Science.gov

Sample records for fungal ferulic acid

  1. Polymerization of pentachlorophenol and ferulic acid by fungal extracellular lignin-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Rüttimann-Johnson, C; Lamar, R T

    1996-01-01

    High-molecular-weight polymers were produced by a crude concentrated supernatant from ligninolytic Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures in a reaction mixture containing pentachlorophenol and a humic acid precursor (ferulic acid) in the presence of a detergent and H2O2. Pure manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and laccase were also shown to catalyze the reaction. PMID:8967777

  2. Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in alfalfa modifies cell wall digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in North America owing to its high biomass production, perennial nature and ability to fix nitrogen. Feruloyl esterase (EC 3.1.1.73) hydrolyzes ester linkages in plant cell walls and has the potential to further improve alfalfa as biomass for biofuel production. Results In this study, faeB [GenBank:AJ309807] was synthesized at GenScript and sub-cloned into a novel pEACH vector containing different signaling peptides to target type B ferulic acid esterase (FAEB) proteins to the apoplast, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole. Four constructs harboring faeB were transiently expressed in Nicotiana leaves, with FAEB accumulating at high levels in all target sites, except chloroplast. Stable transformed lines of alfalfa were subsequently obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404). Out of 136 transgenic plants regenerated, 18 independent lines exhibited FAEB activity. Subsequent in vitro digestibility and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of FAEB-expressing lines showed that they possessed modified cell wall morphology and composition with a reduction in ester linkages and elevated lignin content. Consequently, they were more recalcitrant to digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Interestingly, delignification by alkaline peroxide treatment followed by exposure to a commercial cellulase mixture resulted in higher glucose release from transgenic lines as compared to the control line. Conclusion Modifying cell wall crosslinking has the potential to lower recalcitrance of holocellulose, but also exhibited unintended consequences on alfalfa cell wall digestibility due to elevated lignin content. The combination of efficient delignification treatment (alkaline peroxide) and transgenic esterase activity complement each other towards efficient and effective digestion of transgenic lines. PMID:24650274

  3. Amylose inclusion complexation of ferulic acid via lipophilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulic acid is an interesting phytochemical that exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, UV-absorber, and anticarcinogenic activities. These properties make it of interest in food formulations, cosmetics, polymer, and pharmaceutical applications. However, delivery of ferulic acid in...

  4. Stability of lipid encapsulated ferulic acid particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Encapsulation of bioactive compounds by a solid lipid matrix provides stability and a mechanism for controlled release in formulated products. Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and have applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a common pheno...

  5. Physicochemical interactions of maize starch with ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Karunaratne, Rusiru; Zhu, Fan

    2016-05-15

    Ferulic acid is widely present in diverse foods and has great health benefits. Starch is a major food component and can be flexibly employed to formulate various products. In this study, the effect of ferulic acid addition on various physicochemical properties of normal maize starch was explored. The properties including swelling, pasting, steady shear and dynamic oscillation rheology, gelatinization, retrogradation, and gel texture were affected by ferulic acid to various extents, depending on the addition level. Enzyme susceptibility of granular starch to α-amylase was not affected. These influences may be explained by the functions of solubilized as well as insoluble ferulic acid which was in the form of crystals in starch matrix. On the molecular level, V-type amylose-ferulic acid inclusion complex formation was not observed by both co-precipitation and acidification methods. The results of this study may inspire further studies on the interactions of phenolics with other food ingredients and their role in food quality.

  6. [Allelopathy effects of ferulic acid and coumarin on Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya-Li; Fu, Hai-Yan; Huang, Guo-He; Gao, Pan-Feng; Chai, Tian; Yan, Bin; Liao, Huan

    2013-04-01

    The inhibitory effects and allelopathy mechanism of ferulic acid and coumarin on Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated by measuring the D680 value, the content of chlorophyll-a, the electrical conductivity (EC) and superoxide anion radical O*- value. Ferulic acid and coumarin had allelopathic effects on the growth of M. aeruginosa and promoted the physiological metabolism at low concentrations while inhibited the metabolism at high concentrations. Obvious inhibitory effects were observed when the concentration of ferulic acid or coumarin was over 100 mg x L(-1). The average inhibitory rates reached 80.3% and 58.0% after six days when the concentration of ferulic acid or coumarin was 200 mg x L(-1). The content of chlorophyll-a was decreased while the EC value and O2*- concentration were promoted by higher concentrations of ferulic acid or coumarin, suggesting that the growth of algae was inhibited probably by the damage of cell membrane, increase in the content of O2*- and decrease in the content of chlorophyll-a. In addition, seed germination test elucidated that Ferulic acid was safer than Coumarin.

  7. Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives. PMID:24066293

  8. Skin delivery of ferulic acid from different vesicular systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Liu, Xiangli; Fahr, Alfred

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present research is to evaluate the skin delivery capabilities of different vesicular systems, including conventional liposomes (CL), Tween 80-based deformable liposomes (DL), invasomes (INS) and ethosomes bearing ferulic acid (FA) being an antioxidant exhibiting a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases. All of the test formulations were characterized for particle size distribution, zeta-potential, vesicular shape and surface morphology, in vitro human skin permeation and skin deposition. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) defined that all of liposomal vesicles were almost spherical, displaying unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (PDI < 0.2) and nanometric size range (z-average no more than 150 nm). In addition, all the vesicular systems except conventional liposomes were negatively charged to a certain extent. In vitro skin permeation and skin deposition experiments demonstrated that the permeation profile of ferulic acid through human stratum corneum epidermis membrane (SCE) and the drug deposition in skin were both improved significantly using these vesicular liposomal systems. Permeation and skin deposition enhancing effect was highlighted by the ethosomal system containing 18.0 mg/ml of ferulic acid with an significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced skin flux (267.8 +/- 16.77 microg/cm2/h) and skin drug deposition (51.67 +/- 1.94 microg/cm2), which was 75 times and 7.3 times higher than those of ferulic acid from saturated PBS (pH 7.4) solution, respectively. This study demonstrated that ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for delivering ferulic acid into or across the skin.

  9. Ferulic acid, a dietary phenolic acid, modulates radiation effects in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Karthikeyan, Arumugam; Bandugula, Venkata Reddy; Rajendra Prasad, Nagarajan

    2012-09-15

    The radioprotective efficacy of Ferulic acid (FA) against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. To study the radiation protection, mice were administered with ferulic acid intraperitoneally (i.p) (50 mg/kg body weight.), once daily for five consecutive days. One hour after the last administration of ferulic acid on the sixth day, animals were whole body exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiations. Effect of ferulic acid pretreatment on radiation-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation status in spleen, liver and intestine was analyzed. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzymatic status and decreased lipid peroxidation marker levels were observed in ferulic acid pretreated group, when compared to the irradiated animals. Our study also shows increased % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated mice blood lymphocytes. Ferulic acid (50 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment significantly decreased the % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated mice lymphocytes. The histological observations indicated a decline in the villus height and crypt number with an increase in goblet and dead cell population in the irradiated group, which was normalized by ferulic acid pretreatment. In conclusion, present study indicated ferulic acid treatment prevents radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and restored antioxidant status and histopathological changes in experimental animals.

  10. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized by chemical methods but biological synthesis adds market value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive component of agricultural crops, is plentiful in corn hulls, cereal bran, and sugar-beet pulp. Two Enterobacter strains, E. soli, and E. aerogenes, accumulated 550-600 ppm amounts of 4-VG when grown in media containing 1,000 ppm ferulic acid; no accumulations were observed with the other strains. Decreasing the amount of ferulic acid present in the media increased the conversion efficiency. When ferulic acid was supplied in 500, 250, or 125 ppm amounts E. aerogenes converted ~72 % of the ferulic acid present to 4-VG while E. soli converted ~100 % of the ferulic acid to 4-VG when supplied with 250 or 125 ppm amounts of ferulic acid. Also, lowering the pH improved the conversion efficiency. At pH 5.0 E. aerogenes converted ~84 % and E. soli converted ~100 % of 1,000 ppm ferulic acid to 4-VG. Only small, 1-5 ppm, accumulations of vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid were observed. E. soli has a putative phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) that is 168 amino acids long and is similar to PADs in other enterobacteriales; this protein is likely involved in the bioconversion of ferulic acid to 4-VG. E. soli or E. aerogenes might be useful as a means of biotransforming ferulic acid to 4-VG.

  11. Biotransformation of Ferulic acid to 4-Vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized using chemical methods but biological synthesis adds value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive...

  12. Release of ferulic acid and feruloylated oligosaccharides from sugar beet pulp by Streptomyces tendae.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, P; Diez, N; Faulds, C B; Soliveri, J; Copa-Patiño, J L

    2007-05-01

    Given several promising industrial applications of ferulic acid, this study was designed to identify actinomycete strains able to release high levels of this acid from sugar beet pulp (SBP). Out of 47 strains tested, 37% were found to release free ferulic acid from the growth substrate. One strain, identified as Streptomyces tendae by 16S RNA gene sequencing, was capable of releasing 80% of the ferulic acid ester-linked to the pectin in SBP after 5 days of growth. These data suggest that some actinomycetes are able to release ferulic acid and feruloylated oligosaccharides from SBP. During growth on SBP, it seems that Streptomyces species solubilize and release feruloylated oligosaccharides by specific carbohydrase activities before de-esterification and release of free ferulic acid.

  13. Ferulic acid destabilizes preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that curcumin (Cur) inhibits fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilizes preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of FA with Cur, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide, as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: Cur > FA > rifampicin = tetracycline. FA could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  14. Vine Trimming Shoots as Substrate for Ferulic Acid Esterases Production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, N; Outeiriño, D; Torrado Agrasar, A; Domínguez, J M

    2017-02-01

    Ferulic acid esterases (FAE) possess a large variety of biotechnological applications mainly based on their ability to release ferulic acid from lignocellulosic matrixes. The use of vine trimming shoots (VTS), an agricultural waste, as substrate for the generation of this kind of esterases represents an attractive alternative to change the consideration of VTS from residue to resource. Furthermore, xylanase, cellobiase, and cellulase activities were quantified. Six microorganisms were screened for FAE production by solid-state fermentation, and the effects of the additional supplementation and substrate size were also tested. Finally, the process was scaled-up to a horizontal bioreactor where the influence of aeration in enzymatic activities was evaluated. Thus, the optimal FAE activity (0.44 U/g dry VTS) was attained by Aspergillus terreus CECT 2808, in non-additional supplementation media, using the larger particles size of substrate (≤ 5 mm) and at a flow rate of 0.7 L/min.

  15. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  16. Global transcriptomic analysis of the response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Can; Pan, Junfeng; Yang, Xiaobing; Xiao, He; Zhang, Yaoling; Si, Meiru; Shen, Xihui; Wang, Yao

    2017-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum can survive by using ferulic acid as the sole carbon source. In this study, we assessed the response of C. glutamicum to ferulic acid stress by means of a global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional data showed that several genes involved in degradation of ferulic acid were affected. Moreover, several genes related to the stress response; protein protection or degradation and DNA repair; replication, transcription and translation; and the cell envelope were differentially expressed. Deletion of the katA or sigE gene in C. glutamicum resulted in a decrease in cell viability under ferulic acid stress. These insights will facilitate further engineering of model industrial strains, with enhanced tolerance to ferulic acid to enable easy production of biofuels from lignocellulose.

  17. Chemiluminescence determination of ferulic acid by flow-injection analysis using cerium(IV) sensitized by rhodamine 6G.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju Peng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2008-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of ferulic acid based on the chemiluminescence reaction of ferulic acid with rhodamine 6G and ceric sulfate in sulphuric acid medium. Strong chemiluminescence signal was observed when ferulic acid was injected into the acidic ceric sulfate solution in a flow-cell. The present method allowed the determination of ferulic acid in the concentration range of 8.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) and the detection limit for ferulic acid was 8.7 x 10(-9) mol l(-1). The relative standard deviation was 2.4% for 10 replicate analyses of 1.0 x 10(-5) mol l(-1) ferulic acid. The proposed method was applied to the determination of ferulic acid in Taita Beauty Essence samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Ferulic acid esters of glucosylglucose from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    PubMed

    Usui, Ayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Ohshima, Kazusato; Fukuda, Shinji; Mine, Takara; Yakashiro, Ichiro; Ishimaru, Kanji

    2017-03-01

    Three new ferulic acid esters of glucosylglucose, 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid A, 1), 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-{β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)]}-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid B, 2), and 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-{β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)]}-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid C, 3) were isolated together with tuberonoid A (4), from the leaves of Allium macrostemon Bunge. The chemical structures were elucidated based on the analyses of the spectroscopic and chemical data.

  19. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium funiculosum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoshaug, Eric P.; Selig, Michael J.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  20. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium Funiculosum

    SciTech Connect

    Knoshaug, E. P.; Selig, M. J.; Baker, J. O.; Decker, S. R.; Himmel, M. E.; Adney, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  1. Ferulic acid promoting apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-dong; Wu, Qiang; Yang, Shu-hua

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the promoting apoptosis and antitumor activities of ferulic acid (FA) in human osteosarcoma and its potential mechanism. Methods: The SaOS-2 and MG63 osteosarcoma cell lines were opted to experiment and these cells were, respectively, cultured with various concentrations of FA (0 μM, 10 μM, 20 μM, 40 μM) for 72 hours at 37°C. The viabilities of the FA treated cells were monitored by MTT. Apoptosis cells were evaluated using annexin V/PI by flow cytometry. Apoptosis proteins caspase-3, procaspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by western blot. Expressions of apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bax were quantified by qPCR. Results: The cell viabilities were critically declined in the concentration-dependent manner in FA groups (P < 0.01). The apoptosis cells were increased proportionately with the concentration of FA (P < 0.05). The procaspase-3 protein contents, and Bcl-2 mRNA and protein contents were significantly decreased while caspase-3 protein contents, and Bax mRNA and protein contents were concomitantly increased in the concentration-dependent manner in FA groups (P < 0.05). The response to FA by the SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cell was similar with the MG63 osteosarcoma cell (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Ferulic acid could significantly descend osteosarcoma cell viability through the promoting apoptosis pathway in which FA activates both caspase-3 and Bax and inactivates Bcl-2. PMID:28367185

  2. Effect of ferulic acid from Hibiscus mutabilis on filarial parasite Setaria cervi: molecular and biochemical approaches.

    PubMed

    Saini, Prasanta; Gayen, Prajna; Nayak, Ananya; Kumar, Deepak; Mukherjee, Niladri; Pal, Bikas C; Sinha Babu, Santi P

    2012-12-01

    In the reported work the in vitro activity of a methanolic extract of leaves of Hibiscus mutabilis (Malvaceae) against bovine Setaria cervi worms has been investigated. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to isolation of ferulic acid from ethyl acetate fraction. The crude extract and ferulic acid, the active molecule, showed significant microfilaricidal as well as macrofilaricidal activities against the microfilaria (L(1)) and adult of S. cervi by both a worm motility and MTT reduction assay. The findings thus provide a new lead for development of a filaricidal drug from natural products. To examine the possible mechanism of action of ferulic acid, the involvement of apoptosis in adult worms of S. cervi was investigated. We found extreme cellular disturbances in ferulic acid-treated adult worms characterized by chromatin condensation, in situ DNA fragmentation and nucleosomal DNA laddering. In this work we are reporting for the first time that ferulic acid exerts its antifilarial effect through induction of apoptosis and by downregulating and altering the level of some key antioxidants (GSH, GST and SOD) of the filarial nematode S. cervi. Our results have provided experimental evidence supporting that ferulic acid causes an increased proapoptotic gene expression and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes simultaneously with an elevated level of ROS and gradual dose dependent decline of parasitic GSH level. We also observed a gradual dose dependent elevation of GST and SOD activity in the ferulic acid treated worms.

  3. Ferulic Acid-Based Polymers with Glycol Functionality as a Versatile Platform for Topical Applications.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Michelle A; Faig, Jonathan J; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2015-09-14

    Ferulic acid-based polymers with aliphatic linkages have been previously synthesized via solution polymerization methods, yet they feature relatively slow ferulic acid release rates (∼11 months to 100% completion). To achieve a more rapid release rate as required in skin care formulations, ferulic acid-based polymers with ethylene glycol linkers were prepared to increase hydrophilicity and, in turn, increase ferulic acid release rates. The polymers were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies to confirm chemical composition. The molecular weights, thermal properties (e.g., glass transition temperature), and contact angles were also obtained and the polymers compared. Polymer glass transition temperature was observed to decrease with increasing linker molecule length, whereas increasing oxygen content decreased polymer contact angle. The polymers' chemical structures and physical properties were shown to influence ferulic acid release rates and antioxidant activity. In all polymers, ferulic acid release was achieved with no bioactive decomposition. These polymers demonstrate the ability to strategically release ferulic acid at rates and concentrations relevant for topical applications such as skin care products.

  4. Butanol production by a Clostridium beijerinckii mutant with high ferulic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Guo, Ting; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiahui; Ying, Hanjie

    2016-09-01

    A mutant strain of Clostridium beijerinckii, with high tolerance to ferulic acid, was generated using atmospheric pressure glow discharge and high-throughput screening of C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. The mutant strain M11 produced 7.24 g/L of butanol when grown in P2 medium containing 30 g/L of glucose and 0.5 g/L of ferulic acid, which is comparable to the production from non-ferulic acid cultures (8.11 g/L of butanol). When 0.8 g/L of ferulic acid was introduced into the P2 medium, C. beijerinckii M11 grew well and produced 4.91 g/L of butanol. Both cell growth and butanol production of C. beijerinckii M11 were seriously inhibited when 0.9 g/L of ferulic acid was added into the P2 medium. Furthermore, C. beijerinckii M11 could produce 6.13 g/L of butanol using non-detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate from diluted sulfuric acid-treated corn fiber (SAHHC) as the carbon source. These results demonstrate that C. beijerinckii M11 has a high ferulic acid tolerance and is able to use non-detoxified SAHHC for butanol production.

  5. Preventive effect of ferulic acid on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Shuji; Kikuchi, Takashi; Shinoda, Hisashi; Suzuki, Satoe; Kudo, Hideki; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2003-01-01

    An extract from corn germ induced a positive response in the pigeon crop sack test, used for the detection of prolactin-like substances. One of the substances extracted was identified as ferulic acid, which was reported to affect serum gonadotropin levels in ovariectomized male rats. To evaluate the effects of ferulic acid on bone loss, ovariectomized female rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain at age 35 weeks were given ferulic acid and/or 17a-ethynylestradiol daily for 8 weeks, and serum hormone levels and tibial bone mineral density were measured. In metaphysis of the tibia, which was abundant in cancellous bone and more reflective of BMD than whole tibia, the BMD was markedly reduced by ovariectomy and enhanced by the treatment with estrogen or ferulic acid in the ovariectomized rats. The treatment slightly increased the serum levels of estrogen and progesterone and alkaline phosphatase activity, which was reduced by estrogentreatment, i.e. the mechanism of bone formation by ferulic acid was suggested to be different from that by estrogens. These results indicate that ferulic acid promotes bone remodeling, leading to a predominantly osteoblastic phase, besides bone resorption by osteoclasts.

  6. Chronic effect of ferulic acid from Pseudosasa japonica leaves on enhancing exercise activity in mice.

    PubMed

    You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Lee, Jeongmin; Chun, Jiyeon; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Park, Jeongjin; Jun, Woojin

    2010-10-01

    Ferulic acid derived from Pseudosasa japonica leaves, which possessed antioxidative potentials with DPPH- (54%) and ABTs- (65%) radical scavenging activities, and lipid-peroxidation inhibitory activity (71%), was orally administered to mice for 12 days in order to investigate its effects on exercise endurance capacity and alterations of antioxidant defense systems. Exhaustive swimming time was increased in the ferulic acid-supplemented group compared with the control group on days 6 and 12 (1.7- and 1.8-fold, respectively). When the mice were exhaustively exercised for 2 consecutive days, a high decrease (53%) was shown in the control group, but no change was found in the ferulic acid-treated group. The administration of ferulic acid significantly protected the depletion of enzymatic- and non enzymatic-antioxidants due to exhaustive exercise. Also, lipid-peroxidation levels decreased in the ferulic acid-treated group compared with the non exercised- and control-groups. These results suggest that ferulic acid from Pseudosasa japonica leaves has a chronic effect on endurance exercise capacity, which is attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress by improving antioxidant potentials.

  7. Heterogeneous kinetics, products, and mechanisms of ferulic acid particles in the reaction with NO3 radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhang, Peng; Wen, Xiaoying; Wu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Methoxyphenols, as an important component of wood burning, are produced by lignin pyrolysis and considered to be the potential tracers for wood smoke emissions. In this work, the heterogeneous reaction between ferulic acid particles and NO3 radicals was investigated. Six products including oxalic acid, 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, 5-nitrovanillin, 5-nitroferulic acid, and caffeic acid were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the reaction mechanisms were proposed and the main pathways were NO3 electrophilic addition to olefin and the meta-position to the hydroxyl group. The uptake coefficient of NO3 radicals on ferulic acid particles was 0.17 ± 0.02 and the effective rate constant under experimental conditions was (1.71 ± 0.08) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The results indicate that ferulic acid degradation by NO3 can be an important sink at night.

  8. Transcriptional Analysis of Lactobacillus brevis to N-Butanol and Ferulic Acid Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, James; Kao, Katy C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of anti-microbial phenolic compounds, such as the model compound ferulic acid, in biomass hydrolysates pose significant challenges to the widespread use of biomass in conjunction with whole cell biocatalysis or fermentation. Currently, these inhibitory compounds must be removed through additional downstream processing or sufficiently diluted to create environments suitable for most industrially important microbial strains. Simultaneously, product toxicity must also be overcome to allow for efficient production of next generation biofuels such as n-butanol, isopropanol, and others from these low cost feedstocks. Methodology and Principal Findings This study explores the high ferulic acid and n-butanol tolerance in Lactobacillus brevis, a lactic acid bacterium often found in fermentation processes, by global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional profile of L. brevis reveals that the presence of ferulic acid triggers the expression of currently uncharacterized membrane proteins, possibly in an effort to counteract ferulic acid induced changes in membrane fluidity and ion leakage. In contrast to the ferulic acid stress response, n-butanol challenges to growing cultures primarily induce genes within the fatty acid synthesis pathway and reduced the proportion of 19∶1 cyclopropane fatty acid within the L. brevis membrane. Both inhibitors also triggered generalized stress responses. Separate attempts to alter flux through the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits and deleting cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (cfa) both failed to improve n-butanol tolerance in E. coli, indicating that additional components of the stress response are required to confer n-butanol resistance. Conclusions Several promising routes for understanding both ferulic acid and n-butanol tolerance have been identified from L. brevis gene expression data. These insights may be used to guide further engineering of

  9. Laccase-catalysed functionalisation of chitosan by ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate: evaluation of physicochemical and biofunctional properties.

    PubMed

    Aljawish, Abdulhadi; Chevalot, Isabelle; Jasniewski, Jordane; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie; Scher, Joël; Muniglia, Lionel

    2014-10-15

    Chitosan and its derivatives functionalized by laccase-catalyzed oxidation of ferulic acid (FA) and ethyl ferulate (EF) were characterised for their physico-chemical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The enzymatic grafting of oxidised phenols led to FA-coloured and EF-colourless chitosan derivatives with good stability of colour and grafted phenols towards the chemical treatment by organic solvents. The efficiency of FA-products grafting onto chitosan was higher than that of EF-products. Moreover, the enzymatic grafting of phenols onto chitosan changed its morphological surface, increased its molecular weight and its viscosity. Furthermore, the chitosan derivatives presented improved antioxidant properties especially for FA-chitosan derivative when compared with chitosan with good antioxidant stability towards thermal treatment (100°C/1h). Chitosan and its derivatives showed also similar antibacterial activities and more precisely bactericidal activities. This enzymatic procedure provided chitosan derivatives with improved properties such as antioxidant activity, thermal antioxidant stability as well as the preservation of initial antibacterial activity of chitosan.

  10. A microbial transformation using Bacillus subtilis B7-S to produce natural vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Lei; Wu, Zhengrong; Li, Suyue; Bai, Zhongtian; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-02-04

    Bacillus subtilis strain B7-S screened from18 strains is an aerobic, endospore-forming, model organism of Gram-positive bacteria which is capable to form vanillin during ferulic acid bioconversion. The bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by Bacillus subtilis B7-S (B. subtilis B7-S) was investigated. Based on our results, the optimum bioconversion conditions for the production of vanillin by B. subtilis B7-S can be summarized as follows: temperature 35 °C; initial pH 9.0; inoculum volume 5%; ferulic acid concentration 0.6 g/L; volume of culture medium 20%; and shaking speed 200 r/min. Under these conditions, several repeated small-scale batch experiments showed that the maximum conversion efficiency was 63.30% after 3 h of bioconversion. The vanillin products were confirmed by spectral data achieved from UV-vis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscope (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) spectra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) results confirmed that the cell surface of B. subtilis plays a role in the induction of ferulic acid tolerance. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis B7-S has the potential for use in vanillin production through bioconversion of ferulic acid.

  11. A microbial transformation using Bacillus subtilis B7-S to produce natural vanillin from ferulic acid

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Lei; Wu, Zhengrong; Li, Suyue; Bai, Zhongtian; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain B7-S screened from18 strains is an aerobic, endospore-forming, model organism of Gram-positive bacteria which is capable to form vanillin during ferulic acid bioconversion. The bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by Bacillus subtilis B7-S (B. subtilis B7-S) was investigated. Based on our results, the optimum bioconversion conditions for the production of vanillin by B. subtilis B7-S can be summarized as follows: temperature 35 °C; initial pH 9.0; inoculum volume 5%; ferulic acid concentration 0.6 g/L; volume of culture medium 20%; and shaking speed 200 r/min. Under these conditions, several repeated small-scale batch experiments showed that the maximum conversion efficiency was 63.30% after 3 h of bioconversion. The vanillin products were confirmed by spectral data achieved from UV–vis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscope (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) spectra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) results confirmed that the cell surface of B. subtilis plays a role in the induction of ferulic acid tolerance. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis B7-S has the potential for use in vanillin production through bioconversion of ferulic acid. PMID:26841717

  12. Microbial transformations of ferulic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

    1993-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry baker's yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used to convert trans-ferulic acid into 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene in 96 and 89% yields, respectively. The metabolites were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The identities of the metabolites were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The mechanism of the decarboxylation of ferulic acid was investigated by measuring the degree and position of deuterium incorporated into the styrene derivative from D2O by mass spectrometry and by both proton and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Resting cells of baker's yeast reduced ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylpropionic acid in 54% yield when incubations were under an argon atmosphere. PMID:8395165

  13. Lignification and related enzymes in Glycine max root growth-inhibition by ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes L; Finger, Aline; Teixeira, Aline C N; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2004-06-01

    Changes in soluble and cell wall bound peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) activity, and lignin content in roots of ferulic acid-stressed soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedlings and their relationships with root growth were investigated. Three-day-old soybean seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution containing 1.0 mM ferulic acid for 24-72 hr. Length, fresh weight, and dry weight of roots decreased, while soluble and cell wall bound POD activity, PAL activity, and lignin content increased after ferulic acid treatment. These enzymes probably participate in root growth reduction in association with cell wall stiffening related to the formation of cross-linking among cell wall polymers and lignin production.

  14. Peroxidase-active cell free extract from onion solid wastes: biocatalytic properties and putative pathway of ferulic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    El Agha, Ayman; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2008-09-01

    The exploitation of food residuals can be a major contribution in reducing the polluting load of food industry waste and in developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bioorganic molecules, and thus they may have potential uses in several biocatalytic processes, including green organic synthesis, modification of food physicochemical properties, bioremediation, etc. Although the use of bacterial and fungal enzymes has gained attention in studies pertaining to biocatalytic applications, plant enzymes have been given less consideration or even disregarded. Therefore, we investigated the use of a crude peroxidase preparation from solid onion by-products for oxidizing ferulic acid, a widespread phenolic acid, various derivatives of which may occur in food wastes. The highest enzyme activity was observed at a pH value of 4, but considerable activity was retained up to a pH value of 6. Favorable temperatures for increased activity varied between 20-40 degrees C, 30 degrees C being the optimal. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a homogenate/H(2)O(2)-treated ferulic acid solution showed the formation of a dimer as a major oxidation product.

  15. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material.

  16. Voltammetric determination of ferulic acid by didodecyldimethylammonium bromide/nafion composite film-modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liqiang; Wang, Xia; Li, Qiuxia; Ding, Yaping; Jia, Jianbo; Deng, Dongmei

    2010-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of ferulic acid in pharmaceutical formulations by didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)/Nafion composite film-modified carbon paste electrode is presented. The electrochemical behavior of ferulic acid at the proposed electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and a well-defined oxidation peak was observed at +0.44 V versus saturated calomel electrode in 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 5.5) solutions. Some experimental parameters affecting the electrochemical response of the modified electrode were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents of ferulic acid increase linearly with the concentration of ferulic acid in the range from 2.0 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 3.9 x 10(-7) M (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of ferulic acid in pharmaceutical tablets.

  17. Active food packaging based on molecularly imprinted polymers: study of the release kinetics of ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Otero-Pazos, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós, Ana; Sendón, Raquel; Benito-Peña, Elena; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Moreno-Bondi, M Cruz; Angulo, Immaculada; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2014-11-19

    A novel active packaging based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was developed for the controlled release of ferulic acid. The release kinetics of ferulic acid from the active system to food simulants (10, 20, and 50% ethanol (v/v), 3% acetic acid (w/v), and vegetable oil), substitutes (95% ethanol (v/v) and isooctane), and real food samples at different temperatures were studied. The key parameters of the diffusion process were calculated by using a mathematical modeling based on Fick's second law. The ferulic acid release was affected by the temperature as well as the percentage of ethanol of the simulant. The fastest release occurred in 95% ethanol (v/v) at 20 °C. The diffusion coefficients (D) obtained ranged between 1.8 × 10(-11) and 4.2 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s. A very good correlation between experimental and estimated data was obtained, and consequently the model could be used to predict the release of ferulic acid into food simulants and real food samples.

  18. Synthesis and characteristics of (Hydrogenated) ferulic acid derivatives as potential antiviral agents with insecticidal activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant viruses cause many serious plant diseases and are currently suppressed with the simultaneous use of virucides and insecticides. The use of such materials, however, increases the amounts of pollutants in the environment. To reduce environmental contaminants, virucides with insecticidal activity is an attractive option. Results A series of substituted ferulic acid amide derivatives 7 and the corresponding hydrogenated ferulic acid amide derivatives 13 were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral and insecticidal activities. The majority of the synthesized compounds exhibited good levels of antiviral activity against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMW), with compounds 7a, 7b and 7d in particular providing higher levels of protective and curative activities against TMV at 500 μg/mL than the control compound ribavirin. Furthermore, these compounds displayed good insecticidal activities against insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, which can spread plant viruses between and within crops. Conclusions Two series of ferulic acid derivatives have been synthesized efficiently. The bioassay showed title compounds not only inhibit the plant viral infection, but also prevented the spread of plant virus by insect vectors. These findings therefore demonstrate that the ferulic acid amides represent a new template for future antiviral studies. PMID:23409923

  19. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds at high concentrations are known to form insoluble complexes with proteins. We hypothesized that this complex formation could interfere with Western blot and ELISA assays for peanut allergens. To verify this, three simple phenolic compounds (ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids...

  20. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because phenolic compounds can precipitate or complex with proteins, we postulated that interactions of phenolics with IgE antibodies help enhance IgE binding to peanut allergens in Western blots. Three different phenolics, such as, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were examined. Each was mixe...

  1. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

  2. Simple and rapid determination of ferulic acid levels in food and cosmetic samples using paper-based platforms.

    PubMed

    Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-09-26

    Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples.

  3. Analytical characterization of a ferulic acid/gamma-cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Ricci, Maurizio; Buonocore, Anna; Granata, Paola; Tsuno, Takuo; Facino, Roberto Maffei

    2006-03-03

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a well-known antioxidant of natural source with promising properties as photoprotective agent (approved in Japan as sunscreen) and its derivatives (alkyl ferulates) are under screening for the prevention of photoinduced skin tumours. In the present work we describe the preparation of a solid inclusion complex between ferulic acid and gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD) and its characterization by different analytical techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and by supporting information of molecular modelling. All these approaches indicate that ferulic acid is able to form an association complex with gamma-CD but only 1H NMR and molecular modelling studies give an unequivocal evidence that the antioxidant molecule is embedded into the gamma-CD cavity to form an inclusion complex. In detail it is entrapped inside the hydrophobic core of gamma-CD with the lipophilic aromatic ring and the ethylenic moieties, leaving the more polar functional groups close to wider rim or outside the cavity.

  4. Ferulic acid release and 4-vinylguaiacol formation during brewing and fermentation: indications for feruloyl esterase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Coghe, Stefan; Benoot, Koen; Delvaux, Filip; Vanderhaegen, Bart; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2004-02-11

    The release of ferulic acid and the subsequent thermal or enzymatic decarboxylation to 4-vinylguaiacol are inherent to the beer production process. Phenolic, medicinal, or clove-like flavors originating from 4-vinylguaiacol frequently occur in beer made with wheat or wheat malt. To evaluate the release of ferulic acid and the transformation to 4-vinylguaiacol, beer was brewed with different proportions of barley malt, wheat, and wheat malt. Ferulic acid as well as 4-vinylguaiacol levels were determined by HPLC at several stages of the beer production process. During brewing, ferulic acid was released at the initial mashing phase, whereas moderate levels of 4-vinylguaiacol were formed by wort boiling. Higher levels of the phenolic flavor compound were produced during fermentations with brewery yeast strains of the Pof(+) phenotype. In beer made with barley malt, ferulic acid was mainly released during the brewing process. Conversely, 60-90% of ferulic acid in wheat or wheat malt beer was hydrolyzed during fermentation, causing higher 4-vinylguaiacol levels in these beers. As cereal enzymes are most likely inactivated during wort boiling, the additional release of ferulic acid during fermentation suggests the activity of feruloyl esterases produced by brewer's yeast.

  5. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis

    2015-08-01

    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5%. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49%. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity.

  6. [Preparation of ferulic acid, senkyunolide I and senkyunolide H from Ligusticum chuanxiong by preparative HPLC].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yao-Kun; Liang, Shuang; Hong, Yan-Long; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Shen, Lan; Du, Yan; Feng, Yi

    2013-06-01

    Preparative HPLC was used to prepare ferulic acid, senkyunolide I and senkyunolide H from Ligusticum chuanxiong. The separation was conducted on a Shim-Pack Prep-ODS (20.0 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with the mobile phase of methanol-0.2% glacial acetic acid (50:50)at the flow rate of 5 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength was 278 nm, and the purity of each compound was detected by HPLC analysis. Spectral data analyses including UV, ESI-MS and NMR were used to identify their structures. This method is simple, fast, which is suitable for preparation of standard reference of ferulic acid, senkyunolide I and senkyunolide H from L. chuanxiong and can meet the requirement of new drug research and development.

  7. Voltammetric Determination of Ferulic Acid Using Polypyrrole-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode with Sample Application

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hamid, Refat; Newair, Emad F.

    2015-01-01

    A polypyrrole-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode-based sensor was devised for determination of ferulic acid (FA). The fabricated sensor was prepared electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and characterized using CV and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrode shows an excellent electrochemical catalytic activity towards FA oxidation. Under optimal conditions, the anodic peak current correlates linearly to the FA concentration throughout the range of 3.32 × 10−6 to 2.59 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 1.17 × 10−6 M (S/N = 3). The prepared sensor is highly selective towards ferulic acid without the interference of ascorbic acid. The sensor applicability was tested for total content determination of FA in a commercial popcorn sample and showed a robust functionality.

  8. Potential New H1N1 Neuraminidase Inhibitors from Ferulic Acid and Vanillin: Molecular Modelling, Synthesis and in Vitro Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hariono, Maywan; Abdullah, Nurshariza; Damodaran, K.V.; Kamarulzaman, Ezatul E.; Mohamed, Nornisah; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Shamsuddin, Shaharum; Wahab, Habibah A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the computational and experimental efforts in the design and synthesis of novel neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors from ferulic acid and vanillin. Two proposed ferulic acid analogues, MY7 and MY8 were predicted to inhibit H1N1 NA using molecular docking. From these two analogues, we designed, synthesised and evaluated the biological activities of a series of ferulic acid and vanillin derivatives. The enzymatic H1N1 NA inhibition assay showed MY21 (a vanillin derivative) has the lowest IC50 of 50 μM. In contrast, the virus inhibition assay showed MY15, a ferulic acid derivative has the best activity with the EC50 of ~0.95 μM. Modelling studies further suggest that these predicted activities might be due to the interactions with conserved and essential residues of NA with ΔGbind values comparable to those of oseltamivir and zanamivir, the two commercial NA inhibitors. PMID:27995961

  9. Effect of modification of the kilning regimen on levels of free ferulic acid and antioxidant activity in malt.

    PubMed

    Inns, Elizabeth L; Buggey, Lesley A; Booer, Christopher; Nursten, Harry E; Ames, Jennifer M

    2011-09-14

    Barley phenolic antioxidants change in response to the kilning regimen used to prepare malt. Green malt was kilned using four different regimens. There were no major differences among the finished malts in parameters routinely used by the malting industry, including, moisture, color, and diastatic activity. Ferulic acid esterase activity and free ferulic acid were higher in malts subjected to the coolest kilning regimen, but malt ethyl acetate extracts (containing ferulic acid) contributed only ∼5% of the total malt antioxidant activity. Finished malt from the hottest kilning regimen possessed the highest antioxidant activity, attributed to higher levels of Maillard reaction products. Modifying kilning conditions leads to changes in release of bound ferulic acid and antioxidant activity with potential beneficial effects on flavor stability in malt and beer.

  10. Potential New H1N1 Neuraminidase Inhibitors from Ferulic Acid and Vanillin: Molecular Modelling, Synthesis and in Vitro Assay.

    PubMed

    Hariono, Maywan; Abdullah, Nurshariza; Damodaran, K V; Kamarulzaman, Ezatul E; Mohamed, Nornisah; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Shamsuddin, Shaharum; Wahab, Habibah A

    2016-12-20

    We report the computational and experimental efforts in the design and synthesis of novel neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors from ferulic acid and vanillin. Two proposed ferulic acid analogues, MY7 and MY8 were predicted to inhibit H1N1 NA using molecular docking. From these two analogues, we designed, synthesised and evaluated the biological activities of a series of ferulic acid and vanillin derivatives. The enzymatic H1N1 NA inhibition assay showed MY21 (a vanillin derivative) has the lowest IC50 of 50 μM. In contrast, the virus inhibition assay showed MY15, a ferulic acid derivative has the best activity with the EC50 of ~0.95 μM. Modelling studies further suggest that these predicted activities might be due to the interactions with conserved and essential residues of NA with ΔGbind values comparable to those of oseltamivir and zanamivir, the two commercial NA inhibitors.

  11. Potential New H1N1 Neuraminidase Inhibitors from Ferulic Acid and Vanillin: Molecular Modelling, Synthesis and in Vitro Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariono, Maywan; Abdullah, Nurshariza; Damodaran, K. V.; Kamarulzaman, Ezatul E.; Mohamed, Nornisah; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Shamsuddin, Shaharum; Wahab, Habibah A.

    2016-12-01

    We report the computational and experimental efforts in the design and synthesis of novel neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors from ferulic acid and vanillin. Two proposed ferulic acid analogues, MY7 and MY8 were predicted to inhibit H1N1 NA using molecular docking. From these two analogues, we designed, synthesised and evaluated the biological activities of a series of ferulic acid and vanillin derivatives. The enzymatic H1N1 NA inhibition assay showed MY21 (a vanillin derivative) has the lowest IC50 of 50 μM. In contrast, the virus inhibition assay showed MY15, a ferulic acid derivative has the best activity with the EC50 of ~0.95 μM. Modelling studies further suggest that these predicted activities might be due to the interactions with conserved and essential residues of NA with ΔGbind values comparable to those of oseltamivir and zanamivir, the two commercial NA inhibitors.

  12. Pretreatment of Ferulic Acid Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Ultraviolet A Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ki Bbeum; Bae, Seunghee; Choi, Byung Gon; An, Sungkwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 90%~99% of ultraviolet A (UVA) ray reaches the Earth's surface. The deeply penetrating UVA rays induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which results in oxidative stress such as photoproducts, senescence, and cell death. Thus, UVA is considered a primary factor that promotes skin aging. Objective Researchers investigated whether pretreatment with ferulic acid protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) against UVA-induced cell damages. Methods HDF proliferation was analyzed using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. Cell cycle distribution and intracellular ROS levels were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Senescence was evaluated using a senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, while Gadd45α promoter activity was analyzed through a luciferase assay. The expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A and C, matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3, as well as p21 and p16 were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Inhibition of proliferation and cell cycle arrest were detected in cells that were irradiated with UVA only. Pretreatment with ferulic acid significantly increased the proliferation and cell cycle progression in HDFs. Moreover, ferulic acid pretreatment produced antioxidant effects such as reduced DCF intensity, and affected SOD1 and CAT mRNA expression. These effects were also demonstrated in the analysis of cell senescence, promoter activity, expression of senescent markers, and DNA repair. Conclusion These results demonstrate that ferulic acid exerts protective effects on UVA-induced cell damages via anti-oxidant and stress-inducible cellular mechanisms in HDFs. PMID:27904274

  13. A Novel, Stable, Aqueous Glucagon Formulation Using Ferulic Acid as an Excipient

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiani, Parkash A.; Caputo, Nicholas; Castle, Jessica R.; Carroll, Julie M.; David, Larry L.; Roberts, Charles T.; Ward, W. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Commercial glucagon is unstable due to aggregation and degradation. In closed-loop studies, it must be reconstituted frequently. For use in a portable pump for 3 days, a more stable preparation is required. At alkaline pH, curcumin inhibited glucagon aggregation. However, curcumin is not sufficiently stable for long-term use. Here, we evaluated ferulic acid, a stable breakdown product of curcumin, for its ability to stabilize glucagon. Methods: Ferulic acid-formulated glucagon (FAFG), composed of ferulic acid, glucagon, L-methionine, polysorbate-80, and human serum albumin in glycine buffer at pH 9, was aged for 7 days at 37°C. Glucagon aggregation was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and degradation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A cell-based protein kinase A (PKA) assay was used to assess in vitro bioactivity. Pharmacodynamics (PD) of unaged FAFG, 7-day aged FAFG, and unaged synthetic glucagon was determined in octreotide-treated swine. Results: No fibrils were observed in TEM images of fresh or aged FAFG. Aged FAFG was 94% intact based on HPLC analysis and there was no loss of bioactivity. In the PD swine analysis, the rise over baseline of glucose with unaged FAFG, aged FAFG, and synthetic native glucagon (unmodified human sequence) was similar. Conclusions: After 7 days of aging at 37°C, an alkaline ferulic acid formulation of glucagon exhibited significantly less aggregation and degradation than that seen with native glucagon and was bioactive in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this formulation may be stable for 3-7 days in a portable pump for bihormonal closed-loop treatment of T1D. PMID:25253164

  14. Controlled release of tyrosol and ferulic acid encapsulated in chitosan-gelatin films after electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbettaïeb, Nasreddine; Assifaoui, Ali; Karbowiak, Thomas; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Chambin, Odile

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the study of the release kinetics of antioxidants (ferulic acid and tyrosol) incorporated into chitosan-gelatin edible films after irradiation processes. The aim was to determine the influence of electron beam irradiation (at 60 kGy) on the retention of antioxidants in the film, their release in water (pH=7) at 25 °C, in relation with the barrier and mechanical properties of biopolymer films. The film preparation process coupled to the irradiation induced a loss of about 20% of tyrosol but did not affect the ferulic acid content. However, 27% of the ferulic acid remained entrapped in the biopolymer network during the release experiments whereas all tyrosol was released. Irradiation induced a reduction of the release rate for both compounds, revealing that cross-linking occurred during irradiation. This was confirmed by the mechanical properties enhancement which tensile strength value significantly increased and by the reduction of permeabilities. Although molecular weights, molar volume and molecular radius of the two compounds are very similar, the effective diffusivity of tyrosol was 40 times greater than that of ferulic acid. The much lower effective diffusion coefficient of ferulic acid as determined from the release kinetics was explained by the interactions settled between ferulic acid molecules and the gelatin-chitosan matrix. As expected, the electron beam irradiation allowed modulating the retention and then the release of antioxidants encapsulated.

  15. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas fluorescens for the production of vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Diana; Luziatelli, Francesca; Negroni, Andrea; Ficca, Anna Grazia; Fava, Fabio; Ruzzi, Maurizio

    2011-12-20

    Vanillin is one of the most important flavors in the food industry and there is great interest in its production through biotechnological processes starting from natural substrates such as ferulic acid. Among bacteria, recombinant Escherichia coli strains are the most efficient vanillin producers, whereas Pseudomonas spp. strains, although possessing a broader metabolic versatility, rapidly metabolize various phenolic compounds including vanillin. In order to develop a robust Pseudomonas strain that can produce vanillin in high yields and at high productivity, the vanillin dehydrogenase (vdh)-encoding gene of Pseudomonas fluorescens BF13 strain was inactivated via targeted mutagenesis. The results demonstrated that engineered derivatives of strain BF13 accumulate vanillin if inactivation of vdh is associated with concurrent expression of structural genes for feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and hydratase/aldolase (ech) from a low-copy plasmid. The conversion of ferulic acid to vanillin was enhanced by optimization of growth conditions, growth phase and parameters of the bioconversion process. The developed strain produced up to 8.41 mM vanillin, which is the highest final titer of vanillin produced by a Pseudomonas strain to date and opens new perspectives in the use of bacterial biocatalysts for biotechnological production of vanillin from agro-industrial wastes which contain ferulic acid.

  16. Ferulic Acid Suppresses Amyloid β Production in the Human Lens Epithelial Cell Stimulated with Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Noriaki; Kotani, Sachiyo; Mano, Yu; Ueno, Akina; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kitaba, Toshio; Takata, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that oxidative stresses induce the production of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, lens, and retina, leading to age-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ferulic acid on the Aβ levels in H2O2-stimulated human lens epithelial (HLE) SRA 01/04 cells. Three types of Aβ peptides (Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, and Aβ1-43) were measured by ELISA, and the levels of mRNA for the expressed proteins related to Aβ production (APP, BACE1, and PS proteins) and degradation (ADAM10, NEP, and ECE1 proteins) were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. H2O2 stimulation augmented gene expression of the proteins related to Aβ production, resulting in the production of three types of Aβ peptides. Treatment with 0.1 μM ferulic acid attenuated the augmentations of gene expression and production of the proteins related to the secretion of three types of Aβ peptides in the H2O2-stimulated HLE cells. These results provided evidence of antioxidative functions of ferulic acid for lens epithelial cells.

  17. Antioxidant activity of ferulic acid alkyl esters in a heterophasic system: a mechanistic insight.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Granata, Paola; Sega, Alessandro; Buonocore, Anna; Bernini, Andrea; Facino, Roberto Maffei

    2004-10-20

    The antioxidant activity of some esters of ferulic acid with the linear fatty alcohols C7, C8 (branched and linear), C9, C11, C12, C13, C15, C16, and C18 has been studied in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. Whereas in homogeneous phase all of the alkyl ferulates possessed similar radical-scavenging abilities, in rat liver microsomes they showed striking differences, the more effective being C12 (7) (IC50 = 11.03 M), linear C8 (3) (IC50 = 12.40 microM), C13 (8) (IC50 = 18.60 microM), and C9 (5) (IC50 = 19.74 microM), followed by C7 (2), C15 (9), C11 (6), branched C8 (4), C16 (10), and C18 (11) (ferulic acid was the less active, IC50 = 243.84 microM). All of the molecules showed similar partition coefficients in an octanol-buffer system. Three-dimensional studies (NMR in solution, modeling in vacuo) indicate that this behavior might be due to a different anchorage of the molecules with the ester side chain to the microsomal phospholipid bilayer and to a consequent different orientation/positioning of the scavenging phenoxy group outside the membrane surface against the flux of oxy radicals.

  18. Kinetics of enzyme inhibition by active molluscicidal agents ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene in the nervous tissue of snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2009-02-01

    Ferulic acid, umbelliferone (Ferula asafoetida), eugenol (Syzygium aromaticum) and limonene (Carum carvi) are active molluscicidal components that inhibited the activity of alkaline phosphatase and acetylcholinesterase in in vivo and in vitro exposure of Lymnaea acuminata. It was observed that ferulic acid, umbelliferone and eugenol are competitive and limonene is a competitive-non-competitive inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase. Ferulic acid and umbelliferone are competitive, whereas eugenol and limonene are competitive-non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, respectively.

  19. Cold water fish gelatin modification by a natural phenolic cross-linker (ferulic acid and caffeic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Araghi, Maryam; Moslehi, Zeinab; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Mostahsan, Amir; Salamat, Nima; Daraei Garmakhany, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays use of edible films and coatings is increasing due to their biodegradability and environment friendly properties. Fish gelatin obtained from fish skin wastage can be used as an appropriate protein compound for replacing pork gelatin to produce edible film. In this study films were prepared by combination of fish gelatin and different concentration (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) of two phenolic compounds (caffeic acid and ferulic acid). The film was prepared at pH > 10 and temperature of 60˚c under continuous injection of O2 and addition of the plasticizer sorbitol/glycerol. Results showed that solubility, oxygen permeability, and water vapor permeability were decreased for caffeic acid and the highest effect was observed at concentration of 5%. Solubility had a linear relationship with concentration of phenolic compound in film containing ferulic acid, however, no significant change was observed in vapor and O2 permeability. A comparison between two phenolic compounds showed that caffeic acid had the highest effect in decreasing solubility, water vapor permeability, and oxygen permeability. Caffeic acid is more effective phenolic compound compared with Ferulic acid that can increase safety of biodegradable packaging by improving their barrier and physicochemical properties. PMID:26405523

  20. Laccase-catalysed oxidation of ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate in aqueous medium: a green procedure for the synthesis of new compounds.

    PubMed

    Aljawish, Abdulhadi; Chevalot, Isabelle; Jasniewski, Jordane; Paris, Cédric; Scher, Joël; Muniglia, Lionel

    2014-02-15

    The enzymatic oxidation of ferulic acid (FA) and ethyl ferulate (EF) with Myceliophthora thermophila laccase, as biocatalyst, was performed in aqueous medium using an eco-friendly procedure to synthesize new active molecules. First, the commercial laccase was ultrafiltrated allowing for the elimination of phenolic contaminants and increasing the specific activity by a factor of 2. Then, kinetic parameters of this laccase were determined for both substrates (FA, EF), indicating a higher substrate affinity for ethyl ferulate. Additionally, enzymatic oxidation led to the synthesis of a FA-major product, exhibiting a molecular mass of 386 g/mol and a EF-major product with a molecular mass of 442 g/mol. Structural analyses by mass spectrometry allowed the identification of dimeric derivatives. The optical properties of the oxidation products showed the increase of red and yellow colours, with FA-products compared to EF-products. Additionally, enzymatic oxidation led to a decrease of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities compared to initial substrates. Consequently, this enzymatic procedure in aqueous medium could provide new compounds presenting optical, antioxidant and cytotoxic interest.

