Immaturity of the postural control system and deficits in attentional focus during practice of balance exercises could be responsible for the nonsignificant findings in this study. Thus, other training regimen (e.g., resistance training) should be applied alone or in combination with BT, which may have the potential to promote balance and strength in children.

  15. Effects of hamstring-emphasized neuromuscular training on strength and sprinting mechanics in football players.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, J; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Morin, J B; Samozino, P; Edouard, P; Alcaraz, P E; Esparza-Ros, F; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training program combining eccentric hamstring muscle strength, plyometrics, and free/resisted sprinting exercises on knee extensor/flexor muscle strength, sprinting performance, and horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running in football (soccer) players. Sixty footballers were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Twenty-seven players completed the EG and 24 players the CG. Both groups performed regular football training while the EG performed also a neuromuscular training during a 7-week period. The EG showed a small increases in concentric quadriceps strength (ES = 0.38/0.58), a moderate to large increase in concentric (ES = 0.70/0.74) and eccentric (ES = 0.66/0.87) hamstring strength, and a small improvement in 5-m sprint performance (ES = 0.32). By contrast, the CG presented lower magnitude changes in quadriceps (ES = 0.04/0.29) and hamstring (ES = 0.27/0.34) concentric muscle strength and no changes in hamstring eccentric muscle strength (ES = -0.02/0.11). Thus, in contrast to the CG (ES = -0.27/0.14), the EG showed an almost certain increase in the hamstring/quadriceps strength functional ratio (ES = 0.32/0.75). Moreover, the CG showed small magnitude impairments in sprinting performance (ES = -0.35/-0.11). Horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running remained typically unchanged in both groups. These results indicate that a neuromuscular training program can induce positive hamstring strength and maintain sprinting performance, which might help in preventing hamstring strains in football players. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of Motorized vs Non-Motorized Treadmill Training on Hamstring/Quadriceps Strength Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Kelly A.; Brown, Lee E.; Coburn, Jared W.; Kersey, Robert D.; Bottaro, Martim

    2012-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that muscular involvement and biomechanical changes elicit different responses between overground and treadmill training. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of training on two different treadmill designs on the conventional (CR; concentric only) and functional (FR; eccentric to concentric) hamstring and quadriceps strength ratios. Fifteen men and sixteen women were randomly divided into three groups: motorized (MT), non-motorized (NMT) or control (C). Subjects completed pre and post-test isokinetic concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring testing of both legs. Subjects completed 4 weeks of training on their respective treadmills with mileage increasing ½ mile each week, beginning with 2 miles. The C group did not participate in any training. The CR revealed a significant two way interaction of group x time with MT increasing (pre: 0.80 ± 0.09 to post: 0.84 ± 0.09), NMT decreasing (pre: 0.76 ± 0.13 to post: 0.74 ± 0.10), and C showing no change (pre: 0.79 ± 0.10 to post: 0.79 ± 0.09. The FR revealed a significant two way interaction of speed x sex with the FR increasing as speeds increased for men (60 degrees.s-1: 1.04 ± 0.11; 180 degrees.s-1: 1.66 ± 0.27; 300 degrees.s-1: 2.36 ± 0.45) and women (60 degrees.s-1: 1.05 ± 0.16; 180 degrees.s-1: 1.90 ± 0.26; 300 degrees.s-1: 2.75 ± 0.47) but women increased greater relative to men. Training mode elicited a specific change in concentric hamstring and quadriceps strength resulting in specific changes to the CR; however, neither training mode had an effect on eccentric hamstrings nor the FR. Special attention should be given to the mode of endurance training when the goal is to alter the hamstring/quadriceps CR. Key points Specificity of treadmill training had different effects on concentric strength. Specificity of treadmill training had little or no effect on eccentric strength. Conventional and functional strength ratios may give different results

  17. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Ataee, Jalil; Koozehchian, Majid S; Kreider, Richard B; Zuo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes. Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu) and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test. Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04). No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the strength and

  18. Relations of Strength Training to Body Image among a Sample of Female University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine; Hilton, Wanda; Pituch, Keenan

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated college women enrolled in a strength training class before and after completion of the class, using a combination of physical fitness measures, to determine the relationship between strength training and body image. Strength training generally did not substantially change participants' weight, percentage of fat, or circumferences. Most…

  19. An Analysis of Isotonic and Isokinetic Strength-Training Methods and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Randall E.

    This annotated bibliography documents traditional isotonic strength training and nontraditional isotonic strength training (isokinetics) to aid the athletic coach in deciding which type and scheme of training will best develop strength. A glossary of terms is provided. Appendices include muscle action charts and tables, body position charts, a…

  20. An Analysis of Isotonic and Isokinetic Strength-Training Methods and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Randall E.

    This annotated bibliography documents traditional isotonic strength training and nontraditional isotonic strength training (isokinetics) to aid the athletic coach in deciding which type and scheme of training will best develop strength. A glossary of terms is provided. Appendices include muscle action charts and tables, body position charts, a…

  1. Relations of Strength Training to Body Image among a Sample of Female University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine; Hilton, Wanda; Pituch, Keenan

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated college women enrolled in a strength training class before and after completion of the class, using a combination of physical fitness measures, to determine the relationship between strength training and body image. Strength training generally did not substantially change participants' weight, percentage of fat, or circumferences. Most…

  2. Combined Plyometric & Strength Training Improves Ice-hockey Players` On-ice Sprint.

    PubMed

    Dæhlin, Torstein E; Haugen, Ole C; Haugerud, Simen; Hollan, Ivana; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2016-12-05

    Combined plyometric and strength training have previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training has not been previously been compared to the effects of strength training only.

  3. Effects of strength training with eccentric overload on muscle adaptation in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Bauer, Timm; Kinscherf, Ralf; Vorwald, Silke; Klute, Konstanze; Bischoff, Dirk; Müller, Helmut; Weber, Marc-André; Metz, Jürgen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Billeter, Rudolf

    2010-03-01

    In classic concentric/eccentric exercise, the same absolute load is applied in concentric and eccentric actions, which infers a smaller relative eccentric load. We compared the effects of 6 weeks of classic concentric/eccentric quadriceps strength training (CON/ECC, 11 subjects) to eccentric overload training (CON/ECC+, 14 subjects) in athletes accustomed to regular strength training. The parameters determined included functional tests, quadriceps and fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), fibre type distribution by ATPase staining, localisation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform mRNAs by situ hybridization and the steady-state levels of 48 marker mRNAs (RT-PCR) in vastus lateralis biopsies taken before and after training. Both training forms had anabolic effects with significant increases in quadriceps CSA, maximal strength, ribosomal RNA content and the levels of mRNAs involved in growth and regeneration. Only the CON/ECC+ training led to significantly increased height in a squat jump test. This was accompanied by significant increases in IIX fibre CSA, in the percentage of type IIA fibres expressing MHC IIx mRNA, in the level of mRNAs preferentially expressed in fast, glycolytic fibres, and in post-exercise capillary lactate. The enhanced eccentric load apparently led to a subtly faster gene expression pattern and induced a shift towards a faster muscle phenotype plus associated adaptations that make a muscle better suited for fast, explosive movements.

  4. Time course of strength adaptations following high-intensity resistance training in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manca, A; Dvir, Z; Dragone, D; Mureddu, G; Bua, G; Deriu, Franca

    2017-04-01

    No evidence exists regarding the time course and clinical relevance of muscle strength improvements following resistance training in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal course and the clinical meaningfulness of the changes in strength induced by high-intensity resistance training and whether these changes impact on muscle endurance to fatigue and functional outcomes. PwMS with predominantly unilateral hyposthenia of the ankle dorsiflexors underwent a 6-week isokinetic training of the more affected ankle dorsiflexion muscles. Maximal strength was measured at baseline, during the training on a weekly basis, at the end of the intervention (POST) and at the 12-week follow-up. Muscle endurance to fatigue, mobility and walking outcomes were assessed at baseline, POST and follow-up. Reproducibility and responsiveness analyses were performed. Significant gains in muscle strength were already detected after 3 weeks of training with no further improvements in the following weeks. These improvements exceeded the cutoff values for relevant changes and were also positively correlated to improved muscle endurance to fatigue and mobility measures. None of the observed changes in muscle performance and functional outcomes was retained at the follow-up. Preliminary evidence showed that 3 weeks of high-intensity resistance training induces consistent and meaningful improvements in muscle performance of the ankle dorsiflexors in PwMS. These findings may have practical dose-response and cost-effectiveness implications in the management of MS-induced muscle weakness, potentially enhancing the understanding of the response to training exhibited by PwMS. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02010398; December 2013.

  5. Core stability training on lower limb balance strength.

    PubMed

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Padulo, Johnny; Ayalon, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of core stability training on lower limbs' muscular asymmetries and imbalances in team sport. Twenty footballers were divided into two groups, either core stability or control group. Before each daily practice, core stability group (n = 10) performed a core stability training programme, while control group (n = 10) did a standard warm-up. The effects of the core stability training programme were assessed by performing isokinetic tests and single-leg countermovement jumps. Significant improvement was found for knee extensors peak torque at 3.14 rad · s(-1) (14%; P < 0.05), knee flexors peak torque at 1.05 and 3.14 rad · s(-1) (19% and 22% with P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively) and peak torque flexors/extensors ratios at 1.05 and 3.14 rad · s(-1) (7.7% and 8.5% with P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively) only in the core stability group. The jump tests showed a significant reduction in the strength asymmetries in core stability group (-71.4%; P = 0.02) while a concurrent increase was seen in the control group (33.3%; P < 0.05). This study provides practical evidence in combining core exercises for optimal lower limbs strength balance development in young soccer players.

  6. Neuromuscular adaptations during combined strength and endurance training in endurance runners: maximal versus explosive strength training or a mix of both.

    PubMed

    Taipale, R S; Mikkola, J; Vesterinen, V; Nummela, A; Häkkinen, K

    2013-02-01

    This study compared the effects of mixed maximal strength and explosive strength training with maximal strength training and explosive strength training combined with endurance training over an 8-week training intervention. Male subjects (age 21-45 years) were divided into three strength training groups, maximal (MAX, n = 11), explosive (EXP, 10) and mixed maximal and explosive (MIX, 9), and a circuit training control group, (CON, 7). Strength training one to two times a week was performed concurrently with endurance training three to four times a week. Significant increases in maximal dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), maximal muscle activation during 1RM in MAX and during CMJ in EXP, peak running speed (S (peak)) and running speed at respiratory compensation threshold (RCT(speed)) were observed in MAX, EXP and MIX. Maximal isometric strength and muscle activation, rate of force development (RFD), maximal oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and running economy (RE) at 10 and 12 km hr(-1) did not change significantly. No significant changes were observed in CON in maximal isometric strength, RFD, CMJ or muscle activation, and a significant decrease in 1RM was observed in the final 4 weeks of training. RE in CON did not change significantly, but significant increases were observed in S (peak), RCT(speed) and [Formula: see text] Low volume MAX, EXP and MIX strength training combined with higher volume endurance training over an 8-week intervention produced significant gains in strength, power and endurance performance measures of S (peak) and RCT(speed), but no significant changes were observed between groups.

  7. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  8. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:27065561

  9. Changes in muscle activation following ankle strength training in children with spastic cerebral palsy: an electromyography feasibility case report.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jamie E; Ross, Sandy A; Foreman, Matthew H; Engsberg, Jack R

    2013-05-01

    ABSTRACT Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are likely to experience decreased participation in activities and less competence in activities of daily living. Studies of children with spastic CP have shown that strengthening programs produce positive results in strength, gait, and functional outcomes (measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure). No investigations have analyzed electromyography (EMG) activity before and after strength training to determine whether any changes occur in the GMFM.  This feasibility case report quantified dorsiflexor and plantarflexor muscle activation changes during performance of 3-5 selected GMFM items following a plantarflexor strength training in two children with cerebral palsy. Increased plantarflexor strength and increased ability to selectively activate muscles were found. Little carryover to performance on GMFM items was observed. It is feasible to use EMG during performance on selected GMFM items to evaluate motor control changes following strength training in children with CP.

  10. Effects of strength training on osteogenic differentiation and bone strength in aging female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Singulani, Monique Patricio; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Santos, Leandro Figueiredo; Morais, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha; Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2017-01-01

    The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ). The production of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was lower in BMSCs of the aged exercised group. The ST practice was able to improve the bone mechanical properties in aged female rats, increasing the potential for osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, reducing the adipogenic differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine level. In summary, the data achieved in this study showed that strength training triggers physiological responses that result in changes in the bone microenvironment and bring benefits to biomechanical parameters of bone tissue, which could reduce the risk of fractures during senescent. PMID:28211481

  11. Effects of strength training on osteogenic differentiation and bone strength in aging female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Singulani, Monique Patricio; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Santos, Leandro Figueiredo; Morais, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha; Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2017-02-17

    The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ). The production of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was lower in BMSCs of the aged exercised group. The ST practice was able to improve the bone mechanical properties in aged female rats, increasing the potential for osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, reducing the adipogenic differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine level. In summary, the data achieved in this study showed that strength training triggers physiological responses that result in changes in the bone microenvironment and bring benefits to biomechanical parameters of bone tissue, which could reduce the risk of fractures during senescent.

  12. Alterations in Strength and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Consequent to Nautilus Circuit Weight Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, Stephen P.; Dill, Mary Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    The study compared the effects on muscular strength and maximal oxygen uptake of a Nautilus circuit weight training program, a free weight strength training program, and a running program. Nautilus circuit weight training appears to be equally effective for a training period of short duration. (MT)

  13. Alterations in Strength and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Consequent to Nautilus Circuit Weight Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, Stephen P.; Dill, Mary Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    The study compared the effects on muscular strength and maximal oxygen uptake of a Nautilus circuit weight training program, a free weight strength training program, and a running program. Nautilus circuit weight training appears to be equally effective for a training period of short duration. (MT)

  14. Treadmill Training with Virtual Reality Improves Gait, Balance, and Muscle Strength in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chunhee; Hwang, Wonjeong; Hwang, Sujin; Chung, Yijung

    2016-03-01

    Independent walking is an important goal of clinical and community-based rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Virtual reality-based rehabilitation therapy is effective in motivating children with CP. This study investigated the effects of treadmill training with virtual reality on gait, balance, muscular strength, and gross motor function in children with CP. Eighteen children with spastic CP were randomly divided into the virtual reality treadmill training (VRTT) group (9 subjects, mean age, 10.2 years) and treadmill training (TT) group (9 subjects, mean age, 9.4 years). The groups performed their respective programs as well as conventional physical therapy 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Muscle strength was assessed using a digitalized manual muscle tester. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Functional Measure (GMFM). Balance was assessed using the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Gait speed was assessed using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and gait endurance was assessed using the 2-minute walk test (2MWT). After training, gait and balance was improved in the VRTT compared to the TT group (P < 0.05). Muscular strength was significantly greater in the VRTT group than the TT group, except for right hamstring strength. The improvements in GMFM (standing) and PBS scores were greater in the VRTT group than the TT group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the VRTT group showed the higher values of 10MWT and 2MWT compared to the TT group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, VRTT programs are effective for improving gait, balance, muscular strength, and gross motor function in children with CP.

