Sample records for fungus serpula lacrymans

  1. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Treesearch

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  2. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    Treesearch

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In...

  3. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    Treesearch

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Bo Jensen; Carol Clausen; Frederick Green

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi....

  4. Effect of metal ions on autofluorescence of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grown on spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Jiří; Žižka, Zdeněk; Švec, Karel; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Šmíra, Pavel; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich

    2016-03-01

    This work describes autofluorescence of the mycelium of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grown on spruce wood blocks impregnated with various metals. Live mycelium, as opposed to dead mycelium, exhibited yellow autofluorescence upon blue excitation, blue fluorescence with ultraviolet (UV) excitation, orange-red and light-blue fluorescence with violet excitation, and red fluorescence with green excitation. Distinctive autofluorescence was observed in the fungal cell wall and in granula localized in the cytoplasm. In dead mycelium, the intensity of autofluorescence decreased and the signal was diffused throughout the cytoplasm. Metal treatment affected both the color and intensity of autofluorescence and also the morphology of the mycelium. The strongest yellow signal was observed with blue excitation in Cd-treated samples, in conjunction with increased branching and the formation of mycelial loops and protrusions. For the first time, we describe pink autofluorescence that was observed in Mn-, Zn-, and Cu-treated samples with UV, violet or. blue excitation. The lowest signals were obtained in Cu- and Fe-treated samples. Chitin, an important part of the fungal cell wall exhibited intensive primary fluorescence with UV, violet, blue, and green excitation.

  5. Modelling the effect of temperature, water activity and pH on the growth of Serpula lacrymans.

    PubMed

    Maurice, S; Coroller, L; Debaets, S; Vasseur, V; Le Floch, G; Barbier, G

    2011-12-01

    To predict the risk factors for building infestation by Serpula lacrymans, which is one of the most destructive fungi causing timber decay in buildings. The growth rate was assessed on malt extract agar media at temperatures between 1.5 and 45°C, at water activity (a(w)) over the range of 0.800-0.993 and at pH ranges from 1.5 to 11.0. The radial growth rate (μ) and the lag phase (λ) were estimated from the radial growth kinetics via the plots radius vs time. These parameters were then modelled as a function of the environmental factors tested. Models derived from the cardinal model (CM) were used to fit the experimental data and allowed an estimation of the optimal and limit values for fungal growth. Optimal growth rate occurred at 20°C, at high a(w) level (0.993) and at a pH range between 4.0 and 6.0. The strain effect on the temperature parameters was further evaluated using 14 strains of S. lacrymans. The robustness of the temperature model was validated on data sets measured in two different wood-based media (Quercus robur L. and Picea abies). The two-step procedure of exponential model with latency followed by the CM with inflection gives reliable predictions for the growth conditions of a filamentous fungus in our study. The procedure was validated for the study of abiotic factors on the growth rate of S. lacrymans. This work describes the usefulness of evaluating the effect of physico-chemical factors on fungal growth in predictive building mycology. Consequently, the developed mathematical models for predicting fungal growth on a macroscopic scale can be used as a tool for risk assessment of timber decay in buildings. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. The fungus that came in from the cold: dry rot's pre-adapted ability to invade buildings.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, S V; Hess, J; Durling, M B; Moody, S C; Thorbek, L; Progida, C; LaButti, K; Aerts, A; Barry, K; Grigoriev, I V; Boddy, L; Högberg, N; Kauserud, H; Eastwood, D C; Skrede, I

    2018-03-01

    Many organisms benefit from being pre-adapted to niches shaped by human activity, and have successfully invaded man-made habitats. One such species is the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans, which has a wide distribution in buildings in temperate and boreal regions, where it decomposes coniferous construction wood. Comparative genomic analyses and growth experiments using this species and its wild relatives revealed that S. lacrymans evolved a very effective brown rot decay compared to its wild relatives, enabling an extremely rapid decay in buildings under suitable conditions. Adaptations in intracellular transport machineries promoting hyphal growth, and nutrient and water transport may explain why it is has become a successful invader of timber in houses. Further, we demonstrate that S. lacrymans has poor combative ability in our experimental setup, compared to other brown rot fungi. In sheltered indoor conditions, the dry rot fungus may have limited encounters with other wood decay fungi compared to its wild relatives. Overall, our analyses indicate that the dry rot fungus is an ecological specialist with poor combative ability against other fungi.

  7. The plant cell wall--decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Eastwood; Dimitrios Floudas; Manfred Binder; Andrzej Majcherczyk; Patrick Schneider; Andrea Aerts; Fred O. Asiegbu; Scott E. Baker; Kerrie Barry; Mika Bendiksby; Melanie Blumentritt; Pedro M. Coutinho; Dan Cullen; Ronald P. de Vries; Allen Gathman; Barry Goodell; Bernard Henrissat; Katarina Ihrmark; Havard Kauserud; Annegret Kohler; Kurt LaButti; Alla Lapidus; Jose L. Lavin; Yong-Hwan Lee; Erika Lindquist; Walt Lilly; Susan Lucas; Emmanuelle Morin; Claude Murat; Jose A. Oguiza; Jongsun Park; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Robert Riley; Anna Rosling; Asaf Salamov; Olaf Schmidt; Jeremy Schmutz; Inger Skrede; Jan Stenlid; Ad Wiebenga; Xinfeng Xie; Ursula Kues; David S. Hibbett; Dirk Hoffmeister; Nils Hogberg; Francis Martin; Igor V. Grigoriev; Sarah C. Watkinson

    2011-01-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicelluloses from wood, residual lignin contributing up to 30% of forest soil carbon, and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy where both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the “dry rot” fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution...

  8. Brown Rot-Type Fungal Decomposition of Sorghum Bagasse: Variable Success and Mechanistic Implications

    DOE PAGES

    Presley, Gerald N.; Ndimba, Bongani K.; Schilling, Jonathan S.

    2018-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a promising crop for a warming, drying African climate, and basic information is lacking on conversion pathways for its lignocellulosic residues (bagasse). Brown rot wood-decomposer fungi use carbohydrate-selective pathways that, when assessed on sorghum, a grass substrate, can yield information relevant to both plant biomass conversion and fungal biology. In testing sorghum decomposition by brown rot fungi ( Gloeophyllum trabeum , Serpula lacrymans ), we found that G. trabeum readily degraded sorghum, removing xylan prior to removing glucan. Serpula lacrymans , conversely, caused little decomposition. Ergosterol (fungal biomarker) and protein levels were similar for both fungi, butmore » S. lacrymans produced nearly 4x lower polysaccharide-degrading enzyme specific activity on sorghum than G. trabeum , perhaps a symptom of starvation. Linking this information to genome comparisons including other brown rot fungi known to have a similar issue regarding decomposing grasses (Postia placenta, Fomitopsis pinicola) suggested that a lack of CE 1 feruloyl esterases as well as low xylanase activity in S. lacrymans (3x lower than in G. trabeum ) may hinder S. lacrymans , P. placenta, and F. pinicola when degrading grass substrates. These results indicate variability in brown rot mechanisms, which may stem from a differing ability to degrade certain lignin-carbohydrate complexes.« less

  9. Brown Rot-Type Fungal Decomposition of Sorghum Bagasse: Variable Success and Mechanistic Implications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Presley, Gerald N.; Ndimba, Bongani K.; Schilling, Jonathan S.

    Sweet sorghum is a promising crop for a warming, drying African climate, and basic information is lacking on conversion pathways for its lignocellulosic residues (bagasse). Brown rot wood-decomposer fungi use carbohydrate-selective pathways that, when assessed on sorghum, a grass substrate, can yield information relevant to both plant biomass conversion and fungal biology. In testing sorghum decomposition by brown rot fungi ( Gloeophyllum trabeum , Serpula lacrymans ), we found that G. trabeum readily degraded sorghum, removing xylan prior to removing glucan. Serpula lacrymans , conversely, caused little decomposition. Ergosterol (fungal biomarker) and protein levels were similar for both fungi, butmore » S. lacrymans produced nearly 4x lower polysaccharide-degrading enzyme specific activity on sorghum than G. trabeum , perhaps a symptom of starvation. Linking this information to genome comparisons including other brown rot fungi known to have a similar issue regarding decomposing grasses (Postia placenta, Fomitopsis pinicola) suggested that a lack of CE 1 feruloyl esterases as well as low xylanase activity in S. lacrymans (3x lower than in G. trabeum ) may hinder S. lacrymans , P. placenta, and F. pinicola when degrading grass substrates. These results indicate variability in brown rot mechanisms, which may stem from a differing ability to degrade certain lignin-carbohydrate complexes.« less

  10. Serpula and Spiraserpula (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) from the Tropical Western Atlantic and Gulf of Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Bastida-Zavala, Rolando

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Six species of Serpula and Spiraserpula were identified, mainly, from the material of the expeditions of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, including two new species of Serpula. Serpula madrigalae sp. n. from the Turks and Caicos has a tube with five longitudinal ridges, four rows of alveoli and a medium-sized shallow symmetrical opercular funnel with 17 radii, and an inner surface with opercular tubercles. Serpula vossae sp. n. from the Western Caribbean and Bahamas has a tube with 6–8 longitudinal ridges, and a large, deep symmetrical opercular funnel, with 21–33 radii, and a smooth inner surface. Serpula cf. vermicularis, recorded from the Gulf of Guinea (tropical eastern Atlantic), is distinguished from the nominal species in possessing fewer opercular radii (33–39) and the lack of a proximal rasp in the bayonet chaetae; tubes are missing. The distribution range is extended for the three known Spiraserpula species found in the collections, Spiraserpula caribensis, Spiraserpula karpatensis and Spiraserpula ypsilon. PMID:22707904

  11. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy enables multiscale spatial visualization of ions involved in fungal lignocellulose deconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirker, Grant; Zelinka, Sam; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Vine, David; Finney, Lydia; Chen, Si; Hong, Young Pyo; Uyarte, Omar; Vogt, Stefan; Jellison, Jody; Goodell, Barry; Jakes, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    The role of ions in the fungal decay process of lignocellulose biomaterials, and more broadly fungal metabolism, has implications for diverse research disciplines ranging from plant pathology and forest ecology, to carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of ions in fungal decay mechanisms, the spatial distribution and quantification of ions in lignocellulosic cell walls and fungal hyphae during decay is not known. Here we employ synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map and quantify physiologically relevant ions, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn, in wood being decayed by the model brown rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Two-dimensional XFM maps were obtained to study the ion spatial distributions from mm to submicron length scales in wood, fungal hyphae with the dried extracellular matrix (ECM) from the fungus, and Ca oxalate crystals. Three-dimensional ion volume reconstructions were also acquired of wood cell walls and hyphae with ECM. Results show that the fungus actively transports some ions, such as Fe, into the wood and controls the distribution of ions at both the bulk wood and cell wall length scales. These measurements provide new insights into the movement of ions during decay and illustrate how synchrotron-based XFM is uniquely suited study these ions.

  12. The effects of environmental conditions on the growth of Merulius lacrymans

    Treesearch

    Jesse D. Diller; E. James Koch

    1960-01-01

    The two building decay fungi, the European Merulius lacrymans Fr. and the native Poria incrassate (Berk. & Curt.) Burt., do not often become established in buildings. But when they do, these fungi can cause serious damage to structural timbers. In extreme cases they have advanced to the second and third floor of buildings. This...

  13. Fungal Biodegradative Oxidants in Lignocellulose: Fluorescence Mapping and Correlation With Gene Expression

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hammel, Kenneth E.; Ralph, John; Hunt, Christopher G.

    This work focused on new methods for the detection of oxidation in natural substrates during the deconstruction of lignocellulose by microoganisms. Oxidation was the focus because all known biological systems that degrade lignin are oxidative. The detection methods involved the used of (a) micrometer-scale beads carrying a fluorescent dye that is sensitive to oxidation, (b) 13C-labeled synthetic lignins whose breakdown products can be assessed using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and (c) a fluorometric stain that is highly sensitive to incipient oxidation during microbial attack. The results showed (a) that one white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, produces diffusiblemore » oxidants on wood, and that the onset of oxidation is coincident with the marked up-regulation of genes that encode ligninolytic peroxidases and auxiliary oxidative enzymes; (b) that a more selectively ligninolytic white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, produces a highly diastereoselective oxidative system for attack on lignin; (c) that a brown rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, uses extracellular hydroquinone metabolites to drive the production of lignocellulose-oxidizing free radicals; (d) that both white rot and brown rot fungi produce highly diffusible mild oxidants that modify lignocellulose at the earliest stage of substrate deconstruction; and (e) that lignin degradation in a tropical soil is not inhibited as much as expected during periods of flooding-induced hypoxia, which indicates that unknown mechanisms for attack on lignin remain to be discovered.« less

  14. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy enables multiscale spatial visualization of ions involved in fungal lignocellulose deconstruction

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kirker, Grant; Zelinka, Sam; Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte

    Ions play an important role in the growth and development of filamentous fungi, particularly in the fungal decay process of lignocellulose materials. The role of ions in wood degradation, and more broadly fungal metabolism, have implications for diverse research disciplines ranging from plant pathology and forest ecology, to wood protection. Despite the importance of ions in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic fungal decay mechanisms, the spatial distribution of ions in wood and fungal hyphae during decay is not known. Here we employ synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map physiologically relevant ions, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn,more » in wood being decayed by the model brown rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Two-dimensional XFM maps were obtained to study the ion spatial distributions from mm to submicron length scales in wood and hyphae. Three-dimensional ion volume reconstructions with submicron spatial resolution were also acquired of wood cell walls and fungal hyphae, and an estimation of oxalate concentration at the microscale was made. Results show that the fungus actively transports some ions, such as Fe, into the wood and controls the distribution of ions at both the bulk wood and cellular length scales. Within the fungal hyphae, ion volume reconstructions show inhomogeneous ion distributions at the micron length scale and this localization may be indicative of both physiological status and requirements or in some cases, potentially sites associated with the initiation of metal-catalyzed wood degradation. Finally, these measurements illustrate how synchrotron based XFM is uniquely qualified for probing the role of ions in the growth and metabolic processes of filamentous fungi.« less

  15. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy enables multiscale spatial visualization of ions involved in fungal lignocellulose deconstruction

    DOE PAGES

    Kirker, Grant; Zelinka, Sam; Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; ...

    2017-01-31

    Ions play an important role in the growth and development of filamentous fungi, particularly in the fungal decay process of lignocellulose materials. The role of ions in wood degradation, and more broadly fungal metabolism, have implications for diverse research disciplines ranging from plant pathology and forest ecology, to wood protection. Despite the importance of ions in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic fungal decay mechanisms, the spatial distribution of ions in wood and fungal hyphae during decay is not known. Here we employ synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map physiologically relevant ions, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn,more » in wood being decayed by the model brown rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Two-dimensional XFM maps were obtained to study the ion spatial distributions from mm to submicron length scales in wood and hyphae. Three-dimensional ion volume reconstructions with submicron spatial resolution were also acquired of wood cell walls and fungal hyphae, and an estimation of oxalate concentration at the microscale was made. Results show that the fungus actively transports some ions, such as Fe, into the wood and controls the distribution of ions at both the bulk wood and cellular length scales. Within the fungal hyphae, ion volume reconstructions show inhomogeneous ion distributions at the micron length scale and this localization may be indicative of both physiological status and requirements or in some cases, potentially sites associated with the initiation of metal-catalyzed wood degradation. Finally, these measurements illustrate how synchrotron based XFM is uniquely qualified for probing the role of ions in the growth and metabolic processes of filamentous fungi.« less

  16. Distinct Growth and Secretome Strategies for Two Taxonomically Divergent Brown Rot Fungi.

    PubMed

    Presley, Gerald N; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2017-04-01

    Brown rot fungi are wood-degrading fungi that employ both oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms to degrade wood. Hydroxyl radicals that facilitate the oxidative component are powerful nonselective oxidants and are incompatible with hydrolytic enzymes unless they are spatially segregated in wood. Differential gene expression has been implicated in the segregation of these reactions in Postia placenta , but it is unclear if this two-step mechanism varies in other brown rot fungi with different traits and life history strategies that occupy different niches in nature. We employed proteomics to analyze a progression of wood decay on thin wafers, using brown rot fungi with significant taxonomic and niche distances: Serpula lacrymans (Boletales; "dry rot" lumber decay) and Gloeophyllum trabeum (order Gloeophyllales; slash, downed wood). Both fungi produced greater oxidoreductase diversity upon wood colonization and greater glycoside hydrolase activity later, consistent with a two-step mechanism. The two fungi invested very differently, however, in terms of growth (infrastructure) versus protein secretion (resource capture), with the ergosterol/extracted protein ratio being 7-fold higher with S. lacrymans than with G. trabeum In line with the native substrate associations of these fungi, hemicellulase-specific activities were dominated by mannanase in S. lacrymans and by xylanase in G. trabeum Consistent with previous observations, S. lacrymans did not produce glycoside hydrolase 6 (GH6) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) in this study, despite taxonomically belonging to the order Boletales, which is distinguished among brown rot fungi by having CBH genes. This work suggests that distantly related brown rot fungi employ staggered mechanisms to degrade wood, but the underlying strategies vary among taxa. IMPORTANCE Wood-degrading fungi are important in forest nutrient cycling and offer promise in biotechnological applications. Brown rot fungi are unique among these fungi in that they

  17. Evidence from Serpula lacrymans that 2,5-Dimethoxyhydroquinone Is a Lignocellulolytic Agent of Divergent Brown Rot Basidiomycetes

    Treesearch

    Premsagar Korripally; Vitaliy I. Timokhin; Carl J. Houtman; Michael D. Mozuch; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2013-01-01

    Basidiomycetes that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers in coniferous forest ecosystems and a major cause of failure in wooden structures. Recent work indicates that distinct lineages of brown rot fungi have arisen independently from ligninolytic white rot ancestors via loss of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Brown rot thus proceeds without significant...

  18. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    PubMed

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  19. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R.; Clardy, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. In the first system to be analyzed at the molecular level, the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.). PMID:19330011

  20. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lasure, Linda L; Dai, Ziyu

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  1. Carbon dioxide sensing in an obligate insect-fungus symbiosis: CO2 preferences of leaf-cutting ants to rear their mutualistic fungus.

    PubMed

    Römer, Daniela; Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen) and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide) conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO2 concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO2 concentrations. We also evaluated whether levels preferred by workers for fungus-rearing differ from those selected for themselves. In the laboratory, CO2 preferences were assessed in binary choices between chambers with different CO2 concentrations, by quantifying number of workers in each chamber and amount of relocated fungus. Leaf-cutting ants used the CO2 concentration as a spatial cue when selecting places for fungus-rearing. A. lundii preferred intermediate CO2 levels, between 1 and 3%, as they would encounter at soil depths where their nest chambers are located. In addition, workers avoided both atmospheric and high CO2 levels as they would occur outside the nest and at deeper soil layers, respectively. In order to prevent fungus desiccation, however, workers relocated fungus to high CO2 levels, which were otherwise avoided. Workers' CO2 preferences for themselves showed no clear-cut pattern. We suggest that workers avoid both atmospheric and high CO2 concentrations not because they are detrimental for themselves, but because of their consequences for the symbiotic partner. Whether the preferred CO2 concentrations are beneficial for symbiont growth remains to be investigated, as well as whether the observed preferences for fungus-rearing influences the ants

  2. Contamination of Pine Seeds by the Pitch Canker Fungus

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell; S.W. Fraedrich

    1999-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, has been identified as a significant problem in man pine seed orchards and nursuries in the South. THe fungus causes strobilus mortality, seed deterioation, and cankers on the main stem, branches, and shoots of pines Dwinell and others 1985). The pitche canker fungus...

  3. Fungus Amongus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  4. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp.

  6. THE ROLE OF PREDISPOSING FACTORS IN EXPERIMENTAL FUNGUS INFECTIONS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sheldon, W.H.; Bauer, H.

    Among other factors, the influence of ionizing radiations on susceptibility to fungus diseases is reviewed. X irradiation singly or in combination with cortisone administration has been employed in the study of experimental fungus diseases, and it has been shown that total-body radiation enhaaced infection with Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatididis, and Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. Enhanced susceptibility to fungus infections following radiation therapy has also been reported, the mechanism resulting in lowered host resistance being presumably the same as in other infections. (BBB)

  7. Pathogenic nature of Syncephalastrum in Atta sexdens rubropilosa fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Barcoto, Mariana O; Pedrosa, Felipe; Bueno, Odair C; Rodrigues, Andre

    2017-05-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are considered to be a major herbivore and agricultural pest in the Neotropics. They are often controlled by environmentally persistent insecticides. Biological control using pathogenic fungi is regarded as an alternative for the management of these insects. Here, we assess whether the filamentous fungus Syncephalastrum sp. is a pathogenic microorganism responsible for a characteristic disease in fungus gardens. We also characterise the damage caused by this fungus by evaluating physiological and behavioural responses of Atta sexdens rubropilosa subcolonies infected with Syncephalastrum sp. Syncephalastrum sp. fulfils Koch's postulates characterising it as a pathogenic microorganism. Ant workers recognise the infection and remove contaminated fragments from the fungus garden. Syncephalastrum sp. infection causes an interruption of foraging activity, an increase in ant mortality, subcolony deterioration and an increase in the amount of waste generated, all resulting in subcolony death. Syncephalastrum sp. also inhibits the ant fungal cultivar in vitro. The pathogenic effect of Syncephalastrum sp. does not depend on host morbidity or stress (e.g. worker mortality caused by an entomopathogenic fungus). Syncephalastrum sp. treatment resulted in progressive damage in subcolonies. The interactions among Syncephalastrum sp., fungus garden and ants offer new opportunities in integrated pest management of leaf-cutter ants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Caecomyces sympodialis sp. nov., a new rumen fungus isolated from Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yo-Chia; Tsai, Sheng-Da; Cheng, Hsueh-Ling; Chien, Chiu-Yuan; Hu, Chun-Yi; Cheng, Tai-Yi

    2007-01-01

    A new anaerobic rumen fungus was isolated from the rumen fluid of a yellow cow (Bos indicus). This fungus appears to be a previously undescribed species of the genus Caecomyces, it possessing uniflagellate zoospores, a spherical holdfast, tubular sporangiophores and bulbous rhizoids. This new fungus also features distinctive multisporangiate thallus sympodially distributed on sporangiophores. The fungus resembles Caecomyces communis and C. equi in that it characterizes bulbous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores but differs from C. communis and C. equi in that it possesses multisporangiate and sympodial sporangia. This new fungus and Cyllamyces aberensis both reveal similar morphology during early thallus development in having a spherical holdfast, but they vary from unbranched sporangiophores and additional bulbous rhizoids. In addition, the molecular phylogenetic analyses ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer 1) also conform to the results of the morphological examinations of Caecomyces. For the mentioned reasons, this new species of fungus is described as Caecomyces sympodialis sp. nov. The genera of Neocallimasticaceae and species of Caecomyces are also keyed out.

  9. The first fossil fungus gardens of Isoptera: oldest evidence of symbiotic termite fungiculture (Miocene, Chad basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Genise, Jorge F.; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-12-01

    Higher termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (fungus-growing termites) are known to build fungus gardens where a symbiotic fungus ( Termitomyces sp.) is cultivated. The fungus grows on a substrate called fungus comb, a structure built with the termites’ own faeces. Here we present the first fossil fungus combs ever found in the world. They were extracted from 7-million-year-old continental sandstone (Chad basin). Fossilized fungus combs have an ovoid morphology with a more or less flattened concave base and a characteristic general alveolar aspect. Under lens, they display a typical millimetre-scale pelletal structure. The latter, as well as the general shape and alveolar aspect, are similar to the morphology of fungus combs from extant fungus-growing termites.

  10. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Hongjie; Yelle, Daniel J.; Li, Chang; ...

    2017-04-19

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating termite system, we reveal unprecedentedly rapid lignin depolymerization and degradation by combining laboratory feeding experiments, lignocellulosic compositional measurements, electron microscopy, 2D-NMR, and thermochemolysis. In a gut transit time of under 3.5 h, in young worker termites, poplar lignin sidechains are extensively cleaved and the polymer is significantly depleted, leaving a residue almost completely devoid ofmore » various condensed units that are traditionally recognized to be the most recalcitrant. Subsequently, the fungus-comb microbiome preferentially uses xylose and cleaves polysaccharides, thus facilitating final utilization of easily digestible oligosaccharides by old worker termites. This complementary symbiotic pretreatment process in the fungus-growing termite symbiosis reveals a previously unappreciated natural system for efficient lignocellulose degradation.« less

  11. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjie; Yelle, Daniel J.; Li, Chang; Yang, Mengyi; Ke, Jing; Zhang, Ruijuan; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Na; Liang, Shiyou; Mo, Xiaochang; Currie, Cameron R.; Mo, Jianchu

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating termite system, we reveal unprecedentedly rapid lignin depolymerization and degradation by combining laboratory feeding experiments, lignocellulosic compositional measurements, electron microscopy, 2D-NMR, and thermochemolysis. In a gut transit time of under 3.5 h, in young worker termites, poplar lignin sidechains are extensively cleaved and the polymer is significantly depleted, leaving a residue almost completely devoid of various condensed units that are traditionally recognized to be the most recalcitrant. Subsequently, the fungus-comb microbiome preferentially uses xylose and cleaves polysaccharides, thus facilitating final utilization of easily digestible oligosaccharides by old worker termites. This complementary symbiotic pretreatment process in the fungus-growing termite symbiosis reveals a previously unappreciated natural system for efficient lignocellulose degradation. PMID:28424249

  12. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, Hongjie; Yelle, Daniel J.; Li, Chang

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating termite system, we reveal unprecedentedly rapid lignin depolymerization and degradation by combining laboratory feeding experiments, lignocellulosic compositional measurements, electron microscopy, 2D-NMR, and thermochemolysis. In a gut transit time of under 3.5 h, in young worker termites, poplar lignin sidechains are extensively cleaved and the polymer is significantly depleted, leaving a residue almost completely devoid ofmore » various condensed units that are traditionally recognized to be the most recalcitrant. Subsequently, the fungus-comb microbiome preferentially uses xylose and cleaves polysaccharides, thus facilitating final utilization of easily digestible oligosaccharides by old worker termites. This complementary symbiotic pretreatment process in the fungus-growing termite symbiosis reveals a previously unappreciated natural system for efficient lignocellulose degradation.« less

  13. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  14. [Effects of fungus on the growth of Dendrobium candidum and D. nobile in vitro culture].

    PubMed

    Song, J Y; Guo, S X

    2001-12-01

    To examine effects of fungus AR-18 (Epulorhiza sp.) on the growth of Dendrobium candidum and D. nobile in vitro culture. Effects of fungus AR-18 on fresh weight and dry weight of D. candidum and D. nobile were studied in vitro culture, when agar was used as rest, and effects of fungus AR-18 and nutrients on fresh weight and dry weight of D. candidum and D. nobile were studied in vitro culture, when vermiculite was used as rest. In agar medium, effects of fungus AR-18 on fresh weight and dry weight of D. candidum and D. nobile were not significant (P > 0.05). However, in vermiculite medium, the effect of fungus AR-18 on fresh weight of D. nobile was significant (P < 0.05). Fresh weight of D. nobile inoculated with fungus AR-18 was increased by 16% compared with the non-inoculated ones (control). The effect of fungus AR-18 on dry weight of D. nobile was very significant (P < 0.01). Dry weight of D. nobile inoculated with fungus AR-18 was increased by 21% compared with the control. In vermiculite medium, the effect of combination treatment (Fungus AR-18 + Distilled H2O) on fresh weight of D. nobile was very significant (P < 0.01). Fresh weight of D. nobile inoculated with fungus AR-18 was increased by 47% compared with the control, while the effect of combination treatment (Fungus AR-18 + Nutrients) on fresh weight of D. nobile was not significant (P > 0.05). In addition, the effect of combinations treatment (Fungus AR-18 + Nutrients) and (Fungus AR-18 + Distilled H2O) on dry weight of D. nobile was not significant (P > 0.05). So the combination treatment (Fungus AR-18 + Distilled H2O) was the best for the growth of D. nobile. In vermiculite medium, effects of fungus AR-18 and nutrients on fresh weight and dry weight of D. candidum were not significant (P > 0.05). It is important in vitro culture to select a proper rest for the control of the growth of fungus to establish a beneficial symbiotic relationship between plants and fungi. If the fungus AR-18 is utilized as

  15. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    PubMed

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  16. Phomalactone from a Phytopathogenic Fungus Infecting ZINNIA elegans (ASTERACEAE) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Johnson, Robert D; Techen, Natascha; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O

    2015-07-01

    Zinnia elegans Jacq. plants are infected by a fungus that causes dark red spots with necrosis on leaves, particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South of the United States. This fungal disease causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated, cultured in potato dextrose broth, and identified as Nigrospora sphaerica by molecular techniques. Two major lactone metabolites (phomalactone and catenioblin A) were isolated from liquid culture of N. sphaerica isolated from Z. elegans. When injected into leaves of Z. elegans, phomalactone caused lesions similar to those of the fungus. The lesion sizes were proportional to the concentration of the phomalactone. Phomalactone, but not catenioblin A, was phytotoxic to Z. elegans and other plant species by inhibition of seedling growth and by causing electrolyte leakage from photosynthetic tissues of both Z. elegans leaves and cucumber cotyledons. This latter effect may be related to the wilting caused by the fungus in mature Z. elegans plants. Phomalactone was moderately fungicidal to Coletotrichum fragariae and two Phomopsis species, indicating that the compound may keep certain other fungi from encroaching into plant tissue that N. sphaerica has infected. Production of large amounts of phomalactone by N. sphaerica contributes to the pathogenic behavior of this fungus, and may have other ecological functions in the interaction of N. sphaerica with other fungi. This is the first report of isolation of catenioblin A from a plant pathogenic fungus. The function of catenioblin A is unclear, as it was neither significantly phyto- nor fungitoxic.

  17. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  18. Rust-red stringy white rot: The Indian paint fungus, Echinodontium tinctorium

    Treesearch

    A. D. Wilson

    1997-01-01

    Older trees are more susceptible to damage by this fungus, although even very young trees are susceptible to infection. Infections occur most frequently in dense stands where selfpruning creates infection courts for the fungus.

  19. Biosynthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles using fungus, Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaorong; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Huimin; Tan, Weihong

    2009-10-01

    The unique optoelectronic and physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles are significantly dependent on the particle size, shape and structure. In this paper, biosynthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles using fungus Penicillium sp. is reported. Fungus Penicillium sp. could successfully bioreduce and nucleate AuCl4(-) ions, and lead to the assembly and formation of intracellular Au nanoparticles with spherical morphology and good monodispersity after exposure to HAuCl4 solution. Reaction temperature, as an important physiological parameter for fungus Penicillium sp. growth, could significantly control the size of the biosynthesized Au nanoparticles. The biological compositions and FTIR spectra analysis of fungus Penicillium sp. exposed to HAuCl4 solution indicated the intracellular reducing sugar played an important role in the occurrence of intracellular reduction of AuCl4(-) ions and the growth of gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, the intracellular gold nanoparticles could be easily separated from the fungal cell lysate by ultrasonication and centrifugation.

  20. Biochemical Characterization of Fungus Isolated during In vitro Propagation of Bambusa balcooa.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Bhawna; Tewari, Salil; Dubey, Ashutosh

    2018-01-01

    Bambusa balcooa ( Poaceae: Bambusoideae ) is a multipurpose bamboo species, which is native of the Indian subcontinent. B. balcooa is regarded as one of the best species for scaffolding and building purposes because of its strong culm. Other uses include paper pulp, handicrafts, and products of the wood chip industry. Due to these various uses in industries, this species has been identified as one of the priority bamboos by the National Bamboo Mission. This study is designed to analyze the identification of fungus and develop the strategy to eliminate the contamination during in vitro establishment of B. balcooa through nodal part. Fungus contamination is a problem which is encountered during in vitro establishment of B. balcooa cultures. In the present study, fungus contamination from in vitro cultured plant has been isolated and subjected to partial sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene to identify the fungus strain. Experiments were designed to develop a strategy for removal of the fungus contamination with the help of antifungal compounds and commercial antimicrobial supplement supplied by HiMedia. Fusarium equiseti was identified as endophytic fungus. It was observed that antimicrobial supplement at concentration of 500 μl/l was more effective concentration to remove fungus contamination and not showed any detrimental effect on growth parameters of shoot. This experiment would help in identification and to get rid of fungal contamination and improve the in vitro establishment of B. balcooa cultures for large-scale propagation. Endogenous fungus was isolated from contaminated culture of B. balcooa , and it was identified as Fusarium equiseti and submitted to NCBI under accession no. KP274872. The endophytic fungus had shown substantial production of amylase, cellulase, and protease media. Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) production by F. equiseti was maximum on the 7 th day on inoculation. Abbreviations used: B. balcooa : Bambusa balcooa , F. equiseti : Fusarium

  1. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    PubMed

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus

  2. Noninvasive medical management of fungus ball uropathy in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Alkalay, A L; Srugo, I; Blifeld, C; Komaiko, M S; Pomerance, J J

    1991-09-01

    Unilateral renal obstruction secondary to fungus balls is described in a premature infant. Noninvasive medical management, which included amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine therapy and forced diuresis, resulted in disappearance of fungus balls and resolution of the obstruction.

  3. Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Mario X; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

    2011-06-23

    Ant-fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant-fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries.

  4. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  5. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  6. Mating and Progeny Isolation in The Corn Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis (U. maydis) (DC.) Corda, is a semi-obligate plant pathogenic fungus in the phylum Basidiomycota (Alexopoulos, Mims and Blackwell, 1996). The fungus can be easily cultured in its haploid yeast phase on common laboratory media. However, to complete its sexual cy...

  7. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France.

    PubMed

    Campana, Michael G; Kurata, Naoko P; Foster, Jeffrey T; Helgen, Lauren E; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Fleischer, Robert C; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2017-09-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

  8. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent

  9. Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

  10. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  11. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  12. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  13. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  14. Chytrid fungus parasitizing the wild amphibian Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Raúl A; Steciow, Mónica M; Natale, Guillermo S

    2005-05-20

    The present contribution is the first report of parasitosis by a chytrid fungus in wild anuran amphibians in Argentina, as well as the first case of amphibian mortality documented to date in Argentina. We report the presence of the chytrid fungus in dead adult Leptodactylus ocellatus. It has been suggested that chytridiomycosis is the main cause of death in several amphibian populations worldwide. Our study demonstrates that chytridiomycosis afflicts L. ocellatus, a common widespread amphibian species, and is the first report of chytridiomycosis in the Argentinian lowlands. The occurrence at this latitude would indicate an extended distribution of this fungus in wildlife populations. It is also the first report of amphibian mortality due to chytrid fungus in our country. It is noteworthy that the site of collection is situated very close to sea level in a temperate climate zone and that this represents the southern most record for South American wild amphibians.