  1. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid.

  2. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm.

    PubMed

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J; Madrid, Susan M; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B; Scheller, Henrik V

    2010-04-01

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm-specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and threefold relative to wild type. The grains were shrivelled and had a 25%-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10%-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water-extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water-extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase-expressing grains were also shrivelled, and the seed weight was decreased by 20%-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild-type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15%-40% increase in water-unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13% and 34%. In all the plants, the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  3. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    SciTech Connect

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B.; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2009-12-08

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and three fold relative to wild type. The grains were shriveled and had a 25-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 kD and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase expressing grains were also shriveled and the seed weight was decreased by 20-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15-40% increase in water unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13 and 34%. In all the plants the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  4. [Studies on transdermal delivery of ferulic acid through rat skin treated by microneedle arrays].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Du, Shou-ying; Bai, Jie; Shang, Ke-xin; Lu, Yang; Li, Peng-yue

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of transdermal delivery of ferulic acid under the treated of microneedle arrays and the influence on permeability of rat skin capillaries, improved Franz-cells were used in the transdermal delivery experiment with the rat skin of abdominal wall and the length of microneedle arrays, different insertion forces, retention time were studied in the influence of characteristics of transdermal delivery of FA. The amount of FA was determined by HPLC system. Intravenous injection Evans blue and FA was added after microneedle arrays treated. Established inflammation model was built by daubing dimethylbenzene. The amount of Evans blue in the rat skin was read at 590 nm wavelength with a Multiskan Go microplate reader. Compared with passive diffusion group the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport (P <0.01). The accumulation of FA increased with the enhancement of insertion force as to as the increase of retention time. Microneedle arrays with different length had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport, but was not related to the increase of the length. The research of FA on the reduce of permeability of rat skin capillaries indicated that the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays could reduce the content of Evans blue in the skins of rat significantly compared with the untreated group. The permeation rate of ferulic acid transdermal delivery had remarkable increase under the treated of microneedle arrays and the length of microneedle arrays ,the retention time so as to the insertion force were important to the transdermal delivery of ferulic acid.

  5. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Gallage, Nethaji J.; Hansen, Esben H.; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco. PMID:24941968

  6. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme.

    PubMed

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Hansen, Esben H; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-06-19

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Ferulic Acid From Aerial Parts of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff.

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Shokoohinia, Yalda; Moayedi, Narjess-Sadat

    2012-01-01

    Background Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. is one of the newest genera of Umbelliferae which is represented by only one species. This sweet-smelling, self-growing monotypic medicinal plant is endemic to a restricted area in west of Iran and is locally called Karafse-koohi. The aerial parts of the plant are commonly used as a popular garnish and a sedative medicinal plant. There are several reports concerning antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and hypolipidemic activities of aerial parts of K. odoratissima. Objectives The current research aimed to evaluate some phenolic contents of the plant for the first time .It is confirmed that secondary metabolites and especially phenolic compounds have important role in the biological activities of the plant. Available information indicates that phenolic contents of K. odoratissima have not been the subject of any investigation Material and Methods Aerial parts of K. odoratissima were extracted with acetone by maceration method. Normal and reversed phase vacuum liquid chromatography used to fractionate the extract. 1H-NMR, 13CNMR, EI-Mass and IR spectra were used to elucidate isolated compound. Results The phenolic acid isolated compound was identified as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid). Conclusions Compared with previous reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of ferulic acid, a chemical-biological relation can be postulated. PMID:24624175

  8. Comparative studies on the interaction of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Huang, Kelong; Zhong, Ming; Guo, Jun; Wang, Wei-zheng; Zhu, Ronghua

    2010-10-01

    The substitution of the hydrogen on aromatic and esterification of carboxyl group of the phenol compounds plays an important role in their bio-activities. In this paper, caffeic acid (CaA), chlorogenic acid (ChA) and ferulic acid (FA) were selected to investigate the binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the methoxyl group substituting for the 3-hydroxyl group of CaA decreased the affinity for BSA and the esterification of carboxyl group of CaA with quinic acid increased the affinities. The affinities of ChA and FA with BSA were more sensitive to the temperature than that of CaA with BSA. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence indicated that the Stern-Volmer plots largely deviated from linearity at high concentrations and were caused by complete quenching of the tyrosine fluorescence of BSA.

  9. Conformational analysis: a tool for the elucidation of the antioxidant properties of ferulic acid derivatives in membrane models.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Andreassi, Marco; Buonocore, Anna; La Rosa, Caterina; Facino, Roberto Maffei; Sega, Alessandro; Tsuno, Fumi

    2004-09-03

    With the aim to search and design more effective and safe antioxidant molecules to be used as functional ingredients in cosmetic formulations for UV protection, we evaluated the antioxidant/radical scavenging activities of ferulic acid and of some alkyl ferulates in both acellular and cellular systems. Ferulic acid esters, equipotent as antioxidant in homogeneous phase, showed when tested in membranous systems (rat liver microsomes, rat erythrocytes) marked differences in antioxidant potency. The n-C(12) derivative was the most potent, followed by n-C(8), n-C(16) and branched C(8), and then by ferulic acid. A conformational study carried out by NMR and modelling, indicates that the different antioxidant activity of ferulates in membrane models is due to the different spatial conformation and arrangement of the side chain of the molecule, which governs the access and binding to the phospholipid bilayer, the modality of orientation of the scavenging/quenching nucleus (phenol moiety), and hence the overall antioxidant potency of the derivative. These results emphasize the need of analytical studies (NMR and molecular modelling) addressed to the knowledge of the conformational parameters in combination with conventional antioxidant testings for understanding the antioxidant behaviour of a molecule in a biological membrane/system.

  10. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo.

  11. Development of a new ferulic acid certified reference material for use in clinical chemistry and pharmaceutical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dezhi; Wang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Li; Gong, Ningbo; Lv, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the results of three certified methods, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the mass balance (MB) method and coulometric titrimetry (CT), in the purity assessment of ferulic acid certified reference material (CRM). Purity and expanded uncertainty as determined by the three methods were respectively 99.81%, 0.16%; 99.79%, 0.16%; and 99.81%, 0.26% with, in all cases, a coverage factor (k) of 2 (P=95%). The purity results are consistent indicating that the combination of DSC, the MB method and CT provides a confident assessment of the purity of suitable CRMs like ferulic acid. PMID:26579451

  12. Development of a new ferulic acid certified reference material for use in clinical chemistry and pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dezhi; Wang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Li; Gong, Ningbo; Lv, Yang

    2015-05-01

    This study compares the results of three certified methods, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the mass balance (MB) method and coulometric titrimetry (CT), in the purity assessment of ferulic acid certified reference material (CRM). Purity and expanded uncertainty as determined by the three methods were respectively 99.81%, 0.16%; 99.79%, 0.16%; and 99.81%, 0.26% with, in all cases, a coverage factor (k) of 2 (P=95%). The purity results are consistent indicating that the combination of DSC, the MB method and CT provides a confident assessment of the purity of suitable CRMs like ferulic acid.

  13. Synergistic inhibition of cancer cell proliferation with a combination of δ-tocotrienol and ferulic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Tatewaki, Naoto; Nishida, Hiroshi; Kurata, Tadao; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • δ-Tocotrienol (δ-T3) and ferulic acid (FA) synergistically inhibit cancer cell growth. • The combination of δ-T3 and FA induces G1 arrest by up-regulating p21. • The synergy is attributed to an increase in the cellular concentration of δ-T3 by FA. - Abstract: Rice bran consists of many functional compounds and thus much attention has been focused on the health benefits of its components. Here, we investigated the synergistic inhibitory effects of its components, particularly δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) and ferulic acid (FA), against the proliferation of an array of cancer cells, including DU-145 (prostate cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and PANC-1 (pancreatic cancer) cells. The combination of δ-T3 and FA markedly reduced cell proliferation relative to δ-T3 alone, and FA had no effect when used alone. Although δ-T3 induced G1 arrest by up-regulating p21 in PANC-1 cells, more cells accumulated in G1 phase with the combination of δ-T3 and FA. This synergistic effect was attributed to an increase in the cellular concentration of δ-T3 by FA. Our results suggest that the combination of δ-T3 and FA may present a new strategy for cancer prevention and therapy.

  14. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin in the packed bed-stirred fermentors

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lei; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Suyue; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    We performed the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in the stirring packed-bed reactors filled with carbon fiber textiles (CFT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), HPLC, qRT-PCR and ATP assay indicated that vanillin biotransformation is tightly related to cell growth, cellar activity and the extent of biofilm formation. The biotransformation was affected by hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature, initial pH, stirring speed and ferulic acid concentration, and the maximum vanillin production was obtained at 20 h, 35 °C, 9.0, 200 rpm, 1.5 g/L, respectively. Repeated batch biotransformation performed under this optimized condition showed that the maximum productivity (0.047 g/L/h) and molar yield (60.43%) achieved in immobilized cell system were 1.84 and 3.61 folds higher than those achieved in free cell system. Therefore, the stirring reactor packed with CFT carrier biofilm formed by B. subtilis represented a valid biocatalytic system for the production of vanillin. PMID:27708366

  15. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Octadecyl ferulate, a lipophilic derivative of ferulic acid having antioxidant properties, is found throughout the plant and fungi kingdoms. Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using supercritical fluid chromatograph and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning...

  16. Systemic effects of Heterobasidion annosum on ferulic acid glucoside and lignin of presymptomatic ponderosa pine phloem, and potential effects on bark-beetle-associated fungi.

    PubMed

    Bonello, Pierluigi; Storer, Andrew J; Gordon, Thomas R; Wood, David L; Heller, Werner

    2003-05-01

    Concentrations of soluble phenolics and lignin in the phloem of ponderosa pines inoculated with the pathogen Heterobasidion annosum were assessed over a period of 2 years in a 35-year-old plantation in northern California, USA. The major effect of the pathogen on phloem-soluble phenolics consisted of a significant accumulation of ferulic acid glucoside: 503 +/- 27 microg/g fresh weight (FW), compared with 366 +/- 26 microg/g FW for mock-treated and 386 +/- 27 microg/g FW for control trees. Lignin content was negatively correlated with ferulic acid glucoside concentration, and there was an indication of lignin reduction in the cell walls of inoculated trees. Lignin had a negative effect on the in vitro growth of two common bark beetle fungal associates. Ceratocystiopsis brevicomi and Ophiostoma minus. For this reason it, is hypothesized that lower lignification may facilitate the growth of beetle-associated fungi, resulting in greater susceptibility of the presymptomatic host to bark beetle colonization.

  17. A spectrophotometric study of the copigmentation of malvin with caffeic and ferulic acids.

    PubMed

    Marković, J M; Petranović, N A; Baranac, J M

    2000-11-01

    The process of copigmentation of the anthocyanin molecule malvidin 3, 5-diglucoside with two organic monocarboxylic phenolic acids, caffeic and ferulic acids, was studied via their absorption electronic spectra. The dependence of the copigmentation process on the pH of the medium, molecular concentration, and temperature was established. The process of copigmentation was observed at two pH values: 2.50 and 3.65. The stoichiometric ratio was 1:1 at both pH values. The copigmentation was characterized by approximately equal values of the equilibrium constant, K, within each of the pH values. The temperature was found to be a significant factor that determines the thermodynamic conditions of the copigmentation process, because the process is spontaneous (DeltaG degrees < 0), and results in entropy loss (DeltaS degrees < 0) at both pH values.

  18. Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of liposomal ferulic acid in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jing; Chen, DaWei; Lu, WeiGen; Xu, Huan; Yan, ChenYun; Hu, HaiYang; Chen, BaoYu; Qiao, MingXi; Zhao, XiuLi

    2008-06-01

    In the present study, various gradients were evaluated for efficient loading of weak acid into liposomes. Several salt gradients showed efficient loading of ferulic acid (FA) into liposomes and the optimized conditions were established in calcium acetate gradient method to obtain 80.2 +/- 5.2% entrapment efficiency (EE). Unilamellar vesicles were observed in micrographs and liposomal FA showed good stability. 80% of FA was released from liposomes within 5 h in vitro. There is a novel finding in this study: that drugs could be entrapped with a high solubility in the intraliposomal buffer in contrast to the low solubility in the extraliposomal buffer. The results of body distribution in rats indicated that liposomes could improve the body distribution of FA. For FA liposome, the concentration of FA in brain was two-fold higher than that of free FA. Liposomal FA was a promising approach to improve the body distribution of FA.

  19. Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate encodes a transferase required for feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids in cutin polyester.

    PubMed

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E K; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-02-01

    The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C(16) and C(18) unsubstituted, ω-hydroxy, and α,ω-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm.

  20. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 Gene Encodes an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Involved in Ferulic Acid and Sinapic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ramesh B.; Bastress, Kristen L.; Ruegger, Max O.; Denault, Jeff W.; Chapple, Clint

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall–esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes. PMID:14729911

  1. Thioacidolysis Marker Compound for Ferulic Acid Incorporation into Angiosperm Lignins (and an Indicator for Cinnamoyl-coenzyme-A Reductase Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-m...

  2. Impact of wheat bran derived arabinoxylanoligosaccharides and associated ferulic acid on dough and bread properties.

    PubMed

    Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-07-23

    The impact of arabinoxylanoligosaccharides (AXOS) with varying bound or free ferulic acid (FA) content on dough and bread properties was studied in view of their prebiotic and antioxidant properties. AXOS with an FA content of 0.1-1.7% caused an increase in dough firmness with increasing AXOS concentration. AXOS with a high FA content (7.2%), on the contrary, resulted in an increase in dough extensibility and a decrease in resistance to extension, similar to that for free FA, when added in levels up to 2%. Higher levels resulted in unmanageable dough. A limited impact on dough gluten network formation was observed. These results suggest that for highly feruloylated AXOS, the FA-mediated dough softening supersedes the firming effect displayed by the carbohydrate moiety of AXOS. The impact of the different AXOS on bread volume, however, was minimal. Furthermore, AXOS in bread were not engaged in covalent cross-linking and significantly increased its antioxidant capacity.

  3. A new ferulic acid ester and other constituents from Tamarix nilotica leaves.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, Sameh Fekry; Ali, Sajjad Ahmed; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2009-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Tamarix nilotica (Tamaricaceae) has led to isolation of methyl ferulate 3-O-sulphate (1) for the first time from natural sources. In addition, coniferyl alcohol 4-O-sulphate (2), kaempferol 4'-methyl ether (3), tamarixetin (4) and quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucupyranuronide (5) were isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of the extract. The pentacyclic triterpenoid, 3alpha-(3'',4''-dihydroxy-trans-cinnamoyloxy)-D-friedoolean-14-en-28-oic acid (6) was isolated from the n-hexane soluble fraction of the extract. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including 2 dimensional NMR. Compounds 3, 4 and 6 exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with IC(50) values of 35.2, 37.0 and 21.2 muM, respectively.

  4. Factors affecting ferulic acid release from Brewer's spent grain by Fusarium oxysporum enzymatic system.

    PubMed

    Xiros, Charilaos; Moukouli, Maria; Topakas, Evangelos; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the factors affecting ferulic acid (FA) release from Brewer's spent grain (BSG), by the crude enzyme extract of Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. In order to evaluate the importance of the multienzyme preparation on FA release, the synergistic action of feruloyl esterase (FAE, FoFaeC-12213) and xylanase (Trichoderma longibrachiatum M3) monoenzymes was studied. More than double amount of FA release (1 mg g(-1) dry BSG) was observed during hydrolytic reactions by the crude enzyme extract compared to hydrolysis by the monoenzymes (0.37 mg g(-1) dry BSG). The protease content of the crude extract and the inhibitory effect of FA as an end-product were also evaluated concerning their effect on FA release. The protease treatment prior to hydrolysis by monoenzymes enhanced FA release about 100%, while, for the first time in literature, FA in solution found to have a significant inhibitory effect on FAE activity and on total FA release.

  5. Evaluation of wound healing activity of ferulic acid in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghaisas, Mahesh M; Kshirsagar, Shashank B; Sahane, Rajkumari S

    2014-10-01

    In diabetic patients, there is impairment in angiogenesis, neovascularisation and failure in matrix metalloproteineases (MMPs), keratinocyte and fibroblast functions, which affects wound healing mechanism. Hence, diabetic patients are more prone to infections and ulcers, which finally result in gangrene. Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, rice bran and sweet corn. In this study, wound healing activity of FA was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using excision wound model. FA-treated wounds were found to epithelise faster as compared with diabetic wound control group. The hydroxyproline and hexosamine content increased significantly when compared with diabetic wound control. FA effectively inhibited the lipid peroxidation and elevated the catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and nitric oxide levels along with the increase in the serum zinc and copper levels probably aiding the wound healing process. Hence, the results indicate that FA significantly promotes wound healing in diabetic rats.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed esterification of ferulic Acid with oleyl alcohol in ionic liquid/isooctane binary systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bilian; Liu, Huanzhen; Guo, Zheng; Huang, Jian; Wang, Minzi; Xu, Xuebing; Zheng, Lifei

    2011-02-23

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ferulic acid oleyl alcohol ester in an ionic liquid (IL)/isooctane system was investigated. Considerable bioconversion and volumetric productivity were achieved in inexpensive 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Hmim][PF(6)]) and 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Omim][PF(6)]) mediated systems, and thus, the two types of ILs were selected for further optimization of variables. The results showed that, before reaching a maximum, the increase of ferulic acid concentration, temperature, or enzyme dosage led to an increase in volumetric productivity. Variations of the ratios of IL/isooctane and concentrations of oleyl alcohol also profoundly affected the volumetric productivity. To a higher extent, [Hmim][PF(6)]/isooctane and [Omim][PF(6)]/isooctane show similar reaction behaviors. Under the optimized reaction conditions (60 °C, 150 mg of Novozym 435 and 100 mg of molecular sieves), up to 48.50 mg/mL productivity of oleyl feruleate could be achieved for the [Hmim][PF(6)]/isooctane (0.5 mL/1.5 mL) system with a substrate concentration of ferulic acid of 0.08 mmol/mL and oleyl alcohol of 0.32 mmol; while an optimum volumetric productivity of 26.92 mg/mL was obtained for the [Omim][PF(6)]/ isooctane (0.5 mL/1.5 mL) system under a similar reaction condition other than the substrate concentrations of ferulic acid at 0.05 mmol/mL and oleyl alcohol at 0.20 mmol.

  7. Protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against glyoxal- or methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Maruf, Abdullah Al; Lip, HoYin; Wong, Horace; O'Brien, Peter J

    2015-06-05

    Glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) cause protein and nucleic acid carbonylation and oxidative stress by forming reactive oxygen and carbonyl species which have been associated with toxic effects that may contribute to cardiovascular disease, complications associated with diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. GO and MGO can be formed through oxidation of commonly used reducing sugars e.g., fructose under chronic hyperglycemic conditions. GO and MGO form advanced glycation end products which lead to an increased potential for developing inflammatory diseases. In the current study, we have investigated the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols e.g., caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, methyl ferulate, ethyl ferulate, and ferulaldehyde on GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress (ROS formation, protein carbonylation and mitochondrial membrane potential maintenance) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. To investigate and compare the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against GO- or MGO-induced toxicity, five hepatocyte models were used: (a) control hepatocytes, (b) GSH-depleted hepatocytes, (c) catalase-inhibited hepatocytes, (d) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)-inhibited hepatocytes, and (e) hepatocyte inflammation system (a non-toxic H2O2-generating system). All of the polyphenols tested significantly decreased GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and improved mitochondrial membrane potential in these models. The rank order of their effectiveness was caffeic acid∼ferulaldehyde>ferulic acid>ethyl ferulate>methyl ferulate>p-coumaric acid. Ferulic acid was found to decrease protein carbonylation in GSH-depleted hepatocytes. This study suggests that ferulic acid and related polyphenols can be used therapeutically to inhibit or decrease GO- or MGO-induced hepatotoxicity.

  8. Multiplexed detection of fungal nucleic acid signatures.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Mara R; Dunbar, Sherry A; Jacobson, James W

    2008-04-01

    Diagnoses of opportunistic mycotic infections constitute an increasing clinical problem. Conventional diagnostic tests are time consuming and lack specificity and sensitivity for accurate and timely prognoses. This unit provides a comprehensive description of a fungal detection method that combines nucleic acid signatures with flow cytometry. The multiplexed assay, which uses xMAP technology, consists of unique fluorescent microspheres covalently bound to species-specific fungal oligonucleotide probes. In the presence of the complementary target sequence, the probe hybridizes to its biotinylated target. Quantification of the reaction is based on the fluorescence signal of the reporter molecule that binds to the biotin moieties of the target. The assay can be expanded to include other microorganisms and has the capability to simultaneously test 100 different fungal probes per tube/well. The speed, flexibility in design, and high-throughput capability makes this assay an attractive diagnostic tool for fungal infections and other related maladies.

  9. Ferulic Acid Orchestrates Anti-Oxidative Properties of Danggui Buxue Tang, an Ancient Herbal Decoction: Elucidation by Chemical Knock-Out Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Amy G. W.; Huang, Vincent Y.; Wang, Huai Y.; Lin, Huang Q.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid, a phenolic acid derived mainly from a Chinese herb Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR), was reported to reduce the formation of free radicals. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction composing of Astragali Radix (AR) and ASR, has been utilized for more than 800 years in China having known anti-oxidative property. Ferulic acid is a major active ingredient in DBT; however, the role of ferulic acid within the herbal mixture has not been resolved. In order to elucidate the function of ferulic acid within this herbal decoction, a ferulic acid-depleted herbal decoction was created and named as DBTΔfa. The anti-oxidative properties of chemically modified DBT decoction were systemically compared in cultured H9C2 rat cardiomyoblast cell line. The application of DBT and DBTΔfa into the cultures showed functions in (i) decreasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, detected by laser confocal; (ii) increasing of the activation of Akt; (iii) increasing the transcriptional activity of anti-oxidant response element (ARE); and (iv) increasing the expressions of anti-oxidant enzymes, i.e. NQO1 and GCLM. In all scenario, the aforementioned anti-oxidative properties of DBTΔfa in H9C2 cells were significantly reduced, as compared to authentic DBT. Thus, ferulic acid could be an indispensable chemical in DBT to orchestrate multi-components of DBT as to achieve maximal anti-oxidative functions. PMID:27824860

  10. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate‐producing bacteria that release ferulic acid

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Sylvia H.; Russell, Wendy R.; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Flint, Harry J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene‐based community analysis that providing amylase‐pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to E ubacterium xylanophilum and B utyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5‐fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate‐producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi‐species pathway. PMID:26636660

  11. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  12. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid against Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Induced Swallowing Dysfunction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Hirokazu; Iwata, Naohiro; Xuan, Meiyan; Kamiuchi, Shinya; Hibino, Yasuhide; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Okazaki, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic phytochemical, has been reported to exert antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of FA against the dysfunction of the swallowing reflex induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) in rats. In 2VO rats, topical administration of water or citric acid to the pharyngolaryngeal region evoked a diminished number of swallowing events with prolonged latency compared to sham-operated control rats. 2VO rats had an increased level of superoxide anion radical, and decreased dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme levels in the striatum, suggesting that 2VO augmented cerebral oxidative stress and impaired the striatal dopaminergic system. Furthermore, substance P (SP) expression in the laryngopharyngeal mucosa, which is believed to be positively regulated by dopaminergic signaling in the basal ganglia, was decreased in 2VO rats. Oral treatment with FA (30 mg/kg) for 3 weeks (from one week before 2VO to two weeks after) improved the swallowing reflex and maintained levels of striatal dopamine and laryngopharyngeal SP expression in 2VO rats. These results suggest that FA maintains the swallowing reflex by protecting the dopamine-SP system against ischemia-induced oxidative damage in 2VO rats. PMID:28273833

  13. Ferulic acid-coupled chitosan: thermal stability and utilization as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film.

    PubMed

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-22

    The aim of the present research was to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after coupling onto chitosan, and the possibility of using ferulic acid-coupled chitosan (FA-CTS) as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film. FA-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperatures up to 150°C followed by blown film extrusion at temperatures up to 175°C. Although incorporation of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the biodegradable films possessed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of film containing FA-CTS were higher than those of film containing naked ferulic acid, by about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by the addition of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.08% (w/w). The above results suggested that FA-CTS could potentially be used as an antioxidant for active packaging film.

  14. Research on the adsorption property of supported ionic liquids for ferulic acid, caffeic acid and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Du, Ni; Cao, Shuwen; Yu, Yanying

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, the preparation of new supported ionic liquids (SILs) composed of the N-methylimidazolium cation and the quinoline cation is described. They have been confirmed and evaluated by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Six kinds of different SILs included SiO(2)·Im(+)·Cl(-), SiO(2)·Im(+)·BF(4)(-), SiO(2)·Im(+)·PF(6)(-), SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-), SiO(2)·Qu(+)·BF(4)(-) and SiO(2)·Qu(+)·PF(6)(-). The adsorption characteristics of ferulic acid (FA), caffeic acid (CA) and salicylic acid (SA) on SILs were investigated by static adsorption experiments. It was found that SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) had excellent adsorption and desorption capacity to three tested phenolic compounds. The dynamic adsorption characteristics of FA, CA and SA on SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) were also studied. The saturated adsorption capacity of FA, CA and SA using SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) as adsorbent was 64.6 mg/g, 53.2 mg/g and 72.2 mg/g respectively. Using 70% ethanol as eluent, the saturated desorption efficiencies of FA, CA and SA were 97.2%, 90.3% and 96.5% respectively. Thus, SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) had strong adsorption and separation capacity for FA, CA and SA.

  15. Identification of two feruloyl esterases in Dickeya dadantii 3937 and induction of the major feruloyl esterase and of pectate lyases by ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Susan; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole

    2011-02-01

    The plant-pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) produces a large array of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Using an in situ detection test, we showed that it produces two feruloyl esterases, FaeD and FaeT. These enzymes cleave the ester link between ferulate and the pectic or xylan chains. FaeD and FaeT belong to the carbohydrate esterase family CE10, and they are the first two feruloyl esterases to be identified in this family. Cleavage of synthetic substrates revealed strong activation of FaeD and FaeT by ferulic acid. The gene faeT appeared to be weakly expressed, and its product, FaeT, is a cytoplasmic protein. In contrast, the gene faeD is strongly induced in the presence of ferulic acid, and FaeD is an extracellular protein secreted by the Out system, responsible for pectinase secretion. The product of the adjacent gene faeR is involved in the positive control of faeD in response to ferulic acid. Moreover, ferulic acid acts in synergy with polygalacturonate to induce pectate lyases, the main virulence determinant of soft rot disease. Feruloyl esterases dissociate internal cross-links in the polysaccharide network of the plant cell wall, suppress the polysaccharide esterifications, and liberate ferulic acid, which contributes to the induction of pectate lyases. Together, these effects of feruloyl esterases could facilitate soft rot disease caused by pectinolytic bacteria.

  16. Ferulic acid inhibits gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and enhances the survival of mice.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2013-02-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a monophenolic phenylpropanoid occurring in plant products such as rice bran, green tea, and coffee beans. It has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects in many studies. In the present study, we show that intraperitoneal administration of FA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight 1 hour prior to or immediately after whole-body γ-irradiation of mice with 4 Gy results in considerable reduction in the micronuclei formation in peripheral blood reticulocytes. Administration of the same amount of FA immediately after 4 Gy γ-irradiation showed significant decrease in the amount of DNA strand breaks in murine peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow cells as examined by comet assay. Further, immunostaining of mouse splenic lymphocytes for phspho-γH2AX was carried out, and it was observed that FA inhibits the γH2AX foci formation. Finally, the survival of mice upon 6, 8, and 10 Gy γ-ray exposure was monitored. FA enhances the survival of mice by a factor of 2.5 at a dose of 6 Gy γ-radiation but not at higher doses. In conclusion, FA has protective potential in both pre- and postirradiation exposure scenarios and enhances the survival of mice possibly by decreasing DNA damage as examined by γH2AX foci, micronuclei formation, and comet assay.

  17. Ultrasensitive Detection of Ferulic Acid Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Functionalized Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin-jie; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Feng, Shi-lan; Hu, Fang-di; Li, Ying-dong; Wang, Chun-ming

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical redox of ferulic acid (FA) was investigated systematically by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (PDDA-G/GCE) as a working electrode. A simple and sensitive differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of FA in Angelica sinensis and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH, scan rate, and concentration was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical sensitivity to FA, and the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration in the range of 8.95 × 10−8 M ~5.29 × 10−5 M, with a relatively low detection limit of 4.42 × 10−8 M. This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. Besides, it was applied to detect FA in Angelica sinensis and biological samples with satisfactory results, making it a potential alternative tool for the quantitative detection of FA in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24900937

  18. Blood compatibility of a ferulic acid (FA)-eluting PHBHHx system for biodegradable magnesium stent application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Shen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium stent has shown potential application as a new biodegradable stent. However, the fast degradation of magnesium stent limited its clinic application. Recently, a biodegradable and drug-eluting coating system was designed to prevent magnesium from fast degradation by adding ferulic acid (FA) in poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) by a physical method. In vitro study has demonstrated that the FA-eluting system exhibited strong promotion to the endothelialization, which might be a choice for the stent application. In this paper, the hemolysis rate, the plasma recalcification time (PRT), the plasma prothrombin time (PT) and the kinetic clotting time of the FA-eluting films were investigated and the platelet adhesion was observed in order to assess the blood compatibility of the FA-eluting PHBHHx films in comparison with PHBHHx film. The results have shown that the addition of FA had no influence on the hemolysis, but prolonged PRT, PT and the clotting time and reduced the platelet adhesion and activation, displaying that the FA-eluting PHBHHx exhibited better blood compatibility than PHBHHx. In addition, the effect of alkali treatment on the blood compatibility of FA-eluting PHBHHx was also studied. It was indicated that alkali treatment had no effect on the hemolysis and the coagulation time, but enhanced slightly the platelet adhesion. All these demonstrated that FA-eluting PHBHHx film had good blood compatibility and might be a candidate surface coating for the biodegradable magnesium stent.

  19. Ferulic Acid: A Hope for Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sgarbossa, Antonella; Giacomazza, Daniela; di Carlo, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillar tangles, associated with loss of neurons in the brain and consequent learning and memory deficits. Aβ is the major component of the senile plaques and is believed to play a central role in the development and progress of AD both in oligomer and fibril forms. Inhibition of the formation of Aβ fibrils as well as the destabilization of preformed Aβ in the Central Nervous System (CNS) would be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. Moreover, a large number of studies indicate that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in AD and their suppression or reduction via antioxidant use could be a promising preventive or therapeutic intervention for AD patients. Many antioxidant compounds have been demonstrated to protect the brain from Aβ neurotoxicity. Ferulic acid (FA) is an antioxidant naturally present in plant cell walls with anti-inflammatory activities and it is able to act as a free radical scavenger. Here we present the role of FA as inhibitor or disaggregating agent of amyloid structures as well as its effects on biological models. PMID:26184304

  20. Thermosensitive hydrogel made of ferulic acid-gelatin and chitosan glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Shu-Hua; Liu, Chia-Ching; Gefen, Amit; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2013-02-15

    Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress is involved in apoptosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells that can alter cellular phenotype and accelerate disc degeneration. Ferulic acid (FA) possesses an excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the study, we developed the thermosensitive FA-gelatin/chitosan/glycerol phosphate (FA-G/C/GP) hydrogel which was applied as a sustained release system of FA to treat NP cells from the damage caused by oxidative stress. The gelation temperature of the FA-G/C/GP hydrogel was 32.17 °C. NP cells submitted to oxidative stress promoted by H(2)O(2), and post-treated with FA-G/C/GP exhibited down-regulation of MMP-3 and up-regulation aggrecan and type II collagen in mRNA level. The sulfated-glycosaminoglycan production was increased and the apoptosis was inhibited in the post-treatment group. The results suggest that the thermosensitive FA-G/C/GP hydrogel can treat NP cells from the damage caused by oxidative stress and may apply in minimally invasive surgery for NP regeneration.

  1. Ferulic acid improves lipid and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Munkong, Narongsuk; Parklak, Wason; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2016-02-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a plant phenolic acid that has several pharmacological effects including antihyperglycaemic activity. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of FA on glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed a HFD (45 kcal% fat) for 16 weeks. At the ninth week of induction, the obese mice were orally administered with daily FA doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for the next eight weeks. The results show that FA significantly reduced the elevated blood glucose and serum leptin levels, lowered the insulin resistance, and increased the serum adiponectin level. Moreover, serum lipid level, and liver cholesterol and triglyceride accumulations were also reduced. The histological examination showed clear evidence of a decrease in the lipid droplets in liver tissues and smaller size of fat cells in the adipose tissue in the obese mice treated with FA. Interestingly, FA reduced the expression of hepatic lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). It could also up-regulate hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) gene and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) proteins. The FA treatment was also found to suppress the protein expressions of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrate that FA improves the glucose and lipid homeostasis in HFD-induced obese mice probably via modulating the expression of lipogenic and gluconeogenic genes in liver tissues.

  2. The activity of ferulic and gallic acids in biofilm prevention and control of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Borges, Anabela; Saavedra, Maria J; Simões, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The activity of two phenolic acids, gallic acid (GA) and ferulic acid (FA) at 1000 μg ml(-1), was evaluated on the prevention and control of biofilms formed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. In addition, the effect of the two phenolic acids was tested on planktonic cell susceptibility, bacterial motility and adhesion. Biofilm prevention and control were tested using a microtiter plate assay and the effect of the phenolic acids was assessed on biofilm mass (crystal violet staining) and on the quantification of metabolic activity (alamar blue assay). The minimum bactericidal concentration for P. aeruginosa was 500 μg ml(-1) (for both phenolic acids), whilst for E. coli it was 2500 μg ml(-1) (FA) and 5000 μg ml(-1) (GA), for L. monocytogenes it was >5000 μg ml(-1) (for both phenolic acids), and for S. aureus it was 5000 μg ml(-1) (FA) and >5000 μg ml(-1) (GA). GA caused total inhibition of swimming (L. monocytogenes) and swarming (L. monocytogenes and E. coli) motilities. FA caused total inhibition of swimming (L. monocytogenes) and swarming (L. monocytogenes and E. coli) motilities. Colony spreading of S. aureus was completely inhibited by FA. The interference of GA and FA with bacterial adhesion was evaluated by the determination of the free energy of adhesion. Adhesion was less favorable when the bacteria were exposed to GA (P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes) and FA (P. aeruginosa and S. aureus). Both phenolics had preventive action on biofilm formation and showed a higher potential to reduce the mass of biofilms formed by the Gram-negative bacteria. GA and FA promoted reductions in biofilm activity >70% for all the biofilms tested. The two phenolic acids demonstrated the potential to inhibit bacterial motility and to prevent and control biofilms of four important human pathogenic bacteria. This study also emphasizes the potential of phytochemicals as an emergent source of biofilm

  3. An Aspergillus niger esterase (ferulic acid esterase III) and a recombinant Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa esterase (Xy1D) release a 5-5' ferulic dehydrodimer (diferulic acid) from barley and wheat cell walls.

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomé, B; Faulds, C B; Kroon, P A; Waldron, K; Gilbert, H J; Hazlewood, G; Williamson, G

    1997-01-01

    Diferulate esters strengthen and cross-link primary plant cell walls and help to defend the plant from invading microbes. Phenolics also limit the degradation of plant cell walls by saprophytic microbes and by anaerobic microorganisms in the rumen. We show that incubation of wheat and barley cell walls with ferulic acid esterase from Aspergillus niger (FAE-III) or Pseudomonas fluorescens (Xy1D), together with either xylanase I from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride xylanase, or xylanase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (XylA), leads to release of the ferulate dimer 5-5' diFA [(E,E)-4,4'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxy-3,3'-bicinnamic acid]. Direct saponification of the cell walls without enzyme treatment released the following five identifiable ferulate dimers (in order of abundance): (Z)-beta-(4-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, trans-5-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl) -7-methoxy-2, 3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-carboxylic acid, 5-5' diFA, (E,E)-4, 4'-dihydroxy-3, 5'-dimethoxy-beta, 3'-bicinnamic acid, and trans-7-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) -6-methoxy-1, 2-dihydronaphthalene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid. Incubation of the wheat or barley cell walls with xylanase, followed by saponification of the solubilized fraction, yielded 5-5'diFA and, in some cases, certain of the above dimers, depending on the xylanase used. These experiments demonstrate that FAE-III and XYLD specifically release only esters of 5-5'diFA from either xylanase-treated or insoluble fractions of cell walls, even though other esterified dimers were solubilized by preincubation with xylanase. It is also concluded that the esterified dimer content of the xylanase-solubilized fraction depends on the source of the xylanase. PMID:8979352

  4. A novel dextran hydrogel linking trans-ferulic acid for the stabilization and transdermal delivery of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Roberta; Trombino, Sonia; Muzzalupo, Rita; Tavano, Lorena; Picci, Nevio

    2009-05-01

    Long-term exposure of the skin to UV light causes degenerative effects, which can be minimized by using antioxidant formulations. The major challenge in this regard is that a significant amount of antioxidant should reach at the site for effective photoprotection. However, barrier properties of the skin limit their use. In the present study, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) was loaded into a dextran hydrogel containing ferulic moieties, covalently linked, to improve its topical delivery, and also to increase its relative poor stability, which is due to direct exposure to UV light. Methacrylic groups were first introduced onto the dextran polymer backbones, then the obtained methacrylated dextran was copolymerized with aminoethyl methacrylate, and subsequently esterificated with trans-ferulic acid. The new biopolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The values of content of phenolic groups were determined. Its ability in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomal membranes induced in vitro by a source of free radicals, that is tert-butyl hydroperoxide, was studied. Hydrogel was also characterized for swelling behaviour, vitamin E loading efficiency, release, and deposition on the rabbit skin. Additionally, vitamin E deposition was compared through hydrogels, respectively, containing and not containing trans-ferulic acid. The results showed that ferulate hydrogel was a more effective carrier in protecting vitamin E from photodegradation than hydrogel without antioxidant moieties. Then antioxidant hydrogel could be of potential use for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes as carrier of vitamin E that is an antioxidant that reduces erythema, photoaging, photocarcinogenesis, edema, and skin hypersensitivity associated with exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, because of its protective effects.

  5. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  6. Ferulic acid dehydrodimers from wheat bran: isolation, purification and antioxidant properties of 8-O-4-diferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Conesa, M T; Plumb, G W; Waldron, K W; Ralph, J; Williamson, G

    1997-01-01

    Wheat bran contains several ester-linked dehydrodimers of ferulic acid, which were detected and quantified after sequential alkaline hydrolysis. The major dimers released were: trans-5-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-7-methoxy-2, 3- dihydrobenzofuran-3-carboxylic acid (5-8-BendiFA), (Z)-beta-[4-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy]-4-hydroxy-3-methox ycinnamic acid (8-O-4-diFA) and (E,E)-4,4'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxy-3,3'-bicinnamic acid (5-5-diFA). trans-7-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3methoxyphenyl)-6-methoxy-1,2-dihydro - naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (8-8-diFA cyclic form) and 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-beta,beta'-bicinnamic acid (8-8-diFA non cyclic form) were not detected. One of the most abundant dimers, 8-O-4-diFA, was purified from de-starched wheat bran after alkaline hydrolysis and preparative HPLC. The resultant product was identical to the chemically synthesised 8-O-4-dimer by TLC and HPLC as confirmed by 1H-NMR and mass spectrometry. The absorption maxima and absorption coefficients for the synthetic compound in ethanol were: lambda max: 323 nm, lambda min: 258 nm, epsilon lambda max (M-1 cm-1): 24,800 +/- 2100 and epsilon 280 (M-1 cm-1): 19,700 +/- 1100. The antioxidant properties of 8-O-4-diFA were assessed using: (a) inhibition of ascorbate/iron-induced peroxidation of phosphatidylcholine liposomes and; (b) scavenging of the radical cation of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) relative to the water-soluble vitamin E analogue, Trolox C. The 8-O-4-diFA was a better antioxidant than ferulic acid in both lipid and aqueous phases. This is the first report of the antioxidant activity of a natural diferulate obtained from a plant.

  7. The effects of caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids on proliferation, superoxide production, adhesion and migration of human tumor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nasr Bouzaiene, Nouha; Kilani Jaziri, Soumaya; Kovacic, Hervé; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ghedira, Kamel; Luis, José

    2015-11-05

    Reactive oxygen species are well-known mediators of various biological responses. In this study, we examined the effect of three phenolic acids, caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids, on superoxide anion production, adhesion and migration of human lung (A549) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT29-D4) cancer cell lines. Proliferation of both tumor cells was inhibited by phenolic acids. Caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids also significantly inhibited superoxide production in A549 and HT29-D4 cells. Superoxide anion production decreased by 92% and 77% at the highest tested concentration (200 µM) of caffeic acid in A549 and HT29-D4 cell lines respectively. Furthermore, A549 and HT29-D4 cell adhesion was reduced by 77.9% and 79.8% respectively at the higher tested concentration of ferulic acid (200 µM). Migration assay performed towards A549 cell line, revealed that tested compounds reduced significantly cell migration. At the highest concentration tested (200 µM), the covered surface was 7.7%, 9.5% and 35% for caffeic, coumaric or ferulic acids, respectively. These results demonstrate that caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids may participate as active ingredients in anticancer agents against lung and colon cancer development, at adhesion and migration steps of tumor progression.

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PAD1 and FDC1 show a positive relationship with ferulic acid decarboxylation ability among industrial yeasts used in alcoholic beverage production.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Nobuhiko; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2014-07-01

    Among industrial yeasts used for alcoholic beverage production, most wine and weizen beer yeasts decarboxylate ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which has a smoke-like flavor, whereas sake, shochu, top-fermenting, and bottom-fermenting yeast strains lack this ability. However, the factors underlying this difference among industrial yeasts are not clear. We previously confirmed that both PAD1 (phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR538W) and FDC1 (ferulic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR539W) are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAD1 and FDC1 in sake, shochu, wine, weizen, top-fermenting, bottom-fermenting, and laboratory yeast strains were examined to clarify the differences in ferulic acid decarboxylation ability between these types of yeast. For PAD1, a nonsense mutation was observed in the gene sequence of standard top-fermenting yeast. Gene sequence analysis of FDC1 revealed that sake, shochu, and standard top-fermenting yeasts contained a nonsense mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation was identified in the FDC1 gene of bottom-fermenting yeast. No nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected in laboratory, wine, or weizen beer yeast strains. When FDC1 was introduced into sake and shochu yeast strains, the transformants exhibited ferulic acid decarboxylation activity. Our findings indicate that a positive relationship exists between SNPs in PAD1 and FDC1 genes and the ferulic acid decarboxylation ability of industrial yeast strains.

  9. The effects of ferulic acid on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats after biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haigang; Wang, Yang; Fan, Rong; Lv, Huiying; Sun, Hua; Xie, Haitang; Tang, Tao; Luo, Jiekun; Xia, Zian

    2016-01-01

    According to previous research studies, warfarin can be detected in human bile after oral administration. Ferulic acid (FA) is the main bioactive component of many Chinese herbs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. To elucidate the effects of FA on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats after biliary drainage is necessary. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (WN): healthy rats after the administration of warfarin sodium, Group 2 (WO): a rat model of biliary drainage after the administration of warfarin sodium, Group 3 (WFN): healthy rats after the administration of warfarin sodium and FA, and Group 4 (WFO): a rat model of biliary drainage after the administration of warfarin sodium and FA. Blood samples were collected at different time points after administration. The concentrations of blood samples were determined by ultraperformance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed according to the main pharmacokinetic parameters calculated by the DAS 2.1.1 software. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed a significant difference between the WN and WO groups, the WO group showed a decrease of 51% and 41.6% in area under the curve from 0 to time (AUC0–t) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax), respectively, whereas time to Cmax (Tmax) was delayed 3.27 folds. There were significant differences between the WFO and WFN groups, the WFO group showed a decrease of 63.8% and 70% in AUC0–t and Cmax, respectively; the delay in Tmax between the WN and WFN groups (mean, from 132–432 minutes) was significantly different; the mean retention time from 0 to time (MRT0–t) between the WO and WFO groups (mean, from 718.31–606.13 minutes) also showed a significant difference. Enterohepatic circulation markedly influences the disposition of warfarin in rats, and FA significantly affected the warfarin disposition in rat plasma. PMID:27462142

  10. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of ferulic and gallic acids against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Borges, Anabela; Ferreira, Carla; Saavedra, Maria J; Simões, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The increased resistance of pathogenic microorganisms is frequently attributed to the extreme and inadequate use of antibiotics and transmission of resistance within and between individuals. To counter the emergence of resistant microorganisms, considerable resources have been invested in the search for new antimicrobials. Plants synthesize a diverse array of secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) known to be involved in defense mechanisms, and in the last few years it is recognized that some of these molecules have health beneficial effects, including antimicrobial properties. In this study, the mechanism of action of gallic (GA) and ferulic (FA) acids, a hydroxybenzoic acid and a hydroxycinnamic acid, was assessed on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The targets of antimicrobial action were studied using different bacterial physiological indices: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), membrane permeabilization, intracellular potassium release, physicochemical surface properties, and surface charge. It was found that FA and GA had antimicrobial activity against the bacteria tested with MIC of 500 μg/mL for P. aeruginosa, 1500 μg/mL for E. coli, 1750 μg/mL for S. aureus, and 2000 μg/mL for L. monocytogenes with GA; 100 μg/mL for E. coli and P. aeruginosa, 1100 μg/mL and 1250 μg/mL for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively, with FA. The MBC for E. coli was 2500 μg/mL (FA) and 5000 (GA), for S. aureus was 5000 μg/mL (FA) and 5250 μg/mL (GA), for L. monocytogenes was 5300 μg/mL (FA) and 5500 μg/mL (GA), and 500 μg/mL for P. aeruginosa, with both phytochemicals. GA and FA led to irreversible changes in membrane properties (charge, intra and extracellular permeability, and physicochemical properties) through hydrophobicity changes, decrease of negative surface charge, and occurrence of local rupture or pore formation in the cell membranes with

  11. ALD5, PAD1, ATF1 and ATF2 facilitate the catabolism of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Bettiga, Maurizio; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to catabolize phenolic compounds remains to be fully elucidated. Conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid by S. cerevisiae under aerobic conditions was previously reported. A conversion pathway was also proposed. In the present study, possible enzymes involved in the reported conversion were investigated. Aldehyde dehydrogenase Ald5, phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase Pad1, and alcohol acetyltransferases Atf1 and Atf2, were hypothesised to be involved. Corresponding genes for the four enzymes were overexpressed in a S. cerevisiae strain named APT_1. The ability of APT_1 to tolerate and convert the three phenolic compounds was tested. APT_1 was also compared to strains B_CALD heterologously expressing coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas, and an ald5Δ strain, all previously reported. APT_1 exhibited the fastest conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Using the intermediates and conversion products of each compound, the catabolic route of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid in S. cerevisiae was studied in greater detail. PMID:28205618

  12. Evaluation of thermo sensitivity of curcumin and quantification of ferulic acid and vanillin as degradation products by a validated HPTLC method.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Charismatic therapeutic potential of curcumin in biological research have triggered an interest to explore the thermal degradation pattern of curcumin, formation of ferulic acid and vanillin as degraded metabolites at different temperatures in methanol and corn oil. The results revealed 47% w/w loss of curcumin along with formation of 17% w/w vanillin and 9% w/w ferulic acid at boiling temperature of methanol while oil samples show 38.9% w/w loss of curcumin but not confirming the formation of ferulic acid and vanillin. Findings of this study revealed that formation of vanillin in methanol starts around 50°C and its concentration goes on increasing up to 70°C and then further degraded at boiling temperature of methanol. Formation of ferulic acid begins around 60°C and initially increases with rise of temperature and then decreases approaching boiling point of methanol. Vanillin as well as ferulic acid was absent in corn oil samples though degradation of curcumin was observed by reduction in peak area of curcumin. The present study was done by applying a validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography method. The method involved glass-backed HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase and toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (8:1:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase.

  13. Coaxial electrospinning with acetic acid for preparing ferulic acid/zein composite fibers with improved drug release profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Mao; Zha, Liu-sheng; Yu, Deng-Guang; Liu, Jianyun

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated drug/zein composite fibers prepared using a modified coaxial electrospinning process. With unspinnable acetic acid as sheath liquid and an electrospinnable co-dissolving solution of zein and ferulic acid (FA) as core fluid, the modified coaxial process could run smoothly and continuously without any clogging. Compared with those from the single-fluid electrospinning process, the FA-loaded zein fibers from the modified process were rounder and possessed higher quality in terms of diameter and distribution, as verified by scanning electron microscopic observations of their surface and cross-section. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction showed that fibers from both processes similarly formed a composite with the FA present in the zein matrix in an amorphous state. The driving force of encapsulation of FA into zein fibers was hydrogen bonding, as evidenced by the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra. However, in vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the fibers from the coaxial process exhibited better sustained-release profiles with a smaller initial burst effect and less tailing-off release compared with those from the single process. The modified coaxial electrospinning process is a useful tool for generating nanofibers with higher quality and improved functional performance.

  14. Extraction of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid using surfactant-based aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Demanna, Dhanashree; Desai, S A

    2014-09-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (pCA) are high-value products that can be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Present work explores the potential of surfactant-based cloud-point extraction (CPE) for FA and pCA extraction from corn cob hydrolysate. More than 90 % (w/w) extraction of both FA and pCA was achieved from model system with L92. The partition coefficient of FA and pCA in L92 aqueous phase system was 35 and 55, respectively. A significant enrichment (8-10-fold) of both FA and pCA was achieved in surfactant-rich phase. Furthermore, the downstream process volume was reduced by 10 to 13 times. Optimized conditions (5 % v/v L92 and pH 3.0) resulted into 85 and 89 % extraction of FA and p-CA, respectively, from alkaline corn cob hydrolysate. Biocompatibility tests were carried out for L92 for ethanol fermentation and found to be biocompatible. Thus, the new surfactant-based CPE system not only concentrated FA and pCA but also reduced the process volume significantly. Further, aqueous phase containing sugars can be used for ethanol fermentation.