  15. Strength gain through eccentric isotonic training without changes in clinical signs or blood markers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Localized exercises are widely used in rehabilitation processes. The predominant options are exercises with an emphasis on either concentric or eccentric contractions. Eccentric exercises promote greater strength gains compared to classical concentric stimuli, but can cause muscle damage. The aim of present study was to compare strength training composed of 10 sessions with progressive loads between groups with a predominance of concentric versus eccentric contraction through an analysis of isotonic strength, pressure pain threshold, creatine kinase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cortisol. Methods One hundred twenty male subjects were divided into four groups: C1 and E1 – single session of maximum strength with emphasis on concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively; C10 and E10 – 10 sessions with progressive loads from 80% to maximum strength with emphasis on concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Results Isotonic strength increased by 10% in E10 following the ten training sessions. C1 and E1 exhibited a lower pressure pain threshold 48 hours after the sessions in comparison to C10 and E10, respectively. Creatine kinase was increased in C1 in comparison to baseline, with significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in comparison to E1 at 48 and 96 hours as well as C10 at 48, 72 and 96 hours. No significant differences were found in TNF-α or cortisol among the groups or evaluation times. Conclusion Eccentric contraction training promotes functional adaptation. Moreover, both concentric and eccentric contraction training have a protective effect on the muscle in relation to a single session of maximum strength exercise. Trial registration RBR-75scwh PMID:24261331

  16. Strength gain through eccentric isotonic training without changes in clinical signs or blood markers.

    PubMed

    Alves, Thâmara; Guarnier, Flávia A; Campoy, Fernanda A S; Gois, Mariana O; Albuquerque, Maíra C; Seraphim, Patrícia M; Netto, Jayme; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Padovani, Carlos R; Cecchini, Rubens; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2013-11-21

    Localized exercises are widely used in rehabilitation processes. The predominant options are exercises with an emphasis on either concentric or eccentric contractions. Eccentric exercises promote greater strength gains compared to classical concentric stimuli, but can cause muscle damage. The aim of present study was to compare strength training composed of 10 sessions with progressive loads between groups with a predominance of concentric versus eccentric contraction through an analysis of isotonic strength, pressure pain threshold, creatine kinase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cortisol. One hundred twenty male subjects were divided into four groups: C1 and E1--single session of maximum strength with emphasis on concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively; C10 and E10--10 sessions with progressive loads from 80% to maximum strength with emphasis on concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Isotonic strength increased by 10% in E10 following the ten training sessions. C1 and E1 exhibited a lower pressure pain threshold 48 hours after the sessions in comparison to C10 and E10, respectively. Creatine kinase was increased in C1 in comparison to baseline, with significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in comparison to E1 at 48 and 96 hours as well as C10 at 48, 72 and 96 hours. No significant differences were found in TNF-α or cortisol among the groups or evaluation times. Eccentric contraction training promotes functional adaptation. Moreover, both concentric and eccentric contraction training have a protective effect on the muscle in relation to a single session of maximum strength exercise. RBR-75scwh.

  17. Effects of strength and endurance exercise order on endocrine responses to concurrent training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of strength and endurance training order on the endocrine milieu associated with strength development and performance during concurrent training. A randomised, between-groups design was employed with 30 recreationally resistance-trained males completing one of four acute experimental training protocols; strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), endurance followed by strength training (END-ST) or no training (CON). Blood samples were taken before each respective exercise protocol, immediately upon cessation of exercise, and 1 h post cessation of exercise. Blood samples were subsequently analysed for total testosterone, cortisol and lactate concentrations. Ability to maintain 80% 1RM during strength training was better in ST and ST-END than END-ST (both p < .05). Immediately following the respective exercise protocols all training interventions elicited significant increases in testosterone (p < .05). ST and END-ST resulted in greater increases in cortisol than ST-END (both p < .05). The testosterone:cortisol ratio was similar following the respective exercise protocols. Blood lactate concentrations post-training were greater following END-ST and ST than ST-END (both p < .05). Conducting endurance exercise prior to strength training resulted in impaired strength training performance. Blood cortisol and lactate concentrations were greater when endurance training was conducted prior to strength training than vice versa. As such, it may be suggested that conducting endurance prior to strength training may result in acute unfavourable responses to strength training when strength training is conducted with high loads.

  18. Health enhancing strength training in nonagenarians (STRONG): rationale, design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Rexach, José A Serra; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Bustamante-Ara, Natalia; Villarán, Margarita Hierro; Gil, Pedro González; Sanz Ibáñez, Maria J; Sanz, Nekane Blanco; Santamaría, Victor Ortega; Sanz, Natalia Gutiérrez; Prada, Ana B Marín; Gallardo, Cristian; Romo, Gabriel Rodríguez; Lucia, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Background The Health Enhancing Strength Training in Nonagenarians (STRONG) is a randomised control trial to assess the effectiveness of an aerobic and strength training program for improving muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in nonagenarians. Methods Sixty (51 women) nonagenarians (age range: 90–102 years) who live in a geriatric nursing home will be randomly assigned to either a usual care (control) group (n = 30) or an intervention (training) group (n = 30). Participants allocated in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention group will also enrol in three weekly non-consecutive individualized training sessions (~45–50 min each) during 8 weeks. The exercise program will consist of muscular strength [with a special focus on leg press at 30% (start of the program) to 70% 1 repetition maximum (end)] and aerobic exercises (cycle-ergometry during 3–5 to 15 minutes at 12–14 points in the rate of perceived exertion scale). Results Results from STRONG will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of the oldest population groups. Conclusion The increase in life expectancy together with the dramatic decrease in birth rates in industrialized countries calls the attention to health care systems and public health policymakers to focus attention on promoting healthy lifestyle in the highest sector of the population pyramid. Our study attempts to improve functional capacity and QOL of nonagenarians by implementing an individualised aerobic and strength training program in a geriatric residential care. Results from STRONG will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well being even in persons aged 90 years or over. Trail Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00848978 PMID:19470176

  19. TRX Suspension Training: A New Functional Training Approach for Older Adults – Development, Training Control and Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    GAEDTKE, ANGUS; MORAT, TOBIAS

    2015-01-01

    Because of its proximity to daily activities functional training becomes more important for older adults. Sling training, a form of functional training, was primarily developed for therapy and rehabilitation. Due to its effects (core muscle activation, strength and balance improvements), sling training may be relevant for older adults. However, to our knowledge no recent sling training program for healthy older adults included a detailed training control which is indeed an essential component in designing and implementing this type of training to reach positive effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a TRX Suspension Training for healthy older adults (TRX-OldAge) and to evaluate its feasibility. Eleven participants finished the 12 week intervention study. All participants trained in the TRX-OldAge whole-body workout which consists of seven exercises including 3–4 progressively advancing stages of difficulty for every exercise. At each stage, intensity could be increased through changes in position. Feasibility data was evaluated in terms of training compliance and a self-developed questionnaire for rating TRX-OldAge. The training compliance was 85 %. After study period, 91 % of the participants were motivated to continue with the program. The training intensity, duration and frequency were rated as optimal. All participants noted positive effects whereas strength gains were the most. On the basis of the detailed information about training control, TRX-OldAge can be individually adapted for each older adult appropriate to its precondition, demands and preference. PMID:27182415

  20. Photon strength function of 97Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, Shea; Couture, Aaron; Lee, Hye Young

    2015-10-01

    Some of the major questions in stockpile stewardship require nuclear reaction rates on fission fragments where there are few or no experimental constraints. Theoretical calculations are an alternative, but their reliability is ultimately limited by our incomplete understanding of such physics inputs as the photon strength function. 96Zr lies near the light mass peak for 239Pu fission, and neutron capture on and near this nucleus is of great importance for applications. The DANCE array at LANSCE and the Apollo array coupled to HELIOS at Argonne National Laboratory offer complementary probes into the neutron capture reaction, and an experimental campaign is underway to study 96Zr(n, γ) and 96Zr(d , p) with these instruments. The status of these reaction studies will be presented.

  1. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-08-28

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens,more » violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).« less

  2. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-08-28

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).

  3. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-11-01

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).

  4. The Effect of Strength Training on Performance Indicators in Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Kris; Carson, Brian P; Lyons, Mark; Rossiter, Antonia; Kenny, Ian C

    2017-01-01

    Beattie, K, Carson, BP, Lyons, M, Rossiter, A, and Kenny, IC. The effect of strength training on performance indicators in distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 9-23, 2017-Running economy (RE) and velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite distance runners. In addition to cardiovascular function, RE and VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 40-week strength training intervention on strength (maximal and reactive strength), VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, economy, and body composition (body mass, fat, and lean mass) in competitive distance runners. Twenty competitive distance runners were divided into an intervention group (n = 11; 29.5 ± 10.0 years; 72.8 ± 6.6 kg; 1.83 ± 0.08 m) and a control group (n = 9; 27.4 ± 7.2 years; 70.2 ± 6.4 kg; 1.77 ± 0.04 m). During week 0, 20, and 40, each subject completed 3 assessments: physiology (V2 mmol·L BLa, V2 mmol·L BLa [blood lactate], V4 mmol·L BLa, RE, VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), strength (1 repetition maximum back squat; countermovement jump and 0.3 m drop jump), and body composition (body mass, fat mass, overall lean, and leg lean). The intervention group showed significant improvements in maximal and reactive strength qualities, RE, and VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, at weeks 20 (p ≤ 0.05) and 40 (p ≤ 0.05). The control group showed no significant changes at either time point. There were no significant changes in body composition variables between or within groups. This study demonstrates that 40 weeks of strength training can significantly improve maximal and reactive strength qualities, RE, and VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, without concomitant hypertrophy, in competitive distance runners.

  5. Respiratory muscle strength and training in stroke and neurology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Ross D; Rafferty, Ged F; Moxham, John; Kalra, Lalit

    2013-02-01

    We undertook two systematic reviews to determine the levels of respiratory muscle weakness and effects of respiratory muscle training in stroke patients. Two systematic reviews were conducted in June 2011 using a number of electronic databases. Review 1 compared respiratory muscle strength in stroke and healthy controls. Review 2 was expanded to include randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of respiratory muscle training on stroke and other neurological conditions. The primary outcomes of interest were maximum inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressure (maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure, respectively). Meta-analysis of four studies revealed that the maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure were significantly lower (P < 0·00001) in stroke patients compared with healthy individuals (weighted mean difference -41·39 and -54·62 cmH(2) O, respectively). Nine randomized controlled trials indicate a significantly (P = 0·0009) greater effect of respiratory muscle training on maximum inspiratory pressure in neurological patients compared with control subjects (weighted mean difference 6·94 cmH(2) O) while no effect on maximum expiratory pressure. Respiratory muscle strength appears to be impaired after stroke, possibly contributing to increased incidence of chest infection. Respiratory muscle training can improve inspiratory but not expiratory muscle strength in neurological conditions, although the paucity of studies in the area and considerable variability between them is a limiting factor. Respiratory muscle training may improve respiratory muscle function in neurological conditions, but its clinical benefit remains unknown.

  6. Adapted Resistance Training Improves Strength in Eight Weeks in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer L; Fritz, Nora; Chiang, Chen Chun; Jiang, Allen; Thompson, Tziporah; Cornet, Nicole; Newsome, Scott D; Calabresi, Peter A; Zackowski, Kathleen

    2016-01-29

    Hip weakness is a common symptom affecting walking ability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is known that resistance strength training (RST) can improve strength in individuals with MS, however; it remains unclear the duration of RST that is needed to make strength gains and how to adapt hip strengthening exercises for individuals of varying strength using only resistance bands. This paper describes the methodology to set up and implement an adapted resistance strength training program, using resistance bands, for individuals with MS. Directions for pre- and post-strength tests to evaluate efficacy of the strength-training program are included. Safety features and detailed instructions outline the weekly program content and progression. Current evidence is presented showing that significant strength gains can be made within 8 weeks of starting a RST program. Evidence is also presented showing that resistance strength training can be successfully adapted for individuals with MS of varying strength with little equipment.

  7. Strength training for the intrinsic flexor muscles of the foot: effects on muscle strength, the foot arch, and dynamic parameters before and after the training.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to verify the effects of intrinsic foot flexor strength training. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy males without motor system disease. [Methods] A training method that involved flexion of all toe interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints against a 3-kg load was implemented and was performed for 200 repetitions once per day, three times per week, for a period of eight weeks. [Results] Significant changes were observed for intrinsic foot flexor strength scores, foot arches, vertical jumping, 1-legged long jumping, and 50-m dash time. [Conclusion] This muscle strength training method significantly improved muscle strength scores, foot arch shape, and movement performance.

  8. Balance Training Exercises Decrease Lower-Limb Strength Asymmetry in Young Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Sannicandro, Italo; Cofano, Giacomo; Rosa, Rosa A.; Piccinno, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The issue of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports. The presence of strength asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young athletes practicing various sporting disciplines is considered an intrinsic risk factor for injury; in such cases, compensation strategies should thus be implemented aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the degree of asymmetry in order to avoid the negative consequences asymmetries can have upon the health of young sportsmen and women on the long-term. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drill performance and to test a specific balance-training programme in its capacity to effectively reduce such asymmetries. Twenty-three young tennis players were randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG) (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; 13.2 ± 0.9 years; 50.8 ± 8.9 Kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m) or Comparison Group (CG) (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; 13.0 ± 0.9 years; 51.1 ± 9.2 Kg; 1.61 ± 0.09 m). To quantify percent asymmetries in lower-limb strength before (T0) and following (T1) training, performances were assessed in the one-leg hop test (OLH), side-hop test (SH) and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF). Performances in the 10 and 20m sprint tests and the Foran test were also assessed. The EG completed a total of 12 training sessions directed at balance training: two 30-minute sessions/week over a 6-week period. The CG followed an identical training schedule, but training sessions consisted of tennis-specific drills only. The results reveal significant differences between pre- and post-training tests in the EG only: the degree of lower-limb asymmetry was decreased in the EG following completion of the training programme, as assessed using the OLH test (p < 0.001), SH test (p < 0.001) and 4m-SSF test (p < 0

  9. Balance training exercises decrease lower-limb strength asymmetry in young tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sannicandro, Italo; Cofano, Giacomo; Rosa, Rosa A; Piccinno, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The issue of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports. The presence of strength asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young athletes practicing various sporting disciplines is considered an intrinsic risk factor for injury; in such cases, compensation strategies should thus be implemented aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the degree of asymmetry in order to avoid the negative consequences asymmetries can have upon the health of young sportsmen and women on the long-term. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drill performance and to test a specific balance-training programme in its capacity to effectively reduce such asymmetries. Twenty-three young tennis players were randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG) (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; 13.2 ± 0.9 years; 50.8 ± 8.9 Kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m) or Comparison Group (CG) (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; 13.0 ± 0.9 years; 51.1 ± 9.2 Kg; 1.61 ± 0.09 m). To quantify percent asymmetries in lower-limb strength before (T0) and following (T1) training, performances were assessed in the one-leg hop test (OLH), side-hop test (SH) and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF). Performances in the 10 and 20m sprint tests and the Foran test were also assessed. The EG completed a total of 12 training sessions directed at balance training: two 30-minute sessions/week over a 6-week period. The CG followed an identical training schedule, but training sessions consisted of tennis-specific drills only. The results reveal significant differences between pre- and post-training tests in the EG only: the degree of lower-limb asymmetry was decreased in the EG following completion of the training programme, as assessed using the OLH test (p < 0.001), SH test (p < 0.001) and 4m-SSF test (p < 0

  10. RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS AFTER TRAINING PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vera Lúcia Dos Santos; Avanzi, Osmar

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the impact of a physiotherapy protocol in maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) by manovacuometry. AIS may change the respiratory dynamics and the performance of inspiratory and expiratory muscles, affecting ventilatory capacity. Patients with AIS aged 10 to 20 years old were randomly assigned to receive an aerobic exercise-training program or no treatment. They were evaluated for respiratory muscle strength before and after the treatment period by means of manovacuometry, thorax and spine radiographs. Physical therapy exercising protocol comprised three weekly sessions including stretching and aerobic exercises during four months. Forty five patients received physical therapy and 45 patients received no treatment (control group). The mean maximum inspiratory pressure (Pimax) was -52.13 cm H20 and the maximum expiratory pressure (Pemax) was 62.38 cm H20. There was a significant increase of Pimax and Pemax (p=0,000) in the group receiving physical therapy. There were no drop-outs and no adverse events in this study. Respiratory muscle strength, scoliosis and kyphosis degrees were not statistically correlated. Exercising is beneficial to patients with AIS, who have shown significant increases in respiratory muscle strength after physical therapy. There was no correlation between respiratory pressure and spine deformity. Level of Evidence I, High quality randomized trial.

  11. The efficacy of home based progressive strength training in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baker, K R; Nelson, M E; Felson, D T; Layne, J E; Sarno, R; Roubenoff, R

    2001-07-01

    To test the effects of a high intensity home-based progressive strength training program on the clinical signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Forty-six community dwelling patients, aged 55 years or older with knee pain and radiographic evidence of knee OA, were randomized to a 4 month home based progressive strength training program or a nutrition education program (attention control). Thirty-eight patients completed the trial with an adherence of 84% to the intervention and 65% to the attention control. The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index pain and physical function subscales. Secondary outcomes included clinical knee examination, muscle strength, physical performance measures, and questionnaires to measure quality of life variables. Patients in the strength training group who completed the trial had a 71% improvement in knee extension strength in the leg reported as most painful versus a 3% improvement in the control group (p < 0.01). In a modified intent to treat analysis, self-reported pain improved by 36% and physical function by 38% in the strength training group versus 11 and 21%, respectively, in the control group (p = 0.01 for between group comparison). In addition, those patients in the strength training group who completed the trial had a 43% mean reduction in pain (p = 0.01 vs controls), a 44% mean improvement in self-reported physical function (p < 0.01 vs controls), and improvements in physical performance, quality of life, and self-efficacy when compared to the control group. High intensity, home based strength training can produce substantial improvements in strength, pain, physical function and quality of life in patients with knee OA.