  15. Isocoumarin Derivatives from the Sea Squirt-derived Fungus Penicillium stoloniferum QY2-10 and the Halotolerant Fungus Penicillium notatum B-52.

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhi-Hong; Tian, Li; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Wang, Wen-Liang; Du, Lin; Fang, Yu-Chun; Gu, Qian-Qun; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2007-07-01

    Two isocoumarin derivatives, stoloniferol A (1) and B (2), a known 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-23-methyl-(22E, 24R)-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (3), and a known dihydrocitrinone (4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the sea squirt-derived fungus, Penicillium stoloniferum QY2-10, and a halophilic fungus, Penicillium notatum B-52, respectively. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and optical rotation. The stereochemistry of 2 was determined on the basis of different NOE experiments and chemical transformation. Compound 3 showed cytotoxicity against P388 cells, with an IC50 value of 4.07 microM.

  16. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    PubMed

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its nematicidal activity on Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Lima, Walter dos Santos; de Queiroz, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    The dog acts as a reservoir and environmental disseminator of potentially zoonotic parasites. The objective of this work was to study the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium regarding its nematicidal potential in laboratory trials and its proteolytic profile. The in vitro test was carried out through two assays (A and B). In assay A, conidia of the fungus N34a were added in positive coprocultures for Angiostrongylus vasorum. In assay B, crude extract (treated group) and distilled water (control group) were added to coprocultures. Next, the proteolytic profile of crude extract of the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium (NF34a) was revealed by performing a zymogram. There was a reduction (p<0.01) in the averages of larvae recovered from the treated groups (conidia and crude extract) in relation to control groups. The zymogram suggested that the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium produces a protease of approximately 40 kDa. The results of this work confirm that the conidia as well as the crude extract of the fungus M. thaumasium may be used to control A. vasorum L1. The proteolytic profile suggested the presence of one protease (Mt1) of approximately 40 kDa that in the future may be used in biological control of L1 of this nematode. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    PubMed

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  19. Biological control of cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) with nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2011-01-10

    Horses are hosts to a wide variety of helminthes; the most important are the cyathostomin, or small strongyles. The viability of a fungal formulation (pellets) using the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium was assessed in biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control) consisted of six mares in each group, crossbred (ages of 2.5 and 3.5 years), were placed in pastures of Cynodon sp. naturally infected with horse cyathostomin larvae. In the treated group, each animal received 1g/10 kg body weight (0.2g/10 kg live weight of fungus) of pellets of sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus M. thaumasium orally, twice a week for 6 months. In the control group, animals received (1g/10 kg body weight) of pellets without fungus. The egg count per gram of feces showed difference (p<0.01) in the animals treated with the fungus in relation to the control animals during all months of the experiment. The EPG percentage decrease were 87.5%, 89.7%, 68.3%, 58.7%, 52.5% and 35.2% during June, July, August, September, October and November, respectively. In faecal cultures, there was difference (p<0.05) among animals treated with fungus was found in relation to the control animals during all the experiment month, with percentage reduction of 67.5%, 61.4% and 31.8% in September, October and November, respectively. Difference (p<0.01) was observed in the recovery of infective larvae from pastures that were collected up to 20 cm from the dung pats in pastures in the group treated with the fungus in relation to the control group with a reduction of 60.9% and between 0-20 and 0-40 cm from the faecal pat reduction (p<0.01) was about 56% in the group treated with the fungus M. thaumasium in relation to the control group pasture. There was no difference (p>0.05) between the average weight gains in both animal groups. The treatment of horses with pellets containing the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium can be effective in controlling

  20. Yarsagumba Fungus: Health Problems in the Himalayan Gold Rush.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Pranawa; Pandit, Bidur; Phuyal, Pratibha; Zafren, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus. They had paid high prices for permits, hoping to recoup the cost and make a profit by selling specimens of Yarsagumba, but the fungus seemed scarce in 2016, resulting in a bleak economic forecast. Most collectors were living in austere conditions, walking long hours to the collection areas early in the morning and returning in the late afternoon. Most were subsisting on 1 daily meal. Health problems, including acute mountain sickness as well as respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses, were common. Yarsagumba has become harder to find in recent years, increasing hardships and risk of injury. Medical care was almost nonexistent. As abundance decreases and demand increases, there is increasing pressure on collectors to find Yarsagumba. The collectors are an economically disadvantaged population who live in austere conditions at high altitude with poor shelter and sanitation, strenuous work, and limited availability of food. Health care resources are very limited. There are significant risks of illness, injury, and death. Targeted efforts by government entities and nongovernmental organizations might be beneficial in meeting the health needs. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-02

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microsatellite variability in the entomopathogenic fungus Paeciolomyces fumosoroseus: genetic diversity and population structure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hyphomycete Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) is a geographically widespread fungus capable of infecting various insect hosts. The fungus has been used for the biological control of several important insect pests of agriculture. However knowledge of the fungus’ genetic diversity and population str...

  3. Naphthalene, an insect repellent, is produced by Muscodor vitigenus, a novel endophytic fungus

    Treesearch

    Bryn H. Daisy; Gary A. Strobel; Uvidelio Castillo; David Ezra; Joe Sears; David K. Weaver; Justin B. Runyon

    2002-01-01

    Muscodor vitigenus is a recently described endophytic fungus of Paullinia paullinioides, a liana growing in the understorey of the rainforests of the Peruvian Amazon. This fungus produces naphthalene under certain cultural conditions. Naphthalene produced by M. vitigenus was identified by gas chromatography/mass...

  4. The Dynamics of Plant Cell-Wall Polysaccharide Decomposition in Leaf-Cutting Ant Fungus Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William G. T.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants. PMID:21423735

  5. Association of the Pitch Canker Fungus with Cones and Seeds of Pines

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell

    1998-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp.pini, causes the mortality of female flowers and mature cones, and can infect and destroy gametophyte tissues of seeds of several pine species in the southeastern U.S. The fungus can also be associated with the seed coats of apparently healthy, viable pine seeds. The pitch canker...

  6. Datasheet: Pseudogymnoascus destructans (white-nose syndrome fungus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David; Lankau, Emily W.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic (cold-loving) fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of North American bats that has caused unprecedented population declines. The fungus is believed to have been introduced to North America from Europe or Asia (where it is present but does not cause significant mortality), but the full extent of its native range is unknown. The route of introduction is also unknown. In North America, hibernating bats become infected with P. destructans when body temperature decreases during winter torpor into the range permissive for growth of this fungus. Infected bats may develop visible fungal growth on the nose or wings, awaken more frequently from torpor, and experience a cascade of physiologic changes that result in weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and death. P. destructans persists in the environments of underground bat hibernation sites (hibernacula) and is believed to spread primarily by natural movements of infected bats. The first evidence of WNS in North America is from a photograph of a hibernating bat taken during winter of 2005-2006 in a hibernaculum near Albany, New York. P. destructans subsequently spread rapidly from the northeastern United States throughout much of the eastern portions of the United States and Canada, and most recently (as of May 2017) was detected in Washington State. It has killed millions of bats, threatening some species with regional extirpation and putting at risk the valuable environmental services that bats provide by eating harmful insects.

  7. Multifarious plant growth promotion by an entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; Thomas, Stephy; Geethu, C

    2018-03-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 previously found infectious to cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi promoted plant growth in cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum. The isolate exhibited direct plant growth promoting traits by production of indole-3-acetic acid and ammonia and by solubilizing inorganic phosphate and zinc. It also showed indirect plant growth promoting traits by producing siderophores and cell wall-degrading enzymes like, α-amylases, cellulases and proteases. In pot culture experiments, application of the fungus at the root zone of cardamom seedlings significantly increased shoot and root length, shoot and root biomass, number of secondary roots and leaves and leaf chlorophyll content compared to untreated plants. This is the first report on the plant growth promoting traits of this fungus. The entomopathogenic and multifarious growth promoting traits of L. psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 suggest that it has great potential for exploitation in sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of uranium biosorption from aqueous solutions on fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changsong; Liu, Jun; Tu, Hong; Li, Feize; Li, Xiyang; Yang, Jijun; Liao, Jiali; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning; Sun, Qun

    2016-12-01

    Uranium(VI) biosorption from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch studies by using fungus Pleurotus ostreatus biomass. The optimal biosorption conditions were examined by investigating the reaction time, biomass dosage, pH, temperature, and uranium initial concentration. The interaction between fungus biomass and uranium was confirmed using Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Results exhibited that the maximum biosorption capacity of uranium on P. ostreatus was 19.95 ± 1.17 mg/g at pH 4.0. Carboxylic, amine, as well as hydroxyl groups were involved in uranium biosorption according to FT-IR analysis. The pseudo-second-order model properly evaluated the U(VI) biosorption on fungus P. ostreatus biomass. The Langmuir equation provided better fitting in comparison with Freundlich isotherm models. The obtained thermodynamic parameters suggested that biosorption is feasible, endothermic, and spontaneous. SEM-EDX and XPS were additionally conducted to comprehend the biosorption process that could be described as a complex process involving several mechanisms of physical adsorption, chemisorptions, and ion exchange. Results obtained from this work indicated that fungus P. ostreatus biomass can be used as potential biosorbent to eliminate uranium or other radionuclides from aqueous solutions.

  9. Biological control of horse cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) using the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Silva, André Ricardo; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Tavela, Alexandre Oliveira; Campos, Artur Kanadani; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2009-08-26

    The viability of a fungal formulation using the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans was assessed for the biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus treatment), consisting of eight crossbred mares (3-18 years of age) were fed on Cynodon sp. pasture naturally infected with equine cyathostome larvae. Each animal of the treated group received oral doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets (1g/(10 kg live weight week)), during 6 months. Significant reduction (p<0.01) in the number of eggs per gram of feces and coprocultures was found for animals of the fungus-treated group compared with the control group. There was difference (p<0.01) of 78.5% reduction in herbage samples collected up to (0-20 cm) between the fungus-treated group and the control group, during the experimental period (May-October). Difference of 82.5% (p<0.01) was found between the fungus-treated group and the control group in the sampling distance (20-40 cm) from fecal pats. During the last 3 months of the experimental period (August, September and October), fungus-treated mares had significant weight gain (p<0.01) compared with the control group, an increment of 38 kg. The treatment with sodium alginate pellets containing the nematode-trapping fungus D. flagrans reduced cyathostomin in tropical southeastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for biological control of this parasitic nematode in horses.

  10. Reproduction of a woodwasp, Urocerus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) using no maternal symbiotic fungus

    Treesearch

    Hideshi Fukuda

    2003-01-01

    Most woodwasps (Siricidae) are symbiotically associated with the specific fungus, Amylostereum spp. Female adults inoculate the fungus during their oviposition in sapwood of the host trees (Morgan 1968). Woodwasp larvae can digest sapwood with low nutritional quality with the aid of symbiosis (Kukor and Martin 1983). In the earlier study, we...

  11. Ecology of coarse wood decomposition by the saprotrophic fungus Fomes fomentarius.

    PubMed

    Větrovský, Tomáš; Voříšková, Jana; Snajdr, Jaroslav; Gabriel, Jiří; Baldrian, Petr

    2011-07-01

    Saprotrophic wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes are the most important decomposers of lignin and cellulose in dead wood and as such they attracted considerable attention. The aims of this work were to quantify the activity and spatial distribution of extracellular enzymes in coarse wood colonised by the white-rot basidiomycete Fomes fomentarius and in adjacent fruitbodies of the fungus and to analyse the diversity of the fungal and bacterial community in a fungus-colonised wood and its potential effect on enzyme production by F. fomentarius. Fungus-colonised wood and fruitbodies were collected in low management intensity forests in the Czech Republic. There were significant differences in enzyme production by F. fomentarius between Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica wood, the activity of cellulose and xylan-degrading enzymes was significantly higher in beech wood than in birch wood. Spatial analysis of a sample B. pendula log segment proved that F. fomentarius was the single fungal representative found in the log. There was a high level of spatial variability in the amount of fungal biomass detected, but no effects on enzyme activities were observed. Samples from the fruiting body showed high β-glucosidase and chitinase activities compared to wood samples. Significantly higher levels of xylanase and cellobiohydrolase were found in samples located near the fruitbody (proximal), and higher laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities were found in the distal ones. The microbial community in wood was dominated by the fungus (fungal to bacterial DNA ratio of 62-111). Bacterial abundance composition was lower in proximal than distal parts of wood by a factor of 24. These results show a significant level of spatial heterogeneity in coarse wood. One of the explanations may be the successive colonization of wood by the fungus: due to differential enzyme production, the rates of biodegradation of coarse wood are also spatially inhomogeneous.

  12. Fungus-Specific Sirtuin HstD Coordinates Secondary Metabolism and Development through Control of LaeA

    PubMed Central

    Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Nishiura, Mika

    2013-01-01

    The sirtuins are members of the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase family that contribute to various cellular functions that affect aging, disease, and cancer development in metazoans. However, the physiological roles of the fungus-specific sirtuin family are still poorly understood. Here, we determined a novel function of the fungus-specific sirtuin HstD/Aspergillus oryzae Hst4 (AoHst4), which is a homolog of Hst4 in A. oryzae yeast. The deletion of all histone deacetylases in A. oryzae demonstrated that the fungus-specific sirtuin HstD/AoHst4 is required for the coordination of fungal development and secondary metabolite production. We also show that the expression of the laeA gene, which is the most studied fungus-specific coordinator for the regulation of secondary metabolism and fungal development, was induced in a ΔhstD strain. Genetic interaction analysis of hstD/Aohst4 and laeA clearly indicated that HstD/AoHst4 works upstream of LaeA to coordinate secondary metabolism and fungal development. The hstD/Aohst4 and laeA genes are fungus specific but conserved in the vast family of filamentous fungi. Thus, we conclude that the fungus-specific sirtuin HstD/AoHst4 coordinates fungal development and secondary metabolism via the regulation of LaeA in filamentous fungi. PMID:23729383

  13. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easilymore » accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.« less

  14. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable formore » the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  15. Biomimetics of silver nanoparticles by white rot fungus, Phaenerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam; Kathe, Arati A; Varadarajan, P V; Nachane, Rajan P; Balasubramanya, R H

    2006-11-01

    Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a white rot fungus, Phaenerochaete chrysosporium is reported in this paper. Incubation of P. chrysosporium mycelium with silver nitrate solution produced silver nanoparticles in 24h. These silver nanoparticles were characterized by means of UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The synthesized silver nanoparticles absorbed maximum at 470 nm in the visible region. XRD spectrum of the silver nanoparticles confirmed the formation of metallic silver. The SEM characterization of the fungus reacted on the Ag+ indicated that the protein might be responsible for the stabilization of silver nanoparticles. This result was further supported by the TEM examination. Though shape variation was noticed, majority of the nanoparticles were found to be of pyramidal shape as seen under TEM. Photoluminescence spectrum showed a broad emission peak of silver nanoparticles at 423 nm when excited at 350 nm. Apart from eco-friendliness, fungus as bio-manufacturing unit will give us an added advantage in ease of handling when compared to other classes of microorganisms.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of Ancylostoma spp. dog infective larvae captured and destroyed by the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans.

    PubMed

    Maciel, A S; Araújo, J V; Campos, A K; Benjamin, L A; Freitas, L G

    2009-06-01

    The interaction between the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate CG768) against Ancylostoma spp. dog infective larvae (L(3)) was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy. Adhesive network trap formation was observed 6h after the beginning of the interaction, and the capture of Ancylostoma spp. L(3) was observed 8h after the inoculation these larvae on the cellulose membranes colonized by the fungus. Scanning electron micrographs were taken at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h, where 0 is the time when Ancylostoma spp. L(3) was first captured by the fungus. Details of the capture structure formed by the fungus were described. Nematophagous Fungus Helper Bacteria (NHB) were found at interactions points between the D. flagrans and Ancylostoma spp. L(3). The cuticle penetration by the differentiated fungal hyphae with the exit of nematode internal contents was observed 36 h after the capture. Ancylostoma spp. L(3) were completely destroyed after 48 h of interaction with the fungus. The scanning electron microscopy technique was efficient on the study of this interaction, showing that the nematode-trapping fungus D. flagrans (isolate CG768) is a potential exterminator of Ancylostoma spp. L(3).

  17. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Shu, Shaohua; Zhu, Wenjun; Xiong, Ying; Peng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs) play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction, and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE, and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologs in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds. PMID:27708635

  18. Pseudocopulatory pollination in lepanthes (orchidaceae: pleurothallidinae) by fungus gnats.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Mario A; Barboza, Gabriel

    2005-04-01

    Lepanthes is one of the largest angiosperm genera (>800 species). Their non-rewarding, tiny and colourful flowers are structurally complex. Their pollination mechanism has hitherto remained unknown, but has been subject of ample speculation; the function of the minuscule labellum appendix is especially puzzling. Here, the pollination of L. glicensteinii by sexually deceived male fungus gnats is described and illustrated. Visitors to flowers of L. glicensteinii were photographed and their behaviour documented; some were captured for identification. Occasional visits to flowers of L. helleri, L. stenorhyncha and L. turialvae were also observed. Structural features of flowers and pollinators were studied with SEM. Sexually aroused males of the fungus gnat Bradysia floribunda (Diptera: Sciaridae) were the only visitors and pollinators of L. glicensteinii. The initial long-distance attractant seems to be olfactory. Upon finding a flower, the fly curls his abdomen under the labellum and grabs the appendix with his genitalic claspers, then dismounts the flower and turns around to face away from it. The pollinarium attaches to his abdomen during this pivoting manoeuvre. Pollinia are deposited on the stigma during a subsequent flower visit. The flies appear to ejaculate during pseudocopulation. The visitors of L. helleri, L. stenorhyncha and L. turialvae are different species of fungus gnats that display a similar behaviour. Lepanthes glicensteinii has genitalic pseudocopulatory pollination, the first case reported outside of the Australian orchid genus Cryptostylis. Since most species of Lepanthes have the same unusual flower structure, it is predicted that pollination by sexual deception is prevalent in the genus. Several morphological and phenological traits in Lepanthes seem well suited for exploiting male fungus gnats as pollinators. Correspondingly, some demographic trends common in Lepanthes are consistent with patterns of male sciarid behaviour.

  19. Pseudocopulatory Pollination in Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) by Fungus Gnats

    PubMed Central

    BLANCO, MARIO A.; BARBOZA, GABRIEL

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Lepanthes is one of the largest angiosperm genera (>800 species). Their non-rewarding, tiny and colourful flowers are structurally complex. Their pollination mechanism has hitherto remained unknown, but has been subject of ample speculation; the function of the minuscule labellum appendix is especially puzzling. Here, the pollination of L. glicensteinii by sexually deceived male fungus gnats is described and illustrated. • Methods Visitors to flowers of L. glicensteinii were photographed and their behaviour documented; some were captured for identification. Occasional visits to flowers of L. helleri, L. stenorhyncha and L. turialvae were also observed. Structural features of flowers and pollinators were studied with SEM. • Key Results Sexually aroused males of the fungus gnat Bradysia floribunda (Diptera: Sciaridae) were the only visitors and pollinators of L. glicensteinii. The initial long-distance attractant seems to be olfactory. Upon finding a flower, the fly curls his abdomen under the labellum and grabs the appendix with his genitalic claspers, then dismounts the flower and turns around to face away from it. The pollinarium attaches to his abdomen during this pivoting manoeuvre. Pollinia are deposited on the stigma during a subsequent flower visit. The flies appear to ejaculate during pseudocopulation. The visitors of L. helleri, L. stenorhyncha and L. turialvae are different species of fungus gnats that display a similar behaviour. • Conclusions Lepanthes glicensteinii has genitalic pseudocopulatory pollination, the first case reported outside of the Australian orchid genus Cryptostylis. Since most species of Lepanthes have the same unusual flower structure, it is predicted that pollination by sexual deception is prevalent in the genus. Several morphological and phenological traits in Lepanthes seem well suited for exploiting male fungus gnats as pollinators. Correspondingly, some demographic trends common in Lepanthes are

  20. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  1. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  2. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites.

    PubMed

    Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia; Hansen, Lars H; Koné, N'Golo A; Sørensen, Søren J; Aanen, Duur K; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Brune, Andreas; Poulsen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Gut microbes play a crucial role in decomposing lignocellulose to fuel termite societies, with protists in the lower termites and prokaryotes in the higher termites providing these services. However, a single basal subfamily of the higher termites, the Macrotermitinae, also domesticated a plant biomass-degrading fungus (Termitomyces), and how this symbiont acquisition has affected the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota has remained unclear. The objective of our study was to compare the intestinal bacterial communities of five genera (nine species) of fungus-growing termites to establish whether or not an ancestral core microbiota has been maintained and characterizes extant lineages. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we show that gut communities have representatives of 26 bacterial phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria and Synergistetes. A set of 42 genus-level taxa was present in all termite species and accounted for 56-68% of the species-specific reads. Gut communities of termites from the same genus were more similar than distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic ancestry matters, possibly in connection with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite and higher nonfungus-growing termites. These results suggest that the obligate association with Termitomyces has forced the bacterial gut communities of the fungus-growing termites towards a relatively uniform composition with higher similarity to their omnivorous relatives than to more closely related termites. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Nature of the interactions between hypocrealean fungi and the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutter ants.

    PubMed

    Varanda-Haifig, Sadala Schmidt; Albarici, Tatiane Regina; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Haifig, Ives; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Rodrigues, Andre

    2017-04-01

    Leaf-cutter ants cultivate and feed on the mutualistic fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, which is threatened by parasitic fungi of the genus Escovopsis. The mechanism of Escovopsis parasitism is poorly understood. Here, we assessed the nature of the antagonism of different Escovopsis species against its host. We also evaluated the potential antagonism of Escovopsioides, a recently described fungal genus from the attine ant environment whose role in the colonies of these insects is unknown. We performed dual-culture assays to assess the interactions between L. gongylophorus and both fungi. We also evaluated the antifungal activity of compounds secreted by the latter on L. gongylophorus growth using crude extracts of Escovopsis spp. and Escovopsioides nivea obtained either in (1) absence or (2) presence of the mutualistic fungus. The physical interaction between these fungi and the mutualistic fungus was examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Escovopsis spp. and E. nivea negatively affected the growth of L. gongylophorus, which was also significantly inhibited by both types of crude extract. These results indicate that Escovopsis spp. and E. nivea produce antifungal metabolites against the mutualistic fungus. SEM showed that Escovopsis spp. and E. nivea maintained physical contact with the mutualistic fungus, though no specialised structures related to mycoparasitism were observed. These results showed that Escovopsis is a destructive mycoparasite that needs physical contact for the death of the mutualistic fungus to occur. Also, our findings suggest that E. nivea is an antagonist of the ant fungal cultivar.

  4. [Scytalidium dimidiatum an opportunistic fungus for both man and Mangifera indica trees in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Padin, Carmiña; Fernández-Zeppenfeldt, Guillermo; Yegres, Francisco; Richard-Yegres, Nicole

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of Scytalidium dimidiatum on Mangifera indica (mango) trees, in a plantation managed by a diabetic patient with a white grain mycetoma of the foot caused by the same fungus. Samples from necrotic apices, roots, burned leaves and rotten stems from eight trees were processed by the Smith and Furcolow's mineral oil technique (modified). Several isolates from the apex material and clinical samples from the diabetic patient isolated in pure culture a fungus with the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of that in S. dimidiatum. This fungus should be considered as an opportunistic microorganism for both humans and M. indica.

  5. Gene expression analysis of wood decay fungus Fibroporia Radiculosa grown In ACQ-treated wood

    Treesearch

    Ayfer Akgul; Ali Akgul; Juliet D. Diehl Tang

    2018-01-01

    Copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi are able todegrade wood treated with copper or copper-based wood preservatives. This research used quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to explore what genes of the brown-rot fungus, Fibroporia radiculosa, were expressed when the fungus was overcoming the wood preservatives and decaying the...

  6. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-07-10

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity.

  7. Entomopathogenicity and Biological Attributes of Himalayan Treasured Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Yarsagumba)

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Bikash

    2017-01-01

    Members of the entomophagous fungi are considered very crucial in the fungal domain relative to their natural phenomenon and economic perspectives; however, inadequate knowledge of their mechanisms of interaction keeps them lagging behind in parallel studies of fungi associated with agro-ecology, forest pathology and medical biology. Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), an intricate fungus-caterpillar complex after it parasitizes the larva of the moth, is a highly prized medicinal fungus known widely for ages due to its peculiar biochemical assets. Recent technological innovations have significantly contributed a great deal to profiling the variable clinical importance of this fungus and other related fungi with similar medicinal potential. However, a detailed mechanism behind fungal pathogenicity and fungal-insect interactions seems rather ambiguous and is poorly justified, demanding special attention. The goal of the present review is to divulge an update on the published data and provides promising insights on different biological events that have remained underemphasized in previous reviews on fungal biology with relation to life-history trade-offs, host specialization and selection pressures. The infection of larvae by a fungus is not a unique event in Cordyceps; hence, other fungal species are also reviewed for effective comparison. Conceivably, the rationale and approaches behind the inheritance of pharmacological abilities acquired and stored within the insect framework at a time when they are completely hijacked and consumed by fungal parasites, and the molecular mechanisms involved therein, are clearly documented. PMID:29371523

  8. FLUORESCENT-SERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A PATHOGENIC FUNGUS (SPOROTRICHUM SCHENCKII),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    coloration of numerous other species of fungus no cross reactions with Sporotrichum schenkii were found. The use of this fluorescent coloring method for the diagnosis of Sporotrichosis is suggested. (Author)

  9. Polyketide-Terpene Hybrid Metabolites from an Endolichenic Fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Gang; Wang, Hai-Ying; Guo, Yu-Hua; Shang, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Five new polyketide-terpene hybrid metabolites (1–5) with highly functionalized groups, together with six known derivatives (6–11), were isolated from the endolichenic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR experiments including 1H, 13C, HMQC, COSY, and HMBC. The relative configurations of the new compounds were determined by analysis of coupling constants and ROESY correlations. The absolute configurations especially the secondary alcohol at C-15 in 1 and secondary alcohol at C-14 in 5 were established via the CD experiments of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex with the acetonide derivatives. These compounds were tested for their inhibition activity against six plant pathogens. Compounds 1 and 5 exhibited pronounced efficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, and compounds 5 and 6 potently inhibited Fusarium gramineum with MIC value of 8 µg/mL, which revealed the plausible ecological role of endolichenic fungus in providing chemical protection for its host lichen in the fungus-plant relationship. The biosynthetic pathway of compounds 1–11 was postulated for the first time, which paved the way for its further biosynthesis research. PMID:28593175

  10. Polyketide-Terpene Hybrid Metabolites from an Endolichenic Fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Ding, Gang; Wang, Hai-Ying; Guo, Yu-Hua; Shang, Hai; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Five new polyketide-terpene hybrid metabolites ( 1 - 5 ) with highly functionalized groups, together with six known derivatives ( 6 - 11 ), were isolated from the endolichenic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR experiments including 1 H, 13 C, HMQC, COSY, and HMBC. The relative configurations of the new compounds were determined by analysis of coupling constants and ROESY correlations. The absolute configurations especially the secondary alcohol at C-15 in 1 and secondary alcohol at C-14 in 5 were established via the CD experiments of the in situ formed [Rh 2 (OCOCF 3 ) 4 ] complex with the acetonide derivatives. These compounds were tested for their inhibition activity against six plant pathogens. Compounds 1 and 5 exhibited pronounced efficiency against Fusarium oxysporum , and compounds 5 and 6 potently inhibited Fusarium gramineum with MIC value of 8  µ g/mL, which revealed the plausible ecological role of endolichenic fungus in providing chemical protection for its host lichen in the fungus-plant relationship. The biosynthetic pathway of compounds 1 - 11 was postulated for the first time, which paved the way for its further biosynthesis research.

  11. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  12. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Treesearch

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  13. Global distribution of the pitch canker fungus

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell

    1998-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, causes diseases of pines in the United States, Haiti, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and South Africa. Pitch canker was first reported in Virginia pine in North Carolina in 1946. Although the disease was reported in Haitian pine in 1953, pitch canker was generally considered a...

  14. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms behind cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei, the hyper-cellulolytic filamentous fungus.

    PubMed

    Shida, Yosuke; Furukawa, Takanori; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a potent cellulase producer and the best-studied cellulolytic fungus. A lot of investigations not only on glycoside hydrolases produced by T. reesei, but also on the machinery controlling gene expression of these enzyme have made this fungus a model organism for cellulolytic fungi. We have investigated the T. reesei strain including mutants developed in Japan in detail to understand the molecular mechanisms that control the cellulase gene expression, the biochemical and morphological aspects that could favor this phenotype, and have attempted to generate novel strains that may be appropriate for industrial use. Subsequently, we developed recombinant strains by combination of these insights and the heterologous-efficient saccharifing enzymes. Resulting enzyme preparations were highly effective for saccharification of various biomass. In this review, we present some of the salient findings from the recent biochemical, morphological, and molecular analyses of this remarkable cellulase hyper-producing fungus.

  15. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence andmore » three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.« less

  16. Genome Sequence of the Mucoromycotina Fungus Umbelopsis isabellina, an Effective Producer of Lipids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Takeda, Itaru; Tamano, Koichi; Yamane, Noriko

    2014-02-27

    Umbelopsis isabellina is a fungus in the subdivision Mucoromycotina, many members of which have been shown to be oleaginous and have become important organisms for producing oil because of their high level of intracellular lipid accumulation from various feedstocks. The genome sequence of U. isabellina NBRC 7884 was determined and annotated, and this information might provide insights into the oleaginous properties of this fungus.

  17. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux.

    PubMed

    Langner, Thorsten; Białas, Aleksandra; Kamoun, Sophien

    2018-04-17

    Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases. Copyright © 2018 Langner et al.

  18. First unusual case of keratitis in Europe due to the rare fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    PubMed

    Dorin, Josephine; Debourgogne, Anne; Zaïdi, Mohamed; Bazard, Marie-Christine; Machouart, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungus utilized worldwide for insect-pest biocontrol. Few M. anisopliae infections have been reported previously. Here, M. anisopliae was isolated from a corneal ulcer in a healthy man. It is the first ocular case in France and Europe of this extremely rare fungus in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Ahmad, Absar, E-mail: a.ahmad@ncl.res.in

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods formore » the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN{sub 3}O{sub 9}·6H{sub 2}O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy

  20. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A

    2015-04-09

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  1. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems. PMID:26463188

  2. Formation of Ramified Colony of Fungus Aspergillus Oryzae on Agar Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    Ramified colonies of fungus Aspergillus oryzae have been found to grow at a low growth rate on "liquid-like" agar media with low concentrations of agar and glucose. Box-counting fractal dimensions of the individual colony branches have been found to decrease with the time of incubation. Addition of glucose solution in the interior of branched colonies has brought about the production of the hyphal filaments almost only at the apical region of the colony branches. Active growth of the ramified colonies is localized in the peripheral zone, and this growth manner implies that the fungus is exhibiting a positive exploitation.

  3. Host deception: Predaceous fungus, esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of its host pine for nutrient

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN), Burasphelenchus xylophilus, in the last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pi...

  4. Utilizing fungus myceliated grain for molt induction and performance in commercial laying hens.

    PubMed

    Willis, W L; Isikhuemhen, O S; Allen, J W; Byers, A; King, K; Thomas, C

    2009-10-01

    Molting in poultry is used to rejuvenate hens for a second or third laying cycle. Feed withdrawal was once the most effective method used for molt induction; however, it has being phased out due to food safety and animal welfare concerns. This study evaluated the utilization of fungus myceliated grain as a safe and effective alternative for inducing molt, enhancing immunity, reducing Salmonella growth, and returning to egg production. Laying hens were subjected to 1 of 5 treatments: 1) nonfed (NF), 2) full-fed (FF), 3) fungus myceliated meal (FM), 4) 90% fungus myceliated meal+10% standard layer ration (FM-90), and 5) 90% alfalfa meal+10% fungus myceliated meal (AF-90). Each treatment condition was replicated 9 times during a 9-d molt period. The results revealed that egg production for treatments 1 and 3 ceased completely by d 5, whereas hens in treatments 4 and 5 ceased egg production by d 6. The percentage of BW loss decreased significantly (P<0.05) in treatments 1 (57%), 2 (8%), 3 (35%), 4 (37%), and 5 (44%). Ovary weights of hens fed all molting diets decreased significantly from the full-fed control but did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from each other. Salmonella population in the crop, ovary, and ceca from hens differed significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. Return to egg production differed between treatments with higher production beginning in treatment 3 and ending in treatment 5. Antibody titers did differ (P<0.05) among treatments. From these results, fungus myceliated meal appears to be a viable alternative to conventional feed withdrawal and other methods for the successful induction of molt and retention of postmolt performance.

  5. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Jung Fu

    1989-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

  6. Defending against parasites: fungus-growing ants combine specialized behaviours and microbial symbionts to protect their fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Little, Ainslie E F; Murakami, Takahiro; Mueller, Ulrich G; Currie, Cameron R

    2006-03-22

    Parasites influence host biology and population structure, and thus shape the evolution of their hosts. Parasites often accelerate the evolution of host defences, including direct defences such as evasion and sanitation and indirect defences such as the management of beneficial microbes that aid in the suppression or removal of pathogens. Fungus-growing ants are doubly burdened by parasites, needing to protect their crops as well as themselves from infection. We show that parasite removal from fungus gardens is more complex than previously realized. In response to infection of their fungal gardens by a specialized virulent parasite, ants gather and compress parasitic spores and hyphae in their infrabuccal pockets, then deposit the resulting pellet in piles near their gardens. We reveal that the ants' infrabuccal pocket functions as a specialized sterilization device, killing spores of the garden parasite Escovopsis. This is apparently achieved through a symbiotic association with actinomycetous bacteria in the infrabuccal pocket that produce antibiotics which inhibit Escovopsis. The use of the infrabuccal pocket as a receptacle to sequester Escovopsis, and as a location for antibiotic administration by the ants' bacterial mutualist, illustrates how the combination of behaviour and microbial symbionts can be a successful defence strategy for hosts.