  15. Ferulic acid ethyl ester diminished Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced incapacitation through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Francisco Valmor Macedo; Gomes, Bruno de Sousa; Neto, Benedito de Sousa; Ferreira, Alana Rodrigues; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Oliveira, Francisco de Assis

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is a derivate from ferulic acid which reportedly has antioxidant effect; however, its role on inflammation was unknown. In this study, we investigated the orally administered FAEE anti-inflammatory activity on experimental inflammation models and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. CFA-induced arthritis has been evaluated by incapacitation model and radiographic knee joint records at different observation time. FAEE (po) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.001) within the 1st to 5th hours at 50 and 100 mg/kg doses. FAEE 50 and 100 mg/kg, po inhibited leukocyte migration into air pouch model (p < 0.001), and myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities (p < 0.001) increased total thiol concentration and decreased the TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations, NO, and thiobarbituric acid reactive species. In the CFA-induced arthritis, FAEE 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the edema and the elevation paw time, a joint disability parameter, since second hour after arthritis induction (p < 0.001). FAEE presented rat joint protective activity in radiographic records (p < 0.001). The data suggest that the FAEE exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocyte migration, oxidative stress reduction, and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Ferulic acid inhibits UVB-radiation induced photocarcinogenesis through modulating inflammatory and apoptotic signaling in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ambothi, Kanagalakshmi; Prasad, N Rajendra; Balupillai, Agilan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the photochemopreventive effects of ferulic acid (FA) against chronic ultraviolet-B (290-320 nm) induced oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis in the skin of Swiss albino mice. Chronic UVB exposure (180 mJ/cm(2) for 30 weeks; thrice in a week) induced tumor formation in the mice skin that showed increased expression of carcinogenic and inflammatory markers when compared with the control animals. The intraperitoneal (FAIP) and topical (FAT) administration of FA significantly reduced the incidence of UVB-induced tumor volume and tumor weight in the mice skin. Histopathological studies revealed that both FAIP and FAT administration prevented the UVB-induced hyperplasia, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and dysplastic feature in the mice skin. Further, it has been observed that FA treatment reverted chronic UVB-induced oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) accompanied with modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and IL-6 in the mice skin tumor. FA treatment also modulates mutated p53, Bcl-2 and Bax expressions in the UVB-induced mice skin tumor. Thus, the results of the present study indicate ferulic acid has potential against UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the Swiss albino mice.

  17. Novel ferulate esterase from Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria and analyses of the recombinant enzyme produced in E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a plate containing ethyl ferulate as sole carbon source, various bacteria cultures were screened for ferulate esterase (FAE). Among a dozen of species showing positive FAE, one Lactobacillus fermentum strain NRRL 1932 demonstrated the strongest activity. Using a published sequence of ferulate ...

  18. Aspergillus niger I-1472 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus MUCL39533, selected for the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin, are also able to produce cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and feruloyl esterases.

    PubMed

    Bonnina; Brunel; Gouy; Lesage-Meessen; Asther; Thibault

    2001-01-02

    The filamentous fungal strains Aspergillus niger I-1472 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus MUCL39533, previously selected for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillic acid and vanillin respectively, were grown on sugar beet pulp. A large spectrum of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes was produced by A. niger and very few levels of feruloyl esterases were found. In contrast, P. cinnabarinus culture filtrate contained low amount of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and no feruloyl esterases. In order to enhance feruloyl esterases in A. niger cultures, feruloylated oligosaccharide-rich fractions were prepared from sugar beet pulp or cereal bran and used as carbon sources. Number of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes were induced. Feruloyl esterases were much higher in maize bran-based medium than in sugar beet pulp-based medium, demonstrating the ability of carbon sources originating from maize to induce the synthesis of feruloyl esterases. Thus, A. niger I-1472 could be interesting to release ferulic acid from sugar beet pulp or maize bran.

  19. Genetic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for rapid and high-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Graf, Nadja; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important flavoring agents used today. That is why many efforts have been made on biotechnological production from natural abundant substrates. In this work, the nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 was genetically optimized to convert ferulic acid to vanillin. Deletion of the vanillin dehydrogenase gene (vdh) was not sufficient to prevent vanillin degradation. Additional inactivation of a molybdate transporter, identified by transposon mutagenesis, led to a strain incapable to grow on vanillin as sole carbon source. The bioconversion was optimized by enhanced chromosomal expression of the structural genes for feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase (ech) by introduction of the strong tac promoter system. Further genetic engineering led to high initial conversion rates and molar vanillin yields up to 86% within just 3 h accompanied with very low by-product levels. To our knowledge, this represents the highest productivity and molar vanillin yield gained with a Pseudomonas strain so far. Together with its high tolerance for ferulic acid, the developed, plasmid-free P. putida strain represents a promising candidate for the biotechnological production of vanillin.

  20. Physicochemical characteristics, hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic acid, P-coumaric acid) and their ratio, and in situ biodegradability: comparison of genotypic differences among six barley varieties.

    PubMed

    Du, Liqin; Yu, Peiqiang; Rossnagel, Brian G; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J

    2009-06-10

    Barley contains hydroxycinnamic acids, mainly ferulic acid (FA; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and p-coumaric acid (PCA; 4-hydroxycinnamic acid). Ferulic acid is produced via the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and covalently cross-linked to polysaccharides by ester bonds and to components of lignin mainly by ether bonds. Various studies have consistently indicated that FA is among the factors most inhibitory to the biodegradability of cell wall polysaccharides. p-Coumaric acid is also covalently linked to polysaccharides (minor) and lignin (major), but does not form the inhibitory cross-linkages as FA does and is considered to represent cell wall lignification. The objectives in this study were to (1) determine genotypic differences in physicochemical characteristics in terms of (a) two major low molecular weight hydroxycinnamic acid profiles (FA, PCA, PCA-to-FA ratio, which are associated with digestion and lignification), (b) particle size distributions (mean, median), (c) hull content, and (d) digestion-resistant fiber fractions and (2) determine genotypic differences in in situ solubilization kinetics of FA and PCA. The barley varieties grown during three consecutive years (2003, 2004, and 2005) included AC Metcalfe, CDC Dolly, McLeod, CDC Helgason, CDC Trey, and CDC Cowboy. These barleys were grown at the Kernen Crop Research Farm (KCRF, University of Saskatchewan) and managed using standard agronomic production practices. Results showed that there were significant differences in hull content (P < 0.05) among the barley varieties, with Mcleod having the highest (11% DM) and CDC Dolly and CDC Helgason the lowest hull content (9% DM). Ferulic acid ranged from 555 to 663 microg/g of DM (P < 0.05). p-Coumaric acid ranged (P < 0.05) from 283 to 345 microg/g of DM. PCA-to-FA ratios ranged (P < 0.05) from 0.49 to 0.56. Mean particle size ranged (P < 0.05) from 3.06 to 3.66 mm, and median particle size ranged (P < 0.05) from 2.71 to 3.04 mm. In situ DM

  1. Enhancement of the catalytic activity of ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 through random and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jiyoung; Jung, Chaewon; Han, Dongfei; Seo, Jiyoung; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 catalyzes the decarboxylation reaction of lignin monomers and phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives, that is, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively. Among various ferulic acid decarboxylase enzymes, we chose the FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4, whose crystal structure is known, and produced mutants to enhance its catalytic activity by random and site-directed mutagenesis. After three rounds of sequential mutations, FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) showed approximately 34-fold higher catalytic activity than wild-type for the production of 4-vinylguaiacol from ferulic acid. Docking analyses suggested that the increased activity of FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) could be due to formation of compact active site compared with that of the wild-type FADase. Considering the amount of phenolic compounds such as lignin monomers in the biomass components, successfully bioengineered FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 could provide an ecofriendly biocatalytic tool for producing diverse styrene derivatives from biomass.

  2. Natural product-inspired esters and amides of ferulic and caffeic acid as dual inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijay P; Corona, Angela; Distinto, Simona; Maccioni, Elias; Meleddu, Rita; Fois, Benedetta; Floris, Costantino; Malpure, Nilesh V; Alcaro, Stefano; Tramontano, Enzo; Cottiglia, Filippo

    2017-04-21

    Using an HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-associated RNase H inhibition assay as lead, bioguided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of the Ocimum sanctum leaves led to the isolation of five triterpenes (1-5) along with three 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy phenyl derivatives (6-8). The structure of this isolates were determined by 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as ESI-MS. Tetradecyl ferulate (8) showed an interesting RNase H IC50 value of 12.4 μM and due to the synthetic accessibility of this secondary metabolite, a structure-activity relationship study was carried out. A series of esters and amides of ferulic and caffeic acids were synthesized and, among all, the most active was N-oleylcaffeamide displaying a strong inhibitory activity towards both RT-associated functions, ribonuclease H and DNA polymerase. Molecular modeling studies together with Yonetani-Theorell analysis, demonstrated that N-oleylcaffeamide is able to bind both two allosteric site located one close to the NNRTI binding pocket and the other close to RNase H catalytic site.

  3. Ferulic acid prevents methylglyoxal-induced protein glycation, DNA damage, and apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Sompong, Weerachat; Cheng, Henrique; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2017-02-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) can react with amino acids of proteins to induce protein glycation and consequently the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Previous studies reported that ferulic acid (FA) prevented glucose-, fructose-, and ribose-induced protein glycation. In this study, FA (0.1-1 mM) inhibited MG-induced protein glycation and oxidative protein damage in bovine serum albumin (BSA). Furthermore, FA (0.0125-0.2 mM) protected against lysine/MG-mediated oxidative DNA damage, thereby inhibiting superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical generation during lysine and MG reaction. In addition, FA did not have the ability to trap MG. Finally, FA (0.1 mM) pretreatment attenuated MG-induced decrease in cell viability and prevented MG-induced cell apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. The results suggest that FA is capable of protecting β-cells from MG-induced cell damage during diabetes.

  4. Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate Encodes a Transferase Required for Feruloylation of ω-Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Cutin Polyester1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-01-01

    The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C16 and C18 unsubstituted, ω-hydroxy, and α,ω-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm. PMID:22158675

  5. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into malic acid.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Malic acid production from the biodiesel coproduct crude glycerol by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, ATCC 10577 and ATCC 12846 was observed to occur with the highest malic acid level acid being produced by A. niger ATCC 12846. Fungal biomass production from crude glycerol was similar, but ATCC 10577 produced the highest biomass. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into the commercially valuable organic acid malic acid appeared feasible.

  6. Host-guest inclusion system of ferulic acid with p-Sulfonatocalix[n]arenes: Preparation, characterization and antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Jianbin; Wang, Huijuan; Song, Kailun; Wang, Yongzhao; Zuo, Ying; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Bingtai

    2017-02-01

    The inclusion complexes of ferulic acid (FA) with p-Sulfonatocalix[n]arenes (SCXn, n = 4, 6, 8) were prepared and characterized both in the solid state and in solution using fluorescence spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that FA is able to form inclusion complexes with SCXn in a molar ratio of 1:1, causing a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of FA. The association constant of the inclusion complexes was calculated from the fluorescence titration data. 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis demonstrates that the aromatic ring and methoxy group of FA are partially covered by SCXn.

  7. Use of an amorphous iron oxide hydrated as catalyst for hydrogen peroxide oxidation of ferulic acid in water.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Roberto; Canterino, Marisa; Caprio, Vincenzo; Di Somma, Ilaria; Marotta, Raffaele

    2008-04-01

    The abatement of ferulic acid (FA), a polyphenolic constituent of olive mill wastewater, is studied in the pH range 5.0-7.0 by using hydrogen peroxide and an amorphous iron oxide as catalyst. The effect of pH, catalyst load, hydrogen peroxide and substrate starting concentrations is assessed during the investigation. A suitable reaction scheme is developed and used to build a mathematical model which satisfactorily describes the system's behavior. Kinetic constants for the proposed scheme as well as the total active site concentration of the catalyst in the studied pH range are estimated. The occurrence of internal mass-transfer limitation for the adopted granulometric fraction of the catalyst is demonstrated.

  8. Data on cell cycle in breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231 with ferulic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunmi

    2016-06-01

    Inhibition to repair DNA metabolism to respond to damaged DNA can lead to genetic instability, resulting in cancer cell death (Audeh et al., 2010; Bryant et al., 2005; Farmer et al., 2005; Lukas et al., 2003; Tutt et al., 2010) [1], [2], [6], [8], [11]. Despite of various studies demonstrating efficiency of combination therapy through down-regulation of DNA repair pathway, the suppression effects of DNA repair pathway by chemotherapeutic agents from natural bioactive compounds are less understood (Eitsuka et al., 2014; Kastan et al., 2004; Kawabata et al., 2000; Mancuso et al., 2014) [5], [7], [9]. Here, the data shows that ferulic acid reduced the S-phases post to UV treatment in breast cancer cells and was hypersensitive in breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231.

  9. Biodegradable Ferulic Acid-containing Poly(anhydride-ester): Degradation Products with Controlled Release and Sustained Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Michelle A.; Griffin, Jeremy; Carbone-Howell, Ashley L.; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Stebbins, Nicholas D.; Di, Rong; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an antioxidant and photoprotective agent used in biomedical and cosmetic formulations to prevent skin cancer and senescence. Although FA exhibits numerous health benefits, physicochemical instability leading to decomposition hinders its efficacy. To minimize inherent decomposition, a FA-containing biodegradable polymer was prepared via solution polymerization to chemically incorporate FA into a poly(anhydride-ester). The polymer was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies. The molecular weight and thermal properties were also determined. In vitro studies demonstrated that the polymer was hydrolytically degradable, thus providing controlled release of the chemically incorporated bioactive with no detectable decomposition. The polymer degradation products were found to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity comparable to free FA and in vitro cell viability studies demonstrated that the polymer is non-cytotoxic towards fibroblasts. This renders the polymer a potential candidate for use as a controlled release system for skin care formulations. PMID:23327626

  10. Biodegradable ferulic acid-containing poly(anhydride-ester): degradation products with controlled release and sustained antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Michelle A; Griffin, Jeremy; Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Di, Rong; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-03-11

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an antioxidant and photoprotective agent used in biomedical and cosmetic formulations to prevent skin cancer and senescence. Although FA exhibits numerous health benefits, physicochemical instability leading to decomposition hinders its efficacy. To minimize inherent decomposition, a FA-containing biodegradable polymer was prepared via solution polymerization to chemically incorporate FA into a poly(anhydride-ester). The polymer was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies. The molecular weight and thermal properties were also determined. In vitro studies demonstrated that the polymer was hydrolytically degradable, thus providing controlled release of the chemically incorporated bioactive with no detectable decomposition. The polymer degradation products were found to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity comparable to that of free FA, and in vitro cell viability studies demonstrated that the polymer is noncytotoxic toward fibroblasts. This renders the polymer a potential candidate for use as a controlled release system for skin care formulations.

  11. Isolation, characterization and hypolipidemic activity of ferulic acid in high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia in laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pankaj G.; Surana, Sanjay J.

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce (Leguminosae) (syn. Prosopis spicigera L.) has antidiabetic and antioxidant potential. Earlier we reported its hypolipidemic activity obtained from ethanol extract (ET-PCF). Object of this work was to isolate ferulic acid (FA) from ET-PCF and evaluate hypolipidemic activity against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic laboratory rats. ET-PCF was subjected to flash column chromatography to isolate FA. The chemical structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by UV, IR, 1H NMR,13C NMR and LC-MS. Further, the antihyperlipidemic effect of FA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats was investigated. Hyperlipidemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding with HFD for 60 days. Lipid parameters such as total cholesterol (TC), Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in serum and hepatic tissue. Hepatic oxido-nitrosative stress (SOD, GSH, MDA and NO) were also determined. Histological evaluation of liver tissue was carried out. The structure of the isolated compound was characterized based on spectral data and confirmed as FA. HFD induced an alteration in serum, and hepatic lipid profile (triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL, and LDL) was significantly restored (p < 0.001) by administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.). The elevated level of oxido-nitrosative stress in liver was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by FA (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.). Histological aberration induced in the liver after HFD ingestion were restored by FA administration. Ferulic acid isolated from ET-PCF showed hypolipidemic effects in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats via modulation of elevated oxido-nitrosative stress. PMID:28096790

  12. Permeation and distribution of ferulic acid and its α-cyclodextrin complex from different formulations in hairless rat skin.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Saino, Veronica; Centini, Marisanna; Staltari, Lucia; Anselmi, Cecilia

    2011-06-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural product that occurs in seeds of many plants where it is generally located in the bran. This compound is a multifunctional ingredient endowed with antioxidative, radical scavenging, sunscreening and antibacterial actions. The aim of this study was to analyse the ferulic acid cutaneous permeation and distribution, through and into the skin layers, from different cosmetic vehicles, an O/W emulsion (pH 6.0) and two gel-type formulations at different pH levels (6.0 and 7.4), containing FA alone or an inclusion complex with α-cyclodextrin (CD-FA). In vitro permeation studies were performed in vertical diffusion cells using hairless rat excised skin. At appropriate intervals of time, the amount of permeated sunscreen/radical scavenger was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At the end of experiments, treated skin samples were sectioned with a cryomicrotome and the FA content of the individual slices was analysed by HPLC. FA-containing formulations, O/W emulsion, gels A and B, originated FA fluxes of 8.48 ± 2.31, 8.38 ± 0.89 and 5.72 ± 0.50 μg/cm(2) h, respectively, thus suggesting the pH influence on FA percutaneous permeation. The use of the inclusion complex, CD-FA, determined in all cases a decrease of FA transdermal permeation while no influence of pH was observed. Gel-type formulations containing FA ensured higher sunscreen storage in the superficial layers if compared with O/W emulsion. When FA was included in α-cyclodextrin, FA amount retained into skin layers decreased markedly.

  13. Role of exogenously supplied ferulic and p-coumaric acids in mimicking the mode of action of acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides.

    PubMed

    Orcaray, Luis; Igal, María; Zabalza, Ana; Royuela, Mercedes

    2011-09-28

    Chlorsulfuron and imazethapyr (herbicides that inhibit acetolactate synthase; ALS, EC 4.1.3.18) produced a strong accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acids that was related to the induction of the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (EC 2.5.2.54). The exogenous application of two hydroxycinnamic acids, ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to pea plants resulted in their internal accumulation, arrested growth, carbohydrate and quinate accumulation in the leaves, and the induction of ethanolic fermentation. These effects resemble some of the physiological effects detected after acetolactate synthase inhibition and suggest important roles for ferulic and p-coumaric acids in the mode of action of herbicides inhibiting the biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids.

  14. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR, UV/VIS), thermogravimetric and antimicrobial studies of Ca(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of ferulic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowska, M.; Piekut, J.; Bruss, A.; Follet, C.; Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, J.; Świsłocka, R.; Rzączyńska, Z.; Lewandowski, W.

    2014-03-01

    The molecular structure of Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Ca(II) ferulates (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamates) was studied. The selected metal ferulates were synthesized. Their composition was established by means of elementary and thermogravimetric analysis. The following spectroscopic methods were used: infrared (FT-IR), Raman (FT-Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (13C, 1H NMR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV/VIS). On the basis of obtained results the electronic charge distribution in studied metal complexes in comparison with ferulic acid molecule was discussed. The microbiological study of ferulic acid and ferulates toward Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris was done.

  15. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline + ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12 months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid + starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September.

  16. Alkyl ferulates in wound healing potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Bernards, M A; Lewis, N G

    1992-10-01

    Seven ferulic acid esters of 1-alkanols ranging in carbon length from C16 to C28 were synthesized and an HPLC protocol for their separation developed. Extracts prepared from wound healing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and analysed by HPLC indicated that alkyl ferulate esters begin to accumulate 3-7 days after wound treatment. Of the nine esters identified by EIMS, (including two esters of odd chain length alkanols) hexadecyl and octadecyl ferulates were predominant. Alkyl ferulate esters were restricted to the wound periderm.

  17. Poly(carbonate–amide)s Derived from Bio-Based Resources: Poly(ferulic acid-co-tyrosine)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a bio-based resource found in fruits and vegetables, was coupled with a hydroxyl-amino acid to generate a new class of monomers to afford poly(carbonate–amide)s with potential to degrade into natural products. l-Serine was first selected as the hydroxyl-amino partner for FA, from which the activated p-nitrophenyl carbonate monomer was synthesized. Unfortunately, polymerizations were unsuccessful, and the elimination product was systematically obtained. To avoid elimination, we revised our strategy and used l-tyrosine ethyl ester, which lacks an acidic proton on the α position of the ethyl ester. Four new monomers were synthesized and converted into the corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s with specific regioselectivities. The polymers were fully characterized through thermal and spectroscopic analyses. Preliminary fluorescent studies revealed interesting photophysical properties for the monomers and their corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s, beyond the fluorescence characteristics of l-tyrosine and FA, making these materials potentially viable for sensing and/or imaging applications, in addition to their attractiveness as engineering materials derived from renewable resources. PMID:24839309

  18. Metabolic engineering of Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 for production of vanillin through ferulic acid catabolic pathway and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kumar, Balvir

    2014-10-01

    Occurrence of feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase (ech) genes responsible for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin have been reported and characterized from Amycolatopsis sp., Streptomyces sp., and Pseudomonas sp. Attempts have been made to express these genes in Escherichia coli DH5α, E. coli JM109, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, none of the lactic acid bacteria strain having GRAS status was previously proposed for heterologous expression of fcs and ech genes for production of vanillin through biotechnological process. Present study reports heterologous expression of vanillin synthetic gene cassette bearing fcs and ech genes in a dairy isolate Pediococcus acidilactici BD16. After metabolic engineering, statistical optimization of process parameters that influence ferulic acid to vanillin biotransformation in the recombinant strain was carried out using central composite design of response surface methodology. After scale-up of the process, 3.14 mM vanillin was recovered from 1.08 mM ferulic acid per milligram of recombinant cell biomass within 20 min of biotransformation. From LCMS-ESI spectral analysis, a metabolic pathway of phenolic biotransformations was predicted in the recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)).

  19. Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 (formerly Streptomyces setonii) has shown promising results in converting ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; substrate), which can be derived from natural plant wastes, to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). After exploring the influence of adding vanillin at different times during the growth cycle on cell growth and transformation performance of this strain and demonstrating the inhibitory effect of vanillin, a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) system was used as an in situ product removal technique to enhance transformation productivity by this strain. The thermoplastic polymer Hytrel(®) G4078W was found to have superior partitioning capacity for vanillin with a partition coefficient of 12 and a low affinity for the substrate. A 3-L working volume solid-liquid fed-batch TPPB mode, using 300 g Hytrel G4078W as the sequestering phase, produced a final vanillin concentration of 19.5 g/L. The overall productivity of this reactor system was 450 mg/L. h, among the highest reported in literature. Vanillin was easily and quantitatively recovered from the polymers mostly by single stage extraction into methanol or other organic solvents used in food industry, simultaneously regenerating polymer beads for reuse. A polymer-liquid two phase bioreactor was again confirmed to easily outperform single phase systems that feature inhibitory or easily further degraded substrates/products. This enhancement strategy might reasonably be expected in the production of other flavor and fragrance compounds obtained by biotransformations.

  20. Ameliorative potential of ferulic acid in vincristine-induced painful neuropathy in rats: An evidence of behavioral and biochemical examination.

    PubMed

    Vashistha, Bharat; Sharma, Abhisheak; Jain, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ferulic acid (FA) in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Vincristine (50 µg/kg, i.p. for 10 consecutive days) was administered to induce painful neuropathy in rats. Various pain sensitive tests, viz., pinprick, hot plate, paint-brush, and acetone test were performed on different days (1, 6, 14, and 21) to assess the degree of mechanical hyperalgesia, heat hyperalgesia, mechanical dynamic allodynia, and cold allodynia, respectively. The electrophysiological and histopathological evaluations were also investigated. The tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and total calcium were measured as the markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. FA (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) and gabapentin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 11 days. Administration of FA attenuated the vincristine-induced behavioral alteration along with electrophysiological and histopathological changes significantly (P < 0.05). FA also attenuated the vincristine-induced oxidative stress (TBARS, GSH, and total calcium levels) and inflammation (MPO, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10). It may be concluded that FA has ameliorative potential in mitigation of the painful states associated with vincristine-induced painful neuropathy that may further be attributed to anti-inflammatory actions with subsequent reduction in oxidative stress.

  1. Aqueous Extract of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and Ferulic Acid Reduce the Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-Activated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Simón; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2015-08-21

    Acute inflammation is essential for defending the body against pathogens; however, when inflammation becomes chronic, it is harmful to the body and is part of the pathophysiology of various diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) among others. In chronic inflammation macrophages play an important role, mainly through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukin (IL)-1β, explained in part by activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a signaling pathway which culminates in the activation of Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, an important transcription factor in the expression of these proinflammatory genes. On the other hand, the benefits on health of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables are well described. In this work, the effects of aqueous extract of tomato and ferulic acid on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS activated monocyte-derived THP-1 macrophages were investigated. In addition, using Western blot, we investigated whether the inhibition was due to the interference on activation of NF-κB. We found that both the tomato extract and ferulic acid presented inhibitory activity on the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β cytokine by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB. The current results suggest that tomatoes and ferulic acid may contribute to prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Ferulic Acid and Z-Ligustilide, Major Components of A. sinensis, on Regulating Cold-Sensing Protein TRPM8 and TPRA1 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuwei; Zhao, Guoping; Cai, Zejian; Chen, Fengguo; Xu, Dandan; Huang, Si; Lan, Hai; Tong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Angelica sinensis has been used to attenuate cold-induced cutaneous vasospasm syndrome, such as Raynaud's disease and frostbite, in China for many years. Ferulic acid (PubChem CID: 445858) and Z-ligustilide (PubChem CID: 529865), two major components extracted from Angelica sinensis, had been reported to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by vasoconstrictors. In this study, the pharmacological interaction in regulating cold-induced vascular smooth muscle cell contraction via cold-sensing protein TRPM8 and TRPA1 was analyzed between ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide. Pharmacological interaction on inhibiting [Ca2+]i influx evoked by TRPM8 agonist WS-12 or TRPA1 agonist ASP 7663 as well as cold-induced upregulation of TRPM8 was determined using isobolographic analysis. The isobolograms demonstrated that the combinations investigated in this study produced a synergistic interaction. Combination effect of two components in inhibiting RhoA activation and phosphorylation of MLC20 induced by WS-12 or ASP 7663 was also being quantified. These findings suggest that the therapeutic effect of Angelica sinensis on cold-induced vasospasm may be partially attributed to combinational effect, via TRPM8 and TPRA1 way, between ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide. PMID:27413384

  3. Enhancement of trichothecene mycotoxins of Fusarium oxysporum by ferulic acid aggravates oxidative damage in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen Fang; He, Chen Ling; Wang, Ying; Li, Ming Jie; Dai, Ya Jing; Wang, Tong; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Rehmannia glutinosa is an important medicinal herb that cannot be replanted in the same field due to the effects of autotoxic substances. The effects of these substances on R. glutinosa in continuous cropping systems are unknown. In the present study, bioassays revealed that R. glutinosa exhibited severe growth restriction and higher disease indices in the FO+FA (F.oxysporum pretreated with ferulic acid) treatment. The increases in the contents of MDA and H2O2 were greater in the FA+FO treatment than in the FA or FO only treatments, respectively. Consistent with this result, the enzyme activities in the seedlings increased with treatment time. To identify the main factor underlying the increased pathogenicity of FO, macroconidia and trichothecene mycotoxins coproduced by FO were separated and used to treat R. glutinosa seedlings. The MDA and H2O2 contents were similar in the seedlings treated with deoxynivalenol and in the FA+FO treatment. Quantification of the relative expression of certain genes involved in Ca2+ signal transduction pathways suggested that trichothecene mycotoxins play an important role in the increased pathogenicity of FO. In conclusion, FA not only directly enhances oxidative damage in R. glutinosa but also increases wilting symptom outbreaks by promoting the secretion of trichothecene mycotoxins by FO. PMID:27667444

  4. Inactivation of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms using ultraviolet-A light in combination with ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Shirai, A; Watanabe, T; Matsuki, H

    2017-02-01

    The low energy of UV-A (315-400 nm) is insufficient for disinfection. To improve UV-A disinfection technology, we evaluated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) addition on disinfection by UV-A light-emitting diode (LED) (350-385 nm) against various food spoilers and pathogens (seven bacteria and four fungi species). Photoantimicrobial assays were performed at FA concentrations below the MIC. The MIC of the isomerized FA, consisting of 93% cis-form and 7% trans-form, was very similar to that of the commercially available FA (trans-form). Irradiation with UV-A (1·0 J cm(-2) ) in the presence of 100 mg l(-1) FA resulted in enhanced reducing of all of the tested bacterial strains. A combination of UV-A (10 J cm(-2) ) and 1000 mg l(-1) FA resulted in enhanced reducing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of the tested filamentous fungi. These results demonstrated that the combination of a short-term application of UV-A and FA at a low concentration yielded synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial activity, especially against bacteria.

  5. Ferulic Acid against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Heart Toxicity in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yafan; Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Congxia; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Zheng; Dai, Zhijun; Lin, Shuai; Kang, Huafeng; Ma, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the protective effects of ferulic acid (FA) against cyclophosphamide- (CTX-) induced changes in mice. Forty-eight male ICR mice were divided into four groups. Control group was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 200 μL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Model group was intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg). FA (50 mg/kg) and FA (100 mg/kg) groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg) followed by the intragastric treatment with FA (50, 100 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. After 12 d, the mice were sacrificed to analyze the hematological, biochemical, histological parameters and mechanism research. The results indicated that FA significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in CTX-injected mice. In addition, FA effectively reduced the total numbers of white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells, platelets, and hemoglobin content. FA also obviously attenuated the histological changes of the heart tissues caused by CTX. Moreover, Western blot demonstrated that FA inhibited the phosphorylations of NF-κB signaling pathway in CTX-stimulated cardiac tissues. In conclusion, FA might be considered as an effective agent in the amelioration of the heart toxicity resulting from CTX treatment. PMID:26881001

  6. Interaction of ferulic acid derivatives with human erythrocytes monitored by pulse field gradient NMR diffusion and NMR relaxation studies.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Bernardi, Francesca; Centini, Marisanna; Gaggelli, Elena; Gaggelli, Nicola; Valensin, Daniela; Valensin, Gianni

    2005-04-01

    Ferulic acid (Fer), a natural anti-oxidant and chemo-protector, is able to suppress experimental carcinogenesis in the forestomach, lungs, skin, tongue and colon. Several Fer derivatives have been suggested as promising candidates for cancer prevention, being the biological activity related also to the capacity of partitioning between aqueous and lipid phases. In the present work, pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion measurement and NMR relaxation rates have been adopted for investigating the interaction of three Fer derivatives (Fer-C11, Fer-C12 and Fer-C13) with human erythrocytes. Binding to the erythrocyte membrane has been shown for all derivatives, which displayed a similar interaction mode such that the aromatic moiety and the terminal part of the alkyl chain were the most affected. Quantitative analysis of the diffusion coefficients was used to show that Fer-C12 and Fer-C13 display higher affinity for the cell membrane when compared with Fer-C11. These findings agree with the higher anti-oxidant activity of the two derivatives.

  7. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Prachaney, Parichat; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-08-04

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA) is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS) in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg) was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  8. Probiotic Ferulic Acid Esterase Active Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 APA Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: Preparation and in Vitro Characterization.

    PubMed

    Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Coussa-Charley, Michael; Kahouli, Imen; Jones, Mitchell L; Labbé, Alain; Prakash, Satya

    2012-02-16

    Probiotics possess potential therapeutic and preventative effects for various diseases and metabolic disorders. One important limitation for the oral delivery of probiotics is the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which challenge bacterial viability and activity. One proposed method to surpass this obstacle is the use of microencapsulation to improve the delivery of bacterial cells to the lower GIT. The aim of this study is to use alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules to encapsulate Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and characterize its enzymatic activity and viability through a simulated GIT. This specific strain, in previous research, was characterized for its inherent ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity which could prove beneficial in the development of a therapeutic for the treatment and prevention of cancers and metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrate that the APA microcapsule does not slow the mass transfer of substrate into and that of the FA product out of the microcapsule, while also not impairing bacterial cell viability. The use of simulated gastrointestinal conditions led to a significant 2.5 log difference in viability between the free (1.10 × 104 ± 1.00 × 103 cfu/mL) and the microencapsulated (5.50 × 106 ± 1.00 × 105 cfu/mL) L. fermentum NCIMB 5221 following exposure. The work presented here suggests that APA microencapsulation can be used as an effective oral delivery method for L. fermentum NCIMB 5221, a FAE-active probiotic strain.

  9. 1,3-Diferuloyl-sn-glycerol from the biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ethyl ferulate) and soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Compton, David L; Laszlo, Joseph A

    2009-06-01

    1,3-Diferuloyl-sn-glycerol is found ubiquitously throughout the plant kingdom, possessing ultraviolet adsorbing and antioxidant properties. Diferuloyl glycerol was synthesized and isolated as a byproduct in up to 5% yield from a pilot plant scale packed-bed, biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl ferulate with soybean oil or mono- and diacylglycerols from soybean oil. The yield of the diferuloyl glycerol byproduct was directly proportional to the overall water concentration of the bioreactor. The isolated diferuloyl glycerol exhibited good ultraviolet adsorbing properties, 280-360 nm with a lambda(max) 322 nm, and compared well to the efficacy of commercial sunscreen active ingredients. The antioxidant capacity of diferuloyl glycerol (0.25-2.5 mM) was determined by its ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and was comparable to that of ferulic acid. At current pilot plant scale production capacity, 120 kg diferuloyl glycerol byproduct could be isolated per year.

  10. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid against Heat Stress-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    He, Shasha; Liu, Fenghua; Xu, Lei; Yin, Peng; Li, Deyin; Mei, Chen; Jiang, Linshu; Ma, Yunfei; Xu, Jianqin

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is important in the pathogenesis of intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic acid widely found in fruits and vegetables, can scavenge free radicals and activate cell stress responses. This study is aimed at investigating protective effects of FA on heat stress-induced dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier in vitro and in vivo. Intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells were pretreated with FA for 4 h and then exposed to heat stress. Heat stress caused decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and increased permeability to 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD4). Both effects were inhibited by FA in a dose-dependent manner. FA significantly attenuated the decrease in occludin, ZO-1 and E-cadherin expression observed with heat stress. The distortion and redistribution of occludin, ZO-1 and E-cadherin proteins were also effectively prevented by FA pretreatment. Moreover, heat stress diminished electron-dense material detected in tight junctions (TJs), an effect also alleviated by FA in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vivo heat stress model, FA (50 mg/kg) was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 consecutive days prior to exposure to heat stress. FA pretreatment significantly attenuated the effects of heat stress on the small intestine, including the increased FD4 permeability, disrupted tight junctions and microvilli structure, and reduced occludin, ZO-1 and E-cadherin expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that FA pretreatment is potentially protective against heat stress-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  11. Characterization and anticancer potential of ferulic acid-loaded chitosan nanoparticles against ME-180 human cervical cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Richa; Sharma, Asvene K.; Kaloti, Mandeep; Dutt, Dharm; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-08-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a widely distributed hydroxycinnamic acid found in various cereals and fruits exhibiting potent antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, due to low solubility and permeability, its availability to biological systems is limited. Non-toxic chitosan-tripolyphosphate pentasodium (CS-TPP) nanoparticles (NPs) are used to load sparingly soluble molecules and drugs, increasing their bioavailability. In the present work, we have encapsulated FA into the CS-TPP NPs to increase its potential as a therapeutic agent. Different concentrations of FA were tested to obtain optimum sized FA-loaded CS-TPP nanoparticles (FA/CS-TPP NPs) by ionic gelation method. Nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyses and evaluated for their anticancer activity against ME-180 human cervical cancer cell lines. The FTIR spectra confirmed the encapsulation of FA and thermal analysis depicted its degradation profile. A concentration-dependent relationship between FA encapsulation efficiency and FA/CS-TPP NPs diameter was observed. Smooth and spherical FA-loaded cytocompatible nanoparticles with an average diameter of 125 nm were obtained at 40 µM FA conc. The cytotoxicity of 40 µM FA/CS-TPP NPs against ME-180 cervical cancer cell lines was found to be higher as compared to 40 µM native FA. Apoptotic morphological changes as cytoplasmic remnants and damaged wrinkled cells in ME-180 cells were visualized using scanning electron microscopic and fluorescent microscopic techniques. Data concluded that chitosan enveloped FA nanoparticles could be exploited as an excellent therapeutic drug against cancer cells proliferation.

  12. Protective effect of ferulic acid on gamma-radiation-induced micronuclei, dicentric aberration and lipid peroxidation in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N Rajendra; Srinivasan, M; Pugalendi, K V; Menon, Venugopal P

    2006-02-28

    In this study we examined radioprotective effect of ferulic acid (FA) on gamma radiation-induced dicentric aberration and lipid peroxidation with reference to alterations in cellular antioxidant status in cultured lymphocytes. To establish most effective protective support we used three different concentrations of FA (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) and three different doses of gamma-radiation (1, 2 and 4 Gy). Treatment of lymphocytes with FA alone (at 10 microg/ml) gave no significant change in micronuclei (MN), dicentric aberration (DC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities when compared with normal lymphocytes; irradiation at 1, 2 and 4 Gy increased the MN and DC frequencies in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FA for 30 min before radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline of MN and DC yields as FA concentration increased. Compared to 1 Gy exposure alone, the extent to which FA (1 microg/ml) reduced the MN and DC yields was 75% and 50%, respectively. With 4 Gy irradiation, FA (10 microg/ml) decreased 45% MN and 25% DC frequencies. FA-pretreated lymphocytes (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) showed progressively decreased TBARS levels after irradiation. Irradiation (1, 2 and 4 Gy) significantly decreased GSH levels, SOD, CAT and GPx activities in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 10 microg/ml of FA significantly (p<0.05) prevented the decreases in the radiation-induced GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx activities. These findings suggest potential use and benefit of FA as a radioprotector.

  13. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially. PMID:26967251

  14. Effects of free ferulic acid on productive performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics of feedlot finishing ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; Perard, S; Vicente, R; Álvarez, F D; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Soto-Navarro, S A; Rojo, R; Meza-Herrera, C A; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of free ferulic acid (FA) supplementation on productive performance, some blood metabolite concentrations, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs finished in a feedlot. Dorper×Pelibuey ewe lambs (n=20; BW=28.5±0.5 kg; age=5 mo) were individually housed in pens and assigned under a randomized complete block design to the following dietary treatments (n=10): daily feeding without (control) or with 300 mg of FA/animal. The feedlot feeding period lasted 34 d and then all ewe lambs were slaughtered. Free FA did not affect (P≥0.16) BW gain, ADG, DMI, and G:F during the first 17 d, but BW gain (P=0.10) and ADG (P=0.10) tended to decrease for FA from d 17 to 34 and from d 1 to 34 without affecting (P≥0.16) DMI and G:F in ewe lambs. Serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and urea were not affected (P>0.05) by FA at d 1, 17, and 34 of the feeding period. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by FA. Stomach percentage tended (P=0.08) to decrease and leg yields increased (P=0.02) for FA. Other noncarcass components and wholesale cut yields were not affected (P>0.10) by FA. In conclusion, FA supplementation did not improve productive performance, metabolic status, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs receiving a feedlot finishing diet.

  15. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-04-12

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially.

  16. Identification of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms involved in the glucuronidation of the phytochemical ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Shang, Liang; Wu, Yaohua; Abbas, Suzanne; Li, Dong; Netter, Patrick; Ouzzine, Mohamed; Wang, Hui; Magdalou, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a member of the hydroxycinnamate family, is an abundant dietary antioxidant that may offer beneficial effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, evidence for sulfation and glucuronidation of FA was investigated upon incubation with human liver microsomes and cytosol. Two main glucuronides, M1 (ether O-glucuronide) and M2 (ester acylglucuronide), were formed with a similar affinity (apparent K(m) 3.53 and 5.15 mM, respectively). A phenol sulfoconjugate was also formed with a higher affinity (K(m) 0.53 mM). Identification of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms involved in FA glucuronidation was investigated with 12 human recombinant enzymes. FA was mainly glucuronidated by UGT1A isoforms and by UGT2B7. UGT1A4, 2B4, 2B15 and 2B17 failed to glucuronidate the substance. Examination of the kinetic constants revealed that FA was mainly glucuronidated by UGT1A1 at the two nucleophilic groups. UGT1A3 was able to glucuronidate these two positions with the same, but low, efficiency. UGT1A6 and 1A8 were involved in the formation of the ether glucuronide only, whereas UGT1A7, 1A10 and 2B7 preferentially glucuronidated the carboxyl group. Moreover, octyl gallate, a marker substrate of UGT1A1, competitively inhibited FA glucuronidation mediated by this isoform. Altogether, the results suggest that FA glucuronidation is primarily mediated by UGT1A1.

  17. Acid protease production in fungal root endophytes.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Michael S; Fraser, Erica; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous in healthy root tissue, but little is known about their ecosystem functions, including their ability to utilize organic nutrient sources such as proteins. Root-associated fungi may secrete proteases to access the carbon and mineral nutrients within proteins in the soil or in the cells of their plant host. We compared the protein utilization patterns of multiple isolates of the root endophytes Phialocephala fortinii s.l., Meliniomyces variabilis and Umbelopsis isabellina with those of two ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Hebeloma incarnatulum and Laccaria bicolor, and the wood-decay fungus Irpex lacteus at pH values of 2-9 on liquid BSA media. We also assessed protease activity using a fluorescently labeled casein assay and gelatin zymography and characterized proteases using specific protease inhibitors. I. lacteus and U. isabellina utilized protein efficiently, while the ECM fungi exhibited poor protein utilization. ECM fungi secreted metallo-proteases and had pH optima above 4, while other fungi produced aspartic proteases with lower pH optima. The ascomycetous root endophytes M. variabilis and P. fortinii exhibited intermediate levels of protein utilization and M. variabilis exhibited a very low pH optimum. Comparing proteolytic profiles between fungal root endophytes and fungi with well defined ecological roles provides insight into the ecology of these cryptic root associates.

  18. High-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid by a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase two-stage process.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki

    2015-05-25

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor and fragrance compounds in foods and cosmetics. Recently, we demonstrated that vanillin could be produced from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol in a coenzyme-independent manner using the decarboxylase Fdc and the oxygenase Cso2. In this study, we investigated a new two-pot bioprocess for vanillin production using the whole-cell catalyst of Escherichia coli expressing Fdc in the first stage and that of E. coli expressing Cso2 in the second stage. We first optimized the second-step Cso2 reaction from 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin, a rate-determining step for the production of vanillin. Addition of FeCl2 to the cultivation medium enhanced the activity of the resulting E. coli cells expressing Cso2, an iron protein belonging to the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family. Furthermore, a butyl acetate-water biphasic system was effective in improving the production of vanillin. Under the optimized conditions, we attempted to produce vanillin from ferulic acid by a two-pot bioprocess on a flask scale. In the first stage, E. coli cells expressing Fdc rapidly decarboxylated ferulic acid and completely converted 75 mM of this substrate to 4-vinylguaiacol within 2 h at pH 9.0. After the first-stage reaction, cells were removed from the reaction mixture by centrifugation, and the pH of the resulting supernatant was adjusted to 10.5, the optimal pH for Cso2. This solution was subjected to the second-stage reaction. In the second stage, E. coli cells expressing Cso2 efficiently oxidized 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. The concentration of vanillin reached 52 mM (7.8 g L(-1)) in 24 h, which is the highest level attained to date for the biotechnological production of vanillin using recombinant cells.

  19. Functional Diversity in Fungal Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Brenda J.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Shepard, Michael R.; Jayasuriya, Naomi; Minto, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylenic specialized metabolites containing one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds are widespread, being found in fungi, vascular and lower plants, marine sponges and algae, and insects. Plants, moss, and most recently, insects, have been shown to employ an energetically difficult, sequential dehydrogenation mechanism for acetylenic bond formation. Here, we describe the cloning and heterologous expression in yeast of a linoleoyl 12-desaturase (acetylenase) and a bifunctional desaturase with Δ12-/Δ14-regiospecificity from the Pacific golden chanterelle. The acetylenase gene, which is the first identified from a fungus, is phylogenetically distinct from known plant and fungal desaturases. Together, the bifunctional desaturase and the acetylenase provide the enzymatic activities required to drive oleate through linoleate to crepenynate and the conjugated enyne (14Z)-dehydrocrepenynate, the branchpoint precursors to a major class of acetylenic natural products. PMID:20606235

  20. The chain length of lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls is determined by the incorporation of coumaric acid glucosides and ferulic acid glucosides.

    PubMed

    Struijs, Karin; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Doeswijk, Timo G; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls is composed of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and herbacetin diglucoside (HDG) moieties ester-linked by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMGA), and of p-coumaric acid glucoside (CouAG) and ferulic acid glucoside (FeAG) moieties ester-linked directly to SDG. The linker molecule HMGA was found to account for 11% (w/w) of the lignan macromolecule. Based on the extinction coefficients and RP-HPLC data, it was determined that SDG contributes for 62.0% (w/w) to the lignan macromolecule, while CouAG, FeAG, and HDG contribute for 12.2, 9.0, and 5.7% (w/w), respectively. Analysis of fractions of lignan macromolecule showed that the higher the molecular mass, the higher the proportion of SDG was. An inverse relation between the molecular mass and the proportion (%) CouAG+FeAG was found. Together with the structural information of oligomers of lignan macromolecule obtained after partial saponification, it is hypothesized that the amount of CouAG+FeAG present during biosynthesis determines the chain length of lignan macromolecule. Furthermore, the chain length was estimated from a model describing lignan macromolecule based on structural and compositional data. The average chain length of the lignan macromolceule was calculated to be three SDG moieties with CouAG or FeAG at each of the terminal positions, with a variation between one and seven SDG moieties.

  1. Hypoglycemic effects of a phenolic acid fraction of rice bran and ferulic acid in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Hee; Kim, Sung Ran; Hwang, In Kyeong; Ha, Tae Youl

    2007-11-28

    Rice bran contains many phenolic acids, the most abundant of which is the antioxidant, ferulic acid (FA). We evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of a phenolic acid fraction (the ethyl acetate fraction, EAE) of rice bran and of FA in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice. Type 2 diabetic mice were allocated to a control group, an EAE group, or an FA group. Animals were fed a modified AIN-76 diet, and EAE or FA was administered orally for 17 days. There was no significant difference in body weight gain between groups. Administration of EAE and FA significantly decreased blood glucose levels and increased plasma insulin levels. EAE or FA groups had significantly elevated hepatic glycogen synthesis and glucokinase activity compared with the control group. Plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased by EAE and FA administration. These findings suggest that EAE and FA may be beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes because they regulate blood glucose levels by elevating glucokinase activity and production of glycogen in the liver.

  2. The antiproliferative effect of dietary fiber phenolic compounds ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid on the cell cycle of Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Janicke, Birgit; Hegardt, Cecilia; Krogh, Morten; Onning, Gunilla; Akesson, Björn; Cirenajwis, Helena M; Oredsson, Stina M

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have shown that dietary fiber is protective against the development of colon cancer. Dietary fiber is a rich source of the hydroxycinnamic acids ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), which both may contribute to the protective effect. We have investigated the effects of FA and p-CA treatment on global gene expression in Caco-2 colon cancer cells. The Caco-2 cells were treated with 150 μM FA or p-CA for 24 h, and gene expression was analyzed with cDNA microarray technique. A total of 517 genes were significantly affected by FA and 901 by p-CA. As we previously have found that FA or p-CA treatment delayed cell cycle progression, we focused on genes involved in proliferation and cell cycle regulation. The expressions of a number of genes involved in centrosome assembly, such as RABGAP1 and CEP2, were upregulated by FA treatment as well as the gene for the S phase checkpoint protein SMC1L1. p-CA treatment upregulated CDKN1A expression and downregulated CCNA2, CCNB1, MYC, and ODC1. Some proteins corresponding to the affected genes were also studied. Taken together, the changes found can partly explain the effects of FA or p-CA treatment on cell cycle progression, specifically in the S phase by FA and G(2)/M phase by p-CA treatment.

  3. [Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol in zhengtian pills by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Chen, Hui-Ling; Li, Ling-Ling

    2013-07-01

    To simultaneously determine paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol in Zhengtian pills. In the test, Insertil ODS-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was adopted, with acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid solution as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), the column temperature was 30 degrees C and the detection wavelength was 230 nm. According to the results of the test, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol showed good linear relations between peak areas and sample sizes in 11.37-170.5, 2.188-32.82, 2.896-43.44, and 3.000-45.00 mg x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9, 0.999 9, 1.000 0, 1.000 0), respectively. The average recoveries (n = 6) were 102.3% (RSD 1.2%), 99.71% (RSD 1.9%), 101.2% (RSD 1.2%), and 99.40% (RSD 2.4%), respectively. The above four components were determined in five batches of samples by using the established method, with satisfactory results. The method was so simple, accurate and highly reproducible that it could be used for quality control of the four components in Zhengtian pills.

  4. Tacrine-6-Ferulic Acid, a Novel Multifunctional Dimer, Inhibits Amyloid-β-Mediated Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Rongbiao; Mao, Xuexuan; Chao, Xiaojuan; Cheng, Zhiyi; Liu, Mengfei; Duan, Xiaolu; Ye, Mingzhong; Chen, Xiaohong; Mei, Zhengrong; Liu, Peiqing; Li, Wenming; Han, Yifan

    2012-01-01

    We have previously synthesized a series of hybrid compounds by linking ferulic acid to tacrine as multifunctional agents based on the hypotheses that Alzheimer's disease (AD) generates cholinergic deficiency and oxidative stress. Interestingly, we found that they may have potential pharmacological activities for treating AD. Here we report for the first time that tacrine-6-ferulic acid (T6FA), one of these compounds, can prevent amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)-induced AD-associated pathological changes in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that T6FA significantly inhibited auto- and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-induced aggregation of Aβ1–40 in vitro and blocked the cell death induced by Aβ1–40 in PC12 cells. In an AD mouse model by the intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1–40, T6FA significantly improved the cognitive ability along with increasing choline acetyltransferase and superoxide dismutase activity, decreasing AChE activity and malondialdehyde level. Based on our findings, we conclude that T6FA may be a promising multifunctional drug candidate for AD. PMID:22384101

  5. Production and applications of ferulate-modified vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about the potential adverse health and ecological effects of the commonly used sunscreen active ingredients. A sunscreen active ingredient can be derived from two natural plant components, ferulic acid and vegetable oil triglycerides. Transesterification of ferulic acid e...

  6. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amylose can form inclusion complexes with guest molecules and represents an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose. To overcome this problem a ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, posses...