  12. Eccentric resistance training increases and retains maximal strength, muscle endurance, and hypertrophy in trained men.

    PubMed

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Schena, Federico

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different resistance training protocols on muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy after training and detraining. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomized in concentric-only (CONC), eccentric-only (ECC), traditional concentric-eccentric (TRAD) bench press resistance training or control group. The training volume was equalized among the intervention groups. Bench press of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)/body mass, maximum number of repetitions (MNR), and chest circumference were evaluated at the baseline, after 6 weeks of training, and after 6 weeks of detraining. All intervention groups reported significant 1RM/body mass increases after training (CONC baseline: 1.04 ± 0.06, post-training: 1.12 ± 0.08, p < 0.05; ECC baseline: 1.08 ± 0.04, post-training: 1.15 ± 0.05, p < 0.05; TRAD baseline: 1.06 ± 0.08, post-training: 1.11 ± 0.10, p < 0.05). After detraining, only ECC retained 1RM/body mass above the baseline (1.17 ± 0.07, p < 0.05), while CONC and TRAD returned to baseline values. Only ECC improved and retained MNR (baseline: 22 ± 3; post-training: 25 ± 3, and post-detraining: 25 ± 4, p < 0.05 compared with baseline) and chest circumference (baseline: 98.3 ± 2.4 cm, post-training: 101.7 ± 2.2 cm and post-detraining: 100.7 ± 2.3 cm. p < 0.05 compared with baseline), while no significant changes occurred in both CONC and TRAD. The incorporation of eccentric training can be recommended for counteracting the negative effects of detraining or forced physical inactivity.

  13. Training strategy of explosive strength in young female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M; Santos, Patricia; Figueiredo, Teresa; João, Paulo Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training program in the performance of upper and lower extremities among young female volleyball players of the high school. A total of 20 young female volleyball players playing at Scholar Sport in High School at the district level were divided in two groups: the experimental group (n=10; 14.0±0.0 years; 1.6±0.1 m; 52.0±7.0 kg and 20.7±2.4% body mass) and the control group (n=10; 13.8±0.4 years, 1.6±0.1 m; 53.5±4.7 kg and 20.3±1.7% body mass). The experimental group received additional plyometric and ball throwing exercises besides their normal volleyball practice. The control group underwent only their regular session of training. Strength performance in the experimental group significantly improved (medicine ball and volleyball ball throwing: P=0.00; and counter movement jump: P=0.05), with the improvement ranging from 5.3% to 20.1%. No significant changes in strength performance were observed in the control group (P>0.05). The 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training can significantly improve muscular performance in young female volleyball players. These findings may be useful for all physical education teachers and volleyball coaches. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet.

    PubMed

    Edholm, Peter; Strandberg, Emelie; Kadi, Fawzi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength

  15. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Young, James D; Whitten, Joseph H D; Reid, Jonathan C; Quigley, Patrick J; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D; Hodgson, Daniel D; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  16. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Reid, Jonathan C.; Quigley, Patrick J.; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  17. Associations between perceived health benefits and barriers to strength training, and stages of change for strength-training behavior among older Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2014-05-01

    Although several studies have examined associations of perceived benefits and barriers with physical activity, no studies have focused on them corresponding to strength-training recommendations for older adults. This study examined the associations among the perceived health benefits of strength training, perceived barriers to strength straining, and stages of change for strength-training behavior in older Japanese adults. This cross-sectional survey included a random sample of 1144 adults (60-74 years) from the city of Tokorozawa. Stage of change was the independent variable, with perceived health benefits (eg, strength training can reduce body pain) and perceived barriers (eg, facilities are needed for strength training) as dependent variables. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance and Bonferroni's multiple comparison. After adjusting for demographic variables, the perceived health-benefit score for precontemplation was significantly lower than for the other four stages. The perceived barrier scores in the precontemplation and contemplation stages were significantly higher than those in the preparation and maintenance stages. These results suggest that information about the health benefits for older adults and about the recommended type of strength training might be useful for the development of strategies to promote strength training among older adults.

  18. Effects of Volume Training on Strength and Endurance of Back Muscles: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shigaki, Leonardo; Araújo, Cynthia Gobbi Alves; Calderon, Mariane Guizeline; Costa, Thais Karoline Cezar; Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; da Silva, Rubens A

    2017-05-17

    Strength/resistance training volume has historically been supported in the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations. However, for the back muscles, exercise prescription related to the number of sets, such as single vs. multiple, is not well established in the literature. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two training volumes on strength and endurance of back extensor muscles in untrained young participants, with regard to a repeated measures design. Randomized controlled trial. Laboratory of functional evaluation and human motor performance. Forty-four untrained young participants (mean age= 21 yrs) were randomized into three groups: single set (SSG, n= 14), multiple sets (MSG, n= 15), and untrained control (CG, n= 15). The SSG and MSG underwent a 10-wk progressive resistance training program (2 days·week(-1)) using a 45° Roman chair. Back maximal strength (dynamometer) and isometric and dynamic endurance (time-limit, trunk extension-flexion cycles, and electromyography muscle fatigue estimates). The results showed differences between the MSG and control group for isometric endurance time (mean 19.8 seconds, 95% CI 44.1 to 4.8), but without time intervention significance. Significant improvement after training (P <0.05) was found predominantly during dynamic endurance (number of repetitions) for both the MSG (+61%) and SSG (+26%) compared to pre-intervention, while the control group reported no benefit. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in either strength or electromyography estimates after training. Both multiple and single volume training were efficient in promoting better back endurance during dynamic performance based on mechanical variables (time and number of repetitions).

  19. Trunk rotational strength training for the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

    PubMed

    McIntire, Kevin; Asher, Marc; Burton, Doug; Liu, Wen

    2006-01-01

    Quantified trunk rotational strength training has shown promise as a non-operative management option for individuals with AIS. The purposes of our study are to test whether a quantified trunk rotational strength training protocol can increase trunk strength and stabilize or decrease curve size. Seven adolescents with AIS (5 female 2 male; mean 14 yrs +/- 2.6 yrs; mean Cobb 28 degrees +/- 6 degrees range 20 degrees -37 degrees) underwent four months of supervised trunk rotational strength training, and repeat strength test. Trunk strength in both directions increased significantly after training (p<0.05). Average Cobb angle decreased to 23 degrees +/- 11 degrees (range 6 degrees -35 degrees). Four individuals showed reduction (>5 degrees) in their original curve, and 3 remained the same (+/-5 degrees). The strength training protocol significantly increased isometric rotational strength and scoliosis was stabilized short term.

  20. Strength-training behavior and perceived environment among Japanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Nakamura, Yoshio; Inoue, Shigeru; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2011-07-01

    The authors examined the relationship between strength-training behavior and perceived environment in older Japanese adults. An Internet-based survey was conducted of 293 adults age 68.2 ± 2.8 yr. The dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. The IPAQ environment module, access to facilities for strength training, and home equipment for strength training were environmental factors. Logistic-regression analysis was employed. After demographic variables (gender, age, educational background, household income, body-mass index, self-rated health status, smoking habit, and residential area) were adjusted for, home equipment for strength training (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.50-3.06), access to facilities for strength training (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.32-4.85), and observing active people (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.06-4.58) were positively correlated with regular strength-training behavior. In conclusion, environmental factors associated with strength-training behavior were access to facilities for strength training, having home equipment for strength training, and observing active people.

  1. Effect of heavy strength training on muscle thickness, strength, jump performance, and endurance performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Kojedal, Oystein; Losnegard, Thomas; Kvamme, Bent; Raastad, Truls

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplemental heavy strength training on muscle thickness and determinants of performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes. Seventeen well-trained Nordic Combined athletes were assigned to either usual training supplemented with heavy strength training (STR; n = 8) or to usual training without heavy strength training (CON; n = 9). The strength training performed by STR consisted of one lower-body exercise and two upper-body exercises [3-5 repetition maximum (RM) sets of 3-8 repetitions], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. Architectural changes in m. vastus lateralis, 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, squat jump (SJ) height, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), work economy during submaximal treadmill skate rollerskiing, and performance in a 7.5-km rollerski time trial were measured before and after the intervention. STR increased 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, muscle thickness, and SJ performance more than CON (p < 0.05). There was no difference between groups in change in work economy. The two groups showed no changes in total body mass, VO(2max), or time-trial performance. In conclusion, 12 weeks of supplemental strength training improved determinants of performance in Nordic Combined by improving the athletes' strength and vertical jump ability without increasing total body mass or compromising the development of VO(2max).

  2. Comparison of resistance and concurrent resistance and endurance training regimes in the development of strength.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina; Brown, Gregory A

    2009-12-01

    Resistance and endurance training are often performed concurrently in most exercise programs and in rehabilitative settings in an attempt to acquire gains in more than 1 physiologic system. However, it has been proposed that by simultaneously performing these 2 modes of exercise training, the strength gains achieved by resistance training alone may be impaired. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of 16 weeks of resistance training and concurrent resistance and endurance training on muscular strength development in 38 sedentary, apparently healthy males (25 yr +/- 8 mo). Subjects were age-matched and randomly assigned to either a control (Con) group (n = 12), resistance training (Res) group (n = 13), or concurrent resistance and endurance training (Com) group (n = 13). After 16 weeks, no changes were found in the strength of the subjects in the Con group. Resistance training and concurrent resistance and endurance training significantly (p < or = 0.05) improved strength in all of the 8 prescribed exercises. The data also indicated that 16 weeks of concurrent resistance training and endurance training was as effective in eliciting improvements in strength as resistance training alone in previously sedentary males. As such, concurrent resistance and endurance training does not impede muscular strength gains and can be prescribed simultaneously for the development of strength in sedentary, apparently healthy males and thus may invoke all the physiologic adaptations of resistance and endurance training at once.

  3. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p < .01) and manual dexterous coordination (β = -.52, p < .01) performed better on the time-based hand function test. In comparison, older adults with better grip strength (β = .40, p < .01), arm curl strength (β = .23, p < .05), and manual dexterous coordination (β = .23, p < .05) were associated with better self-report of upper extremity function. The relationship between grip strength and hand function may be test-specific. Grip strength becomes a significant factor when the test requires grip strength to successfully complete the test tasks. Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  4. Shoulder Mobility, Muscular Strength, and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Luk, W S; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Tsang, William W N; Chow, Lina P Y

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the shoulder mobility, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer survivors with and without Tai Chi (TC) Qigong training to those of healthy individuals and to explore the associations between shoulder impairments and QOL in breast cancer survivors with regular TC Qigong training. Methods. Eleven breast cancer survivors with regular TC Qigong training, 12 sedentary breast cancer survivors, and 16 healthy participants completed the study. Shoulder mobility and rotator muscle strength were assessed by goniometry and isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. QOL was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) questionnaire. Results. Goniometric measurements of the active range of motion in the flexion, abduction, and hand-behind-the-back directions were similar among the three groups. The TC Qigong-trained breast cancer survivors had significantly higher isokinetic peak torques of the shoulder rotator muscles (at 180°/s) than untrained survivors, and their isokinetic shoulder muscular strength reached the level of healthy individuals. Greater shoulder muscular strength was significantly associated with better functional wellbeing in breast cancer survivors with TC Qigong training. However, no significant between-group difference was found in FACT-B total scores. Conclusions. TC Qigong training might improve shoulder muscular strength and functional wellbeing in breast cancer survivors.

  5. Does Combined Dry Land Strength and Aerobic Training Inhibit Performance of Young Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Reis, Victor M.; van den Tillaar, Roland; Costa, Aldo M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (i) to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii) to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation) on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls) and a control group (six boys and five girls). Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day), the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week) of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values), and strength (bench press and leg extension) and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump) performances were tested in three moments: (i) before the experimental period, (ii) after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii) after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. Key points This study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on sprint performance in young

  6. Performance and neuromuscular adaptations following differing ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2013-12-01

    The interference effect attenuates strength and hypertrophic responses when strength and endurance training are conducted concurrently; however, the influence of training frequency on these responses remain unclear when varying ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training are performed. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the strength, limb girth, and neuromuscular adaptations to varying ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training. Twenty-four men with >2 years resistance training experience completed 6 weeks of 3 days per week of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON) in an isolated limb model. Assessments of maximal voluntary contraction by means of isokinetic dynamometry leg extensions (maximum voluntary suppression [MVC]), limb girth, and neuromuscular responses through electromyography (EMG) were conducted at baseline, mid-intervention, and postintervention. After training, ST and CT3 conditions elicited greater MVC increases than CT1 and CON conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Strength training resulted in significantly greater increases in limb girth than both CT1 and CON conditions (p = 0.05 and 0.004, respectively). The CT3 induced significantly greater limb girth adaptations than CON condition (p = 0.04). No effect of time or intervention was observed for EMG (p > 0.05). In conclusion, greater frequencies of endurance training performed increased the magnitude of the interference response on strength and limb girth responses after 6 weeks of 3 days a week of training. Therefore, the frequency of endurance training should remain low if the primary focus of the training intervention is strength and hypertrophy.

  7. Statistical technique for analysing functional connectivity of multiple spike trains.

    PubMed

    Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Borisyuk, Roman

    2011-03-15

    A new statistical technique, the Cox method, used for analysing functional connectivity of simultaneously recorded multiple spike trains is presented. This method is based on the theory of modulated renewal processes and it estimates a vector of influence strengths from multiple spike trains (called reference trains) to the selected (target) spike train. Selecting another target spike train and repeating the calculation of the influence strengths from the reference spike trains enables researchers to find all functional connections among multiple spike trains. In order to study functional connectivity an "influence function" is identified. This function recognises the specificity of neuronal interactions and reflects the dynamics of postsynaptic potential. In comparison to existing techniques, the Cox method has the following advantages: it does not use bins (binless method); it is applicable to cases where the sample size is small; it is sufficiently sensitive such that it estimates weak influences; it supports the simultaneous analysis of multiple influences; it is able to identify a correct connectivity scheme in difficult cases of "common source" or "indirect" connectivity. The Cox method has been thoroughly tested using multiple sets of data generated by the neural network model of the leaky integrate and fire neurons with a prescribed architecture of connections. The results suggest that this method is highly successful for analysing functional connectivity of simultaneously recorded multiple spike trains.

  8. Differential reflex adaptations following sensorimotor and strength training in young elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Taube, W; Kullmann, N; Leukel, C; Kurz, O; Amtage, F; Gollhofer, A

    2007-12-01

    In young elite athletes the influence of a sensorimotor training (SMT = balance training) on strength, jump height and spinal reflex excitability was compared with adaptations induced by strength training (ST). Seventeen athletes were randomly assigned to either a SMT or a ST group. Before and after 6 weeks of training, maximal isometric strength (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD (max)) were determined. Changes in jump height and EMG activity were assessed during squat- (SJ), countermovement- (CMJ) and drop-jump (DJ). To evaluate neural adaptations, H-reflex recruitment was recorded at rest and during dynamic activation of the plantarflexors following stance perturbation. MVC was enhanced after ST but not influenced by SMT. RFD (max) was not affected by any training. Both SMT and ST significantly improved jump performance in SJ, CMJ, and DJ. Maximum H-reflex to maximum M-wave ratios (H (max)/M (max)-ratios) at rest remained unchanged. During stance perturbation, H (max)/M (max)-ratios were significantly reduced following SMT whereas ST augmented H (max)/M (max)-ratios (p < 0.05). In contrast to other studies, no changes in RFD were found. This may be explained by methodological and/or training specific differences. However, both SMT and ST improved jump performance in well trained young athletes but induced opposing adaptations of the H (max)/M (max)-ratio when measured during dynamic contractions. These adaptations were task-specific as indicated by the unchanged reflexes at rest. Decreased spinal excitability following SMT was interpreted as the attempt to improve movement control, whereas augmented excitability following ST accounts for the effort to enhance motoneuron output. Functionally, our results emphasise that SMT is not only beneficial for prevention and rehabilitation but also improves athletic performance.