  7. Defending against parasites: fungus-growing ants combine specialized behaviours and microbial symbionts to protect their fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    Little, Ainslie E.F; Murakami, Takahiro; Mueller, Ulrich G; Currie, Cameron R

    2005-01-01

    Parasites influence host biology and population structure, and thus shape the evolution of their hosts. Parasites often accelerate the evolution of host defences, including direct defences such as evasion and sanitation and indirect defences such as the management of beneficial microbes that aid in the suppression or removal of pathogens. Fungus-growing ants are doubly burdened by parasites, needing to protect their crops as well as themselves from infection. We show that parasite removal from fungus gardens is more complex than previously realized. In response to infection of their fungal gardens by a specialized virulent parasite, ants gather and compress parasitic spores and hyphae in their infrabuccal pockets, then deposit the resulting pellet in piles near their gardens. We reveal that the ants' infrabuccal pocket functions as a specialized sterilization device, killing spores of the garden parasite Escovopsis. This is apparently achieved through a symbiotic association with actinomycetous bacteria in the infrabuccal pocket that produce antibiotics which inhibit Escovopsis. The use of the infrabuccal pocket as a receptacle to sequester Escovopsis, and as a location for antibiotic administration by the ants' bacterial mutualist, illustrates how the combination of behaviour and microbial symbionts can be a successful defence strategy for hosts. PMID:17148313

  8. Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, T.; Eggleton, P.; Aanen, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance colonization may have been severely constrained by the obligate interaction of the termites with fungal symbionts and the need to acquire these symbionts secondarily from the environment for most species (horizontal symbiont transmission). Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that all extant species of fungus-growing termites of Madagascar are the result of a single colonization event of termites belonging to one of the only two groups with vertical symbiont transmission, and we date this event at approximately 13 Mya (Middle/Upper Miocene). Vertical symbiont transmission may therefore have facilitated long-distance dispersal since both partners disperse together. In contrast to their termite hosts, the fungal symbionts have colonized Madagascar multiple times, suggesting that the presence of fungus-growing termites may have facilitated secondary colonizations of the symbiont. Our findings indicate that the absence of the right symbionts in a new environment can prevent long-distance dispersal of symbioses relying on horizontal symbiont acquisition. PMID:19828546

  9. The relationship between an endangered North American tree and an endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Lee, J C; Yang, X; Schwartz, M; Strobel, G; Clardy, J

    1995-11-01

    The Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) began a catastrophic decline in the late 1950s and is now the rarest tree in North America for which a full species designation has been established. The trees have common plant disease symptoms, but the reason for the decline has never been identified. T. taxifolia's imminent extinction gains special poignancy through its close relationship to the Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), which produces the potent anticancer agent, taxol. An examination of the endophytic fungal communities of wild torreyas consistently found a filamentous fungus, Pestalotiopsis microspora, associated with diseased trees and also with most symptomless trees. P. microspora can be cultured in the laboratory, and when it is introduced into greenhouse-grown torreyas, it causes disease symptoms similar to those seen in the field. The fungus can then be reisolated from these deliberately infected trees. The phytotoxins pestalopyrone, hydroxypestalopyrone and pestaloside have been isolated and characterized from axenic fungal cultures, and both pestalopyrone and hydroxypestalopyrone can be isolated from artificially infected torreyas. In addition, pestaloside has antifungal activity against other fungal endophytes of T. taxifolia. The filamentous fungus, P. microspora, has an endophytic-pathologic relationship with T. taxifolia. The fungus resides in the inner bark of symptomless trees, and physiological or environmental factors could trigger its pathological activity. P. microspora produces the phytotoxins pestalopyrone, hydroxypestalopyrone, and pestaloside which give rise to the disease. Pestaloside, which also has antifungal activity, could reduce competition from other fungal endophytes within the host.

  10. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  11. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    DOEpatents

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. De novo biosynthesis of cytokinins in the biotrophic fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Janine; Vrabka, Josef; Oeser, Birgitt; Novák, Ondřej; Galuszka, Petr; Tudzynski, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Disease symptoms of some phytopathogenic fungi are associated with changes in cytokinin (CK) levels. Here, we show that the CK profile of ergot-infected rye plants is also altered, although no pronounced changes occur in the expression of the host plant's CK biosynthesis genes. Instead, we demonstrate a clearly different mechanism: we report on the first fungal de novo CK biosynthesis genes, prove their functions and constitute a biosynthetic pathway. The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea produces substantial quantities of CKs in culture and, like plants, expresses enzymes containing the isopentenyltransferase and lonely guy domains necessary for de novo isopentenyladenine production. Uniquely, two of these domains are combined in one bifunctional enzyme, CpIPT-LOG, depicting a novel and potent mechanism for CK production. The fungus also forms trans-zeatin, a reaction catalysed by a CK-specific cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, which is encoded by cpp450 forming a small cluster with cpipt-log. Deletion of cpipt-log and cpp450 did not affect virulence of the fungus, but Δcpp450 mutants exhibit a hyper-sporulating phenotype, implying that CKs are environmental factors influencing fungal development. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Geosmithia-Ophiostoma: a New Fungus-Fungus Association.

    PubMed

    Pepori, Alessia L; Bettini, Priscilla P; Comparini, Cecilia; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Bonini, Anna; Frascella, Arcangela; Ghelardini, Luisa; Scala, Aniello; Vannacci, Giovanni; Santini, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    In Europe as in North America, elms are devastated by Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the alien ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Pathogen dispersal and transmission are ensured by local species of bark beetles, which established a novel association with the fungus. Elm bark beetles also transport the Geosmithia fungi genus that is found in scolytids' galleries colonized by O. novo-ulmi. Widespread horizontal gene transfer between O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia was recently observed. In order to define the relation between these two fungi in the DED pathosystem, O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia species from elm, including a GFP-tagged strain, were grown in dual culture and mycelial interactions were observed by light and fluorescence microscopy. Growth and sporulation of O. novo-ulmi in the absence or presence of Geosmithia were compared. The impact of Geosmithia on DED severity was tested in vivo by co-inoculating Geosmithia and O. novo-ulmi in elms. A close and stable relation was observed between the two fungi, which may be classified as mycoparasitism by Geosmithia on O. novo-ulmi. These results prove the existence of a new component in the complex of organisms involved in DED, which might be capable of reducing the disease impact.

  14. Parasitic Aspects of a Fairy Ring Fungus, Marasmius oreades

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1965-01-01

    Marasmius oreades parasitizes Poa pratensis, Festuca rubra, and Agrostis tenuis. The fungus penetrates the root directly in all three species and does not require natural openings or wounds. The mycelium ramifies in the cortical cells and destroys the cell contents.

  15. Changes in selected enzyme activities during growth of pure and mixed cultures of the white-rot decay fungus Trametes versicolor and the potential biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Freitag, M; Morrell, J J

    1992-04-01

    Two filamentous fungi, the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and the soil fungus and potential biocontrol organism Trichoderma harzianum, have been grown in pure and mixed cultures on low-N (0.4 mM) and high-N (4 mM) defined synthetic media to determine the activities of selected wood-degrading enzymes such as cellobiase, cellulase, laccase, and peroxidases. Growth characteristics and enzyme activities were examined for potential correlations. Such correlations would allow the use of simple enzyme assays for measuring biomass development and would facilitate predictions about competitiveness of species in mixed fungal cultures. Our results show that while laccase and Poly Red-478 peroxidase activities indicate survival of the decay fungus, none of the monitored extracellular enzymes can serve as a quantitative indicator for biomass accumulation. As expected, the level of available nitrogen affected the production of the enzymes monitored: in low-N media, specific cellobiase, specific cellulase, and peroxidase activities were enhanced, while laccase activities were reduced. Most importantly, laccase activities of Trametes versicolor, and to a smaller extent, cellobiase activities of both fungi, were significantly induced in mixed cultures of Trametes versicolor and Trichoderma harzianum.

  16. Greater taxol yield of fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from dermatitic scurf of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 μg/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculation reduces the drought-resistance advantage of endophyte-infected versus endophyte-free Leymus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wu, Man; Wu, Rihan; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Yubao; Ren, Anzhi

    2017-11-01

    Grasses can be infected simultaneously by endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endophyte-associated drought resistance of a native grass was affected by an AM fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Leymus chinensis, a dominant species native to the Inner Mongolia steppe, under altered water and AM fungus availability. The results showed that endophyte infection significantly increased drought resistance of the host grass, but the beneficial effects were reduced by AM fungus inoculation. In the mycorrhizal-non-inoculated (MF) treatment, EI plants accumulated significantly more biomass, had greater proline and total phenolic concentration, and lower malondialdehyde concentration than EF plants. In the mycorrhizal-inoculation (MI) treatment, however, no significant difference occurred in either growth or physiological characters measured between EI and EF plants. AM fungus inoculation enhanced drought resistance of EF plants but had no significant effect on drought resistance of EI plants, thus AM fungus inoculation reduced the difference between EI and EF plants. Our findings highlight the importance of interactions among multiple microorganisms for plant performance under drought stress.

  18. Fungus-Farming Termites Selectively Bury Weedy Fungi that Smell Different from Crop Fungi.

    PubMed

    Katariya, Lakshya; Ramesh, Priya B; Gopalappa, Thejashwini; Desireddy, Sathish; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Borges, Renee M

    2017-10-01

    Mutualistic associations such as the fungal farms of insects are prone to parasitism and are consequently vulnerable to attack by weeds and pests. Therefore, efficient farm management requires quick detection of weeds for their elimination. Furthermore, if the available weedicides are non-specific, then the ability of insects to discriminate between crop and weeds becomes essential for targeted application of such compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in fungus-farming insects, that worker castes of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes obesus discriminate between their crop (Termitomyces) and the weedy (Pseudoxylaria) fungi, even if exposed to only fungal scents. Termites respond to the presence of fungal mycelium or scent alone, by burying the weed with the offered material such as soil or agar, possibly anointing the weed with chemicals in the process. The scent profiles of crop and weedy fungi are distinct and the differences are likely exploited by termites to selectively mount their defences. Sesquiterpene compounds such as aristolene and viridiflorol, which are absent from crop odours, may constitute the "weedy scent". Our results provide a general mechanism of how other fungus-farming insects could avoid indiscriminate application of non-specific fungicides which could lead to poisoning their crops, and have bearing on the stability of the mutualism between termites and their crop fungus in the face of parasitism by weedy fungi.

  19. The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120–140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  20. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  1. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of a melanin polyketide synthase (pks1) gene in the fungus Slafractonia leguminicola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Slafractonia leguminicola, the causal agent of blackpatch disease of legumes produces two mycotoxins slaframine and swainsonine, causing slobbers’ symptoms and locoism of grazing animals, respectively. The genetics of this important fungus is poorly understood. This work aimed to develop ...

  2. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  3. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    PubMed

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously.

  4. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk

    2016-01-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously. PMID:27103854

  5. Plant-driven weathering of apatite--the role of an ectomycorrhizal fungus.

    PubMed

    Smits, M M; Bonneville, S; Benning, L G; Banwart, S A; Leake, J R

    2012-09-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are increasingly recognized as important agents of mineral weathering and soil development, with far-reaching impacts on biogeochemical cycles. Because EcM fungi live in a symbiotic relationship with trees and in close contact with bacteria and archaea, it is difficult to distinguish between the weathering effects of the fungus, host tree and other micro-organisms. Here, we quantified mineral weathering by the fungus Paxillus involutus, growing in symbiosis with Pinus sylvestris under sterile conditions. The mycorrhizal trees were grown in specially designed sterile microcosms in which the supply of soluble phosphorus (P) in the bulk media was varied and grains of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite mixed with quartz, or quartz alone, were provided in plastic wells that were only accessed by their fungal partner. Under P limitation, pulse labelling of plants with (14)CO(2) revealed plant-to-fungus allocation of photosynthates, with 17 times more (14)C transferred into the apatite wells compared with wells with only quartz. Fungal colonization increased the release of P from apatite by almost a factor of three, from 7.5 (±1.1) × 10(-10) mol m(-2) s(-1) to 2.2 (±0.52) × 10(-9) mol m(-2) s(-1). On increasing the P supply in the microcosms from no added P, through apatite alone, to both apatite and orthophosphate, the proportion of biomass in roots progressively increased at the expense of the fungus. These three observations, (i) proportionately more plant energy investment in the fungal partner under P limitation, (ii) preferential fungal transport of photosynthate-derived carbon towards patches of apatite grains and (iii) fungal enhancement of weathering rate, reveal the tightly coupled plant-fungal interactions underpinning enhanced EcM weathering of apatite and its utilization as P source. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, Frank O.; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Bruce, David C.; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S.; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens. PMID:23469353

  7. Comparison of radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa forel in two culture media

    PubMed Central

    Miyashira, C.H.; Tanigushi, D.G.; Gugliotta, A.M.; Santos, D.Y.A.C.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro culture of the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants is troublesome due to its low growth rate, which leads to storage problems and contaminants accumulation. This paper aims at comparing the radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel in two different culture media (Pagnocca B and MEA LP). Although total MEA LP radial growth was greater all along the bioassay, no significant difference was detected between growth efficiencies of the two media. Previous evidences of low growth rate for this fungus were confirmed. Since these data cannot point greater efficiency of one culture medium over the other, MEA LP medium is indicated for in vitro studies with this mutualistic fungus due its simpler composition and translucent color, making the analysis easier. PMID:24031524

  8. Laccase production by Monotospora sp., an endophytic fungus in Cynodon dactylon.

    PubMed

    Wang, J W; Wu, J H; Huang, W Y; Tan, R X

    2006-03-01

    The effects of the carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH and incubation temperature on laccase production by the endophytic fungus Monotospora sp. were evaluated. The optimal temperature and initial pH for laccase production by Monotospora sp. in submerged culture were found to be 30 degrees C and 8.5, respectively. Maltose (2 g l(-1)) and ammonium tartrate (10 g l(-1)) were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen source for laccase production. Under optimal culture medium, the maximum laccase activity was determined to be 13.55 U ml(-1), which was approximately four times higher than that in basal medium. This is the first report on laccase production by an endophytic fungus.

  9. Fungus mediated biosynthesis of WO3 nanoparticles using Fusarium solani extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, N. S.; Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Ilangovan, R.

    2017-05-01

    Currently nanoparticles were synthesized by emphasis bioremediation process due to less hazardous, eco-friendly and imperative applications on biogenic process. Fungus mediated biosynthesis strategy has been developed to prepare tungsten oxide nanoflakes (WO3, NFs) using the plant pathogenic fungus F.solani. The powder XRD pattern revealed the monoclinic crystal structure with improved crystalline nature of the synthesized WO3 nanoparticles. FESEM images showed the flake-like morphology of WO3, with average thickness and length around 40 nm and 300 nm respectively. The Raman spectrum of WO3 NFs showed their characteristic vibration modes that revealed the defect free nature of the WO3 NFs. Further, the elemental analysis indicated the stoichiometric composition of WO3 phase.

  10. Unintentional ingestion of Cordyceps fungus-infected cicada nymphs causing ibotenic acid poisoning in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doan, Uyen Vy; Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Kirby, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    Cordyceps fungus found in infected cicada nymphs ("cicada flowers") is utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps fungus toxicity in humans has not been previously reported. We report 60 cases of apparent Cordyceps poisoning in Southern Vietnam. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data from the medical records (21 cases) and by telephone interview (39 cases) of patients admitted to seven hospitals in Southern Vietnam following ingestion of cicada flowers between 2008 and 2015. We also determined the species of Cordyceps present in the cicada flowers and performed a partial chemical analysis of the fungus. Sixty cases of toxic effects following ingestion of cicada flowers were documented. Symptom onset occurred within 60 minutes following ingestion. Symptoms included dizziness, vomiting, salivation, mydriasis, jaw stiffness, urinary retention, seizures, agitated delirium, hallucinations, somnolence and coma. None of the patients suffered liver or kidney injury. There was one fatality. The Cordyceps fungus involved in these poisoning was identified as Ophiocordyceps heteropoda. The presence of ibotenic acid was confirmed, but musimol and muscarine were absent. Cicada infected with Ophiocordyceps heteropoda in Vietnam contain ibotenic acid and are associated with a clinical syndrome consistent with its effects.

  11. Complete Genome of Serratia sp. Strain FGI 94, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, Frank O.; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Bruce, David C.; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W.; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S.; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Teshima, Hazuki; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Serratia sp. strain FGI 94 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its 4.86-Mbp chromosome will help advance our knowledge of symbiotic interactions and plant biomass degradation in this ancient ant-fungus mutualism. PMID:23516234

  12. Volatiles from the xylarialean fungus Hypoxylon invadens.

    PubMed

    Dickschat, Jeroen S; Wang, Tao; Stadler, Marc

    2018-01-01

    The volatiles emitted by agar plate cultures of the xylarialean fungus Hypoxylon invadens were investigated by use of a closed loop stripping apparatus in combination with GC-MS. Several aromatic compounds were found that could only be identified by comparison to all possible constitutional isomers with different ring substitution patterns. For the set of identified compounds a plausible biosynthetic scheme was suggested that gives further support for the assigned structures.

  13. Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Are Biphasic Mixed Microbial Bioreactors That Convert Plant Biomass to Polyols with Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Somera, Alexandre F.; Lima, Adriel M.; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J.; Lanças, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  14. Leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens are biphasic mixed microbial bioreactors that convert plant biomass to polyols with biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Somera, Alexandre F; Lima, Adriel M; Dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lanças, Fernando M; Bacci, Maurício

    2015-07-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Biological control of trichostrongyles in beef cattle by the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Assis, R C L; Luns, F D; Araújo, J V; Braga, F R

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of a fungal formulation based on the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans was assessed in the control of cattle trichostrongyles. Twenty male Nellore calves, six-month-old, divided in two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus) were fed on a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens naturally infected with larvae of bovine trichostrongyles. Animals of the treated group received doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets orally (1 g/10 kg live weight, twice a week), for 12 months. Feces samples were collected for egg count (eggs per gram of feces-EPG) and coprocultures during 12 months. There was a significant reduction in EPG (56.7%) and infective larvae (L3) in coprocultures (60.5%) for animals of the treated group in relation to the control group at the end of the study. There was a significant reduction of L3 (64.5%) in herbage samples collected up to 0-20 cm from fecal pats and 73.2% in distant samples (20-40 cm) between the fungus-treated group and the control group. The treatment with sodium alginate pellets containing the nematode trapping fungus D. flagrans reduced trichostrongylid in tropical southeastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for biological control of this parasitic nematode in beef cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    2014-04-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control, but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each of the desiccant dusts and the fungus, with observed levels of mite mortality significantly higher than those expected for an additive effect (up to 38 % higher). Synergistic interaction between desiccant dust and fungus was found also when different application methods were used for the fungus and at different levels of relative humidity. Although increased levels of mortality were reached due to the synergistic interaction, the speed of lethal action was not influenced by combining the two components. The persistence of the control agents applied separately or in combination did not change over a period of 4 weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites.

  17. A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone from Fungus Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yabin; Yang, Fangfang; Zhao, Lixing; Duang, Rongting; Chen, Guangyi; Li, Xiaozhan; Li, Qiling; Qin, Shaohuan; Ding, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone, peniginsengin A (1), was isolated from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. YIM PH30003, an endophytic fungus associated with Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen. The structure was assigned based on a combination of 1 D and 2 D NMR and mass spectral data. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of compound 1 were investigated.

  18. Enzyme Activities at Different Stages of Plant Biomass Decomposition in Three Species of Fungus-Growing Termites

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Kristine S. K.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungus-growing termites rely on mutualistic fungi of the genus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely contributing to the success of the termites as one of the main plant decomposers in the Old World. In this study, we evaluated which plant polymers are decomposed and which enzymes are active during the decomposition process in two major genera of fungus-growing termites. We found a diversity of active enzymes at different stages of decomposition and a consistent decrease in plant components during the decomposition process. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that termites transport enzymes from the older mature parts of the fungus comb through young worker guts to freshly inoculated plant substrate. However, preliminary fungal RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses suggest that this likely transport is supplemented with enzymes produced in situ. Our findings support that the maintenance of an external fungus comb, inoculated with an optimal mixture of plant material, fungal spores, and enzymes, is likely the key to the extraordinarily efficient plant decomposition in fungus-growing termites. IMPORTANCE Fungus-growing termites have a substantial ecological footprint in the Old World (sub)tropics due to their ability to decompose dead plant material. Through the establishment of an elaborate plant biomass inoculation strategy and through fungal and bacterial enzyme contributions, this farming symbiosis has become an efficient and versatile aerobic bioreactor for plant substrate conversion. Since little is known about what enzymes are expressed and where they are active at different stages of the decomposition process, we used enzyme assays, transcriptomics, and plant content measurements to shed light on how this decomposition of plant

  19. Enzyme Activities at Different Stages of Plant Biomass Decomposition in Three Species of Fungus-Growing Termites.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Rafael R; Hu, Haofu; Pilgaard, Bo; Vreeburg, Sabine M E; Schückel, Julia; Pedersen, Kristine S K; Kračun, Stjepan K; Busk, Peter K; Harholt, Jesper; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Lange, Lene; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Fungus-growing termites rely on mutualistic fungi of the genus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely contributing to the success of the termites as one of the main plant decomposers in the Old World. In this study, we evaluated which plant polymers are decomposed and which enzymes are active during the decomposition process in two major genera of fungus-growing termites. We found a diversity of active enzymes at different stages of decomposition and a consistent decrease in plant components during the decomposition process. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that termites transport enzymes from the older mature parts of the fungus comb through young worker guts to freshly inoculated plant substrate. However, preliminary fungal RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses suggest that this likely transport is supplemented with enzymes produced in situ Our findings support that the maintenance of an external fungus comb, inoculated with an optimal mixture of plant material, fungal spores, and enzymes, is likely the key to the extraordinarily efficient plant decomposition in fungus-growing termites. IMPORTANCE Fungus-growing termites have a substantial ecological footprint in the Old World (sub)tropics due to their ability to decompose dead plant material. Through the establishment of an elaborate plant biomass inoculation strategy and through fungal and bacterial enzyme contributions, this farming symbiosis has become an efficient and versatile aerobic bioreactor for plant substrate conversion. Since little is known about what enzymes are expressed and where they are active at different stages of the decomposition process, we used enzyme assays, transcriptomics, and plant content measurements to shed light on how this decomposition of plant substrate is so

  20. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

    2012-01-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus–bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans. PMID:22378535

  1. Diseases of pines caused by the pitch canker fungus

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell; Stephen W. Fraedrich; D. Adams

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, the pitch canker fungus, causes a number of serious diseases of Pinus species. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at different stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. When the pathogen infects the woody vegetative...

  2. Do novel genotypes drive the success of an invasive bark beetle–fungus complex? Implications for potential reinvasion

    Treesearch

    Min Lu; Michael J. Wingfield; Nancy Gillette; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    Novel genotypes often arise during biological invasions, but their role in invasion success has rarely been elucidated. Here we examined the population genetics and behavior of the fungus, Leptographium procerum, vectored by a highly invasive bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, to determine whether genetic changes in the fungus...

  3. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant–fungus agricultural symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Schiøtt, Morten; Chen, Zhensheng; Yang, Zhikai; Xie, Qiaolin; Ma, Chunyu; Deng, Yuan; Dikow, Rebecca B.; Rabeling, Christian; Nash, David R.; Wcislo, William T.; Brady, Seán G.; Schultz, Ted R.; Zhang, Guojie; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant–fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal cultivars. We show that ant subsistence farming probably originated in the early Tertiary (55–60 MYA), followed by further transitions to the farming of fully domesticated cultivars and leaf-cutting, both arising earlier than previously estimated. Evolutionary modifications in the ants include unprecedented rates of genome-wide structural rearrangement, early loss of arginine biosynthesis and positive selection on chitinase pathways. Modifications of fungal cultivars include loss of a key ligninase domain, changes in chitin synthesis and a reduction in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes as the ants gradually transitioned to functional herbivory. In contrast to human farming, increasing dependence on a single cultivar lineage appears to have been essential to the origin of industrial-scale ant agriculture. PMID:27436133

  4. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  5. Bioactive Constituents from an Endophytic Fungus, Penicillium polonicum NFW9, Associated with Taxus fauna.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nighat; Sripisut, Tawanun; Youn, Ui J; Ahmed, Safia; Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Munoz-Acuna, Ulyana; Simmons, Charles J; Qazi, Muneer A; Jadoon, Muniba; Tan, Ghee T; de Blanco, Esperanza J C; Chang, Leng C

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are being recognized as vital and untapped sources of a variety of structurally novel and unique bioactive secondary metabolites in the field of natural products drug discovery. Herein, this study reports the isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus Penicillium polonicum (NFW9) associated with Taxus fuana. The extracts of the endophytic fungus cultured on potato dextrose agar were purified using several chromatographic techniques. Biological evaluation was performed based on their abilities to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cytotoxicity assays. Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of a fermentation culture of an endophytic fungus, Penicillium polonicum led to the isolation of a dimeric anthraquinone, (R)- 1,1',3,3',5,5'-hexahydroxy-7,7'-dimethyl[2,2'-bianthracene]-9,9',10,10'-tetraone (1), a steroidal furanoid (-)-wortmannolone (2), along with three other compounds (3-4). Moreover, this is the first report on the isolation of compound 1 from an endophytic fungus. All purified metabolites were characterized by NMR and MS data analyses. The stereo structure of compound 1 was determined by the measurement of specific optical rotation and CD spectrum. The relative stereochemistry of 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 2-3 showed inhibitory activities in the TNF-α-induced NF-κB assay with IC50 values in the range of 0.47-2.11 µM. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 showed moderate inhibition against NF-κB and cancer cell lines. The endophytic fungus Penicillium polonicum of Taxus fuana is capable of producing biologically active natural compounds. Our results provide a scientific rationale for further chemical investigations into endophyte-producing natural products, drug discovery and development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Symbiosis-regulated expression of an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase gene in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor

    Treesearch

    Shiv T. Hiremath; Sujata Balasubramanian; Jun Zheng; Gopi K. Podila

    2006-01-01

    The ectomycorrhiza is a symbiotic organ generated from the intricate association of fungal hyphae and plant root. The establishment of the ectomycorrhiza is a coordinated process of cross-talk between plant and fungus, followed by metabolic, developmental, and structural changes in the fungus, resulting in its growth toward the root. The initial stages of the symbiotic...

  7. Efficient xylose fermentation by the brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Kanawaku, Ryuichi; Masumoto, Masaru; Yanase, Hideshi

    2012-02-10

    The efficient production of bioethanol on an industrial scale requires the use of renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. A limiting factor in developing efficient processes is identifying microorganisms that are able to effectively ferment xylose, the major pentose sugar found in hemicellulose, and break down carbohydrate polymers without pre-treatment steps. Here, a basidiomycete brown rot fungus was isolated as a new biocatalyst with unprecedented fermentability, as it was capable of converting not only the 6-carbon sugars constituting cellulose, but also the major 5-carbon sugar xylose in hemicelluloses, to ethanol. The fungus was identified as Neolentinus lepideus and was capable of assimilating and fermenting xylose to ethanol in yields of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.34 g of ethanol per g of xylose consumed under aerobic, oxygen-limited, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. A small amount of xylitol was detected as the major by-product of xylose metabolism. N. lepideus produced ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, cellobiose, maltose, and lactose with yields ranging from 0.34 to 0.38 g ethanol per g sugar consumed, and also exhibited relatively favorable conversion of non-pretreated starch, xylan, and wheat bran. These results suggest that N. lepideus is a promising candidate for cost-effective and environmentally friendly ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report on efficient ethanol fermentation from various carbohydrates, including xylose, by a naturally occurring brown rot fungus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. De novo genome assembly of the soil-borne fungus and tomato pathogen Pyrenochaeta lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pyrenochaeta lycopersici is a soil-dwelling ascomycete pathogen that causes corky root rot disease in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and other Solanaceous crops, reducing fruit yields by up to 75%. Fungal pathogens that infect roots receive less attention than those infecting the aerial parts of crops despite their significant impact on plant growth and fruit production. Results We assembled a 54.9Mb P. lycopersici draft genome sequence based on Illumina short reads, and annotated approximately 17,000 genes. The P. lycopersici genome is closely related to hemibiotrophs and necrotrophs, in agreement with the phenotypic characteristics of the fungus and its lifestyle. Several gene families related to host–pathogen interactions are strongly represented, including those responsible for nutrient absorption, the detoxification of fungicides and plant cell wall degradation, the latter confirming that much of the genome is devoted to the pathogenic activity of the fungus. We did not find a MAT gene, which is consistent with the classification of P. lycopersici as an imperfect fungus, but we observed a significant expansion of the gene families associated with heterokaryon incompatibility (HI). Conclusions The P. lycopersici draft genome sequence provided insight into the molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyle, characterizing previously unknown pathogenic behaviors and defining strategies that allow this asexual fungus to increase genetic diversity and to acquire new pathogenic traits. PMID:24767544

  9. The fungus Ustilago maydis, from the aztec cuisine to the research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Herrera, J; Martínez-Espinoza, A D

    1998-06-01

    Ustilago maydis is a plant pathogen fungus responsible for corn smut. It has a complex life cycle. In its saprophitic stage, it grows as haploid yeast cells, while in the invasive stage it grows as a mycelium formed by diploid cells. Thus, a correlation exists between genetic ploidy, pathogenicity and morphogenesis. Dimorphism can be modulated in vitro by changing environmental parameters such as pH. Studies with auxotrophic mutants have shown that polyamines play a central role in regulating dimorphism. Molecular biology approaches are being employed for the analysis of fundamental aspects of the biology of this fungus, such as mating type regulation, dimorphism or cell wall biogenesis.

  10. Meroterpenoids and isoberkedienolactone from endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. associated with Dysosma versipellis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Wei; Duan, Rui-Gang; Zou, Jian-Hua; Chen, Ri-Dao; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Jun-Gui

    2014-06-01

    Seven meroterpenoids and five small-molecular precursors were isolated from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus from Dysosma versipellis. The structures of new compounds, 11beta-acetoxyisoaustinone (1) and isoberkedienolactone (2) were elucidated based on analysis of the spectral data, and the absolute configuration of 2 was established by TDDFT ECD calculation with satisfactory match to its experimental ECD data. Meroterpenoids originated tetraketide and pentaketide precursors, resepectively, were found to be simultaneously produced in specific fungus of Penicillium species. These compounds showed weak cytotoxicity in vitro against HCT-116, HepG2, BGC-823, NCI-H1650, and A2780 cell lines with IC 50 > 10 micromol x L(-1).

  11. Muscodor kashayum sp. nov. – a new volatile anti-microbial producing endophytic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Vineet; Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor kashayum (MycoBank no.: MB 803800; GenBank no.: KC481680) is a newly described endophytic fungus of a medicinal plant Aegle marmelos (Bael tree), growing in the tropical conserved rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. Muscodor kashayum possesses distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features from the earlier reported Muscodor species. The fungus forms characteristic rings of the ropy mycelium on potato dextrose agar medium. This sterile fungus is characterised by the presence of a pungent smell which is attributable to a blend of more than 23 volatile organic constituents, predominantly 3-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-oxopropyl) phenol; 2,4-di-tert-butylthiophenol and 4-octadecylmorpholine. In the in vitro anti-microbial assay using M. kashayum, growth of 75% of test fungi/yeasts and 72% of the test bacteria were completely inhibited. Therefore, M. Kashayum holds potential for future application to be used as a myco-fumigation agent. PMID:24587960

  12. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  13. The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik; Thomas C. Harrington; William L. MacDonald; David N. Appel

    2008-01-01

    The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes...

  14. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.

    Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass ismore » degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.« less

  15. Oligocene Termite Nests with In Situ Fungus Gardens from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania, Support a Paleogene African Origin for Insect Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric M.; Todd, Christopher N.; Aanen, Duur K.; Nobre, Tânia; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah L.; O’Connor, Patrick M.; Tapanila, Leif; Mtelela, Cassy; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on molecular dating, the origin of insect agriculture is hypothesized to have taken place independently in three clades of fungus-farming insects: the termites, ants or ambrosia beetles during the Paleogene (66–24 Ma). Yet, definitive fossil evidence of fungus-growing behavior has been elusive, with no unequivocal records prior to the late Miocene (7–10 Ma). Here we report fossil evidence of insect agriculture in the form of fossil fungus gardens, preserved within 25 Ma termite nests from southwestern Tanzania. Using these well-dated fossil fungus gardens, we have recalibrated molecular divergence estimates for the origins of termite agriculture to around 31 Ma, lending support to hypotheses suggesting an African Paleogene origin for termite-fungus symbiosis; perhaps coinciding with rift initiation and changes in the African landscape. PMID:27333288

  16. Chemical study of the fungus Psilocybe merdaria.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning-Ning; Ma, Qing-Yun; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Kong, Fan-Dong; Dai, Hao-Fu; Yu, Zhi-Fang; Zhao, You-Xing

    2017-04-01

    Chemical investigation on the cultures of the fungus Psilocybe merdaria resulted in the first isolation of 10 compounds including two new ones 11,14-dihydroxylneoechinulin E (1) and (S)-4-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)-butyrolactone (2). Their structures were elucidated from the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Among them, compound 7 showed inhibitory activity against AChE with 20% percentage at a concentration of 50 μg/ml.