  7. Lipase-catalyzed esterification of ferulic acid with lauryl alcohol in ionic liquids and antibacterial properties in vitro against three food-related bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu-Gang; Wu, Yu; Lu, Xu-Yang; Ren, Yue-Ping; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Chen-Min; Yu, Di; Wang, He

    2017-04-01

    Lauryl ferulate (LF) was synthesized through lipase-catalyzed esterification of ferulic acid (FA) with lauryl alcohol in a novel ionic liquid ([(EO)-3C-im][NTf2]), and its antibacterial activities was evaluated in vitro against three food-related bacteria. [(EO)-3C-im][NTf2] was first synthesized through incorporating alkyl ether moiety into the double imidazolium ring. [(EO)-3C-im][NTf2] containing hexane was found to be the most suitable for this reaction. The effects of various parameters were studied, and the maximum yield of LF (90.1%) was obtained in the optimum reaction conditions, in [(EO)-3C-im][NTf2]/hexane (VILs:Vhexane=1:1) system, 0.08mmol/mL of FA concentration, 50mg/mL Novozym 435, 60°C. LF exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (25 mm) than Gram-positive (21.5-23.2 mm) bacteria. The lowest MIC value was seen for E. coli (1.25mM), followed by L. Monocytogenes (2.5mM) and S.aureus (5mM). The MBCs for L. Monocytogenes, S.aureus and E. coli were 10, 20 and 5mM.

  8. Synergistic salubrious effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on membrane-bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases during experimental myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Yogeeta, Surinder Kumar; Gnanapragasam, Arunachalam; Senthilkumar, Subramanian; Subhashini, Rajakannu; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2006-12-23

    Altered membrane integrity has been suggested as a major factor in the development of cellular injury during myocardial necrosis. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the combination of ferulic acid (FA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on lysosomal hydrolases and membrane-bound phosphatases during isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Induction of rats with 1SO (150 mg/kg b.wt, i.p.) for 2 days resulted in a significant increase in the activities of lysosomal hydrolases (beta-D-glucuronidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminidase, acid phosphatase and cathepsin-D) in the heart and serum. A significant increase in plasma lactate level, cardiac levels of sodium, calcium and a decrease in cardiac level of potassium was also observed, which was paralleled by abnormal activities of membrane-bound phosphatases (Na(+)-K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase) in the heart of ISO-administered rats. Pre-co-treatment with the combination of FA (20 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (80 mg/kg b.wt) orally for 6 days significantly attenuated these abnormalities and restored the levels to near normalcy when compared to individual drug treated groups. The combination of FA and AA preserved the membrane integrity by mitigating the oxidative stress and associated cellular damage more effectively when compared to individual treatment groups. In our study, the protection conferred by FA and AA might be through the nitric oxide pathway and by their ability of quenching free radicals. In conclusion, these findings indicate the synergistic modulation of lysosomal hydrolases and membrane phosphatases by the combination of FA and AA.

  9. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-Dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kervin O.; Compton, David L.; Whitman, Nathan A.; Laszlo, Joseph A.; Appell, Michael; Vermillion, Karl E.; Kim, Sanghoon

    2016-01-01

    Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements determined octadecyl ferulate to have melting/solidification phase transitions at 67 and 39 °C, respectively. AFM imaging shows that 5-mol% present in a lipid bilayer induced domains to form. Phase behavior measurements confirmed that octadecyl ferulate increased transition temperature of phospholipids. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that octadecyl ferulate stabilized liposomes against leakage, maintained antioxidant capacity within liposomes, and oriented such that the feruloyl moiety remained in the hydrophilic region of the bilayer. Molecular modeling calculation indicated that antioxidant activity was mostly influenced by interactions within the bilayer.

  10. Conservation of cysteine residues in fungal histidine acid phytases.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, Edward J; Ullah, Abul H J

    2005-03-11

    Amino acid sequence analysis of fungal histidine acid phosphatases displaying phytase activity has revealed a conserved eight-cysteine motif. These conserved amino acids are not directly associated with catalytic function; rather they appear to be essential in the formation of disulfide bridges. Their role is seen as being similar to another eight-cysteine motif recently reported in the amino acid sequence of nearly 500 plant polypeptides. An additional disulfide bridge formed by two cysteines at the N-terminus of all the filamentous ascomycete phytases was also observed. Disulfide bridges are known to increase both stability and heat tolerance in proteins. It is therefore plausible that this extra disulfide bridge contributes to the higher stability found in phytase from some Aspergillus species. To engineer an enhanced phytase for the feed industry, it is imperative that the role of disulfide bridges be taken into cognizance and possibly be increased in number to further elevate stability in this enzyme.

  11. Protective effect of ferulic acid against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Zhang, H; Wang, L; Qian, H; Qi, Y; Miao, X; Cheng, L; Qi, X

    2016-01-31

    Oxidative stress is closely related to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. However, the underlying antioxidant mechanisms of ferulic acid (FA) aganist oxidantive stress are poorly understood. We evaluated the potential protective effects of FA against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced damage in PC12 cells. Our results indicated that pretreatment with FA prior to AAPH exposure significantly increased PC12 cell survival, and also increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, FA treatment reduced cellular lactate dehydrogenase release and malondialdehyde levels. It attenuated AAPH-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, as determined by flow cytometric detection of annexin V. Reductions in mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of intracellular Ca2+ were also inhibited by FA treatment. These findings suggested that FA protected PC12 cells against AAPH-induced oxidative stress, and may be a neuroprotective agent.

  12. Production of lactic acid and fungal biomass by Rhizopus fungi from food processing waste streams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Yin, Pinghe; Ma, Yihong; Zhao, Ling

    2005-12-01

    This study proposed a novel waste utilization bioprocess for production of lactic acid and fungal biomass from waste streams by fungal species of Rhizopus arrhizus 36017 and R. oryzae 2062. The lactic acid and fungal biomass were produced in a single-stage simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using potato, corn, wheat and pineapple waste streams as production media. R. arrhizus 36017 gave a high lactic acid yield up to 0.94-0.97 g/g of starch or sugars associated with 4-5 g/l of fungal biomass produced, while 17-19 g/l fungal biomass with a lactic acid yield of 0.65-0.76 g/g was produced by the R. oryzae 2062 in 36-48 h fermentation. Supplementation of 2 g/l of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract and peptone stimulated an increase in 8-15% lactic acid yield and 10-20% fungal biomass.

  13. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Ferulic Acid into Microparticles: Development, Validation, Forced Degradation, and Encapsulation Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Maria da Graça; Pupo, Yasmine Mendes; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2015-01-01

    A simple stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method was validated for the determination of ferulic acid (FA) in polymeric microparticles. Chromatographic conditions consisted of a RP C18 column (250 mm × 4.60 mm, 5 μm, 110 Å) using a mixture of methanol and water pH 3.0 (48 : 52 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 320 nm. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, accuracy, precision, and robustness provided suitable results regarding all parameters investigated. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10.0–70.0 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient >0.999. Precision (intraday and interday) was demonstrated by a relative standard deviation lower than 2.0%. Accuracy was assessed by the recovery test of FA from polymeric microparticles (99.02% to 100.73%). Specificity showed no interference from the components of polymeric microparticles or from the degradation products derived from acidic, basic, and photolytic conditions. In conclusion, the method is suitable to be applied to assay FA as bulk drug and into polymeric microparticles and can be used for studying its stability and degradation kinetics. PMID:26075139

  14. Therapeutic effect of ferulic acid, an ethereal fraction of ethanolic extract of seed of Syzygium cumini against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rat.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Barik, B; Mallick, C; De, D; Ghosh, D

    2008-03-01

    Diabetic therapeutic and antioxidative effects of an ethereal fraction of the ethanolic extract of the seed of Syzygium cumini was studied in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes resulted in a significant elevation in the fasting blood glucose level and in the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase. There was diminution in the levels of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscle along with diminution in the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase and peroxidase in diabetic rats when compared with controls. Hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) were elevated in respect to control. Oral coadministration of the above fraction to diabetic rats resulted in significant protection in all these parameters. Histological studies of the pancreas showed a qualitative diminution in the area and volume of the islet's of Langerhans, but coadministration of the specific fraction resulted in a significant recovery of the islet's of Langerhans. Chromatography study revealed that the used fraction was ferulic acid (FA). Treatment with FA in normoglycemic rats did not show any significant change in the levels of the selected biosensors. The possible hypothesis for the therapeutic effect of FA against diabetes may be due to its pancreatic beta-cell regenerative effect and/or due to its antioxidant properties.

  15. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Ferulic Acid into Microparticles: Development, Validation, Forced Degradation, and Encapsulation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Toledo, Maria da Graça; Pupo, Yasmine Mendes; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2015-01-01

    A simple stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method was validated for the determination of ferulic acid (FA) in polymeric microparticles. Chromatographic conditions consisted of a RP C18 column (250 mm × 4.60 mm, 5 μm, 110 Å) using a mixture of methanol and water pH 3.0 (48 : 52 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 320 nm. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, accuracy, precision, and robustness provided suitable results regarding all parameters investigated. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10.0-70.0 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient >0.999. Precision (intraday and interday) was demonstrated by a relative standard deviation lower than 2.0%. Accuracy was assessed by the recovery test of FA from polymeric microparticles (99.02% to 100.73%). Specificity showed no interference from the components of polymeric microparticles or from the degradation products derived from acidic, basic, and photolytic conditions. In conclusion, the method is suitable to be applied to assay FA as bulk drug and into polymeric microparticles and can be used for studying its stability and degradation kinetics.

  16. The Antioxidant Additive Approach for Alzheimer's Disease Therapy: New Ferulic (Lipoic) Acid Plus Melatonin Modified Tacrines as Cholinesterases Inhibitors, Direct Antioxidants, and Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-Derived 2)-Like 2 Activators.

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, Mohamed; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; León, Rafael; Michalska, Patrycja; Buendía, Izaskun; Jimeno, María Luisa; Jun, Daniel; Janockova, Jana; Sepsova, Vendula; Soukup, Ondrej; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Refouvelet, Bernard; Ouari, Olivier; Marco-Contelles, José; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2016-11-10

    Novel multifunctional tacrines for Alzheimer's disease were obtained by Ugi-reaction between ferulic (or lipoic acid), a melatonin-like isocyanide, formaldehyde, and tacrine derivatives, according to the antioxidant additive approach in order to modulate the oxidative stress as therapeutic strategy. Compound 5c has been identified as a promising permeable agent showing excellent antioxidant properties, strong cholinesterase inhibitory activity, less hepatotoxicity than tacrine, and the best neuroprotective capacity, being able to significantly activate the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway.

  17. Simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaemperol and quercetin in rat plasma by LC-MS-MS and application to a pharmacokinetic study of Oldenlandia diffusa extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Neng; Liu, Changhui; Mi, Suiqing; Wang, Ningsheng; Zheng, Xia; Li, Yingyi; Huang, Xiaotao; He, Shaoling; Chen, Hao; Xu, Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method is presented for the simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaemperol and quercetin in rat plasma. Glycyrrhetinic acid was used as an internal standard, and sample pretreatment consisted of a liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Gemini 110A C18 column (50 × 2.0 mm i.d., 5 µm) by gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid in water. Tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring under negative ionization mode. Calibration curves offered linear ranges of two orders of magnitude with r > 0.99. The method was validated in terms of matrix effect, intra-day and inter-day precision, accuracy, linearity, specificity and stability. The relative standard deviation of intra-day and inter-day variations ranged from 2.66 to 14.74% and 1.9 to 14.55%. No substantial endogenous interference from blank plasma was observed. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of Oldenlandia diffusa extract after oral administration in rats.

  18. Ferulic acid (FA) abrogates γ-radiation induced oxidative stress and DNA damage by up-regulating nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and activation of NHEJ pathway.

    PubMed

    Das, Ujjal; Manna, Krishnendu; Khan, Amitava; Sinha, Mahuya; Biswas, Sushobhan; Sengupta, Aaveri; Chakraborty, Anindita; Dey, Sanjit

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring plant flavonoid in terms of DNA damage and damage related alterations of repair pathways by gamma radiation. FA was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days prior to exposing the swiss albino mice to a single dose of 10 Gy gamma radiation. Ionising radiation induces oxidative damage manifested by decreased expression of Cu, Zn-SOD (SOD stands for super oxide dismutase), Mn-SOD and catalase. Gamma radiation promulgated reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated DNA damage and modified repair pathways. ROS enhanced nuclear translocation of p53, activated ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein), increased expression of GADD45a (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein) gene and inactivated Non homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway. The comet formation in irradiated mice peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) reiterated the DNA damage in IR exposed groups. FA pretreatment significantly prevented the comet formation and regulated the nuclear translocation of p53, inhibited ATM activation and expression of GADD45a gene. FA promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and activated NHEJ repair pathway to overcome ROS mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage. Therefore, the current study stated that FA can challenge the oxidative stress by (i) inducing nuclear translocation of Nrf2, (ii) scavenging ROS, and (iii) activating NHEJ DNA repair process.

  19. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Ferulic Acid or Vitamin E Individually or in Combination on Meat Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. J.; Li, L. Y.; Li, J. L.; Zhang, L.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE), ferulic acid (FA) and their combination supplementation on meat quality and antioxidant capacities of finishing pigs. Sixty barrows were randomly allocated to four experimental diets using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 VE supplemental levels (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 FA supplemental levels (0 or 100 mg/kg) in basal diets. After 28 days, six pigs per treatment were slaughtered. The results showed that VE supplementation increased loin eye area of pigs (p<0.05) and FA supplementation increased pH45min value (p<0.05). The interaction of FA×VE was observed in shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Moreover, supplementation with VE decreased hepatic and sarcous malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and sarcous glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p<0.05). Additionally, supplementation with FA increased hepatic GSH-Px activity and decreased sarcous MDA content (p<0.05). However, dietary treatment did not affect the expression of genes related to nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. These results suggest that dietary FA and VE could partially improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs, but not by activating NFE2L2 pathway under the normal conditions of farming. PMID:25656211

  20. Ferulic acid reverses the cognitive dysfunction caused by amyloid β peptide 1-40 through anti-oxidant activity and cholinergic activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Fan-Shiu; Wu, Lung-Yuan; Yang, Shu-Er; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Wu, Chi-Rei; Lin, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction and oxidation stress are the dominant mechanisms of memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study describes how ferulic acid (FA) ameliorates cognitive deficits induced by mecamylamine (MECA), scopolamine (SCOP), central acetylcholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) and amyloid β peptide (Aβ1-40). This study also elucidates the role of anti-oxidant enzymes and cholinergic marker acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the reversal of FA from Aβ1-40-induced cognitive deficits in rats. At 100 mg/kg, FA attenuated impairment induced by MECA and SCOP plus MECA; however, this improvement was not blocked by the peripheral muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine methylbromide (M-SCOP). At 100 and 300 mg/kg, FA also attenuated the impairment of inhibitory passive avoidance induced by AF64A. Further, FA attenuated the performance impairment and memory deficit induced by Aβ1-40 in rats, as did vitamin E/C. FA reversed the deterioration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and AChE activities, and the glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the cortex and hippocampus. Vitamin E/C only selectively reversed deterioration in the hippocampus. We suggest that FA reduced the progression of cognitive deficits by activating central muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and anti-oxidant enzymes.

  1. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-based electrochemical sensor for the sensitive determination of ferulic acid in A. sinensis and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linjie; Gou, Yuqiang; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Chen, Wenxia; Feng, Shilan; Hu, Fangdi; Li, Yingdong

    2014-09-01

    An electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used as a new voltammetric sensor for the determination of ferulic acid (FA). The morphology and microstructure of the modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy analysis, and the electrochemical effective surface areas of the modified electrodes were also calculated by chronocoulometry method. Sensing properties of the electrochemical sensor were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). It was found that ERGO was electrodeposited on the surface of GCE by using potentiostatic method. The proposed electrode exhibited electrocatalytic activity to the redox of FA because of excellent electrochemical properties of ERGO. The transfer electron number (n), electrode reaction rate constant (ks) and electron-transfer coefficient (α) were calculated as 1.12, 1.24s(-1), and 0.40, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration at 8.49 × 10(-8)mol L(-1) to 3.89 × 10(-5)mol L(-1) with detection limit of 2.06 × 10(-8)mol L(-1). This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. The voltammetric sensor was successfully applied to detect FA in A. sinensis and biological samples with recovery values in the range of 99.91%-101.91%.

  2. Non-covalent inclusion of ferulic acid with alpha-cyclodextrin improves photo-stability and delivery: NMR and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Maggiore, Maria; Gaggelli, Nicola; Andreassi, Marco; Buonocore, Anna; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Facino, Roberto Maffei

    2008-03-13

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a highly effective antioxidant and photo-protective agent, already approved in Japan as a sunscreen, but it is poorly suited for cosmetic application because of its low physicochemical stability. We prepared the inclusion complex of FA with alpha-cyclodextrin by co-precipitation from an aqueous solution, and used (1)H NMR and molecular dynamics to investigate the most probable structure of the inclusion complex. In rotating frame nuclear Overhouser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments FA penetrated the alpha-CD hydrophobic cavity with the alpha,beta-unsaturated part of the molecule and some of its aromatic skeleton. In proton chemical shift measurements of FA and alpha-cyclodextrins we determined the stoichiometry of the association complex (1:1) by Job's method, and its stability constant (K(1:1) 1162+/-140 M(-1)) and described the molecular dynamics of the complex on the basis of theoretical studies. Encapsulation with alpha-cyclodextrin improves (i) the chemical stability of FA against UVB stress (10 MED [Minimal Erythemal Dose: 1 MED=25 mJ/cm(2) for skin phototype II: 30]), since no degradation products are formed after irradiation, and (ii) the bioavailability of FA on the skin, slowing its delivery (Strainer cell model).

  3. Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation that is induced by ferulic acid through MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling promotes peripheral nerve remyelination following crush injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Kun; Guo, Xin; Wang, Jian; Xiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation is critical for the remyelination of injured peripheral nerves. Ferulic acid (FA) is a widely used antioxidant agent with neuroprotective properties. However, the potentially beneficial effects of FA on Schwann cells are unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the effects of FA on Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation. By using the cultured primary Schwann cells and proliferation assay, the results identified that FA was capable of increasing Schwann cell proliferation and expression of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in vitro. It was also observed that the beneficial effect of FA treatment on Schwann cells was mainly dependent on the activation of MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling. Furthermore, FA was intraperitoneally administered to rats with sciatic nerve crush injury, and the results revealed an increase in Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation, while the MAG and MBP expression levels in sciatic nerves were markedly upregulated following FA administration. In conclusion, the current results demonstrate that Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation is induced by FA through MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling and that FA may accelerate injured peripheral nerve remyelination. PMID:27588110

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Bioactive Compound Ferulic Acid Contained in Oldenlandia diffusa on Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao; Liang, Qing-Hua; Xiong, Xin-Gui; Chen, Jiang; Wu, Dan; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to identify the active compounds in Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) decoction and the compounds absorbed into plasma, and to determine whether the absorbed compounds derived from OD exerted any anti-inflammatory effects in rats with collagen induced arthritis (CIA). Methods. The UPLC-PDA (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Photo-Diode Array) method was applied to identify the active compounds both in the decoction and rat plasma. The absorbable compound was administered to the CIA rats, and the effects were dynamically observed. X-ray films of the joints and HE stain of synovial tissues were analyzed. The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the rats from each group were measured by means of ELISA. The absorbed compound in the plasma of CIA rats was identified as ferulic acid (FA), following OD decoction administration. Two weeks after the administration of FA solution or OD decoction, the general conditions improved compared to the model group. The anti-inflammatory effect of FA was inferior to that of the OD decoction (P < 0.05), based on a comparison of IL-1β TNF-α levels. FA from the OD decoction was absorbed into the body of CIA rats, where it elicited anti-inflammatory responses in rats with CIA. Conclusions. These results suggest that FA is the bioactive compound in OD decoction, and FA exerts its effects through anti-inflammatory pathways. PMID:24883069

  5. Ferulic Acid Induces Th1 Responses by Modulating the Function of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorates Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Huang, Huei-Mei; Lin, Chu-Lun; Leu, Sy-Jye; Lee, Yueh-Lun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA) on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. The activation of FA-treated bone marrow-derived DCs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced a high level of interleukin- (IL-) 12 but reduced the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Compared to control-treated DCs, FA significantly enhanced the expressions of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4), MHC class II, and CD40 molecules by these DCs. Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. In animal experiments, oral administration of FA reduced the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 and enhanced IgG2a antibody production in serum. It also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration in dose-dependent manners. In addition, FA treatment inhibited the production of eotaxin, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN-) γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating DCs function in an asthmatic mouse model. PMID:26495021

  6. Effects of Ferulic Acid on Oxidative Stress, Heat Shock Protein 70, Connexin 43 and Monoamines in Hippocampus of Pentylenetetrazole-Kindled Rats.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Abdelaziz M; Abbas, Khalid M; Abulseoud, Osama A; Elhussainy, Elhussainy Mohamed Abouelez

    2017-02-03

    The present study investigated the effects of ferulic acid on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, oxidative stress markers (malondialdhyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH)), connexin (Cx) 43, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and monoamines (serotonin (5HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in a rat model of PTZ-induced kindling. Sixty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 equal groups, a) normal group, b) FA group: normal rats received FA at a dose of 40 mg/kg daily, c) PTZ group: rats received PTZ at a dose of 50 mg/kg i.p. on alternate day for 15 days, d) FA before group, as PTZ group and rats received FA and e) FA after group, rats received FA from 6th dose of PTZ. PTZ caused significant increase in MDA, Cx43 and Hsp70 with significant decrease in GSH, 5HT and NE levels and CAT activity in hippocampus (p<0.05).Pre- and post-treatment with FA caused significant improvement in behavioral parameters, MDA, CAT, GSH, 5HT,NE, Cx43 expression and Hsp70 expression in hippocampal region (p<0.05). We concluded that FA has a neuroprotective effects in PTZ induced epilepsy which might be due to attenuation of oxidative stress and Cx43 expression, upregulation of neuroprotective HSP70 and neurotransmitters (5HT and NE) levels.

  7. Pharmacokinetic comparison of the vasorelaxant compound ferulic acid following the administration of Guanxin II to healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Hui; Huang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Hong-Min; Ren, Ping; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Lu, Hong-Mei

    2013-11-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The Chinese medicinal formula Guanxin II has been shown to have a favorable effect in the attenuation of angina. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid (FA), which is a vasorelaxant compound present in Guanxin II, in healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris following the administration of Guanxin II. Ex vivo experiments were performed in order to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of FA on the human internal mammary artery (IMA) to provide evidence that it is a bioactive component of Guanxin II. Following the oral administration of Guanxin II, the FA levels in the serum were quantified by a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Treatment with FA (10(-8)-10(-3) M) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelial IMA rings following precontraction with KCl. Statistically significant differences were identified between the pharmaco-kinetic parameters Cmax, t1/2α, t1/2β and t1/2Ka of the healthy volunteers and the patients with angina pectoris following the oral administration of Guanxin II. FA is a bioactive compound absorbed from Guanxin II that attenuates angina pectoris, a condition that may modify the pharmacokinetics of FA. Not only do the pharmacokinetic parameters direct the clinical use of Guanxin II, but they may also be useful for exploring the pathology of angina pectoris.

  8. Preparative isolation and purification of senkyunolide-I, senkyunolide-H and ferulic acid from Rhizoma Chuanxiong using counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yun; Hu, Jia; Li, Hao; Liu, Jiangang

    2011-12-01

    Three active compounds, senkyunolide-I, senkyunolide-H and ferulic acid (FA), were successfully isolated and purified from the extracts of Rhizoma Chuanxiong by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Based on the principle of the partition coefficient values (k) for target compounds and the separation factor (α) between target compounds, the two-phase solvent system that contains n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at an optimized volume ratio of 3:7:4:6 v/v was selected for the CCC separation, and the lower phase was employed as the mobile phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. In a single run, 400 mg of the crude extract yielded pure senkyunolide-I (6.4 mg), senkyunolide-H (1.7 mg) and FA (4.4 mg) with the purities of 98, 93 and 99%, respectively. The CCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the structures of the three active compounds were identified by MS and (1)H NMR.

  9. A mass transfer model for the fixed-bed adsorption of ferulic acid onto a polymeric resin: axial dispersion and intraparticle diffusion.

    PubMed

    Davila-Guzman, Nancy E; Cerino-Córdova, Felipe J; Soto-Regalado, Eduardo; Loredo-Cancino, Margarita; Loredo-Medrano, José A; García-Reyes, Refugio B

    2016-08-01

    In this study, amberlite XAD-16 (XAD-16) bed column system was used to remove ferulic acid (FA) from aqueous solutions. Laboratory-scale column experiments were conducted in downflow fixed bed at initial FA concentration of 1 g/L, initial pH 3, and 25°C. The performance of the adsorbent bed under different flow rates (1.3-7.7 mL/min) was studied. The bed utilization efficiency was in the range of 64.64-72.21% at the studied flow rates. A mass transfer model considering both axial dispersion and intraparticle diffusion was developed to predict the breakthrough curves of FA adsorption on XAD-16. This model predicted the experimental data better than Bohart-Adams model and Thomas model, based on the low deviation between predicted and experimental data. The axial dispersion coefficient value varied from 6.45 × 10(-6) to 1.10 × 10(-6) m(2)/s at flow rate from 1.3 to 7.7 mL/min, whereas the intraparticle diffusion coefficient was 1.04 × 10(-10) m(2)/s, being this last resistance the rate-limiting step. In conclusion, axial dispersion and intraparticle diffusion phenomena play the major role in predicting the adsorption of FA onto XAD-16 in fixed-bed columns.

  10. Effect of tocopherols on the anti-polymerization activity of oryzanol and corn steryl ferulates in soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steryl ferulates (SF) are ferulic acid esters of phytosterols and/or triterpene alcohols which have potential as frying oil antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-polymerization and antioxidant activity at frying temperatures of corn steryl ferulates (CSF), rice steryl f...

  11. Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2012-12-17

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB's cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.

  12. Effects of Phenolic Acids on the Growth and Production of T-2 and HT-2 Toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides.

    PubMed

    Ferruz, Elena; Atanasova-Pénichon, Vessela; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noëlle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Ducos, Christine; Lorán, Susana; Ariño, Agustín; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-04-04

    The effect of natural phenolic acids was tested on the growth and production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides, on Mycotoxin Synthetic medium. Plates treated with 0.5 mM of each phenolic acid (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p-coumaric) and controls without phenolic acid were incubated for 14 days at 25 °C. Fungal biomass of F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides was not reduced by the phenolic acids. However, biosynthesis of T-2 toxin by F. langsethiae was significantly reduced by chlorogenic (23.1%) and ferulic (26.5%) acids. Production of T-2 by F. sporotrichioides also decreased with ferulic acid by 23% (p < 0.05). In contrast, p-coumaric acid significantly stimulated the production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins for both strains. A kinetic study of F. langsethiae with 1 mM ferulic acid showed a significant decrease in fungal biomass, whereas T-2 production increased after 10 days of incubation. The study of gene expression in ferulic supplemented cultures of F. langsethiae revealed a significant inhibition for Tri5, Tri6 and Tri12 genes, while for Tri16 the decrease in gene expression was not statistically significant. Overall, results indicated that phenolic acids had a variable effect on fungal growth and mycotoxin production, depending on the strain and the concentration and type of phenolic acid assayed.

  13. Spray-dried solid dispersions containing ferulic acid: comparative analysis of three carriers, in vitro dissolution, antioxidant potential and in vivo anti-platelet effect.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Gomes, Mona Lisa Simionatto; Borsato, Débora Maria; Almeida, Martinha Antunes; Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias; Zawadzki, Sônia Faria; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2016-11-01

    This article aimed to improve the relative solubility and dissolution rate of ferulic acid (FA) by the use of spray-dried solid dispersions (SDs) in order to ensure its in vitro antioxidant potential and to enhance its in vivo anti-platelet effect. These SDs were prepared by spray-drying at 10 and 20% of drug concentration using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP-K30), polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) and poloxamer-188 (PLX-188) as carriers. SDs and physical mixtures (PM) were characterized by SEM, XRPD, FTIR spectroscopy and TGA analysis. Spray-dried SDs containing FA were successfully obtained. Relative solubility of FA was improved with increasing carrier concentration. PVP-K30 and PEG 6000 formulations showed suitable drug content values close to 100%, whereas PLX-188 presented mean values between 70 and 90%. Agglomerates were observed depending on the carrier used. XRPD patterns and thermograms indicated that spray-drying led to drug amorphization and provided appropriate thermal stability, respectively. FTIR spectra demonstrated no remarkable interaction between carrier and drug for PEG 6000 and PLX-188 SDs. PVP-K30 formulations had changes in FTIR spectra, which denoted intermolecular O-H•••O = C bonds. Spray-dried SDs played an important role in enhancing dissolution rate of FA when compared to pure drug. The free radical-scavenging assay confirmed that the antioxidant activity of PEG 6000 10% SDs was kept. This formulation also provided a statistically increased in vivo anti-platelet effect compared to pure drug. In summary, these formulations enhanced relative solubility and dissolution rate of FA and chosen formulation demonstrated suitable in vitro antioxidant activity and improved in vivo anti-platelet effect.

  14. Poly(ferulic acid-co-tyrosine): Effect of the Regiochemistry on the Photophysical and Physical Properties en Route to Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The photophysical and mechanical properties of novel poly(carbonate-amide)s derived from two biorenewable resources, ferulic acid (FA) and l-tyrosine ethyl ester, were evaluated in detail. From these two bio-based precursors, a series of four monomers were generated (having amide and/or carbonate coupling units with remaining functionalities to allow for carbonate formation) and transformed to a series of four poly(carbonate-amide)s. The simplest monomer, which was biphenolic and was obtained in a single amidation synthetic step, displayed bright, visible fluorescence that was twice brighter than FA. Multidimensional fluorescence spectroscopy of the polymers in solution highlighted the strong influence that regioselectivity and the degree of polymerization have on their photophysical properties. The regiochemistry of the system had little effect on the wettability, surface free energy, and Young’s modulus (ca. 2.5 GPa) in the solid state. Confocal imaging of solvent-cast films of each polymer revealed microscopically flat surfaces with fluorescent emission deep into the visible region. Fortuitously, one of the two regiorandom polymers (obtainable from the biphenolic monomer in only an overall two synthetic steps from FA and l-tyrosine ethyl ester) displayed the most promising fluorescent properties both in the solid state and in solution, allowing for the possibility of translating this system as a self-reporting or imaging agent in future applications. To further evaluate the potential of this polymer as a biodegradable material, hydrolytic degradation studies at different pH values and temperatures were investigated. Additionally, the antioxidant properties of the degradation products of this polymer were compared with its biphenolic monomer and FA. PMID:25364040

  15. Ferulic acid ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis through modulation of cytokines, oxidative stress, iNOs, COX-2, and apoptosis in laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadar, Smeeta S.; Vyawahare, Niraj S.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune-inflammatory disorder characterized by oxido-nitrosative stress, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound is considered to possess potent antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim is to evaluate possible mechanism of action of FA against trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. UC was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) by intrarectal administration of TNBS (100 mg/kg). FA was administered (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days after colitis was induced. Various biochemical, molecular and histological changes were assessed in the colon. Intrarectal administration of TNBS caused significant induction of ulcer in the colon with an elevation of oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase and hydroxyproline activity in the colon. Administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly decrease oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase, and hydroxyproline activities. Up-regulated mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOs, as well as down-regulated IL-10 mRNA expressions after TNBS administration, were significantly inhibited by FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that intrarectal administration of TNBS-induced significantly enhanced the colonic apoptosis whereas administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly restored the elevated apoptosis. FA administration also significantly restored the histopathological aberration induced by TNBS. The findings of the present study demonstrated that FA ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis via inhibition of oxido-nitrosative stress, apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokines production, and down- regulation of COX-2 synthesis. Graphical Abstract: TNBS caused activation of T cells which interact with CD40 on antigen presenting cells i.e. dendritic cells (DC) that induce the key Interleukin 12 (IL-12)-mediated Th1 T cell immune

  16. Ferulic acid ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis through modulation of cytokines, oxidative stress, iNOs, COX-2, and apoptosis in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Sadar, Smeeta S; Vyawahare, Niraj S; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune-inflammatory disorder characterized by oxido-nitrosative stress, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound is considered to possess potent antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim is to evaluate possible mechanism of action of FA against trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. UC was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) by intrarectal administration of TNBS (100 mg/kg). FA was administered (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days after colitis was induced. Various biochemical, molecular and histological changes were assessed in the colon. Intrarectal administration of TNBS caused significant induction of ulcer in the colon with an elevation of oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase and hydroxyproline activity in the colon. Administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly decrease oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase, and hydroxyproline activities. Up-regulated mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOs, as well as down-regulated IL-10 mRNA expressions after TNBS administration, were significantly inhibited by FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that intrarectal administration of TNBS-induced significantly enhanced the colonic apoptosis whereas administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly restored the elevated apoptosis. FA administration also significantly restored the histopathological aberration induced by TNBS. The findings of the present study demonstrated that FA ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis via inhibition of oxido-nitrosative stress, apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokines production, and down- regulation of COX-2 synthesis.Graphical Abstract: TNBS caused activation of T cells which interact with CD40 on antigen presenting cells i.e. dendritic cells (DC) that induce the key Interleukin 12 (IL-12)-mediated Th1 T cell immune

  17. Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside, senkyunolide I in Beagle dogs plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after Oral Administration of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Cui, Wenxia; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-ao; Guo, Jianming; Li, Zhenhao; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei; Huang, Zhijun

    2014-07-01

    In this present study, a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I in Beagle dog plasma after oral administration of the Shao-Fu-Zhu-Yu Decoction. Chloramphenicol and clarithromycin were used as internal standards. Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with methanol. The separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) at a flow-rate of 0.4mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase. Method validation was performed as per Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. After validation, this method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study. The results showed that the apparent plasma clearance of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I were significantly higher than others. Double peak was observed in plasma concentration curves of tetrahydropalmatine, the ferulic acid had a good absorption in Beagle dog plasma, and senkyunolide I was detected in plasma from the first blood sampling time (15min) and rapidly reached Tmax. The compound of typhaneoside has a low bioavailability according to the results.

  18. Ferulic Acid Regulates the Nrf2/Heme Oxygenase-1 System and Counteracts Trimethyltin-Induced Neuronal Damage in the Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y

    PubMed Central

    Catino, Stefania; Paciello, Fabiola; Miceli, Fiorella; Rolesi, Rolando; Troiani, Diana; Calabrese, Vittorio; Santangelo, Rosaria; Mancuso, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, several lines of evidence have pointed out the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA) in counteracting oxidative stress elicited by β-amyloid or free radical initiators, based on the ability of this natural antioxidant to up-regulate the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BVR) system. However, scarce results can be found in literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of FA in case of damage caused by neurotoxicants. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms through which FA exerts neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT). FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased both basal and TMT (10 μM for 24 h)-induced HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by fostering the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional activator Nrf2. In particular, the co-treatment of FA (10 μM) with TMT was also responsible for the nuclear translocation of HO-1 in an attempt to further increase cell stress response in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to HO-1, FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased the basal expression of BVR. The antioxidant and neuroprotective features of FA, through the increase of HO activity, were supported by the evidence that FA inhibited TMT (10 μM)-induced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by detecting 4-hydroxy-nonenal) and DNA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and that this antioxidant effect was reversed by the HO inhibitor Zinc-protoporphyrin-IX (5 μM). Among the by-products of the HO/BVR system, carbon monoxide (CORM-2, 50 nM) and bilirubin (BR, 50 nM) significantly inhibited TMT-induced superoxide anion formation in SH-SY5Y cells. All together, these results corroborate the neuroprotective effect of FA through the up-regulation of the HO-1/BVR system, via carbon monoxide and BR formation, and provide the first evidence on the role of HO-1/Nrf2 axis in FA-related enhancement of cell stress response in human neurons. PMID:26779023

  19. Ferulic acid decreases cell viability and colony formation while inhibiting migration of MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fahrioğlu, Umut; Dodurga, Yavuz; Elmas, Levent; Seçme, Mücahit

    2016-01-15

    Novel and combinatorial treatment methods are becoming sought after entities in cancer treatment and these treatments are even more valuable for pancreatic cancer. The scientists are always on the lookout for new chemicals to help them in their fight against cancer. In this study, we examine the effects of ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound, on gene expression, viability, colony formation and migration/invasion in the cultured MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cell. Cytotoxic effects of FA were determined by using trypan blue dye exclusion test and Cell TiterGlo (CTG) assay. IC50 dose in MIA PaCa-2 cells was detected as 500μM/ml at the 72nd hour. Expression profiles of certain cell cycle and apoptosis genes such as CCND1 (cyclin D1),CDK4, CDK6, RB, p21, p16, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-10, Bcl-2, BCL-XL,BID, DR4,DR5,FADD,TRADD,PARP, APAF, Bax, Akt, PTEN, PUMA, NOXA, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIMP2 were determined by real-time PCR. The effect of FA on cell viability was determined by CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. Additionally, effects of FA on colony formation and invasion were also investigated. It was observed that FA caused a significant decrease in the expression of CCND1, CDK 4/6, Bcl2 and caspase 8 and 10 in the MIA PaCa-2 cells while causing an increase in the expression of p53, Bax, PTEN caspase 3 and 9. FA was observed to decrease colony formation while inhibiting cell invasion and migration as observed by the BioCoat Matrigel Invasion Chamber guide and colony formation assays. In conclusion, FA is thought to behave as an anti-cancer agent by affecting cell cycle, apoptotic, invasion and colony formation behavior of MIA PaCa-2 cells. Therefore, FA is placed as a strong candidate for further studies aimed at finding a better, more effective treatment approach for pancreatic cancer.

  20. Ferulic acid prevents LPS-induced up-regulation of PDE4B and stimulates the cAMP/CREB signaling pathway in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Hong, Qian; Tan, Hong-ling; Xiao, Cheng-rong; Gao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) isozymes are involved in different functions, depending on their patterns of distribution in the brain. The PDE4 subtypes are distributed in different inflammatory cells, and appear to be important regulators of inflammatory processes. In this study we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA), a plant component with strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced up-regulation of phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) in PC12 cells, which in turn regulated cellular cAMP levels and the cAMP/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) pathway in the cells. Methods: PC12 cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/mL) for 8 h, and the changes of F-actin were detected using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured suing ELISA kits, and PDE4B-specific enzymatic activity was assessed with a PDE4B assay kit. The mRNA levels of PDE4B were analyzed with Q-PCR, and the protein levels of CREB and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) were determined using immunoblotting. Furthermore, molecular docking was used to identify the interaction between PDE4B2 and FA. Results: Treatment of PC12 cells with LPS induced thick bundles of actin filaments appearing in the F-actin cytoskeleton, which were ameliorated by pretreatment with FA (10–40 μmol/L) or with a PDE4B inhibitor rolipram (30 μmol/L). Pretreatment with FA dose-dependently inhibited the LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-1β in PC12 cells. Furthermore, pretreatment with FA dose-dependently attenuated the LPS-induced up-regulation of PDE4 activity in PC12 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with FA decreased LPS-induced up-regulation of the PDE4B mRNA, and reversed LPS-induced down-regulation of CREB and pCREB in PC12 cells. The molecular docking results revealed electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between FA and PDE4B2. Conclusion: The beneficial effects of FA in PC12 cells might be conferred through inhibition of LPS

  1. Vanadate inhibition of fungal phyA and bacterial appA2 histidine acid phosphatases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal PhyA protein, which was first identified as an acid optimum phosphomonoesterase (EC 3.1.3.8), could also serve as a vanadate haloperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.10) provided the acid phosphatase activity is shutdown by vanadate. To understand how vanadate inhibits both phytate and pNPP degrading ac...

  2. Ferulic acid exerts its antidiabetic effect by modulating insulin-signalling molecules in the liver of high-fat diet and fructose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Akilavalli; Chinnaiyan, Mayilvanan; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2015-08-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic phytochemical known for its antidiabetic property The present study is designed to evaluate the mechanism behind its antidiabetic property in high-fat and fructose-induced type 2 diabetic adult male rats. Animals were divided into 5 groups: (i) control, (ii) diabetic control, (iii) diabetic animals treated with FA (50 mg/(kg body weight · day)(-1), orally) for 30 days, (iv) diabetic animals treated with metformin (50 mg/(kg body weight · day)(-1), orally) for 30 days, and (v) control rats treated with FA. FA treatment to diabetic animals restored blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance to normal range. Hepatic glycogen concentration, activity of glycogen synthase, and glucokinase were significantly decreased, whereas activity of glycogen phosphorylase and enzymes of gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase)) were increased in diabetic animals and FA restored these to normal levels similar to that of metformin. FA improved the insulin signalling molecules and reduced the negative regulators of insulin signalling. The messenger RNA of gluconeogenic enzyme genes (PEPCK and G6Pase) and the interaction between forkhead transcription factor-O1 and promoters of gluconeogenic enzyme genes (PEPCK and G6Pase) was reduced significantly by ferulic acid. It is concluded from the present study that FA treatment to type 2 diabetic rats improves insulin sensitivity and hepatic glycogenesis but inhibits gluconeogenesis and negative regulators of insulin signalling to maintain normal glucose homeostasis.

  3. Influence of phytosterol structure on antioxidant activity of steryl ferulates in frying oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steryl ferulates (SFs) occur in rice, corn, wheat, and rye, and are composed of plant sterols (phytosterols) esterified to ferulic acid. The structures of SFs from each cereal source differ due to differences in the phytosterol head group and these structural differences have been demonstrated to i...

  4. Fungal populations in podzolic soil experimentally acidified to simulate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Baath, E.; Lundgren, B.; Soederstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of experimental acidification on the soil microfungal community was studied in the humus layer of a coniferous forest in northern Sweden. The study was made 4 years after the last application of sulfuric acid. Fungal species composition was altered by treatments of 100 and 150 kg sulfuric acid ha/sup -1/ each year for 6 years, yet no differences were found between the control treatment and an application of 50 kg ha/sup -1/. The abundance of Penicillium spinulosum and Oidiodendron cf. echinulatum II increased with increasing rates of acid application, whereas only small changes were found for other isolated fungal taxa. Soil respiration rate and fluorescein diacetate (FDA)-active fungal biomass were significantly different from the control treatment at all 3 levels of acidification. 15 references, 4 tables.

  5. Fungal variegatic acid and extracellular polysaccharides promote the site-specific generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Mahaney, James; Jellison, Jody; Cao, Jinzhen; Gressler, Julia; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Goodell, Barry

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to clarify the role of variegatic acid (VA) in fungal attack by Serpula lacrymans, and also the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the fungus. VA promotes a mediated Fenton reaction to generated ROS after oxalate solubilizes oxidized forms of iron. The fungal extracellular matrix (ECM) β-glucan scavenged ROS, and we propose this as a mechanism to protect the fungal hyphae while ROS generation is promoted to deconstruct the lignocellulose cell wall. A relatively high pH (4.4) also favored Fe(III) transfer from oxalate to VA as opposed to a lower pH (2.2) conditions, suggesting a pH-dependent Fe(III) transfer to VA employed by S. lacrymans. This permits ROS generation within the higher pH of the cell wall, while limiting ROS production near the fungal hyphae, while β-glucan from the fungal ECM scavenges ROS in the more acidic environments surrounding the fungal hyphae.

  6. Corn starch ferulates with antioxidant properties prepared by N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole-mediated grafting procedure.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu; Ye, Fayin; Zhu, Jianfei; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    This work presents novel synthesis processes and properties of corn starch ferulates. First, N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole, a green activating reagent, was used to transform ferulic acid into ferulate-imidazolide. The ferulate-imidazolide was then further reacted with corn starch to produce corn starch ferulates. The grafting reaction of ferulic acid onto corn starch was confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR. The degree of substitution (DS), relating products and reaction parameters, depended on the molar ratio of the anhydroglucose unit to ferulic acid (nAGU/FA), the temperature of the reaction, and the time that elapsed. The dependence of the degree of substitution was optimized by response surface methodology. Results implied the greatest DS (0.389) was obtained under the conditions of nAGU/FA 1:3.6, 90°C and 7.12h. The morphological, crystalline, and in vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing power of the corn starch ferulates showed potential for antioxidant properties.

  7. Expanding the product portfolio of fungal type I fatty acid synthases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yongjin J; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Grininger, Martin; Zhao, Zongbao K; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Fungal type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) are mega-enzymes with two separated, identical compartments, in which the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains shuttle substrates to catalytically active sites embedded in the chamber wall. We devised synthetic FASs by integrating heterologous enzymes into the reaction chambers and demonstrated their capability to convert acyl-ACP or acyl-CoA from canonical fatty acid biosynthesis to short/medium-chain fatty acids and methyl ketones.

  8. Fungal Community Associated with Dactylopius (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae) and Its Role in Uric Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    We studied fungal species associated with the carmine cochineal Dactylopius coccus and other non-domesticated Dactylopius species using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Thirty seven fungi were isolated in various culture media from insect males and females from different developmental stages and Dactylopius species. 26S rRNA genes and ITS sequences, from cultured fungal isolates revealed different species of Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Debaryomyces, Trametes, and Penicillium, which are genera newly associated with Dactylopius. Uric acid (UA) and uricase activity were detected in tissues extracts from different insect developmental stages. However, accumulation of high UA levels and low uricase activities were found only after antifungal treatments, suggesting an important role of fungal species in its metabolism. Additionally, uricolytic fungal isolates were identified and characterized that presumably are involved in nitrogen recycling metabolism. After metagenomic analyses from D. coccus gut and hemolymph DNA and from two published data sets, we confirmed the presence of fungal genes involved in UA catabolism, suggesting that fungi help in the nitrogen recycling process in Dactylopius by uricolysis. All these results show the importance of fungal communities in scale insects such as Dactylopius. PMID:27446001

  9. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking.

    PubMed

    Kenar, James A; Compton, David L; Little, Jeanette A; Peterson, Steve C

    2016-04-20

    Amylose-ligand inclusion complexes represent an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose from high amylose maize starch. To overcome this problem a lipophilic ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, was prepared and complexed with amylose via excess steam jet cooking. Jet-cooking octadecyl ferulate and high amylose starch gave an amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complex in 51.0% isolated yield. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that a 61 V-type inclusion complex was formed. Amylose and extraction assays showed the complex to be enriched in amylose (91.9±4.3%) and contain 70.6±5.6mgg(-1) octadecyl ferulate, although, minor hydrolysis (∼4%) of the octadecyl ferulate was observed under the excess steam jet-cooking conditions utilized. This study demonstrates that steam jet cooking is a rapid and scalable process in which to prepare amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complexes.

  10. Synthesis of (R)- and (S)-10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid: cutin stereochemistry and fungal activation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aqeel; Crawford, Terry; Gould, Stephanie; Ha, Y S; Hollrah, Monica; Noor-E-Ain, Farhana; Dickman, Martin B; Dussault, Patrick H

    2003-05-01

    The first asymmetric syntheses of the cutin monomers (R)- and (S)-10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid (10,16-DHPA) and confirmation of (S)(+)-absolute configuration for 10,16-DHPA derived from tomato are reported. The individual DHPA stereoisomers display differences in their ability to activate the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum trifolii.

  11. Direct fungal fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass into itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids: current and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Mondala, Andro H

    2015-04-01

    Various economic and environmental sustainability concerns as well as consumer preference for bio-based products from natural sources have paved the way for the development and expansion of biorefining technologies. These involve the conversion of renewable biomass feedstock to fuels and chemicals using biological systems as alternatives to petroleum-based products. Filamentous fungi possess an expansive portfolio of products including the multifunctional organic acids itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids that have wide-ranging current applications and potentially addressable markets as platform chemicals. However, current bioprocessing technologies for the production of these compounds are mostly based on submerged fermentation, which necessitates physicochemical pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulose biomass to soluble fermentable sugars in liquid media. This review will focus on current research work on fungal production of itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids and perspectives on the potential application of solid-state fungal cultivation techniques for the consolidated hydrolysis and organic acid fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass.

  12. Xanosporic acid, an intermediate in bacterial degradation of the fungal phototoxin cercosporin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Thomas K; Alejos-Gonzalez, Fatima; Gracz, Hanna S; Danehower, David A; Daub, Margaret E; Chilton, William Scott

    2003-03-01

    The red fungal perylenequinone phototoxin cercosporin is oxidized by Xanthomonas campestris pv zinniae to a non-toxic, unstable green metabolite xanosporic acid, identified via its lactone as 1,12-bis(2'R-hydroxypropyl)-4,9-dihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxy-11-methoxy-3-oxaperylen-10H-10-one-2-carboxylic acid. Xanosporolactone was isolated in approximately 2:1 ratio of M:P atropisomers.

  13. Preparation and characterization of n-dodecyl-ferulate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN).

    PubMed

    Souto, E B; Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Müller, R H

    2005-05-13

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing a novel potential sunscreen n-dodecyl-ferulate (ester of ferulic acid) were developed. The preparation and stability parameters of n-dodecyl-ferulate-loaded SLN have been investigated concerning particle size, surface electrical charge (zeta potential) and matrix crystallinity. The chemical stability of n-dodecyl-ferulate at high temperatures was also assessed by thermal gravimetry analysis. For the selection of the appropriated lipid matrix, chemically different lipids were melted with 4% (m/m) of active and lipid nanoparticles were prepared by the so-called high pressure homogenization technique. n-Dodecyl-ferulate-loaded SLN prepared with cetyl palmitate showed the lowest mean particle size and polydispersity index, as well as the highest physical stability during storage time of 21 days at 4, 20 and 40 degrees C. These colloidal dispersions containing the sunscreen also exhibited the common melting behaviour of aqueous SLN dispersions.

  14. A sulfuric-lactic acid process for efficient purification of fungal chitosan with intact molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Mitra; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2014-02-01

    The most recent method of fungal chitosan purification, i.e., two steps of dilute sulfuric acid treatment, pretreatment of cell wall at room temperature for phosphate removal and extraction of chitosan from the phosphate free cell wall at high temperature, significantly reduces the chitosan molecular weight. This study was aimed at improvement of this method. In the pretreatment step, to choose the best conditions, cell wall of Rhizopus oryzae, containing 9% phosphate, 10% glucosamine, and 21% N-acetyl glucosamine, was treated with sulfuric, lactic, acetic, nitric, or hydrochloric acid, at room temperature. Sulfuric acid showed the best performance in phosphate removal (90%) and cell wall recovery (89%). To avoid depolymerisation of chitosan, hot sulfuric acid extraction was replaced with lactic acid treatment at room temperature, and a pure fungal chitosan was obtained (0.12 g/g cell wall). Similar pretreatment and extraction processes were conducted on pure shrimp chitosan and resulted in a chitosan recovery of higher than 87% while the reduction of chitosan viscosity was less than 15%. Therefore, the sulfuric-lactic acid method purified the fungal chitosan without significant molecular weight manipulation.