  9. Effects of aerobic conditioning and strength training on a child with Down syndrome: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cynthia L; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effects of a home exercise program of combined aerobic and strength training on fitness with a 10.5-year-old girl with Down syndrome (DS). Measurements included cardiovascular variables, strength, body composition, flexibility, and skill. The subject participated in a home exercise program: 30 to 60 minutes of moderate- to high-intensity exercise five to six days per week for six weeks. The cardiovascular variables monitored were heart rate, respiration rate, and oxygen consumption during a submaximal treadmill stress test. Other measures included 10-repetition maximal strength of selected muscle groups, body mass index, flexibility, Gross Motor Scales of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, and anaerobic muscle power. Improvements in submaximal heart and respiration rates, aerobic performance, muscle strength and endurance, gross motor skills, and anaerobic power were observed for this subject. Body weight and flexibility were unchanged. For this subject, a combined aerobic and strength-training program resulted in improved cardiopulmonary functions not observed in previous studies of subjects with DS.

  10. Effects of strength and balance training on the mobility, fear of falling and grip strength of elderly female fallers.

    PubMed

    Prata, Melina Galleti; Scheicher, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of virtual reality and strength training on the balance, fear of falling and handgrip strength of older women with a history of falls. The fear of falling, mobility and grip strength were evaluated in 11 elderly fallers (72.4 ± 5.2 years). The faller group was submitted to 12 weeks of virtual reality and muscle strength training. The results showed improvement in mobility (p = 0.0004) and in the fear of falling (p = 0.002). No significant difference was observed for hand grip strength. It can be concluded that virtual reality and muscle strength interventions are beneficial for mobility and fear of falling in older women with a history of falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant

  12. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    PubMed

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase

  13. Recognizing the intensity of strength training exercises with wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Pernek, Igor; Kurillo, Gregorij; Stiglic, Gregor; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a system based on a network of wearable accelerometers and an off-the-shelf smartphone to recognize the intensity of stationary activities, such as strength training exercises. The system uses a hierarchical algorithm, consisting of two layers of Support Vector Machines (SVMs), to first recognize the type of exercise being performed, followed by recognition of exercise intensity. The first layer uses a single SVM to recognize the type of the performed exercise. Based on the recognized type a corresponding intensity prediction SVM is selected on the second layer, specializing in intensity prediction for the recognized type of exercise. We evaluate the system for a set of upper-body exercises using different weight loads. Additionally, we compare the most important features for exercise and intensity recognition tasks and investigate how different sliding window combinations, sensor configurations and number of training subjects impact the algorithm performance. We perform all of the experiments for two different types of features to evaluate the feasibility of implementation on resource constrained hardware. The results show the algorithm is able to recognize exercise types with approximately 85% accuracy and 6% intensity prediction error. Furthermore, due to similar performance using different types of features, the algorithm offers potential for implementation on resource constrained hardware. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low- or high-intensity strength training partially restores impaired quadriceps force accuracy and steadiness in aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; Tunnel, D; Moody, J; Beam, S; DeVita, P

    2001-01-01

    Because many daily tasks are executed at only a fraction of maximal strength, an understanding of submaximal force control may be important for improving function in aged adults. We compared the effects of low- and high-intensity (LI and HI, respectively) strength training on maximal and explosive strength and on the accuracy (force error) and steadiness (variability) of submaximal quadriceps force in elderly humans. Older subjects (age, 72 years; n = 27) had 57% lower maximal strength in comparison with young subjects (age, 21 years; n = 10). Older subjects had 190% (19 N), 50% (1 N), and 80% (4 N) more force error in matching 25 N of quadriceps force during eccentric, isometric, and concentric contractions, and had 157%, 0%, and 60% more variability in these forces compared with young subjects. Force error and force variability were correlated with each other but not with maximal strength. Thirty sessions of LI (n = 9 participants) or HI (n = 9 participants) training of equal total work increased maximal strength in the older subjects by 29%. Training also significantly reduced force error and variability--by 31% and 30%, respectively--of eccentric and concentric contractions. A control group of older subjects (n = 9) showed no significant changes in any variables. LI or HI strength training was equally effective in partially restoring elderly adults' maximal strength and control of submaximal force.

  15. A systematic review and meta-analysis of strength training in individuals with multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Travis M; Reyes, Alvaro R; Ziman, Melanie R

    2015-01-01

    disease after strength training. Furthermore, significant improvements in fatigue (8.2%), functional capacity (21.5%), quality of life (8.3%), power (17.6%), and electromyography activity (24.4%) were found in individuals with multiple sclerosis after strength training. The limitations of the study were the heterogeneity of interventions and study outcomes in Parkinson disease and multiple sclerosis trials. Strength training is useful for increasing muscle strength in Parkinson disease and to a lesser extent multiple sclerosis.

  16. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Strength Training in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis Or Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, Travis M.; Reyes, Alvaro R.; Ziman, Melanie R.

    2015-01-01

    with Parkinson disease after strength training. Furthermore, significant improvements in fatigue (8.2%), functional capacity (21.5%), quality of life (8.3%), power (17.6%), and electromyography activity (24.4%) were found in individuals with multiple sclerosis after strength training. The limitations of the study were the heterogeneity of interventions and study outcomes in Parkinson disease and multiple sclerosis trials. Strength training is useful for increasing muscle strength in Parkinson disease and to a lesser extent multiple sclerosis. PMID:25634170

  17. Inhomogeneous Quadriceps Femoris Hypertrophy in Response to Strength and Power Training.

    PubMed

    Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported inhomogeneous changes in quadriceps femoris (QF) cross-sectional area (CSA) in response to strength training. It is assumed that these differential changes in muscle shape influence the muscle's functional capacity during high-force and high-power movements. The purpose of the current study was to compare intermuscular and intramuscular QF adaptations to high-load strength training and fast-speed power training. Thirty-six non-strength-trained men were randomly assigned to four groups and completed 8 wk of parallel-depth heavy squat-lift training (HS-P), parallel-depth jump squat training (JS-P), volitional-depth jump squat training (JS-V), or no training (C). Quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL), intermedius (VI), medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) CSA were measured in distal-, mid-, and proximal-thigh regions using extended field-of-view ultrasonography and compared using a 3 × 2 mixed-model MANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests (P < 0.05). Parallel-depth heavy squat-lift training and JS-P elicited similar changes in mid-CSA(QF) as well as summed CSA of the QF, VL, VI, and VM. Cross-sectional area of the VL (CSA(VL)) and CSA(VI) increased in both HS-P and JS-P at mid-thigh, but only JS-P significantly increased CSA proximally, and only HS-P significantly increased CSA distally. Cross-sectional area of the VM (CSA(VM)) increased in HS-P and JS-P distally, but only HS-P increased at mid-thigh. No hypertrophy was observed in RF at any location and no significant differences were observed between JS-P and JS-V. Parallel-depth heavy squat-lift training elicited greater proximal hypertrophy in each of the vasti muscles, whereas only JS-P elicited distal VL and VI hypertrophy. These observed inhomogeneous changes in CSA may alter the thigh's moment of inertia and moment arms of muscle "compartments," and the influence of elastic component force transmission on the muscular force expression. Such selective hypertrophy is

  18. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  19. Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Mandy L.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle’s ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise. PMID:24307968

  20. Mirror Training Augments the Cross-education of Strength and Affects Inhibitory Paths.

    PubMed

    Zult, Tjerk; Goodall, Stuart; Thomas, Kevin; Solnik, Stanislaw; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-06-01

    Unilateral strength training strengthens not only the muscles on the trained side but also the homologous muscles on the untrained side; however, the magnitude of this interlimb cross-education is modest. We tested the hypothesis that heightened sensory feedback by mirror viewing the exercising hand would augment cross education by modulating neuronal excitability. Healthy adults were randomized into a mirror training group (MG, N = 11) and a no-mirror training group (NMG, N = 12) and performed 640 shortening muscle contractions of the right wrist flexors at 80% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) during 15 sessions for 3 wk. Maximal strength and specific transcranial magnetic stimulation metrics of neuronal excitability, measured in the mirror and no-mirror setup at rest and during unilateral contractions at 60% MVC, were assessed before and after the strength intervention. Trained wrist flexor MVC increased 72% across groups, whereas cross-education was higher for the MG (61%) than NMG (34%, P = 0.047). The MG showed a reduction (15%-16%) in the contralateral silent period duration measured from the contracting left-untrained flexor carpi radialis, whereas the NMG showed an increase (12%, P ≤ 0.030). Interhemispheric inhibition, measured from the trained to the untrained primary motor cortex, increased in the MG (11%) but decreased in the NMG (15%) when measured in the mirror setup at rest (P = 0.048). Other transcranial magnetic stimulation measures did not change. Viewing the exercising hand in a mirror can augment the cross-education effect. The use of a mirror in future studies can potentially accelerate functional recovery from unilateral impairment due to stroke or upper limb fracture.

  1. Progressive resistance strength training and the related injuries in older adults: the susceptibility of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Monteiro, Graça; Abrantes, Catarina

    2014-06-01

    The benefits of progressive resistance training (PRT) among the older adults are evident, especially in the prevention of sarcopenia and improving muscle strength, which reverse the age-related loss of functional ability. However, PRT carries some risk, particularly when participants are older adults with a certain degree of muscle weakness. The purpose of this article is to discuss the PRT-related injuries, and present an overview of documented shoulder injuries among the elderly, discerning possible mechanisms of injury and risk factors. A literature search was conducted in the PUBMED database to identify the relevant literature using combinations of keywords: strength-training injuries, resistance-training injuries, sports injuries in the elderly, shoulder complex, shoulder injury, and shoulder disorder. Acute and chronic injuries attributed to PRT have been cited in the epidemiological literature. The shoulder complex, has been alluded to as one of the most prevalent regions of injury, particularly in exercises that place the arm extended above the head and posterior to the trunk. However, the risk for injuries appears to be higher for testing than for training itself. One-repetition maximum strength testing may result in a greater injury risk. This technique, though acceptable, needs additional precautions in inexperience older adults to prevent injury. Thus, the best treatment for PRT age-related injuries is prevention. Appropriate and individualized training programs, the use of safe equipment, careful warming up and cooling down, correct range of motion, progressive intensity training, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness are essential aspects of injury prevention among the elderly.

  2. Strength training in children and adolescents: raising the bar for young athletes?

    PubMed

    Dahab, Katherine Stabenow; McCambridge, Teri Metcalf

    2009-05-01

    Strength training in children, in combination with plyometric and/or agility training, has become an increasingly popular tactic for athletes to gain a competitive edge during the off-season. The present review clarifies some common myths associated with strength training in children, and it outlines the most current recommendations. Relevant studies on strength training in children and adolescents were reviewed (search results included studies indexed in PubMed and MEDLINE from 1980 through 2008). Also reviewed were recommendations from consensus guidelines and position statements applicable to strength training in youth. Children can improve strength by 30% to 50% after just 8 to 12 weeks of a well-designed strength training program. Youth need to continue to train at least 2 times per week to maintain strength. The case reports of injuries related to strength training, including epiphyseal plate fractures and lower back injuries, are primarily attributed to the misuse of equipment, inappropriate weight, improper technique, or lack of qualified adult supervision. Youth-athletes and nonathletes alike-can successfully and safely improve their strength and overall health by participating in a well-supervised program. Trained fitness professionals play an essential role in ensuring proper technique, form, progression of exercises, and safety in this age group.

  3. Effects of Combined Strength and Sprint Training on Lean Mass, Strength, Power and Sprint Performance in Masters Road Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Luke; Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Macgregor, Campbell; Meerkin, Jarrod; Villegas, Jerome; Korhonen, Marko T

    2017-05-25

    Strength and sprint training exercises are integral part of training in many younger endurance cyclists to improve cycling efficiency and sprinting ability. This study was undertaken to examine whether muscle and performance characteristics could be improved in endurance-trained masters cyclist by adding strength and sprint training stimuli into their training regimen. Twenty five masters road cyclists were assigned to a combined strength and sprint training group (CT; n=9, 53.5 ± 9.3 years), a sprint training group (ST, n=7, 49.4 ± 4.8 years) or a control group (CG, n=9, 56.9 ± 8.6 years). Before and after the 12 week intervention, whole body lean mass (WBLM), total lower limb lean mass (LLLM), countermovement jump height (CMJ), peak isometric torque of quadriceps (QPT) and hamstring (HPT) muscles were examined. For evaluation of sport-specific performance, 10 second sprint cycling peak power (PP10), total 30 second work (TW), peak power output (PPO) and flying 200 meter time trial performance (TT) were assessed. No pre-training differences were observed between CT, ST and CG groups for any of the dependant variables. After training, a significant (p<0.05) between group difference was observed in TW between CT and CG groups. A significant effect of time (p<0.05) was observed for LLLM in CT and ST groups, and for TT in the CT group. These results suggest including strength and sprint exercises in training can increase lower limb lean mass and sprint performance in endurance trained masters road cyclists. Further research is warranted to find out an ideal pattern of training to maintain aerobic capabilities along with sprint performance in aging road cyclists.

  4. Effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training and motor skills training on strength of children with meningomyelocele: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Liese M; Lahay, Erin R; Stueck, Kailey A; White, Erin; Williams, Lindsay; Harris, Susan R

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review provides a critical synthesis of research regarding the effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training, and motor skills training on muscle strength in children with meningomyelocele. Nine databases were searched using terms related to meningomyelocele and physical therapy interventions. Of 298 potentially relevant citations, six met the inclusion criteria. Each was rated using the systematic review guidelines of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. Two studies examined changes in quadriceps muscle torque following electrical stimulation, three investigated upper extremity exercise training, and one evaluated quadriceps strength after motor skills training. Although the limited evidence suggests improvements in strength when using these interventions, much of the evidence is of low methodological quality and all studies were published more than 10 years ago. Further research is needed regarding various strength-training interventions for children with meningomyelocele and the relationship between increased strength and improved activity and participation.

  5. Increases in muscle volume after plantarflexor strength training in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    McNee, Anne E; Gough, Martin; Morrissey, Matt C; Shortland, Adam P

    2009-06-01

    Children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) have small, weak muscles. However, change in muscle size due to resistance training in this group is unknown. We investigated the effect of plantarflexor strengthening on muscle volume, gait, and function in 13 ambulant children with spastic CP (seven males, six females; mean age 10 y 11 mo, SD 3 y 0 mo, range 6 y 11 mo-16 y 11 mo; eight with diplegia, five with hemiplegia; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, six; level II, five; level III, two). Assessments were performed before training, 5 and 10 weeks into training, and at a 3-month follow-up. Medial and lateral gastrocnemius volumes were computed from three-dimensional ultrasound images. The number of unilateral heel raises able to be achieved on each side was assessed. Function was measured using three-dimensional gait analysis, the 'timed up and go' test, the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire, and the Functional Mobility Scale. Training involved heel raises or Thera-Band resistance, 4 times a week for 10 weeks. Medial and lateral gastrocnemius volumes increased by 17 and 14% at week 5 (p=0.03, p=0.028). This increase was maintained at week 10 and follow-up (medial gastrocnemius p=0.001, p<0.001; lateral gastrocnemius p=0.006, p=0.007). Heel raises (mean number) increased by week 5 (p=0.002). This was maintained at week 10 and follow-up (p<0.001; p<0.001). No significant change in measured function was observed. Muscle volume increased in response to training in children with spastic CP. The role of progressive strength training in maintaining long-term function is discussed.

  6. Influence of the number of sets at a strength training in the flexibility gains.

    PubMed

    Júnior, Roberto S; Leite, Thalita; Reis, Victor M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of strength training with different number of sets and their influence on flexibility of young men. Sixty men were divided into three groups as follows: group that trained 1 set per exercise (G1S), group that trained 3 sets per exercise (G3S) and control group (CG). The training lasted 10 weeks, totaling 30 training sessions. The training groups performed 8 to 12 repetitions per set for each exercise. The flexibility at Sit and Reach Test was evaluated pre and post-training. Both trained groups showed significant increase in flexibility when compared to pre-training and the G3S showed significant difference when compared to CG post-training. According to this study, the strength training carried out without flexibility training promotes flexibility gains regardless the number of sets.