  17. New Cytochalasin from Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, an Endophytic Fungus of Albizia lebbeck.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nisha; Kushwaha, Manoj; Arora, Divya; Jain, Shreyans; Singamaneni, Venugopal; Sharma, Sonia; Shankar, Ravi; Bhushan, Shashi; Gupta, Prasoon; Jaglan, Sundeep

    2018-03-24

    To explore the potential of Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana an endophytic fungus associated with Albizia lebbeck for pharmaceutically important cytotoxic compounds. One novel cytochalasin, named Jammosporin A (1) and four known analogues (2-5) were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, harbored from the leaves of medicinal plant Albizia lebbeck. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR data along with MS data and by comparison with literature reports. In preliminary screening the ethyl acetate extract of the fungal culture was tested for the cytotoxic activity against a panel of four cancer cell lines (MOLT-4, A549, MIA PaCa -2 and MDA-MB-231), was found to be active against MOLT-4 with IC 50 value of 10 μg/mL. Owing to the remarkable cytotoxic activity of the extract the isolated compounds (1-5) were evaluated for their cytototoxicity against MOLT-4 cell line by MTT assay. Interestingly, compounds 1-2, 4 and 5 showed considerable cytotoxic potential against the human leukemia cancer cell line (MOLT-4) with IC 50 values of 20.0, 10.0, 8.0 and 6.0 μM, respectively, while compound 3 showed IC 50 value of 25 μM. This is the first report of existence of this class of secondary metabolites in Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana fungus. This study discovered a novel compound, named Jammosporin A, isolated for the first time from Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, an endophytic fungus of Albizia lebbeck with anticancer activity against MOLT-4 cell line. Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana represents an interesting source of a new compound with bioactive potential as a therapeutic agent against human leukemia cancer cell line (MOLT-4). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial community structure of leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and refuse dumps.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Suen, Garret; Wixon, Devin L; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R

    2010-03-29

    Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant biomass degradation gradient. Little is known about the microbial community structure in gardens and dumps or variation between lab and field colonies. Using microbial membrane lipid analysis and a variety of community metrics, we assessed and compared the microbiota of fungus gardens and refuse dumps from both laboratory-maintained and field-collected colonies. We found that gardens contained a diverse and consistent community of microbes, dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These findings were consistent across lab and field gardens, as well as host ant taxa. In contrast, dumps were enriched for Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Broad-scale clustering analyses revealed that community relatedness between samples reflected system component (gardens/dumps) rather than colony source (lab/field). At finer scales samples clustered according to colony source. Here we report the first comparative analysis of the microbiota from leaf-cutter ant colonies. Our work reveals the presence of two distinct communities: one in the fungus garden and the other in the refuse dump. Though we find some effect of colony source on community structure, our data indicate the presence of consistently associated microbes within gardens and dumps. Substrate composition and system component appear to be the most important factor in structuring the microbial communities. These results thus suggest that resident communities are shaped by the plant degradation

  19. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  20. The effector candidate repertoire of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus clarus.

    PubMed

    Sędzielewska Toro, Kinga; Brachmann, Andreas

    2016-02-09

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form an ecologically important symbiosis with more than two thirds of studied land plants. Recent studies of plant-pathogen interactions showed that effector proteins play a key role in host colonization by controlling the plant immune system. We hypothesise that also for symbiotic-plant interactions the secreted effectome of the fungus is a major component of communication and the conservation level of effector proteins between AMF species may be indicative whether they play a fundamental role. In this study, we used a bioinformatics pipeline to predict and compare the effector candidate repertoire of the two AMF species, Rhizophagus irregularis and Rhizophagus clarus. Our in silico pipeline revealed a list of 220 R. irregularis candidate effector genes that create a valuable information source to elucidate the mechanism of plant infection and colonization by fungi during AMF symbiotic interaction. While most of the candidate effectors show no homologies to known domains or proteins, the candidates with homologies point to potential roles in signal transduction, cell wall modification or transcription regulation. A remarkable aspect of our work is presence of a large portion of the effector proteins involved in symbiosis, which are not unique to each fungi or plant species, but shared along the Glomeromycota phylum. For 95% of R. irregularis candidates we found homologs in a R. clarus genome draft generated by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Interestingly, 9% of the predicted effectors are at least as conserved between the two Rhizophagus species as proteins with housekeeping functions (similarity > 90%). Therefore, we state that this group of highly conserved effector proteins between AMF species may play a fundamental role during fungus-plant interaction. We hypothesise that in symbiotic interactions the secreted effectome of the fungus might be an important component of communication. Identification and functional

  1. Ethanol effect on metabolic activity of the ethalogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Paschos, Thomas; Xiros, Charilaos; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-03-12

    Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus which has attracted a lot of scientific interest not only due to its ability to produce a variety of lignocellulolytic enzymes, but also because it is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses to ethanol. Although this fungus has been studied a lot as a cell factory, regarding applications for the production of bioethanol and other high added value products, no systematic study has been performed concerning its ethanol tolerance levels. In aerobic conditions it was shown that both the biomass production and the specific growth rate were affected by the presence of ethanol. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration, above which cells could not grow, was predicted to be 72 g/L. Under limited aeration conditions the ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 50 g/L ethanol. The lignocellulolytic enzymatic activities were affected to a lesser extent by the presence of ethanol, while the ethanol inhibitory effect appears to be more severe at elevated temperatures. Moreover, when the produced ethanol was partially removed from the broth, it led to an increase in fermenting ability of the fungus up to 22.5%. The addition of F. oxysporum's system was shown to increase the fermentation of pretreated wheat straw by 11%, in co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assessment of ethanol tolerance levels of F. oxysporum on aerobic growth, on lignocellulolytic activities and on fermentative performance confirmed its biotechnological potential for the production of bioethanol. The cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of this fungus could be exploited within the biorefinery concept as their ethanol resistance is similar to that of the commercial enzymes broadly used in large scale fermentations and therefore, may substantially contribute to a rational design of a bioconversion process involving F. oxysporum. The SSCF experiments on liquefied wheat straw rich in hemicellulose indicated that the

  2. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S.D.; Department of Chemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka

    2008-05-06

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particlesmore » indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.« less

  3. Genome characteristics reveal the impact of lichenization on lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedwig (Verrucariales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lichen is a classic mutualistic organism and the lichenization is one of the fungal symbioses. The lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum is living in symbiosis with the green alga Diplosphaera chodatii Bialsuknia as a lichen in the arid regions. Results 454 and Illumina technologies were used to sequence the genome of E. pusillum. A total of 9,285 genes were annotated in the 37.5 Mb genome of E. pusillum. Analyses of the genes provided direct molecular evidence for certain natural characteristics, such as homothallic reproduction and drought-tolerance. Comparative genomics analysis indicated that the expansion and contraction of some protein families in the E. pusillum genome reflect the specific relationship with its photosynthetic partner (D. chodatii). Co-culture experiments using the lichen-forming fungus E. pusillum and its algal partner allowed the functional identification of genes involved in the nitrogen and carbon transfer between both symbionts, and three lectins without signal peptide domains were found to be essential for the symbiotic recognition in the lichen; interestingly, the ratio of the biomass of both lichen-forming fungus and its photosynthetic partner and their contact time were found to be important for the interaction between these two symbionts. Conclusions The present study lays a genomic analysis of the lichen-forming fungus E. pusillum for demonstrating its general biological features and the traits of the interaction between this fungus and its photosynthetic partner D. chodatii, and will provide research basis for investigating the nature of its drought resistance and symbiosis. PMID:24438332

  4. Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11–4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species. PMID:25180515

  5. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species.

  6. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M. L.; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

  7. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-05-05

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  8. Characteristics of a newly isolated fungus Geotrichum candidum Dec 1 with broad degradation spectrum of xenobiotic compounds.

    PubMed

    Shoda, M

    2003-01-01

    A newly isolated fungus, Geotrichum candidum Dec 1 (abbreviated as Dec 1), was found to have the ability to degrade many xenobiotic compounds such as synthetic dyes, food coloring agents, molasses, organic halogens, lignin and kraft pulp effluents. The broad spectrum of the degradation of these compounds are associated mainly with peroxidases produced by the fungus.

  9. Intercontinental divergence in the Populus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tricholoma populinum

    Treesearch

    L.C. Grubisha; N. Levsen; M.S. Olson; D.L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma populinum is host-specific with Populus species. T. populinum has wind-dispersed progagules and may be capable of long-distance dispersal. In this study, we tested the hypothesis of a panmictic population between Scandinavia and North America. DNA sequences from five...

  10. Cyclodepsipeptides, sesquiterpenoids, and other cytotoxic metabolites from the filamentous fungus Trichothecium sp. (MSX 51320).

    PubMed

    Sy-Cordero, Arlene A; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-10-28

    Two new cyclodepsipeptides (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), and the known compounds guangomide A (5), roseotoxin S, and three simple trichothecenes were isolated from the cytotoxic organic extract of a terrestrial filamentous fungus, Trichothecium sp. The structures were determined using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Absolute configurations of the cyclodepsipeptides were established by employing chiral HPLC, while the relative configurations of 3 and 4 were determined via NOESY data. The isolation of guangomide A was of particular interest, since it was reported previously from a marine-derived fungus.

  11. The effects of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on different stages of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Amóra, Sthenia Santos Albano; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro; Pereira, Romeika Hermínia de Macedo Assunção; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Freire, Fúlvio Aurélio de Morais; Kamimura, Michel Toth; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Luna-Alves Lima, Elza Aurea; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2010-03-01

    The control of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) vector is often based on the application of chemical residual insecticide. However, this strategy has not been effective. The continuing search for an appropriate vector control may include the use of biological control. This study evaluates the effects of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on Lutzomyia longipalpis. Five concentrations of the fungus were utilized, 1 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(8) conidia/ml, accompanied by controls. The unhatched eggs, larvae and dead adults previously exposed to fungi were sown to reisolate the fungi and analysis of parameters of growth. The fungus was subsequently identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. M. anisopliae var. acridum reduced egg hatching by 40%. The mortality of infected larvae was significant. The longevity of infected adults was lower than that of negative controls. The effects of fungal infection on the hatching of eggs laid by infected females were also significant. With respect to fungal growth parameters post-infection, only vegetative growth was not significantly higher than that of the fungi before infection. The revalidation of the identification of the reisolated fungus was confirmed post-passage only from adult insects. In terms of larvae mortality and the fecundity of infected females, the results were significant, proving that the main vector species of VL is susceptible to infection by this entomopathogenic fungus in the adult stage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Copper sulfate controls fungus on mat-spawned largemouth bass eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish and hybrid striped bass industries as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on eggs; these industries use hatching troughs and McDonald jars, respectively, in moderate alkalinity waters. This study determined the effectivene...

  13. Analysis of a Functional Lactate Permease in the Fungus Rhizopus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  14. The link between rapid enigmatic amphibian decline and the globally emerging chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Lötters, Stefan; Kielgast, Jos; Bielby, Jon; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Bosch, Jaime; Veith, Michael; Walker, Susan F; Fisher, Matthew C; Rödder, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Amphibians are globally declining and approximately one-third of all species are threatened with extinction. Some of the most severe declines have occurred suddenly and for unknown reasons in apparently pristine habitats. It has been hypothesized that these "rapid enigmatic declines" are the result of a panzootic of the disease chytridiomycosis caused by globally emerging amphibian chytrid fungus. In a Species Distribution Model, we identified the potential distribution of this pathogen. Areas and species from which rapid enigmatic decline are known significantly overlap with those of highest environmental suitability to the chytrid fungus. We confirm the plausibility of a link between rapid enigmatic decline in worldwide amphibian species and epizootic chytridiomycosis.

  15. The research of using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 γ ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

  16. Monitoring persistence of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under simulated field conditions with the aim of controlling adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Carolino, Aline T; Paula, Adriano R; Silva, Carlos P; Butt, Tariq M; Samuels, Richard I

    2014-04-25

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management, with recent emphasis aimed at developing adult mosquito control methods. Here we investigated the persistence of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae when tested against female A. aegypti under field conditions. Black cotton cloths impregnated with M. anisopliae conidia, formulated in vegetable oil + isoparaffin, were maintained on a covered veranda for up to 30 days. At specific times, pieces of the cloths were removed, placed in Tween 80 and the resuspended conidia were sprayed directly onto mosquitoes. The persistence of conidia impregnated on black cloths using three different carriers was evaluated in test rooms. Fifty mosquitoes were released into each room and after a 5 day period, the surviving insects were captured. Another 50 insects were then released into each room. The capacity of the fungus at reducing mosquito survival was evaluated over a total of 35 days. Conidia extracted from cloths maintained on the veranda for 2 to 18 days remained virulent, with 28 to 60% mosquito survival observed. Mosquito survival following exposure to fungus impregnated cloths showed that fungus + Tween caused similar reductions to that of fungus + vegetable oil. Mosquitoes exposed to the formulation fungus + vegetable oil had survival rates of 36% over the first 5 days of the experiment. Following the release of the second cohort of mosquitoes (6-11days), survival increased to 50%. The survival of the 12-17 day cohort (78%) was statistically equal to that of the controls (84%). Formulation of the fungus in vegetable oil + isoparaffin increased the persistence of the fungus, with the 18-23 day cohort (64% survival) still showing statistical differences to that of the controls (87% survival). The potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of adult A. aegypti was confirmed under field conditions. Vegetable oil + isoparaffin formulations of M. anisopliae significantly increased the

  17. Mathematical modeling on obligate mutualism: Interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun; Clark, Rebecca; Makiyama, Michael; Fewell, Jennifer

    2011-11-21

    We propose a simple mathematical model by applying Michaelis-Menton equations of enzyme kinetics to study the mutualistic interaction between the leaf cutter ant and its fungus garden at the early stage of colony expansion. We derive sufficient conditions on the extinction and coexistence of these two species. In addition, we give a region of initial condition that leads to the extinction of two species when the model has an interior attractor. Our global analysis indicates that the division of labor by worker ants and initial conditions are two important factors that determine whether leaf cutter ants' colonies and their fungus garden can survive and grow or not. We validate the model by comparing model simulations and data on fungal and ant colony growth rates under laboratory conditions. We perform sensitive analysis of the model based on the experimental data to gain more biological insights on ecological interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden. Finally, we give conclusions and discuss potential future work. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Cuticle hydrolysis in four medically important fly species by enzymes of the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus.

    PubMed

    Boguś, M I; Włóka, E; Wrońska, A; Kaczmarek, A; Kazek, M; Zalewska, K; Ligęza-Żuber, M; Gołębiowski, M

    2017-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi infect insects via penetration through the cuticle, which varies remarkably in chemical composition across species and life stages. Fungal infection involves the production of enzymes that hydrolyse cuticular proteins, chitin and lipids. Host specificity is associated with fungus-cuticle interactions related to substrate utilization and resistance to host-specific inhibitors. The soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Constantin) (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) shows virulence against susceptible species. The larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Musca domestica (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) are resistant, but adults exposed to C. coronatus quickly perish. Fungus was cultivated for 3 weeks in a minimal medium. Cell-free filtrate, for which activity of elastase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitobiosidase and lipase was determined, was used for in vitro hydrolysis of the cuticle from larvae, puparia and adults. Amounts of amino acids, N-glucosamine and fatty acids released were measured after 8 h of incubation. The effectiveness of fungal enzymes was correlated with concentrations of compounds detected in the cuticles of tested insects. Positive correlations suggest compounds used by the fungus as nutrients, whereas negative correlations may indicate compounds responsible for insect resistance. Adult deaths result from the ingestion of conidia or fungal excretions. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  20. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  1. [Biochemical basis of tolerance to osmotic stress in phytopathogenic fungus: The case of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villarreal, Rodolfo; Garza-Romero, Tamar S; Moreno-Medina, Víctor R; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

    Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is the causative agent of charcoal rot disease which causes significant yield losses in major crops such as maize, sorghum, soybean and common beans in Mexico. This fungus is a facultative parasite which shows broad ability to adapt itself to stressed environments where water deficits and/or high temperature stresses commonly occur. These environmental conditions are common for most cultivable lands throughout Mexico. Here we describe some basic facts related to the etiology and epidemiology of the fungus as well as to the importance of responses to stressed environments, particularly to water deficits, based on morphology and growth traits, as well as on physiology, biochemistry and pathogenicity of fungus M. phaseolina. To conclude, we show some perspectives related to future research into the genus, which emphasize the increasing need to improve the knowledge based on the application of both traditional and biotechnological tools in order to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to environmental stress which can be extrapolated to other useful organisms to man. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, a fungus associated with oak mortality in South Korea

    Treesearch

    M. -S. Kim; P. A. Hohenlohe; K. -H. Kim; S. -T. Seo; Ned Klopfenstein

    2016-01-01

    Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is a fungus associated with oak wilt and deemed to cause extensive oak mortality in South Korea. Since the discovery of this fungus on a dead Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) in 2004, the mortality continued to spread southwards in South Korea. Despite continued expansion of the disease and associated significant impacts on forest...

  4. A Laboratory Maintenance Regime for a Fungus-Growing Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chen; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2015-06-01

    The optimum maintenance conditions of the fungus-growing termite, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Blattodea: Termitidae), in the laboratory were studied. Termites were kept on a matrix of moist sand and with fungus comb as food. The survival of groups of termites was measured when maintained at different population densities by changing group size and container volume. Larger groups (≥0.6 g) were more vigorous and had significant higher survival rates than smaller groups (≤0.3 g). The population density for optimal survival of M. gilvus is 0.0025 g per container volume (ml) or 0.0169 g per matrix volume (cm(3)), i.e., 1.2 g of termites kept in a 480-ml container filled with 71 cm3 of sand. In termite groups of smaller size (i.e., 0.3 g) or groups maintained in smaller container (i.e., 100 ml) the fungus comb was overgrown with Xylaria spp., and subsequently all termites died within the study period. The insufficient number of workers for regulating the growth of unwanted fungi other than Termitomyces spp. in the fungus comb is the most likely reason. Unlike some other mound-building termite species, M. gilvus showed satisfactory survival when maintained in non-nutritious matrix (i.e., sand). There was no significant difference in the survival rate between different colonies of M. gilvus (n=5), with survival in the range of 78.5-84.4% after 4 wk. Advances in the maintenance of Macrotermes will enable researchers to study with more biological relevance many aspects of the biology, behavior, and management of this species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Systematic Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Catalytically Versatile Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Families Enriched in Model Basidiomycete Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Shale, Karabo; Pagadala, Nataraj Sekhar; Tuszynski, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection to identify such P450s in model basidiomycete fungi showing a preference for different types of plant components degradation. Any P450 family comprising a large number of member P450s compared to other P450 families indicates its natural selection over other P450 families by its important role in fungal physiology. Genome-wide comparative P450 analysis in the basidiomycete species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete carnosa, Agaricus bisporus, Postia placenta, Ganoderma sp. and Serpula lacrymans, revealed enrichment of 11 P450 families (out of 68 P450 families), CYP63, CYP512, CYP5035, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5141, CYP5144, CYP5146, CYP5150, CYP5348 and CYP5359. Phylogenetic analysis of the P450 family showed species-specific alignment of P450s across the P450 families with the exception of P450s of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete carnosa, suggesting paralogous evolution of P450s in model basidiomycetes. P450 gene-structure analysis revealed high conservation in the size of exons and the location of introns. P450s with the same gene structure were found tandemly arranged in the genomes of selected fungi. This clearly suggests that extensive gene duplications, particularly tandem gene duplications, led to the enrichment of selective P450 families in basidiomycetes. Functional analysis and gene expression profiling data suggest that members of the P450 families are catalytically versatile and possibly involved in fungal colonization of plant material. To our

  6. The degradation of three-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by wood-inhabiting fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and soil-inhabiting fungus Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Chernyshova, Marina; Makarov, Oleg; Golubev, Sergey; Balandina, Svetlana; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2018-05-01

    The degradation of two isomeric three-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D1 and the litter-decomposing fungus Agaricus bisporus F-8 was studied. Despite some differences, the degradation of phenanthrene and anthracene followed the same scheme, forming quinone metabolites at the first stage. The further fate of these metabolites was determined by the composition of the ligninolytic enzyme complexes of the fungi. The quinone metabolites of phenanthrene and anthracene produced in the presence of only laccase were observed to accumulate, whereas those formed in presence of laccase and versatile peroxidase were metabolized further to form products that were further included in basal metabolism (e.g. phthalic acid). Laccase can catalyze the initial attack on the PAH molecule, which leads to the formation of quinones, and that peroxidase ensures their further oxidation, which eventually leads to PAH mineralization. A. bisporus, which produced only laccase, metabolized phenanthrene and anthracene to give the corresponding quinones as the dominant metabolites. No products of further utilization of these compounds were detected. Thus, the fungi's affiliation with different ecophysiological groups and their cultivation conditions affect the composition and dynamics of production of the ligninolytic enzyme complex and the completeness of PAH utilization. Copyright © 2018 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decolorization and degradation of xanthene dyes by a white rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kiyoharu; Yatome, Chizuko

    2004-01-01

    The decolorization of six xanthene dyes (conc. 100 microM) by a white rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor (C. versicolor), was investigated in liquid culture. The decolorization of Fluorescein, 4-Aminofluorescein, and 5-Aminofluorescein by the fungus was 85.0, 95.0, and 91.9% after 14 days incubation, respectively. However, no decolorization of Rhodamine B, Rhodamine 123 hydrate, and Rhodamine 6G was observed. The first three dyes also were decolorized with cell-free extracts from C. versicolor. The decolorization activity was 10.2, 6.7, and 7.2 microM min(-1)mg(-1), respectively. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analyses indicated that degradation of Fluorescein was occurring with the detection of three degradation products.

  8. Pestalotiopamide E, a new amide from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Lin, Qiang; Wang, Bin; Wray, Victor; Lin, Wen-Han; Proksch, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Chemical examination of the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp., isolated from the leaves of the Chinese mangrove Rhizophora mucronata, yielded a new amide called pestalotiopamide E (1). The structure of the new compound was unambiguously elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis.

  9. An in vivo transcriptome for entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenic process of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575 in its host are only partially understood. To probe the transcriptional responses of the fungus during the interaction with insects, we have developed a method to specifically recover patho...

  10. The chestnut blight fungus for studies on virus/host and virus/virus interactions: from a natural to a model host.

    PubMed

    Eusebio-Cope, Ana; Sun, Liying; Tanaka, Toru; Chiba, Sotaro; Kasahara, Shin; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-03-01

    The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, is an important plant pathogenic ascomycete. The fungus hosts a wide range of viruses and now has been established as a model filamentous fungus for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. This is based on the development of methods for artificial virus introduction and elimination, host genome manipulability, available host genome sequence with annotations, host mutant strains, and molecular tools. Molecular tools include sub-cellular distribution markers, gene expression reporters, and vectors with regulatable promoters that have been long available for unicellular organisms, cultured cells, individuals of animals and plants, and certain filamentous fungi. A comparison with other filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa has been made to establish clear advantages and disadvantages of C. parasitica as a virus host. In addition, a few recent studies on RNA silencing vs. viruses in this fungus are introduced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marquez, L.M.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Roossinck, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

  12. Lead immobilization by geological fluorapatite and fungus Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Fuwei; Bai, Tongshuo; Tao, Jinjin; Guo, Jieyun; Yang, Mengying; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-12-15

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi have high ability to secrete organic acids. In this study, fungus Aspergillus niger and geological fluorapatite were applied in lead remediation in aqueous solution. Formation and morphology of the lead minerals, e.g., pyromorphite and lead oxalate, were investigated by SEM, XRD, and ATR-IR. The total quantity of organic acids reached the maximum at the sixth day, which improved the concentration of soluble P up to ∼370mg/L from ∼0.4mg/L. The organic acids, especially the oxalic acid, enhance the solubility of fluorapatite significantly. The stable fluoropyromorphite [Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F] is precipitated with the elevated solubility of fluorapatite in the acidic environment. Furthermore, A. niger grows normally with the presence of lead cations. It is shown that >99% lead cations can be removed from the solution. However, immobilization caused by the precipitation of lead oxalate cannot be ignored if the fungus A. niger was cultured in the Pb solution. This study elucidates the mechanisms of lead immobilization by FAp and A. niger, and sheds its perspective in lead remediation, especially for high Pb concentration solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stachybotrys, a mycotoxin-producing fungus of increasing toxicologic importance.

    PubMed

    Fung, F; Clark, R; Williams, S

    1998-01-01

    Stachybotrys as a fungus has been implicated as a source of mycotoxins. While the toxicity of several well-known mycotoxins (aflatoxins) is well documented, recent studies on Stachybotrys have raised the question that mycotoxins produced by this fungus may be responsible for the health effects of occupants in water-damaged buildings. Published articles regarding Stachybotrys-related mycotoxins were reviewed with particular focus on human toxicity. A critical review of papers, reports, and studies on Stachybotrys mycotoxins revealed only descriptive reports of suspected animal and human poisoning secondary to consumption of mold-contaminated food products. No studies of good toxicologic and epidemiologic designs answer whether airborne mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys could produce specific human toxicity. Current data on the toxicology of mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys demonstrate that this group of mycotoxins is capable of producing immunosuppression and inflammatory insults to gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems. Case control study and case reports have suggested a possible association with environmental exposure to Stachybotrys mycotoxins, although a firm causal relationship has not been firmly established. Additional studies are needed to document that humans with sufficient exposure to these mycotoxins develop compatible clinical and pathologic pictures as demonstrated in animal models.

  14. Efficient Transmission of an Introduced Pathogen Via an Ancient Insect-Fungus Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, A.; Roques, A.; Colombari, F.; Frigimelica, G.; Guido, M.

    In Cupressus sempervirens the association between seed insects and tree pathogens has resulted in optimal exploitation of the cones. A fungus-infected cone can be inhabited by the nymphs of a true seed bug (Orsillus maculatus), the adults of which may carry a heavy spore load at emergence. Cones are infected when eggs are laid within the cone, most frequently via the emergence holes of a seed wasp (Megastigmus wachtli). This symbiotic association evolved with the nonaggressive fungus Pestalotiopsis funerea within the natural range of the cypress. When the aggressive cypress canker disease (Seiridium cardinale) was introduced into Europe, it was transmitted by O. maculatus to cones usually colonized by Pestalotiopsis funerea, with disastrous consequences for the regeneration and survival of C. sempervirens in the entire Mediterranean area.

  15. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies.

  16. Preliminary data on growth and enzymatic abilities of soil fungus Humicolopsis cephalosporioides at different incubation temperatures.

    PubMed

    Elíades, Lorena Alejandra; Cabello, Marta N; Pancotto, Verónica; Moretto, Alicia; Rago, María Melisa; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2015-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp & Endl.) Krasser, known as "lenga" is the most important timber wood species in southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). Humicolopsis cephalosporioides Cabral & Marchand is a soil fungus associated with Nothofagus pumilio forests, which has outstanding cellulolytic activity. However, there is no information about the ability of this fungus to use organic substrates other than cellulose, and its ability to produce different enzyme systems, as well as its response to temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the role of H. cephalosporioides in degradation processes in N. pumilio forests in detail by evaluating the in vitro ability of four isolates of this fungus to grow and produce different lytic enzyme systems, and their response to incubation temperature. The ability of the fungi to grow and produce enzyme systems was estimated by inoculating them on agar media with specific substrates, and the cultures were incubated at three temperatures. A differential behavior of each strain in levels of growth and enzyme activity was found according to the medium type and/or incubation temperature. A intra-specific variability was found in H. cephalosporioides. Likewise a possible link between the saprotrophic role of this fungus in N. pumilio forests and the degradation of organic matter under stress conditions, such as those from frosty environments, was also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring persistence of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under simulated field conditions with the aim of controlling adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management, with recent emphasis aimed at developing adult mosquito control methods. Here we investigated the persistence of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae when tested against female A. aegypti under field conditions. Methods Black cotton cloths impregnated with M. anisopliae conidia, formulated in vegetable oil + isoparaffin, were maintained on a covered veranda for up to 30 days. At specific times, pieces of the cloths were removed, placed in Tween 80 and the resuspended conidia were sprayed directly onto mosquitoes. The persistence of conidia impregnated on black cloths using three different carriers was evaluated in test rooms. Fifty mosquitoes were released into each room and after a 5 day period, the surviving insects were captured. Another 50 insects were then released into each room. The capacity of the fungus at reducing mosquito survival was evaluated over a total of 35 days. Results Conidia extracted from cloths maintained on the veranda for 2 to 18 days remained virulent, with 28 to 60% mosquito survival observed. Mosquito survival following exposure to fungus impregnated cloths showed that fungus + Tween caused similar reductions to that of fungus + vegetable oil. Mosquitoes exposed to the formulation fungus + vegetable oil had survival rates of 36% over the first 5 days of the experiment. Following the release of the second cohort of mosquitoes (6-11days), survival increased to 50%. The survival of the 12–17 day cohort (78%) was statistically equal to that of the controls (84%). Formulation of the fungus in vegetable oil + isoparaffin increased the persistence of the fungus, with the 18–23 day cohort (64% survival) still showing statistical differences to that of the controls (87% survival). Conclusions The potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of adult A. aegypti was confirmed under field conditions. Vegetable oil + isoparaffin formulations of

  18. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  19. A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Klotz, S.A.; Smith, R.L.

    1991-03-01

    Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possessesmore » at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins.« less

  20. Secretome analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.

    PubMed

    Do Vale, Luis H F; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana P; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ricart, Carlos A O; Ximenes F Filho, Edivaldo; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96), hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23), xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.58), endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37), α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Scenes of Devastation: Chasing Hawaii's Deadly Ohia Fungus | Hawaii Public

    Science.gov Websites

    Scenes of Devastation: Chasing Hawaii's Deadly Ohia Fungus By Molly Solomon * Mar 25, 2016 TweetShareGoogle+Email Molly Solomon Rapid Ohia Death has devastated native forests on Hawaii Island, especially in Lower Puna subdivisions like Leilani Estates. Credit Molly Solomon One of Hawai'i's oldest and most

  2. Identification and sequence determination of a new chrysovirus infecting the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria javanica.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Noemi

    2017-04-01

    A new double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus has been identified in the isolate NB IFR-19 of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria javanica. Isaria javanica chrysovirus-1 (IjCV-1) constitutes a new member of the Chrysoviridae family, and its genome is made up of four dsRNA elements designated dsRNA1, 2, 3 and 4 from largest to smallest. dsRNA1 and dsRNA2 encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP), respectively. dsRNA3 and 4 encode hypothetical proteins of unknown function. IjCV-1 constitutes the first report of a chrysovirus infecting the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria javanica.

  3. Mode of Infection of Metarhizium spp. Fungus and Their Potential as Biological Control Agents

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Kimberly Moon San; Hue, Seow Mun

    2017-01-01

    Chemical insecticides have been commonly used to control agricultural pests, termites, and biological vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks. However, the harmful impacts of toxic chemical insecticides on the environment, the development of resistance in pests and vectors towards chemical insecticides, and public concern have driven extensive research for alternatives, especially biological control agents such as fungus and bacteria. In this review, the mode of infection of Metarhizium fungus on both terrestrial and aquatic insect larvae and how these interactions have been widely employed will be outlined. The potential uses of Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium acridum biological control agents and molecular approaches to increase their virulence will be discussed. PMID:29371548

  4. Draft genome sequence of the fungus associated with oak-wilt mortality in South Korea, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae KACC44405

    Treesearch

    Jongbum Jeon; Ki-Tae Kim; Hyeunjeong Song; Gir-Won Lee; Kyeongchae Cheong; Hyunbin Kim; Gobong Choi; Yong-Hwan Lee; Jane E. Stewart; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2017-01-01

    The fungus Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is the causal agent of Korean oak wilt, a disease associated with mass mortality of oak trees (e.g., Quercus spp.). The fungus is vectored and dispersed by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis. Here, we present the 27.0-Mb draft genome sequence of R. quercus-mongolicae strain KACC44405.

  5. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with fungus-cleaning properties on brazed aluminum for industrial application in heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Hwang, Woonbong

    2018-06-01

    Extensive research has been carried out concerning the application of superhydrophobic coating in heat exchangers, but little is known about the application of this technique to brazed aluminum heat exchangers (BAHEs). In this work, we describe a new superhydrophobic coating method, which is suitable for BAHE use on an industrial scale. We first render the BAHE superhydrophobic by fabricating micro/nanostructures using solution dipping followed by fluorination. After the complete removal of the silicon residue, we verify using surface analysis that the BAHE surface is perfectly superhydrophobic. We also studied the fungus-cleaning properties of the superhydrophobic surface by growing fungus for 4 weeks in a moist environment on BAHE fins with and without superhydrophobic coating. We observed that, whereas the fungus grown on the untreated fins is extremely difficult to remove, the fungus on the fins with the superhydrophobic coating can be removed easily with only a modest amount of water. We also found that the coated BAHE fins exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. The superhydrophobic coating method that we propose is therefore expected to have a major impact in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning industry market.

  6. Abscisic acid negatively regulates post-penetration resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiang; Cheng, Xi; Yin, Kangquan; Li, Huali; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2017-08-01

    Pytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in defense responses. Nonetheless, how ABA regulates plant resistance to biotrophic fungi remains largely unknown. Arabidopsis ABA-deficient mutants, aba2-1 and aba3-1, displayed enhanced resistance to the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum. Moreover, exogenously administered ABA increased the susceptibility of Arabidopsis to G. cichoracearum. Arabidopsis ABA perception components mutants, abi1-1 and abi2-1, also displayed similar phenotypes to ABA-deficient mutants in resistance to G. cichoracearum. However, the resistance to G. cichoracearum is not changed in downstream ABA signaling transduction mutants, abi3-1, abi4-1, and abi5-1. Microscopic examination revealed that hyphal growth and conidiophore production of G. cichoracearum were compromised in the ABA deficient mutants, even though pre-penetration and penetration growth of the fungus were not affected. In addition, salicylic acid (SA) and MPK3 are found to be involved in ABA-regulated resistance to G. cichoracearum. Our work demonstrates that ABA negatively regulates post-penetration resistance of Arabidopsis to powdery mildew fungus G. cichoracearum, probably through antagonizing the function of SA.

  7. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites.

    PubMed

    Richards, Callum; Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Poulsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within this "bioreactor", and as a key factor for the divergence of the termite gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach ancestor. The gut microbiota in most termites supports primarily the breakdown of lignocellulose, but the fungus-farming sub-family of higher termites has become similar in gut microbiota to the ancestral omnivorous cockroaches. To assess the importance of a fungus diet as a driver of community structure, we compare community compositions in the guts of experimentally manipulated Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroaches fed on fungus cultivated by fungus-farming termites. MiSeq amplicon analysis of gut microbiotas from 49 gut samples showed a step-wise gradient pattern in community similarity that correlated with an increase in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. Comparison of the taxonomic composition of manipulated communities to that of gut communities of a fungus-feeding termite species showed that although some bacteria OTUs shared by P. surinamensis and the farming termites increased in the guts of cockroaches on a fungal diet, cockroach communities remained distinct from those of termites. These results demonstrate that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions constrain the magnitude of such change.