  15. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  16. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and β-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA. PMID:22102911

  17. Cereal fungal infection, mycotoxins, and lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection: from crop farming to cereal products.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro M; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolites are a reliable alternative for reducing fungal infections pre-/post-harvest with additional advantages for cereal-base products which convene the food market's trend. Grain industrial use is in expansion owing to its applicability in generating functional food. The food market is directed towards functional natural food with clear health benefits for the consumer in detriment to chemical additives. The food market chain is becoming broader and more complex, which presents an ever-growing fungal threat. Toxigenic and spoilage fungi are responsible for numerous diseases and economic losses. Cereal infections may occur in the field or post-processing, along the food chain. Consequently, the investigation of LAB metabolites with antifungal activity has gained prominence in the scientific research community. LAB bioprotection retards the development of fungal diseases in the field and inhibit pathogens and spoilage fungi in food products. In addition to the health safety improvement, LAB metabolites also enhance shelf-life, organoleptic and texture qualities of cereal-base foods. This review presents an overview of the fungal impact through the cereal food chain leading to investigation on LAB antifungal compounds. Applicability of LAB in plant protection and cereal industry is discussed. Specific case studies include Fusarium head blight, malting and baking.

  18. Chemoattraction of anaerobic ruminal fungi zoospores to selected phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Wubah, D A; Kim, D S

    1996-08-01

    Three phenolic acids, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and syringic acid, were evaluated as chemoattractants for zoospores of two monocentric and two polycentric isolates of anaerobic, zoosporic ruminal fungi. Attraction of fungal zoospores to the acids was determined by a modification of the Palleroni method and fungal thallus forming units were counted after incubating capillary tubes in a chemotaxis chamber. Chemotactic response was expressed as relative taxis response (RTR), which is the ratio of accumulation of zoospores in test capillaries to that in control capillaries. Monocentric isolates had greater RTR values then did the polycentric isolates. The order of chemoattraction for the uniflagellate isolates was p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid > syringic acid. The order of attraction was different between the two isolates with multiflagellate zoospores. Ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were better chemoattractants than syringic acid. Peak response for the monocentric isolates was 1.0 mumol l-1 while that for the polycentric isolates was 0.1 mmol l-1.

  19. Fungal hallucinogens psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol: analytical methods and biologic activities.

    PubMed

    Stebelska, Katarzyna

    2013-08-01

    Psychoactive drugs of fungal origin, psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol among them have been proposed for recreational use and popularized since the 1960s, XX century. Despite their well-documented neurotoxicity, they reached reputation of being safe and nonaddictive. Scientific efforts to find any medical application for these hallucinogens in psychiatry, psychotherapy, and even for religious rituals support are highly controversial. Even if they show any healing potential, their usage in psychotherapy is in some cases inadequate and may additionally harm seriously suffering patients. Hallucinogens are thought to reduce cognitive functions. However, in case of indolealkylamines, such as psilocin, some recent findings suggest their ability to improve perception and mental skills, what would motivate the consumption of "magic mushrooms." The present article offers an opportunity to find out what are the main symptoms of intoxication with mushrooms containing psilocybin/psilocin, muscimol, and ibotenic acid. The progress in analytical methods for detection of them in fungal material, food, and body fluids is reviewed. Findings on the mechanisms of their biologic activity are summarized. Additionally, therapeutic potential of these fungal psychoactive compounds and health risk associated with their abuse are discussed.

  20. Expanding the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase Protein Family to the Fungal Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Anthony G.; Preiner, Chelsea S.

    2013-01-01

    The known enzymes that open the s-triazine ring, the cyanuric acid hydrolases, have been confined almost exclusively to the kingdom Bacteria and are all homologous members of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase protein family. In the present study, a filamentous fungus, Sarocladium sp. strain CA, was isolated from soil by enrichment culturing using cyanuric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. A reverse-genetic approach identified a fungal cyanuric acid hydrolase gene composed of two exons and one intron. The translated spliced sequence was 39 to 53% identical to previously characterized bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases. The sequence was used to generate a gene optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoding an N-terminally histidine-tagged protein. The protein was purified by nickel affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was shown by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to produce carboxybiuret as the product, which spontaneously decarboxylated to yield biuret and carbon dioxide. The protein was very narrow in substrate specificity, showing activity only with cyanuric acid and N-methyl cyanuric acid. Barbituric acid was an inhibitor of enzyme activity. Sequence analysis identified genes with introns in other fungi from the Ascomycota that, if spliced, are predicted to encode proteins with cyanuric acid hydrolase activity. The Ascomycota cyanuric acid hydrolase homologs are most closely related to cyanuric acid hydrolases from Actinobacteria. PMID:24039269

  1. Ferulic acid attenuated acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity though down-regulating the cytochrome P 2E1 and inhibiting toll-like receptor 4 signaling-mediated inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Junhui; Ge, Kuang; Mu, Junhuan; Rong, Jiang; Zhang, Li; Wang, Bin; Wan, Jingyuan; Xia, Gong

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic acid which is abundant in vegetables and fruits, has been reported to exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the pharmacological effects and the underlying mechanisms of FA in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Our results revealed that FA pretreatment inhibited the augments of serum aminotransferases in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the hepatic histopathological abnormalities and hepatocellular apoptosis in acetaminophen (APAP) exposed mice. Moreover, FA inhibited the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the contents of glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, FA markedly attenuated acetaminophen-induced serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production, suppressed Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expression and dampened p38 mitogen-activated (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) activation. These data suggested that FA could effectively protect against APAP-induced liver injury by down-regulated expression of CYP 2E1 and the suppression of TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses. PMID:27830004

  2. Involvement of PKA, CaMKII, PKC, MAPK/ERK and PI3K in the acute antidepressant-like effect of ferulic acid in the tail suspension test.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello; Zomkowski, Andréa Dias Elpo; Maraschin, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia Severo; Tasca, Carla Inês

    2012-12-01

    Ferulic acid (FA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a phytochemical compound naturally present in several plants and foods that is approved as an antioxidant additive and food preservative. It exerts a beneficial action in chronic mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior and produces an acute antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test (TST) through the activation of the serotonergic system. This study was aimed at investigating the possible involvement of signaling pathways in the antidepressant-like effect of acute and oral administration of FA, in the TST in mice. The anti-immobility effect of orally administered FA (0.01mg/kg, p.o.) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with H-89 (1μg/site, i.c.v., an inhibitor of PKA), KN-62 (1μg/site, i.c.v., an inhibitor of CaMKII), GF109203X (5ng/site, i.c.v., an inhibitor of PKC), U0126 (5μg/site, i.c.v., an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK) or LY294002 (10nmol/site, i.c.v., an inhibitor of PI3K), all involved with neurotrophic signaling pathways. The results demonstrated that FA exerts antidepressant-like effect in the TST in mice, through the activation of signaling pathways related to neuroplasticity, neurogenesis and cell survival.

  3. Limestone dissolution induced by fungal mycelia, acidic materials, and carbonic anhydrase from fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Jia, Li-Ping; Yu, Long-Jiang; Li, Xue-Li; Zhu, Min

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms influence the dissolution of a number of minerals. Limestone is one of the most abundant rock types in karst areas, and is predominantly calcium carbonate. Two types of experimental systems were designed in this paper, to make comparisons of limestone dissolution rate among the acidic materials and extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) excreted by fungi and the enwrapping effect of fungal mycelia. One was the simulated experimental system containing microorganisms. Another was the simulated experimental system without microorganisms. Results of previous experiment indicated that the acidic materials and CA like enzymatic materials excreted by fungi and the enwrapping effect of fungal mycelia were important factors influencing limestone dissolution. In the three factors mentioned above, the dissolution effect was mycelia enwraping effect>acidic dissolution effect>CA enzymatic effect. The results of the second experiment demonstrated further that the limestone dissolution effect of the acidic materials excreted by fungi was stronger than that of CA excreted by fungi. Nevertheless, CA still played an important role in promoting the dissolution of limestone.

  4. Oxalic acid degradation by a novel fungal oxalate oxidase from Abortiporus biennis.

    PubMed

    Grąz, Marcin; Rachwał, Kamila; Zan, Radosław; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxalate oxidase was identified in mycelial extracts of a basidiomycete Abortiporus biennis strain. Intracellular enzyme activity was detected only after prior lowering of the pH value of the fungal cultures by using oxalic or hydrochloric acids. This enzyme was purified using size exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-25) and ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose). This enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 2 when incubated at 40°C, and the optimum temperature was established at 60°C. Among the tested organic acids, this enzyme exhibited specificity only towards oxalic acid. Molecular mass was calculated as 58 kDa. The values of Km for oxalate and Vmax for the enzyme reaction were 0.015 M and 30 mmol min(-1), respectively.

  5. Bioprocess development for docosahexaenoic acid from novel fungal isolate of Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Jini, Sugatha; Hridya, Azhikodan; Pandey, Ashok; Binod, Parameswaran

    2015-06-01

    Fungal cultures were isolated from soil samples collected from the Western Ghats regions of Kerala. Primary screening of isolated strains were done by Sudan black staining method and 15 lipid producing cultures were isolated. The fatty acid profiling of the positive strains were analyzed for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production. Selected oleaginous cultures were grown in submerged culture condition to study the biomass yield and poly unsaturated fatty acid, DHA production. The optimization of production process under submerged conditions was carried out using statistical experimental design and confirmation of DHA was done by GC analysis. Maximum DHA production of 150 mg/l was achieved on 4 days of incubation at submerged condition in the presence of glucose as carbon source.

  6. Phosphonoacetic acid utilization by fungal isolates: occurrence and properties of a phosphonoacetate hydrolase in some penicillia.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Jaworski, Jakub; Lejczak, Barbara; Picco, Anna M

    2006-12-01

    Among a collection of 18 fungal strains representing eight genera, only two strains (Penicillium oxalicum and P. minioluteum) were capable of growth on phosphonoacetic acid as sole phosphorous source. Enrichment liquid cultures in minimal medium with the compound as the only P-source selected four isolates, that were also identified as Penicillium spp. Phosphonoacetate metabolism did not lead to extracellular release of inorganic phosphate. In all cases phosphonoacetate hydrolase activity was detected in partially purified extracts, and a protein of the expected molecular mass reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against the enzyme from P. oxalicum. There was no relation between phosphonoacetate hydrolase specific activity and growth rate or yield. Phosphonoacetic acid was the inducer of the hydrolase, independently of the concurrent availability of inorganic phosphate. Notwithstanding this, the utilization of the phosphonate was significantly inhibited in the presence of phosphate, suggesting an interference of the latter with phosphonoacetic acid uptake.

  7. A green ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on deep eutectic solvent for the HPLC-UV determination of ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic acid from olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali; Sahraei, Reza

    2016-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive and sensitive ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method based on deep eutectic solvent (UALLME-DES) was used for the extraction of three phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic) from vegetable oils. In a typical experiment, deep eutectic solvent as green extraction solvent was added to n-hexane (as a typical oil medium) containing target analytes. Subsequently, the extraction was accelerated by sonication. After the extraction, phase separation (DES rich phase/n-hexane phase) was performed by centrifugation. DES rich phase (lower phase) was withdrawn by a micro-syringe and submitted to isocratic reverse-phase HPLC with UV detection. Under optimum conditions obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF), the method has good linear calibration ranges (between 1.30 and 1000 µg L(-1)), coefficients of determination (r(2)>0.9949) and low limits of detection (between 0.39 and 0.63 µg L(-1)). This procedure was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil samples. The relative mean recoveries ranged from 94.7% to 104.6%.

  8. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, Nancy B. ); Wahl, Jon H. ); Kingsley, Mark T. ); Wahl, Karen L. )

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  9. Impact of an acid fungal protease in high gravity fermentation for ethanol production using Indian sorghum as a feedstock.

    PubMed

    Gohel, V; Duan, G; Maisuria, V B

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the conventional jet cooking liquefaction process followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 30% and 35% dry solids (DS) concentration of Indian sorghum feedstock for ethanol production, with addition of acid fungal protease or urea. To evaluate the efficacy of thermostable α-amylase in liquefaction at 30% and 35% DS concentration of Indian sorghum, liquefact solubility, higher dextrins, and fermentable sugars were analyzed at the end of the process. The liquefact was further subjected to SSF using yeast. In comparison with urea, addition of an acid fungal protease during SSF process was observed to accelerate yeast growth (μ), substrate consumption (Q(s)), ultimately ethanol yield based on substrate (Y(p/s)) and ethanol productivity based on fermentation time (Q(p)). The fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery were determined for both concentrations of Indian sorghum and found to be increased with use of acid fungal protease in SSF process.

  10. IDENTIFYING GENES CONTROLLING FERULATE CROSS-LINKING FORMATION IN GRASS CELL WALLS

    SciTech Connect

    de O Buanafina, Marcia Maria

    2013-10-16

    improve their degradability as it might be more effective than the fungal enzymes at degrading maize lignocellulose if overexpressed in the cell wall. Publications supported by this grant: Buanafina, M.M. de O. (2009). Feruloylation in Grasses: Current and Future Perspectives. Molecular Plant, 2:861-872. Buanafina, M. M. de O., Langdon, T., Hauck, B., Dalton, S., Timms-Taravella, E. and Morris, P. (2010). Targeting expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase to the apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum or golgi can disrupt feruloylation of the growing cell wall and increase the biodegradability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea): Plant Biot. J. 8:316-33. Michael L. Robbins, Ansuman Roy, Po-Hao Wang, Iffa Gaffoor, Rajandeep S. Sekhon, Marcia M. de O. Buanafina, Jai S. Rohila, Surinder Chopra (2013). Comparative Proteomics Analysis by DIGE and iTRAQ Provides Insight into the Regulation of Phenylpropanoids in Maize. Journal of Proteomics (In Press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2013.06.018)) Publications in Preparation Marcia M. de O. Buanafina, Sue Dalton, Tim Langdon, Emma-Timms-Tavarella, Erica A. Shearer, and Phillip Morris. Improved post harvest cell wall deconstruction of tall fescue by co-expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase with a 1-4-endoxylanase. Marcia M. de O. Buanafina, Mandeep Sharma, Howard W. Fescemyer and Erica A. Shearer. Functional testing of two PF02458 homologues of putative rice arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes in Brachypodium distachyon. Marcia M. de O. Buanafina and Erica A. Shearer. Novel protein identified in maize and other grasses. Presentations/ Posters presented at major scientific meetings: Identifying genes controlling feruloylation in grass cell walls. Genomics: GTL Annual Contractor-Grantee Workshop held jointly with the USDA-DOE Plant Feedstock Genomics for Bioenergy awardees meeting. February 8-11/2009, Bethesda, Maryland. Identifying genes controlling feruloylation in grass cell walls. The American Society of Plant

  11. Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB).

    PubMed

    Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Isroi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), a lignocellulosic residue of palm oil industries was examined for ethanol production. Milled OPEFB exposed to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted just in 14.5% ethanol yield compared to the theoretical yield. Therefore, chemical pretreatment with phosphoric acid, a biological pretreatment with white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, and their combination were carried out on OPEFB prior to the SSF. Pretreatment with phosphoric acid, combination of both methods and just fungal pretreatment improved the digestibility of OPEFB by 24.0, 16.5 and 4.5 times, respectively. During the SSF, phosphoric acid pretreatment, combination of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment and just fungal pretreatment resulted in the highest 89.4%, 62.8% and 27.9% of the theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. However, the recovery of the OPEFB after the fungal pretreatment was 98.7%, which was higher than after phosphoric acid pretreatment (36.5%) and combined pretreatment (45.2%).

  12. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, T.S.; Lima, P.R.; Carvalho, K.M.M.B.; Fontenele, T.M.; Solon, F.R.N.; Tomé, A.R.; de Lemos, T.L.G.; da Cruz Fonseca, S.G.; Santos, F.A.; Rao, V.S.; de Queiroz, M.G.R.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA) but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg) or sibutramine (10 mg/kg) for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1) were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05) decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses. PMID:28076453

  13. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    de Melo, T S; Lima, P R; Carvalho, K M M B; Fontenele, T M; Solon, F R N; Tomé, A R; de Lemos, T L G; da Cruz Fonseca, S G; Santos, F A; Rao, V S; de Queiroz, M G R

    2017-01-05

    Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA) but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20-25 g (n=6-8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg) or sibutramine (10 mg/kg) for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1) were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05) decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.

  14. Pinus pinaster seedlings and their fungal symbionts show high plasticity in phosphorus acquisition in acidic soils.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; Louche, J; Legname, E; Duchemin, M; Plassard, C

    2009-12-01

    Young seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Soland in Aït.) were grown in rhizoboxes using intact spodosol soil samples from the southwest of France, in Landes of Gascogne, presenting a large variation of phosphorus (P) availability. Soils were collected from a 93-year-old unfertilized stand and a 13-year-old P. pinaster stand with regular annual fertilization of either only P or P and nitrogen (N). After 6 months of culture in controlled conditions, different morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) were used for the measurements of acid phosphatase activity and molecular identification of fungal species using amplification of the ITS region. Total biomass, N and P contents were measured in roots and shoots of plants. Bicarbonate- and NaOH-available inorganic P (Pi), organic P (Po) and ergosterol concentrations were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The results showed that bulk soil from the 93-year-old forest stand presented the highest Po levels, but relatively higher bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels compared to 13-year-old unfertilized stand. Fertilizers significantly increased the concentrations of inorganic P fractions in bulk soil. Ergosterol contents in rhizosphere soil were increased by fertilizer application. The dominant fungal species was Rhizopogon luteolus forming 66.6% of analysed ECM tips. Acid phosphatase activity was highly variable and varied inversely with bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels in the rhizosphere soil. Total P or total N in plants was linearly correlated with total plant biomass, but the slope was steep only between total P and biomass in fertilized soil samples. In spite of high phosphatase activity in ECM tips, P availability remained a limiting nutrient in soil samples from unfertilized stands. Nevertheless young P. pinaster seedlings showed a high plasticity for biomass production at low P availability in soils.

  15. Fungal production of citric and oxalic acid: importance in metal speciation, physiology and biogeochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Gadd, G M

    1999-01-01

    alteration of terrestrial subsurface limestones. Oxalate also plays an important role in lignocellulose degradation and plant pathogenesis, affecting activities of key enzymes and metal oxido-reduction reactions, therefore underpinning one of the most fundamental roles of fungi in carbon cycling in the natural environment. This review discusses the physiology and chemistry of citric and oxalic acid production in fungi, the intimate association of these acids and processes with metal speciation, physiology and mobility, and their importance and involvement in key fungal-mediated processes, including lignocellulose degradation, plant pathogenesis and metal biogeochemistry.

  16. Cytotoxic hydroxylated triterpene alcohol ferulates from rice bran.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Feng; Li, Qinglin; Yu, Shanggong; Badger, Thomas M; Fang, Nianbai

    2005-01-01

    Three hydroxylated triterpene alcohol ferulates, (24S)-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (1), (24R)-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (2), and cycloart-23Z-ene-3 beta,25-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (3), along with known compounds cycloartenol trans-ferulate (4) and 24-methylenecycloartanol trans-ferulate (5) were isolated from rice bran. Their structures were elucidated by means of chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 2-5 showed moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells.

  17. Engineering fungal de novo fatty acid synthesis for short chain fatty acid production

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Jan; Pavlovic, Renata; Fischer, Manuel; Boles, Eckhard; Grininger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are considered strategically important platform compounds that can be accessed by sustainable microbial approaches. Here we report the reprogramming of chain-length control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase (FAS). Aiming for short-chain FAs (SCFAs) producing baker's yeast, we perform a highly rational and minimally invasive protein engineering approach that leaves the molecular mechanisms of FASs unchanged. Finally, we identify five mutations that can turn baker's yeast into a SCFA producing system. Without any further pathway engineering, we achieve yields in extracellular concentrations of SCFAs, mainly hexanoic acid (C6-FA) and octanoic acid (C8-FA), of 464 mg l−1 in total. Furthermore, we succeed in the specific production of C6- or C8-FA in extracellular concentrations of 72 and 245 mg l−1, respectively. The presented technology is applicable far beyond baker's yeast, and can be plugged into essentially all currently available FA overproducing microorganisms. PMID:28281527

  18. Ferulic Acid Administered at Various Time Points Protects against Cerebral Infarction by Activating p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 Anti-Apoptotic Signaling in the Subacute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Kao, Shung-Te; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ferulic acid (FA) administered at various time points before or after 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 7 d of reperfusion and to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the cortical penumbra. Methods FA was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg 24 h before ischemia (B-FA), 2 h before ischemia (P-FA), immediately after ischemic insult (I-FA), 2 h after reperfusion (R-FA), or 24 h after reperfusion (D-FA). Results Our study results indicated that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively reduced cerebral infarct areas and neurological deficits. P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA significantly downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), mitochondrial Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and effectively restored the phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK)/p38 MAPK ratio, phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p-p90RSK) expression, phospho-Bad (p-Bad) expression, the phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB)/CREB ratio, the cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and the cytosolic Bcl-xL/Bax ratio in the cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, administered 30 min prior to ischemia abrogated the downregulating effects of I-FA on cerebral infarction, and mitochondrial Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and the upregulating effects of I-FA on the p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio, p-p90RSK expression, p-Bad expression, and the p-CREB/CREB, and cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios. Conclusions Our study results thus indicate that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively suppress reactive astrocytosis and exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral infarction by activating p38 MAPK signaling. The regulating effects of P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA on Bax-induced apoptosis result from activation of the p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway, and eventually contribute to

  19. Oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation on combined acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate for advanced biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhenhua; Zanotti, Michael; Archer, Steven; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    A combined hydrolysis process, which first mixed dilute acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover at a 1:1 (w/w) ratio, directly followed by enzymatic saccharification without pH adjustment, has been developed in this study in order to minimize the need of neutralization, detoxification, and washing during the process of lignocellulosic biofuel production. The oleaginous fungus Mortierella isabellina was selected and applied to the combined hydrolysate as well as a synthetic medium to compare fungal lipid accumulation and biodiesel production in both shake flask and 7.5L fermentor. Fungal cultivation on combined hydrolysate exhibited comparable cell mass and lipid yield with those from synthetic medium, indicating that the integration of combined hydrolysis with oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation has great potential to improve performance of advanced lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  20. Effect of Asafoetida Extract on Growth and Quality of Pleurotus ferulic

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zuoshan; Bai, Yujia; Lu, Fanglin; Huang, Wenshu; Li, Xinmin; Hu, Xiaosong

    2009-01-01

    Different concentrations of asafoetida extract were added to the medium of Pleurotus ferulic and the effects of the extract on growth of P. ferulic mycelium and fruiting bodies was observed. As the amount of asafoetida extract additive was increased, the growth of Pleurotus mycelium was faster, the time formation of buds was shorter and that yield of fruiting bodies was stimulated. However, overdosing of asafoetida extract hampered the growth of Pleurotus ferulic. The amino acid composition and volatile components in three kinds of pleurotus’ were contrasted, including wild pleurotus (WP), cultivated pleurotus with asafoetida extract (CPAE) and cultivated pleurotus without asafoetida extract (CP). CPAE with 2.3 g/100 g asafoetida extract addition had the highest content of total amino acids, as well as essential amino acids. WP had a higher content of total amino acids and essential amino acids than CP. In addition, CPAE with 2.3 g/100 g had the highest score of protein content of pleurotus fruiting bodies, while WP had a higher score than CP. In the score of essential amino acid components of pleurotus fruiting bodies, CP had the highest score, while CPAE was higher than WP. Asafoetida extract influenced the volatile components of Pleurotus ferulic greatly, making the volatile components of cultivated pleurotus more similar to those of wild pleurotus (WP). PMID:20162000

  1. An additional Meyerozyma guilliermondii IMH3 gene confers mycophenolic acid resistance in fungal CTG clade species.

    PubMed

    Defosse, Tatiana A; Mélin, Céline; Clastre, Marc; Besseau, Sébastien; Lanoue, Arnaud; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Oudin, Audrey; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Vandeputte, Patrick; Linder, Tomas; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Courdavault, Vincent; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Papon, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    The fungal CTG clade comprises a number of well-known yeasts that impact human health or with high biotechnological potential. To further extend the set of molecular tools dedicated to these microorganisms, the initial focus of this study was to develop a mycophenolic acid (MPA) resistance cassette. Surprisingly, while we were carrying out preliminary susceptibility testing experiments in a set of yeast species, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, although not being a MPA producer, was found to be primarily resistant toward this drug, whereas a series of nine related species were susceptible to MPA. Using comparative and functional genomic approaches, we demonstrated that all MPA-susceptible CTG clade species display a single gene, referred to as IMH3.1, encoding the MPA target inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and that MPA resistance relies on the presence in the M. guilliermondii genome of an additional IMPDH-encoding gene (IMH3.2). The M. guilliermondii IMH3.2 gene displays marked differences compared to IMH3.1 including the lack of intron, a roughly 160-fold higher transcription level and a serine residue at position 251. Placed under the control of the M. guilliermondii actin 1 gene promoter, IMH3.2 was successfully used to transform Lodderomyces elongisporus, Clavispora lusitaniae, Scheffersomyces stipitis and Candida parapsilosis.

  2. Valorisation of food waste via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Hu, Yunzi; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-10-01

    Food waste recycling via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid (LA) fermentation has been investigated. Hydrolysates derived from mixed food waste and bakery waste were rich in glucose (80.0-100.2gL(-1)), fructose (7.6gL(-1)) and free amino nitrogen (947-1081mgL(-1)). In the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota, 94.0gL(-1) and 82.6gL(-1) of LA were produced with productivity of 2.61gL(-1)h(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1) for mixed food waste and bakery waste hydrolysate, respectively. The yield was 0.94gg(-1) for both hydrolysates. Similar results were obtained using food waste powder hydrolysate, in which 90.1gL(-1) of LA was produced with a yield and productivity of 0.92gg(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1). The results demonstrate the feasibility of an efficient bioconversion of food waste to LA and a decentralized approach of food waste recycling in urban area.

  3. Generation of the volatile spiroketals conophthorin and chalcogran by fungal spores on polyunsaturated fatty acids common to almonds and pistachios.

    PubMed

    Beck, John J; Mahoney, Noreen E; Cook, Daniel; Gee, Wai S

    2012-12-05

    The spiroketal (E)-conophthorin has recently been reported as a semiochemical of the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest of California pistachios and almonds. Conophthorin and the isomeric spiroketal chalcogran are most commonly known as semiochemicals of several scolytid beetles. Conophthorin is both an insect- and plant-produced semiochemical widely recognized as a nonhost plant volatile from the bark of several angiosperm species. Chalcogran is the principal aggregation pheromone component of the six-spined spruce bark beetle. Recent research has shown conophthorin is produced by almonds undergoing hull-split, and both spiroketals are produced by mechanically damaged almonds. To better understand the origin of these spiroketals, the volatile emissions of orchard fungal spores on fatty acids common to both pistachios and almonds were evaluated. The volatile emission for the first 13 days of spores placed on a fatty acid was monitored. The spores investigated were Aspergillus flavus (atoxigenic), A. flavus (toxigenic), Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium glabrum, and Rhizopus stolonifer. The fatty acids used as growth media were palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic. Spores on linoleic acid produced both spiroketals, those on linolenic acid produced only chalcogran, and those on palmitic and oleic acid did not produce either spiroketal. This is the first report of the spiroketals conophthorin and chalcogran from a fungal source.

  4. Firing range soils yield a diverse array of fungal isolates capable of organic acid production and Pb mineral solubilization.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Tarah S; Gottel, Neil R; Basta, Nicholas; Jardine, Philip M; Schadt, Christopher W

    2012-09-01

    Anthropogenic sources of lead contamination in soils include mining and smelting activities, effluents and wastes, agricultural pesticides, domestic garbage dumps, and shooting ranges. While Pb is typically considered relatively insoluble in the soil environment, some fungi may potentially contribute to mobilization of heavy metal cations by means of secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs). We sought to better understand the potential for metal mobilization within an indigenous fungal community at an abandoned shooting range in Oak Ridge, TN, where soil Pb contamination levels ranged from 24 to >2,700 mg Pb kg dry soil(-1). We utilized culture-based assays to determine organic acid secretion and Pb-carbonate dissolution of a diverse collection of soil fungal isolates derived from the site and verified isolate distribution patterns within the community by 28S rRNA gene analysis of whole soils. The fungal isolates examined included both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that excreted high levels (up to 27 mM) of a mixture of LMWOAs, including oxalic and citric acids, and several isolates demonstrated a marked ability to dissolve Pb-carbonate at high concentrations up to 10.5 g liter(-1) (18.5 mM) in laboratory assays. Fungi within the indigenous community of these highly Pb-contaminated soils are capable of LMWOA secretion at levels greater than those of well-studied model organisms, such as Aspergillus niger. Additionally, these organisms were found in high relative abundance (>1%) in some of the most heavily contaminated soils. Our data highlight the need to understand more about autochthonous fungal communities at Pb-contaminated sites and how they may impact Pb biogeochemistry, solubility, and bioavailability, thus consequently potentially impacting human and ecosystem health.

  5. Firing Range Soils Yield a Diverse Array of Fungal Isolates Capable of Organic Acid Production and Pb Mineral Solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tarah S.; Gottel, Neil R.; Basta, Nicholas; Jardine, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic sources of lead contamination in soils include mining and smelting activities, effluents and wastes, agricultural pesticides, domestic garbage dumps, and shooting ranges. While Pb is typically considered relatively insoluble in the soil environment, some fungi may potentially contribute to mobilization of heavy metal cations by means of secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs). We sought to better understand the potential for metal mobilization within an indigenous fungal community at an abandoned shooting range in Oak Ridge, TN, where soil Pb contamination levels ranged from 24 to >2,700 mg Pb kg dry soil−1. We utilized culture-based assays to determine organic acid secretion and Pb-carbonate dissolution of a diverse collection of soil fungal isolates derived from the site and verified isolate distribution patterns within the community by 28S rRNA gene analysis of whole soils. The fungal isolates examined included both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that excreted high levels (up to 27 mM) of a mixture of LMWOAs, including oxalic and citric acids, and several isolates demonstrated a marked ability to dissolve Pb-carbonate at high concentrations up to 10.5 g liter−1 (18.5 mM) in laboratory assays. Fungi within the indigenous community of these highly Pb-contaminated soils are capable of LMWOA secretion at levels greater than those of well-studied model organisms, such as Aspergillus niger. Additionally, these organisms were found in high relative abundance (>1%) in some of the most heavily contaminated soils. Our data highlight the need to understand more about autochthonous fungal communities at Pb-contaminated sites and how they may impact Pb biogeochemistry, solubility, and bioavailability, thus consequently potentially impacting human and ecosystem health. PMID:22729539

  6. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, an d analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: (1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, (2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and (3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  7. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T.

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  8. Fungal biotransformation of chlorogenic and caffeic acids by Fusarium graminearum: New insights in the contribution of phenolic acids to resistance to deoxynivalenol accumulation in cereals.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Léa; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noelle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Ducos, Christine; Richard-Forget, Florence; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela

    2016-03-16

    Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot, mainly caused by the fungi Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, are two of the most devastating diseases of small-grain cereals and maize. In addition to yield loss, these diseases frequently result in contamination of kernels with toxic type B trichothecenes. The potential involvement of chlorogenic acid in cereal resistance to Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot and to trichothecene accumulation was the focus of this study. The effects of chlorogenic acid and one of its hydrolyzed products, caffeic acid, on fungal growth and type B trichothecenes biosynthesis were studied using concentrations close to physiological amounts quantified in kernels and a set of F. graminearum and F. culmorum strains. Both chlorogenic and caffeic acids negatively impact fungal growth and mycotoxin production, with caffeic acid being significantly more toxic. Inhibitory efficiencies of both phenolic acids were strain-dependent. To further investigate the antifungal and anti "mycotoxin" effect of chlorogenic and caffeic acids, the metabolic fate of these two phenolic acids was characterized in supplemented F. graminearum broths. For the first time, our results demonstrated the ability of F. graminearum to degrade chlorogenic acid into caffeic, hydroxychlorogenic and protocatechuic acids and caffeic acid into protocatechuic and hydroxycaffeic acids. Some of these metabolic products can contribute to the inhibitory efficiency of chlorogenic acid that, therefore, can be compared as a "pro-drug". As a whole, our data corroborate the contribution of chlorogenic acid to the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum and its production of mycotoxins.

  9. Cardioprotective Effect of Sodium Ferulate in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Haijuan; Zhao, Jiangpei; Zhao, Tongfeng

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the occurrence and development in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Ferulic acid is one of the ubiquitous compounds in diet. Sodium ferulate (SF) is its sodium salt. SF has potent free radical scavenging activity and can effectively scavenge ROS. The study investigated the effect of SF on cardioprotection in diabetic rats. The diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with SF (110mg/kg) by gavage per day for 12 weeks. Results showed that the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly higher than those in diabetic control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group. Expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in myocardium in SF-treated group was apparently lower than that in diabetic control group. Compared with normal control group, electron micrographs of myocardium in diabetic control group showed apparently abnormality, while that was significantly ameliorated in SF-treated group. The study demonstrated that SF has a cardioprotective effect via increasing SOD activity and NO levels in plasma and myocardium, inhibiting oxidative stress in plasma and myocardium, and inhibiting the expression of CTGF in myocardium in diabetes rats. PMID:22701336

  10. Evidence that the multifunctional polypeptides of vertebrate and fungal fatty acid synthases have arisen by independent gene fusion events.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, A D; Goldring, J P; Hardie, D G

    1983-10-17

    The enoyl reductase (NADPH binding site) of rabbit mammary fatty acid synthase has been radioactively labelled using pyridoxal phosphate and sodium [3H]borohydride. Using this method we have been able to add this site to the four sites whose location has already been mapped within the multifunctional polypeptide chain of the protein. The results show that the enoyl reductase lies between the 3-oxoacylsynthase and the acyl carrier. This confirms that the active sites occur in a different order on the single multifunctional polypeptide of vertebrate fatty acid synthase and the two multifunctional polypeptides of fungal fatty acid synthase, and suggests that these two systems have arisen by independent gene fusion events.

  11. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  12. Decreased Polysaccharide Feruloylation Compromises Plant Cell Wall Integrity and Increases Susceptibility to Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Reem, Nathan T.; Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Chambers, Lauran; Held, Michael A.; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of cell wall composition and structure determines the strength, flexibility, and function of the primary cell wall in plants. However, the contribution of the various components to cell wall integrity (CWI) and function remains unclear. Modifications of cell wall composition can induce plant responses known as CWI control. In this study, we used transgenic expression of the fungal feruloyl esterase AnFAE to examine the effect of post-synthetic modification of Arabidopsis and Brachypodium cell walls. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AnFAE showed a significant reduction of monomeric ferulic acid, decreased amounts of wall-associated extensins, and increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type. Transgenic Brachypodium showed reductions in monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids and increased susceptibility to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Upon infection, transgenic Arabidopsis and Brachypodium plants also showed increased expression of several defense-related genes compared with wild type. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of polysaccharide feruloylation in plant CWI, which contributes to plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27242834

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides are phytosterol conjugates found characteristically in cereals. Their properties in enzymatic hydrolysis are, however, not yet well known. Steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides were extracted and purified from rye and wheat bran. Their rates of hydrolysis with...

  14. Acyl-carrier protein - Phosphopantetheinyltransferase partnerships in fungal fatty acid synthases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of fatty acids is an essential primary metabolic process for energy storage and cellular structural integrity. Assembly of saturated fatty acids is achieved by fatty acid synthases (FASs) that combine acetyl- and malonyl-CoAs by repetitive decarboxylative Claisen condensations with su...

  15. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Klepzig, Kier D; Kopper, Brian J; Kersten, Philip J; Illman, Barbara L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-06-01

    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle - fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)-associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red pine showed lower diversity and fewer compositional changes during induction than white spruce. In red pine,fungal inoculation accompanying wounding elicited greater increases than wounding alone, but in white spruce total concentrations were higher following wounding alone. Spruce beetle fungal symbiont growth varied among species and compounds. Some diterpenes elicited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on fungi, depending on concentration. All four fungi exhibited higher tolerances compared to those associated with pine bark beetles in previous studies. Variation in tolerances to, and potentially metabolism of, diterpene acids by symbionts may reflect differences in constitutive levels between spruce and pine, and partially explain differences in concentrations achieved during induction.

  16. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  17. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  18. Gallic acid and tannase accumulation during fungal solid state culture of a tannin-rich desert plant (Larrea tridentata Cov.).

    PubMed

    Treviño-Cueto, B; Luis, M; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Rodríguez, R; Aguilera, A; Aguilar, C N

    2007-02-01

    Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Mocino ex DC.) Coville, also known as Larrea, gobernadora, chaparral, or creosote bush, is a shrubby plant which dominates some areas of the desert southwest in the United States and Northern Mexico and its use has not been exploited and standardized. In this study, gobernadora was studied to evaluate its potential use for support of solid state culture. Influence of two minimal media added with gobernadora powder as the sole carbon source and inducer of tannin-degrading enzymes was evaluated. Cultures were initially 70% moisture, had a pH of 5.5 and were inoculated with Aspergillus niger Aa-20 at 2 x 10(7) spores per gram of media. Analysis of pH, moisture, tannin uptake, gallic acid accumulation and tannase production were evaluated. Results indicated a high content of condensed (39.4%dm) and hydrolysable (22.8%dm) tannins. Invasion capacity of fungal growth was of 0.15 mmh(-1). Tannase production reached values of 1040 Ul(-1) at 43 h of culture. During the first 48 h of culture, the concentration of gallic acid accumulation was 0.33 gl(-1). Gobernadora is a potential source of gallic acid and tannase production by solid state culture; however, further optimization of the process is needed.

  19. Photoisomerization of ethyl ferulate: A solution phase transient absorption study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbury, Michael D.; Baker, Lewis A.; Rodrigues, Natércia D. N.; Quan, Wen-Dong; Stavros, Vasilios G.

    2017-04-01

    Ethyl ferulate (ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate) is currently used as a sunscreening agent in commercial sunscreen blends. Recent time-resolved gas-phase measurements have demonstrated that it possesses long-lived (>ns) electronic excited states, counterintuitive to what one might anticipate for an effective sunscreening agent. In the present work, the photodynamics of ethyl ferulate in cyclohexane, are explored using time-resolved transient electronic absorption spectroscopy, upon photoexcitation to the 11ππ∗ and 21ππ∗ states. We demonstrate that ethyl ferulate undergoes efficient non-radiative decay to repopulate the electronic ground state, mediated by trans-cis isomerization. These results strongly suggest that even mild perturbations induced by a non-polar solvent, as may be found in a closer-to-market sunscreen blend, may contribute to our understanding of ethyl ferulate's role as a sunscreening agent.

  20. Development of an efficient fungal DNA extraction method to be used in random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid mold producers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Mar; Casado, Eva M; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2008-12-01

    A variety of previously established mechanical and chemical treatments to achieve fungal cell lysis combined with a semiautomatic system operated by a vacuum pump were tested to obtain DNA extract to be directly used in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid-producing and -nonproducing mold strains. A DNA extraction method that includes digestion with proteinase K and lyticase prior to using a mortar and pestle grinding and a semiautomatic vacuum system yielded DNA of high quality in all the fungal strains and species tested, at concentrations ranging from 17 to 89 ng/microl in 150 microl of the final DNA extract. Two microliters of DNA extracted with this method was directly used for RAPD-PCR using primer (GACA)4. Reproducible RAPD fingerprints showing high differences between producer and nonproducer strains were observed. These differences in the RAPD patterns did not differentiate all the strains tested in clusters by cyclopiazonic acid production but may be very useful to distinguish cyclopiazonic acid producer strains from nonproducer strains by a simple RAPD analysis. Thus, the DNA extracts obtained could be used directly without previous purification and quantification for RAPD analysis to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid producer from nonproducer mold strains. This combined analysis could be adaptable to other toxigenic fungal species to enable differentiation of toxigenic and non-toxigenic molds, a procedure of great interest in food safety.

  1. Nestedness in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Soil pH Gradients in Early Primary Succession: Acid-Tolerant Fungi Are pH Generalists.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ai; An, Gi-Hong; Miyakawa, Sachie; Sonoda, Jun; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Soil acidity is a major constraint on plant productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi support plant colonization in acidic soil, but soil acidity also constrains fungal growth and diversity. Fungi in extreme environments generally evolve towards specialists, suggesting that AM fungi in acidic soil are acidic-soil specialists. In our previous surveys, however, some AM fungi detected in strongly acidic soils could also be detected in a soil with moderate pH, which raised a hypothesis that the fungi in acidic soils are pH generalists. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a pH-manipulation experiment and also analyzed AM fungal distribution along a pH gradient in the field using a synthesized dataset of the previous and recent surveys. Rhizosphere soils of the generalist plant Miscanthus sinensis were collected both from a neutral soil and an acidic soil, and M. sinensis seedlings were grown at three different pH. For the analysis of field communities, rhizosphere soils of M. sinensis were collected from six field sites across Japan, which covered a soil pH range of 3.0-7.4, and subjected to soil trap culture. AM fungal community compositions were determined based on LSU rDNA sequences. In the pH-manipulation experiment the acidification of medium had a significant impact on the compositions of the community from the neutral soil, but the neutralization of the medium had no effect on those of the community from the acidic soil. Furthermore, the communities in lower -pH soils were subsets of (nested in) those in higher-pH soils. In the field communities a significant nestedness pattern was observed along the pH gradient. These observations suggest that the fungi in strongly acidic soils are pH generalists that occur not only in acidic soil but also in wide ranges of soil pH. Nestedness in AM fungal community along pH gradients may have important implications for plant community resilience and early primary succession after disturbance in acidic soils.

  2. Nestedness in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Soil pH Gradients in Early Primary Succession: Acid-Tolerant Fungi Are pH Generalists

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Ai; An, Gi-Hong; Miyakawa, Sachie; Sonoda, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soil acidity is a major constraint on plant productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi support plant colonization in acidic soil, but soil acidity also constrains fungal growth and diversity. Fungi in extreme environments generally evolve towards specialists, suggesting that AM fungi in acidic soil are acidic-soil specialists. In our previous surveys, however, some AM fungi detected in strongly acidic soils could also be detected in a soil with moderate pH, which raised a hypothesis that the fungi in acidic soils are pH generalists. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a pH-manipulation experiment and also analyzed AM fungal distribution along a pH gradient in the field using a synthesized dataset of the previous and recent surveys. Rhizosphere soils of the generalist plant Miscanthus sinensis were collected both from a neutral soil and an acidic soil, and M. sinensis seedlings were grown at three different pH. For the analysis of field communities, rhizosphere soils of M. sinensis were collected from six field sites across Japan, which covered a soil pH range of 3.0–7.4, and subjected to soil trap culture. AM fungal community compositions were determined based on LSU rDNA sequences. In the pH-manipulation experiment the acidification of medium had a significant impact on the compositions of the community from the neutral soil, but the neutralization of the medium had no effect on those of the community from the acidic soil. Furthermore, the communities in lower -pH soils were subsets of (nested in) those in higher-pH soils. In the field communities a significant nestedness pattern was observed along the pH gradient. These observations suggest that the fungi in strongly acidic soils are pH generalists that occur not only in acidic soil but also in wide ranges of soil pH. Nestedness in AM fungal community along pH gradients may have important implications for plant community resilience and early primary succession after disturbance in acidic soils. PMID

  3. Acid phosphatase positional correlations in solid surface fungal cultivation: a fractal interpretation of biochemical differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jones, C L; Lonergan, G T; Mainwaring, D E

    1995-03-28

    Colour image analysis was used to measure the positional correlation between acid phosphatase intracellular concentration and hyphal cellular differentiation which leads to concentric circular zonal activity patterns. Acid phosphatase is strongly implicated in the biochemical control of hyphal branching, and exo-enzyme secretion, such as laccase in fungi, occurs predominately via the hyphal tips. Different concentrations of an organic dye were used to effect substrate induction of the enzyme response, which was shown to be statistically correlated according to a fractal power law (H approximately 0.39). A self-organized critical state for the molecular responsivity of dissipative enzyme expression is hypothesized as an efficient mechanism for hyphal adaptation, also accounting for the underlying biophysics of the observed pattern formations.

  4. From Alkanes to Carboxylic Acids: Terminal Oxygenation by a Fungal Peroxygenase.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Andrés; Aranda, Carmen; Del Río, José C; Kiebist, Jan; Scheibner, Katrin; Martínez, Angel T; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2016-09-26

    A new heme-thiolate peroxidase catalyzes the hydroxylation of n-alkanes at the terminal position-a challenging reaction in organic chemistry-with H2 O2 as the only cosubstrate. Besides the primary product, 1-dodecanol, the conversion of dodecane yielded dodecanoic, 12-hydroxydodecanoic, and 1,12-dodecanedioic acids, as identified by GC-MS. Dodecanal could be detected only in trace amounts, and 1,12-dodecanediol was not observed, thus suggesting that dodecanoic acid is the branch point between mono- and diterminal hydroxylation. Simultaneously, oxygenation was observed at other hydrocarbon chain positions (preferentially C2 and C11). Similar results were observed in reactions of tetradecane. The pattern of products formed, together with data on the incorporation of (18) O from the cosubstrate H2 (18) O2 , demonstrate that the enzyme acts as a peroxygenase that is able to catalyze a cascade of mono- and diterminal oxidation reactions of long-chain n-alkanes to give carboxylic acids.

  5. Salicylic acid stimulates secretion of the normally symplastic enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase: a possible defense against mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang-yi; Zamski, Eli; Guo, Wei-wen; Pharr, D Mason; Williamson, John D

    2009-11-01

    The sugar alcohol mannitol is an important carbohydrate with well-documented roles in both metabolism and osmoprotection in many plants and fungi. In addition to these traditionally recognized roles, mannitol is reported to be an antioxidant and as such may play a role in host-pathogen interactions. Current research suggests that pathogenic fungi can secrete mannitol into the apoplast to suppress reactive oxygen-mediated host defenses. Immunoelectron microscopy, immunoblot, and biochemical data reported here show that the normally symplastic plant enzyme, mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD), is secreted into the apoplast after treatment with the endogenous inducer of plant defense responses salicylic acid (SA). In contrast, a cytoplasmic marker protein, hexokinase, remained cytoplasmic after SA-treatment. Secreted MTD retained activity after export to the apoplast. Given that MTD converts mannitol to the sugar mannose, MTD secretion may be an important component of plant defense against mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens such as Alternaria. After SA treatment, MTD was not detected in the Golgi apparatus, and its SA-induced secretion was resistant to brefeldin A, an inhibitor of Golgi-mediated protein transport. Together with the absence of a known extracellular targeting sequence on the MTD protein, these data suggest that a plant's response to pathogen challenge may include secretion of selected defensive proteins by as yet uncharacterized, non-Golgi mechanisms.

  6. Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.

    PubMed

    Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2010-03-01

    A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations.

  7. HPLC Quantification of Phenolic Acids from Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash and Its Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prajna, Jha; Richa, Jindal; Dipjyoti, Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Extraction procedure was standardized and for the soluble, glycoside, and wall-bound fractions of phenolic acids from Vetiveria zizanioides. The water soluble alkaline extract which represents the cell wall-bound fraction contained the highest amount of phenolic acids (2.62 ± 1.2 μM/g fwt GA equivalents). Increased phenolic content in the cell wall indicates more lignin deposition which has an important role in plant defense and stress mitigation. Antioxidant property expressed as percentage TEAC value obtained by ABTS assay was correlated with the amount of phenolic acids and showed a Pearson's coefficient 0.988 (significant at 0.01 level). The compounds p-coumaric acid, p-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and ferulic acid were detected in the acidic extracts by HPLC analysis. The plant extracts exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:26555971

  8. Fungal melanonychia.

    PubMed

    Finch, Justin; Arenas, Roberto; Baran, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Fungal melanonychia is a relatively rare nail disorder caused by nail infection that produces brown-to-black pigmentation of the nail unit. The number of organisms implicated as etiologic agents of fungal melanonychia is increasing, and the list currently tops 21 species of dematiaceous fungi and at least 8 species of nondematiaceous fungi. These superficial infections may clinically mimic subungual melanoma and are often not responsive to traditional antifungal therapy. This article reviews the literature on fungal melanonychia and the role of fungal melanin in infection.

  9. Metabolomics analysis of fungal biofilm development and of arachidonic acid-based quorum sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ząbek, Adam; Junka, Adam; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Wojtowicz, Wojciech; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Młynarz, Piotr

    2017-04-03

    The infections caused by filamentous fungi are becoming worldwide problem of healthcare systems due to increasing drug-resistance of this microorganism and increasing number of immunocompromised nosocomial patients. These infections are related with Aspergillus ability to form sessile communities referred to as the biofilms. The small compounds known as quorum sensing (QS) molecules allow this microorganism to coordinate all processes taking place during biofilm formation and maturation. In the study presented, the HRMAS (1) H NMR metabolomic approach was applied to define composition of extra and intracellular metabolites produced by biofilmic and planktonic (aka free-swimming) cultures of this microorganism and to evaluate impact of quorum sensing molecule, arachidonic acid (AA) on biofilm formation. The Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to confirm Aspergillus ability to form biofilm in vitro, while multivariate and univariate data analysis was applied to analyze data obtained. The Aspergillus strain was able to form strong biofilm structures in vitro. The statistical analysis revealed significant changes of metabolite production depending on Aspergillus culture type (biofilm vs. plankton), time and presence of QS molecules. The data obtained, if developed, might be used in future NMR diagnostics as markers of Aspergillus biofilm-related infections and lead to shorten time between pathogen identification and introduction of treatment.

  10. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  11. Enhanced Production of Itaconic Acid through Development of Transformed Fungal Strains of Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woo-Shik; Park, Boonyoung; Lee, Dohoon; Oh, Min-Kyu; Chun, Gie-Taek; Kim, Sangyong

    2017-02-28

    Metabolic engineering with a high-yielding mutant, A. terreus AN37, was performed to enhance the production of itaconic acid (IA). Reportedly, the gene cluster for IA biosynthesis is composed of four genes: reg (regulator), mtt (mitochondrial transporter), cad (cis-aconitate decarboxylase), and mfs (membrane transporter). By overexpressing each gene of the IA gene cluster in A. terreus AN37 transformed by the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method, several transformants showing high productivity of IA were successfully obtained. One of the AN37/cad transformants could produce a very high amount of IA (75 g/l) in shake-flask cultivations, showing an average of 5% higher IA titer compared with the high-yielding control strain. Notably, in the case of the mfs transformants, a maximal increase of 18.3% in IA production was observed relative to the control strain under the identical fermentation conditions. Meanwhile, the overexpression of reg and mtt genes showed no significant improvements in IA production. In summary, the overexpressed cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CAD) and putative membrane transporter (MFS) appeared to have positive influences on the enhanced IA productivity of the respective transformant. The maximal increases of 13.6~18.3% in IA productivity of the transformed strains should be noted, since the parallel mother strain used in this study is indeed a very high-performance mutant that has been obtained through intensive rational screening programs in our laboratory.