  7. Strength Training to Enhance Early Recovery after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Collins, Eileen; Park, Chang; Peters, Tara; Patel, Pritesh; Rondelli, Damiano

    2017-04-01

    Intensive cancer treatment followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) results in moderate to severe fatigue and physical inactivity, leading to diminished functional ability. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an exercise intervention, strength training to enhance early recovery (STEER), on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life after HCT. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial compared strength training (n = 33) to usual care plus attention control with health education (UC + AC with HE) (n = 34). Subjects were stratified by type of transplantation and age. STEER consisted of a comprehensive program of progressive resistance introduced during hospitalization and continued for 6 weeks after hospital discharge. Fatigue, physical activity, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life were assessed before HCT hospital admission and after intervention completion. Data were analyzed using split-plot analysis of variance. Significant time × group interactions effects were noted for fatigue (P = .04). The STEER group reported improvement in fatigue from baseline to after intervention whereas the UC + AC with HE group reported worsened fatigue from baseline to after intervention. Time (P < .001) and group effects (P = .05) were observed for physical activity. Physical activity declined from baseline to 6 weeks after hospitalization. The STEER group was more physically active. Functional ability tests (timed stair climb and timed up and go) resulted in a significant interaction effect (P = .03 and P = .05, respectively). Subjects in the UC + AC with HE group were significantly slower on both tests baseline to after intervention, whereas the STEER group's time remained stable. The STEER group completed both tests faster than the UC + AC with HE group after intervention. Study findings support the use of STEER after intensive cancer treatment and HCT

  8. Endurance and strength training effects on physiological and muscular parameters during prolonged cycling.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, C; Argentin, S; Bieuzen, F; Le Meur, Y; Couturier, A; Brisswalter, J

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of a combined endurance and strength training on the physiological and neuromuscular parameters during a 2-h cycling test. Fourteen triathletes were assigned to an endurance-strength training group and an endurance-only training group. They performed three experimental trials before and after training: an incremental cycling test to exhaustion, a maximal concentric lower-limbs strength measurement and a 2-h cycling exercise. Physiological parameters, free cycling chosen cadence and the EMG of Vastus Lateralis (VL) and Rectus Femoris (RF) were analysed during the 2-h cycling task before and after a strength training programme of 5 weeks (three times per week). The results showed that the maximum strength and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction (isoMVC) after training were significantly higher (P<0.01) and lower (P<0.01) than those before training, respectively, in endurance-strength training group and endurance-only group. The physiological variables measured during the cycling tests and the progressive increase (P<0.01) in EMGi(VL) and EMGi(RF) throughout the 2-h cycling test did not differ between the two groups before and after training, except for the variation of EMGi(VL) over the cycle time which was stabilized during the second hour of the 2-h cycling test due to training in endurance-strength training group. The decrease in free cycling chosen cadence observed in pre-training (P<0.01) was also replaced by a steady free cycling chosen cadence for the endurance-strength training group during the second hour of exercise. This study confirmed the decrease in the free cycling chosen cadence with exercise duration and demonstrated that a specific combined endurance and strength training can prevent this decrease during a 2-h constant cycling exercise. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  10. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise. PMID:25713678

  11. Rehabilitation (exercise and strength training) and osteoarthritis: A critical narrative review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Christelle; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Poiraudeau, Serge; Rannou, François

    2016-06-01

    Rehabilitation is widely recommended in national and international guidelines for managing osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care settings. According to the 2014 OA Research Society International (OARSI) recommendations, rehabilitation is even considered the core treatment of OA and is recommended for all patients. Rehabilitation for OA widely includes land- and water-based exercise, strength training, weight management, self-management and education, biomechanical interventions, and physically active lifestyle. We performed a critical narrative review of the efficacy and safety of rehabilitation for managing OA and discuss evidence-based international recommendations. The process of article selection was unsystematic. Articles were selected based on authors' expertise, self-knowledge, and reflective practice. For the purpose of the review, we focused on land- and water-based exercise and strength training for knee, hip and hand OA. Other aspects of rehabilitation in OA are treated elsewhere in this special issue. Exercise therapy is widely recommended for managing knee, hip and hand OA. However, the level of evidence varies according to OA location. Overall, consistent evidence suggests that exercise therapy and specific strengthening exercise or strength training for the lower limb reduce pain and improve physical function in knee OA. Evidence for other OA sites are less consistent. Therefore, because of the lack of specific studies, recommendations for hip and hand OA are mainly derived from studies of knee OA. In addition, no recommendations have been established regarding the exercise regimen. The efficacy and safety of exercise therapy and strength training need to be further evaluated in randomized controlled trials of patients with hip and hand OA. The optimal delivery of exercise programs also has to be more clearly defined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of effects of strength and endurance training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco; Toral, Javier; Cejudo, Pilar; Villagomez, Rafael; Sánchez, Hildegard; Castillo, José; Montemayor, Teodoro

    2002-09-01

    We determined the effect of different exercise training modalities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including strength training (n = 17), endurance training (n = 16), and combined strength and endurance (n = 14) (half of the endurance and half of the strengthening exercises). Data were compared at baseline, the end of the 12-week exercise-training program, and 12 weeks later. Improvement in the walking distance was only significant in the strength group. Increases in submaximal exercise capacity for the endurance group were significantly higher than those observed in the strength group but were of similar magnitude than those in the combined training modality, which in turn were significantly higher than for the strength group. Increases in the strength of the muscle groups measured in five weight lifting exercises were significantly higher in the strength group than in the endurance group but were of similar magnitude than in the combined training group, which again showed significantly higher increases than subjects in the endurance group. Any training modality showed significant improvements of the breathlessness score and the dyspnea dimension of the chronic respiratory questionnaire. In conclusion, the combination of strength and endurance training seems an adequate training strategy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  13. A training programme to improve hip strength in persons with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Lee

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effect of a 10-week training programme on persons with a lower limb amputation and to determine if this training is sufficient to enable running. Seven transtibial, 8 transfemoral and 1 bilateral amputee (all resulting from trauma, tumour or congenital) were randomly assigned to a training (n  =8) or control group (n = 8). Isokinetic hip flexor and extensor strength at 60 and 120º/s and oxygen consumption while walking at 1.0 m/s were tested pre- and post- a 10-week period. The training group followed a twice weekly hip strengthening programme, while the control group continued with their usual activities. Running ability was determined pre-testing, and attempted after post-testing for the training group only. The training group increased hip strength and decreased oxygen consumption. Six amputees who were previously unable to run were able to after training. The control group decreased intact limb hip extensor strength. The training programme is sufficient to improve hip strength and enable running in persons with a lower limb amputation. As hip strength was reduced in those not following the training programme, it is recommended that strength training be undertaken regularly in order to avoid losing limb strength following amputation.

  14. Unilateral arm strength training improves contralateral peak force and rate of force development.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Michael; Macquaide, Niall; Helgerud, Jan; Hoff, Jan; Kemi, Ole Johan

    2008-07-01

    Neural adaptation following maximal strength training improves the ability to rapidly develop force. Unilateral strength training also leads to contralateral strength improvement, due to cross-over effects. However, adaptations in the rate of force development and peak force in the contralateral untrained arm after one-arm training have not been determined. Therefore, we aimed to detect contralateral effects of unilateral maximal strength training on rate of force development and peak force. Ten adult females enrolled in a 2-month strength training program focusing of maximal mobilization of force against near-maximal load in one arm, by attempting to move the given load as fast as possible. The other arm remained untrained. The training program did not induce any observable hypertrophy of any arms, as measured by anthropometry. Nevertheless, rate of force development improved in the trained arm during contractions against both submaximal and maximal loads by 40-60%. The untrained arm also improved rate of force development by the same magnitude. Peak force only improved during a maximal isometric contraction by 37% in the trained arm and 35% in the untrained arm. One repetition maximum improved by 79% in the trained arm and 9% in the untrained arm. Therefore, one-arm maximal strength training focusing on maximal mobilization of force increased rapid force development and one repetition maximal strength in the contralateral untrained arm. This suggests an increased central drive that also crosses over to the contralateral side.

  15. Normative data on functional grip strength of elderly in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Mat Jais, Ita Suzana; Chan, Kai Li; Loke, Mun Kitt Austin; Abdul Rahim, Saleem; Tay, Shian Chao

    2017-02-21

    Cross-sectional study for clinical measurement. Most daily tasks require individuals to exert grip strength with torque, which can be challenging for elderly as their strength diminishes with age. We postulate that to assess the functional capacity of an individual, it is important to evaluate the functional grip strength instead of the maximal static grip strength. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to establish normative data for the functional grip strength of elderly aged 60 years and older in the Singapore population. In this study, 233 healthy subjects aged 60 years and older were recruited. Using a custom-made hand strength measurement device, the following measurements were recorded: grip strength at neutral position, grip strength with resistive pronation torque, and grip strength with resistive supination torque. Grip strengths measured for both genders decreased by 13% and 16% for males and females respectively, when pronation torque was exerted, and with supination torque, the strength decreased by 18% and 17% for males and females respectively. Normative data for the elderly population in Singapore had been established. The findings from this study can complement the existing ergonomic hand data in designing better assistive tools to improve the independent living of elderly. NA. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10−30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20−50%) increased 24–48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM+ satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM+- and Pax7+-positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinaseThr421/Ser424 increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. Key points Cold water immersion is a popular strategy to recover from exercise. However, whether regular cold water immersion influences muscle adaptations to strength training is not well understood. We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on changes in muscle mass and strength after 12 weeks of strength training. We also examined the effects of these

  17. Concurrent training in elite male runners: the influence of strength versus muscular endurance training on performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Marín, Pedro J; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Much recent attention has been given to the compatibility of combined aerobic and anaerobic training modalities. However, few of these studies have reported data related to well-trained runners, which is a potential limitation. Therefore, because of the limited evidence available for this population, the main aim was to determine which mode of concurrent strength-endurance training might be the most effective at improving running performance in highly trained runners. Eighteen well-trained male runners (age 23.7 ± 1.2 years) with a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) more than 65 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomly assigned into 1 of the 3 groups: Endurance-only Group (n = 6), who continued their usual training, which included general strength training with Thera-band latex-free exercise bands and endurance training; Strength Group (SG; n = 6) who performed combined resistance and plyometric exercises and endurance training; Endurance-SG (ESG; n = 6) who performed endurance-strength training with loads of 40% and endurance training. The study comprised 12 weeks of training in which runners trained 8 times a week (6 endurance and 2 strength sessions) and 5 weeks of detraining. The subjects were tested on 3 different occasions (countermovement jump height, hopping test average height, 1 repetition maximum, running economy (RE), VO2max, maximal heart rate [HRmax], peak velocity (PV), rating of perceived exertion, and 3-km time trial were measured). Findings revealed significant time × group interaction effects for almost all tests (p < 0.05). We can conclude that concurrent training for both SG and ESG groups led to improved maximal strength, RE, and PV with no significant effects on the VO2 kinetics pattern. The SG group also seems to show improvements in 3-km time trial tests.

  18. Creatine Supplementation Associated or Not with Strength Training upon Emotional and Cognitive Measures in Older Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Merege Filho, Carlos Alberto Abujabra; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Brucki, Sonia; Pereira, Rosa Maria R.; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of creatine supplementation, associated or not with strength training, upon emotional and cognitive measures in older woman. Methods This is a 24-week, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The individuals were randomly allocated into one of the following groups (n=14 each): 1) placebo, 2) creatine supplementation, 3) placebo associated with strength training or 4) creatine supplementation associated with strength training. According to their allocation, the participants were given creatine (4 x 5 g/d for 5 days followed by 5 g/d) or placebo (dextrose at the same dosage) and were strength trained or not. Cognitive function, assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests involving memory, selective attention, and inhibitory control, and emotional measures, assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale, were evaluated at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention. Muscle strength and food intake were evaluated at baseline and after 24 weeks. Results After the 24-week intervention, both training groups (ingesting creatine supplementation and placebo) had significant reductions on the Geriatric Depression Scale scores when compared with the non-trained placebo group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) and the non-trained creatine group (p < 0.001 for both comparison). However, no significant differences were observed between the non-trained placebo and creatine (p = 0.60) groups, or between the trained placebo and creatine groups (p = 0.83). Both trained groups, irrespective of creatine supplementation, had better muscle strength performance than the non-trained groups. Neither strength training nor creatine supplementation altered any parameter of cognitive performance. Food intake remained unchanged. Conclusion Creatine supplementation did not promote any significant change in cognitive function and emotional parameters in apparently healthy older individuals. In addition, strength training per se

  19. COMPREHENSIVE STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM FOR A RECREATIONAL SENIOR GOLFER 11-MONTHS AFTER A ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Erik P.; En Gilpin, Hui; Brunette, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Golf is a popular sport played by hundreds of thousands of individuals of all ages and of varying skill levels. An orthopedic or sports-related injury and/or surgery may limit an individual's sport participation, require him/her to complete a course of rehabilitation, and initiate (or resume) a sport-specific training program. Unlike the availability of evidence to guide postsurgical rehabilitation and sport-specific training of athletes from sports other than golf, there have only been two reports describing outcomes after surgery and for golfers. The purpose of this case report is to present a post-rehabilitation return to sport-training program for a recreational golfer 11-months after a rotator cuff repair. Case Description: The subject, a 67-year old female, injured her right shoulder requiring a rotator cuff repair 11-months prior to her participation in a golf fitness training program. The subject participated in six training sessions over seven week period consisting of general strengthening exercises (including exercises for the rotator cuff), exercises for the core, plyometrics, and power exercises. Outcomes: The subject made improvements in power and muscular endurance of the core. She was able to resume golf at the completion of the training program. Discussion: The subject was able to make functional improvements and return to golf after participation in a comprehensive strength program. Additional studies are necessary to improve program design for golfers who wish to return to sport after shoulder surgery. PMID:22163096

  20. Comprehensive strength training program for a recreational senior golfer 11-months after a rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Brumitt, Jason; Meira, Erik P; En Gilpin, Hui; Brunette, Meredith

    2011-12-01

    Golf is a popular sport played by hundreds of thousands of individuals of all ages and of varying skill levels. An orthopedic or sports-related injury and/or surgery may limit an individual's sport participation, require him/her to complete a course of rehabilitation, and initiate (or resume) a sport-specific training program. Unlike the availability of evidence to guide postsurgical rehabilitation and sport-specific training of athletes from sports other than golf, there have only been two reports describing outcomes after surgery and for golfers. The purpose of this case report is to present a post-rehabilitation return to sport-training program for a recreational golfer 11-months after a rotator cuff repair. The subject, a 67-year old female, injured her right shoulder requiring a rotator cuff repair 11-months prior to her participation in a golf fitness training program. The subject participated in six training sessions over seven week period consisting of general strengthening exercises (including exercises for the rotator cuff), exercises for the core, plyometrics, and power exercises. The subject made improvements in power and muscular endurance of the core. She was able to resume golf at the completion of the training program. The subject was able to make functional improvements and return to golf after participation in a comprehensive strength program. Additional studies are necessary to improve program design for golfers who wish to return to sport after shoulder surgery.

  1. Muscle strength enhancement following home-based virtual cycling training in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Liaw, Mei-Yun; Chung, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chung-Yao

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first well-designed randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a novel home-based virtual cycling training (hVCT) program for improving muscle strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-12 years were randomly assigned to an hVCT group (n=13) or a control group (n=15). Outcome measures, including gross motor function of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) and muscle strength (isokinetic torque of knee extensor and flexor muscle), were administered before and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at post-treatment showed that, compared to the control group, the hVCT group had significantly higher isokinetic torque in the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60°/s and 120°/s angular velocities (p<0.05). At post-treatment, the hVCT group also showed greater isokinetic strength improvement in the knee flexor than in the knee extensor at 60°/s (knee flexor: 41%; knee extensor: 19%) and at 120°/s (knee flexor: 36%; knee extensor: 30%). However, the BOTMP scores at post-treatment did not differ between the two groups. Although the proposed 12-week hVCT protocol does not improve gross motor function, it enhances knee muscle strength in children with CP. The protocol obtains larger gains in the knee flexor than in the knee extensor at different angular velocities. The study findings will help clinicians to provide more effective and efficient strategies for muscle strength training in children with CP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptations in corticospinal excitability and inhibition are not spatially confined to the agonist muscle following strength training.

    PubMed

    Mason, Joel; Frazer, Ashlyn; Horvath, Deanna M; Pearce, Alan J; Avela, Janne; Howatson, Glyn; Kidgell, Dawson

    2017-07-01

    We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine the corticospinal responses from an agonist and synergist muscle following strength training of the right elbow flexors. Motor-evoked potentials were recorded from the biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis during a submaximal contraction from 20 individuals (10 women, 10 men, aged 18-35 years; training group; n = 10 and control group; n = 10) before and after 3 weeks of strength training at 80% of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM). To characterise the input-output properties of the corticospinal tract, stimulus-response curves for corticospinal excitability and inhibition of the right biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis were constructed and assessed by examining the area under the recruitment curve (AURC). Strength training resulted in a 29% (P < 0.001) increase in 1-RM biceps brachii strength and this was accompanied by a 19% increase in isometric strength of the wrist flexors (P = 0.001). TMS revealed an increase in corticospinal excitability AURC and a decrease in silent period duration AURC for the biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis following strength training (all P < 0.05). However, the changes in corticospinal function were not associated with increased muscle strength. These findings show that the corticospinal responses to strength training of a proximal upper limb muscle are not spatially restricted, but rather, results in a change in connectivity, among an agonist and a synergistic muscle relevant to force production.