  8. Report membrane transport of lactic acid in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  9. Ethidium bromide stimulated hyper laccase production from bird's nest fungus Cyathus bulleri.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, S; Lal, R; Kuhad, R C

    2003-01-01

    Effect of ethidium bromide, a DNA intercalating agent, on laccase production from Cyathus bulleri was studied. The bird's nest fungus, Cyathus bulleri was grown on 2% (w/v) malt extract agar (MEA) supplemented with 1.5 microg ml(-1) of the phenanthridine dye ethidium bromide (EtBr) for 7 d and when grown subsequently in malt extract broth (MEB), produced a 4.2-fold increase in laccase production as compared to the untreated fungus. The fungal cultures following a single EtBr treatment, when regrown on MEA devoid of EtBr, produced a sixfold increase in laccase in MEB. However, on subsequent culturing on MEA in the absence of EtBr, only a 2.5-fold increase in laccase production could be maintained. In another attempt, the initial EtBr-treated cultures, when subjected to a second EtBr treatment (1.5 microg ml(-1)) on MEA for 7 d, produced a 1.4-fold increase in laccase production in MEB. The white-rot fungus Cyathus bulleri, when treated with EtBr at a concentration of 1.5 microg ml(-1) and regrown on MEA devoid of EtBr, produced a sixfold increase in laccase production in MEB. The variable form of C. bulleri capable of hyper laccase production can improve the economic feasibility of environmentally benign processes involving use of fungal laccases in cosmetics (including hair dyes), food and beverages, clinical diagnostics, pulp and paper industry, industrial effluent treatment, animal biotechnology and biotransformations.

  10. Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto Oller; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89 nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25228324

  11. An endophytic fungus from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. that produces azadirachtin.

    PubMed

    Kusari, Souvik; Verma, Vijay C; Lamshoeft, Marc; Spiteller, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Azadirachtin A and its structural analogues are a well-known class of natural insecticides having antifeedant and insect growth-regulating properties. These compounds are exclusive to the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, from where they are currently sourced. Here we report for the first time, the isolation and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from A. indica, which produces azadirachtin A and B in rich mycological medium (Sabouraud dextrose broth), under shake-flask fermentation conditions. The fungus was identified as Eupenicillium parvum by ITS analysis (ITS1 and ITS2 regions and the intervening 5.8S rDNA region). Azadirachtin A and B were identified and quantified by LC-HRMS and LC-HRMS(2), and by comparison with the authentic reference standards. The biosynthesis of azadirachtin A and B by the cultured endophyte, which is also produced by the host neem plant, provides an exciting platform for further scientific exploration within both the ecological and biochemical contexts.

  12. Antileukemic alpha-pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria phragmospora

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four new (1–4) and two known (5 and 6)a-pyrone derivatives have been isolated from Alternaria phragmospora, an endophytic fungus from Vinca rosea, leaves. The isolated compounds were chemically identi'ed to be 5-butyl-4-methoxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2) 5-butyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-py...

  13. Chemical constituents of the mangrove-associated fungus Capnodium sp. SZ-F22. A new eremophilane sesquiterpene.

    PubMed

    He, Haibing; Ma, Zhongjun; Wang, Qianqian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Hualin

    2016-07-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, capnodiumone (1), along with five known eremophilane sesquiterpenes (2-6) and eight other compounds (7-14), have been isolated from a mangrove-associated fungus Capnodium sp. SZ-F22. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The broth extract of the fungus exhibited a good inhibitory effect on the mycelium growth against Fusarium graminearum at 100 μg/mL, however, all the 14 compounds showed no expected antifungal activity. The probable reasons were discussed.

  14. Degradation of Lignin in Agricultural Residues by locally Isolated Fungus Neurospora discreta.

    PubMed

    Pamidipati, Sirisha; Ahmed, Asma

    2017-04-01

    Locally isolated fungus, Neurospora discreta, was evaluated for its ability to degrade lignin in two agricultural residues: cocopeat and sugarcane bagasse with varying lignin concentrations and structures. Using Klason's lignin estimation, high-performance liquid chromatography, and UV-visible spectroscopy, we found that N. discreta was able to degrade up to twice as much lignin in sugarcane bagasse as the well-known white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and produced nearly 1.5 times the amount of lignin degradation products in submerged culture. Based on this data, N. discreta is a promising alternative to white rot fungi for faster microbial pre-treatment of agricultural residues. This paper presents the lignin degrading capability of N. discreta for the first time and also discusses the difference in biodegradability of cocopeat and sugarcane bagasse as seen from the analysis carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Allelopathic Polyketides from an Endolichenic Fungus Myxotrichum SP. by Using OSMAC Strategy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Guo, Yu-Hua; Wang, Hai-Ying; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Jiang, Tao; Zhao, Jun-Ling; Zou, Zhong-Mei; Ding, Gang

    2016-02-03

    Three new polyketides myxotritones A-C (2-4), together with a new natural product 7,8-dihydro-7R,8S-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-2-benzopyran-6-one (1) were obtained from the endolichenic fungus Myxotrichum sp. by using OMSAC (One Strain, Many Compounds) method. The planar structures of these new compounds were determined by NMR experiment and HRESIMS data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by X-ray diffraction, and the stereochemistry of the new compounds 2-4 were determined by same biosynthesis origin, and similar CD spectra with 1. Allelopathic test showed that compound 4 significantly retarded root elongation of Arabidopsis thaliana seed, indicating that this fungus might contribute to the defense of its host lichen. From the view of biosynthetic pathway, all four compounds 1-4 might be originated from Non-Reduced Polyketide synthase (NR-PKS).

  16. Parasitic fungus Claviceps as a source for biotechnological production of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Hulvová, Helena; Galuszka, Petr; Frébortová, Jitka; Frébort, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the fungus Claviceps parasitizing on cereals, include three major groups: clavine alkaloids, d-lysergic acid and its derivatives and ergopeptines. These alkaloids are important substances for the pharmatech industry, where they are used for production of anti-migraine drugs, uterotonics, prolactin inhibitors, anti-Parkinson agents, etc. Production of ergot alkaloids is based either on traditional field cultivation of ergot-infected rye or on submerged cultures of the fungus in industrial fermentation plants. In 2010, the total production of these alkaloids in the world was about 20,000 kg, of which field cultivation contributed about 50%. This review covers the recent advances in understanding of the genetics and regulation of biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids, focusing on possible applications of the new knowledge to improve the production yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, M; Ownag, A; Pourseyed, S H; Mardani, K

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenicity of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on different life stages of Dermanyssus gallinae was evaluated in the laboratory. All the strains tested were virulent to D. gallinae but pathogenicity varied among the strains. Strain V245 induced a higher mortality rate using different concentrations than other two strains. The estimated median lethal concentration of different strains of M. anisopliae against D. gallinae varied depending on the exposure time of D. gallinae to M. anisopliae. It was concluded that the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae on different life stages of D. gallinae was concentration and time dependent.

  18. Temperature determines symbiont abundance in a multipartite bark beetle-fungus ectosymbiosis

    Treesearch

    D. L. Six; B. J. Bentz

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we report evidence that temperature plays a key role in determining the relative abundance of two mutualistic fungi associated with an economically and ecologically important bark beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. The symbiotic fungi possess different optimal temperature ranges. These differences determine which fungus is vectored by...

  19. Inferring outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using linkage disequilibrium decay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The occurrence and frequency of outcrossing in homothallic fungal species in nature is an unresolved question. Here we report detection of frequent outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In using multilocus linkage disequilibrium (LD) to infer recombination among microsatell...

  20. Multiple mycotic aneurysms with a rare fungus, Aspergillus niger: a complex case report.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Vatsala

    2008-03-01

    The term "mycotic aneurysm" was first used by William Osler in 1885 to describe a nonsyphilitic bacterial infection of the arterial wall. It is now known that mycotic aneurysm, a rare infectious condition, can arise from a wide variety of clinical causes. The aorta is most often affected; however, such aneurysms may arise in any artery. Mycotic aneurysms are classified as primary (direct extension from surrounding area of infection), secondary (septic embolization that lodges in peripheral arteries), and cryptogenic (unknown cause). A mycotic aneurysm is a threat to life, organs, and limbs. Mycotic aneurysms of the aorta caused by fungi are rare. William Osler used the term "mycotic," referring to all infected aneurysms excluding fungal infections. Yet, the term "mycotic" by definition is a disease caused by a fungus. Only seven cases of aneurysms caused by a fungus were reported from 1966 to 1999. This article will focus on the care of a young female patient with end-stage renal disease receiving peritoneal dialysis who developed a mycotic aneurysm. She was treated with high doses of antifungal medications for the fungus Aspergillus niger. She was switched to hemodialysis from peritoneal dialysis and was later diagnosed with a primary multiple mycotic aneurysms. This article will describe the complex medical, surgical, and nursing care provided to this patient.

  1. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops.

    PubMed

    Himler, Anna G; Caldera, Eric J; Baer, Boris C; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2009-07-22

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent-offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant-fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii.

  2. Cytotoxic acyl amides from the soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Lena; Aly, Amal H; Abdel-Aziz, Mohammed; Müller, Werner E G; Lin, Wenhan; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter

    2015-02-15

    The soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis was collected in the vicinity of the Giza pyramids, Egypt. When grown on solid rice medium the fungus yielded four new compounds including 11'-carboxygymnastatin N (1), gymnastatin S (2), dankamide (3), and aranorosin-2-methylether (4), the latter having been reported previously only as a semisynthetic compound. In addition, six known metabolites (5-10) were isolated. Addition of NaCl or KBr to the rice medium resulted in the accumulation of chlorinated or brominated compounds as indicated by LC-MS analysis due to the characteristic isotope patterns observed. From the rice medium spiked with 3.5% NaCl the known chlorinated compounds gymnastatin A (11) and gymnastatin B (12) were obtained. All isolated compounds were unambiguously structurally elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometry), as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 4, 7 and 11 showed potent cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma cell line L5178Y (IC50 values 0.44, 0.58 and 0.64μM, respectively), whereas 12 exhibited moderate activity with an IC50 value of 5.80μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab had just successfully completed an effectiveness study that was needed in our pursuit of gaining FDA-approval to...

  4. Testing fungus impregnated cloths for the control of adult Aedes aegypti under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Pereira, César R; Samuels, Richard I

    2013-09-08

    Entomopathogenic fungi could be useful tools for reducing populations of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here the efficiency of fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) impregnated cloths (with and without imidacloprid [IMI]) was evaluated against adult A. aegypti in simulated human dwellings. Behaviour of mosquitoes in the presence of black cloths was also investigated. When mosquitoes were released into the test rooms, the lowest survival rates (38%) were seen when five black cloths impregnated with conidia of ESALQ 818 + 10 ppm IMI were fixed under tables and chairs. This result was significantly lower than the survival rate recorded when cloths were impregnated with ESALQ 818 alone (44%) or ESALQ 818 + 0.1 ppm IMI (43%). Blood fed A. aegypti had lower landing frequencies on black cloths than sucrose fed insects during the first 24 h following feeding, which may have been due to reduced flight activity. Few mosquitoes (4-5%) were observed to land on the cloths during the hours of darkness. The landing pattern of sucrose-fed mosquitoes on non-treated and fungus-treated cloths was similar. The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI significantly reduced Aedes survival in simulated field conditions. The use of fungus impregnated cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult A. aegypti.

  5. Which Fungus Originally was Trichophyton mentagrophytes? Historical Review and Illustration by a Clinical Case.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Annemay; Cattin, Vincent; Fratti, Marina; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Several dermatophytes producing numerous pyriform or round microconidia were called Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Among these dermatophytes are the teleomorph species Arthroderma benhamiae, Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii and Arthroderma simii, and other species such as Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton erinacei and Trichophyton quinckeanum for which only the anamorph is known. Confusion exists about which fungus should be really called T. mentagrophytes and about the rational use of this name in practice. We report a case of beard ringworm (tinea barbae) with A. vanbreuseghemii. According to both clinical signs and the type of hair parasitism, this case was exactly compatible to the first description of a non-favic dermatophytosis by Gruby under the name of "mentagrophyte" from which was derived the dermatophyte epithet mentagrophytes. In addition, the phenotypic characters of the isolated fungus in cultures perfectly matched with those of the first description of a dermatophyte under T. mentagrophytes by Blanchard (Parasites animaux et parasites végétaux à l'exclusion des Bactéries, Masson, Paris, 1896). In conclusion, T. mentagrophytes corresponds to the fungus later named A. vanbreuseghemii. However, because the neotype of T. mentagrophytes was not adequately designated in regard to the ancient literature, we would privilege the use of A. vanbreuseghemii and abandon the name of T. mentagrophytes.

  6. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  7. Liquefaction/solubilization of low-rank Turkish coals by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.

    2006-08-15

    Microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization of three low-rank Turkish coals (Bursa-Kestelek, Kutahya-Seyitomer and Mugla-Yatagan lignite) was attempted by using a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM No. 6909); chemical compositions of the products were investigated. The lignite samples were oxidized by nitric acid under moderate conditions and then oxidized samples were placed on the agar medium of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. FTIR spectra of raw lignites, oxidized lignites and liquid products were recorded, and the acetone-soluble fractions of these samples were identified by GC-MS technique. Results show that the fungus affects the nitro and carboxyl/carbonyl groups in oxidized lignite sample, the liquid products obtained bymore » microbial effects are the mixture of water-soluble compounds, and show limited organic solubility.« less

  8. Antibacterial polyketides from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Li, Famei; Kim, Eun La; Li, Jian Lin; Hong, Jongki; Bae, Kyung Sook; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Jung, Jee H

    2011-08-26

    Four new polyketides (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Paecilomyces variotii, which was derived from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. The planar structures and relative configurations of these polyketides were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR experiments. The compounds showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 3089 and multi-drug-resistant Vibrio parahemolyticus 7001 with MIC values in the range 5-40 μg/mL.

  9. Biotransformation of Malachite Green by the Fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Chang-Jun; Doerge, Daniel R.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green with a first-order rate constant of 0.029 μmol h−1 (mg of cells)−1. Malachite green was enzymatically reduced to leucomalachite green and also converted to N-demethylated and N-oxidized metabolites, including primary and secondary arylamines. Inhibition studies suggested that the cytochrome P450 system mediated both the reduction and the N-demethylation reactions. PMID:11526047

  10. Isolation and characterization of a chitinase gene from entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanping; Pan, Jieru; Qiu, Junzhi; Guan, Xiong

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii is a promising whitefly and aphid control agent. Chitinases secreted by this insect pathogen have considerable importance in the biological control of some insect pests. An endochitinase gene Vlchit1 from the fungus was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The Vlchit1 gene not only contains an open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a protein of 423 amino acids (aa), but also is interrupted by three short introns. Vlchit1 protein showed that the chitinase Vlchit1 has a (a/b)8 TIM barrel structure. Overexpression test and Enzymatic activity assay indicated that the Vlchit1 is a functional enzyme that can hydrolyze the chitin substrate, so the Vlchit1 gene can service as a useful gene source for genetic manipulation leading to strain improvement of entomopathogenic fungi or constructing new transgenic plants with resistance to various fungal and insects pests. PMID:24031223

  11. Potential Fungus surface resistance of the silica/acrylic coated leaves waste composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masturi; Jannah, WN; Maulana, RM; Darsono, T.; Sunarno; Rustad, S.

    2018-04-01

    The composite coated by some materials coaters have been made. This coating was done to isolate the fungus possibly growing on the composite. The composite was made from a mixture of teak leaves waste and polyurethane polymer using a simple mixing method; then the mixture was pressed at a pressure of 3 metric-tons for 15 minutes. The composite produced then was coated with acrylic only and acrylic-silica using spray method. The coated samples then were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the surface pores. Further, it was obtained the average surface pore size of acrylic coater is 1.24 µm, while the acrylic-silica pore forms an oval shape with a length and a width of 0.75 µm and 0.38 µm, respectively. In comparison with the fungus size of 2-7 µm, it can be concluded that the composite is proper as home appliance application.

  12. Potential of endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari for transformation and degradation of recalcitrant pollutant sinapic acid.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing-Guang; Huang, Chun-Yan; Fu, Wan-Qiu; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-03-01

    The biodegradation potential of sinapic acid, one of the most representative methoxy phenolic pollutants presented in industrial wastewater, was first studied using an endophytic fungus called Phomopsis liquidambari. This strain can effectively degrade sinapic acid in flasks and in soil and the possible biodegradation pathway was first systematically proposed on the basis of the metabolite production patterns and the identification of the metabolites by GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Sinapic acid was first transformed to 2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol that was further degraded via 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, syringic acid, gallic acid, and citric acid which involved in the continuous catalysis by phenolic acid decarboxylase, laccase, and gallic acid dioxygenase. Moreover, their activities and gene expression levels exhibited a 'cascade induction' response with the changes in metabolic product concentrations and the generation of fungal laccase significantly improved the degradation process. This study is the first report of an endophytic fungus that has great potential to degrade xenobiotic sinapic acid, and also provide a basis for practical application of endophytic fungus in the bioremediation of sinapic acid-contaminated industrial wastewater and soils. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative vesicle proteomics reveals selective regulation of protein expression in chestnut blight fungus by a hypovirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzi; Wang, Fangzhen; Feng, Youjun; Mi, Ke; Chen, Qi; Shang, Jinjie; Chen, Baoshan

    2013-01-14

    The chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) and hypovirus constitute a model system to study fungal pathogenesis and mycovirus-host interaction. Knowledge in this field has been gained largely from investigations at gene transcription level so far. Here we report a systematic analysis of the vesicle proteins of the host fungus with/without hypovirus infection. Thirty-three differentially expressed protein spots were identified in the purified vesicle protein samples by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Down-regulated proteins were mostly cargo proteins involved in primary metabolism and energy generation and up-regulated proteins were mostly vesicle associated proteins and ABC transporter. A virus-encoded protein p48 was found to have four forms with different molecular mass in vesicles from the virus-infected strain. While a few of the randomly selected differentially expressed proteins were in accordance with their transcription profiles, majority were not in agreement with their mRNA accumulation patterns, suggesting that an extensive post-transcriptional regulation may have occurred in the host fungus upon a hypovirus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mosquitocidal activity of a naturally occurring isochroman and synthetic analogs from the plant pathogenic fungus, Diaporthe eres against Aedes aegypti ( Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The culture filtrate of a plant pathogenic fungus that infects English ivy (Hegera helix) was investigated for mosquitocidal constituents by bioassay guided isolation. The fungus responsible for pathogenic effects on the plant Hegera helix has been identified as Diaporthe eres by molecular technique...

  15. Trichopeptides A and B, trichocyclodipeptides A-C, new peptides from the ascomycete fungus Stagonospora trichophoricola.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengkun; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Jinwei; Wang, Wenzhao; Liu, Xingzhong; Li, Erwei

    2017-08-01

    Trichopeptides A (1) and B (2), new linear tetrapeptide and tripeptide, respectively, and three new diketopiperazines trichocyclodipeptides A-C (3-5) were isolated from the fermentation of the ascomycete fungus Stagonospora trichophoricola, a fungus isolated from the soil sample surrounding the fruiting body of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Maqin Country, Qinghai Province, People's Republic of China. Their structures were primarily elucidated by interpretation of NMR and MS experiments. The absolute configurations of 1-5 were assigned through Marfey's method on their acid hydrolyzates. Compound 3 showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans with the IC 50 and MIC values of 22 and 90 μg ml -1 , respectively.

  16. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Isolation and identification of nematode-antagonistic compounds from the fungus Aspergillus candidus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An isolate of the fungus Aspergillus candidus was tested for production of nematicidal compounds. Adults of the nematode Ditylenchus destructor were completely inactive after 24 hr exposure to soy medium in which A. candidus was cultured. Column, thin layer and preparative chromatographies, and spec...

  18. Is the Fungus Magnaporthe Losing DNA Methylation?

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Van Vu, Ba; Kadotani, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaki; Murata, Toshiki; Shiina, Kohta; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The long terminal repeat retrotransposon, Magnaporthe gypsy-like element (MAGGY), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. Analysis of the F1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (Br48) and methylation-deficient (GFSI1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the MAGGY element was governed by a single dominant gene. Positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that the responsible gene was the DNA methyltransferase, MoDMT1, an ortholog of Neurospora crassa Dim-2. A survey of MAGGY methylation in 60 Magnaporthe field isolates revealed that 42 isolates from rice, common millet, wheat, finger millet, and buffelgrass were methylation proficient while 18 isolates from foxtail millet, green bristlegrass, Japanese panicgrass, torpedo grass, Guinea grass, and crabgrass were methylation deficient. Phenotypic analyses showed that MoDMT1 plays no major role in development and pathogenicity of the fungus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the average copy number of genomic MAGGY elements was not significantly different between methylation-deficient and -proficient field isolates even though the levels of MAGGY transcript were generally higher in the former group. MoDMT1 gene sequences in the methylation-deficient isolates suggested that at least three independent mutations were responsible for the loss of MoDMT1 function. Overall, our data suggest that MoDMT1 is not essential for the natural life cycle of the fungus and raise the possibility that the genus Magnaporthe may be losing the mechanism of DNA methylation on the evolutionary time scale. PMID:23979580

  19. Efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against three species of gastro-intestinal nematodes in laboratory faecal cultures from sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Waghorn, T S; Leathwick, D M; Chen, L-Y; Skipp, R A

    2003-12-30

    The ability of the nematode-killing fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce number of infective larvae of three species of gastro-intestinal parasitic nematodes developing in dung was investigated in both goats and sheep. Groups of lambs and kids (12-20 weeks old) were given mono-specific infections of Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta or Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Following patency of the infections (t1) faecal samples were collected for determination of faecal nematode egg count (FEC) and culture of parasite larvae. Groups of animals were then dosed on 2 consecutive days with one of the two dose rates of the fungus (250,000 or 500,000 spores/kg liveweight). One (t2) and 5 (t3) days after the second dose of fungus samples were again collected for FEC and culture. The number of larvae recovered from the faecal cultures at t1 and t3 were used as controls to assess the efficacy of the experimental treatment at t2. Average efficacy was 78% with group means ranging from 40 to 93%. Dose rate of fungus appeared to influence efficacy against O. circumcincta but not against H. contortus or T. colubriformis. Overall, there were no differences in the efficacy of the fungus against any of the parasite species or in either host animal. The results of this trial indicate the potential use of this fungus as a broad spectrum anti-parasite agent for use in both goats and sheep.

  20. Metabolites from the endophytic fungus Sporormiella minimoides isolated from Hintonia latiflora

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An extract of the solid cultures of Sporormiella minimoides (Sporormiaceae) isolated as an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), yielded three polyketides, 3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-1H,6H-benzo[de]isochromene-1,9-dione, 3-hydroxy-1,6,10-trimethoxy-8-methyl-1H,3H-benzo[de]isochromen-9-o...

  1. Enhancement of β-xylosidase productivity in cellulase producing fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the most important processes in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Acremonium cellulolyticus is a filamentous fungus with high cellulase production but productivity of hemicellulase, especially β-xylosidase, is lower than other filamentous fungi. We identified 2.4 Kb β-xylosidase gene in the A. cellulolyticus genome sequence information and it encoded 798 amino acids without introns. To enhance hemicellulase productivity in A. cellulolyticus, we transformed this fungus with the identified β-xylosidase gene driven by the cellobiohydrolase Ι (cbh1) promoter, using the protoplast-polyethyleneglycol (PEG) method, and obtained a transformant, YKX1. Hydrolysis rate of xylooligosaccharides was more than 50-fold higher using culture supernatant from YKX1 than that from the parental strain, Y-94. Total cellulase activity (measured by filter paper assay) in YKX1 was not affected by the cbh1 promoter used for expression of β-xylosidase, and induced by cellulose. Since YKX1 can produce larger amount of β-xylosidase without affecting cellulase productivity, it is considered to be beneficial for practical monosaccharide recoveries from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:21906369

  2. Enhancement of β-xylosidase productivity in cellulase producing fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.

    PubMed

    Kanna, Machi; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2011-06-30

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the most important processes in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Acremonium cellulolyticus is a filamentous fungus with high cellulase production but productivity of hemicellulase, especially β-xylosidase, is lower than other filamentous fungi. We identified 2.4 Kb β-xylosidase gene in the A. cellulolyticus genome sequence information and it encoded 798 amino acids without introns. To enhance hemicellulase productivity in A. cellulolyticus, we transformed this fungus with the identified β-xylosidase gene driven by the cellobiohydrolase Ι (cbh1) promoter, using the protoplast-polyethyleneglycol (PEG) method, and obtained a transformant, YKX1. Hydrolysis rate of xylooligosaccharides was more than 50-fold higher using culture supernatant from YKX1 than that from the parental strain, Y-94. Total cellulase activity (measured by filter paper assay) in YKX1 was not affected by the cbh1 promoter used for expression of β-xylosidase, and induced by cellulose. Since YKX1 can produce larger amount of β-xylosidase without affecting cellulase productivity, it is considered to be beneficial for practical monosaccharide recoveries from lignocellulosic biomass.

  3. Analysis of compositional monosaccharides in fungus polysaccharides by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Tong; Yang, Xingbin; Zhao, Yan

    2014-02-15

    A rapid analytical method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was established for the simultaneous separation and determination of 10 monosaccharides (aldoses and uronic acids). The monosaccharides were labeled with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and subsequently separated using an uncoated capillary (50 μm i.d. × 58.5 cm) and detected by UV at 245 nm with pH 11.0, 175 mM borate buffer at voltage 20 kV and capillary temperature 25 °C by CZE. The 10 PMP-labeled monosaccharides were rapidly baseline separated within 20 min. The optimized CZE method was successfully applied to the simultaneous separation and identification of the monosaccharide composition in Termitomyces albuminosus polysaccharides (TAPs) and Panus giganteus polysaccharides (PGPs). The quantitative recovery of the component monosaccharides in the fungus polysaccharides was in the range of 92.0-101.0% and the CV value was lower than 3.5%. The results demonstrate that the proposed CZE method is precise and practical for the monosaccharide analysis of fungus polysaccharides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2012-06-01

    Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4 degreeC, 12 degreeC and 24 degreeC), on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4 degree C, 12 degree C and 24 degree C). The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10(7) conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24 degreeC), the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween 20 at the lower two incubation

  5. Colony Size Affects the Efficacy of Bait Containing Chlorfluazuron Against the Fungus-Growing Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chen; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) against fungus-growing termites is known to vary. In this study, 0.1% chlorfluazuron (CFZ) cellulose bait was tested against medium and large field colonies of Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen). The termite mounds were dissected to determine the health of the colony. Individual termites (i.e., workers and larvae) and fungus combs were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis to detect the presence of CFZ. In this study, 540.0 ± 25.8 g (or equivalent to 540.0 ± 25.8 mg active ingredient) and 680.0 ± 49.0 g (680.0 ± 49.0 mg active ingredient) of bait matrix were removed by the medium- and large-sized colonies, respectively, after baiting. All treated medium-sized colonies were moribund. The dead termites were scattered in the mound, larvae were absent, population size had decreased by 90%, and the queens appeared unhealthy. In contrast, no or limited effects were found in large-sized colonies. Only trace amounts of CFZ were detected in workers, larvae, and fungus combs, and the population of large-sized colonies had declined by only up to 40%. This might be owing to the presence of large amount of basidiomycete fungus and a drastic decrease of CFZ content per unit fungus comb (a main food source of larvae) in the large-sized colonies, and hence reduced the toxic effect and longer time is required to accumulate the lethal dose in larvae. Nevertheless, we do not deny the possibility of CSI bait eliminating or suppressing the higher termite if the test colonies could pick up adequate lethal dose by installing more bait stations and prolonging the baiting period. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  6. Identification of Immunity-Related Genes in Dialeurodes citri against Entomopathogenic Fungus Lecanicillium attenuatum by RNA-Seq Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shijiang; Ding, Lili; Luo, Ren; Li, Xiaojiao; Yang, Juan; Liu, Haoqiang; Cong, Lin; Ran, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Dialeurodes citri is a major pest in citrus producing areas, and large-scale outbreaks have occurred increasingly often in recent years. Lecanicillium attenuatum is an important entomopathogenic fungus that can parasitize and kill D. citri. We separated the fungus from corpses of D. citri larvae. However, the sound immune defense system of pests makes infection by an entomopathogenic fungus difficult. Here we used RNA sequencing technology (RNA-Seq) to build a transcriptome database for D. citri and performed digital gene expression profiling to screen genes that act in the immune defense of D. citri larvae infected with a pathogenic fungus. De novo assembly generated 84,733 unigenes with mean length of 772 nt. All unigenes were searched against GO, Nr, Swiss-Prot, COG, and KEGG databases and a total of 28,190 (33.3%) unigenes were annotated. We identified 129 immunity-related unigenes in transcriptome database that were related to pattern recognition receptors, information transduction factors and response factors. From the digital gene expression profile, we identified 441 unigenes that were differentially expressed in D. citri infected with L. attenuatum. Through calculated Log2Ratio values, we identified genes for which fold changes in expression were obvious, including cuticle protein, vitellogenin, cathepsin, prophenoloxidase, clip-domain serine protease, lysozyme, and others. Subsequent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis verified the results. The identified genes may serve as target genes for microbial control of D. citri.

  7. Identification of Immunity-Related Genes in Dialeurodes citri against Entomopathogenic Fungus Lecanicillium attenuatum by RNA-Seq Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shijiang; Ding, Lili; Luo, Ren; Li, Xiaojiao; Yang, Juan; Liu, Haoqiang; Cong, Lin; Ran, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Dialeurodes citri is a major pest in citrus producing areas, and large-scale outbreaks have occurred increasingly often in recent years. Lecanicillium attenuatum is an important entomopathogenic fungus that can parasitize and kill D. citri. We separated the fungus from corpses of D. citri larvae. However, the sound immune defense system of pests makes infection by an entomopathogenic fungus difficult. Here we used RNA sequencing technology (RNA-Seq) to build a transcriptome database for D. citri and performed digital gene expression profiling to screen genes that act in the immune defense of D. citri larvae infected with a pathogenic fungus. De novo assembly generated 84,733 unigenes with mean length of 772 nt. All unigenes were searched against GO, Nr, Swiss-Prot, COG, and KEGG databases and a total of 28,190 (33.3%) unigenes were annotated. We identified 129 immunity-related unigenes in transcriptome database that were related to pattern recognition receptors, information transduction factors and response factors. From the digital gene expression profile, we identified 441 unigenes that were differentially expressed in D. citri infected with L. attenuatum. Through calculated Log2Ratio values, we identified genes for which fold changes in expression were obvious, including cuticle protein, vitellogenin, cathepsin, prophenoloxidase, clip-domain serine protease, lysozyme, and others. Subsequent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis verified the results. The identified genes may serve as target genes for microbial control of D. citri. PMID:27644092

  8. Polymorphic sequence-characterized codominant loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Treesearch

    J. E. Davis; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. G. Milgroom

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the population biology of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, have previously been carried out with dominant restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting markers. In this study, we described the development of 11 condominant markers from randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). RAPD fragments were...

  9. Quantitative evaluation of protocorm growth and fungal colonization in Bletilla striata (Orchidaceae) reveals less-productive symbiosis with a non-native symbiotic fungus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuki; Miura, Chihiro; Fuji, Masako; Nagata, Shotaro; Otani, Yuria; Yagame, Takahiro; Yamato, Masahide; Kaminaka, Hironori

    2017-02-21

    In nature, orchid plants depend completely on symbiotic fungi for their nutrition at the germination and the subsequent seedling (protocorm) stages. However, only limited quantitative methods for evaluating the orchid-fungus interactions at the protocorm stage are currently available, which greatly constrains our understanding of the symbiosis. Here, we aimed to improve and integrate quantitative evaluations of the growth and fungal colonization in the protocorms of a terrestrial orchid, Blettila striata, growing on a plate medium. We achieved both symbiotic and asymbiotic germinations for the terrestrial orchid B. striata. The protocorms produced by the two germination methods grew almost synchronously for the first three weeks. At week four, however, the length was significantly lower in the symbiotic protocorms. Interestingly, the dry weight of symbiotic protocorms did not significantly change during the growth period, which implies that there was only limited transfer of carbon compounds from the fungus to the protocorms in this relationship. Next, to evaluate the orchid-fungus interactions, we developed an ink-staining method to observe the hyphal coils in protocorms without preparing thin sections. Crushing the protocorm under the coverglass enables us to observe all hyphal coils in the protocorms with high resolution. For this observation, we established a criterion to categorize the stages of hyphal coils, depending on development and degradation. By counting the symbiotic cells within each stage, it was possible to quantitatively evaluate the orchid-fungus symbiosis. We describe a method for quantitative evaluation of orchid-fungus symbiosis by integrating the measurements of plant growth and fungal colonization. The current study revealed that although fungal colonization was observed in the symbiotic protocorms, the weight of the protocorm did not significantly increase, which is probably due to the incompatibility of the fungus in this symbiosis. These

  10. Cutinase in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus: suppression of cutinase gene expression in isogenic hypovirulent strains containing double-stranded RNAs

    Treesearch

    D.A. ​Varley; G.K. Podila; S.T. Hiremath

    1992-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic fungi produce cutinase, an enzyme required to degrade plant cuticles and facilitate penetration into the host. The absence of cutinase or a decrease in its production has been associated with a decrease in pathogenicity of the fungus. A set of isogenic strains of Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, was tested for...

  11. An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and Epichloë festucae var. lolii reduce Bipolaris sorokiniana disease incidence and improve perennial ryegrass growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Guo, Yan'e; Christensen, Michael J; Gao, Ping; Li, Yanzhong; Duan, Tingyu

    2018-02-01

    Leaf spot of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is an important disease in temperate regions of the world. We designed this experiment to test for the combined effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Claroideoglomus etunicatum and the grass endophyte fungus Epichloë festucae var. lolii on growth and disease occurrence in perennial ryegrass. The results show that C. etunicatum increased plant P uptake and total dry weight and that this beneficial effect was slightly enhanced when in association with the grass endophyte. The presence in plants of both the endophyte and B. sorokiniana decreased AM fungal colonization. Plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana showed the typical leaf spot symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation and the lowest disease incidence was with plants that were host to both C. etunicatum and E. festucae var. lolii. Plants with these two fungi had much higher activity of peroxidases (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and lower values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The AM fungus C. etunicatum and the grass endophyte fungus E. festucae var. lolii have the potential to promote perennial ryegrass growth and resistance to B. sorokiniana leaf spot.