  12. A fungal catalase reacts selectively with the 13S fatty acid hydroperoxide products of the adjacent lipoxygenase gene and exhibits 13S-hydroperoxide-dependent peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Teder, Tarvi; Boeglin, William E; Schneider, Claus; Brash, Alan R

    2017-03-28

    The genome of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum harbors six catalases, one of which has the sequence characteristics of a fatty acid peroxide-metabolizing catalase. We cloned and expressed this hemoprotein (designated as Fg-cat) along with its immediate neighbor, a 13S-lipoxygenase (cf. Brodhun et al., PloS One, e64919, 2013) that we considered might supply a fatty acid hydroperoxide substrate. Indeed, Fg-cat reacts abruptly with the 13S-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid (13S-HPODE) with an initial rate of 700-1300s(-1). By comparison there was no reaction with 9R- or 9S-HPODEs and extremely weak reaction with 13R-HPODE (~0.5% of the rate with 13S-HPODE). Although we considered Fg-cat as a candidate for the allene oxide synthase of the jasmonate pathway in fungi, the main product formed from 13S-HPODE was identified by UV, MS, and NMR as 9-oxo-10E-12,13-cis-epoxy-octadecenoic acid (with no traces of AOS activity). The corresponding analog is formed from the 13S-hydroperoxide of α-linolenic acid along with novel diepoxy-ketones and two C13 aldehyde derivatives, the reaction mechanisms of which are proposed. In a peroxidase assay monitoring the oxidation of ABTS, Fg-cat exhibited robust activity (kcat 550s(-1)) using the 13S-hydroperoxy-C18 fatty acids as the oxidizing co-substrate. There was no detectable peroxidase activity using the corresponding 9S-hydroperoxides, nor with t-butyl hydroperoxide, and very weak activity with H2O2 or cumene hydroperoxide at micromolar concentrations of Fg-cat. Fg-cat and the associated lipoxygenase gene are present together in fungal genera Fusarium, Metarhizium and Fonsecaea and appear to constitute a partnership for oxidations in fungal metabolism or defense.

  13. Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Khabat; Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis and promotes their performance, biomass, and seed production as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Imbalances in the symbiotic interaction such as uncontrolled fungal growth result in the loss of benefits for the plants and activation of defense responses against the microbe. We exposed Arabidopsis seedlings to a dense hyphal lawn of P. indica. The seedlings continue to grow, accumulate normal amounts of chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic parameters demonstrate that they perform well. In spite of high fungal doses around the roots, the fungal material inside the roots was not significantly higher when compared with roots that live in a beneficial symbiosis with P. indica. Fifteen defense- and stress-related genes including PR2, PR3, PAL2, and ERF1 are only moderately upregulated in the roots on the fungal lawn, and the seedlings did not accumulate H2O2/radical oxygen species. However, accumulation of anthocyanin in P. indica-exposed seedlings indicates stress symptoms. Furthermore, the jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels were increased in the roots, and consequently PDF1.2 and a newly characterized gene for a 2-oxoglurate and Fe2+ -dependent oxygenase were upregulated more than 7-fold on the dense fungal lawn, in a JAR1- and EIN3-dependent manner. We conclude that growth of A. thaliana seedlings on high fungal doses of P. indica has little effect on the overall performance of the plants although elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in the roots induce a mild stress or defense response.

  14. Interesting effect of phytosterol structure on antioxidant activities of phytosteryl ferulates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In nature, phytosteryl ferulates usually occur as mixtures where the profiles of the phytosterols are influenced by the cereal source. When evaluating phytosteryl ferulates from corn and rice as potential antioxidants for frying, we found that phytosteryl ferulates from corn were superior to those f...

  15. Selection for reduced ferulate esters in seedlings improved maize silage fiber digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulate cross linkage of lignin to arabinoxylans in grasses impedes cell wall digestibility. Formation of cross links requires ferulate esters on arabinoxylan. Subsequent lignin deposition is initiated by formation of cross-linked ferulate/monolignol complexes. We hypothesized that selection for se...

  16. Isolation and Structure Determination of 24-Methylenecycloartanyl Ferulate from Indian Rice Bran and Its Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Muthal, Amol P.; Rojatkar, Supada R.; Bodhankar, Subhash Laxmanrao

    2016-01-01

    Background: γ-oryzanol is a major bioactive constituent in rice. Most of the literature reports isolation of 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate (24-mCAF) from rice bran oil (RBO) of other than Indian variety. Current research has successfully applied high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for isolation of 24-mCAF from Indian variety (Indrayani) of RBO. Materials and Methods: HPTLC method was developed for standard γ-oryzanol using tinidazole as an internal standard. The proposed HPTLC method was optimized and validated as per the guidelines stated by the International Conference on Harmonization Q2 R1 recommendations. The mobile phase composed of toluene:ethyl acetate:methanol (15.0:1.7:3.3, (v/v/v) was selected because well-resolved peaks were obtained. The optimum wavelength chosen for detection and quantitation was 317 nm. Results: The retention factors for tinidazole, 24-mCAF, and CAF were found to be 0.27 ± 0.02, 0.72 ± 0.02, and 0.79 ± 0.02, respectively. The percent content of 24-mCAF in ethanol fraction was found to be 1.02%. The 24-mCAF was isolated from RBO using HPTLC method. Conclusion: The characterization data of 1D, 2D spectral analysis confirm that the isolated compound 1 is 24-mCAF. SUMMARY HPTLC method was developed for standard γ-oryzanol using tinidazole as an internal standardThe proposed HPTLC method was optimized and validated as per the guidelines stated by the ICH Q2 R1 recommendationsThe characterization data of 1D, 2D spectral analysis confirms that the isolated compound is 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulateIn this work, high purity 24-mCAF was successfully isolated from crude RBO using HPTLC with a solvent system composed toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (15.0:1.7:3.3, v/v/v) Abbreviations used: RBO: Rice Bran Oil, CAF: Cycloartenol ferulic acid, 24-mCAF: 24-Methylcycloartenol ferulic acid, HPLC: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, HPTLC: High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, 1H: Proton nuclear magnetic

  17. Fungal hemolysins

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2015-01-01

    Hemolysins are a class of proteins defined by their ability to lyse red cells but have been described to exhibit pleiotropic functions. These proteins have been extensively studied in bacteria and more recently in fungi. Within the last decade, a number of studies have characterized fungal hemolysins and revealed a fascinating yet diverse group of proteins. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the known fungal hemolysins with an emphasis on those belonging to the aegerolysin protein family. New insight and perspective into fungal hemolysins in biotechnology and health are additionally presented. PMID:22769586

  18. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites. PMID:22852578

  19. Fungal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis is needed, as in cases of persistent, deep, or systemic infections, more extensive testing may be ... mouth (thrush) Vaginal itching and discharge (yeast infection) Deep and systemic fungal infections may cause a variety ...

  20. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  1. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity of dairy cows in response to ingestion of lauric or myristic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment, part of a larger study, was to investigate changes in rumen bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity in cows with normal and reduced protozoal populations. In the main study, 6 lactating dairy cows were dosed intraruminally with 240 g/cow per day of stearic (contr...

  2. Protective Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Acetaldehyde-Treated Precision-Cut Rat Liver Slices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350 μM acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. α-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation. PMID:22404575

  3. Protective effect of sodium ferulate on acetaldehyde-treated precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong; Wang, Hui

    2012-06-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350 μM acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. α-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β(1), and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation.

  4. Cr(VI) reduction by gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide, the reaction products of fungal glucose oxidase: Cooperative interaction with organic acids in the biotransformation of Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Romo-Rodríguez, Pamela; Acevedo-Aguilar, Francisco Javier; Lopez-Torres, Adolfo; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Gutiérrez-Corona, J Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Cr(VI) reducing capability of growing cells of the environmental A. tubingensis Ed8 strain is remarkably efficient compared to reference strains A. niger FGSC322 and A. tubingensis NRRL593. Extracellular glucose oxidase (GOX) activity levels were clearly higher in colonies developed in solid medium and in concentrated extracts of the spent medium of liquid cultures of the Ed8 strain in comparison with the reference strains. In addition, concentrated extracts of the spent medium of A. tubingensis Ed8, but not those of the reference strains, exhibited the ability to reduce Cr(VI). In line with this observation, it was found that A. niger purified GOX is capable of mediating the conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a reaction dependent on the presence of glucose that is stimulated by organic acids. Furthermore, it was found that a decrease in Cr(VI) may occur in the absence of the GOX enzyme, as long as the reaction products gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide are present; this conversion of Cr(VI) is stimulated by organic acids in a reaction that generates hydroxyl radicals, which may involve the formation of an intermediate peroxichromate(V) complex. These findings indicated that fungal glucose oxidase acts an indirect chromate reductase through the formation of Cr(VI) reducing molecules, which interact cooperatively with other fungal metabolites in the biotransformation of Cr(VI).

  5. Influence of plant secondary metabolites on in vitro oxidation of methyl ferulate with cell wall peroxidases from lupine apoplast.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Łukasz; Wojtaszek, Przemysław; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Ionically bound cell wall peroxidases (POXs) were liberated to intercellular washing fluids (IWFs) and isolated together with other proteins and metabolites present in the apoplast of white lupine (Lupinus albus L. var. Bac) root. After separation of proteins from low molecular weight compounds, activity of peroxidases was monitored in in vitro experiments. Oxidation of methyl ferulate with H2O2 was studied in multi-component mixtures of plant metabolites. Secondary metabolites identified in IWFs or other natural products playing important roles in different physiological processes were applied as modifiers of the dehydrodimerization process during oxidation reactions performed in vitro. These were isoflavones and their conjugates, lupanine representing quinolizidine alkaloids synthesized in lupine, or other natural products such as quercetin, ascorbic, and salicylic acid. The influence of these substances on the oxidation kinetics of methyl ferulate was monitored with liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC/UV), and identification of compounds was confirmed with the liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) system. On the basis of data collected, it was possible to reveal changes in the activities of cell wall POXs. Application of the LC system permitted us to monitor, independently, quantitative changes of two or more reaction products in the mixtures. In multi-component combinations, oxidation yields of methyl ferulate by POXs were modified depending on the actual composition of the reaction mixture. We conclude that various classes of plant secondary metabolites can modify the yield of methyl ferulate oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of POX, due to interactions with the enzyme's active site (genistein) or radical scavenging properties of metabolites present in the reaction mixture.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of antioxidant and antifungal activities of novel ricinoleate-based lipoconjugates of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kunduru Konda; Ravinder, Thumu; Kanjilal, Sanjit

    2012-10-15

    Syntheses of four castor oil fatty acid-based novel lipoconjugates of phenolic acids were carried out following Mitsunobu methodology. The lipid part consists of methyl ricinoleate and its saturated analogue, methyl-12-hydroxystearate and the phenolic moieties are ferulic and vanillic acid. Synthesised compounds are evaluated for antioxidant activity using three in vitro assays (DPPH radical scavenging assay, DSC studies for oxidative induction temperature of linoleic acid and autoxidation of linoleic acid in Tween 20 micellar medium) and compared with three widely used antioxidants in the food industry, BHT, α-tocopherol, and dodecyl gallate. Synthesised compounds are found to exhibit good antiradical activity. These compounds also exhibited very good antifungal activity against studied fungal strains. All these results suggested the applicability of the synthesised compounds as potent lipophilic antioxidants for combating oxidative stress.

  7. Monolignol ferulate conjugates are naturally incorporated into plant lignins

    PubMed Central

    Karlen, Steven D.; Zhang, Chengcheng; Peck, Matthew L.; Smith, Rebecca A.; Padmakshan, Dharshana; Helmich, Kate E.; Free, Heather C. A.; Lee, Seonghee; Smith, Bronwen G.; Lu, Fachuang; Sedbrook, John C.; Sibout, Richard; Grabber, John H.; Runge, Troy M.; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Harris, Philip J.; Bartley, Laura E.; Ralph, John

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms represent most of the terrestrial plants and are the primary research focus for the conversion of biomass to liquid fuels and coproducts. Lignin limits our access to fibers and represents a large fraction of the chemical energy stored in plant cell walls. Recently, the incorporation of monolignol ferulates into lignin polymers was accomplished via the engineering of an exotic transferase into commercially relevant poplar. We report that various angiosperm species might have convergently evolved to natively produce lignins that incorporate monolignol ferulate conjugates. We show that this activity may be accomplished by a BAHD feruloyl–coenzyme A monolignol transferase, OsFMT1 (AT5), in rice and its orthologs in other monocots. PMID:27757415

  8. Monolignol ferulate conjugates are naturally incorporated into plant lignins.

    PubMed

    Karlen, Steven D; Zhang, Chengcheng; Peck, Matthew L; Smith, Rebecca A; Padmakshan, Dharshana; Helmich, Kate E; Free, Heather C A; Lee, Seonghee; Smith, Bronwen G; Lu, Fachuang; Sedbrook, John C; Sibout, Richard; Grabber, John H; Runge, Troy M; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Harris, Philip J; Bartley, Laura E; Ralph, John

    2016-10-01

    Angiosperms represent most of the terrestrial plants and are the primary research focus for the conversion of biomass to liquid fuels and coproducts. Lignin limits our access to fibers and represents a large fraction of the chemical energy stored in plant cell walls. Recently, the incorporation of monolignol ferulates into lignin polymers was accomplished via the engineering of an exotic transferase into commercially relevant poplar. We report that various angiosperm species might have convergently evolved to natively produce lignins that incorporate monolignol ferulate conjugates. We show that this activity may be accomplished by a BAHD feruloyl-coenzyme A monolignol transferase, OsFMT1 (AT5), in rice and its orthologs in other monocots.

  9. Fungal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    San-Blas, G; Suzuki, S; Hearn, V; Pinel, C; Kobayashi, H; Mendez, C; Niño, G; Nishikawa, A; San-Blas, F; Shibata, N

    1994-01-01

    Fungal polysaccharides are cell wall components which may act as antigens or as structural substrates. As antigens, the role of mannans in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, and of glycoproteins in Aspergillus fumigatus are discussed. Analyses on beta-glucan synthetase in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and the inhibitory effect of Hansenula mrakii killer toxin on beta-glucan biosynthesis are also considered.

  10. Fungal arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Fungal Infections Infectious Arthritis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  11. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, you'll be saying bye-bye to fungi (say: FUN-guy). What Is a Fungal Infection? Fungi , the word for more than one fungus, can ... but of course, they're not!). Because the fungi that cause tinea (ringworm) live on different parts ...

  12. Fungal Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... presence of large granules that attract the reddish-orange eosin stain) to attack fungi, and the eosinophils irritate the membranes in the nose. As long as fungi remain, so will the irritation. Chronic Indolent Sinusitis is an invasive form of fungal sinusitis in ...

  13. Fungal Entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal entomopathogens are important biological control agents worldwide and have been the subject of intense research for more than100 years. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and produce different types of infective propagules. Their mode of action against insects involves attachme...

  14. Cyclopaldic acid, seiridin, and sphaeropsidin A as fungal phytotoxins, and larvicidal and biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Avolio, Fabiana; Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Khan, Ikhlas A; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. From a preliminary screening of fungal phytotoxins, cyclopaldic acid (1), seiridin (2), sphaeropsidin A (4), and papyracillic acid (5) were evaluated for their biting deterrent and larvicidal activities against Ae. aegypti L. Because compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 exhibited mosquito biting deterrent activities and 1 and 4 demonstrated larvicidal activities, further structureactivity relationship studies were initiated on these toxins. In biting-deterrence bioassays, 1, 2, 4, and 5, 3,8-didansylhydrazone of cyclopaldic acid, 1F, 5-azidopentanoate of cyclopaldic acid A, 1G, the reduced derivative of cyclopaldic acid, 1 H, isoseiridin (3), 2'-O-acetylseiridin (2A), 2'-oxoseiridin (2C), 6-O-acetylsphaeropsidin A (4A), 8,14-methylensphaeropsidin A methyl ester (4B), and sphaeropsidin B (4C) showed activities higher than the solvent control. Sphaeropsidin B (4C) was the most active compound followed by 2A, while the other compounds were less active. Biting-deterrence activity of compound 4C was statistically similar to DEET. In the larvicidal screening bioassays, only compounds 1 and 4 demonstrated larvicidal activities. Based on LD50 values, compound 4 (LD50 36.8 ppm) was significantly more active than compound 1 (LD50 58.2 ppm). However, the activity of these compounds was significantly lower than permethrin.

  15. Identification of N-acetylneuraminic acid and its 9-O-acetylated derivative on the cell surface of Cryptococcus neoformans: influence on fungal phagocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, M L; Rozental, S; Couceiro, J N; Angluster, J; Alviano, C S; Travassos, L R

    1997-01-01

    Sialic acids from sialoglycoconjugates present at the cell surface of Cryptococcus neoformans yeast forms were analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography, binding of influenza A and C virus strains, enzymatic treatment, and flow cytofluorimetry with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectins. C. neoformans yeast forms grown in a chemically defined medium contain N-acetylneuraminic acid and its 9-O-acetylated derivative. A density of 3 x 10(6) residues of sialic acid per cell was found in C. neoformans. Sialic acids in cryptococcal cells are glycosidically linked to galactopyranosyl units as inferred from the increased reactivity of neuraminidase-treated yeasts with peanut agglutinin. N-Acetylneuraminic acids are alpha-2,6 and alpha-2,3 linked, as indicated by using virus strains M1/5 and M1/5 HS8, respectively, as agglutination probes. The alpha-2,6 linkage markedly predominated. These findings were essentially confirmed by the interaction of cryptococcal cells with the lectins Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Maackia amurensis agglutinin. We also investigated whether the sialyl residues present in C. neoformans are involved in the fungal interaction with a cationic solid-phase substrate and with mouse resident macrophages. Adhesion of yeast cells to poly-L-lysine was mediated, in part, by sialic acid residues, since the number of adherent cells was markedly reduced after treatment with bacterial neuraminidase. The enzymatic removal of sialic acids also made C. neoformans yeast cells more susceptible to endocytosis by macrophages. The results show that sialic acids are components of the cryptococcal cell surface that contribute to its negative charge and protect yeast forms against phagocytosis. PMID:9393779

  16. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy as tools for identification of steryl ferulates.

    PubMed

    Mandak, Eszter; Zhu, Dan; Godany, Tamas A; Nyström, Laura

    2013-03-13

    Steryl ferulates are a mixture of minor bioactive compounds, possessing well-established health benefits. However, individual steryl ferulate species show structural differences, which seem to substantially influence their health-promoting potential. In this study, we tested Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, as potential tools in the identification of steryl ferulates. On the basis of our spectral data obtained from various individual steryl ferulates and steryl ferulate mixtures extracted from rice (γ-oryzanol), corn bran, and wheat bran, we provide comprehensive peak assignment tables for both FTIR and Raman. With the help of FTIR spectroscopy, structural differences between individual steryl ferulates were possible to identify, such as the presence of the cyclopropane ring and additional differences in the side chain of the sterane skeleton. Data obtained with Raman spectroscopy provided us with a control for FTIR peak assignment and also with some additional information on the samples. However, detecting structural differences between steryl ferulates was not possible with this method. We consider that FTIR spectroscopy alone or combined with Raman provides detailed data on the structures of steryl ferulates. Moreover, thorough peak assignment tables presented in this study could prove to be helpful tools when identifying steryl ferulates, especially as a group, in future studies.

  17. Electrocatalytic oxidation of phytohormone salicylic acid at copper nanoparticles-modified gold electrode and its detection in oilseed rape infected with fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan; Wei, Fang; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Xu, Qiao; Huang, Jun-Yan; Dong, Xu-Yan; Yu, Jiu-Hong; Yang, Qin; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a biological substance that acts as a phytohormone and plays an important role in signal transduction in plants. It is important to accurately and sensitively detect SA levels. A gold electrode modified with copper nanoparticles was used to assay the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid. It was found that the electrochemical behavior of salicylic acid was greatly improved at copper nanoparticles, indicating that anodic oxidation could be catalyzed at copper nanoparticles. And the pH had remarkable effect on the electrochemical process, a very well-defined oxidation peak appeared at pH 13.3 (0.2M NaOH). The kinetics parameters of this process were calculated and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k) was determined to be 1.34x10(-3)cms(-1), and (1-alpha)n(alpha) was 1.22. The gold electrode modified with copper nanoparticles could detect SA at a higher sensitivity than common electrodes. The electrode was used to detect the SA levels in oilseed rape infected with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The results showed that the SA concentration reached a maximum during the 10th-25th hours after infection. This result was very similar to that determined by HPLC, indicating that the gold electrodes modified with copper nanoparticles could be used as salicylic acid sensors.

  18. The effect of in vitro digestion on steryl ferulates from rice (Oryza sativa L.) and other grains.

    PubMed

    Mandak, Eszter; Nyström, Laura

    2012-06-20

    Polished and cargo rice, wild rice, rice bran, corn bran, and wheat bran were subjected to a static in vitro digestion model, to monitor changes in their steryl ferulate content and composition. Free sterols, possible hydrolysis products of steryl ferulates, were also measured. Additionally, steryl ferulate bioaccessibility was calculated as the percentage of steryl ferulates liberated from the grain matrix into the digestive juice. Steryl ferulate content ranged between 6.1 and 3900 μg/g and decreased by 1-63% due to digestion. A parallel increase in free sterols of more than 70% was observed in all samples. Additionally, bioaccessibility of steryl ferulates was found to be almost negligible. These findings suggest that intestinal enzymes immediately hydrolyze steryl ferulates, which are liberated from the grain matrix, and thus they are practically unavailable for absorption in the small intestine. This further indicates that the hydrolysis products of steryl ferulates could be bioactive in the gut.

  19. Natural Phenolic Inhibitors of Trichothecene Biosynthesis by the Wheat Fungal Pathogen Fusarium culmorum: A Computational Insight into the Structure-Activity Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Giovanna; Dessì, Alessandro; Dallocchio, Roberto; Scherm, Barbara; Azara, Emanuela; Delogu, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    A model of the trichodiene synthase (TRI5) of the wheat fungal pathogen and type-B trichothecene producer Fusarium culmorum was developed based on homology modelling with the crystallized protein of F. sporotrichioides. Eight phenolic molecules, namely ferulic acid 1, apocynin 2, propyl gallate 3, eugenol 4, Me-dehydrozingerone 5, eugenol dimer 6, magnolol 7, and ellagic acid 8, were selected for their ability to inhibit trichothecene production and/or fungal vegetative growth in F. culmorum. The chemical structures of phenols were constructed and partially optimised based on Molecular Mechanics (MM) studies and energy minimisation by Density Functional Theory (DFT). Docking analysis of the phenolic molecules was run on the 3D model of F. culmorum TRI5. Experimental biological activity, molecular descriptors and interacting-structures obtained from computational analysis were compared. Besides the catalytic domain, three privileged sites in the interaction with the inhibitory molecules were identified on the protein surface. The TRI5-ligand interactions highlighted in this study represent a powerful tool to the identification of new Fusarium-targeted molecules with potential as trichothecene inhibitors. PMID:27294666

  20. Phytosterol moiety effects on stability, tocopherol interaction, and anti-polymerization activity of phytosteryl ferulates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antioxidant, anti-polymerization, stability, and interaction with tocopherols of corn and rice phytosteryl ferulates have been compared in several heating and frying studies. We have found that corn steryl ferulates are very protective of soybean oil from polymerization during heating and frying...

  1. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    El-Tayeb, T.S.; Abdelhafez, A.A.; Ali, S.H.; Ramadan, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker’s yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker’s yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  2. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the skin of the body or head ... fungal infection. Alternative Names Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Tinea unguium Images Nail infection, candidal Yeast and mold ...

  3. Clustered Genes Encoding 2-Keto-l-Gulonate Reductase and l-Idonate 5-Dehydrogenase in the Novel Fungal d-Glucuronic Acid Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Arvas, Mikko; Richard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    D-Glucuronic acid is a biomass component that occurs in plant cell wall polysaccharides and is catabolized by saprotrophic microorganisms including fungi. A pathway for D-glucuronic acid catabolism in fungal microorganisms is only partly known. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the enzymes that are known to be part of the pathway are the NADPH requiring D-glucuronic acid reductase forming L-gulonate and the NADH requiring 2-keto-L-gulonate reductase that forms L-idonate. With the aid of RNA sequencing we identified two more enzymes of the pathway. The first is a NADPH requiring 2-keto-L-gulonate reductase that forms L-idonate, GluD. The second is a NAD(+) requiring L-idonate 5-dehydrogenase forming 5-keto-gluconate, GluE. The genes coding for these two enzymes are clustered and share the same bidirectional promoter. The GluD is an enzyme with a strict requirement for NADP(+)/NADPH as cofactors. The kcat for 2-keto-L-gulonate and L-idonate is 21.4 and 1.1 s(-1), and the Km 25.3 and 12.6 mM, respectively, when using the purified protein. In contrast, the GluE has a strict requirement for NAD(+)/NADH. The kcat for L-idonate and 5-keto-D-gluconate is 5.5 and 7.2 s(-1), and the Km 30.9 and 8.4 mM, respectively. These values also refer to the purified protein. The gluD deletion resulted in accumulation of 2-keto-L-gulonate in the liquid cultivation while the gluE deletion resulted in reduced growth and cessation of the D-glucuronic acid catabolism.

  4. Clustered Genes Encoding 2-Keto-l-Gulonate Reductase and l-Idonate 5-Dehydrogenase in the Novel Fungal d-Glucuronic Acid Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Arvas, Mikko; Richard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    D-Glucuronic acid is a biomass component that occurs in plant cell wall polysaccharides and is catabolized by saprotrophic microorganisms including fungi. A pathway for D-glucuronic acid catabolism in fungal microorganisms is only partly known. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the enzymes that are known to be part of the pathway are the NADPH requiring D-glucuronic acid reductase forming L-gulonate and the NADH requiring 2-keto-L-gulonate reductase that forms L-idonate. With the aid of RNA sequencing we identified two more enzymes of the pathway. The first is a NADPH requiring 2-keto-L-gulonate reductase that forms L-idonate, GluD. The second is a NAD+ requiring L-idonate 5-dehydrogenase forming 5-keto-gluconate, GluE. The genes coding for these two enzymes are clustered and share the same bidirectional promoter. The GluD is an enzyme with a strict requirement for NADP+/NADPH as cofactors. The kcat for 2-keto-L-gulonate and L-idonate is 21.4 and 1.1 s-1, and the Km 25.3 and 12.6 mM, respectively, when using the purified protein. In contrast, the GluE has a strict requirement for NAD+/NADH. The kcat for L-idonate and 5-keto-D-gluconate is 5.5 and 7.2 s-1, and the Km 30.9 and 8.4 mM, respectively. These values also refer to the purified protein. The gluD deletion resulted in accumulation of 2-keto-L-gulonate in the liquid cultivation while the gluE deletion resulted in reduced growth and cessation of the D-glucuronic acid catabolism. PMID:28261181

  5. Absence of Rtt109p, a fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase, results in improved acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Xinqing; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-03-01

    RTT109 is a histone acetyltransferase for the acetylation of histone H3. It is still not clear whether RTT109 plays a role in regulation of gene expression under environmental stresses. In this study, the involvement of RTT109 in acetic acid stress tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. It was revealed that the absence of RTT109 enhanced resistance to 5.5 g L(-1) acetic acid, which was indicated by improved growth of RTT109Δ mutant compared with that of the wild-type BY4741 strain. Meanwhile, the lag phase was shortened for 48 h and glucose consumption completed 36 h in advance for RTT109Δ mutant compared to the wild-type strain, with ethanol production rate increased from 0.39 to 0.60 g L(-1) h(-1). Significantly, elevated transcription levels of HSP12, CTT1 and GSH1, as well as increased activities of antioxidant enzymes were observed in RTT109Δ under acetic acid stress. Improved flocculation of RTT109Δ compared to that of the control strain BY4741 under the acetic acid stress was also observed. These results suggest that the absence of RTT109 not only activates transcription of stress responsive genes, but also improves resistance to oxidative stress, which ultimately contributes to improved acetic acid tolerance in S. cerevisiae.

  6. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; de Souza, Lauro M.

    2011-01-01

    Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as high-performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH) analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by secondary ion mass spectrometry and imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. PMID:22164155

  7. Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 μg mL−1] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 4 μg mL−1). PMID:24772371

  8. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host

  9. Inhibition of Fusarium Growth and Mycotoxin Production in Culture Medium and in Maize Kernels by Natural Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Ferruz, Elena; Loran, Susana; Herrera, Marta; Gimenez, Isabel; Bervis, Noemi; Barcena, Carmen; Carramiñana, Juan Jose; Juan, Teresa; Herrera, Antonio; Ariño, Agustin

    2016-10-01

    The possible role of natural phenolic compounds in inhibiting fungal growth and toxin production has been of recent interest as an alternative strategy to the use of chemical fungicides for the maintenance of food safety. Fusarium is a worldwide fungal genus mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of four natural phenolic acids (caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic) for the control of mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by six toxigenic species of Fusarium . The addition of phenolic acids to corn meal agar had a marked inhibitory effect on the radial growth of all Fusarium species at levels of 2.5 to 10 mM in a dose-response pattern, causing total inhibition (100%) in all species except F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae . However, the effects of phenolic acids on mycotoxin production in maize kernels were less evident than the effects on growth. The fungal species differed in their responses to the phenolic acid treatments, and significant reductions in toxin concentrations were observed only for T-2 and HT-2 (90% reduction) and zearalenone (48 to 77% reduction). These results provide data that could be used for developing pre- and postharvest strategies for controlling Fusarium infection and subsequent toxin production in cereal grains.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase Gene from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Hwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Natarajan, Savithiry; Park, Sang-Un

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84), is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278). The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78%) with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old) of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48 h), wounding (24 h), cold (24 h), abscisic acid (24 h), and methyl jasmonate (24 h). PMID:24204204

  11. Molecular characterization of ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggeun; Choi, Bosung; Park, Young-Hwan; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Natarajan, Savithiry; Park, Sang-Un; Bae, Hanhong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84), is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278). The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78%) with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old) of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48 h), wounding (24 h), cold (24 h), abscisic acid (24 h), and methyl jasmonate (24 h).

  12. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

    2013-05-01

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control.

  13. Cycloartenyl ferulate, a component of rice bran oil-derived gamma-oryzanol, attenuates mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Oka, T; Fujimoto, M; Nagasaka, R; Ushio, H; Hori, M; Ozaki, H

    2010-02-01

    IgE-targeting therapy could provide significant progress in the treatment of allergic inflammation. In this study, we examined the effect of cycloartenyl ferulate (cycloartenol ferulic acid ester; CAF), a natural product from rice bran oil-derived gamma-oryzanol, on allergic reaction. When CAF and gamma-oryzanol were injected intradermally with anti-DNP IgE into the dorsal skin of rats, the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction induced by DNP-HSA was attenuated. CAF and gamma-oryzanol also inhibited the degranulation of DNP-IgE sensitized RBL-2H3 mast cells stimulated with anti-DNP-HSA. IgE conjugated with CAF could not be detected by anti-IgE antibody in the ELISA analysis. Although incubation of IgE with CAF did not decrease the amount of IgE, it was possible to precipitate IgE by centrifugation. These results demonstrate that CAF captures IgE, prevents it from binding to FcepsilonRI, and attenuates mast cell degranulation.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaka, Reiko; Chotimarkorn, Chatchawan; Shafiqul, Islam Md.; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Ushio, Hideki . E-mail: hushio@kaiyodai.ac.jp

    2007-06-29

    NF-{kappa}B family of transcription factors are involved in numerous cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and inflammation. It was reported that hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HADs) are inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B activation. Rice bran oil contains a lot of phytosteryl ferulates, one of HADs. We have investigated effects of phytosteryl ferulates on NF-{kappa}B activation in macrophage. Cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), one of phytosteryl ferulates, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenese-2 but upregulated SOD activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that CAF inhibited DNA-binding of NF-{kappa}B. CAF and phytosteryl ferulates probably have potentially anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David R; Higginbotham, Sarah; Estrada, Catalina; van Zweden, Jelle S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wcislo, William T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-05-22

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent. We show that particularly the smallest workers greatly reduce germination rates of Escovopsis and Metarhizium spores after actively applying PAA to experimental infection targets in garden fragments and transferring the spores to the ants' infrabuccal cavities. In vitro assays further indicated that Escovopsis strains isolated from evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste differentiation relative to other attines, in societies characterized by an almost complete absence of reproductive conflicts. We hypothesize that these changes are associated with unique evolutionary innovations in chemical pest management that appear robust against selection pressure for resistance by specialized mycopathogens.

  16. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David R.; Higginbotham, Sarah; Estrada, Catalina; van Zweden, Jelle S.; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wcislo, William T.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2015-01-01

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent. We show that particularly the smallest workers greatly reduce germination rates of Escovopsis and Metarhizium spores after actively applying PAA to experimental infection targets in garden fragments and transferring the spores to the ants' infrabuccal cavities. In vitro assays further indicated that Escovopsis strains isolated from evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste differentiation relative to other attines, in societies characterized by an almost complete absence of reproductive conflicts. We hypothesize that these changes are associated with unique evolutionary innovations in chemical pest management that appear robust against selection pressure for resistance by specialized mycopathogens. PMID:25925100

  17. Impact of the microbial derived short chain fatty acid propionate on host susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ciarlo, Eleonora; Heinonen, Tytti; Herderschee, Jacobus; Fenwick, Craig; Mombelli, Matteo; Le Roy, Didier; Roger, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by intestinal microbes mediate anti-inflammatory effects, but whether they impact on antimicrobial host defenses remains largely unknown. This is of particular concern in light of the attractiveness of developing SCFA-mediated therapies and considering that SCFAs work as inhibitors of histone deacetylases which are known to interfere with host defenses. Here we show that propionate, one of the main SCFAs, dampens the response of innate immune cells to microbial stimulation, inhibiting cytokine and NO production by mouse or human monocytes/macrophages, splenocytes, whole blood and, less efficiently, dendritic cells. In proof of concept studies, propionate neither improved nor worsened morbidity and mortality parameters in models of endotoxemia and infections induced by gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae), gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Candida albicans. Moreover, propionate did not impair the efficacy of passive immunization and natural immunization. Therefore, propionate has no significant impact on host susceptibility to infections and the establishment of protective anti-bacterial responses. These data support the safety of propionate-based therapies, either via direct supplementation or via the diet/microbiota, to treat non-infectious inflammation-related disorders, without increasing the risk of infection. PMID:27897220

  18. The anticancer activity of the fungal metabolite terrecyclic acid A is associated with modulation of multiple cellular stress response pathways.

    PubMed

    Turbyville, Thomas J; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Whitesell, Luke; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2005-10-01

    Tumors are dependent on cellular stress responses, in particular the heat shock response, for survival in their hypoxic, acidotic, and nutrient-deprived microenvironments. Using cell-based reporter assays, we have identified terrecyclic acid A (TCA) from Aspergillus terreus, a fungus inhabiting the rhizosphere of Opuntia versicolor of the Sonoran desert, as a small-molecule inducer of the heat shock response that shows anticancer activity. Further characterization suggested that TCA also affects oxidative and inflammatory cellular stress response pathways. The presence of an alpha-methylene ketone moiety suggested that TCA may form adducts with sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Reaction with labile intracellular cysteines was supported by our finding that the glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine protected tumor cells from the cytotoxic effects of TCA whereas the glutathione-depleting agent buthionine sulfoximine enhanced its activity. Related sesquiterpenes have been shown to increase levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to inhibit nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcriptional activity. To assess whether TCA could have similar activities, we used a ROS-sensitive dye and flow cytometry to show that TCA does indeed increase ROS levels in 3LL cells. When tested in cells carrying NF-kappaB reporter constructs, TCA also exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of cytokine-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. These findings suggest that TCA modulates multiple stress pathways-the oxidative, heat shock, and inflammatory responses-in tumor cells that promote their survival. Small-molecule natural products such as TCA may serve as useful probes for understanding the relationships between these pathways, potentially providing leads for the design of novel and effective anticancer drugs.

  19. Secretome analysis identifies potential virulence factors of Diplodia corticola, a fungal pathogen involved in cork oak (Quercus suber) decline.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Isabel; Alves, Artur; Correia, António; Devreese, Bart; Esteves, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The characterisation of the secretome of phytopathogenic fungi may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. This is particularly relevant for Diplodia corticola, a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, whose genome remains unsequenced. This phytopathogenic fungus is recognised as one of the most important pathogens of cork oak, being related to the decline of cork oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately, secretome analysis of filamentous fungi is limited by the low protein concentration and by the presence of many interfering substances, such as polysaccharides, which affect the separation and analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. We compared six protein extraction protocols concerning their suitability for further application with proteomic workflows. The protocols involving protein precipitation were the most efficient, with emphasis on TCA-acetone protocol, allowing us to identify the most abundant proteins on the secretome of this plant pathogen. Approximately 60% of the spots detected were identified, all corresponding to extracellular proteins. Most proteins identified were carbohydrate degrading enzymes and proteases that may be related to D. corticola pathogenicity. Although the secretome was assessed in a noninfection environment, potential virulence factors such as the putative glucan-β-glucosidase, neuraminidase, and the putative ferulic acid esterase were identified. The data obtained forms a useful basis for a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity and infection biology of D. corticola. Moreover, it will contribute to the development of proteomics studies on other members of the Botryosphaeriaceae.

  20. Fungal-induced corrosion of wire rope

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P.

    1995-10-01

    Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was found on the interior so the wooden spools, and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments and an extensive review of the literature demonstrated causal relationships between storage conditions and fungal growth and localized corrosion.

  1. Loss of FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE Leads to Mediator-Dependent Inhibition of Soluble Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nickolas A.; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Nyffeler, Kayleigh; Chapple, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Phenylpropanoids are phenylalanine-derived specialized metabolites and include important structural components of plant cell walls, such as lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as ultraviolet and visible light-absorbing pigments, such as hydroxycinnamate esters (HCEs) and anthocyanins. Previous work has revealed a remarkable degree of plasticity in HCE biosynthesis, such that most Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with blockages in the pathway simply redirect carbon flux to atypical HCEs. In contrast, the ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) mutant accumulates greatly reduced levels of HCEs, suggesting that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may be repressed in response to the loss of FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE (F5H) activity. Here, we show that in fah1 mutant plants, the activity of HCE biosynthetic enzymes is not limiting for HCE accumulation, nor is phenylpropanoid flux diverted to the synthesis of cell wall components or flavonol glycosides. We further show that anthocyanin accumulation is also repressed in fah1 mutants and that this repression is specific to tissues in which F5H is normally expressed. Finally, we show that repression of both HCE and anthocyanin biosynthesis in fah1 mutants is dependent on the MED5a/5b subunits of the transcriptional coregulatory complex Mediator, which are similarly required for the repression of lignin biosynthesis and the stunted growth of the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant reduced epidermal fluorescence8. Taken together, these observations show that the synthesis of HCEs and anthocyanins is actively repressed in a MEDIATOR-dependent manner in Arabidopsis fah1 mutants and support an emerging model in which MED5a/5b act as central players in the homeostatic repression of phenylpropanoid metabolism. PMID:26048881

  2. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  3. RAPID 2D NMR METHOD FOR DETERMINING P-COUMARATE AND FERULATE LEVELS IN CORN (AND OTHER GRASS) CELL WALLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass cell wall components are acylated by the hydroxycinnamates p-coumarate and ferulate. p-Coumarates largely acylate lignin sidechains, exclusively at the gamma-position, whereas ferulates primarily acylate the arabinosyl C5-position of arabinoxylans. Such components can be quantified as the corr...

  4. Universal fungal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mawieh

    2012-01-01

    The complex nature of fungal pathogens, the intricate host-pathogen relationship and the health status of subjects in need of antifungal vaccination continue to hamper efforts to develop fungal vaccines for clinical use. That said, the rise of the universal vaccine concept is hoped to revive fungal vaccine research by expanding the pool of vaccine candidates worthy of clinical evaluation. It can do so through antigenic commonality-based screening for vaccine candidates from a wide range of pathogens and by reassessing the sizable collection of already available experimental and approved vaccines. Development of experimental vaccines protective against multiple fungal pathogens is evidence of the utility of this concept in fungal vaccine research. However, universal fungal vaccines are not without difficulties; for instance, development of vaccines with differential effectiveness is an issue that should be addressed. Additionally, rationalizing the development of universal fungal vaccines on health or economic basis could be contentious. Herein, universal fungal vaccines are discussed in terms of their potential usefulness and possible drawbacks. PMID:22922769

  5. Fungal diagnostics in pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lease, Erika D; Alexander, Barbara D

    2011-12-01

    Fungal pneumonia is increasingly common, particularly in highly immunosuppressed patients, such as solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and the diagnosis is evolving. Although standard techniques such as microscopy and culture remain the mainstays of diagnosis, relatively recent advances in serological and molecular testing are important additions to the field. This article reviews the laboratory tools used to diagnose fungal respiratory disease.

  6. Molecular characterization of ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) F5H gene that encodes ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Kenaf is well known as a fast growing dicotyledonous plant, which makes it a valuable biomass plant. The ...

  7. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  8. Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  9. Application of a Non-amplification based Technology to Detect Invasive Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Joe L.; Binkley, Jon; Clemons, Karl V.; Stevens, David A.; Nicolls, Mark R.; Holodniy, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Current diagnostic techniques for fungal diseases could be improved with respect to sensitivity, specificity and timeliness. To address this clinical need, we adapted a non-amplification based nucleic acid detection technology to identify fungal pathogens. We demonstrate a high-specificity, detection sensitivity, reproducibility and multiplex capacity for detecting fungal strains. PMID:24359934

  10. Fungal Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Evelyn; Levitz, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant with the increased prevalence of immunocompromised persons, invasive fungal infections have become considerably more frequent in the last 50 years. High mortality rates caused by invasive mycoses and high morbidity because of intractable mucosal infections have created an unmet need for innovative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against fungal pathogens. Several immunotherapeutics and vaccines are in development to address this need, although one has yet to reach the clinic. This review focuses on past and current immunotherapeutic and vaccine strategies being tested to either prevent or treat fungal infections, as well as the challenges associated with their development. PMID:25368016

  11. Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Rakhi; Hadley, Susan

    2005-12-01

    Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis are uncommon diseases and generally present in an indolent fashion. The incidence of fungal bone and joint dis-ease is increasing with an increase in the prevalence of factors predisposing to invasive fungal disease, such as the use of central venous catheters, broad spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppression, and abdominal surgery. Definitive diagnosis relies on bone or synovial culture or biopsy. Successful management has traditionally consisted of amphotericin B in combination with surgical debridement. Given the rarity of this disease, treatment is not well defined, but reports of success with the use of azole antifungal agents, including itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, are promising.

  12. Granuloma, fungal (Majocchi's) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a picture of a fungal granuloma, a large, red (erythematous) patch (plaque) with a prominent border. Within the borders of the lesion are scattered blisters (pustules) that indicate deeper ...

  13. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  14. Metabolism in Fungal Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ene, Iuliana V.; Brunke, Sascha; Brown, Alistair J.P.; Hube, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pathogens must assimilate local nutrients to establish an infection in their mammalian host. We focus on carbon, nitrogen, and micronutrient assimilation mechanisms, discussing how these influence host–fungus interactions during infection. We highlight several emerging trends based on the available data. First, the perturbation of carbon, nitrogen, or micronutrient assimilation attenuates fungal pathogenicity. Second, the contrasting evolutionary pressures exerted on facultative versus obligatory pathogens have led to contemporary pathogenic fungal species that display differing degrees of metabolic flexibility. The evolutionarily ancient metabolic pathways are conserved in most fungal pathogen, but interesting gaps exist in some species (e.g., Candida glabrata). Third, metabolic flexibility is generally essential for fungal pathogenicity, and in particular, for the adaptation to contrasting host microenvironments such as the gastrointestinal tract, mucosal surfaces, bloodstream, and internal organs. Fourth, this metabolic flexibility relies on complex regulatory networks, some of which are conserved across lineages, whereas others have undergone significant evolutionary rewiring. Fifth, metabolic adaptation affects fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs and also presents exciting opportunities for the development of novel therapies. PMID:25190251

  15. Immunotherapy of Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kausik; Hamad, Mawieh

    2015-01-01

    Fungal organisms are ubiquitous in the environment. Pathogenic fungi, although relatively few in the whole gamut of microbial pathogens, are able to cause disease with varying degrees of severity in individuals with normal or impaired immunity. The disease state is an outcome of the fungal pathogen's interactions with the host immunity, and therefore, it stands to reason that deep/invasive fungal diseases be amenable to immunotherapy. Therefore, antifungal immunotherapy continues to be attractive as an adjunct to the currently available antifungal chemotherapy options for a number of reasons, including the fact that existing antifungal drugs, albeit largely effective, are not without limitations, and that morbidity and mortality associated with invasive mycoses are still unacceptably high. For several decades, intense basic research efforts have been directed at development of fungal immunotherapies. Nevertheless, this approach suffers from a severe bench-bedside disconnect owing to several reasons: the chemical and biological peculiarities of the fungal antigens, the complexities of host-pathogen interactions, an under-appreciation of the fungal disease landscape, the requirement of considerable financial investment to bring these therapies to clinical use, as well as practical problems associated with immunizations. In this general, non-exhaustive review, we summarize the features of ongoing research efforts directed towards devising safe and effective immunotherapeutic options for mycotic diseases, encompassing work on antifungal vaccines, adoptive cell transfers, cytokines, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and other agents.

  16. The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rokas, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We examined the synteny and evolutionary history of 247,202 fungal genes encoding enzymes that catalyze 875 distinct metabolic reactions from 130 pathways in 208 diverse genomes. We found that gene clustering varied greatly with respect to metabolic category and lineage; for example, clustered genes in Saccharomycotina yeasts were overrepresented in nucleotide metabolism, whereas clustered genes in Pezizomycotina were more common in lipid and amino acid metabolism. The effects of both GD and HGT were more pronounced in clustered genes than in their non-clustered counterparts and were differentially distributed across fungal lineages; specifically, GD, which was an order of magnitude more abundant than HGT, was most frequently observed in Agaricomycetes, whereas HGT was much more prevalent in Pezizomycotina. The effect of HGT in some Pezizomycotina was particularly strong; for example, we identified 111 HGT events associated with the 15 Aspergillus genomes, which sharply contrasts with the 60 HGT events detected for the 48 genomes from the entire Saccharomycotina subphylum. Finally, the impact of GD within a metabolic category was typically consistent across all fungal lineages, whereas the impact of HGT was variable. These results indicate that GD is the dominant process underlying fungal metabolic diversity, whereas HGT is episodic and acts in a category- or lineage-specific manner. Both processes have a greater impact on clustered genes, suggesting that metabolic gene clusters

  17. The evolution of fungal metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Slot, Jason C; Rokas, Antonis

    2014-12-01

    Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We examined the synteny and evolutionary history of 247,202 fungal genes encoding enzymes that catalyze 875 distinct metabolic reactions from 130 pathways in 208 diverse genomes. We found that gene clustering varied greatly with respect to metabolic category and lineage; for example, clustered genes in Saccharomycotina yeasts were overrepresented in nucleotide metabolism, whereas clustered genes in Pezizomycotina were more common in lipid and amino acid metabolism. The effects of both GD and HGT were more pronounced in clustered genes than in their non-clustered counterparts and were differentially distributed across fungal lineages; specifically, GD, which was an order of magnitude more abundant than HGT, was most frequently observed in Agaricomycetes, whereas HGT was much more prevalent in Pezizomycotina. The effect of HGT in some Pezizomycotina was particularly strong; for example, we identified 111 HGT events associated with the 15 Aspergillus genomes, which sharply contrasts with the 60 HGT events detected for the 48 genomes from the entire Saccharomycotina subphylum. Finally, the impact of GD within a metabolic category was typically consistent across all fungal lineages, whereas the impact of HGT was variable. These results indicate that GD is the dominant process underlying fungal metabolic diversity, whereas HGT is episodic and acts in a category- or lineage-specific manner. Both processes have a greater impact on clustered genes, suggesting that metabolic gene clusters

  18. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  19. Fungal endocarditis: current challenges.

    PubMed

    Tattevin, Pierre; Revest, Matthieu; Lefort, Agnès; Michelet, Christian; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Whilst it used to affect mostly intravenous drug users and patients who underwent valvular surgery with suboptimal infection control procedures, fungal endocarditis is now mostly observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (onco-haematology), in association with chronic central venous access and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. The incidence of fungal endocarditis has probably decreased in most developed countries with access to harm-reduction policies (i.e. needle exchange programmes) and with improved infection control procedures during cardiac surgery. Use of specific blood culture bottles for diagnosis of fungal endocarditis has decreased due to optimisation of media and automated culture systems. Meanwhile, the advent of rapid techniques, including fungal antigen detection (galactomannan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies and β-1,3-d-glucans) and PCR (e.g. universal fungal PCR targeting 18S rRNA genes), shall improve sensitivity and reduce diagnostics delays, although limited data are available on their use for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. New antifungal agents available since the early 2000s may represent dramatic improvement for fungal endocarditis: (i) a new class, the echinocandins, has the potential to improve the management of Candida endocarditis owing to its fungicidal effect on yeasts as well as tolerability of increased dosages; and (ii) improved survival in patients with invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole compared with amphotericin B, and this may apply to Aspergillus sp. endocarditis as well, although its prognosis remains dismal. These achievements may allow selected patients to be cured with prolonged medical treatment alone when surgery is considered too risky.