  3. Effects of equivolume isometric training programs comprising medium or high resistance on muscle size and strength.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, H; Nagareda, H; Kawakami, Y; Akima, H; Masani, K; Kouzaki, M; Fukunaga, T

    2002-06-01

    Isometric unilateral elbow extension training was conducted for 10 weeks (3 times per week) on 12 young adult men to investigate the effects of equivolume exercise programs with different combinations of intensity and duration on the morphological and functional aspects of the triceps brachii muscle. One group of 6 subjects trained by developing maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 6 s per set with 12 sets per session (100%G), while the other group of 6 subjects trained at 60% of MVC for 30 s per set with 4 sets per session (60%G). Training significantly increased the muscle volume ( V(m)), fascicle pennation angle of the triceps brachii, and torque output during concentric and eccentric elbow extensions at three constant velocities of 0.52, 1.57, and 3.14 rad.s(-1) as well as under the training condition, with no significant differences in the relative gains between the two programs. However, 100%G showed significantly greater V(m) than 60%G after training, when V(m) before training was normalized. Thus, only 60%G significantly increased the ratio of torque to V(m) developed in the eccentric actions at the three velocities and concentric action at 1.57 rad.s(-1). The present results indicate that isometric training programs of medium resistance/long duration and high resistance/short duration produce different effects on V(m) and dynamic strength relative to V(m), even if the training volume is equalized between the two protocols.

  4. Effects of different modes of strength training on body composition and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Katch, F I; Drumm, S S

    1986-07-01

    This article deals with the effects of conventional strength training and circuit resistance training on changes in body composition parameters. Recent data are provided on the technique of arm radiography to quantify changes in arm muscle and fat following strength development with hydraulic resistance exercise equipment.

  5. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  6. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  7. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  8. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  9. [Relationship between baroreflex function and training effects on altitude training].

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Mizuochi, Fumio; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Takahashi, Masanori; Iwasaki, Kenichi

    2012-05-01

    Altitude training is frequently used for athletes requiring competitive endurance in an attempt to improve their sea-level performance. However, there has been no study in which the mechanisms by which spontaneous arterial-cardiac baroreflex function changes was examined in responders or nonresponders of altitude training. The purpose of this study was to clarify the different effects of altitude training on baroreflex function between responders and nonresponders. Twelve university student cross-country skiers (6 men, 6 women; age, 19±1 years) participated in the altitude training in a camp for 3 weeks, which was carried out in accordance with the method of Living High-Training Low. Baroreflex function was estimated by transfer function analysis before and after the training. The responders of the training were 3 men and 2 women, and the nonresponders were 3 men and 4 women. In the responders, the transfer function gain in the high-frequency range significantly increased after the training (28.9→46.5 ms/mmHg p=0.021). On the other hand, no significant change in this index was observed in the nonresponders (25.9→21.2 ms/mmHg p=0.405). As indicated by the results of transfer function gain in the high-frequency range, the baroreflex function in the responders increased significantly after the altitude training, whereas no significant change was observed in the nonresponders.

  10. Testing the efficacy of the theory of planned behavior to explain strength training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dean, Rachel N; Farrell, Jocelyn M; Kelley, Mary Lou; Taylor, M Jane; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the constructs of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to gain a better understanding of the factors influencing older adults' participation in strength training. Two hundred men and women age 55 years and older were purposely sampled from seniors' centers in Ontario Canada. Participants completed a TPB questionnaire and reported their current physical activity participation. It was hypothesized that perceived behavioral control followed by attitude would be the strongest determinants of strength-training intentions and that intention would be the strongest determinant of strength-training behavior. Regression analyses revealed that subjective norm and perceived behavioral control explained 42% of the variance in intention and intention explained 40% of the variance in behavior. Gender and current strength-training participation did not significantly moderate the relationship between the TPB variables. The results suggest that interventions targeting subjective norm and perceived control might be helpful in promoting strength-training behavior among older adults.

  11. Pulmonary Function, Muscle Strength, and Incident Mobility Disability in Elders

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Aron S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Evans, Denis A.; Bennett, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle strength, including leg strength and respiratory muscle strength, are relatively independently associated with mobility disability in elders. However, the factors linking muscle strength with mobility disability are unknown. To test the hypothesis that pulmonary function mediates the association of muscle strength with the development of mobility disability in elders, we used data from a longitudinal cohort study of 844 ambulatory elders without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project with a mean follow-up of 4.0 years (SD = 1.39). A composite measure of pulmonary function was based on spirometric measures of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, and peak expiratory flow. Respiratory muscle strength was based on maximal inspiratory pressure and expiratory pressure and leg strength based on hand-held dynamometry. Mobility disability was defined as a gait speed less than or equal to 0.55 m/s based on annual assessment of timed walk. Secondary analyses considered time to loss of the ability to ambulate. In separate proportional hazards models which controlled for age, sex, and education, composite measures of pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and leg strength were each associated with incident mobility disability (all P values < 0.001). Further, all three were related to the development of incident mobility disability when considered together in a single model (pulmonary function: hazard ratio [HR], 0.721; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.577, 0.902; respiratory muscle strength: HR, 0.732; 95% CI, 0.593, 0.905; leg strength: HR, 0.791; 95% CI, 0.640, 0.976). Secondary analyses examining incident loss of the ability to ambulate revealed similar findings. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of pulmonary function and muscle strength are relatively independently associated with the development of mobility disability in the elderly. PMID:19934353

  12. Weekly Time Course of Neuro-Muscular Adaptation to Intensive Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Brown, Niklas; Bubeck, Dieter; Haeufle, Daniel F B; Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Alt, Wilfried; Schmitt, Syn

    2017-01-01

    Detailed description of the time course of muscular adaptation is rarely found in literature. Thus, models of muscular adaptation are difficult to validate since no detailed data of adaptation are available. In this article, as an initial step toward a detailed description and analysis of muscular adaptation, we provide a case report of 8 weeks of intense strength training with two active, male participants. Muscular adaptations were analyzed on a morphological level with MRI scans of the right quadriceps muscle and the calculation of muscle volume, on a voluntary strength level by isometric voluntary contractions with doublet stimulation (interpolated twitch technique) and on a non-voluntary level by resting twitch torques. Further, training volume and isokinetic power were closely monitored during the training phase. Data were analyzed weekly for 1 week prior to training, pre-training, 8 weeks of training and 2 weeks of detraining (no strength training). Results show a very individual adaptation to the intense strength training protocol. While training volume and isokinetic power increased linearly during the training phase, resting twitch parameters decreased for both participants after the first week of training and stayed below baseline until de-training. Voluntary activation level showed an increase in the first 4 weeks of training, while maximum voluntary contraction showed only little increase compared to baseline. Muscle volume increased for both subjects. Especially training status seemed to influence the acute reaction to intense strength training. Fatigue had a major influence on performance and could only be overcome by one participant. The results give a first detailed insight into muscular adaptation to intense strength training on various levels, providing a basis of data for a validation of muscle fatigue and adaptation models.

  13. Comparing the effects of two distinct eccentric modalities to traditional resistance training in resistance trained, higher functioning older adults.

    PubMed

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Dulson, Deborah; Merien, Fabrice; Plank, Lindsay; Harris, Nigel

    2017-11-01

    The effects of eccentric resistance exercise are of interest in the older adult cohort, but to our knowledge, there is no research on the relative effects of different eccentric modalities on a range of outcomes in higher functioning, resistance trained older adults. 33 resistance-trained older adults (aged 67±4.5years) were randomized into one of three supervised training groups: traditional (TRE), eccentric only (ERE) or eccentrically biased resistance exercise (EBRE) on a 45°, plate-loaded leg press machine. Participants trained twice per week with maximal strength, functional capacity, body composition and blood biomarkers measured before and after the eight-week intervention. Both eccentric and concentric strength, and important functional tasks for independent living significantly improved independent of group. Body composition and blood biomarkers were found to significantly improve in the EBRE group only however, no statistical differences were found between groups. Compared to traditional resistance training, the two eccentric modalities investigated here were equally effective for improvements in maximum muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition and metabolic biomarkers. When training the resistance trained older adult, very heavy isoinertial external loads (at least 70% of one repetition maximum) are effective irrespective of contraction mode. With heavy strength training, resistance trained older adults can continue to expect improvements in health and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lifelong strength training mitigates the age-related decline in efferent drive.

    PubMed

    Unhjem, Runar; Nygård, Mona; van den Hoven, Lene T; Sidhu, Simranjit K; Hoff, Jan; Wang, Eivind

    that strength training may be particularly beneficial for counteracting age-related loss of neuromuscular function.

  15. Acute Physiological Responses to Strongman Training Compared to Traditional Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nigel K; Woulfe, Colm J; Wood, Matthew R; Dulson, Deborah K; Gluchowski, Ashley K; Keogh, Justin B

    2016-05-01

    Strongman training (ST) has become an increasingly popular modality, but data on physiological responses are limited. This study sought to determine physiological responses to an ST session compared to a traditional strength exercise training (RST) session. Ten healthy men (23.6 ± 27.5 years, 85.8 ± 10.3 kg) volunteered in a crossover design, where all participants performed an ST session, an RST session, and a resting session within 7 days apart. The ST consisted of sled drag, farmer's walk, 1 arm dumbbell clean and press, and tire flip at loads eliciting approximately 30 seconds of near maximal effort per set. The RST consisted of squat, deadlift, bench press, and power clean, progressing to 75% of 1 repetition maximum. Sessions were equated for approximate total set duration. Blood lactate and salivary testosterone were recorded immediately before and after training sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure, and substrate utilization were measured throughout the resting session, both training protocols and for 80 minutes after training sessions. Analyses were conducted to determine differences in physiological responses within and between protocols. No significant changes in testosterone occurred at any time point for either session. Lactate increased significantly immediately after both sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure, and substrate utilization were all elevated significantly during ST and RST. Heart rate and fat expenditure were significantly elevated compared to resting in both sessions' recovery periods; calorie and carbohydrate expenditures were not. Compared to RST, ST represents an equivalent physiological stimulus on key parameters indicative of potential training-induced adaptive responses. Such adaptations could conceivably include cardiovascular conditioning.

  16. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with quantified trunk rotational strength training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Kevin L; Asher, Marc A; Burton, Douglas C; Liu, Wen

    2008-07-01

    Prospective clinical trial. To test the hypothesis that quantified trunk rotational strength training will equalize any strength asymmetry, increase strength overall, and stabilize adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Bracing, the only generally accepted form of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis nonoperative therapy, has many shortcomings. Paraspinal muscle abnormalities, which have been extensively documented in these patients, are generally considered to be secondary. A normal female's trunk strength in flexion and extension decreases from her juvenile to adolescent years, whereas a male's increases. Patients received a 4-month supervised followed by a 4-month home trunk rotational strength training program. Trunk rotational strength was measured in both directions at 5 positions at baseline, 4 months, and 8 months. The patients were followed clinically. Fifteen patients (12 females and 3 males), with an average age of 13.9 years and an average main Cobb of 33 degrees were enrolled. At baseline there was no significant asymmetry. After 4 months of supervised strength training, involving an average of 32 training sessions, each lasting about 25 minutes, their strength had significantly increased by 28% to 50% (P<0.005 to P<0.001). After 4 months of unsupervised home strength training their strengths were unchanged. The 3 patients with baseline curves of 50 to 60 degrees all had main or compensatory curve progression and 2 had surgery. For patients with 20 to 40-degree curves, survivorship from main curve progression of >or=6 degrees was 100% at 8 months, but decreased to 64% at 24 months. Quantified trunk rotational strength training significantly increased strength. It was not effective for curves measuring 50 to 60 degrees. It appeared to help stabilize curves in the 20 to 40-degree ranges for 8 months, but not for 24 months. Periodic additional supervised strength training may help the technique to remain effective, although additional experimentation will be

  17. Changes in health-related quality of life in elderly men after 12 weeks of strength training.

    PubMed

    Haraldstad, Kristin; Rohde, Gudrun; Stea, Tonje Holte; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Hetlelid, Ken; Paulsen, Gøran; Berntsen, Sveinung

    2017-01-01

    Muscular strength is associated with functional ability in elderly, and older adults are recommended to perform muscle-strengthening exercise. Understanding how improved muscle strength and -mass influence general and specific domains of quality of life is important when planning health promotion efforts targeting older adults. The aims of the present study were to describe changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older men participating in 12 weeks of systematic strength training, and to investigate whether improvements in muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with enhancements in HRQOL. We recruited 49 men aged 60-81 years to participate in an intervention study with pre-post assessment. The participants completed a 12-week strength training program consisting of three sessions per week. Tests and measurements aimed at assessing change in HRQOL, and changes in physical performance (maximal strength) and physiological characteristics. HRQOL was measured using the 12-item short-form survey (SF-12). Muscle mass was assessed based on changes in lean mass (leg, trunk, arm, and total), and strength was measured as one-repetition maximum in leg extension, leg press, and biceps curl. Two of the eight HRQOL SF-12 scores, role physical and general health, and the physical component summary scores, increased significantly during the intervention period. Small significant positive correlations were identified between improvements in muscle strength, and better physical and social function. Moreover, a significant increase in total muscle mass was seen during the intervention period. The positive, findings from this study would suggest that systematic strength training seems to be a beneficial intervention to improve HRQOL, muscle strength and muscle mass in older men.

  18. Strength-training with whole-body vibration in long-distance runners: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, R; Pasqua, L A; Bueno, S; Damasceno, M V; Lima-Silva, A E; Bishop, D; Tricoli, V

    2013-10-01

    A parallel group randomized trial was designed to analyze the impact of 6 weeks of strength training programs performed with or without whole-body vibration on muscular and endurance performance parameters in long-distance runners. 22 endurance runners were allocated into strength with whole-body vibration (n=8), without (n=8), and control (n=6) groups. Before and after the experimental period the subjects performed the following tests: a) maximum dynamic strength test, b) maximal incremental treadmill test, and c) time to exhaustion at velocity corresponding to maximal oxygen uptake. The fractions of the aerobic and anaerobic contribution in time to exhaustion test were also calculated. Both strength trained groups showed a similar increase in maximum dynamic strength (~18%). The aerobic contribution was enhanced for strength training group without whole-body vibration (~25%) after experimental period. No statistical differences were observed in any other variable. These results suggest that 6 weeks of strength training performed with or without whole-body vibration improve similarly the maximum dynamic strength in long-distance runners. In addition, both training modes studied had no deleterious effects on the traditional parameters of endurance performance, traditional strength training program results in increased aerobic contribution during high-intensity aerobic exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Similarity in adaptations to high-resistance circuit vs. traditional strength training in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Pedro E; Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Chavarrias, Manuel; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    To compare the effects of 8 weeks of high-resistance circuit (HRC) training (3-6 sets of 6 exercises, 6 repetition maximum [RM], ∼35-second interset recovery) and traditional strength (TS) training (3-6 sets of 6 exercises, 6RM, 3-minute interset recovery) on physical performance parameters and body composition, 33 healthy men were randomly assigned to HRC, TS, or a control group. Training consisted of weight lifting 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training, 1RM strength on bench press and half squat exercises, bench press peak power output, and body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry ) were determined. Shuttle run and 30-second Wingate tests were also completed. Upper limb (UL) and lower limb 1RM increased equally after both TS and HRC training. The UL peak power at various loads was significantly higher at posttraining for both groups (p ≤ 0.01). Shuttle-run performance was significantly better after both HRC and TS training, however peak cycling power increased only in TS training (p ≤ 0.05). Significant decreases were found in % body fat in the HRC group only; HRC and TS training both resulted in an increased lean but not bone mass. The HRC training was as effective as TS for improving weight lifting 1RM and peak power, shuttle-run performance and lean mass. Thus, HRC training promoted a similar strength-mass adaptation as traditional training while using a shorter training session duration.