  12. Genome sequencing and analysis of the paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel (Taxol™) is an important anticancer drug with a unique mode of action. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel had been considered restricted to the Taxus species until it was discovered in Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of T. brevifolia. Subsequently, paclitaxel was found in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and in several other endophytic fungi. The distribution of paclitaxel in plants and endophytic fungi and the reported sequence homology of key genes in paclitaxel biosynthesis between plant and fungi species raises the question about whether the origin of this pathway in these two physically associated groups could have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer. Results The ability of the endophytic fungus of hazel Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 to independently synthesize paclitaxel was established by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The genome of Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 was sequenced and gene candidates that may be involved in paclitaxel biosynthesis were identified by comparison with the 13 known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in Taxus. We found that paclitaxel biosynthetic gene candidates in P. aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 have evolved independently and that horizontal gene transfer between this endophytic fungus and its plant host is unlikely. Conclusions Our findings shed new light on how paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi synthesize paclitaxel, and will facilitate metabolic engineering for the industrial production of paclitaxel from fungi. PMID:24460898

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Cosmopolitan Marine Fungus Corollospora maritima Under Two Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Patricia; Alejandri-Ramírez, Naholi D.; González, María C.; Estrada, Karel J.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine sandy beaches represent dynamic environments often subject to harsh conditions and climate fluctuations, where natural and anthropogenic inputs of freshwater from fluvial and pluvial sources alter salinity, which has been recognized as a key variable affecting the distribution of aquatic organisms and influencing critical physiological processes. The marine arenicolous fungus Corollospora maritima is a worldwide-distributed saprobe that has been reported to present tolerance to freshwater. Here, we present a transcriptome analysis that will provide the first insight of the genomic content for this fungus and a gene expression comparison between two different salinity conditions. We also identified genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed in response to environmental variations on salinity during the fungal growth. The de novo reconstruction of C. maritima transcriptome Illumina sequencing provided a total of 14,530 transcripts (16 megabases). The comparison between the two growth conditions rendered 103 genes specifically overexpressed in seawater, and 132 genes specifically up-regulated under freshwater. Using fungal isolates collected from different beaches, the specific environmental regulation of particular transcript differential expression was confirmed by RT-qPCR. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis that explores the marine fungus C. maritima molecular responses to overcome freshwater stress, and these data could shed light to understand the fungal adaptation and plasticity mechanisms to the marine habitat. PMID:26116293

  14. Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghafi, S.; Penjweini, R.; Becker, K.; Kratky, K. W.; Dodt, H.-U.

    2010-09-01

    When moulds are illuminated by visible electromagnetic-EM radiations, several effects on nucleus materials and nucleotides can be detected. These effects have a significant influence on mould generation or destruction. This paper presents the effects and implications of a red diode laser beam (660 nm), a second-harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser emitting green beam (532 nm), or the combination of both, on the eradication of Pistachio mould fungus. Incident doses (ID) of both beams are kept identical throughout the experiment. The absorption spectrums of irradiated mouldy samples and the bright-greenish-yellow-fluorescence (BGYF) of fungus occurring in mould texture due to electronic excitation are investigated. We found that a combination of a green and a red laser beam with an ID of 0.5 J/cm2 provides the optimal effects on Pistachio mould fungus eradication.

  15. Low prevalence of chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in amphibians of U.S

    Treesearch

    Blake R. Hossack; Michael J. Adams; Evan H. Campbell Grant; Christopher A. Pearl; James B. Bettaso; William J. Barichivich; Winsor H. Lowe; Kimberly True; Joy L. Ware; Paul Stephen Corn

    2010-01-01

    Many declines of amphibian populations have been associated with chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Despite the relatively high prevalence of chytridiomycosis in stream amphibians globally, most surveys in North America have focused primarily on wetland-associated species, which are frequently infected. To...

  16. Dissolved oxygen levels affect dimorphic growth by the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. In shake flask studies, we evaluated the impact of aeration on the mode of growth of I. fumosorosea. Using 250 mL baffled Erlenmeyer flasks, culture volumes of 50, 100, 150, a...

  17. Development of 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the blackberry rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Uredinales fungus Phragmidium violaceum, which causes leaf rust on European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate). Allele frequency ranged between two and seventeen alleles per locus with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium amon...

  18. Probiotics for Plants? Growth Promotion by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Depends on Nutrient Availability.

    PubMed

    Tall, Susanna; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2018-03-28

    Cultivation of crops requires nutrient supplements which are costly and impact the environment. Furthermore, global demands for increased crop production call for sustainable solutions to increase yield and utilize resources such as nutrients more effectively. Some entomopathogenic fungi are able to promote plant growth, but studies over such effects have been conducted under optimal conditions where nutrients are abundantly available. We studied the effects of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA) seed treatment on the growth of maize (Zea mays) at high and low nutrient conditions during 6 weeks in greenhouse. As expected, B. bassiana seed treatment increased plant growth, but only at high nutrient conditions. In contrast, the seed treatment did not benefit plant growth at low nutrient conditions where the fungus potentially constituted a sink and tended to reduce plant growth. The occurrence of endophytic B. bassiana in experimental plant tissues was evaluated by PCR after 6 weeks, but B. bassiana was not documented in any of the above-ground plant tissues indicating that the fungus-plant interaction was independent of endophytic establishment. Our results suggest that B. bassiana seed treatment could be used as a growth promoter of maize when nutrients are abundantly available, while the fungus does not provide any growth benefits when nutrients are scarce.

  19. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Simone A; Paula, Adriano R; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O P; Santos, Jonathan W A B; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2015-12-30

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 1%. Larval survival rates were monitored over a 7 day period following exposure to neem. The virulence of the fungus M. anisopliae was confirmed using five conidial concentrations (1 × 10(5) to 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1)) and survival monitored over 7 days. Two concentrations of fungal conidia were then tested together with neem (0.001%). Survival curve comparisons were carried out using the Log-rank test and end-point survival rates were compared using one-way ANOVA. 1% neem was toxic to A. aegypti larvae reducing survival to 18% with S50 of 2 days. Neem had no effect on conidial germination or fungal vegetative growth in vitro. Larval survival rates were reduced to 24% (S50 = 3 days) when using 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1). Using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), 30% survival (S50 = 3 days) was observed. We tested a "sub-lethal" neem concentration (0.001%) together with these concentrations of conidia. For combinations of neem + fungus, the survival rates were significantly lower than the survival rates seen for fungus alone or for neem alone. Using a combination of 1 × 10(7) conidia mL(-1) + neem (0.001%), the survival rates were 36%, whereas exposure to the fungus alone resulted in 74% survival and exposure to neem alone resulted in 78% survival. When using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), the survival curves were modified, with a combination of the fungus + neem resulting in 12% survival, whilst the fungus alone at this concentration also

  20. Overexpression of the wasabi defensin gene confers enhanced resistance to blast fungus ( Magnaporthe grisea) in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H.; Nirasawa, S.; Saitoh, H.; Ito, M.; Nishihara, M.; Terauchi, R.; Nakamura, I.

    2002-11-01

    Transgenic rice ( Oryza sativa cv. Sasanishiki) overexpressing the wasabi defensin gene, a plant defensin effective against the rice blast fungus, was generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Twenty-two T2 homozygous lines harboring the wasabi defensin gene were challenged by the blast fungus. Transformants exhibited resistance to rice blast at various levels. The inheritance of the resistance over generations was investigated. T3 plants derived from two highly blast-resistant T2 lines (WT14-5 and WT43-5) were challenged with the blast fungus using the press-injured spots method. The average size of disease lesions of the transgenic line WT43-5 was reduced to about half of that of non-transgenic plants. The 5-kDa peptide, corresponding to the processed form of the wasabi defensin, was detected in the total protein fraction extracted from the T3 progeny. Transgenic rice plants overproducing wasabi defensin are expected to possess a durable and wide-spectrum resistance (i.e. field resistance) against various rice blast races.

  1. Effect of salinity medium on antioxidant and antidiabetic activity marine endophytic fungus of asperegillus elegans ptf 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyani, Hani; Artanti, Nina; Fitria, Irni; Filailla, Euis; Kandace, Yoice Sri; Udin, Linar Zalinar

    2017-11-01

    Our previous studies on screening of antioxidant activities from various endophytic fungi isolated from marine bioata showed that A. elegans PTF9 isolated from sea weed is one of the fungus that has good antioxidant activity. In current study we reported the effect of medium salinity (0, 3 and 10% salt in PDB medium) on antioxidant and antidiabetes activity of mycelium and filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of A. elegans Ptf 9. The antioxidant assay was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity method. The antidiabetes assay was conducted using a-glucosidase inhibitory activity method. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was obtained from filtrate extract of fungus cultures with 0% salt (IC50=1.56 ppm), whereas the best antidiabetes activity was obtained from filtrate extract of fungus culture with 10% salt (IC50= 3.64 ppm). Addition of salt reduced the antioxidant activity, but not the antidiabetes activity. The results suggest that A. elegans PTF9 showed potential for further studies on isolation of antioxidant and antidiabetes lead compounds that could be use for further development of new drugs.

  2. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  3. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.; Jones, Tappey H.; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies. PMID:24019482

  4. Dynamic changes of rice blast fungus in the USA through six decades

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a serious rice disease in the USA and worldwide. M. oryzae is highly adaptive and changeable due to the instability of its genome and resistance genes which are effective only when M. oryzae isolates contain the cognate avirulence (AVR) g...

  5. Cellular development associated with induced secondary metabolism in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several species of the filamentous fungus Fusarium colonize plants and produce toxic small molecules that contaminate agricultural products, rendering them unsuitable for consumption. Among the most destructive of these species is F. graminearum, which causes disease in wheat and barley and often in...

  6. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for improved enzymatic hydrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal pretreatment can cause carbohydrate loss and it is, th...

  7. Differential gene expression during conidiation in the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asexual sporulation (conidiation) is coordinately regulated in the grape powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator, but nothing is known about its genetic regulation. We hypothesized that genes required for conidiation in other fungi would be up-regulated at conidiophore initiation and/or full conidia...

  8. Characterization of salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from the mangrove fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Arfi, Yonathan; Chevret, Didier; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Levasseur, Anthony; Record, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are important for biomass degradation processes in mangrove forests. Given the presence of sea water in these ecosystems, mangrove fungi are adapted to high salinity. Here we isolate Pestalotiopsis sp. NCi6, a halotolerant and lignocellulolytic mangrove fungus of the order Xylariales. We study its lignocellulolytic enzymes and analyse the effects of salinity on its secretomes. De novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly indicate that this fungus possesses of over 400 putative lignocellulolytic enzymes, including a large fraction involved in lignin degradation. Proteomic analyses of the secretomes suggest that the presence of salt modifies lignocellulolytic enzyme composition, with an increase in the secretion of xylanases and cellulases and a decrease in the production of oxidases. As a result, cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis is enhanced but lignin breakdown is reduced. This study highlights the adaptation to salt of mangrove fungi and their potential for biotechnological applications.

  9. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding.

    PubMed

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2011-05-26

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818) using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding), host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed) levels. Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged periods on fungus impregnated black cloths, thus optimizing infection

  10. Secondary metabolites from the mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. (SBE-8).

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiyong; Cheng, Fan; Zou, Kun; Wang, Junzhi; She, Zhigang; Lin, Yongcheng

    2009-11-01

    A new metabolite, 7-hydroxyjanthinone (1), was isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. (SBE-8), together with two known compounds, janthinone (2) and citrinin (3). The structures of these compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 showed no cytotoxicity against KB and KBv cell lines when tested by the MTT method, but compound 3 was weakly active.

  11. Intercontinental divergence in the Populus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tricholoma populinum.

    PubMed

    Grubisha, Lisa C; Levsen, Nicholas; Olson, Matthew S; Taylor, D Lee

    2012-04-01

    The ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma populinum is host-specific with Populus species. T. populinum has wind-dispersed progagules and may be capable of long-distance dispersal. In this study, we tested the hypothesis of a panmictic population between Scandinavia and North America. DNA sequences from five nuclear loci were used to assess phylogeographic structure and nucleotide divergence between continents. Tricholoma populinum was composed of Scandinavian and North American lineages with complete absence of shared haplotypes and only one shared nucleotide mutation. Divergence of these lineages was estimated at approx. 1.7-1.0 million yr ago (Ma), which occurred after the estimated divergence of host species Populus tremula and Populus balsamifera/Populus trichocarpa at 5 Ma. Phylogeographic structure was not observed within Scandinavian or North American lineages of T. populinum. Intercontinental divergence appears to have resulted from either allopatric isolation; a recent, rare long-distance dispersal founding event followed by genetic drift; or the response in an obligate mycorrhizal fungus with a narrow host range to contractions and expansion of host distribution during glacial and interglacial episodes within continents. Understanding present genetic variation in populations is important for predicting how obligate symbiotic fungi will adapt to present and future changing climatic conditions. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    DOE PAGES

    Ellstrom, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; ...

    2015-03-16

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed weremore » differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils.« less

  13. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ellstrom, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed weremore » differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils.« less

  14. Non-targeted Colonization by the Endomycorrhizal Fungus, Serendipita vermifera, in Three Weeds Typically Co-occurring with Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Prasun; Guo, Yingqing; Kolape, Jaydeep; Craven, Kelly D.

    2018-01-01

    Serendipita vermifera (=Sebacina vermifera; isolate MAFF305830) is a mycorrhizal fungus originally isolated from the roots of an Australian orchid that we have previously shown to be beneficial in enhancing biomass yield and drought tolerance in switchgrass, an important bioenergy crop for cellulosic ethanol production in the United States. However, almost nothing is known about how this root-associated fungus proliferates and grows through the soil matrix. Such information is critical to evaluate the possibility of non-target effects, such as unintended spread to weedy plants growing near a colonized switchgrass plant in a field environment. A microcosm experiment was conducted to study movement of vegetative mycelia of S. vermifera between intentionally inoculated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and nearby weeds. We constructed size-exclusion microcosms to test three different common weeds, large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), Texas panicum (Panicum texanum L.), and Broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla L.), all species that typically co-occur in Southern Oklahoma and potentially compete with switchgrass. We report that such colonization of non-target plants by S. vermifera can indeed occur, seemingly via co-mingled root systems. As a consequence of colonization, significant enhancement of growth was noted in signalgrass, while a mild increase (albeit not significant) was evident in crabgrass. Migration of the fungus seems unlikely in root-free bulk soil, as we failed to see transmission when the roots were kept separate. This research is the first documentation of non-targeted colonization of this unique root symbiotic fungus and highlights the need for such assessments prior to deployment of biological organisms in the field. PMID:29375607

  15. A disseminated infection with the antifungal-multiresistant teleomorphic fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta in a patient with acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Frédéric; D'Almeida, Mahussi; Albert, Olivier; Fitton-Ouhabi, Valérie; Noël, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

    2013-02-09

    We report on a fatal invasive infection due to the ascomycetous fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta, in a 20-year-old European patient suffering from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The infection could not be controlled by a bitherapy combining liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole. This is the second case of disseminated infection reported with this unusual fungus, which develops under its teleomorphic state, is fully resistant to all systemic antifungals, and which is known to live in tropical countries.

  16. A disseminated infection with the antifungal-multiresistant teleomorphic fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta in a patient with acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Frédéric; D’Almeida, Mahussi; Albert, Olivier; Fitton-Ouhabi, Valérie; Noël, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We report on a fatal invasive infection due to the ascomycetous fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta, in a 20-year-old European patient suffering from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The infection could not be controlled by a bitherapy combining liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole. This is the second case of disseminated infection reported with this unusual fungus, which develops under its teleomorphic state, is fully resistant to all systemic antifungals, and which is known to live in tropical countries. PMID:24432214

  17. Phylogenetic placement of an unusual coral mushroom challenges the classic hypothesis of strict coevolution in the Apterostigma pilosum group ant-fungus mutualism

    Treesearch

    Bryn T.M. Dentinger; D.Jean Lodge; Andrew B. Munkacsi; Dennis E. Desjardin; David J. McLaughlin

    2009-01-01

    The ~50 million-year-old fungus-farming ant mutualism is a classic example of coevolution, involving ants that subsist on asexual, fungal biomass, in turn propagating the fungus clonally through nest-to-nest transmission. Most mutualistic ants cultivate two closely related groups of gilled mushrooms, whereas one small group of ants in the genus ...

  18. Immune-physiological aspects of synergy between avermectins and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii in Colorado potato beetle larvae.

    PubMed

    Tomilova, Oksana G; Kryukov, Vadim Yu; Duisembekov, Bahytzhan A; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Tyurin, Maksim V; Kryukova, Natalia A; Skorokhod, Valery; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Glupov, Viktor V

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii and natural avermectin metabolites of the actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis were investigated on Colorado potato beetle larvae. A synergy in the mortality of larvae was detected after simultaneous treatment with half-lethal doses of avermectins (commercial name actarophit) 0.005% and fungus (5×10 5 conidia/ml). The treatment with avermectins led to rapid fungal colonization of the hemolymph. The defense strategies of insects infected by fungus and treated with avermectins and untreated insects were compared to investigate the mechanisms of this synergy. We have shown an increase in hemocytes, especially immunocompetent cells - plasmatocytes and granular cells in the initial stages of mycosis (third day post inoculation). In contrast, avermectins suppressed cellular immunity in hemolymph. Specifically, avermectins dramatically decreased the count of granular cells in larvae infected and uninfected with fungus. Apoptosis inducement and hemocyte necrosis under the influence of avermectins has been shown in vitro as one of the possible reasons for hemocyte mortality. In addition, avermectins enhanced the activity of phenoloxidases in integuments and hemolymph and increased the activity of glutathione-S-transferases activity in the fat body and hemolymph of infected and uninfected larvae, thereby intensifying the development of fungal infection by M. robertsii in Colorado potato beetle larvae. The combination of fungal infection and avermectins constitutes a new perspective for developing multicomponent bioinsecticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Moeller, Joseph A.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George M.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.

    2013-01-01

    Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised primarily of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous fungus that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and, using genomic and metaproteomic tools, we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in ant gardens and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that likely play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a detailed analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and insight into the enzymes underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar. PMID:23584789

  20. Two new compounds from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Huang, Le; Li, Hai-Ying; Yang, Deng-Feng; Li, Zhuang-Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    A new coumarin, 4,6-dihydroxy-7-formyl-3-methylcoumarin (1), and an α-pyrone derivative, 6-[(7S,8R)-8-propyloxiran-1-yl]-4-methoxy-pyran-2-one (2), together with four known α-pyrone derivatives (3-6), were isolated from the broth extract of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis versicolor. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the chemical shift values with those of related known compounds.

  1. Two new compounds from an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jian-Guang; Deng, Hui-Ying; Luo, Du-Qiang

    2011-12-01

    Two new compounds, 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4,6-dimethyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-phthalide and 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4,6-dimethyl-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-phthalide, along with one known and related metabolite 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4,6-dimethylphthalide were isolated from the EtOAc extract of fermentation broth of an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR).

  2. Intersporal Genetic Variation of Gigaspora margarita, a Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus, Revealed by M13 Minisatellite-Primed PCR.

    PubMed

    Zeze, A; Sulistyowati, E; Ophel-Keller, K; Barker, S; Smith, S

    1997-02-01

    Spores of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi contain thousands of nuclei. In order to understand the karyotic structure of a VAM fungus spore, the genetic variation of the first generation of spores from a VAM fungus (Gigaspora margarita) was examined. Spores originating from both single- and multispore inoculations of the species G. margarita were analyzed by M13 minisatellite-primed PCR. In both cases, different fingerprints were obtained from individual spores with few spores exhibiting similar fingerprints. These results can be explained only by a heterokaryotic status of the nuclear population within a spore.

  3. New brefeldins and penialidins from marine fungus Penicillium janthinellum DT-F29.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiangwei; Yu, Liyan; Wang, Qianqian; Ding, Wanjing; Chen, Zhe; Ma, Zhongjun

    2018-02-01

    A fermentation of marine fungus Penicillium janthinellum DT-F29 on solid rice medium led to the isolation of three new compounds, brefeldin D (1) and penialidins D-E (5-6), along with other five known brefeldins and penialidins. The structures of above compounds were determined on the basis of MS and NMR analysis.

  4. Real-Time PCR Detection of Dogwood Anthracnose Fungus in Historical Herbarium Specimens from Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephen; Masuya, Hayato; Zhang, Jian; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species (dogwoods) are popular ornamental trees and important understory plants in natural forests of northern hemisphere. Dogwood anthracnose, one of the major diseases affecting the native North American Cornus species, such as C. florida, is caused by the fungal pathogen Discula destructiva. The origin of this fungus is not known, but it is hypothesized that it was imported to North America with its host plants from Asia. In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to detect D. destructiva in dried herbarium and fresh Cornus samples. Several herbarium specimens from Japan and China were detected positive for D. destructiva, some of which were collected before the first report of the dogwood anthracnose in North America. Our findings further support that D. destructiva was introduced to North America from Asia where the fungus likely does not cause severe disease.

  5. Effect of biochar soil-amendments on Allium porrum growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: Examine the interaction of biochar addition and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculation upon growth and Zn and Cu uptake by Allium porrum L. in heavy metal amended soil mix, and relate these responses to physicochemical properties of the biochars. Methods: The experiment was a complete ...

  6. A Hair & a Fungus: Showing Kids the Size of a Microbe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method is presented to show kids the size of a microbe--a fungus hypha--compared to a human hair. Common household items are used to make sterile medium on a stove or hotplate, which is dispensed in the cells of a weekly plastic pill box. Mold fungi can be easily and safely grown on the medium from the classroom environment. A microscope…

  7. [Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí].

    PubMed

    Mobin, Mitra; do Amparo Salmito, Maria

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of identifying the fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units (ICUs) within public and private hospitals in Teresina, Piauí, solid material was collected from ten different ICUs. Thirty-three species of Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae were isolated, which was the first report of these in Piauí. High frequencies of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%), Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%), Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50%) and Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr. (40%) were recorded. The air conditioner cleanliness validity had expired in all the ICUs, and the quantity of colony-forming units exceeded the levels permitted by Law 176/00 from the Ministry of Health. It is important to provide individual protection equipment for professionals, adopt hospital infection control measures, raise the awareness of the presence of fungus infection, improve air circulation around the environment, periodically clean the air conditioners, and make health professionals alert to the importance of these fungi in the hospital environment.

  8. Degradation of a model pollutant ferulic acid by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing-Guang; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Biodegradation of ferulic acid, by an endophytic fungus called Phomopsis liquidambari was investigated in this study. This strain can use ferulic acid as the sole carbon for growth. Both in mineral salt medium and in soil, more than 97% of added ferulic acid was degraded within 48 h. The metabolites were identified and quantified using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Ferulic acid was first decarboxylated to 4-vinyl guaiacol and then oxidized to vanillin and vanillic acid, followed by demethylation to protocatechuic acid, which was further degraded through the β-ketoadipate pathway. During degradation, ferulic acid decarboxylase, laccase and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activities and their gene transcription levels were significantly affected by the variation of substrate and product concentrations. Moreover, ferulic acid degradation was determined to some extent by P. liquidambari laccase. This study is the first report of an endophytic fungus that has a great potential for practical application in ferulic acid-contaminated environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Complement and innate immune evasion strategies of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shanshan; Skerka, Christine; Kurzai, Oliver; Zipfel, Peter F

    2013-12-15

    Candida albicans is a medically important fungus that can cause a wide range of diseases ranging from superficial infections to disseminated disease, which manifests primarily in immuno-compromised individuals. Despite the currently applied anti-fungal therapies, both mortality and morbidity caused by this human pathogenic fungus are still unacceptably high. Therefore new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to prevent fungal infection. In order to define new targets for combating fungal disease, there is a need to understand the immune evasion strategies of C. albicans in detail. In this review, we summarize different sophisticated immune evasion strategies that are utilized by C. albicans. The description of the molecular mechanisms used for immune evasion does on one hand help to understand the infection process, and on the other hand provides valuable information to define new strategies and diagnostic approaches to fight and interfere with Candida infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Lelis, Rosane Teixeira; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Fausto, Mariana Costa; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Rodrigues, João Victor Facchini; de Freitas Soares, Filippe Elias; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; de Araújo, Jackson Victor

    2014-11-01

    Echinostoma paraensei is a trematode of the genus Echinostoma that causes echinostomiasis in humans. The objectives of this study were to: evaluate the ovicidal activity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) on a solid medium 2% water-agar (2% WA) against E. paraensei eggs (assay A); evaluate ovicidal effect (destruction of eggs) of the isolate VC4 in supplemented culture media (assay B); and evaluate the ovicidal ability of the crude extract (VC4) on E. paraensei eggs (assay C). Eggs of E. paraensei (assay A) were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% WA with an isolate of the fungus P. chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) grown for 10 days, and without fungus as a control and evaluated regarding their destruction. In assay B, eggs of E. paraensei were placed in Petri dishes with different supplemented culture media and with VC4 isolate and the destruction of eggs was examined at the end of 25 days of interaction. In assay C, effects of the crude extract of P. chlamydosporia (VC4) on eggs were evaluated at the end of 7 days. In assay A, there was no difference (p>0.05) in ovicidal activity among the tested isolates (VC1 and VC4); however, the highest percentage for ovicidal activity (type 3 effect) was demonstrated by the isolate VC4. In assay B, the culture medium starch-agar showed the best results for the destruction of the eggs, with a percentage of 46.6% at the end of the assay. In assay C, the crude extract of VC4 was effective in the destruction of E. paraensei eggs, with a percentage reduction of 53%. The results of this study demonstrate that a rich culture medium with a greater availability of carbon and nitrogen may interfere directly in the predatory characteristics of ovicidal fungi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Three new compounds from the marine fungus Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Hua; Tian, Li; Feng, Bao-Min; Li, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Continuous research on the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of the marine fungus Y26-02 (Penicillium sp.) led to the purification of one known and three new compounds. Their structures were elucidated, respectively, as butyl 2-(4-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl) acetate (1), 4-hydroxyphenethyl 2-(4-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl) acetate (2), 3-hydroxybenzyl 2-(4-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl) acetate (3), and desoxypatulinic acid (4) on the basis of their spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties.

  12. Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

    2011-08-01

    This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulfuryl fluoride fumigation of red oak logs eradicates the oak wilt fungus

    Treesearch

    Elmer L. Schmidt; Jennifer Juzwik; Brian Schneider

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary field trials using red oak logs from trees dying from oak wilt disease were successful in eliminating oak wilt fungus from sapwood after fumigation with sulfuryl fluoride for 72 h under tarp. These results support earlier laboratory data on the fungitoxicity of sulfuryl fluoride as a potential replacement for methyl bromide of exported red oak veneer logs....

  14. Thermostable Acid Protease Produced by Penicillium duponti K1014, a True Thermophilic Fungus Newly Isolated from Compost

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hikotaka; Iwaasa, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Tamotsu

    1972-01-01

    A thermophilic fungus, K1014, newly derived from a compost was selected on the basis of protease productivity as the only one of 81 isolates to produce high levels of acid protease. The fungus was named Penicillium duponti K1014 based on taxonomical studies. It grew in the temperature range of 28 to 58 C, and the optimum was 45 to 50 C. These temperature characteristics showed that the fungus was the most strongly thermophilic of all the fungi next to Humicola lanuginosa. When P. duponti K1014 was grown on moistened wheat bran, maximal accumulation of acid protease occurred after 2 days at 45 to 50 C. The addition of ammonium salts, but not nitrate, was effective for the production of the acid protease. The acid protease of P. duponti K1014 was stable at 60 C for 1 hr and retained more than 65% of original activity after the treatment for 1 hr at 70 C at pH 4.7. This thermal property was different from those of the ordinary acid proteases, indicating that the enzyme is a thermostable protein. Images PMID:4650601

  15. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-03-07

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49, 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol production with a yield of 0.44 g/g. T. hirsuta was capable of directly fermenting starch, wheat bran and rice straw to ethanol without acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum ethanol concentrations of 9.1, 4.3 and 3.0 g/l, corresponding to 89.2%, 78.8% and 57.4% of the theoretical yield, were obtained when the fungus was grown in a medium containing 20 g/l starch, wheat bran or rice straw, respectively. The fermentation of rice straw pretreated with ball milling led to a small improvement in the ethanol yield: 3.4 g ethanol/20 g ball-milled rice straw. As T. hirsuta is an efficient microorganism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to fermentable sugars and directly converting them to ethanol, it may represent a suitable microorganism in consolidated bioprocessing applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Patulin-Producing Fungus Paecilomyces niveus Strain CO7.

    PubMed

    Biango-Daniels, Megan N; Wang, Tristan W; Hodge, Kathie T

    2018-06-21

    Paecilomyces niveus is an extremotolerant fungus with surprising powers to survive high temperatures and infect apples and aphids. These abilities make it a formidable enemy in food and agricultural environments. In addition, it produces patulin, the most significant mycotoxin in apples. Copyright © 2018 Biango-Daniels et al.

  17. Isocoumarin derivatives from the endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Song, Ren-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Yin, Guo-Ping; Liu, Rui-Huan; Kong, Ling-Yi; Yang, Ming-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Five new isocoumarin derivatives, pestalactone A-C (1-3) and pestapyrone D-E (4-5), together with two known compounds (6-7) were isolated from the solid cultures of the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. obtained from Photinia frasery. Their structures were mainly determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, Mo 2 (OCOCH 3 ) 4 -induced electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and ECD calculation. Compounds 1 and 2 were rare isocoumarin derivatives and derived from distinctive polyketide pathways. Compound 3 exhibited potent antifungal activity against Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030) with an MIC 50 value of 3.49±0.21μg/mL. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Caryophyllene sesquiterpenoids from the endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Yang, Ming-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Tian-Xiao; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Eight new caryophyllene sesquiterpenoids named pestaloporinates A-G (1-7) and 14-acetylhumulane (8) have been isolated from the solid cultures of an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp., which was obtained from the fresh stem bark of Melia azedarach Linn. Their structures as well as absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data, ECD experimentation, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Among all the isolates, compound 2 displayed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 19.0 μM during the evaluation of nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cepstrum based feature extraction method for fungus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorulmaz, Onur; Pearson, Tom C.; Çetin, A. Enis

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for detection of popcorn kernels infected by a fungus is developed using image processing. The method is based on two dimensional (2D) mel and Mellin-cepstrum computation from popcorn kernel images. Cepstral features that were extracted from popcorn images are classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Experimental results show that high recognition rates of up to 93.93% can be achieved for both damaged and healthy popcorn kernels using 2D mel-cepstrum. The success rate for healthy popcorn kernels was found to be 97.41% and the recognition rate for damaged kernels was found to be 89.43%.

  20. Phenylquinolinones with antitumor activity from the Indian Ocean-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peihai; Fan, Yaqin; Chen, Hao; Chao, Yaxi; Du, Ning; Chen, Junhui

    2016-09-01

    Two phenylquinolinones, including one new compound ( 1) and a previously isolated compound ( 2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2, which was obtained from seawater samples collected from the Indian Ocean. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses. 4-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-methoxyquinolin-2(1H)-one ( 1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and SMMC-7721 (human liver cancer cell line) cells with IC50 values of 16.6 and 18.2 μmol/L, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first reported account of the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 as the secondary metabolites of the seawater derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor from the Indian Ocean.

  1. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi.

    PubMed

    Shao, Changwen; Yin, Youping; Qi, Zhaoran; Li, Ren; Song, Zhangyong; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhongkang

    2015-10-01

    An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system for the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi was established. Three binary T-DNA vectors, pPZP-Hph, pPZP-Hph-RNAi and pPZP-Hph-DsRed2, were constructed. The trpc promoter from Aspergillus nidulans was used as the cis-regulatory element to drive the expression of hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) gene and DsRed2, which conferred the hygromycin B (Hyg B) resistance and red fluorescence visualization, respectively. The blastospores and conidia were used as the recipients. The blastospores' transformation efficiency reached ∼20-40 transformants per 10(6) blastospores, whereas the conidia were not transformed. Based on an analysis of five generations of subcultures, PCR and Southern blotting assays, the Ptrpc-hph cassette had integrated into the genomes of all transformants, which contained single copy of the hph gene and showed mitotic stability. Abundant altered morphologic phenotypes in colonies, blastospores and hyphae formations were observed in the arbitrary insertional mutants of N. rileyi, which made it possible to study the relationships between the functions and the interrupted genes over the whole genome. The transformation protocol will promote the functional characterization of genes, and the construction of genetically engineered strains of this important entomopathogenic fungus, and potentially of other similar fungal pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    König, Claudia C; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Nietzsche, Sandor; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-05-27

    Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ascospore dispersal of Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus, a mycangial fungus of the southern pine beetle

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; Thelma J. Perry; J. Robert Bridges; Hui-Fen Yin

    1995-01-01

    Ascospores of the heterothallic fungus Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus were found in the sporothecae of three mite species of the genus Tarsonemus.These mites were phoretic on the coniferous bark beetles Dendroctonus frontalis, D. brevicomis, and Ips acuminatus.Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus inhabits the mycangium of both Dendroctonus species as conidia in a budding yeast-...

  5. Avoidance of plants unsuitable for the symbiotic fungus in leaf-cutting ants: Learning can take place entirely at the colony dump.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Andrés; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Plants initially accepted by foraging leaf-cutting ants are later avoided if they prove unsuitable for their symbiotic fungus. Plant avoidance is mediated by the waste produced in the fungus garden soon after the incorporation of the unsuitable leaves, as foragers can learn plant odors and cues from the damaged fungus that are both present in the recently produced waste particles. We asked whether avoidance learning of plants unsuitable for the symbiotic fungus can take place entirely at the colony dump. In order to investigate whether cues available in the waste chamber induce plant avoidance in naïve subcolonies, we exchanged the waste produced by subcolonies fed either fungicide-treated privet leaves or untreated leaves and measured the acceptance of untreated privet leaves before and after the exchange of waste. Second, we evaluated whether foragers could perceive the avoidance cues directly at the dump by quantifying the visits of labeled foragers to the waste chamber. Finally, we asked whether foragers learn to specifically avoid untreated leaves of a plant after a confinement over 3 hours in the dump of subcolonies that were previously fed fungicide-treated leaves of that species. After the exchange of the waste chambers, workers from subcolonies that had access to waste from fungicide-treated privet leaves learned to avoid that plant. One-third of the labeled foragers visited the dump. Furthermore, naïve foragers learned to avoid a specific, previously unsuitable plant if exposed solely to cues of the dump during confinement. We suggest that cues at the dump enable foragers to predict the unsuitable effects of plants even if they had never been experienced in the fungus garden.