  20. Unraveling ferulate role in suberin and periderm biology by reverse genetics

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Olga; Figueras, Mercè; Franke, Rochus; Prat, Salome

    2010-01-01

    Plant cell walls are dramatically affected by suberin deposition, becoming an impermeable barrier to water and pathogens. Suberin is a complex layered heteropolymer that comprises both a poly(aliphatic) and a poly(aromatic) lignin-like domain. Current structural models for suberin attribute the crosslinking of aliphatic and aromatic domains within the typical lamellar ultrastructure of the polymer to esterified ferulate. BAHD feruloyl transferases involved in suberin biosynthesis have been recently characterized in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In defective mutants, suberin, even lacks most of the esterified ferulate, but maintains the typical lamellar ultrastructure. However, suberized tissues display increased water permeability, in spite of exhibiting a similar lipid load to wild type. Therefore, the role of ferulate in suberin needs to be reconsidered. Moreover, silencing the feruloyl transferase in potato turns the typical smooth skin of cv. Desirée into a rough scabbed skin distinctive of Russet varieties and impairs the normal skin maturation that confers resistance to skinning. Concomitantly to these changes, the skin of silenced potatoes shows an altered profile of soluble phenolics with the emergence of conjugated polyamines. PMID:20657184

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Individual Steryl Ferulates from Various Cereal Grain Sources.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Sánchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Nyström, Laura

    2016-02-26

    Steryl ferulates (SFs) are a subclass of bioactive lipids contributing to the health-promoting effects of whole grains. Most related studies focus on γ-oryzanol, a SF mixture from rice, since individual steryl ferulates are not commercially available. There is little evidence that individual SFs may vary in their bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of eight individual SFs by determining their radical scavenging capacity. Additional molecular properties of the individual SFs were determined by molecular simulation in order to identify correlations with their antioxidant activities. Our study demonstrates that individual SFs exhibit 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging abilities with subtle differences that were highly dependent on the kind of reaction taking place. The grouping of SFs by principle component analysis was mainly attributed to molecular properties, not antioxidant activities. Solvation energy was significantly correlated with some experimental observations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the antioxidant activity of eight individual steryl ferulates from different sources. Results of this work will provide better insight into the antioxidant activity of SFs and the health benefits of whole grains.

  2. The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits α-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses

    PubMed Central

    Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g−1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g−1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg−1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative α-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., α-l-rhamnopyranoside and α-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

  3. Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and sourdough lactic acid bacteria during bread storage.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco

    2008-12-01

    The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris cv. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate.

  4. Metabolism of nonesterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While Brettanomyces can metabolize non–esterified hydroxycinnamic acids found in grape musts/wines (caffeic, p–coumaric, and ferulic acids), it was not known whether this yeast could utilize the corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, p–coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively). Red wines fr...

  5. Differential metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by two Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains grown in red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively) are found in red wines in varying concentrations depending on cultivars and other factors. While some Brettanomyces form volatile phenols...

  6. Fungal rhinitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrzeszewicz, M; Sapierzyński, R

    2015-01-01

    Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in dogs are quite common reasons of chronic nasal discharge and rhinoscopy in such cases is commonly suggested. Forty three dogs were examined using rhinoscopy because of the presence of chronic airway symptoms. Clinical examination, routine hematology and serum biochemistry profiles, nasal and frontal sinus radiographs were made in all animals. Additionally, computed tomography in one dog was performed. Samples for histopathology were taken from 9 patients during rhinoscopy, additionally, from 8 of these patients samples for cytopathology were collected by blind nasal swab technique. In 9 of 43 dogs (20,5%), all males aged 1 to 13 years, examinations led to a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis. In 2 cases a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis was obtained based solely on cytopathology, while in 7 cases - mycosis of nasal mucosa was confirmed by histopathology. The present study revealed that cytopathological examination of nasal swabs has a low diagnostic value in the case of nasal infections in dogs. Although, in some dogs cytopathology, together with other widely available diagnostic techniques was sufficient to reliably diagnose fungal rhinitis, histopathology of samples collected during rhinoscopy is still the gold standard in such cases.

  7. Immunoregulation in Fungal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roussey, Jonathan A.; Olszewski, Michal A.; Osterholzer, John J.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses specific regulatory mechanisms involved in the host immune response to fungal organisms. We focus on key cells and regulatory pathways involved in these responses, including a brief overview of their broader function preceding a discussion of their specific relevance to fungal disease. Important cell types discussed include dendritic cells and regulatory T cells, with a focus on specific studies relating to their effects on immune responses to fungi. We highlight the interleukin-10, programmed cell death 1, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 signaling pathways and emphasize interrelationships between these pathways and the regulatory functions of dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. Throughout our discussion, we identify selected studies best illustrating the role of these cells and pathways in response to specific fungal pathogens to provide a contextual understanding of the tightly-controlled network of regulatory mechanisms critical to determining the outcome of exposure to fungal pathogens. Lastly, we discuss two unique phenomena relating to immunoregulation, protective tolerance and immune reactivation inflammatory syndrome. These two clinically-relevant conditions provide perspective as to the range of immunoregulatory mechanisms active in response to fungi. PMID:27973396

  8. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    severely limits the may prove to be useful in burn patients. Clotrimazole , applied clinical utility of such a culture. Biopsy and frozen-section and as...useful in wound and permit prompt institution of appropriate the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Clotrimazole is treatment. poorly absorbed

  9. Sputum fungal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Fungal Infections Lung Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  10. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections can also happen in people without weak immune systems Fungal infections that are not life-threatening, such ... likely to cause an infection. People with weak immune systems Infections that happen because a person’s immune system ...

  11. Nail Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are treatments usually effective?Are there any side effects of the treatment?If my treatment works, will my nail grow back normally?If I've had one fungal nail infection, am I likely to get another?What kinds of shoes should I wear?Should I wear gloves when ...

  12. Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia--Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Larsson, Lennart

    2016-03-01

    This paper studied associations between ocular symptoms, rhinitis, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue in students by ethnicity and in relation to exposure to chemical microbial markers and fungal DNA in vacuumed dust in schools in Malaysia. A total of 462 students from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated (96% response rate). Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of five types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18 3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol and five sequences of fungal DNA. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 11.9% reported weekly ocular symptoms, 18.8% rhinitis, 15.6% throat and 11.1% dermal symptoms, 20.6% headache and 22.1% tiredness. Totally 21.1% reported pollen or furry pet allergy (atopy) and 22.0% parental asthma or allergy. Chinese students had less headache than Malay and Indian had less rhinitis and less tiredness than Malay. Parental asthma/allergy was a risk factor for ocular (odds ratio=3.79) and rhinitis symptoms (OR=3.48). Atopy was a risk factor for throat symptoms (OR=2.66), headache (OR=2.13) and tiredness (OR=2.02). There were positive associations between amount of fine dust in the dust samples and ocular symptoms (p<0.001) and rhinitis (p=0.006). There were positive associations between C14 3-OH and rhinitis (p<0.001) and between C18 3-OH and dermal symptoms (p=0.007). There were negative (protective) associations between levels of total endotoxin (LPS) (p=0.004) and levels of ergosterol (p=0.03) and rhinitis and between C12 3-OH and throat symptoms (p=0.004). In conclusion, the amount of fine dust in the classroom was associated with rhinitis and other SBS symptoms and improved cleaning of the schools is important. Endotoxin in the school dust seems to be mainly protective for rhinitis and throat symptoms but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. The ethnic differences in symptoms among the students

  13. New perspectives towards analysing fungal communities in terrestrial environments

    PubMed

    Kowalchuk

    1999-06-01

    Fungi play key roles in numerous ecosystem functions, and recent advances in the study of fungal diversity and ecology have led to a greater appreciation of this group of microeukaryotes. The application of a variety of nucleic acid techniques to fungal classification and phylogeny has led to a number of evolutionary insights, and has also begun to provide the necessary information for identification of unknown isolates and DNA sequences. These data, together with direct molecular characterisation of fungi in the field, provide new possibilities to describe fungal diversity and distribution. Such advances will no doubt also provide the means for a more detailed interpretation of ecological experiments.

  14. Overview of fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Das, Ashim; Panda, Naresh K

    2004-10-01

    The incidence of fungal rhinosinusitis has increased to such extent in recent years that fungal infection should be considered in all patients with chronic rhino sinusitis. In India though the disease was reported earlier only from northern regions of this country, nowadays the disease is increasingly diagnosed from other parts as well. The disease has been categorized with possible five types: acute necrothing (fulminant), chronic invasive, chronic granulomatous invasive, fungal hall (sinus mycetoma), allergic. The first three types are tissue-invasive and the last two are non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. However, the categorization is still controversial and open to discussion. Chronic fungal rhinosinusitis can occur in otherwise healthy host and Aspergillus flavus is the common etiological agent in Indian scenario. The pathophys iologic mechanism of the disease remains unclear. It may represent an allergic IgE response, a cell-mediated reaction, or a combination of two. Early diagnosis may prevent multiple surgical procedures and lead to effective treatment. Histopathology and radio-imaging techniques help to distinguish different types and delineate extension of disease process. Culture helps to identify the responsible etiological agent. The presence or absence oj precipitating antibody correlates well with disease progression or recovery. The most immediate need regarding management is to establish the respective roles of surgery and antifungal therapy. Non-invasive disease requires surgical debridement and sinus ventilation only, though, additional oral or local corticosterold therapy may be beneficial in allergie type. For invasive disease, the adjuvant medical therapy is recommended to prevent recurrence and further extension. Itraconazole has been found as an effective drug in such situation. Patients with acute neerotizing type require radical surgery and amphotericin B therapy.

  15. [Emerging invasive fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Alvez, F; Figueras, C; Roselló, E

    2010-07-01

    The frequency and diversity of invasive fungal infections has changed over the last 25 years. The emergence of less common, but medically important fungi has increased, and the children at risk has expanded, with the inclusion of medical conditions such as cancer, mainly haematological malignancy or stem cell transplant, immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged neutropenia, and T-cell immunodeficiency. Among mould infections, fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis (Dematiaceous fungi) have been increasingly reported in this group of patients. To successfully manage these challenging infections, it is imperative that paediatricians and sub-specialists remain aware of the optimal and timely diagnosis and therapeutic options. Unlike other common mycoses that cause human disease, there no simple antigen or serological tests available to detect these pathogens in tissue or blood. The outcome for these disseminate, and often refractory fungal infections in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients remains extremely poor, requiring early and aggressive therapy. Unfortunately there are no guidelines outlining the choices for optimal therapy in the treatment of paediatric invasive fungal infections do not exist, and on the other hand are limited paediatric data available comparing antifungal agents in children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infection. The options for treatment rest mainly on some adult guidelines that comment on the treatment of these emerging and uncommon important fungi in children. Despite the sparse clinical trials available on treatment and its poor outcome, options for treatment of invasive fungal infections have increased with the advance of new antifungal agents, with improved tolerability and increased range of activity. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis are discussed in this article.

  16. The Aspergillus nidulans Proline Permease as a Model for Understanding the Factors Determining Substrate Binding and Specificity of Fungal Amino Acid Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Gournas, Christos; Evangelidis, Thomas; Athanasopoulos, Alexandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid uptake in fungi is mediated by general and specialized members of the yeast amino acid transporter (YAT) family, a branch of the amino acid polyamine organocation (APC) transporter superfamily. PrnB, a highly specific l-proline transporter, only weakly recognizes other Put4p substrates, its Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologue. Taking advantage of the high sequence similarity between the two transporters, we combined molecular modeling, induced fit docking, genetic, and biochemical approaches to investigate the molecular basis of this difference and identify residues governing substrate binding and specificity. We demonstrate that l-proline is recognized by PrnB via interactions with residues within TMS1 (Gly56, Thr57), TMS3 (Glu138), and TMS6 (Phe248), which are evolutionary conserved in YATs, whereas specificity is achieved by subtle amino acid substitutions in variable residues. Put4p-mimicking substitutions in TMS3 (S130C), TMS6 (F252L, S253G), TMS8 (W351F), and TMS10 (T414S) broadened the specificity of PrnB, enabling it to recognize more efficiently l-alanine, l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, and glycine without significantly affecting the apparent Km for l-proline. S253G and W351F could transport l-alanine, whereas T414S, despite displaying reduced proline uptake, could transport l-alanine and glycine, a phenotype suppressed by the S130C mutation. A combination of all five Put4p-ressembling substitutions resulted in a functional allele that could also transport l-alanine and glycine, displaying a specificity profile impressively similar to that of Put4p. Our results support a model where residues in these positions determine specificity by interacting with the substrates, acting as gating elements, altering the flexibility of the substrate binding core, or affecting conformational changes of the transport cycle. PMID:25572393

  17. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:26273247

  18. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa Junior, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  19. Investigation of phenolic acids in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves and tubers.

    PubMed

    Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Andrensek, Samo; Valentová, Katerina; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2003-10-17

    Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) screening of crude extracts of dried leaves and tubers of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) and products of acid hydrolysis of tubers on the silica gel HPTLC plates using the developing solvents ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (85:10:15, v/v/v) and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-formic acid (20:19:1, v/v/v) proved the presence of chlorogenic, caffeic and ferulic acid. These phenolic acids were isolated from the crude extract of yacon leaves by preparative TLC, and identified after elution by HPLC/MS, as well as by direct injection of the crude extract into the HPLC/MS system. Acid hydrolysis of tubers released the increased amount of phenolic acids (e.g. caffeic acid and ferulic acid), flavonoid quercetin and an unidentified flavonoid, which was detected by TLC analysis. Ferulic acid, isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid and still an unidentified derivative of chlorogenic acid (Mr = 562) as constituents of yacon leaves and ferulic acid as constituent of yacon tubers are reported here for the first time. These acids gave significant contribution to the radical scavenging activity detected directly on the TLC plate sprayed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

  20. Occult Fungal Scleritis

    PubMed Central

    Jeang, Lauren J.; Davis, Aaron; Madow, Brian; Espana, Edgar M.; Margo, Curtis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To heighten awareness of occult fungal scleritis. Method Case report and review of the literature. Results A 73-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus was diagnosed for 3 months with immune-mediated scleritis and subsequently treated with corticosteroids. On referral, the patient had a scleral nodule with contiguous corneal infiltrate and hypopyon. Culture grew Fusarium species not further classified. The infection could not be controlled with antifungal therapy, and the eye was removed. No exogenous or endogenous source for the infection could be identified by clinical history or examination. Conclusion Fungal scleritis can develop in persons without a history of foreign body injury, minor trauma, or evidence of endogenous fungemia. A high index of suspicion for infectious scleritis must be maintained in persons with presumed immune-mediated scleritis who fail to respond to conventional therapy, particularly if they present with decreased visual acuity. PMID:28275602

  1. Unusual fungal niches.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, S A; Dianese, J C; Fell, J; Gunde-Cimerman, N; Zalar, P

    2011-01-01

    Fungi are found in all aerobic ecosystems, colonizing a diversity of substrates and performing a wide diversity of functions, some of which are not well understood. Many spices of fungi are cosmopolitan and generalists or habitats. Unusual fungal niches are habitats where extreme conditions would be expected to prevent the development of a mycobiota. In this review we describe five unusual fungal habitats in which fungi occupy poorly understood niches: Antarctic dry valleys, high Arctic glaciers, salt flats and salterns, hypersaline microbial mats and plant trichomes. Yeasts, black yeast-like fungi, melanized filamentous species as well as representatives of Aspergillus and Penicillium seem to be dominant among the mycobiota adapted to cold and saline niches. Plant trichomes appear to be a taxa. The advent of new sequencing technologies is helping to elucidate the microbial diversity in many ecosystems, but more studies are needed to document the functional role of fungi in the microbial communities thriving in these unusual environments.

  2. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies.

  3. Fungal CSL transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Převorovský, Martin; Půta, František; Folk, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Background The CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) transcription factor family members are well-known components of the transmembrane receptor Notch signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in metazoan development. They function as context-dependent activators or repressors of transcription of their responsive genes, the promoters of which harbor the GTG(G/A)GAA consensus elements. Recently, several studies described Notch-independent activities of the CSL proteins. Results We have identified putative CSL genes in several fungal species, showing that this family is not confined to metazoans. We have analyzed their sequence conservation and identified the presence of well-defined domains typical of genuine CSL proteins. Furthermore, we have shown that the candidate fungal protein sequences contain highly conserved regions known to be required for sequence-specific DNA binding in their metazoan counterparts. The phylogenetic analysis of the newly identified fungal CSL proteins revealed the existence of two distinct classes, both of which are present in all the species studied. Conclusion Our findings support the evolutionary origin of the CSL transcription factor family in the last common ancestor of fungi and metazoans. We hypothesize that the ancestral CSL function involved DNA binding and Notch-independent regulation of transcription and that this function may still be shared, to a certain degree, by the present CSL family members from both fungi and metazoans. PMID:17629904

  4. Developments in Fungal Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto M.

    1999-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially those caused by opportunistic species, have become substantially more common in recent decades. Numerous species cause human infections, and several new human pathogens are discovered yearly. This situation has created an increasing interest in fungal taxonomy and has led to the development of new methods and approaches to fungal biosystematics which have promoted important practical advances in identification procedures. However, the significance of some data provided by the new approaches is still unclear, and results drawn from such studies may even increase nomenclatural confusion. Analyses of rRNA and rDNA sequences constitute an important complement of the morphological criteria needed to allow clinical fungi to be more easily identified and placed on a single phylogenetic tree. Most of the pathogenic fungi so far described belong to the kingdom Fungi; two belong to the kingdom Chromista. Within the Fungi, they are distributed in three phyla and in 15 orders (Pneumocystidales, Saccharomycetales, Dothideales, Sordariales, Onygenales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Ophiostomatales, Microascales, Tremellales, Poriales, Stereales, Agaricales, Schizophyllales, and Ustilaginales). PMID:10398676

  5. Fungal quorum sensing molecules: Role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wongsuk, Thanwa; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2016-05-01

    When microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. To achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) that control their biological activities and behaviors. Fungi secrete QSMs such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. The role of QSMs in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, Aspergillus niger, A. nidulans, and Fusarium graminearum. QSMs impact fungal morphogenesis (yeast-to-hypha formation) and also play a role in the germination of macroconidia. QSMs cause fungal cells to initiate programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and play a role in fungal pathogenicity. Several types of QSMs are produced during stages of biofilm development to control cell population or morphology in biofilm communities. This review article emphasizes the role of fungal QSMs, especially in fungal morphogenesis, biofilm formation, and pathogenicity. Information about QSMs may lead to improved measures for controlling fungal infection.

  6. Isolation of pyrrolocins A-C: cis- and trans-decalin tetramic acid antibiotics from an endophytic fungal-derived pathway.

    PubMed

    Jadulco, Raquel C; Koch, Michael; Kakule, Thomas B; Schmidt, Eric W; Orendt, Anita; He, Haiyin; Janso, Jeffrey E; Carter, Guy T; Larson, Erica C; Pond, Christopher; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R

    2014-11-26

    Three new decalin-type tetramic acid analogues, pyrrolocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), were defined as products of a metabolic pathway from a fern endophyte, NRRL 50135, from Papua New Guinea. NRRL 50135 initially produced 1 but ceased its production before chemical or biological evaluation could be completed. Upon transfer of the biosynthetic pathway to a model host, 1-3 were produced. All three compounds are structurally related to equisetin-type compounds, with 1 and 3 having a trans-decalin ring system, while 2 has a cis-fused decalin. All were active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the trans-decalin analogues 1 and 3 exhibiting lower MICs than the cis-decalin analogue 2. Here we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimycobacterial activities of 1-3 from the recombinant expression as well as the isolation of 1 from the wild-type fungus NRRL 50135.

  7. Isolation of Pyrrolocins A–C: cis- and trans-Decalin Tetramic Acid Antibiotics from an Endophytic Fungal-Derived Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Three new decalin-type tetramic acid analogues, pyrrolocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), were defined as products of a metabolic pathway from a fern endophyte, NRRL 50135, from Papua New Guinea. NRRL 50135 initially produced 1 but ceased its production before chemical or biological evaluation could be completed. Upon transfer of the biosynthetic pathway to a model host, 1–3 were produced. All three compounds are structurally related to equisetin-type compounds, with 1 and 3 having a trans-decalin ring system, while 2 has a cis-fused decalin. All were active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the trans-decalin analogues 1 and 3 exhibiting lower MICs than the cis-decalin analogue 2. Here we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimycobacterial activities of 1–3 from the recombinant expression as well as the isolation of 1 from the wild-type fungus NRRL 50135. PMID:25351193

  8. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens.

  9. 454-Pyrosequencing Reveals Variable Fungal Diversity Across Farming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kazeeroni, Elham A.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Oasis farming system is common in some parts of the world, especially in the Arabian Peninsula and several African countries. In Oman, the farming system in the majority of farms follows a semi-oasis farming (SOF) system, which is characterized by growing multiple crops mainly for home consumption, but also for local market. This study was conducted to investigate fungal diversity using pyrosequencing approach in soils from a farm utilizing a SOF system which is cultivated with date palms, acid limes and cucumbers. Fungal diversity from this farm was compared to that from an organic farm (OR) growing cucumbers and tomatoes. Fungal diversity was found to be variable among different crops in the same farm. The observed OTUs, Chao1 richness estimates and Shannon diversity values indicated that soils from date palms and acid limes have higher fungal diversity compared to soil from cucumbers (SOF). In addition, they also indicated that the level of fungal diversity is higher in the rhizosphere of cucumbers grown in OR compared to SOF. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum in most of the samples from the OR and SOF farms. Other dominant phyla are Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, and Basidiomycota. The differential level of fungal diversity within the SOF could be related to the variation in the cultural practices employed for each crop. PMID:27014331

  10. Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Thykaer, Jette; Adney, William S.; Brettin, T.; Brockman, Fred J.; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Martinez, Antonio D.; Miller, R. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Torok, Tamas; Tuskan, Gerald; Bennett, Joan W.; Berka, Randy; Briggs, Steve; Heitman, Joseph; Taylor, John; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Himmel, Michael E.

    2008-09-30

    To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions.

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gia-Sheu; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2006-04-01

    Using Novozym 435 as catalyst, the syntheses of ethyl ferulate (EF) from ferulic acid (4-hydroxy 3-methoxy cinnamic acid) and ethanol, and octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) from p-methoxycinnamic acid and 2-ethyl hexanol were successfully carried out in this study. A conversion of 87% was obtained within 2 days at 75 degrees C for the synthesis of EF. For the synthesis of OMC at 80 degrees C, 90% conversion can be obtained within 1 day. The use of solvent and high reaction temperature resulted in better conversion for the synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives. Some cinnamic acid esters could also be obtained with higher conversion and shorter reaction times in comparison to other methods reported in the literature. The enzyme can be reused several times before significant activity loss was observed.

  12. Fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment is a crucial step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars and biofuels. Compared to thermal/chemical pretreatment, fungal pretreatment reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass by lignin-degrading microorganisms and thus potentially provides an environmentally-friendly and energy-efficient pretreatment technology for biofuel production. This paper provides an overview of the current state of fungal pretreatment by white rot fungi for biofuel production. The specific topics discussed are: 1) enzymes involved in biodegradation during the fungal pretreatment; 2) operating parameters governing performance of the fungal pretreatment; 3) the effect of fungal pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production; 4) efforts for improving enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production through combinations of fungal pretreatment and physical/chemical pretreatment; 5) the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass with lignin-degrading enzymes isolated from fungal pretreatment, with a comparison to fungal pretreatment; 6) modeling, reactor design, and scale-up of solid state fungal pretreatment; and 7) the limitations and future perspective of this technology.

  13. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  14. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Correll, Daniel P; Luzi, Scott A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals. Cultures were performed and the patient began steroid therapy and desensitization therapy.

  15. Cell wall fermentation kinetics are impacted more by lignin content and ferulate cross-linking than by lignin composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: We used a biomimetic model system to ascertain how reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking and shifts in lignin composition influence ruminal cell wall fermentation. Primary walls from maize cell suspensions with normal or reduced feruloylation were artificially lignified with variou...

  16. Ferulate protects the epithelial barrier by maintaining tight junction protein expression and preventing apoptosis in tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Park, Min Hi; Ha, Young Mi; Jung, Kyung Jin; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2013-03-01

    Epithelial barrier function is determined by both transcellular and paracellular permeability, the latter of which is mainly influenced by tight junctions (TJs) and apoptotic leaks within the epithelium. We investigated the protective effects of ferulate on epithelial barrier integrity by examining permeability, TJ protein expression, and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), a strong reactive species inducer. Caco-2 cells pretreated with ferulate (5 or 15 μM) were exposed to t-BHP (100 μM), and ferulate suppressed the t-BHP-mediated increases in reactive species and epithelial permeability in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, ferulate inhibited epithelial cell leakage induced by t-BHP, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the TJ proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin. In addition, pretreatment with ferulate markedly protected cells against t-BHP-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by decreased nuclear condensation, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 cleavage and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These results suggest that ferulate protects the epithelial barrier of Caco-2 cells against oxidative stress, which results in increased epithelial permeability, decreased TJ protein expression, and increased apoptosis. The most significant finding of our study is the demonstration of protective, ferulate-mediated antioxidant effects on barrier integrity, with a particular focus on intracellular molecular mechanisms.

  17. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  18. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-02-04

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  19. Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri

    2013-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited.

  20. Invertebrate models of fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Marios; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-09-01

    The morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with fungal infections, together with the emergence of fungal strains resistant to current antimicrobial agents, necessitate broadening our understanding of fungal pathogenesis and discovering new agents to treat these infections. Using invertebrate hosts, especially the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the model insects Drosophila melanogaster and Galleria mellonella, could help achieve these goals. The evolutionary conservation of several aspects of the innate immune response between invertebrates and mammals makes the use of these simple hosts an effective and fast screening method for identifying fungal virulence factors and testing potential antifungal compounds. The purpose of this review is to compare several model hosts that have been used in experimental mycology to-date and to describe their different characteristics and contribution to the study of fungal virulence and the detection of compounds with antifungal properties. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Animal Models of Disease.

  1. [Genetic diagnosis against fungal cerebromeningitis].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2013-01-01

    Fungal cerebromeningitis is one of deep seated mycoses and also a fatal fungal infectious disease. Regarding to causative pathogen of fungal cerebromeningitis in Japan, Cryptococcus spp., Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., are popular fungi. In general, the diagnosis of deep seated mycosis is sometime difficult. The genetic diagnosis method such as PCR against deep seated mycosis has been developing and it has been also reported as one of useful diagnostic tests. However, PCR for fungal detection is still a research test that has not been cleared or approved officially, therefore it should not be used for diagnosis, or patient management routinely. The PCR which detect broad range of fungi or specific fungus is applied for clinical situation, a careful attention should be paid for avoiding contamination because many fungal species are available in living environment.

  2. Evaluation of Pyrolysis Oil as Carbon Source for Fungal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Dörsam, Stefan; Kirchhoff, Jennifer; Bigalke, Michael; Dahmen, Nicolaus; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil, a complex mixture of several organic compounds, produced during flash pyrolysis of organic lignocellulosic material was evaluated for its suitability as alternative carbon source for fungal growth and fermentation processes. Therefore several fungi from all phyla were screened for their tolerance toward pyrolysis oil. Additionally Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar, both established organic acid producers, were chosen as model organisms to investigate the suitability of pyrolysis oil as carbon source in fungal production processes. It was observed that A. oryzae tolerates pyrolysis oil concentrations between 1 and 2% depending on growth phase or stationary production phase, respectively. To investigate possible reasons for the low tolerance level, eleven substances from pyrolysis oil including aldehydes, organic acids, small organic compounds and phenolic substances were selected and maximum concentrations still allowing growth and organic acid production were determined. Furthermore, effects of substances to malic acid production were analyzed and compounds were categorized regarding their properties in three groups of toxicity. To validate the results, further tests were also performed with R. delemar. For the first time it could be shown that small amounts of phenolic substances are beneficial for organic acid production and A. oryzae might be able to degrade isoeugenol. Regarding pyrolysis oil toxicity, 2-cyclopenten-1-on was identified as the most toxic compound for filamentous fungi; a substance never described for anti-fungal or any other toxic properties before and possibly responsible for the low fungal tolerance levels toward pyrolysis oil. PMID:28066378

  3. Evaluation of Pyrolysis Oil as Carbon Source for Fungal Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dörsam, Stefan; Kirchhoff, Jennifer; Bigalke, Michael; Dahmen, Nicolaus; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil, a complex mixture of several organic compounds, produced during flash pyrolysis of organic lignocellulosic material was evaluated for its suitability as alternative carbon source for fungal growth and fermentation processes. Therefore several fungi from all phyla were screened for their tolerance toward pyrolysis oil. Additionally Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar, both established organic acid producers, were chosen as model organisms to investigate the suitability of pyrolysis oil as carbon source in fungal production processes. It was observed that A. oryzae tolerates pyrolysis oil concentrations between 1 and 2% depending on growth phase or stationary production phase, respectively. To investigate possible reasons for the low tolerance level, eleven substances from pyrolysis oil including aldehydes, organic acids, small organic compounds and phenolic substances were selected and maximum concentrations still allowing growth and organic acid production were determined. Furthermore, effects of substances to malic acid production were analyzed and compounds were categorized regarding their properties in three groups of toxicity. To validate the results, further tests were also performed with R. delemar. For the first time it could be shown that small amounts of phenolic substances are beneficial for organic acid production and A. oryzae might be able to degrade isoeugenol. Regarding pyrolysis oil toxicity, 2-cyclopenten-1-on was identified as the most toxic compound for filamentous fungi; a substance never described for anti-fungal or any other toxic properties before and possibly responsible for the low fungal tolerance levels toward pyrolysis oil.

  4. Fungal osteomyelitis of maxillofacial bones: Rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya B; Singh, Hanspal; Mohanty, Sujata; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is defined as inflammation of the medullary cavities, haversian system and adjacent cortex of bone. Osteomyelitis involving maxilla is quite rare when compared to that of mandible. Fungal osteomyelitis is very rarely seen and documented in the maxillofacial area. It is devastating to patients if it is invasive in nature. A prospective study was undertaken from December 2011 to December 2013. Biopsied hard tissue bits were decalcified and sections were stained with H&E, periodic acid Schiff and Grocott methenamine silver. Culture sensitivity was carried out in all cases. Surgical intervention followed by antifungal therapy was advocated to treat the patients. The current series showed five cases of fungal osteomyelitis which included candidal osteomyelitis, aspergillosis and mucormycosis with slight predominance of maxilla over mandible. Osteomyelitis of facial bones needs to be investigated thoroughly as there is no difference in clinical presentation between bacterial and fungal osteomyelitis. The diagnostic workup with biopsy and culture sensitivity helps to identify the pathogen at the earliest. Appropriate antifungal treatment needs to be advocated for successful treatment. PMID:27721629

  5. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  6. Superficial fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  7. Occurrence of Fungal DNA Contamination in PCR Reagents: Approaches to Control and Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Czurda, S; Smelik, S; Preuner-Stix, S; Nogueira, F; Lion, T

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification techniques permitting sensitive and rapid screening in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections are an important addition to conventional fungal diagnostic methods. However, contamination with fungal DNA may be a serious threat to the validity of fungal amplification-based assays. Besides rigorous handling procedures to avoid false-positive test results from exogenous sources, we have implemented protocols for comprehensive assessment of fungal contamination in all materials involved in the analytical process. Traces of fungal DNA were found in different commercially available PCR reagents, including lyophilized primers, TaqMan probes, and master mix solutions. These contaminants resulted in a considerable rate of false-positive tests in panfungal real-time PCR analysis. To address this problem, we have established a decontamination protocol based on the activity of a double-strand specific DNase. Using this approach, we have significantly reduced the frequency of false-positive test results attributable to contaminated reagents. On the basis of our findings, we strongly recommend routine monitoring of all reagents used in fungal PCR assays for the presence of relevant contaminants. As long as fungal-grade reagents are not readily available, pretreatment methods facilitating elimination of fungal DNA are critical for reducing the risk of false-positive results in highly sensitive molecular fungal detection assays.

  8. Serious fungal infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Huh, K; Ha, Y E; Denning, D W; Peck, K R

    2017-02-04

    Information on the incidence and prevalence of fungal infections is of critical value in public health policy. However, nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections are scarce, due to a lack of surveillance and funding. The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden of fungal infections in the Republic of Korea. An actuarial approach using a deterministic model was used for the estimation. Data on the number of populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infections in those populations were obtained from national statistics reports and epidemiology papers. Approximately 1 million people were estimated to be affected by fungal infections every year. The burdens of candidemia (4.12 per 100,000), cryptococcal meningitis (0.09 per 100,000), and Pneumocystis pneumonia (0.51 per 100,000) in South Korea were estimated to be comparable to those in other countries. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (22.4 per 100,000) was markedly high, probably due to the high burden of tuberculosis in Korea. The low burdens of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (56.9 per 100,000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (75.1 per 100,000) warrant further study. Oral candidiasis (539 per 100,000) was estimated to affect a much larger population than noted in previous studies. Our work provides valuable insight on the epidemiology of fungal infections; however, additional studies are needed.

  9. Serious fungal infections in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sabino, R; Verissímo, C; Brandão, J; Martins, C; Alves, D; Pais, C; Denning, D W

    2017-02-10

    There is a lack of knowledge on the epidemiology of fungal infections worldwide because there are no reporting obligations. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of fungal disease in Portugal as part of a global fungal burden project. Most published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Portugal were identified. Where no data existed, specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations were used in order to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition. An estimated 1,510,391 persons develop a skin or nail fungal infection each year. The second most common fungal infection in Portugal is recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, with an estimated 150,700 women (15-50 years of age) suffering from it every year. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, oral or oesophageal candidiasis rates were estimated to be 19.5 and 16.8/100,000, respectively. Candidaemia affects 2.19/100,000 patients, in a total of 231 cases nationally. Invasive aspergillosis is less common than in other countries as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is uncommon in Portugal, a total of 240 cases annually. The estimated prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis after tuberculosis (TB) is 194 cases, whereas its prevalence for all underlying pulmonary conditions was 776 patients. Asthma is common (10% in adults) and we estimate 16,614 and 12,600 people with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, respectively. Sixty-five patients develop Pneumocystis pneumonia in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 13 develop cryptococcosis. Overall, we estimate a total number of 1,695,514 fungal infections starting each year in Portugal.

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction of bound phenolic acids in bran and flour fractions from sorghum and maize cultivars varying in hardness.

    PubMed

    Chiremba, Constance; Rooney, Lloyd W; Beta, Trust

    2012-05-09

    To release bound phenolic acids, a microwave-assisted extraction procedure was applied to bran and flour fractions obtained from eight sorghum and eight maize cultivars varying in hardness. The procedure was followed by HPLC analysis, and the identities of phenolic acids were confirmed by MS/MS spectra. The extraction of sorghum and maize bound phenolic acids was done for 90 s in 2 M NaOH to release ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid from bran and flour. Two diferulic acids, 8-O-4'- and 8-5'-benzofuran form, were identified and quantitated in sorghum bran, and only the former was found in maize bran. The contents of ferulic acid and diferulic acids in sorghum bran were 416-827 and 25-179 μg/g, respectively, compared to 2193-4779 and 271-819 μg/g in maize. Phenolic acid levels of sorghum were similar between hard and soft cultivars, whereas those of maize differed significantly (p < 0.05) except for ferulic acid in flour. Sorghum phenolic acids were not correlated with grain hardness as measured using a tangential abrasive decortication device. Maize ferulic acid (r = -0.601, p < 0.01), p-coumaric acid (r = -0.668, p < 0.01), and 8-O-4'-diferulic acid (r = -0.629, p < 0.01) were significantly correlated with hardness.

  11. Characterization of the p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748(T).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Landete, José María; Curiel, José Antonio; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Mancheño, José Miguel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2008-05-14

    It was previously reported that cell cultures from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 (T) were able to decarboxylate phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric, m-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic, and protocatechuic acid. The p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from this strain has been overexpressed and purified. This PDC differs at its C-terminal end when compared to the previously reported PDC from L. plantarum LPCHL2. Because the C-terminal region of PDC is involved in enzymatic activity, especially in substrate activity, it was decided to biochemically characterize the PDC from L. plantarum CECT 748 (T). Contrarily to L. plantarum LPCHL2 PDC, the recombinant PDC from L. plantarum CECT 748 (T) is a heat-labile enzyme, showing optimal activity at 22 degrees C. This PDC is able to decarboxylate exclusively the hydroxycinnamic acids p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids. Kinetic analysis showed that the enzyme has a 14-fold higher K(M) value for p-coumaric and caffeic acids than for ferulic acid. PDC catalyzes the formation of the corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives (vinylphenol and vinylguaiacol) from p-coumaric and ferulic acids, respectively, which are valuable food additives that have been approved as flavoring agents. The biochemical characteristics showed by L. plantarum PDC should be taken into account for its potential use in the food-processing industry.

  12. Enhanced Lignin Monomer Production Caused by Cinnamic Acid and Its Hydroxylated Derivatives Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  13. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  14. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  15. Traversing the fungal terpenome

    PubMed Central

    Quin, Maureen B.; Flynn, Christopher M.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are prolific producers of structurally diverse terpenoid compounds. Classes of terpenoids identified in fungi include the sesqui-, di- and triterpenoids. Biosynthetic pathways and enzymes to terpenoids from each of these classes have been described. These typically involve the scaffold generating terpene synthases and cyclases, and scaffold tailoring enzymes such as e.g. cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, NAD(P)+ and flavin dependent oxidoreductases, and various group transferases that generate the final bioactive structures. The biosynthesis of several sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins and bioactive diterpenoids has been well-studied in Ascomycota (e.g. filamentous fungi). Little is known about the terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in Basidiomycota (e.g. mushroom forming fungi), although they produce a huge diversity of terpenoid natural products. Specifically, many trans-humulyl cation derived sesquiterpenoid natural products with potent bioactivities have been isolated. Biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the production of trans-humulyl cation derived protoilludanes, and other sesquiterpenoids, can be rapidly identified by genome sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Genome mining combined with heterologous biosynthetic pathway refactoring has the potential to facilitate discovery and production of pharmaceutically relevant fungal terpenoids. PMID:25171145

  16. Fungal infections: a growing threat.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, D M; McNeil, M M; Cohen, M L; Gellin, B G; La Montagne, J R

    1996-01-01

    THE EMERGENCE OF newly identified fungal pathogens and the reemergence of previously uncommon fungal diseases is primarily related to increases in the numbers of susceptible persons: people with HIV infection, bone marrow and organ transplant recipients, cancer patients being treated with chemotherapy, critically ill persons, and very low birth weight ( < or = 1500 g) infants. These immunocompromised populations are at risk for infection not only with opportunistic pathogens (for example, Pneumocystis, Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, Malassezia, Aspergillus, Penicillium marneffei, and numerous other moulds or yeasts) but also with fungal pathogens that usually infect otherwise healthy persons not previously exposed to endemic fungi (for example, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Blastomyces dermatitidis) and Sporothrix schenckii. Morbidity, mortality, and health care costs associated with fungal infections are high. Addressing the emergence of fungal diseases will require increased surveillance coupled with the availability of rapid, noninvasive diagnostic tests; monitoring the development of resistance to antifungal agents; and research focused on the understanding, prevention, and control of fungal infections. Images p[227]-a p226-a p232-a PMID:8643813

  17. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings. PMID:28367444

  18. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sibtain; Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  19. Anthranilate-Activating Modules from Fungal Nonribosomal Peptide Assembly Lines†

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Brian D.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal natural products containing benzodiazepinone- and quinazolinone-fused ring systems can be assembled by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) using the conformationally restricted β-amino acid anthranilate as one of the key building blocks. We validated that the first module of the acetylaszonalenin synthetase of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181 activates anthranilate to anthranilyl-AMP. With this as starting point, we then used bioinformatic predictions about fungal adenylation domain selectivities to identify and confirm an anthranilate-activating module in the fumiquinazoline A producer Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 as well as a second anthranilate-activating NRPS in N. fischeri. This establishes an anthranilate adenylation domain code for fungal NRPS and should facilitate detection and cloning of gene clusters for benzodiazepine- and quinazoline-containing polycyclic alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities. PMID:20225828

  20. Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Francesco; Di Paola, Monica; Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Rizzetto, Lisa; Lionetti, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonio; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to

  1. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-02-10

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  2. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-02-04

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15-50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  3. Fungal Community Assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth.

    PubMed

    Lucheta, Adriano Reis; Cannavan, Fabiana de Souza; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2016-05-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in ADE soils were more similar to each other than their ADJ soils, except for only one site. Phosphorus and aluminum saturation were the main soil chemical factors contributing to ADE and ADJ fungal community dissimilarities. Differences in fungal richness were not observed between ADE and ADJ soil pairs regarding to the most sites. In general, the most dominant subphyla present in the soils were Pezizomycotina, Agaricomycotina, and Mortierellomycotina. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in ADE showed similarities with the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps confragosa and the saprobes Fomitopsis pinicola, Acremonium vitellinum, and Mortierellaceae sp., whereas OTUs similar to Aspergillus niger, Lithothelium septemseptatum, Heliocephala gracillis, and Pestalosphaeria sp. were more abundant in ADJ soils. Differences in fungal community composition were associated to soil chemical factors in ADE (P, Ca, Zn, Mg, organic matter, sum of bases, and base saturation) and ADJ (Al, potential acidity, Al saturation, B, and Fe) soils. These results contribute to a deeper view of the fungi communities in ADE and open new perspectives for entomopathogenic fungi studies.

  4. Fungal degradation of coal as a pretreatment for methane production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Akhtar, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Coal conversion technologies can help in taking advantage of huge low rank coal reserves by converting those into alternative fuels like methane. In this regard, fungal degradation of coal can serve as a pretreatment step in order to make coal a suitable substrate for biological beneficiation. A fungal isolate MW1, identified as Penicillium chrysogenum on the basis of fungal ITS sequences, was isolated from a core sample of coal, taken from a well drilled by the US. Geological Survey in Montana, USA. The low rank coal samples, from major coal fields of Pakistan, were treated with MW1 for 7 days in the presence of 0.1% ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source and 0.1% glucose as a supplemental carbon source. Liquid extracts were analyzed through Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) to obtain qualitative estimates of solubilized coal; these analyses indicated the release of complex organic functionalities. In addition, GC–MS analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of single ring aromatics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic nitrogen compounds and aliphatics. Subsequently, the released organics were subjected to a bioassay for the generation of methane which conferred the potential application of fungal degradation as pretreatment. Additionally, fungal-mediated degradation was also prospected for extracting some other chemical entities like humic acids from brown coals with high huminite content especially from Thar, the largest lignite reserve of Pakistan.

  5. The Effects on Lignin Structure of Overexpression of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase in Hybrid Poplar1[W

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jaclyn J.; Akiyama, Takuya; Chapple, Clint; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2009-01-01

    Poplar (Populus tremula × alba) lignins with exceedingly high syringyl monomer levels are produced by overexpression of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene driven by a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) promoter. Compositional data derived from both standard degradative methods and NMR analyses of the entire lignin component (as well as isolated lignin fraction) indicated that the C4H∷F5H transgenic's lignin was comprised of as much as 97.5% syringyl units (derived from sinapyl alcohol), the remainder being guaiacyl units (derived from coniferyl alcohol); the syringyl level in the wild-type control was 68%. The resultant transgenic lignins are more linear and display a lower degree of polymerization. Although the crucial β-ether content is similar, the distribution of other interunit linkages in the lignin polymer is markedly different, with higher resinol (β-β) and spirodienone (β-1) contents, but with virtually no phenylcoumarans (β-5, which can only be formed from guaiacyl units). p-Hydroxybenzoates, acylating the γ-positions of lignin side chains, were reduced by >50%, suggesting consequent impacts on related pathways. A model depicting the putative structure of the transgenic lignin resulting from the overexpression of F5H is presented. The altered structural features in the transgenic lignin polymer, as revealed here, support the contention that there are significant opportunities to improve biomass utilization by exploiting the malleability of plant lignification processes. PMID:19386808

  6. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  7. Serious fungal infections in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, S F; Cole, D C; Denning, D W; Sheppard, D C

    2017-02-04

    There are currently no nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections in Canada. We estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases using literature review and modeling, as per a methodology previously described by the LIFE program ( http://www.LIFE-worldwide.org ). Among the population of Canada (35.5 million in 2014), it was estimated that approximately 1.8% are affected by a serious fungal infection. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, severe asthma with fungal sensitization, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis are the most frequent infections, with population prevalences of 498,688 (1403/100,000), 73,344 (206/100,000), and 61,854 (174/100,000) cases, respectively. Over 3000 invasive fungal infections are estimated to occur annually, with incidences of 2068 cases (5.8/100,000) of invasive candidiasis, 566 cases (1.6/100,000) of invasive aspergillosis, 252 cases (0.71/100,000) of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 99 cases (0.28/100,000) of endemic mycoses, and 63 cases (0.18/100,000) of cryptococcosis. These estimates warrant validation through more formal epidemiological studies in Canada.

  8. Serious fungal infections in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, B; Denning, D W; Campos, P E

    2017-02-10

    Epidemiological data about mycotic diseases are limited in Peru and estimation of the fungal burden has not been previously attempted. Data were obtained from the Peruvian National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, UNAIDS and from the Ministry of Health's publications. We also searched the bibliography for Peruvian data on mycotic diseases, asthma, COPD, cancer and transplants. Incidence or prevalence for each fungal disease were estimated in specific populations at risk. The Peruvian population for 2015 was 31,151,543. In 2014, the estimated number of HIV/AIDS and pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 88,625, 38,581 of them not on ART, and 22,027, respectively. A total of 581,174 cases of fungal diseases were estimated, representing approximately 1.9% of the Peruvian population. This figure includes 498,606, 17,361 and 4,431 vulvovaginal, oral and esophageal candidiasis, respectively, 1,557 candidemia cases, 3,593 CPA, 1,621 invasive aspergillosis, 22,453 allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilllosis, 29,638 severe asthma with fungal sensitization, and 1,447 Pneumocystis pneumonia. This first attempt to assess the fungal burden in Peru needs to be refined. We believe the figure obtained is an underestimation, because of under diagnosis, non-mandatory reporting and lack of a surveillance system and of good data about the size of populations at risk.

  9. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.

  10. Ecology of Fungal Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Termorshuizen, Aad J

    2016-12-01

    Fungal plant pathogens are ubiquitous and highly diverse. Key to their success is high host density, which notably is the case in agroecosystems. Several hypotheses related to the effects of plant pathogens on plant diversity (the Janzen-Connell hypothesis, the dilution effect hypothesis) and the phenomenon of higher biomass in plant mixtures (i.e., overyielding) can all be explained by the quantitative interplay between host and pathogen density. In many agroecosystems, fungal plant pathogens cause great losses, since in monocultures diseased plants cannot be replaced by healthy plants. On the other hand, in natural ecosystems fungal plant pathogens shape the succession of vegetation and enhance the biodiversity of forests and grasslands. When pathogens are introduced into areas outside their natural range, they may behave differently, causing severe damage. Once introduced, changes may occur such as hybridization with other closely related pathogens or host shifts, host jumps, or horizontal gene transfer. Such changes can be hazardous for both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  11. Four cats with fungal rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Beth L; Broussard, John; Stefanacci, Joseph D

    2005-02-01

    Fungal rhinitis is uncommon in the cat and cases of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis have been rarely reported. Signs of fungal rhinitis include epistaxis, sneezing, mucopurulent nasal discharge and exophthalmos. Brachycephalic feline breeds seem to be at increased risk for development of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis. Computed tomography (CT) imaging and rhinoscopy are useful in assessing the extent of the disease and in obtaining diagnostic samples. Fungal culture may lead to false negative or positive results and must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests. Serological testing was not useful in two cats tested. The cats in this study were treated with oral itraconazole therapy. When itraconazole therapy was discontinued prematurely, clinical signs recurred. Hepatotoxicosis is a possible sequel to itraconazole therapy.

  12. Fungal infection following renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallis, H A; Berman, R A; Cate, T R; Hamilton, J D; Gunnells, J C; Stickel, D L

    1975-09-01

    Twenty-seven deep fungal infections developed in 22 of 171 patients following renal transplantation. These infections included cryptococcosis (ten), nocardiosis (seven), candidiasis (four), aspergillosis (two), phycomycosis (two), chromomycosis (one), and subcutaneous infection with Phialophora gougeroti (one). Twelve infections occurred in living-related and ten in cadaveric recipients. Nineteen of the 22 patients were male. Infections occurred from 0 to 61 months after transplantation. Complicating non-fungal infections were present concomitantly in 15 patients. Thirteen patients died, eight probably as a result of fungal infection. Appropriate diagnostic procedures yielded a diagnosis in 20 of 27 infections, and therapy was begun in 18 patients. Serologic, culture, and biopsy procedures useful in making rapid diagnoses are advocated in the hope of increasing survival.

  13. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiajia; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs) will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8) according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential. PMID:25230677

  14. Metabolomics reveals insect metabolic responses associated with fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Jiang; Luo, Feifei; Gao, Qiang; Shang, Yanfang; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-06-01

    The interactions between insects and pathogenic fungi are complex. We employed metabolomic techniques to profile insect metabolic dynamics upon infection by the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silkworm larvae were infected with fungal spores and microscopic observations demonstrated that the exhaustion of insect hemocytes was coupled with fungal propagation in the insect body cavity. Metabolomic analyses revealed that fungal infection could significantly alter insect energy and nutrient metabolisms as well as the immune defense responses, including the upregulation of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, and lipids, but the downregulation of eicosanoids and amines. The insect antifeedant effect of the fungal infection was evident with the reduced level of maclurin (a component of mulberry leaves) in infected insects but elevated accumulations in control insects. Insecticidal and cytotoxic mycotoxins like oosporein and beauveriolides were also detected in insects at the later stages of infection. Taken together, the metabolomics data suggest that insect immune responses are energy-cost reactions and the strategies of nutrient deprivation, inhibition of host immune responses, and toxin production would be jointly employed by the fungus to kill insects. The data obtained in this study will facilitate future functional studies of genes and pathways associated with insect-fungus interactions.

  15. Rational reprogramming of fungal polyketide first-ring cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuquan; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Zhengfu; Su, Shiyou; Roberts, Sue A.; Montfort, William R.; Zeng, Jia; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Min; Zhan, Jixun; Molnár, István

    2013-01-01

    Resorcylic acid lactones and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid lactones represent important pharmacophores with heat shock response and immune system modulatory activities. The biosynthesis of these fungal polyketides involves a pair of collaborating iterative polyketide synthases (iPKSs): a highly reducing iPKS with product that is further elaborated by a nonreducing iPKS (nrPKS) to yield a 1,3-benzenediol moiety bridged by a macrolactone. Biosynthesis of unreduced polyketides requires the sequestration and programmed cyclization of highly reactive poly-β-ketoacyl intermediates to channel these uncommitted, pluripotent substrates to defined subsets of the polyketide structural space. Catalyzed by product template (PT) domains of the fungal nrPKSs and discrete aromatase/cyclase enzymes in bacteria, regiospecific first-ring aldol cyclizations result in characteristically different polyketide folding modes. However, a few fungal polyketides, including the dihydroxyphenylacetic acid lactone dehydrocurvularin, derive from a folding event that is analogous to the bacterial folding mode. The structural basis of such a drastic difference in the way a PT domain acts has not been investigated until now. We report here that the fungal vs. bacterial folding mode difference is portable on creating hybrid enzymes, and we structurally characterize the resulting unnatural products. Using structure-guided active site engineering, we unravel structural contributions to regiospecific aldol condensations and show that reshaping the cyclization chamber of a PT domain by only three selected point mutations is sufficient to reprogram the dehydrocurvularin nrPKS to produce polyketides with a fungal fold. Such rational control of first-ring cyclizations will facilitate efforts to the engineered biosynthesis of novel chemical diversity from natural unreduced polyketides. PMID:23509261

  16. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook ... Mold . Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

  17. Efficacy of Oryza sativa husk and Quercus phillyraeoides extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of fungal rot disease of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir).