  20. A Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Strength Test Score Variability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-02

    Bemben, D. A., Loftiss, D. D., & Knehans, A. W. (2001). Creatine supplementation during resistance training in college football athletes. Med Sci...Naval Health Research Center A Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Strength Test Score Variability Ross R. Vickers, Jr...the Effect of Resistance Training on Strength Test Score Variability Ross R. Vickers Jr. Amanda C. Barnard Linda K. Hervig Naval Health

  1. Efficacy of strength training on tension-type headache: A randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Bjarne K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Lars L; Tornøe, Birte; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2017-01-01

    Background Strength training has shown effects in reducing neck pain. As neck pain is highly prevalent in tension-type headache (TTH), it is relevant to examine the effect of strength training of the shoulder muscles on TTH patients. Aim To examine the effect of strength training of the shoulder/neck muscles on TTH frequency and duration. Methods Sixty patients with TTH were randomised into strength training or a control group. The strength training group trained ten weeks with elastic resistance bands. The control group performed ergonomic and posture correction. Efficacy was evaluated at follow-up after 19-22 weeks. Results Twenty-three patients completed strength training and 21 completed ergonomic and posture correction (per-protocol). No between-group effect was detected, but within groups numerical reductions were noted in both groups from baseline to follow-up. Frequency of TTH in the strength training group decreased by 11% ( P = 0.041) and duration decreased by10% ( P = 0.036), while the ergonomic and posture correction group showed a significant reduction in frequency of 24% ( P = 0.0033) and a decrease in duration of 27% ( P = 0.041). Conclusion No significant difference between the groups was found and the within-group effects did not reach clinical significance. Combining all the elements into a multifaceted intervention could prove more useful and should be further explored in future studies. Clinical trials registration number NCT02984826.

  2. Strategies to optimize concurrent training of strength and aerobic fitness for rowing and canoeing.

    PubMed

    García-Pallarés, Jesús; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2011-04-01

    During the last several decades many researchers have reported an interference effect on muscle strength development when strength and endurance were trained concurrently. The majority of these studies found that the magnitude of increase in maximum strength was higher in the group that performed only strength training compared with the concurrent training group, commonly referred to as the 'interference phenomenon'. Currently, concurrent strength and endurance training has become essential to optimizing athletic performance in middle- and long-distance events. Rowing and canoeing, especially in the case of Olympic events, with exercise efforts between 30 seconds and 8 minutes, require high amounts of maximal aerobic and anaerobic capacities as well as high levels of maximum strength and muscle power. Thus, strength training, in events such as rowing and canoeing, is integrated into the training plan. However, several studies indicate that the degree of interference is affected by the training protocols and there may be ways in which the interference effect can be minimized or avoided. Therefore, the aim of this review is to recommend strategies, based on research, to avoid or minimize any interference effect when training to optimize performance in endurance sports such as rowing and canoeing.

  3. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  4. Increases in muscle strength and balance using a resistance training program administered via a telecommunications system in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cos...

  5. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  6. A 10-week randomized trial comparing eccentric vs. concentric hamstring strength training in well-trained soccer players.

    PubMed

    Mjølsnes, Roald; Arnason, Arni; Østhagen, Tor; Raastad, Truls; Bahr, Roald

    2004-10-01

    To compare the effects of a 10-week training program with two different exercises -- traditional hamstring curl (HC) and Nordic hamstrings (NH), a partner exercise focusing the eccentric phase -- on muscle strength among male soccer players. Subjects were 21 well-trained players who were randomized to NH training (n = 11) or HC training (n = 10). The programs were similar, with a gradual increase in the number of repetitions from two sets of six reps to three sets of eight to 12 reps over 4 weeks, and then increasing load during the final 6 weeks of training. Strength was measured as maximal torque on a Cybex dynamometer before and after the training period. In the NH group, there was an 11% increase in eccentric hamstring torque measured at 60 degrees s(-1), as well as a 7% increase in isometric hamstring strength at 90 degrees, 60 degrees and 30 degrees of knee flexion. Since there was no effect on concentric quadriceps strength, there was a significant increase in the hamstrings:quadriceps ratio from 0.89 +/- 0.12 to 0.98 +/- 0.17 (11%) in the NH group. No changes were observed in the HC group. NH training for 10 weeks more effectively develops maximal eccentric hamstring strength in well-trained soccer players than a comparable program based on traditional HC.

  7. Self directed home based electrical muscle stimulation training improves exercise tolerance and strength in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Prendergast, Ann; Rainsford, Gary; Minogue, Conor

    2013-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with a gradual decline in muscle strength, exercise tolerance and subsequent capacity for activities of daily living. It is important that we develop effective strategies to halt this process of gradual decline in order to enhance functional ability and capacity for independent living. To achieve this, we must overcome the challenge of sustaining ongoing engagement in physical exercise programmes in the sedentary elderly population, particularly those who experience barriers to exercise participation. Recent developments in electrical muscle stimulation technology could provide a potential solution. In this pilot case-control study we investigated the effects of a self-directed home based programme of electrical muscle stimulation training on muscle strength and exercise tolerance in a group of 16 healthy elderly volunteers (10f, 6m). Study participants completed 30 separate 1-hour electrical muscle stimulation sessions at home over a 6-week period. We observed significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength and 6-minute walk distance, suggesting that this form of electrical muscle stimulation training has promise as an exercise modality in the elderly population.

  8. Outcomes of tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training for dysphagia following acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure treatment outcomes in a group of six adults with chronic dysphagia following acquired brain injury, who each completed 24 sessions of tongue-pressure resistance training, over a total of 11–12 weeks. The treatment protocol emphasized both strength and accuracy. Biofeedback was provided using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Amplitude accuracy targets were set between 20–90% of the patient's maximum isometric pressure capacity. Single subject methods were used to track changes in tongue strength (maximum isometric pressures), with functional swallowing outcomes measured using blinded ratings of a standard pre- and post-treatment videofluoroscopy protocol. Improvements were seen in post-treatment measures of tongue pressure and penetration–aspiration. No improvements were seen in pharyngeal residues, indeed worsening residue was seen in some patients. PMID:23336825

  9. Improving Strength, Power, Muscle Aerobic Capacity, and Glucose Tolerance through Short-term Progressive Strength Training Among Elderly People.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Eva A; Frank, Per; Pontén, Marjan; Ekblom, Björn; Ekblom, Maria; Moberg, Marcus; Sahlin, Kent

    2017-07-05

    This protocol describes the simultaneous use of a broad span of methods to examine muscle aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance, strength, and power in elderly people performing short-term resistance training (RET). Supervised progressive resistance training for 1 h three times a week over 8 weeks was performed by RET participants (71±1 years, range 65-80). Compared to a control group without training, the RET showed improvements on the measures used to indicate strength, power, glucose tolerance, and several parameters of muscle aerobic capacity. Strength training was performed in a gym with only robust fitness equipment. An isokinetic dynamometer for knee extensor strength permitted the measurement of concentric, eccentric, and static strength, which increased for the RET group (8-12% post- versus pre-test). The power (rate of force development, RFD) at the initial 0-30 ms also showed an increase for the RET group (52%). A glucose tolerance test with frequent blood glucose measurements showed improvements only for the RET group in terms of blood glucose values after 2 h (14%) and the area under the curve (21%). The blood lipid profile also improved (8%). From muscle biopsy samples prepared using histochemistry, the amount of fiber type IIa increased, and a trend towards a decrease in IIx in the RET group reflected a change to a more oxidative profile in terms of fiber composition. Western blot (to determine the protein content related to the signaling for muscle protein synthesis) showed a rise of 69% in both Akt and mTOR in the RET group; this also showed an increase in mitochondrial proteins for OXPHOS complex II and citrate synthase (both ~30%) and for complex IV (90%), in only the RET group. We demonstrate that this type of progressive resistance training offers various improvements (e.g., strength, power, aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance, and plasma lipid profile).

  10. Effects of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Loud, Rita LaRosa; O'Connell, Jill; Glover, Scott; O'Connell, Jason; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of four resistance training protocols on upper body strength and muscular endurance development in children. Untrained children trained twice per week for 8 weeks, using general conditioning exercises and different upper-body conditioning protocols. Results indicated that higher-repetition training protocols enhanced…

  11. Effects of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Loud, Rita LaRosa; O'Connell, Jill; Glover, Scott; O'Connell, Jason; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of four resistance training protocols on upper body strength and muscular endurance development in children. Untrained children trained twice per week for 8 weeks, using general conditioning exercises and different upper-body conditioning protocols. Results indicated that higher-repetition training protocols enhanced…

  12. Changes in agonist neural drive, hypertrophy and pre-training strength all contribute to the individual strength gains after resistance training.

    PubMed

    Balshaw, Thomas G; Massey, Garry J; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; McKeown, Alexandra; Appleby, Clare L; Folland, Jonathan P

    2017-04-01

    Whilst neural and morphological adaptations following resistance training (RT) have been investigated extensively at a group level, relatively little is known about the contribution of specific physiological mechanisms, or pre-training strength, to the individual changes in strength following training. This study investigated the contribution of multiple underpinning neural [agonist EMG (QEMGMVT), antagonist EMG (HEMGANTAG)] and morphological variables [total quadriceps volume (QUADSVOL), and muscle fascicle pennation angle (QUADSθ p)], as well as pre-training strength, to the individual changes in strength after 12 weeks of knee extensor RT. Twenty-eight healthy young men completed 12 weeks of isometric knee extensor RT (3/week). Isometric maximum voluntary torque (MVT) was assessed pre- and post-RT, as were simultaneous neural drive to the agonist (QEMGMVT) and antagonist (HEMGANTAG). In addition QUADSVOL was determined with MRI and QUADSθ p with B-mode ultrasound. Percentage changes (∆) in MVT were correlated to ∆QEMGMVT (r = 0.576, P = 0.001), ∆QUADSVOL (r = 0.461, P = 0.014), and pre-training MVT (r = -0.429, P = 0.023), but not ∆HEMGANTAG (r = 0.298, P = 0.123) or ∆QUADSθ p (r = -0.207, P = 0.291). Multiple regression analysis revealed 59.9% of the total variance in ∆MVT after RT to be explained by ∆QEMGMVT (30.6%), ∆QUADSVOL (18.7%), and pre-training MVT (10.6%). Changes in agonist neural drive, quadriceps muscle volume and pre-training strength combined to explain the majority of the variance in strength changes after knee extensor RT (~60%) and adaptations in agonist neural drive were the most important single predictor during this short-term intervention.

  13. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; Katch, F I; Lachance, P F

    1991-03-01

    This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We

  14. Early-phase strength gains during traditional resistance training compared with an upper-body air-resistance training device.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Cian; Jensen, Randall L; Byrne, Ciarán A; Shafat, Amir

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the early-phase adaptations of traditional dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) training vs. a portable upper-body training device (Fortex). The Fortex is a concentric training device based on air resistance. Contractions using this device are slow (1.5-3 s) and have a limited range of motion. The exercises potentially allow maximal muscle action during each contraction. Healthy, sedentary men (n = 30) were assigned to begin either 8 weeks of weight training (W, n = 12) or 8 weeks of Fortex training (F, n = 9), and were compared with a control group (C, n = 9). Exercises were chosen for the W group that would train similar muscle groups and contain a similar volume of repetitions as the F group. However, movement patterns and force curves were not identical. Increases in the upper-arm cross-sectional area were not detected in any of the groups. Both training groups showed strength gains in the various strength tests that were distinct from each other. Our results indicate that both Fortex and DCER training proved effective in eliciting strength gains in sedentary men over an 8-week training period. There are, however, limitations with the Fortex in terms of progression needs and training asymmetry that indicate it should be used as a complement to other training.

  15. Differentiating maturational influence on training-induced strength and endurance adaptations in prepubescent children.

    PubMed

    Marta, Carlos C; Marinho, Daniel A; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of biological maturation on training-induced strength and endurance adaptations in the prepubertal growth spurt. One hundred and twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls), aged 10-11 years old (10.8 ± 0.4 years), who were self-assessed as belonging to Tanner stages I and II, were randomly divided into two experimental groups, a strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls) and an endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls) that would train twice a week for 8 weeks, as well as a control group (18 boys, 21 girls; no training program). After 8 weeks of training, there were improvements in all strength and endurance measures (P < 0.01) for both groups of Tanner stage I and II children. No significant differences in training response were observed relative to biological maturity or gender (P > 0.05). These data suggest that more biologically mature prepubescent children seem to have no advantage in training-induced strength and endurance adaptations compared with their less mature peers. Additionally, gender did not affect the training-induced changes in strength or aerobic fitness. These results are meaningful for the development of optimized well-rounded training programs in prepubertal children. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:469-475, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Training and detraining effects on functional fitness after a multicomponent training in older women.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M J; Marques, E; Mota, J

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out in order to evaluate the potential influence of increased physical activity on the health, biological ageing and functional ability of the elderly. However, only limited information is available on the effects of multicomponent training and detraining on functional performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 8-month multicomponent training and 3-month detraining on the functional fitness of older women. Fifty-seven women were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 32; 68.4 +/- 2.93 years) or a control group (n = 25; 69.6 +/- 4.20 years). The training program consisted of 2 sessions per week of aerobic, strength, balance and flexibility exercises. The functional fitness test battery was performed to assess the physical parameters associated with independent functioning in older adults. No significant changes were observed in body mass index and cardiovascular endurance as a result of the exercise training. Training induced significant (p < 0.05) improvements in chair stand (27.3%), arm curl (17.4%), chair sit-and-reach (17.4%), up-and-go (11%) and back scratch (14.5%) tests. However, both upper and lower body strength and upper and lower flexibility declined significantly after detraining in the exercise group. The results of this study highlight the negative effects of interrupting exercise on several physical parameters of functional fitness. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The effects of plyometric training followed by detraining and reduced training periods on explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of (a) plyometric training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent male basketball players and (b) detraining and reduced training on previously achieved explosive strength gains. Two groups were formed: an experimental and a control group. The former was submitted to a 10-week in-season plyometric training program, twice weekly, along with regular basketball practice. Simultaneously, the control group participated in regular basketball practice only. At the end of this period, the experimental group was subdivided into 2 groups: a reduced training group and a detraining group. All participants were assessed on squat jump, countermovement jump, Abalakov test, depth jump, mechanical power, and medicine ball throw at the beginning and at the end of the 10-week in-season plyometric training and on weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the in-season detraining and reduced training periods. In the first phase of the study, the experimental group significantly increased all the assessed indicators (p < 0.05). In the following phase and in general all the groups maintained the previously achieved results. In conclusion, plyometric training showed positive effects on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. Moreover, we can state that both detraining and a reduced training program indistinctly contribute to maintenance of strength levels. These results highlight the unique power that basketball-specific training seems to have on the sustainability and maintenance of sport performance.