  6. Avoidance of plants unsuitable for the symbiotic fungus in leaf-cutting ants: Learning can take place entirely at the colony dump

    PubMed Central

    Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Plants initially accepted by foraging leaf-cutting ants are later avoided if they prove unsuitable for their symbiotic fungus. Plant avoidance is mediated by the waste produced in the fungus garden soon after the incorporation of the unsuitable leaves, as foragers can learn plant odors and cues from the damaged fungus that are both present in the recently produced waste particles. We asked whether avoidance learning of plants unsuitable for the symbiotic fungus can take place entirely at the colony dump. In order to investigate whether cues available in the waste chamber induce plant avoidance in naïve subcolonies, we exchanged the waste produced by subcolonies fed either fungicide-treated privet leaves or untreated leaves and measured the acceptance of untreated privet leaves before and after the exchange of waste. Second, we evaluated whether foragers could perceive the avoidance cues directly at the dump by quantifying the visits of labeled foragers to the waste chamber. Finally, we asked whether foragers learn to specifically avoid untreated leaves of a plant after a confinement over 3 hours in the dump of subcolonies that were previously fed fungicide-treated leaves of that species. After the exchange of the waste chambers, workers from subcolonies that had access to waste from fungicide-treated privet leaves learned to avoid that plant. One-third of the labeled foragers visited the dump. Furthermore, naïve foragers learned to avoid a specific, previously unsuitable plant if exposed solely to cues of the dump during confinement. We suggest that cues at the dump enable foragers to predict the unsuitable effects of plants even if they had never been experienced in the fungus garden. PMID:28273083

  7. Metacridamides A and B, bioactive macrocycles from conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. Its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycles, metacridamides A (1) and B (2), which consist of a Phe unit condensed with a nonaketide....

  8. TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

  9. Colonization of Corn, Zea mays, by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana†

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Bruce L.; Lewis, Leslie C.

    2000-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to describe the mode of penetration by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin into corn, Zea mays L. After inoculation with a foliar spray of conidia, germinating hyphae grew randomly across the leaf surface. Often a germ tube formed from a conidium and elongated only a short distance before terminating its growth. Not all developing hyphae on the leaf surface penetrated the cuticle. However, when penetration did occur, the penetration site(s) was randomly located, indicating that B. bassiana does not require specific topographic signals at an appropriate entry site as do some phytopathogenic fungi. Long hyphal structures were observed to follow the leaf apoplast in any direction from the point of penetration. A few hyphae were observed within xylem elements. Because vascular bundles are interconnected throughout the corn plant, this may explain how B. bassiana travels within the plant and ultimately provides overall insecticidal protection. Virulency bioassays demonstrate that B. bassiana does not lose virulence toward the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), once it colonizes corn. This endophytic relationship between an entomopathogenic fungus and a plant suggests possibilities for biological control, including the use of indigenous fungal inocula as insecticides. PMID:10919808

  10. Ultrastructural characterization of melanosomes of the human pathogenic fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Anderson J; Cunha, Marcel M L; Miranda, Kildare; Hentschel, Joachim; Plattner, Helmut; da Silva, Moises B; Salgado, Claudio G; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2008-04-01

    Melanin is a complex polymer widely distributed in nature and has been described as an important virulence factor in pathogenic fungi. In the majority of fungi, the mechanism of melanin formation remains unclear. In Fonsecaea pedrosoi, the major etiologic agent of chromoblastomycosis, melanin is stored in intracellular vesicles, named melanosomes. This paper details the ultrastructural aspects of melanin formation, its storage and transportation to the cell wall in the human pathogenic fungus F. pedrosoi. In this fungus, melanin synthesis within melanosomes also begins with a fibrillar matrix formation, displaying morphological and structural features similar to melanosomes from amphibian and mammalian cells. Silver precipitation based on Fontana-Masson technique for melanin detection and immunocytochemistry showed that melanosome fuses with fungal cell membrane where the melanin is released and reaches the cell wall. Melanin deposition in the fungal cell wall occurs in concentric layers. Antibodies raised against F. pedrosoi melanin revealed the sites of melanin production and storage in the melanosomes. In addition, a preliminary description of the elemental composition of this organelle by X-ray microanalysis and elemental mapping revealed the presence of calcium, phosphorus and iron concentrated in its matrix, suggesting a new functional role for these organelles as iron storage compartments.

  11. Draft genome sequence of the white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa 3A-2

    Treesearch

    Otto Miettinen; Robert Riley; Kerrie Barry; Daniel Cullen; Ronald P. de Vries; Matthieu Hainaut; Annele Hatakka; Bernard Henrissat; Kristiina Hilden; Rita Kuo; Kurt LaButti; Anna Lipzen; Miia R. Makela; Laura Sandor; Joseph W. Spatafora; Igor V. Grigoriev; David S. Hibbett

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first genome sequence of the white-rot fungus Obba rivulsa (Polyporales, Basidiomycota), a polypore known for its lignin-decomposing ability. The genome is based on the homokaryon 3A-2 originating in Finland. The genome is typical in size and carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) content for wood-decomposing basidiomycetes.

  12. Sequential saccharification of corn fiber and ethanol production by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, M L; Shrestha, P; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2010-05-01

    Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars through a purely biological process is a key to sustainable biofuel production. Hydrolysis of the corn wet-milling co-product-corn fiber-to simple sugars by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was studied in suspended-culture and solid-state fermentations. Suspended-culture experiments were not effective in producing harvestable sugars from the corn fiber. The fungus consumed sugars released by fungal extracellular enzymes. Solid-state fermentation demonstrated up to 40% fiber degradation within 9days. Enzyme activity assays on solid-state fermentation filtrates confirmed the involvement of starch- and cellulose-degrading enzymes. To reduce fungal consumption of sugars and to accelerate enzyme activity, 2- and 3-d solid-state fermentation biomasses (fiber and fungus) were submerged in buffer and incubated at 37 degrees C without shaking. This anaerobic incubation converted up to almost 11% of the corn fiber into harvestable reducing sugars. Sugars released by G. trabeum were fermented to a maximum yield of 3.3g ethanol/100g fiber. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of G. trabeum fermenting sugar to ethanol. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a co-culture led to more rapid fermentation to a maximum yield of 4.0g ethanol/100g fiber. The findings demonstrate the potential for this simple fungal process, requiring no pretreatment of the corn fiber, to produce more ethanol by hydrolyzing and fermenting carbohydrates in this lignocellulosic co-product. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel endophytic Huperzine A-producing fungus, Shiraia sp. Slf14, isolated from Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Wang, J; Zeng, Q; Zhang, Z; Yan, R

    2010-10-01

    To characterize and identify a novel Huperzine A (HupA)-producing fungal strain Slf14 isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. in China. The isolation, identification and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus producing HupA specifically and consistently from the leaves of H. serrata were investigated. The fungus was identified as Shiraia sp. Slf14 by molecular and morphological methods. The HupA produced by this endophytic fungus was shown to be identical to authentic HupA analysed by thin layer chromatographic, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), LC-MS, (1) H NMR and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity in vitro. The amount of HupA produced by Shiraia sp. Slf14 was quantified to be 327.8 μg l(-1) by HPLC, which was far higher than that of the reported endophytic fungi, Acremonium sp., Blastomyces sp. and Botrytis sp. The production of HupA by endophyte Shiraia sp. Slf14 is an enigmatic observation. It would be interesting to further study the HupA production and regulation by the cultured endophyte in H. serrata and in axenic cultures. Although the current accumulation of HupA by the endophyte is not very high, it could provide a promising alterative approach for large-scale production of HupA. However, further strain improvement and the fermentation process optimization are required to result in the consistent and dependable production. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Three new drimane sesquiterpenoids from cultures of the fungus Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian-Hai; Ding, Zhang-Gui; Chunyu, Wei-Xun; Zhao, Jiang-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Bin; Liu, Shi-Wei; Wang, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Three new drimane sesquiterpenoids, 12-hydroxyalbrassitriol (1), drim-8(12)-en-6β,7α, 9α,11-tetraol (2), and drim-68(12)-dien-9α,11-diol (3), along with one known analog albrassitriol (4), were isolated from cultures of the tin mine tailings-associated fungus Penicillium sp. The new structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines.

  15. The genome of an industrial workhorse : sequencing of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger offers new opportunities for the production of specialty chemicals and enzymes

    Treesearch

    Dan Cullen

    2007-01-01

    Few microbes compare with the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger in its ability to produce prodigious amounts of useful chemicals and enzymes. This fungus is the principal source of citric acid for food, beverages and pharmaceuticals and of several important commercial enzymes, including glucoamylase, which is widely used for the conversion of starch to food syrups...

  16. The sirodesmin biosynthetic gene cluster of the plant pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Donald M; Cozijnsen, Anton J; Wilson, Leanne M; Pedras, M Soledade C; Howlett, Barbara J

    2004-09-01

    Sirodesmin PL is a phytotoxin produced by the fungus Leptosphaeria maculans, which causes blackleg disease of canola (Brassica napus). This phytotoxin belongs to the epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) class of toxins produced by fungi including mammalian and plant pathogens. We report the cloning of a cluster of genes with predicted roles in the biosynthesis of sirodesmin PL and show via gene disruption that one of these genes (encoding a two-module non-ribosomal peptide synthetase) is essential for sirodesmin PL biosynthesis. Of the nine genes in the cluster tested, all are co-regulated with the production of sirodesmin PL in culture. A similar cluster is present in the genome of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and is most likely responsible for the production of gliotoxin, which is also an ETP. Homologues of the genes in the cluster were also identified in expressed sequence tags of the ETP producing fungus Chaetomium globosum. Two other fungi with publicly available genome sequences, Magnaporthe grisea and Fusarium graminearum, had similar gene clusters. A comparative analysis of all four clusters is presented. This is the first report of the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of an ETP. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

  17. Microsporols A-C from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis microspore.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianfu; Wang, Yadan; Liu, Shuchun; Liu, Xinzhong; Guo, Liangdong

    2015-10-01

    Three new ambuic acid derivatives, microsporols A-C (1-3) and the known compound ambuic acid (4), were isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora. Their structures were elucidated primarily by NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of the 6,7-diol moiety in 1 and 2 were assigned using the Snatzke's method, whereas that of 3 was deduced by circular dichroism (CD) exciton chirality method. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed moderate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory effects.

  18. Antifouling and antibacterial polyketides from marine gorgonian coral-associated fungus Penicillium sp. SCSGAF 0023.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jie; Sun, Yu-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Han, Zhuang; Gao, Hai-Chun; He, Fei; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Two new polyketides, 6,8,5'6'-tetrahydroxy-3'-methylflavone (1) and paecilin C (2), together with six known analogs secalonic acid D (3), secalonic acid B (4) penicillixanthone A (5), emodin (6), citreorosein (7) and isorhodoptilometrin (8) were obtained from a broth of gorgonian coral-associated fungus Penicillium sp. SCSGAF 0023. Compounds 1 and 6-8 had significant antifouling activity against Balanus amphitrite larvae settlement with EC50 values of 6.7, 6.1, 17.9 and 13.7 μg ml(-1), respectively, and 3-5 showed medium antibacterial activity against four tested bacterial strains. This was the first report of antibacterial activity of 3-5 against marine bacteria and antifouling activity of 6-8 against marine biofouling organism's larvae. The results indicated that gorgonian coral-associated fungus Penicillium sp. SCSGAF 0023 strain could produce antifouling and antibacterial compounds that might aid the host gorgonian coral in protection against marine pathogen bacteria, biofouling organisms and other intruders.

  19. Temperature-dependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verant, Michelle L.; Boyles, Justin G.; Waldrep, William; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emergent disease estimated to have killed over five million North American bats. Caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS specifically affects bats during hibernation. We describe temperature-dependent growth performance and morphology for six independent isolates of G. destructans from North America and Europe. Thermal performance curves for all isolates displayed an intermediate peak with rapid decline in performance above the peak. Optimal temperatures for growth were between 12.5 and 15.8°C, and the upper critical temperature for growth was between 19.0 and 19.8°C. Growth rates varied across isolates, irrespective of geographic origin, and above 12°C all isolates displayed atypical morphology that may have implications for proliferation of the fungus. This study demonstrates that small variations in temperature, consistent with those inherent of bat hibernacula, affect growth performance and physiology of G. destructans, which may influence temperature-dependent progression and severity of WNS in wild bats.

  20. Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Martha C.; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Mentlak, Thomas A.; Yi, Mihwa; Martinez-Rocha, Ana Lilia; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Terauchi, Ryohei; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Valent, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    To cause plant diseases, pathogenic micro-organisms secrete effector proteins into host tissue to suppress immunity and support pathogen growth. Bacterial pathogens have evolved several distinct secretion systems to target effector proteins, but whether fungi, which cause the major diseases of most crop species, also require different secretory mechanisms is not known. Here we report that the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae possesses two distinct secretion systems to target effectors during plant infection. Cytoplasmic effectors, which are delivered into host cells, preferentially accumulate in the biotrophic interfacial complex, a novel plant membrane-rich structure associated with invasive hyphae. We show that the biotrophic interfacial complex is associated with a novel form of secretion involving exocyst components and the Sso1 t-SNARE. By contrast, effectors that are secreted from invasive hyphae into the extracellular compartment follow the conventional secretory pathway. We conclude that the blast fungus has evolved distinct secretion systems to facilitate tissue invasion. PMID:23774898

  1. Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside C-K by endophytic fungus Arthrinium sp. GE 17-18 isolated from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Yin, Z-H; Wu, L-P; Yin, C-R

    2016-09-01

    This research aimed to isolate β-glycosidase-producing endophytic fungus in Panax ginseng to achieve biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside C-K. Of these 15 β-glucosidase-producing endophytic fungus isolated from ginseng roots, a β-glucosidase-producing endophytic fungi GE 17-18 could hydrolyse major ginsenosides Rb1 to minor ginsenoside C-K with metabolic pathways: ginsenoside Rb1→ginsenoside Rd→ginsenoside F2→ginsenoside C-K. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS gene sequences indicated that the strain GE 17-18 belongs to the genus Arthrinium and is most closely related to Arthrinium sp. HQ832803.1. This is the first study to provide information of cultivable β-glycosidase-producing Endophytic fungus in Panax ginseng. The strain GE 17-18 has potential to be applied on the preparation for minor ginsenoside C-K in pharmaceutical industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Draft genome sequence of a monokaryotic model brown-rot fungus Postia (Rhodonia) placenta SB12

    Treesearch

    Jill Gaskell; Phil Kersten; Luis F. Larrondo; Paulo Canessa; Diego Martinez; David Hibbett; Monika Schmoll; Christian P. Kubicek; Angel T. Martinez; Jagjit Yadav; Emma Master; Jon Karl Magnuson; Debbie Yaver; Randy Berka; Kathleen Lail; Cindy Chen; Kurt LaButti; Matt Nolan; Anna Lipzen; Andrea Aerts; Robert Riley; Kerrie Barry; Bernard Henrissat; Robert Blanchette; Igor V. Grigoriev; Dan Cullen

    2017-01-01

    We report the genome of Postia (Rhodonia) placenta MAD-SB12, a homokaryotic wood decay fungus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales). Intensively studied as a representative brown rot decayer, the gene complement is consistent with the rapid depolymerization of cellulose but not lignin.

  3. Virgatolides A-C, benzannulated spiroketals from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Li, Li; Si, Yikang; Jiang, Xuejun; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng

    2011-05-20

    Virgatolides A-C (1-3), unique metabolites with a 3',4',5',6'-tetrahydrospiro[chroman-2,2'-pyran] core, were isolated from cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula. Compounds 1-3 possess two previously undescribed skeletons originating from a benzannulated 6,6-spiroketal and one (2 and 3) and two (1) γ-lactone units, respectively. The structure of 1 was secured by X-ray crystallography.

  4. Penicillipyrones A and B, meroterpenoids from a marine-derived Penicillium sp. fungus.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lijuan; Lee, Jung-Ho; You, Minjung; Choi, Tae Joon; Park, Wanki; Lee, Sang Kook; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2014-02-28

    Penicillipyrones A (1) and B (2), two novel meroterpenoids, were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. On the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analyses, these compounds were structurally elucidated to be sesquiterpene γ-pyrones from a new skeletal class derived from a unique linkage pattern between the drimane sesquiterpene and pyrone moieties. Compound 2 elicited significant induction of quinone reductase.

  5. Influence of Populus Genotype on Gene Expression by the Wood Decay Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Treesearch

    Jill Gaskell; Amber Marty; Michael Mozuch; Philip J. Kersten; Sandra Splinter Bondurant; Grzegorz Sabat; Ali Azarpira; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D. Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    We examined gene expression patterns in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium when it colonizes hybrid poplar (Populus alba tremula) and syringyl (S)-rich transgenic derivatives. Acombination ofmicroarrays and liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed detection of a total of 9,959 transcripts and 793...

  6. Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is the inevitable fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on fish eggs hatched using different systems has only recently been investigated. Fish were spawn...

  7. Short-Read Sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Treesearch

    J. D. Tang; A. D. Perkins; T. S. Sonstegard; S. G. Schroeder; S. C. Burgess; S. V. Diehl

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment...

  8. The development of a spatially-explicit, individual-based, disease model for frogs and the chytrid fungus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background / Question / Methods The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BD), has been associated with amphibian population declines and even extinctions worldwide. Transmission of the fungus between amphibian hosts occurs via motile zoospores, which are produced on...

  9. Genetic Transformation of the Biocontrol Fungus Gliocladium virens to Benomyl Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ossanna, Nina; Mischke, Sue

    1990-01-01

    Methodology was developed to isolate and regenerate protoplasts from the biocontrol fungus Gliocladium virens and to transform them to benomyl resistance with a Neurospora crassa β-tubulin gene. Southern blots demonstrated that multiple copies of the vector integrated into the chromosomal DNA of stable biotypes but not of abortive transformants. Analysis of nuclear condition in vegetative and asexual structures demonstrated that no structure of G. virens is dependably uninucleate and thus preferentially suitable for transformation. Images PMID:16348312

  10. The rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea including two new species, G. monticola and G. unicorne

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey was conducted of species of the rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea. The previously known species were recollected, namely Gymnosporangium asiaticum, G. clavariiforme, G. globosum, G. japonicum, and G. yamadae. Although G. cornutum was reported from Korea, collections similar to that speci...

  11. Secondary metabolites produced by solid fermentation of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium commune QSD-17.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-Shan; Shang, Zhuo; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Cui, Chuan-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2012-01-01

    The marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium commune QSD-17 was re-investigated and cultured on rice solid medium. Two new compounds, isophomenone (1) and 3-deacetylcitreohybridonol (2), together with seven known derivatives (3-9), were identified. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis.

  12. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  13. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  14. Characterization of sakA gene from pathogenic dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Nimmanee, Panjaphorn; Woo, Patrick C Y; Kummasook, Aksarakorn; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotes utilize stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways to adapt to environmental stress, including heat, osmotic, oxidative or nutrient stresses. Penicillium marneffei (Talaromyces marneffei), the dimorphic pathogenic fungus that can cause disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected patients, has to encounter various types of stresses both outside and inside host cells. However, the strategies used by this fungus in response to these stresses are still unclear. In this report, the stress-activated kinase (sakA) gene of P. marneffei was characterized and the roles of this gene on various stress conditions were studied. The sakA gene deletion mutant was constructed using the split marker method. The phenotypes and sensitivities to varieties of stresses, including osmotic, oxidative, heat and cell wall stresses of the deletion mutant were compared with the wild type and the sakA complemented strains. Results demonstrated that the P. marneffei sakA gene encoded a putative protein containing TXY phosphorylation lip found in the stress high osmolarity glycerol 1 (Hog1)/Spc1/p38 MAPK family, and that this gene was involved not only in tolerance against oxidative and heat stresses, but also played a role in asexual development, chitin deposition, yeast cell generation in vitro and survival inside mouse and human macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The evolution of fungus-growing termites and their mutualistic fungal symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Aanen, Duur K.; Eggleton, Paul; Rouland-Lefèvre, Corinne; Guldberg-Frøslev, Tobias; Rosendahl, Søren; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2002-01-01

    We have estimated phylogenies of fungus-growing termites and their associated mutualistic fungi of the genus Termitomyces using Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences. Our study shows that the symbiosis has a single African origin and that secondary domestication of other fungi or reversal of mutualistic fungi to a free-living state has not occurred. Host switching has been frequent, especially at the lower taxonomic levels, and nests of single termite species can have different symbionts. Data are consistent with horizontal transmission of fungal symbionts in both the ancestral state of the mutualism and most of the extant taxa. Clonal vertical transmission of fungi, previously shown to be common in the genus Microtermes (via females) and in the species Macrotermes bellicosus (via males) [Johnson, R. A., Thomas, R. J., Wood, T. G. & Swift, M. J. (1981) J. Nat. Hist. 15, 751–756], is derived with two independent origins. Despite repeated host switching, statistical tests taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account show a significant congruence between the termite and fungal phylogenies, because mutualistic interactions at higher taxonomic levels show considerable specificity. We identify common characteristics of fungus-farming evolution in termites and ants, which apply despite the major differences between these two insect agricultural systems. We hypothesize that biparental colony founding may have constrained the evolution of vertical symbiont transmission in termites but not in ants where males die after mating. PMID:12386341

  16. Meroterpenoids with antiproliferative activity from a Hawaiian-plant associated fungus Peyronellaea coffeae-arabicae FT238

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three unusual polyketide-sesquiterpene metabolites peyronellins A-C (1-3), along with the new epoxyphomalin analog 11-dehydroxy epoxyphomalin A (4), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Peyronellaea cof feae-arabicae FT238, which was isolated from the native Hawaiian plant Pritchardia lowre...

  17. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy) annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs). A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars), chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. PMID:21241472

  18. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Plant Growth-Promoting Fungus Phoma sp. GS8-3 for Growth Promotion Effects on Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2013-01-01

    We extracted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) Phoma sp. GS8-3 by gas chromatography and identified them by mass spectrometry. All of the identified compounds belonged to C4-C8 hydrocarbons. Volatiles varied in number and quantity by the culture period of the fungus (in days). 2-Methyl-propanol and 3-methyl-butanol formed the main components of the volatile blends for all the culture periods of fungus. Growth-promoting effects of the identified synthetic compounds were analyzed individually and in blends using tobacco plants. We found that the mixture of volatiles extracted from 3-day-old culture showed significant growth promotion in tobacco in vitro. The volatile blend showed better growth promotion at lower than higher concentrations. Our results confirm the potential role of volatile organic compounds in the mechanism of growth enhancement by GS8-3. PMID:23080408

  19. Serine proteases activity is important for the interaction of nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans with infective larvae of trichostrongylides and free-living nematodes Panagrellus spp.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Daniela G; Costa, Luana M; Rocha, Letícia O; Retamal, Claudio A; Vieira, Ricardo A M; Seabra, Sergio H; Silva, Carlos P; DaMatta, Renato A; Santos, Clóvis P

    2015-08-01

    The nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans has been studied as a possible control method for gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock animals. These fungi capture and infect the nematode by cuticle penetration, immobilization, and digestion of the internal contents. It has been suggested that this sequence of events occurs by a combination of physical and enzymatical activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of proteolytic enzymatic activity during the interaction of the nematophagous fungus D. flagrans with infective larvae of trichostrongylides and the free-living nematode Panagrellus spp. Protease inhibitors used interfered in the predatory activity of D. flagrans. However, only PMSF significantly reduced the mean number of Panagrellus spp. captured by D. flagrans in comparison with the control. The experiment with fluorogenic substrate showed that maximum urokinase activity during the interaction of the fungus with the infective larvae of trichostrongylides or Panagrellus spp. occurred within 7 or 1 h of incubation, respectively. The protease activity, especially of the serine class, may be important during the interaction between the fungus and nematodes. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae) Infects Arabidopsis via a Mechanism Distinct from That Required for the Infection of Rice1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Young; Jin, Jianming; Lee, Yin-Won; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2009-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes rice (Oryza sativa) blast. Although M. oryzae as a whole infects a wide variety of monocotyledonous hosts, no dicotyledonous plant has been reported as a host. We found that two rice pathogenic strains of M. oryzae, KJ201 and 70-15, interacted differentially with 16 ecotypes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Strain KJ201 infected all ecotypes with varying degrees of virulence, whereas strain 70-15 caused no symptoms in certain ecotypes. In highly susceptible ecotypes, small chlorotic lesions appeared on infected leaves within 3 d after inoculation and subsequently expanded across the affected leaves. The fungus produced spores in susceptible ecotypes but not in resistant ecotypes. Fungal cultures recovered from necrotic lesions caused the same symptoms in healthy plants, satisfying Koch's postulates. Histochemical analyses showed that infection by the fungus caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and eventual cell death. Similar to the infection process in rice, the fungus differentiated to form appressorium and directly penetrated the leaf surface in Arabidopsis. However, the pathogenic mechanism in Arabidopsis appears distinct from that in rice; three fungal genes essential for pathogenicity in rice played only limited roles in causing disease symptoms in Arabidopsis, and the fungus seems to colonize Arabidopsis as a necrotroph through the secretion of phytotoxic compounds, including 9,12-octadecadienoic acid. Expression of PR-1 and PDF1.2 was induced in response to infection by the fungus, suggesting the activation of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways. However, the roles of these signaling pathways in defense against M. oryzae remain unclear. In combination with the wealth of genetic and genomic resources available for M. oryzae, this newly established pathosystem allows comparison of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying

  1. First draft genome sequencing of indole acetic acid producing and plant growth promoting fungus Preussia sp. BSL10.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-05-10

    Preussia sp. BSL10, family Sporormiaceae, was actively producing phytohormone (indole-3-acetic acid) and extra-cellular enzymes (phosphatases and glucosidases). The fungus was also promoting the growth of arid-land tree-Boswellia sacra. Looking at such prospects of this fungus, we sequenced its draft genome for the first time. The Illumina based sequence analysis reveals an approximate genome size of 31.4Mbp for Preussia sp. BSL10. Based on ab initio gene prediction, total 32,312 coding sequences were annotated consisting of 11,967 coding genes, pseudogenes, and 221 tRNA genes. Furthermore, 321 carbohydrate-active enzymes were predicted and classified into many functional families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Wood decay fungus Flavodon ambrosius (Basidiomycota: Polyporales) is widely farmed by two genera of ambrosia beetles

    Treesearch

    You Li; Craig Christopher Bateman; James Skelton; Michelle Alice Jusino; Zachary John Nolen; David Rabern Simmons; Jiri Hulcr

    2017-01-01

    The ambrosia fungus Flavodon ambrosius is the primary nutritional mutualist of ambrosia beetles Ambrosiodmus and Ambrosiophilus in North America. F. ambrosius is the only known ambrosial basidiomycete, unique in its efficient lignocellulose degradation. F. ambrosius is associated with...

  3. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: Behavior and laboratory breeding success in three Xyleborine species

    Treesearch

    Peter Biedermann; Kier Klepzig; Taborsky Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly...

  4. An anti-HBV anthraquinone from aciduric fungus Penicillium sp. OUCMDZ-4736 under low pH stress.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yanzheng; Qin, Shidong; Gao, Hai; Zhu, Guoliang; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Weiming; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    To obtain new bioactive natural products, the effect of acidic stress on the metabolites of an aciduric fungus was investigated. This fungus, Penicillium sp. OUCMDZ-4736, which was isolated from the sediment around roots of mangrove (Acanthus ilicifolius), produced different compounds and higher yields under pH 2.5 than under neutral conditions. Using spectroscopic analyses and calculations, three new anthraquinone derivatives (1-3) were isolated and identified from the acidic fermentation broth (pH 2.5) of OUCMDZ-4736. Compound 1 showed much stronger anti-hepatitis B virus activity than that of the positive control, lamivudine, strongly inhibiting HBsAg and HBeAg secretion from HepG2.2.15 cells. These results show that extremophiles are a valuable resource of bioactive compounds, and that pH regulation is an effective strategy to induce metabolite production in aciduric fungi.

  5. A Fungus-Inducible Pepper Carboxylesterase Exhibits Antifungal Activity by Decomposing the Outer Layer of Fungal Cell Walls.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Ae Ran; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Park, Sangkyu; Han, Yun-Jeong; Hoang, Quyen T N; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2018-05-01

    Colletotrichum species are major fungal pathogens that cause devastating anthracnose diseases in many economically important crops. In this study, we observed the hydrolyzing activity of a fungus-inducible pepper carboxylesterase (PepEST) on cell walls of C. gloeosporioides, causing growth retardation of the fungus by blocking appressorium formation. To determine the cellular basis for the growth inhibition, we observed the localization of PepEST on the fungus and found the attachment of the protein on surfaces of conidia and germination tubes. Moreover, we examined the decomposition of cell-wall materials from the fungal surface after reaction with PepEST, which led to the identification of 1,2-dithiane-4,5-diol (DTD) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Exogenous DTD treatment did not elicit expression of defense-related genes in the host plant but did trigger the necrosis of C. gloeosporioides. Furthermore, the DTD compound displayed protective effects on pepper fruits and plants against C. gloeosporioides and C. coccodes, respectively. In addition, DTD was also effective in preventing other diseases, such as rice blast, tomato late blight, and wheat leaf rust. Therefore, our results provide evidence that PepEST is involved in hydrolysis of the outmost layer of the fungal cell walls and that DTD has antifungal activity, suggesting an alternative strategy to control agronomically important phytopathogens.

  6. Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Pringle, Anne

    2012-04-01

    The inability to associate with local species may constrain the spread of mutualists arriving to new habitats, but the fates of introduced, microbial mutualists are largely unknown. The deadly poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides (the death cap) is native to Europe and introduced to the East and West Coasts of North America. By cataloging host associations across the two continents, we record dramatic changes in specificity among the three ranges. On the East Coast, where the fungus is restricted in its distribution, it associates almost exclusively with pines, which are rarely hosts of A. phalloides in its native range. In California, where the fungus is widespread and locally abundant, it associates almost exclusively with oaks, mirroring the host associations observed in Europe. The most common host of the death cap in California is the endemic coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), and the current distribution of A. phalloides appears constrained within the distribution of Q. agrifolia. In California, host shifts to native plants are also associated with a near doubling in the resources allocated to sexual reproduction and a prolonged fruiting period; mushrooms are twice as large as they are elsewhere and mushrooms are found throughout the year. Host and niche shifts are likely to shape the continuing range expansion of A. phalloides and other ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced across the world.

  7. Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Pringle, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The inability to associate with local species may constrain the spread of mutualists arriving to new habitats, but the fates of introduced, microbial mutualists are largely unknown. The deadly poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides (the death cap) is native to Europe and introduced to the East and West Coasts of North America. By cataloging host associations across the two continents, we record dramatic changes in specificity among the three ranges. On the East Coast, where the fungus is restricted in its distribution, it associates almost exclusively with pines, which are rarely hosts of A. phalloides in its native range. In California, where the fungus is widespread and locally abundant, it associates almost exclusively with oaks, mirroring the host associations observed in Europe. The most common host of the death cap in California is the endemic coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), and the current distribution of A. phalloides appears constrained within the distribution of Q. agrifolia. In California, host shifts to native plants are also associated with a near doubling in the resources allocated to sexual reproduction and a prolonged fruiting period; mushrooms are twice as large as they are elsewhere and mushrooms are found throughout the year. Host and niche shifts are likely to shape the continuing range expansion of A. phalloides and other ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced across the world. PMID:22134645

  8. A New Chytridiomycete Fungus Intermixed with Crustacean Resting Eggs in a 407-Million-Year-Old Continental Freshwater Environment

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.; Olesen, Jørgen; Kenrick, Paul; Edgecombe, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based on its size, consistent formation of papillae, and the presence of an internal rhizoidal system. It is the most pristine fossil Chytridiomycota known, especially in terms of rhizoidal development and closely resembles living species in the Rhizophydiales. The spiny resting eggs are attributed to the crustacean Lepidocaris rhyniensis, dating branchiopod adaptation to life in ephemeral pools to the Early Devonian. The new fungal interaction suggests that, as in modern freshwater environments, chytrids were important to the mobilisation of nutrients in early aquatic foodwebs. PMID:27973602

  9. Interactions of Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis rigida and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the copper tolerance of Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, C; Aranda, E; Sampedro, I; Garcia-Romera, I; Ocampo, J A

    2009-09-01

    The presence of high levels of Cu in soil decreases the shoot and root dry weights of Eucalyptus globulus. However, higher plant tolerance of Cu has been observed in the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus deserticola. The hyphal length of G. deserticola was sensitive to low Cu concentrations, and the percentage of AM root colonisation and the metabolic activity of the AM fungus were also decreased by Cu. Therefore, a direct effect of Cu on the development of the AM fungus inside and outside the root cannot be ruled out. E. globulus colonised by G. deserticola had higher metal concentrations in the roots and shoots than do non-mycorrhizal plants; however, the absence of a higher root to shoot metal ratio in the mycorrhizal plants (1.70+/-0.11) indicated that G. deserticola did not play a filtering/sequestering role against Cu. The saprobe fungi Coriolopsis rigida and Trametes versicolor were able to remove Cu ions from the asparagine-glucose growth media. However, plants inoculated with C. rigida and T. versicolor did not accumulate more Cu than non-inoculated controls, and the growth of the plant was not increased in the presence of these fungi. However, C. rigida increased the shoot dry weight, AM root length colonisation, and metabolic mycelial activity of plants colonised with G. deserticola in the presence of Cu; only this saprobe-AM fungus combination increased the tolerance of E. globulus to Cu. Inoculation with G. deserticola and C. rigida increased the E. globulus Cu uptake to levels reached by hyperaccumulative plants.

  10. Role of malate transporter in lipid accumulation of oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Cánovas-Márquez, José T; Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis in oleaginous fungi requires the supply of reducing power, NADPH, and the precursor of fatty acids, acetyl-CoA, which is generated in the cytosol being produced by ATP: citrate lyase which requires citrate to be, transported from the mitochondrion by the citrate/malate/pyruvate transporter. This transporter, which is within the mitochondrial membrane, transports cytosolic malate into the mitochondrion in exchange for mitochondrial citrate moving into the cytosol (Fig. 1). The role of malate transporter in lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungi is not fully understood, however. Therefore, the expression level of the mt gene, coding for a malate transporter, was manipulated in the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides to analyze its effect on lipid accumulation. The results showed that mt overexpression increased the lipid content for about 70 % (from 13 to 22 % dry cell weight, CDW), whereas the lipid content in mt knockout mutant decreased about 27 % (from 13 to 9.5 % CDW) compared with the control strain. Furthermore, the extracellular malate concentration was decreased in the mt overexpressing strain and increased in the mt knockout strain compared with the wild-type strain. This work suggests that the malate transporter plays an important role in regulating lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungus M. circinelloides.