    PubMed

    Dania, Victor Ohileobo; Fadina, Olubunmi Omowunmi; Ayodele, Maria; Kumar, P Lava

    2014-01-01

    Tuber rot disease is a major constraint to white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) production, accounting for 50-60% of annual yield losses in Nigeria. The main method of control using synthetic fungicides is being discouraged due to human and environmental health hazards. The potential of Oryza sativa husk (OSH) and Quercus phillyraeoides (QP) extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of six virulent rot-causing fungal pathogens, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated, using five different extract concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 3.5% w/v. These fungi were isolated from rotted tubers of D. rotundata, across three agroecological zones in Nigeria-the Humid rainforest, Derived savanna, and southern Guinea savanna. All treatments were subjected to three methods of inoculation 48 hours before the application of both extracts and stored at 28 ± 2°C for 6 months. Radial mycelial growth of the test pathogens was effectively inhibited at concentrations ≤ 3.5% w/v in vitro for both OSH and QP extracts. Rotting was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to between 0 to 18.8% and 0% to 20.9% for OSH and QP extracts respectively. The extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited percent rot of the test pathogens at 3.5% concentration w/v in vivo. Rot incidence was, however, lower in replicate tubers that were inoculated, treated with extracts and exposed than treatments that were covered. Phytochemical analysis of OSH and QP extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, ferulic acid, phlobatanins, Terpenoids, phenols, anthraquinone and pyroligneous acid. The efficacy of both extracts in reducing rot in this study recommends their development as prospective biopesticide formulation and use in the management of post-harvest rot of yam tubers.

  18. Protective immune responses to fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Rivera, A

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fungal infections has been on the rise over several decades. Fungal infections threaten animals, plants and humans alike and are thus of significant concern to scientists across disciplines. Over the last decade, significant advances on fungal immunology have lead to a better understanding of important mechanisms of host protection against fungi. In this article, I review recent advances of relevant mechanisms of immune-mediated protection to fungal infections.

  19. Effects of sodium ferulate on preventing steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lei; Dang, Xiao-qian; Wang, Chun-sheng; Yang, Pei; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Kun-zheng

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of sodium ferulate (SF) on anti-apoptosis in steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis in rabbits. Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (control group, treatment group, and model group), each with 24 rabbits. The model and treatment groups were first injected with an intravenous dose of horse serum, 10 ml/kg, three weeks later with an intravenous dose of 7.5 ml/kg, and two weeks later with an intramuscular dose of methylprednisolone, 45 mg/kg, three times in order to establish rabbit models of osteonecrosis. Concurrently, the treatment group was injected with intravenous doses of SF 20 mg/kg for two weeks, once per day. Three time points, Weeks 2, 4, and 8, were selected after modeling was completed. Osteonecrosis was verified by histopathology with haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The apoptosis rate of osteonecrosis was observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The apoptosis expressions of caspase-3 and Bcl-2 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The rabbit models of osteonecrosis were successfully established and observed by HE staining. SF was effective in intervening in apoptosis and decreasing the apoptosis rate in femoral head necrosis by the immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay (P<0.01). Western blot analysis indicated that there were statistical significances in the protein levels of caspase-3 and Bcl-2 (P<0.01). SF has a protective effect by reducing the incidence of early steroid-induced femoral head necrosis in rabbits, effectively intervening in apoptosis through decreasing caspase-3 expression and up-regulating Bcl-2 expression. PMID:23645179

  20. The Protective Effect of Sodium Ferulate and Oxymatrine Combination on Paraquat-induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Pei, Xiaokun; Xu, Mengxin; Sun, Songmei; Zhang, Chunlei; Mu, Keying; Liu, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggested that sodium ferulate (SF) and oxymatrine (OMT) combination had synergistic anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. We hypothesized that SF and OMT combination treatment might have protective effects on paraquat-induced acute lung injury. In our study, the Swiss mice were randomly divided into seven groups, including control, paraquat (PQ), SF (6.2 mg/Kg/day); OMT (13.8 mg/Kg/day) and three SF+OMT groups (3.1 + 6.9; 6.2 + 13.8 and 12.3 + 27.7 mg/Kg/day). The mortality and death time were monitored. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups including control, PQ, SF (3.1 mg/Kg/day); OMT (6.9 mg/Kg/day) and three SF+OMT groups (1.6 + 3.4; 3.1 + 6.9 and 6.2 + 13.8 mg/Kg/day). The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, lung histopathologic changes, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were analysed. Compared with PQ group, the mortality significantly decreased and the death time prolonged in SF and OMT combination treatment groups of mice. Also in SF and OMT combination treatment groups of rats, the increased lung W/D ratio and histopathological score induced by PQ injection were significantly decreased; the levels of CRP, IL-6, NF-κB and MDA in serum and lung homogenate were significantly decreased; the SOD activities in serum and lung homogenate were improved. These results suggested that SF and OMT combination had an obvious protective effect on PQ-induced lung injury. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect might be involved in the mechanism. PMID:25901166

  1. Fungal diversity in major oil-shale mines in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Wang, Wenxing; Xue, Xiangxin; Cao, Chengyou; Zhang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    As an insufficiently utilized energy resource, oil shale is conducive to the formation of characteristic microbial communities due to its special geological origins. However, little is known about fungal diversity in oil shale. Polymerase chain reaction cloning was used to construct the fungal ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) clone libraries of Huadian Mine in Jilin Province, Maoming Mine in Guangdong Province, and Fushun Mine in Liaoning Province. Pure culture and molecular identification were applied for the isolation of cultivable fungi in fresh oil shale of each mine. Results of clone libraries indicated that each mine had over 50% Ascomycota (58.4%-98.9%) and 1.1%-13.5% unidentified fungi. Fushun Mine and Huadian Mine had 5.9% and 28.1% Basidiomycota, respectively. Huadian Mine showed the highest fungal diversity, followed by Fushun Mine and Maoming Mine. Jaccard indexes showed that the similarities between any two of three fungal communities at the genus level were very low, indicating that fungi in each mine developed independently during the long geological adaptation and formed a community composition fitting the environment. In the fresh oil-shale samples of the three mines, cultivable fungal phyla were consistent with the results of clone libraries. Fifteen genera and several unidentified fungi were identified as Ascomycota and Basidiomycota using pure culture. Penicillium was the only genus found in all three mines. These findings contributed to gaining a clear understanding of current fungal resources in major oil-shale mines in China and provided useful information for relevant studies on isolation of indigenous fungi carrying functional genes from oil shale.

  2. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  3. Fungal farming in a snail

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Newell, Steven Y.

    2003-01-01

    Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production. PMID:14657360

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  5. Decarboxylation of Substituted Cinnamic Acids by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated during Malt Whisky Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Sylvie; Priest, Fergus G.

    2000-01-01

    Seven strains of Lactobacillus isolated from malt whisky fermentations and representing Lactobacillus brevis, L. crispatus, L. fermentum, L. hilgardii, L. paracasei, L. pentosus, and L. plantarum contained genes for hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) decarboxylase. With the exception of L. hilgardii, these bacteria decarboxylated p-coumaric acid and/or ferulic acid, with the production of 4-vinylphenol and/or 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively, although the relative activities on the two substrates varied between strains. The addition of p-coumaric acid or ferulic acid to cultures of L. pentosus in MRS broth induced hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA within 5 min, and the gene was also induced by the indigenous components of malt wort. In a simulated distillery fermentation, a mixed culture of L. crispatus and L. pentosus in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae decarboxylated added p-coumaric acid more rapidly than the yeast alone but had little activity on added ferulic acid. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate the induction of hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA under these conditions. However, in fermentations with no additional hydroxycinnamic acid, the bacteria lowered the final concentration of 4-vinylphenol in the fermented wort compared to the level seen in a pure-yeast fermentation. It seems likely that the combined activities of bacteria and yeast decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and then reduce 4-vinylphenol to 4-ethylphenol more effectively than either microorganism alone in pure cultures. Although we have shown that lactobacilli participate in the metabolism of phenolic compounds during malt whisky fermentations, the net result is a reduction in the concentrations of 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol prior to distillation. PMID:11097909

  6. Gene targets for fungal and mycotoxin control.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Campbell, B C; Molyneux, R; Mahoney, N; Chan, K L; Yu, J; Wilkinson, J; Cary, J; Bhatnagar, D; Cleveland, T E

    2006-03-01

    It was initially shown that gallic acid, from hydrolysable tannins in the pelliele of walnut kernels, dramatically inhibits biosynthesis of aflatoxin byAspergillus flavus. The mechanism of this inhibition was found to take place upstream from the gene cluster, including the regulatory gene,aflR, involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Additional research using other antioxidant phenolics showed similar antiaflatoxigenic activity to gallic acid. Treatment ofA. flavus withtert-butyl hydroperoxide resulted in an almost doubling of aflatoxin biosynthesis compared to untreated samples. Thus, antioxidative response systems are potentially useful molecular targets for control ofA. flavus. A high throughput screening system was developed using yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model fungus. This screening provided an avenue to quickly identify fungal genes that were vulnerable to treatment by phenolic compounds. The assay also provided a means to quickly assess effects of combinations of phenolics and certain fungicides affecting mitochondrial respiration. For example, theS. cerevisiae sod2† mutant was highly sensitive to treatment by certain phenolics and strobilurins/antimycin A, fungicides which inhibit complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Verification of stress to this system in the target fungus,A. flavus, was shown through complementation analysis, wherein the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene (sodA) ofA. flavus in the ortholog mutant,sod2†, ofS. cerevisiae, relieved phenolic-induced stress. Mitochondrial antioxidative stress systems play an important role in fungal response to antifungals. Combined treatment of fungi with phenolics and inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration can effectively suppress growth ofA. flavus in a synergistic fashion.

  7. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, M.

    2012-09-01

    The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50-200 µm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  8. Serious fungal infections in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chayakulkeeree, M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-04

    The burden of serious fungal infection in Thailand is increasing but data regarding its incidence and prevalence are lacking. In this study we aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal diseases in Thailand based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases. Data derived from The Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Thai Ministry of Public Health, World Health Organisation, international and local reports, and some unreported data were used. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes per year) is estimated to occur in 3,310 per 100,000 population. Using a previously described rate that 14/10,000 admissions are with fungaemia and 94% of those are Candida, we estimated 8,650 patients with candidaemia. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is relatively high with a total of 19,044, approximately half subsequent to pulmonary tuberculosis. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 941 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantations, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, approximately 1.4/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation were estimated at approximately 58.4/100,000 and 77/100,000, respectively. Given approximately 8,134 new cases of AIDS annually, cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, and Talaromyces marneffei infection are estimated at 1.9/100,000, 2.6/100,000, and 0.3/100,000, respectively. The present study indicates that about 1.93% (1,254,562) of the population is affected by serious fungal infections. Owing to the lack of data, reports, and statistics, the number of patients with mycoses in Thailand can only be estimated.

  9. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on

  10. Fungal induced corrosion of wire rope exposed in humid atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P.

    1995-03-01

    Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was observed on the interiors of wooden spools and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments were designed to demonstrate a causal relationship between storage conditions, fungal growth, and localized corrosion.

  11. The Chemical Basis of Fungal Bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Konstantin V; Petushkov, Valentin N; Baranov, Mikhail S; Mineev, Konstantin S; Rodionova, Natalja S; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petunin, Alexei I; Bondar, Vladimir S; Rodicheva, Emma K; Medvedeva, Svetlana E; Oba, Yuichi; Oba, Yumiko; Arseniev, Alexander S; Lukyanov, Sergey; Gitelson, Josef I; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-07-06

    Many species of fungi naturally produce light, a phenomenon known as bioluminescence, however, the fungal substrates used in the chemical reactions that produce light have not been reported. We identified the fungal compound luciferin 3-hydroxyhispidin, which is biosynthesized by oxidation of the precursor hispidin, a known fungal and plant secondary metabolite. The fungal luciferin does not share structural similarity with the other eight known luciferins. Furthermore, it was shown that 3-hydroxyhispidin leads to bioluminescence in extracts from four diverse genera of luminous fungi, thus suggesting a common biochemical mechanism for fungal bioluminescence.

  12. Untargeted metabolic profiling of Vitis vinifera during fungal degradation.

    PubMed

    Karpe, Avinash V; Beale, David J; Morrison, Paul D; Harding, Ian H; Palombo, Enzo A

    2015-05-01

    This paper illustrates the application of an untargeted metabolic profiling analysis of winery-derived biomass degraded using four filamentous fungi (Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and P. citrinum) and a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Analysis of the metabolome resulted in the identification of 233 significant peak features [P < 0.05; fold change (FC) > 2 and signal-to-noise ratio >50] using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by statistical chemometric analysis. Furthermore, A. niger and P. chrysogenum produced higher biomass degradation due to considerable β-glucosidase and xylanase activities. The major metabolites generated during fungal degradation which differentiated the metabolic profiles of fungi included sugars, sugar acids, organic acids and fatty acids. Although, P. chrysogenum could degrade hemicelluloses due to its high β-glucosidase and xylanase activities, it could not utilize the resultant pentoses, which A. niger and P. citrinum could do efficiently, thus indicating a need of mixed fungal culture to improve the biomass degradation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a non-cellulose degrader, exhibited sugar accumulation during the fermentation. Penicillium chrysogenum was observed to degrade about 2% lignin, a property not observed in other fungi. This study emphasized the differential fungal metabolic behavior and demonstrated the potential of metabolomics in optimizing degradation or manipulating pathways to increase yields of products of interest.

  13. Fungal exopolysaccharide: production, composition and applications.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2013-01-01

    Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs.

  14. Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2013-01-01

    Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs. PMID:24826070

  15. Routes of phlogopite weathering by three fungal strains.

    PubMed

    Pinzari, Flavia; Cuadros, Javier; Napoli, Rosario; Canfora, Loredana; Baussà Bardají, David

    2016-12-01

    Fungi dissolve soil minerals by acidification and mechanical disruption. Dissolution may occur at the microscale (contact between fungus and mineral) and medium scale (entire mineral grains). Mineral weathering by fungi and other microorganisms is thought to be of significant global contribution, perhaps producing specific weathering signatures. We report fungal dissolution of phlogopite mica in experiments with three fungal strains (Alternaria tenuissima, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Stilbella sp.) on solid medium for 30 days at 21 °C and 96-100% relative humidity. The study used variable-pressure SEM-EDS equipped with charge contrast imaging. Statistical analysis of the results discriminated between the weathering activities of the three fungal species, which increased from Stilbella sp. to C. cladosporioides to A. tenuissima, in agreement with the respective decreasing pH in the media (6.4, 5.8, 5.2 ± 0.03). Phlogopite weathering features were irregular and variable, apparently not caused by direct contact with fungal hyphae. EDS values indicated two or more dissolution mechanisms, one of them suggesting cation rearrangement in the mica towards formation of Al-rich smectite. Intimate fungus-mineral interaction was observed, and the lack of observable dissolution traces from such contact interaction is interpreted as the result of effacing by the more intense acid leaching operating at larger scale.

  16. Factors affecting phenolic acid liberation from rice grains in the sake brewing process.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Nakayama, Airi; Ito, Masaya; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2014-12-01

    Phenolic acid (ferulic and p-coumaric acid) liberation from rice grains was examined using rice samples containing phenolic acid at different levels, using two sake mash simulated digestion tests to elucidate influencing factors. Phenolic acid levels in a digest made from steamed rice using dialyzed rice koji enzymes were smaller than levels in a rice koji self-digest. Differences in phenolic acid levels among rice samples in the rice koji self-digest were larger than levels in a digest of steamed rice. In the rice koji self-digest, phenolic acid levels in the ingredient rice grains or in the formed digest related to feruloylesterase (FE) activity in the rice koji. Addition of exogenous FE to rice koji self-digestion increased phenolic acid levels, while addition of xylanase (Xyl) showed weak effects. A concerted effect of FE and Xyl was not clearly observed. Addition of ferulic acid to koji made from α-rice grains raised FE activity, but it did not increase the activity of other enzymes. A similar phenomenon was observed in an agar plate culture of koji mold. These results indicated that ferulic acid levels in ingredient rice grains correlate with FE activities of koji, as a resulut, they affect the phenolic acid levels in sake mash.

  17. Kinetic Characterization of O-Phospho-L-Tyrosine Phosphohydrolase Activity of Two Fungal Phytases.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal phytases belonging to 'Histidine Acid Phosphatase' or HAP class of phosphomonoesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phytic acid could also hydrolyze O-phospho-tyrosine. Two phytases from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori with pH optima 2.5 were tested for phospho-tyrosine hydrola...

  18. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  19. Structural aspects of fungal allergens.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.

  20. Insights Regarding Fungal Phosphoproteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Liliane F C; Chelius, Cynthia L; Harris, Steven D; Marten, Mark R

    2017-03-10

    Protein phosphorylation is a major means of regulation for cellular processes, and is important in cell signaling, growth, and cell proliferation. To study phosphorylated proteins, high throughput phosphoproteomic technologies, such as reverse phase protein array, phospho-specific flow cytometry, and mass spectrometry (MS) based technologies, have been developed. Among them, mass spectrometry has become the primary tool employed for the identification of phosphoproteins and phosphosites in fungi, leading to an improved understanding of a number of signaling pathways. Using mass spectrometry techniques, researchers have discovered new kinase substrates, established connections between kinases and fungal pathogenicity, and studied the evolutionary lineage of kinases between different fungal species. Further, many specific phosphorylation sites recognized by individual kinases have been described. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries made in yeast and filamentous fungi using phosphoproteomic analysis.

  1. Fungal metabolites with anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Lefranc, Florence; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Covering: 1964 to 2013. Natural products from bacteria and plants have played a leading role in cancer drug discovery resulting in a large number of clinically useful agents. In contrast, the investigations of fungal metabolites and their derivatives have not led to a clinical cancer drug in spite of significant research efforts revealing a large number of fungi-derived natural products with promising anticancer activity. Many of these natural products have displayed notable in vitro growth-inhibitory properties in human cancer cell lines and select compounds have been demonstrated to provide therapeutic benefits in mouse models of human cancer. Many of these compounds are expected to enter human clinical trials in the near future. The present review discusses the reported sources, structures and biochemical studies aimed at the elucidation of the anticancer potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  2. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  3. Natural maize phenolic acids for control of aflatoxigenic fungi on maize.

    PubMed

    Nesci, A; Gsponer, N; Etcheverry, M

    2007-06-01

    Natural phytochemicals may be an alternative to synthetic chemicals for controlling fungal growth and mycotoxin production in stored maize. A key to progress in this field is to select the best natural maize phytochemicals to be applied in a storage maize ecosystem. This research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the natural phytochemicals trans-cinnamic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) alone at concentrations of 20 to 30 mM and in 5 combinations on Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare populations and aflatoxin B(1) production. Studies on Aspergillus population and aflatoxin B(1) production were carried out in maize grain in relation to a water activity a(w) of 0.99, 0.97, 0.95, and 0.93. CA and FA at concentrations of 25 to 30 mM, respectively, and CA-FA mixture T9 (25 + 30 mM) were the treatments most effective at inhibiting A. flavus and A. parasiticus population at all a(w) assayed after 11 d of incubation. At all a(w) values, the mixture CA-FA T9 (25 + 30 mM) completely inhibited (100%) aflatoxin B(1) production by both strains at a(w)= 0.99, 0.97, 0.95, and 0.93. Decreased aflatoxin B(1) levels in comparison with the control were observed with mixtures CA-FA T6 (10 + 25 mM), T7 (20 + 20 mM), and T8 (20 + 30 mM) of both strains in the majority of a(w) assayed. The data show that CA and FA could be considered as effective fungitoxicants for A. flavus and A. parasiticus in maize in the a(w) range 0.99 to 0.93. The information obtained shows promise for controlling aflatoxigenic fungi in stored maize.

  4. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools.

  5. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349

  6. Systems Biology of Fungal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Fabian; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Pollmächer, Johannes; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human-pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviors in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions. We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modeling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy. PMID:22485108

  7. Serious fungal infections in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaki, S M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-17

    We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age. Amongst about 21.8 million women aged 15-50 years, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (≥4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 1.3 million (3,169/100,000 females). Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 4,127 cases of candidaemia, and 619 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Amongst the survivors of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Egypt in 2012, 319 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) are likely, a prevalence of 1,005 post-TB and a total prevalence estimate of 3,015 CPA patients in all. Asthma is common in Egypt, affecting 9.4% of adults, 5.35 million, and so ABPA and SAFS were estimated in around 162/100,000 and 214/100,000 respectively. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 495 patients following leukaemia therapy, there are an estimated 37 cases in renal and liver transplant recipients, and an estimated 132 patients develop IA in the context of lung cancer. Amongst 641,000 COPD admissions to hospital each year, 8,337 patients develop IA. The total HIV-infected population is small, with an estimated 6,500 patients, 2,500 not on antiretroviral therapy. Amongst HIV-infected patients, 38 (0.6%) cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 125 (1.9%) cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated each year. Fungal keratitis is common, with 28-55% (mean 40%) of corneal infections being fungal, an estimated total of 11,550 cases. The present study indicates

  8. Hypochlorite scavenging activity of hydroxycinnamic acids evaluated by a rapid microplate method based on the measurement of chloramines.

    PubMed

    Firuzi, Omidreza; Giansanti, Luisa; Vento, Roberta; Seibert, Cathrin; Petrucci, Rita; Marrosu, Giancarlo; Agostino, Roberta; Saso, Luciano

    2003-07-01

    Scavengers of hypochlorite (XOCl) could have beneficial effects in diseases in which this oxidant plays a pathogenic role. It has been reported that ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid, the quinic ester of caffeic acid, are good hypochlorite scavengers, but a systematic evaluation of the naturally occurring hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), which these substances belong to, has not been performed yet. Thus, in this work we studied, by two different in-vitro methods, the antioxidant activity of five HCAs: p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapinic acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. The methods applied in this study were based on the oxidation of human serum albumin (HSA) by XOCl, a new microplate method based on the measurement of chloramines and a previously described carbonyl assay. Firstly, lysine-derived chloramines, in the presence or absence of the HCAs, were detected using 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB), measuring the absorbance at 415 nm by a microplate reader. To remove excess XOCl, Trolox, a known XOCl scavenger, was added before TNB. Secondly, lysine-derived carbonyls, in the presence or absence of the HCAs, were detected by using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Hydroxycinnamic acids appeared active (caffeic >/= sinapinic > chlorogenic congruent with ferulic > p-coumaric acid) by both methods, suggesting possible pharmacological applications for these compounds, which are present at high concentrations in the plant kingdom.

  9. Metabolism of nonesterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schopp, Lauren M; Lee, Jungmin; Osborne, James P; Chescheir, Stuart C; Edwards, Charles G

    2013-11-27

    While Brettanomyces can metabolize nonesterified hydroxycinnamic acids found in grape musts/wines (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids), it was not known whether this yeast could utilize the corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, p-coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively). Red wines from Washington and Oregon were inoculated with B. bruxellensis, while hydroxycinnamic acids were monitored by HPLC. Besides consuming p-coumaric and ferulic acids, strains I1a, B1b, and E1 isolated from Washington wines metabolized 40-50% of caffeic acid, a finding in contrast to strains obtained from California wines. Higher molar recoveries of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol synthesized from p-coumaric and ferulic acids, respectively, were observed in Washington Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah but not Merlot. This finding suggested that Brettanomyces either (a) utilized vinylphenols formed during processing of some wines or (b) metabolized other unidentified phenolic precursors. None of the strains of Brettanomyces studied metabolized caftaric or p-coutaric acids present in wines from Washington or Oregon.

  10. Functional and Phylogenetic Divergence of Fungal Adenylate-Forming Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Daniel; Lackner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    A key step in fungal l-lysine biosynthesis is catalyzed by adenylate-forming l-α-aminoadipic acid reductases, organized in domains for adenylation, thiolation, and the reduction step. However, the genomes of numerous ascomycetes and basidiomycetes contain an unexpectedly large number of additional genes encoding similar but functionally distinct enzymes. Here, we describe the functional in vitro characterization of four reductases which were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. The Ceriporiopsis subvermispora serine reductase Nps1 features a terminal ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) domain and thus belongs to a hitherto undescribed class of fungal multidomain enzymes. The second major class is characterized by the canonical terminal short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain and represented by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora Nps3 as the first biochemically characterized l-α-aminoadipic acid reductase of basidiomycete origin. Aspergillus flavus l-tyrosine reductases LnaA and LnbA are members of a distinct phylogenetic clade. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that fungal adenylate-forming reductases are more diverse than previously recognized and belong to four distinct classes. PMID:25085485

  11. The fungal vacuole: composition, function, and biogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Klionsky, D J; Herman, P K; Emr, S D

    1990-01-01

    The fungal vacuole is an extremely complex organelle that is involved in a wide variety of functions. The vacuole not only carries out degradative processes, the role most often ascribed to it, but also is the primary storage site for certain small molecules and biosynthetic precursors such as basic amino acids and polyphosphate, plays a role in osmoregulation, and is involved in the precise homeostatic regulation of cytosolic ion and basic amino acid concentration and intracellular pH. These many functions necessitate an intricate interaction between the vacuole and the rest of the cell; the vacuole is part of both the secretory and endocytic pathways and is also directly accessible from the cytosol. Because of the various roles and properties of the vacuole, it has been possible to isolate mutants which are defective in various vacuolar functions including the storage and uptake of metabolites, regulation of pH, sorting and processing of vacuolar proteins, and vacuole biogenesis. These mutants show a remarkable degree of genetic overlap, suggesting that these functions are not individual, discrete properties of the vacuole but, rather, are closely interrelated. Images PMID:2215422

  12. An organic solvent-tolerant phenolic acid decarboxylase from Bacillus licheniformis for the efficient bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongfei; Li, Lulu; Ding, Shaojun

    2015-06-01

    A new phenolic acid decarboxylase gene (blpad) from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The full-length blpad encodes a 166-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass and pI of 19,521 Da and 5.02, respectively. The recombinant BLPAD displayed maximum activity at 37 °C and pH 6.0. This enzyme possesses a broad substrate specificity and is able to decarboxylate p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids at the relative ratios of specific activities 100:74.59:34.41:0.29. Kinetic constant K m values toward p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids were 1.64, 1.55, 1.93, and 2.45 mM, and V max values were 268.43, 216.80, 119.07, and 0.78 U mg(-1), respectively. In comparison with other phenolic acid decarboxylases, BLPAD exhibited remarkable organic solvent tolerance and good thermal stability. BLPAD showed excellent catalytic performance in biphasic organic/aqueous systems and efficiently converted p-coumaric and ferulic acids into 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol. At 500 mM of p-coumaric and ferulic acids, the recombinant BLPAD produced a total 60.63 g l(-1) 4-vinylphenol and 58.30 g l(-1) 4-vinylguaiacol with the conversion yields 97.02 and 70.96 %, respectively. The low yield and product concentration are the crucial drawbacks to the practical bioproduction of vinyl phenol derivatives using phenolic acid decarboxylases. These unusual properties make BLPAD a desirable biocatalyst for commercial use in the bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives via enzymatic decarboxylation in a biphasic organic/aqueous reaction system.

  13. Surgical management of fungal endophthalmitis resulting from fungal keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Nan; Dong, Xiao-Guang; Yuan, Gong-Qiang; Yu, Bin; Xie, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report the fungal organisms, clinical features, surgical treatment strategies, and outcomes of patients with culture-proven exogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE) secondary to keratitis, and evaluate the role of surgery in the treatment. METHODS The clinical records of 27 patients (27 eyes) with culture-proven EFE resulting from fungal keratitis treated at Shandong Eye Institute from January 2007 to January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Information about fungal culture results, clinical features, surgical procedures, and final visual acuity was obtained. RESULTS There were 39 positive culture results from samples of cornea, hypopyon, vitreous and lens capsule, accounting for 56%, 26%, 15% and 2.5%, respectively. Fusarium was identified in 44% (12/27) of the eyes, followed by Aspergillus in 22% (6/27). Posterior segment infection was involved in 78% (21/27) of the patients. The corneal infection was larger than 3 mm ×3 mm in 89% (24/27) of the patients, and 22% (6/27) of them had the entire cornea, and even the sclera involved. Three eyes had silicone oil tamponade, and two eyes had retinal detachment. Twenty-two eyes (81.5%) underwent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), and over half of them (54.5%) were operated within 3d from the onset of antifungal therapy. Fourteen eyes (52%) underwent intracameral antifungal drug injection, and three of them required repeated injections. Fifteen eyes (55.6%) underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). The rate of the eyes undergoing PPV as the initial surgical procedure was 60% (9/15), lower than 77% in PKP. Intravitreal injection was given in 59% of the eyes (16/27), and 75% of them required repeated injections. The final visual acuity was 20/100 or better in 37% of the eyes, and better than counting fingers in 55.6% of the eyes. Five eyes (18.5%) were eviscerated. In the two eyes with concurrent retinal detachment, one achieved retinal reattachment, and the other was eviscerated. In the three eyes with silicone oil

  14. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  15. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  16. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Karen V.; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte. PMID:26055188

  17. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Karen V; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C

    2015-06-09

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte.

  18. Antioxidant properties of fungal metabolite nigerloxin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suresha, B S; Srinivasan, K

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported the beneficial influence of the fungal metabolite nigerloxin, a new aldose reductase inhibitor and a lipoxygenase inhibitor on oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In the present study we have investigated the antioxidant potential of nigerloxin in vitro as compared to one of the well known natural antioxidant, curcumin. The fungal metabolite nigerloxin was found to be an effective antioxidant in different in vitro assays including the phosphomolybdenum, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.),2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS.+) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The antioxidant potency of nigerloxin may be attributed to its electron donating nature. The ferric reducing potency of nigerloxin as demonstrated by FRAP assay method was even found to be superior to that of the natural antioxidant curcumin.

  19. The Global Burden of Fungal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Mody, Rajal K; Walker, Tiffany; Chiller, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diseases require greater attention today than ever before, given the expanding population of immunosuppressed patients who are at higher risk for these diseases. This article reports on distribution, incidence, and prevalence of various fungal diseases and points out gaps in knowledge where such data are not available. Fungal diseases that contribute substantially to global morbidity and mortality are highlighted. Long-term, sustainable surveillance programs for fungal diseases and better noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tools are needed to estimate the burden of these diseases more accurately.

  20. Digging the New York City Skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Krista L; Payne, Sara G; Palmer, Matthew I; Gillikin, Caitlyn M; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A; Massmann, Audrey L; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.

  1. Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nhu; Cohen, Hannah; Peay, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive) was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi. PMID:25548729

  2. Digging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Krista L.; Payne, Sara G.; Palmer, Matthew I.; Gillikin, Caitlyn M.; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M.; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A.; Massmann, Audrey L.; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs. PMID:23469260

  3. Fungal catalases: function, phylogenetic origin and structure.

    PubMed

    Hansberg, Wilhelm; Salas-Lizana, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Laura

    2012-09-15

    Most fungi have several monofunctional heme-catalases. Filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina) have two types of large-size subunit catalases (L1 and L2). L2-type are usually induced by different stressors and are extracellular enzymes; those from the L1-type are not inducible and accumulate in asexual spores. L2 catalases are important for growth and the start of cell differentiation, while L1 are required for spore germination. In addition, pezizomycetes have one to four small-size subunit catalases. Yeasts (Saccharomycotina) do not have large-subunit catalases and generally have one peroxisomal and one cytosolic small-subunit catalase. Small-subunit catalases are inhibited by substrate while large-subunit catalases are activated by H(2)O(2). Some small-subunit catalases bind NADPH preventing inhibition by substrate. We present a phylogenetic analysis revealing one or two events of horizontal gene transfers from Actinobacteria to a fungal ancestor before fungal diversification, as the origin of large-size subunit catalases. Other possible horizontal transfers of small- and large-subunit catalases genes were detected and one from bacteria to the fungus Malassezia globosa was analyzed in detail. All L2-type catalases analyzed presented a secretion signal peptide. Mucorales preserved only L2-type catalases, with one containing a secretion signal if two or more are present. Basidiomycetes have only L1-type catalases, all lacking signal peptide. Fungal small-size catalases are related to animal catalases and probably evolved from a common ancestor. However, there are several groups of small-size catalases. In particular, a conserved group of fungal sequences resemble plant catalases, whose phylogenetic origin was traced to a group of bacteria. This group probably has the heme orientation of plant catalases and could in principle bind NADPH. From almost a hundred small-subunit catalases only one fourth has a peroxisomal localization signal and in fact many fungi lack

  4. In vitro and in vivo studies on adlay-derived seed extracts: phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, serum uric acid suppression, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mouming; Zhu, Dashuai; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Xiao; Dong, Yi

    2014-08-06

    This study aimed to explore the potential of polished adlay, brown adlay, adlay bran, and adlay hull to prevent and treat hyperuricemia. Brown adlay extract effectively decreased the serum uric acid levels of oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Free and bound phenolic extracts from these materials contained significant amounts of phenolics, with free phenolics dominated by chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid while bound phenolics dominated by p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Free and bound phenolics of adlay bran exhibited significant xanthine oxidase inhibition activities, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, oxygen radical absorbance capacities, and superoxide radical scavenging activities. Adlay bran phenolics could be effective xanthine oxidase inhibitors and radical scavengers. p-Coumaric acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with strong superoxide radical scavenging activity. However, ferulic acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with weak superoxide radical scavenging activity. Chlorogenic acid is a superoxide radical scavenger with weak xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

  5. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Brian D; McKinney, Kibwei A; Rose, Austin S; Ebert, Charles S

    2012-06-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a subtype of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) characterized by type I hypersensitivity, nasal polyposis, characteristic computed tomography scan findings, eosinophilic mucus, and the presence of fungus on surgical specimens without evidence of tissue invasion. This refractory subtype of CRS is of the great interest in the pediatric population, given the relatively early age of onset and the difficulty in managing AFS through commercially available medical regimens. Almost universally, a diagnosis of AFS requires operative intervention. Postoperative adjuvant medical therapy is a mainstay in the treatment paradigm of pediatric AFS.

  6. Topical therapy for fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amber A; Dahl, Mark V

    2004-01-01

    Fungi often infect the skin surface and subsequently invade the stratum corneum to avoid being shed from the skin surface by desquamation. Pharmacologic agents applied to the surface of the skin in the form of creams, lotions, or sprays, readily penetrate into the stratum corneum to kill the fungi (fungicidal agents), or at least render them unable to grow or divide (fungistatic agents). Thus, topical therapies work well to rid the skin of topical fungi and yeasts. Azole drugs such as miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole are fungistatic, limiting fungal growth but depending on epidermal turnover to shed the still-living fungus from the skin surface. Allylamines and benzylamines such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine are fungicidal, actually killing the fungal organisms. Fungicidal drugs are often preferred over fungistatic drugs for treatment of dermatophytic fungal infections, since treatment times as short as one application daily for 1 week are associated with high cure rates. Furthermore, patients often stop treatments when the skin appears healed, usually after about a week of treatment. If this short-term treatment is stopped, fungi recur more often when fungistatic, rather than fungicidal, drugs have been used. Yeast infections such as those caused by Candida albicans respond less well to allylamine drugs. The azole drugs are often preferred for these types of infections. Nail infections are difficult to cure with topical therapies because the infections usually occur under the nail instead of on top of it and products penetrate poorly, if at all, through the nail plate. Infections of hair follicles, nails, and widespread infections often require systemic treatments. Antifungal agents are compounded into many different types of vehicles. Patients often prefer to treat weeping infections with spray formulations. Most physicians prescribe branded products in cream or lotion bases. Cost is a factor dictating prescription choice, especially since

  7. Fungal spores: hazardous to health?

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, W G

    1999-01-01

    Fungi have long been known to affect human well being in various ways, including disease of essential crop plants, decay of stored foods with possible concomitant production of mycotoxins, superficial and systemic infection of human tissues, and disease associated with immune stimulation such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toxic pneumonitis. The spores of a large number of important fungi are less than 5 microm aerodynamic diameter, and therefore are able to enter the lungs. They also may contain significant amounts of mycotoxins. Diseases associated with inhalation of fungal spores include toxic pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, tremors, chronic fatigue syndrome, kidney failure, and cancer. PMID:10423389

  8. Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated structured lipids by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate with castor oil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shangde; Zhu, Sha; Bi, Yanlan

    2014-09-01

    A novel enzymatic route of feruloylated structured lipids synthesis by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with castor oil, in solvent-free system, was investigated. The transesterification reactions were catalysed by Novozym 435, Lipozyme RMIM, and Lipozyme TLIM, among which Novozym 435 showed the best catalysis performance. Effects of feruloyl donors, reaction variables, and ethanol removal on the transesterification were also studied. High EF conversion (∼100%) was obtained under the following conditions: enzyme load 20% (w/w, relative to the weight of substrates), reaction temperature 90 °C, substrate molar ratio 1:1 (EF/castor oil), 72 h, vacuum pressure 10 mmHg, and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the transesterification product consisted of 62.6% lipophilic feruloylated structured lipids and 37.3% hydrophilic feruloylated lipids.

  9. Fungal infections of the orbit

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Raichura, Nirav Dilip; Alam, Md. Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients. PMID:27380972

  10. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis.

  11. Changes in fungal communities along a boreal forest soil fertility gradient.

    PubMed

    Sterkenburg, Erica; Bahr, Adam; Brandström Durling, Mikael; Clemmensen, Karina E; Lindahl, Björn D

    2015-09-01

    Boreal forests harbour diverse fungal communities with decisive roles in decomposition and plant nutrition. Although changes in boreal plant communities along gradients in soil acidity and nitrogen (N) availability are well described, less is known about how fungal taxonomic and functional groups respond to soil fertility factors. We analysed fungal communities in humus and litter from 25 Swedish old-growth forests, ranging from N-rich Picea abies stands to acidic and N-poor Pinus sylvestris stands. 454-pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons was used to analyse community composition, and biomass was estimated by ergosterol analysis. Fungal community composition was significantly related to soil fertility at the levels of species, genera/orders and functional groups. Ascomycetes dominated in less fertile forests, whereas basidiomycetes increased in abundance in more fertile forests, both in litter and humus. The relative abundance of mycorrhizal fungi in the humus layer remained high even in the most fertile soils. Tolerance to acidity and nitrogen deficiency seems to be of greater importance than plant carbon (C) allocation patterns in determining responses of fungal communities to soil fertility, in old-growth boreal forests.

  12. Identification of 8-O-4/8-5(Cyclic)- and 8-8(Cyclic)/5-5-Coupled Dehydrotriferulic Acids, Naturally Occurring in Cell Walls of Mono- and Dicotyledonous Plants.

    PubMed

    Waterstraat, Martin; Bunzel, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-09-28

    Besides ferulate dimers, higher oligomers of ferulic acid such as trimers and tetramers were previously demonstrated to occur in plant cell walls. This paper reports the identification of two new triferulic acids. 8-O-4/8-5(cyclic)-triferulic acid was synthesized from ethyl ferulate under oxidative conditions using copper(II)-tetramethylethylenediamine [CuCl(OH)-TMEDA] as a catalyst, whereas 8-8(cyclic)/5-5-triferulic acid was isolated (preparative size exclusion chromatography, reversed-phase HPLC) from saponified insoluble maize fiber. Structures of both trimers were unambiguously elucidated by high-resolution LC-ToF-MS/MS and one- ((1)H) and two-dimensional (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) NMR spectroscopy. The newly described trimers were identified by LC-MS/MS in alkaline hydrolysates of insoluble fibers from maize, wheat, and sugar beet, indicating that ferulic acid cross-links between cell wall polymers are more diverse than previously recognized. Saponification experiments also suggest that the newly identified 8-O-4/8-5(cyclic)-triferulic acid is the naturally occurring precursor of the previously identified 8-O-4/8-5(noncyclic)-triferulic acid in plant cell walls.

  13. POSSIBLE ROLE OF FUNGAL HEMOLYSINS IN SICK BUILDING SYNDROME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi produce proteinaceous hemolytic agents. Like bacterial hemolysins, fungal hemolysins create pores or holes in membranes. Depending on which membranes are damaged, fungal hemolysins can produce a variety of effects. Fungal hemolysins can cause histamine release from ...

  14. OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic- and hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of aromatic products—A gamma radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimmel, Birgit; Swoboda, Friederike; Solar, Sonja; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2010-12-01

    The OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCiA) and methoxylated derivatives, as well as of chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid was studied by gamma radiolysis in aerated aqueous solutions. Primary aromatic products resulting from an OH-radical attachment to the ring (hydroxylation), to the position occupied by the methoxyl group (replacement -OCH 3 by -OH) as well as to the propenoic acid side chain of the cinnamic acids (benzaldehyde formations) were analysed by HPLC-UV and LC-ESI-MS. A comparison of the extent of these processes is given for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, isovanillic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid. For all cinnamic acids and derivatives benzaldehydes were significant oxidation products. With the release of caffeic acid from chlorogenic acid the cleavage of a phenolic glycoside could be demonstrated. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Sorting of fungal-damaged white sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-speed, color image-based sorting machine was modified to separate white sorghum with symptoms of fungal damage. Most of the sorghum tested was typically white, but over 27% of the bulk contained grains with fungal damage of various degrees, from severe to very slight. Grains with slight fun...

  16. The burden of fungal disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Klaus L; Denning, David W; Arendrup, Maiken C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the burden of fungal disease in Denmark. We identified all published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates in Denmark. Where no data existed, we used numbers of specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence. Approximately, one in six Danes will suffer from a fungal infection each year, most of which are skin or mucosal diseases causing disability but no deaths. Good data exist on candidaemia where a national voluntary reporting system is in place and have shown a high rate (9.6 per 100,000 inhabitants) compared other European countries. We present estimates of invasive aspergillosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis with rates of 4.4 per 100,000 and 3.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to better ascertain high-burden fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (~1350 cases in 100,000 women) as well as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (~131 cases in 100,000 inhabitants) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (cases in 100,000 inhabitants). In conclusion, more than 93,000 Danes or about 2% of Denmark's population will have a non-trivial fungal infection during 1 year, which underscores the magnitude of the fungal burden.

  17. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of healthcare-associated infections for more information. Fungal infections can happen any time after your surgery. Fungal infections can happen ... Neofytos D, Fishman JA, Horn D, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive ... in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplant Infectious Disease ...

  18. Burden of serious fungal infections in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khwakhali, Ushana Shrestha; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    There are few reports of serious fungal infections in Nepal though the pathogenic and allergenic fungi including Aspergillus species are common in the atmosphere. Herein, we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Nepal. All published papers reporting fungal infection rates from Nepal were identified. When few data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence. Of the 27.3 M population, about 1.87% was estimated to suffer from serious fungal infections annually. We estimated the incidence of fungal keratitis at 73 per 100,000 annually. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is common with 215,765 cases, contributing to 1119 cases of invasive aspergillosis annually. Of 381,822 adult asthma cases, we estimated 9546 patients (range 2673-13,364) develop allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and 12,600 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. Based on 26,219 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, the annual incidence of new chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) cases was estimated at 1678 with a 5 year period prevalence of 5289, 80% of CPA cases. Of 22,994 HIV patients with CD4 counts <350 not on antiretrovirals, Pneumocystis pneumonia was estimated at 990 cases annually. Cases of oral and oesophageal candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients were estimated at 10,347 and 2950, respectively. There is a significant burden of serious fungal infections in Nepal. Epidemiological studies are necessary to validate these estimates.

  19. New multifunctional surfactants from natural phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Centini, Marisanna; Rossato, Maria Sole; Sega, Alessandro; Buonocore, Anna; Stefanoni, Sara; Anselmi, Cecilia

    2012-01-11

    Several new multifunctional molecules derived from natural sources such as amino acids and hydroxycinnamic acids were synthesized. They exhibit various activities such as emulsifying, UV-protecting, and radical scavenging, thereby conforming to the latest requirements for cosmetic ingredients. The synthesis comprises only a few steps: (i) the amino acid, the acid groups of which are protected by esterification, is coupled with ferulic or caffeic acid; (ii) the p-hydroxyl group of the cinnamic derivative reacts with dodecyl bromide in the presence of potassium carbonate (the resulting compounds are highly lipophilic and tested as water/oil (W/O) emulsifiers); (iii) these molecules, by deprotonating the acid groups of the amino acids, with successive salification, are more hydrophilic, with stronger O/W emulsifying properties. The new multifunctional surfactants might prove useful for the treatment of multiple skin conditions, including loss of cellular antioxidants, damage from free radicals, damage from UV, and others.

  20. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  1. Fungal infections in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Fernanda P; Husain, Shahid

    2007-06-01

    Fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. account for most invasive fungal infections. The incidence of fungal infection varies with type of solid organ transplant. Liver transplant recipients have highest reported incidence of candida infections while lung transplant recipients have highest rate of Aspergillus infections. Recent epidemiological studies suggest the emergence of resistant strains of candida as well as mycelial fungi other than Aspergillus in these patients. The current review incorporates the recent changes in the epidemiology of fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients and highlights the newer data on the diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of fungal infections in these patients.

  2. Carbon requirements of some nematophagous, entomopathogenic and mycoparasitic hyphomycetes as fungal biocontrol agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, ManHong; Liu, XingZhong

    2006-05-01

    Thirty-three carbon sources were evaluated for their effects on spore germination, hyphal growth and sporulation of 11 fungal biocontrol agents, i.e. the nematophagous fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Hirsutella rhossiliensis, H. minnesotensis and Arkansas Fungus 18, the entomopathogenic fungi Lecanicillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, and the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma viride. Variations in carbon requirements were found among the fungal species or strains tested. All strains studied except for T. viride grew on most carbon sources, although B. bassiana had more fastidious requirements for spore germination. Monosaccharides and disaccharides were suitable for fungal growth. For most isolates, D-glucose, D-mannose, sucrose and trehalose were superior to pectin and soluble starch among the polysaccharides and lactic acid among the organic acids. Both ethanol and methanol could accelerate growth of most isolates but not biomass. D-mannose, D-fructose and D-xylose were excellent carbon sources for sporulation, while D-glucose, sucrose, cellobiose, trehalose, chitin, dextrin, gelatin and lactic acid were better for some isolates. Neither sorbic acid nor linoleic acid could be utilized as a single carbon source. These findings provided a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of different fungal biocontrol agents that can benefit the mass production process.

  3. Identification of hydroxycinnamic acid-maillard reaction products in low-moisture baking model systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Deshou; Chiaro, Christopher; Maddali, Pranav; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Peterson, Devin G

    2009-11-11

    The chemistry and fate of hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, p-coumeric, caffeic, sinapic, and cinnamic acid) in a glucose/glycine simulated baking model (10% moisture at 200 degrees C for 15 min) were investigated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of glucose/glycine and glucose/glycine/hydroxycinnamic acid model systems confirmed the phenolics reacted with Maillard intermediates; two main reaction product adducts were reported. On the basis of isotopomeric analysis, LC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy, structures of two ferulic acid-Maillard reaction products were identified as 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-one (adduct I) and 2-(6-(furan-2-yl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-3-oxo-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)acetic acid (adduct II). In addition, a pyrazinone-type Maillard product, 2-(5-(furan-2-yl)-6-methyl-2-oxopyrazin-1(2H)-yl) acetic acid (IIa), was identified as an intermediate for reaction product adduct II, whereas 3-deoxy-2-hexosulose was identified as an intermediate of adduct I. Both adducts I and II were suggested to be generated by pericyclic reaction mechanisms. Quantitative gas chromatography (GC) analysis and liquid chromatography (LC) also indicated that the addition of ferulic acid to a glucose/glycine model significantly reduced the generation of select Maillard-type aroma compounds, such as furfurals, methylpyrazines, 2-acetylfuran, 2-acetylpyridine, 2-acetylpyrrole, and cyclotene as well as inhibited color development in these Maillard models. In addition, adducts I and II suppressed the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated expression of two prototypical pro-inflammatory genes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in an in vitro murine macrophage model; ferulic acid reported negligible activity.

  4. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  5. Detection of fungal development in closed spaces through the determination of specific chemical targets.

    PubMed

    Moularat, Stéphane; Robine, Enric; Ramalho, Olivier; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2008-05-01

    In addition to the biodegradation problems encountered in buildings, exposure of their occupants to moulds is responsible for numerous diseases: infections (invasive nosocomial aspergillosis), immediate or delayed allergies, food-borne infections and different types of irritation. In this context, the aim of our work has been to determine specific chemical tracers for fungal development on construction materials. More generally, by detecting a specific chemical fingerprint of fungal development, our objective was to propose a microbiological alert system which could control systems and/or procedures for the microbiological treatment of indoor areas. We therefore characterized the chemical emissions from six types of construction material contaminated artificially by moulds. Chemical fingerprints were established for 19 compounds arising specifically from fungal metabolism: 2-ethylhexanoic acid methyl ester, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-heptanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 1,3-octadiene, 2-(5H)-furanone, 2-heptene, alpha-pinene, 2-methylisoborneol, 4-heptanone, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, dimethyldisulfide, methoxybenzene, a terpenoid and three sesquiterpenes. Determining the origin of these compounds and their specific links with a growth substrate or fungal species made it possible to judge the pertinence of choosing these compounds as tracers. Thus the detecting specific volatile organic compounds emitted as from the second day of fungal growth demonstrated that this approach had the advantage of detecting fungal development both reliably and rapidly before any visible signs of contamination could be detected.

  6. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  7. Scabies, lice, and fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Taplin, D; Meinking, T L

    1989-09-01

    Scabies and pediculosis capitis are frequent and often unrecognized causes of multiple streptococcal and staphylococcal pyodermas. Permethrin 1 per cent creme rinse (NIX) for head lice, and permethrin 5 per cent topical cream for scabies are new, highly effective, safe, and cosmetically elegant treatments which have shown superiority over older remedies. In populations in which pediculosis and scabies have resisted traditional lindane therapy, patients promptly responded to these permethrin products. Scabies in nursing homes is a persistent and expanding problem which demands a high level of diagnostic suspicion and an integrated approach to management. For fungal infections, several new broad-spectrum oral and topical agents have been introduced. Their successful use is enhanced by appropriate diagnostic tests which can be performed in the office setting. Recommendations and references are given to assist the physician in diagnosis and choice of therapy.

  8. Plant Chitinases and Their Roles in Resistance to Fungal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Punja, Zamir K.; Zhang, Ye-Yan

    1993-01-01

    Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze the N-acetylglucosamine polymer c