  18. Metformin to Augment Strength Training Effective Response in Seniors (MASTERS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Long, Doug E; Peck, Bailey D; Martz, Jenny L; Tuggle, S Craig; Bush, Heather M; McGwin, Gerald; Kern, Philip A; Bamman, Marcas M; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-04-26

    Muscle mass and strength are strong determinants of a person's quality of life and functional independence with advancing age. While resistance training is the most effective intervention to combat age-associated muscle atrophy (sarcopenia), the ability of older adults to increase muscle mass and strength in response to training is blunted and highly variable. Thus, finding novel ways to complement resistance training to improve muscle response and ultimately quality of life among older individuals is critical. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a commonly prescribed medication called metformin can be repurposed to improve the response to resistance exercise training by altering the muscle tissue inflammatory environment. Individuals aged 65 and older are participating in a two-site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing the effects of metformin or placebo on muscle size, strength, and physical function when combined with a progressive resistance training program. Participants consume 1700 mg of metformin per day or placebo for 2 weeks before engaging in a 14-week progressive resistance training regimen, with continued metformin or placebo. Participants are then monitored post-training to determine if the group taking metformin derived greater overall benefit from training in terms of muscle mass and strength gains than those on placebo. Muscle biopsies are taken from the vastus lateralis at three time points to assess individual cellular and molecular adaptations to resistance training and also changes in response to metformin. The response of aged muscles to a resistance training program does not always result in a positive outcome; some individuals even experience a loss in muscle mass following resistance training. Thus, adjuvant therapies, including pharmacological ones, are required to optimize response to training in those who do not respond and may be at increased risk of frailty. This is the first known metformin

  19. Influence of Strength, Sprint Running, and Combined Strength and Sprint Running Training on Short Sprint Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, M C; Gabbett, T J; Marinho, D A; Blazevich, A J; Sousa, A; van den Tillaar, R; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of transference of 6 weeks of full squat vs. full squat plus sprint running training to short (ranged from 0-10 to 0-30 m) sprint running performance in non-athletes. We hypothesized that a speed-full-squat training regimen could enhance squat strength and power with simultaneous improvements in short sprint performance. 122 physically active adults (age: 20.5±2.5 years; body mass: 65.8±6.1 kg; height: 1.71±0.08 m) were randomly divided into 4 groups: full squat training (n=36), combined full squat and sprint training (n=32), speed training only (n=34) and non-training control group (n=20). Each training group completed 2 sessions per week over 6 weeks, while the control group performed only their normal physical activity. Sprint performance was improved after sprint running or full squat training alone (1.7% and 1.8% P<0.05, respectively), however larger enhancements (2.3%; P<0.01) were observed after the combined full squat plus sprint training intervention. These results suggest that in recreationally active adults, combined full squat and sprint training provides a greater stimulus for improving sprint performance than either modality alone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Comparison of strength training, aerobic training, and additional physical therapy as supplementary treatments for Parkinson's disease: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alessandro; Barbirato, Dannyel; Araujo, Narahyana; Martins, Jose Vicente; Cavalcanti, Jose Luiz Sá; Santos, Tony Meireles; Coutinho, Evandro S; Laks, Jerson; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation is commonly used in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to improve their health and alleviate the symptoms. We compared the effects of three programs, strength training (ST), aerobic training (AT), and physiotherapy, on motor symptoms, functional capacity, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in PD patients. Twenty-two patients were recruited and randomized into three groups: AT (70% of maximum heart rate), ST (80% of one repetition maximum), and physiotherapy (in groups). Subjects participated in their respective interventions twice a week for 12 weeks. The assessments included measures of disease symptoms (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]), functional capacity (Senior Fitness Test), and EEG before and after 12 weeks of intervention. The PD motor symptoms (UPDRS-III) in the group of patients who performed ST and AT improved by 27.5% (effect size [ES]=1.25, confidence interval [CI]=-0.11, 2.25) and 35% (ES=1.34, CI=-0.16, 2.58), respectively, in contrast to the physiotherapy group, which showed a 2.9% improvement (ES=0.07, CI=-0.85, 0.99). Furthermore, the functional capacity of all three groups improved after the intervention. The mean frequency of the EEG analysis mainly showed the effect of the interventions on the groups (F=11.50, P=0.0001). ST and AT in patients with PD are associated with improved outcomes in disease symptoms and functional capacity.

  1. Effects of a 12-week strength training program on experimented fencers' movement time.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Juan C; Alonso, Cruz J; Sedano, Silvia; de Benito, Ana M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week strength training program on movement time (MT) on fencers of national level. Twelve male fencers were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (CG: N = 6; age, 22.3 ± 8.1 years) and the treatment group (TG: N = 6; age, 24.8 ± 7.2 years). The CG fencers followed the standard physical conditioning program, which was partially modified for the TG. The TG participated in a 12-week strength training program divided into 2 parts: maximal strength training, including weightlifting exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks) and explosive strength training, with combined weights and plyometric exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks). Body mass, body fat, muscle mass, jumping ability, maximal strength, reaction time, and MT were measured on 4 separate occasions. The TG demonstrated significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in maximal strength and jumping ability after 6 weeks of training and in MT after 12 weeks. These improvements remained unaltered during the 4-week detraining period. It may be concluded that a 12-week strength training program can improve maximal and explosive strength, and these increases can be transferred to MT performance. However, fencers need time to transfer the gains.

  2. Neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, J; Rusko, H; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E M; Häkkinen, K

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on neuromuscular and endurance characteristics compared to strength or endurance training alone. Previously untrained men were divided into strength (S: n=16), endurance (E: n=11) or concurrent strength and endurance (SE: n=11) training groups. S and E trained 2 times and SE 2 + 2 times a week for strength and endurance during the 21-week period. Maximal unilateral isometric and bilateral concentric forces of leg muscles increased similarly in S and SE by 20-28% (p<0.01) and improvements in isometric forces were accompanied by increases (p<0.05) of maximal muscle activation. Rate of force development of isometric action (p<0.05) improved only in S. The increase in muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris in SE (11%, p<0.001) were greater than in S (6%, p<0.001) or in E (2%, p<0.05). SE and E increased maximal cycling power (SE: 17% and E: 11%, p<0.001) and VO(2MAX) (SE: 17%, p<0.001 and E: 5%, ns.). These results suggest that the present moderate volume 21-week concurrent SE training in previously untrained men optimizes the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy, maximal strength and endurance development, but interferes explosive strength development, compared with strength or endurance training alone.

  3. Photon strength functions from photon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwengner, Ronald

    2015-10-01

    We present photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ rays at the HI γS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) in Durham. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we include intensity in the quasi-continuum and perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HI γS. Photoabsorption cross sections deduced in this way are presented for selected nuclides. Strength in the energy region of the so-called pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) is considered in nuclei around mass 80 and in xenon isotopes. In collaboration with Ralph Massarczyk, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  4. Systematic review on strength training in Parkinson’s disease: an unsolved question

    PubMed Central

    Ramazzina, Ileana; Bernazzoli, Benedetta; Costantino, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of strength training, performed against a different resistance from body weight, in improving motor and nonmotor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Web of Science. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Thirteen high-quality randomized controlled trials were included. Strength training performed against external resistance is well tolerated and appears to be a suitable physical activity to improve both physical parameters and quality of life parameters of PD subjects. However, although the study intervention included strength training, only a few selected studies assessed the improvement of muscle strength. Despite the encouraging results, it is difficult to establish a correlation between strength training and the improvements made. Our review highlights the lack of common intent in terms of study design and the presence of different primary and secondary outcomes. Accordingly, further studies are needed to support the beneficial effects of different types of strength training in PD subjects and to underline the superiority of strength training in PD patients with respect to other training. PMID:28408811

  5. Systematic review on strength training in Parkinson's disease: an unsolved question.

    PubMed

    Ramazzina, Ileana; Bernazzoli, Benedetta; Costantino, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of strength training, performed against a different resistance from body weight, in improving motor and nonmotor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Web of Science. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Thirteen high-quality randomized controlled trials were included. Strength training performed against external resistance is well tolerated and appears to be a suitable physical activity to improve both physical parameters and quality of life parameters of PD subjects. However, although the study intervention included strength training, only a few selected studies assessed the improvement of muscle strength. Despite the encouraging results, it is difficult to establish a correlation between strength training and the improvements made. Our review highlights the lack of common intent in terms of study design and the presence of different primary and secondary outcomes. Accordingly, further studies are needed to support the beneficial effects of different types of strength training in PD subjects and to underline the superiority of strength training in PD patients with respect to other training.

  6. Effects of an 18-week strength training program on low-handicap golfers' performance.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María; Sedano, Silvia; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 18-week strength training program on variables related to low-handicap golfers' performance. Ten right-handed male golfers, reporting a handicap of 5 or less, were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CG) (N = 5, age: 23.9 ± 6.7 years) and the treatment group (TG) (N = 5, age: 24.2 ± 5.4 years). CG players followed the standard physical conditioning program for golf, which was partially modified for the TG. The TG participated in an 18-week strength training program divided into three parts: maximal strength training including weightlifting exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks), explosive strength training with combined weights and plyometric exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks), and golf-specific strength training, including swings with a weighted club and accelerated swings with an acceleration tubing system (3 days a week for 6 weeks). Body mass, body fat, muscle mass, jumping ability, isometric grip strength, maximal strength (RM), ball speed, and golf club mean acceleration were measured on five separate occasions. The TG demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in maximal and explosive strength after 6 weeks of training and in driving performance after 12 weeks. These improvements remained unaltered during the 6-week golf-specific training period and even during a 5-week detraining period. It may be concluded that an 18-week strength training program can improve maximal and explosive strength and these increases can be transferred to driving performance; however, golfers need time to transfer the gains.

  7. Gamma-ray strength functions and their relation to astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Goriely, S.; Algin, E.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Lönnroth, T.; Mitchell, G. E.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J. B.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Ruud, I. E.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wikan, K.

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear γ-ray strength function is one of the indispensable inputs needed for reaction-rate calculations, and is particularly important for the neutron-capture cross section. The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract simultaneously nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function from particle-γ coincidence measurements. Data on the strength functions of Sn nuclei as well as for lighter elements are presented. The Sn isotopes all display a resonance-like structure close to the neutron threshold, that could possibly be due to the neutron-skin oscillation mode. This so-called pygmy dipole resonance greatly influences the neutron-capture rates. In the lighter nuclei, an enhancement of the strength function at low γ energies is observed. The possible impact of this increase on Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates has been investigated.

  8. Gamma-ray strength functions and their relation to astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Buerger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J. B.; Renstroem, T.; Rose, S. J.; Ruud, I. E.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Wikan, K.; Algin, E.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Goergen, A.

    2011-10-28

    The nuclear {gamma}-ray strength function is one of the indispensable inputs needed for reaction-rate calculations, and is particularly important for the neutron-capture cross section. The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract simultaneously nuclear level density and {gamma}-ray strength function from particle-{gamma} coincidence measurements. Data on the strength functions of Sn nuclei as well as for lighter elements are presented. The Sn isotopes all display a resonance-like structure close to the neutron threshold, that could possibly be due to the neutron-skin oscillation mode. This so-called pygmy dipole resonance greatly influences the neutron-capture rates. In the lighter nuclei, an enhancement of the strength function at low {gamma} energies is observed. The possible impact of this increase on Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates has been investigated.

  9. Effect of resistance training on women's strength/power and occupational performances.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, W J; Mazzetti, S A; Nindl, B C; Gotshalk, L A; Volek, J S; Bush, J A; Marx, J O; Dohi, K; Gómez, A L; Miles, M; Fleck, S J; Newton, R U; Häkkinen, K

    2001-06-01

    The effects of resistance training programs on strength, power, and military occupational task performances in women were examined. Untrained women aged (mean +/- SD) 23 +/- 4 yr were matched and randomly placed in total- (TP, N = 17 and TH, N = 18) or upper-body resistance training (UP, N = 18 and UH, N = 15), field (FLD, N = 14), or aerobic training groups (AER, N = 11). Two periodized resistance training programs (with supplemental aerobic training) emphasized explosive exercise movements using 3- to 8-RM training loads (TP, UP), whereas the other two emphasized slower exercise movements using 8- to 12-RM loads (TH, UH). The FLD group performed plyometric and partner exercises. Subjects were tested for body composition, strength, power, endurance, maximal and repetitive box lift, 2-mile loaded run, and U.S. Army Physical Fitness Tests before (T0) and after 3 (T3) and 6 months of training (T6). For comparison, untrained men (N = 100) (MEN) were tested once. Specific training programs resulted in significant increases in body mass (TP), 1-RM squat (TP, TH, FLD), bench press (all except AER), high pull (TP), squat jump (TP, TH, FLD), bench throw (all except AER), squat endurance (all except AER), 1-RM box lift (all except aerobic), repetitive box lift (all), push-ups (all except AER), sit-ups (all except AER), and 2-mile run (all). Strength training improved physical performances of women over 6 months and adaptations in strength, power, and endurance were specific to the subtle differences (e.g., exercise choice and speeds of exercise movement) in the resistance training programs (strength/power vs strength/hypertrophy). Upper- and total-body resistance training resulted in similar improvements in occupational task performances, especially in tasks that involved upper-body musculature. Finally, gender differences in physical performance measures were reduced after resistance training in women, which underscores the importance of such training for physically

  10. Effects of Four Weeks of Strength Training on the Corticomotoneuronal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, James L; Barry, Benjamin K; Jones, Matthew D; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2017-07-07

    Neural adaptations to strength training have long been recognized, but knowledge of mechanisms remains incomplete. Using novel techniques and a design which limited experimental bias, this study examined if 4 weeks of strength training alters voluntary activation and corticospinal transmission. Twenty-one subjects were randomized into strength training (n = 10; 7 females, 3 males; 23.5 ± 7.5 yr; mean ± SD) and control groups (n = 11; 2 females, 9 males; 23.0 ± 4.2 yr). Strength training involved 12 sessions of high-force isometric contractions of the elbow flexors. Before and after training, voluntary activation of the elbow flexors was assessed via transcranial magnetic stimulation. Also, for the first time, magnetic stimulation of corticospinal axons was used to examine spinal-level adaptations to training. The evoked responses, termed cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs), were acquired in resting biceps brachii in 3 arm postures. Muscle adaptations were assessed via electrical stimulation of biceps. Compared to the control group, the strength training group exhibited greater increases in maximal strength (12.8 ± 6.8% vs 0.0 ± 2.7%; p < 0.001), biceps electromyographic activity (27.8 ± 25.9% vs -5.2 ± 16.8%; p = 0.002), and voluntary activation (4.7 ± 3.9% raw change vs -0.1 ± 5.2%; p = 0.034). Biceps CMEPs in all arm postures were unchanged after training. Biceps twitch characteristics were also unchanged. Four weeks of isometric strength training of the elbow flexors increased muscle strength and voluntary activation, without a change in the muscle. The improvement in activation suggests that voluntary output from the cortex was better able to recruit motoneurons and/or increase their firing rates. The lack of change in CMEPs indicates that neither corticospinal transmission nor motoneuron excitability was affected by training.

  11. The effects of accentuated eccentric loading on strength, muscle hypertrophy, and neural adaptations in trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Jason P; Docherty, David

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the strength and neuromuscular adaptations for dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) training and dynamic accentuated external resistance (DAER) training (resistance training employing an accentuated load during eccentric actions). Male subjects active in resistance training were assigned to either a DCER training group (n = 10) or a DAER training group (n = 8) for 9 weeks. Subjects in the DCER group performed 4 sets of 10 repetitions with a load of 75% concentric 1 repetition maximum (RM). Subjects in the DAER group performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions with a concentric load of 75% of 1RM and an eccentric load of approximately 120% of concentric 1RM. Three measures reflecting adaptation of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded pretraining and posttraining: concentric 1RM, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and specific tension. Strength was assessed at midtraining periods. No significant changes in muscle CSA were observed in either group. Both training groups experienced significant increases in concentric 1RM and specific tension of both the elbow flexors and extensors, but compared with DCER training, DAER training produced significantly greater increases in concentric 1RM of the elbow extensors. These results suggest that, for some exercises, DAER training may be more effective than DCER training in developing strength within a 9-week training phase. However, for trained subjects, neither protocol is effective in eliciting muscle hypertrophy.

  12. Distance training for the restoration of motor function.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, H; Hermens, H J

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on distance training for the restoration of motor function. Computerized literature searches were performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl and Cochrane databases. Articles that met the criteria for inclusion were divided into three general areas concerning the type of training in relation to motor functions--muscle/joint, balance and cognition. From the publications identified in the literature search, 11 articles met the selection criteria. Six were related to muscle/joint functions, four to balance functions and one to cognitive functions. The articles were graded according to the strength of the scientific evidence they offered. The review revealed some promising applications of distance motor training, such as virtual reality (VR) and robotic devices. The strength of the evidence from these studies was poor, however, probably because the technology is relatively new. In contrast to the studies using VR and robotic devices, those using electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback showed a good to fair strength of scientific evidence. This can be explained by the substantial history of research on the restoration of motor function through the use of EMG biofeedback techniques. When implemented in clinical practice, these applications could reduce the pressure on scarce health-care resources.

  13. Cross-education of wrist extensor strength is not influenced by non-dominant training in right-handers.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Timothy A; Frazer, Ashlyn K; Horvath, Deanna M; Pearce, Alan J; Howatson, Glyn; Kidgell, Dawson J

    2016-09-01

    Cross-education of strength has been proposed to be greater when completed by the dominant limb in right handed humans. We investigated whether the direction of cross-education of strength and corticospinal plasticity are different following right or left limb strength training in right-handed participants. Changes in strength, muscle thickness and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analyzed in 23 adults who were exposed to 3-weeks of either right-hand strength training (RHT) or left-hand strength training (LHT). Maximum voluntary wrist extensor strength in both the trained and untrained limb increased, irrespective of which limb was trained, with TMS revealing reduced corticospinal inhibition. Cross-education of strength was not limited by which limb was trained and reduced corticospinal inhibition was not just confined to the trained limb. Critically, from a behavioral perspective, the magnitude of cross-education was not limited by which limb was trained.

  14. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development) were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001), while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001). The maximal isometric forc