  11. Remediation of lead-contaminated water by geological fluorapatite and fungus Penicillium oxalicum.

    PubMed

    Tian, Da; Wang, Wenchao; Su, Mu; Zheng, Junyi; Wu, Yuanyi; Wang, Shimei; Li, Zhen; Hu, Shuijin

    2018-05-16

    Phosphate-solubilizing fungi (PSF) can secrete large amounts of organic acids. In this study, the application of the fungus Penicillium oxalicum and geological fluorapatite (FAp) to lead immobilization was investigated. The formation and morphology of the lead-related minerals were analyzed by ATR-IR, XRD, Raman, and SEM. The quantity of organic acids secreted by P. oxalicum reached the maximum on the fourth day, which elevated soluble P concentrations from 0.4 to 108 mg/L in water. The secreted oxalic acid dominates the acidity in solution. P. oxalicum can survive in the solution with Pb concentration of ~ 1700 mg/L. In addition, it was shown that ~ 98% lead cations were removed while the fungus was cultured with Pb (~ 1700 mg/L) and FAp. The mechanism is that the released P from FAp (enhanced by organic acids) can react with Pb 2+ to form the stable pyromorphite mineral [Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F]. The precipitation of lead oxalate also contributes to Pb immobilization. However, lead oxalate is more soluble due to its relatively high solubility. P. oxalicum has a higher rate of organic acid secretion compared with other typical PSF, e.g., Aspergillus niger. This study sheds light on bright future of applying P. oxalicum in Pb remediation.

  12. Occurrence of fungi in combs of fungus-growing termites (Isoptera: Termitidae, Macrotermitinae).

    PubMed

    Guedegbe, Herbert J; Miambi, Edouard; Pando, Anne; Roman, Jocelyne; Houngnandan, Pascal; Rouland-Lefevre, Corinne

    2009-10-01

    Fungus-growing termites cultivate their mutualistic basidiomycete Termitomyces species on a substrate called a fungal comb. Here, the Suicide Polymerase Endonuclease Restriction (SuPER) method was adapted for the first time to a fungal study to determine the entire fungal community of fungal combs and to test whether fungi other than the symbiotic cultivar interact with termite hosts. Our molecular analyses show that although active combs are dominated by Termitomyces fungi isolated with direct Polymerase Endonuclease Restriction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), they can also harbor some filamentous fungi and yeasts only revealed by SuPER PCR-DGGE. This is the first molecular evidence of the presence of non-Termitomyces species in active combs. However, because there is no evidence for a species-specific relationship between these fungi and termites, they are mere transient guests with no specialization in the symbiosis. It is however surprising to notice that termite-associated Xylaria strains were not isolated from active combs even though they are frequently retrieved when nests are abandoned by termites. This finding highlights the implication of fungus-growing termites in the regulation of fungi occurring within the combs and also suggests that they might not have any particular evolutionary-based association with Xylaria species.

  13. Characterization of molecular identity and pathogenicity of rice blast fungus in Hunan province of China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characterization of molecular identity and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus benefits the deployment of effective blast resistance (R) genes. In order to identify blast resistance genes in rice producing areas where most of the hybrid rice is grown in Hunan province, 182 M. oryzae strains were ...

  14. Microsatellite DNA suggests regional structure in the fusiform rust fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp fusiforme

    Treesearch

    T.L Kubisiak; J.H. Roberds; P.C. Spaine; R.L. Doudrick

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports results obtained from microsatellite DNA analysis of genetic structure for populations of the native fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp fusiforme infecting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) over much of this host's natural range. Mostly all fusiform rust galls formed under field conditions are...

  15. Aerial application of the insect-killing fungus Lecanicillium muscarium in a microfactory formulation for hemlock woolly adelgid suppression

    Treesearch

    Scott Costa; Karen Felton; Bradley Onken; Richard Reardon; Rusty. Rhea

    2011-01-01

    Forest populations of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) were reduced using an operational formulation of the insect-killing fungus Lecanicillium muscarium when it was supported by microfactory formulation technology.

  16. Epigenetic genome mining of an endophytic fungus leads to the pleiotropic biosynthesis of natural products.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xu-Ming; Xu, Wei; Li, Dehai; Yin, Wen-Bing; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Li, Yong-Quan; Tang, Yi; Hu, Youcai

    2015-06-22

    The small-molecule biosynthetic potential of most filamentous fungi has remained largely unexplored and represents an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. Genome sequencing of Calcarisporium arbuscula, a mushroom-endophytic fungus, revealed 68 core genes that are involved in natural product biosynthesis. This is in sharp contrast to the predominant production of the ATPase inhibitors aurovertin B and D in the wild-type fungus. Inactivation of a histone H3 deacetylase led to pleiotropic activation and overexpression of more than 75 % of the biosynthetic genes. Sampling of the overproduced compounds led to the isolation of ten compounds of which four contained new structures, including the cyclic peptides arbumycin and arbumelin, the diterpenoid arbuscullic acid A, and the meroterpenoid arbuscullic acid B. Such epigenetic modifications therefore provide a rapid and global approach to mine the chemical diversity of endophytic fungi. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Rhizovarins A-F, Indole-Diterpenes from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Mucor irregularis QEN-189.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-Shan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Williams, Katherine; Proksch, Peter; Ji, Nai-Yun; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-08-26

    Genome mining of the fungus Mucor irregularis (formerly known as Rhizomucor variabilis) revealed the presence of various gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, including several terpene-based clusters. Investigation into the chemical diversity of M. irregularis QEN-189, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fresh inner tissue of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the discovery of 20 structurally diverse indole-diterpenes including six new compounds, namely, rhizovarins A-F (1-6). Among them, compounds 1-3 represent the most complex members of the reported indole-diterpenes. The presence of an unusual acetal linked to a hemiketal (1) or a ketal (2 and 3) in an unprecedented 4,6,6,8,5,6,6,6,6-fused indole-diterpene ring system makes them chemically unique. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, modified Mosher's method, and chemical calculations. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for antitumor activity against HL-60 and A-549 cell lines.

  18. Growth in rice cells requires de novo purine biosynthesis by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Jessie; Yang, Kuan Ting; Cornwell, Kathryn M.; Wright, Janet D.; Wilson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing incidences of human disease, crop destruction and ecosystem perturbations are attributable to fungi and threaten socioeconomic progress and food security on a global scale. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating pathogen of cultivated rice, but its metabolic requirements in the host are unclear. Here we report that a purine-requiring mutant of M. oryzae could develop functional appressoria, penetrate host cells and undergo the morphogenetic transition to elaborate bulbous invasive hyphae from primary hyphae, but further in planta growth was aborted. Invasive hyphal growth following rice cell ingress is thus dependent on de novo purine biosynthesis by the pathogen and, moreover, plant sources of purines are neither available to the mutant nor required by the wild type during the early biotrophic phase of infection. This work provides new knowledge about the metabolic interface between fungus and host that might be applicable to other important intracellular fungal pathogens. PMID:23928947

  19. Resistance of an Antarctic cryptoendolithic black fungus to radiation gives new insights of astrobiological relevance.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Pacelli, Claudia; Zucconi, Laura; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Moeller, Ralf; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Onofri, Silvano

    2018-06-01

    The Antarctic black meristematic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515 occurs endolithically in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, one of the best analogue for Mars environment on Earth. To date, this fungus is considered one of the best eukaryotic models for astrobiological studies and has been repeatedly selected for space experiments in the last decade. The obtained results are reviewed here, with special focus on responses to space relevant irradiation, UV radiation, and both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation, which represent the major injuries for a putative space-traveller. The remarkable resistance of this model organism to space stress, its radioresistance in particular, and mechanisms involved, significantly contributed to expanding our concept of limits for life and provided new insights on the origin and evolution of life in planetary systems, habitability, and biosignatures for life detection as well as on human protection during space missions. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation, identification, and culture optimization of a novel glycinonitrile-hydrolyzing fungus-Fusarium oxysporum H3.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jin-Song; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Shi, Jing-Song; Dou, Wen-Fang; Xu, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Zhe-Min; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2011-10-01

    Microbial transformation of glycinonitrile into glycine by nitrile hydrolase is of considerable interest to green chemistry. A novel fungus with high nitrile hydrolase was newly isolated from soil samples and identified as Fusarium oxysporum H3 through 18S ribosomal DNA, 28S ribosomal DNA, and the internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, together with morphology characteristics. After primary optimization of culture conditions including pH, temperature, carbon/nitrogen sources, inducers, and metal ions, the enzyme activity was greatly increased from 326 to 4,313 U/L. The preferred carbon/nitrogen sources, inducer, and metal ions were glucose and yeast extract, caprolactam, and Cu(2+), Mn(2+), and Fe(2+), respectively. The maximum enzyme formation was obtained when F. oxysporum H3 was cultivated at 30 °C for 54 h with the initial pH of 7.2. There is scanty report about the optimization of nitrile hydrolase production from nitrile-converting fungus.

  1. Gibberellins Producing Endophytic Fungus Porostereum spadiceum AGH786 Rescues Growth of Salt Affected Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Hamayun, Muhammad; Hussain, Anwar; Khan, Sumera A.; Kim, Ho-Youn; Khan, Abdul L.; Waqas, Muhammad; Irshad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Amjad; Rehman, Gauhar; Jan, Samin; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable agriculture through environment and human health friendly practices, we evaluated the potential of a novel gibberellins (GAs) producing basidiomycetous endophytic fungus Porostereum spadiceum AGH786, for alleviating salt stress and promoting health benefits of soybean. Soybean seedlings exposed to different levels of NaCl stress (70 and 140 mM) under greenhouse conditions, were inoculated with the AGH786 strain. Levels of phytohormones including GAs, JA and ABA, and isoflavones were compared in control and the inoculated seedlings to understand the mechanism through which the stress is alleviated. Gibberellins producing endophytic fungi have been vital for promoting plant growth under normal and stress conditions. We report P. spadiceum AGH786 as the ever first GAs producing basidiomycetous fungus capable of producing six types of GAs. In comparison to the so for most efficient GAs producing Gibberella fujikuroi, AGH786 produced significantly higher amount of the bioactive GA3. Salt-stressed phenotype of soybean seedlings was characterized by low content of GAs and high amount of ABA and JA with reduced shoot length, biomass, leaf area, chlorophyll contents, and rate of photosynthesis. Mitigation of salt stress by AGH786 was always accompanied by high GAs, and low ABA and JA, suggesting that this endophytic fungus reduces the effect of salinity by modulating endogenous phytohormones of the seedlings. Additionally, this strain also enhanced the endogenous level of two isoflavones including daidzen and genistein in soybean seedlings under normal as well as salt stress conditions as compared to their respective controls. P. spadiceum AGH786 boosted the NaCl stress tolerance and growth in soybean, by modulating seedlings endogenous phytohormones and isoflavones suggesting a valuable contribution of this potent fungal biofertilizer in sustainable agriculture in salt affected soils. PMID:28473818

  2. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the Fuzhuan brick tea-fermentation fungus Aspergillus cristatus.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yongyi; Wang, Yuchen; Liu, YongXiang; Tan, Yumei; Ren, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Xinyu; Hyde, Kevin D; Liu, Yongfeng; Liu, Zuoyi

    2016-06-07

    Aspergillus cristatus is the dominant fungus involved in the fermentation of Chinese Fuzhuan brick tea. Aspergillus cristatus is a homothallic fungus that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation when cultured in hypotonic medium. The asexual stage is induced by a high salt concentration, which completely inhibits sexual development. The taxon is therefore appropriate for investigating the mechanisms of asexual and sexual reproduction in fungi. In this study, de novo genome sequencing and analysis of transcriptomes during culture under high- and low-osmolarity conditions were performed. These analyses facilitated investigation of the evolution of mating-type genes, which determine the mode of sexual reproduction, in A. cristatus, the response of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway to osmotic stimulation, and the detection of mycotoxins and evaluation of the relationship with the location of the encoding genes. The A. cristatus genome comprised 27.9 Mb and included 68 scaffolds, from which 10,136 protein-coding gene models were predicted. A phylogenetic analysis suggested a considerable phylogenetic distance between A. cristatus and A. nidulans. Comparison of the mating-type gene loci among Aspergillus species indicated that the mode in A. cristatus differs from those in other Aspergillus species. The components of the HOG pathway were conserved in the genome of A. cristatus. Differential gene expression analysis in A. cristatus using RNA-Seq demonstrated that the expression of most genes in the HOG pathway was unaffected by osmotic pressure. No gene clusters associated with the production of carcinogens were detected. A model of the mating-type locus in A. cristatus is reported for the first time. Aspergillus cristatus has evolved various mechanisms to cope with high osmotic stress. As a fungus associated with Fuzhuan tea, it is considered to be safe under low- and high-osmolarity conditions.

  3. Seasonal dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains

    Treesearch

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Jr. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton

    2008-01-01

    The potential for seasonal dynamics in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal assemblages has important implications for the ecology of both the host trees and the fungal associates. We compared EM fungus distributions on root systems of out-planted oak seedlings at two sites in mixed southeastern Appalachian Mountain forests at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina...

  4. Comparative genomic analysis in the fungus Fusarium for production of toxins of concern to food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    SUMMARY Comparative analysis of 207 genomes representing 159 species of the fungus Fusarium detected 9403 known and putative secondary metabolite (SM) biosynthetic gene clusters. The clusters included those responsible for synthesis of mycotoxins, plant hormones and pigments, and varied in distribut...

  5. Transcriptional Basis of Drought-Induced Susceptibility to the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Bidzinski, Przemyslaw; Ballini, Elsa; Ducasse, Aurélie; Michel, Corinne; Zuluaga, Paola; Genga, Annamaria; Chiozzotto, Remo; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plants are often facing several stresses simultaneously. Understanding how they react and the way pathogens adapt to such combinational stresses is poorly documented. Here, we developed an experimental system mimicking field intermittent drought on rice followed by inoculation by the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. This experimental system triggers an enhancement of susceptibility that could be correlated with the dampening of several aspects of plant immunity, namely the oxidative burst and the transcription of several pathogenesis-related genes. Quite strikingly, the analysis of fungal transcription by RNASeq analysis under drought reveals that the fungus is greatly modifying its virulence program: genes coding for small secreted proteins were massively repressed in droughted plants compared to unstressed ones whereas genes coding for enzymes involved in degradation of cell-wall were induced. We also show that drought can lead to the partial breakdown of several major resistance genes by affecting R plant gene and/or pathogen effector expression. We propose a model where a yet unknown plant signal can trigger a change in the virulence program of the pathogen to adapt to a plant host that was affected by drought prior to infection. PMID:27833621

  6. Pandora formicae, a specialist ant pathogenic fungus: New insights into biology and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Małagocka, Joanna; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2017-02-01

    Among fungi from the order Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota), there are many specialized, obligatory insect-killing pathogens. Pandora formicae (Humber & Bałazy) Humber is a rare example of an entomophthoralean fungus adapted to exclusively infect social insects: wood ants from the genus Formica. There is limited information available on P. formicae; many important aspects of this host-pathogen system remain hitherto unknown, and the taxonomical status of the fungus is unclear. Our study fills out some main gaps in the life history of P. formicae, such as seasonal prevalence and overwintering strategy. Field studies of infection prevalence show a disease peak in late summer and early autumn. Typical thick-walled entomophthoralean resting spores of P. formicae are documented and described for the first time. The proportion of cadavers with resting spores increased from late summer throughout autumn, suggesting that these spores are the main overwintering fungal structures. In addition, the phylogenetic status of Pandora formicae is outlined. Finally, we review the available taxonomical literature and conclude that the name P. formicae should be used rather than the name P. myrmecophaga for ant-infecting fungi displaying described morphological features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Enzymatic degradation of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos by fungus WZ-I].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiu-guo; Liu, Wei; Qian, Bo; Wang, Qian

    2005-11-01

    Degradation characteristics of chlorpyrifos insecticides was determined by the crude enzyme extracted from the isolated strain WZ-I ( Fusarium LK. ex Fx). The best separating condition and the degrading characteristic of chlorpyrifos were studied. Rate of degradation for chlorpyrifos by its intracellular enzyme, extracellular enzyme and cell fragment was 60.8%, 11.3% and 48%, respectively. The degrading enzyme was extracted after this fungus was incubated for 8 generations in the condition of noninducement, and its enzymic activity lost less, the results show that this enzyme is an intracellular and connatural enzyme. The solubility protein of the crude enzyme was determined with Albumin (bovine serum) as standard protein and the solubility protein of the crude enzyme was 3.36 mg x mL(-1). The pH optimum for crude enzyme was 6.8 for enzymatic degradation of chlorpyrifos, and it had comparatively high activity in the range of pH 6.0 - 9.0. The optimum temperature for enzymatic activity was at 40 degrees C, it still had comparatively high activity in the range of temperature 20-50 degrees C, the activity of enzyme rapidly reduced at 55 degrees C, its activity was 41% of the maximal activity. The crude enzyme showed Km value for chlorpyrifos of 1.049 26 mmol x L(-1), and the maximal enzymatic degradation rate was 0.253 5 micromol x (mg x min)(-1). Additional experimental evidence suggests that the enzyme had the stability of endure for temperature and pH, the crude enzyme of fungus WZ-I could effectively degrade chlorpyrifos.

  8. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

  9. Trait Differentiation within the Fungus-Feeding (Mycophagous) Bacterial Genus Collimonas

    PubMed Central

    Ballhausen, Max-Bernhard; Vandamme, Peter; de Boer, Wietse

    2016-01-01

    The genus Collimonas consists of facultative, fungus-feeding (mycophagous) bacteria. To date, 3 species (C. fungivorans, C. pratensis and C. arenae) have been described and over 100 strains have been isolated from different habitats. Functional traits of Collimonas bacteria that are potentially involved in interactions with soil fungi mostly negatively (fungal inhibition e.g.), but also positively (mineral weathering e.g.), affect fungal fitness. We hypothesized that variation in such traits between Collimonas strains leads to different mycophagous bacterial feeding patterns. We investigated a) whether phylogenetically closely related Collimonas strains possess similar traits, b) how far phylogenetic resolution influences the detection of phylogenetic signal (possession of similar traits by related strains) and c) if there is a pattern of co-occurrence among the studied traits. We measured genetically encoded (nifH genes, antifungal collimomycin gene cluster e.g.) as well as phenotypically expressed traits (chitinase- and siderophore production, fungal inhibition and others) and related those to a high-resolution phylogeny (MLSA), constructed by sequencing the housekeeping genes gyrB and rpoB and concatenating those with partial 16S rDNA sequences. Additionally, high-resolution and 16S rDNA derived phylogenies were compared. We show that MLSA is superior to 16SrDNA phylogeny when analyzing trait distribution and relating it to phylogeny at fine taxonomic resolution (a single bacterial genus). We observe that several traits involved in the interaction of collimonads and their host fungus (fungal inhibition e.g.) carry phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, we compare Collimonas trait possession with sister genera like Herbaspirillum and Janthinobacterium. PMID:27309848

  10. Symbiont selection via alcohol benefits fungus farming by ambrosia beetles

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, Christopher M.; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Beligala, Gayathri U.; Ghosh, Satyaki; Palmquist, Debra E.; Mueller, Robert; Barnett, Jenny; Schultz, Peter B.; Reding, Michael E.; Benz, J. Philipp

    2018-01-01

    Animal–microbe mutualisms are typically maintained by vertical symbiont transmission or partner choice. A third mechanism, screening of high-quality symbionts, has been predicted in theory, but empirical examples are rare. Here we demonstrate that ambrosia beetles rely on ethanol within host trees for promoting gardens of their fungal symbiont and producing offspring. Ethanol has long been known as the main attractant for many of these fungus-farming beetles as they select host trees in which they excavate tunnels and cultivate fungal gardens. More than 300 attacks by Xylosandrus germanus and other species were triggered by baiting trees with ethanol lures, but none of the foundresses established fungal gardens or produced broods unless tree tissues contained in vivo ethanol resulting from irrigation with ethanol solutions. More X. germanus brood were also produced in a rearing substrate containing ethanol. These benefits are a result of increased food supply via the positive effects of ethanol on food-fungus biomass. Selected Ambrosiella and Raffaelea fungal isolates from ethanol-responsive ambrosia beetles profited directly and indirectly by (i) a higher biomass on medium containing ethanol, (ii) strong alcohol dehydrogenase enzymatic activity, and (iii) a competitive advantage over weedy fungal garden competitors (Aspergillus, Penicillium) that are inhibited by ethanol. As ambrosia fungi both detoxify and produce ethanol, they may maintain the selectivity of their alcohol-rich habitat for their own purpose and that of other ethanol-resistant/producing microbes. This resembles biological screening of beneficial symbionts and a potentially widespread, unstudied benefit of alcohol-producing symbionts (e.g., yeasts) in other microbial symbioses. PMID:29632193

  11. Carbon availability for the fungus triggers nitrogen uptake and transport in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is characterized by a transfer of nutrients in exchange for carbon. We tested the effect of the carbon availability for the AM fungus Glomus intraradices on nitrogen (N) uptake and transport in the symbiosis. We followed the uptake and transport of 15N and ...

  12. Cell Biology: Control of Partner Lifetime in a Plant-Fungus Relationship.

    PubMed

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Parniske, Martin

    2017-06-05

    Arbuscules are tree-shaped fungal structures inside plant root cells that facilitate the exchange of nutrients delivered by the fungus with carbon sources from the host. To maintain symbiotic efficiency, plant cells can trigger degeneration of underperforming arbuscules. A recent study reveals the first transcription factor, which induces genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes, to mediate arbuscule degeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum in controlling the tick Rhipicephalus annulatus under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Samish, M; Rot, A; Ment, D; Barel, S; Glazer, I; Gindin, G

    2014-12-15

    High infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. The present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium brunneum against the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. It demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of the fungus under field conditions. During the summer, 93% of tick females exposed to fungus-contaminated ground died within 1 week, whereas during the winter, only 62.2% died within 6 weeks. Nevertheless, the hatchability of their eggs was only 6.1% during the summer and 0.0% during winter. Covering the ground with grass, leaves or gravel improved fungal performance. Aside from killing female ticks, the fungus had a substantial effect on tick fecundity. Fungal infection reduced the proportion of female ticks laying full-size egg masses by up to 91%, and reduced egg hatchability by up to 100%. To reduce the negative effect of outdoor factors on fungal activity, its conidia were mixed with different oils (olive, canola, mineral or paraffin at 10% v/v) and evaluated in both laboratory and field tests for efficacy. All tested oils without conidia sprayed on the sand did not influence tick survival or weight of the laid eggs but significantly reduced egghatchability. Conidia in water with canola or mineral oil spread on agarose and incubated for 18 h showed 57% and 0% germination, respectively. Comparing, under laboratory conditions, the effects of adding each of the four oils to conidia in water on ticks demonstrated no effect on female mortality or weight of the laid egg mass, but the percentage of hatched eggs was reduced. In outdoor trials, female ticks placed on the ground sprayed with conidia in water yielded an average of 175 larvae per female and there was no hatching of

  14. New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. J-54.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liuming; Wang, Pei; Liao, Ge; Zeng, Yanbo; Cai, Caihong; Kong, Fandong; Guo, Zhikai; Proksch, Peter; Dai, Haofu; Mei, Wenli

    2018-03-28

    Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, penicieudesmol A-D ( 1 - 4 ), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. J-54. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, the in situ dimolybdenum CD method, and modified Mosher's method. The bioassays results showed that 2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against K-562 cells.

  15. Differential Selection by Nematodes on an Introduced Biocontrol Fungus vs. Indigenous Fungi in Nonsterile Soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Knudsen, Guy R

    2018-03-15

    Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can bea key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity.This study investigated trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes ( p <0.05), regardless of whether Aphelenchoides sp.was added.Without ThzID1-M3, indigenous nematodes did not increase in number and the added Aphelenchoides sp. nematodes almost disappeared by day 10. With ThzID1-M3, population growth of nematodes was rapid between 5 and 10 days after treatment. ThzID1-M3 biomass peaked on day 5, dropped at day 10, and then almost disappeared at day 20, which was not influenced by the addition of nematodes.In contrast, a large quantity of ThzID1-M3 hyphae were present in a heat-treated soil in which nematodes were eliminated.Total fungal biomass in all treatments peaked on day 5 and subsequently decreased.Addition of nematodes increased the total fungal biomass ( p <0.05), but ThzID1-M3 addition did not affect the fungal biomass.Hyphae oftotal fungi when homogenously distributed did not support the nematode population growth; however, hyphae of the introduced fungus when densely localized did.The results suggest that soil fungivorous nematodes are an important constraint onhyphal proliferation of fungal agents introduced into natural soils.

  16. A small cysteine-rich protein from the Asian soybean rust fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, suppresses plant immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian soybean rust fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is an obligate pathogen capable of causing explosive disease epidemics that drastically reduce the yield of soybean (Glycine max). Currently, the molecular mechanisms by which P. pachyrhizi and other rust fungi cause disease are poorly understood...

  17. Four new steroids from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. M453 derived of Chinese herbal medicine Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei-Xue; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yao; Yang, Yin-He; Li, Guo-Hong; Zhao, Pei-Ji

    2017-03-01

    An endophytic fungus, Chaetomium sp. M453, was isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. and subjected to phytochemical investigation. Three unusual C25 steroids, neocyclocitrinols E-G (1-3), and 3β-hydroxy-5,9-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4) together with three known steroids were isolated from solid fermentation products of the fungus, which were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS experiments. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD analyses. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of compounds 1-4 were tested in vitro. Compound 4 showed weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy of extracellularly synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles by a novel phosphate solubilizing fungus Bipolaris tetramera.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Faria; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam; Singh, Sarika; Priya, Shivam; Verma, Smita Rastogi

    2015-02-27

    Particulates of nanometers size have occupied a significant area in the field of medicinal and agricultural purposes due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and exceptional physicochemical, electronic and mechanical properties. Myconanotechnology, an interface between mycology and nanotechnology is budding nowadays for nanoparticle-fabrication using fungus or its metabolites. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a novel phosphate solubilizing fungus B. tetramera KF934408 from rhizospheric soil. This phosphatase releasing fungus was subjected to extracellular synthesis of metal nanoparticles by redox reaction. Silver (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopic analysis. The formulated AgNPs were irregular shaped with a size ranging between 54.78 nm to 73.49 nm whereas AuNPs were spherical or hexagonal, with a size of 58.4 and 261.73 nm, respectively. The nanoparticles were assessed for their antibacterial and antifungal efficacy. The results showed effective antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aeroginosa and Trichoderma sp. at higher concentrations, however, AuNPs possessed only moderate antibacterial efficacy while they found no antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity analysis of nanoparticles on J774 and THP1 α cell lines revealed the dose dependence in case of AgNPs, while AuNPs were non-toxic at both low and high doses. Furthermore, significant elevation of intracellular ROS was observed after 4 h of incubation with both the nanoparticles. The capping of fungal proteins on the particulates might be involved in the activities demonstrated by these inert metal nanoparticles. In conclusion, the findings showed that the metal nanoparticles synthesized by fungus B. tetramera could be used as an antimicrobial agents as well as cost effective and nontoxic immunomodulatory delivery vehicle.

  19. Occurrence of fungi and fungus-like organisms in the Horodnianka River in the vicinity of Białystok, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kiziewicz, Bozena; Zdrojkowska, Ewa; Gajo, Bernadetta; Godlewska, Anna; Muszyńska, Elzbieta; Mazalska, Bozenna

    2011-01-01

    Studies of fungi and fungus- like organisms in the northeastern Poland have mainly concentrated on running waters in the vicinity of Białystok, including the Horodnianka River. The main objective was to investigate biodiversity of fungi and fungus-like organisms which take part in decomposition of organic matter commonly found in inland waters. To obtain a complete picture of species composition of fungi and fungus-like organisms in running waters we decided to explore representative sites of the Horodnianka River such as Olmonty, Hryniewicze and Horodniany with close localization of landfill. Fungal species were isolated using baiting technique. Baits of onion skin (Alium cepa), hemp-seeds (Cannabis sativa), impregnated cellophane and snake skin (Natrix natrix) were applied to isolate fungi from water of the Horodnianka River. The fungal community consists of 26 species, 10 species of fungi belonging to class Chytridiomycetes (3), anamorphic fungi (6), and Zygomycetes (1). 16 species belong to fungus-like organisms from class Oomycetes. Most of the recognized species have already been found in other running waters. From all the examined habitats the fungi belonging to 26 species of 18 genera Achlya, Alternaria, Aphanomyces, Aspergillus, Catenophlyctis, Dictyuchus, Fusarium, Karlingia, Lagenidium, Leptomitus, Olpidiopsis, Penicillium, Phlyctochytrium, Pythium, Saprolegnia, Scoliognia, Thraustotheca and Zoophagus were obtained. Certain fungal species like Aphanomyces laevis, Fusarium aqueductum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, Leptomitus lacteus, Saprolegnia feax and S. parasitica were found at all the study sites. Among fungi potentially pathogenic and allergogenic for humans the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lagenidium and Penicillium have already been described. However, the species Lagenidium giganteum and Achlya androgyna are new in the fungal biota of Poland. The greatest number of fungal species occurred in Olmonty (24), the smallest in Horodniany

  20. Control of common bunt of wheat under field conditions with the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the biological control potential of the fungus Muscodor albus, when applied as a seed treatment or an in furrow soil treatment, for control of common bunt (CB) of wheat caused by Tilletia caries. For seed treatments, dry rye grain culture of M. albus wa...

  1. Mechanisms of resistance to an azole fungicide in the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the mechanisms of azole resistance in the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, by quantifying the sensitivity to myclobutanil (EC50) in 65 isolates from the eastern U.S. and 12 from Chile. From each isolate, we sequenced the gene for sterol 14a-demethylase (CYP51), and measu...

  2. Response of ectomycorrhizal fungus sporocarp production to varying levels and patterns of green-tree retention.

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Luoma; Joyce L. Eberhart; Randy Molina; Michael P. Amaranthus

    2004-01-01

    Forest management activities can reduce ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity and forest regeneration success. We examine contrasts in structural retention as they affect sporocarp production of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF)--functional guild of organisms well suited as indicators of disturbance effects on below-ground ecosystems. Our results are from an experiment that tests...

  3. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  4. Growth inhibition of Microcystis aeruginosa by white-rot fungus Lopharia spadicea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Su, M; Zhu, W; Li, X; Jia, Y; Guo, P; Chen, Z; Jiang, W; Tian, X

    2010-01-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms cause water deterioration and threaten human health. It is necessary to remove harmful cyanobacteria with useful methods. A bio-treatment may be one of the best ways to do this. A strain of specific white-rot fungus, Lopharia spadicea, with algicidal ability was isolated. Its algicidal ability on algae under various conditions was determined using three main influence factors: initial chlorophyll-a content, initial pH, and algal cell mixture. The result showed that the chlorophyll-a content of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-912, Oocystis borgei FACHB-1108, and Microcystis flos-aquae FACHB-1028 decreased from 798+/-13, 756+/-40, and 773+/-24 microg/L to 0 within 39 h. L. spadicea could also remove more than 95% chlorophyll-a when initial chlorophyll-a content increased from 397+/-13 to 2,132+/-4 microg/L. Moreover, the strain has great removal ability under a broad initial pH range of 5.5 to 9.5. The chlorophyll-a content of the three algal strain mixtures decreased from about 672+/-23 microg/L to 0 within 45 h. After superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MAD) were assessed in a co-culture of L. spadicea, it was observed that an increase in MAD content was correlated with the decrease in chlorophyll-a content of M. aeruginosa FACHB-912. This result suggested that the algae was not only greatly inhibited but also severely damaged by the fungus.

  5. Rapid evolution of avirulence genes in rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating pathogens in rice. Avirulence genes in this fungus share a gene-for-gene relationship with the resistance genes in its host rice. Although numerous studies have shown that rice blast R-genes are extremely diverse and evolve rapidly in their host populations, little is known about the evolutionary patterns of the Avr-genes in the pathogens. Results Here, six well-characterized Avr-genes and seven randomly selected non-Avr control genes were used to investigate the genetic variations in 62 rice blast strains from different parts of China. Frequent presence/absence polymorphisms, high levels of nucleotide variation (~10-fold higher than non-Avr genes), high non-synonymous to synonymous substitution ratios, and frequent shared non-synonymous substitution were observed in the Avr-genes of these diversified blast strains. In addition, most Avr-genes are closely associated with diverse repeated sequences, which may partially explain the frequent presence/absence polymorphisms in Avr-genes. Conclusion The frequent deletion and gain of Avr-genes and rapid non-synonymous variations might be the primary mechanisms underlying rapid adaptive evolution of pathogens toward virulence to their host plants, and these features can be used as the indicators for identifying additional Avr-genes. The high number of nucleotide polymorphisms among Avr-gene alleles could also be used to distinguish genetic groups among different strains. PMID:24725999

  6. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of an Endolichenic Fungus, Aspergillus sp. Isolated from Parmelia caperata of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Padhi, Srichandan; Das, Devaranjan; Panja, Suraj; Tayung, Kumananda

    2017-06-01

    Endolichenic fungi are microbes that inhabit healthy inner lichen tissues without any disease symptoms. They have been reported to produce new and interesting bioactive metabolites. In the present study, an endolichenic fungus frequently isolated from surface-sterilized lichen thallus of Parmelia caperata has been described. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus tubingensis based on morphological traits and ITS rDNA sequence. Crude metabolites extracted from the culture broth exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against a panel of clinically significant human pathogens. The fungus showed optimum antimicrobial activity in PDB medium in day 7 of incubation period. PDB medium amended with 1 % NaCl and at alkaline pH was found to be optimal for antimicrobial metabolites production. Enhanced activity was observed when the fungus was exposed briefly to a heat shock of 60 °C during incubation. The metabolites showed optimum λ-max at 214 nm with an absorbance value of 1.589. Molecular characterization of the isolate was carried out by ITS phylogeny and ITS2 secondary structure analyses. The phylogenetic trees based on both ITS rDNA and ITS2 sequences showed the isolate within the clade A. tubingensis. Considering the ubiquity and ambiguity in identifying Aspergillus species of different lifestyles, a method to differentiate pathogenic and endophytic Aspergillus at species level was developed using ITS2 secondary structure analysis. The results showed common folding pattern in the secondary structures with a helix and a 5' dangling end found to be highly conserved. Certain features in the secondary structure like multi-bulges and a symmetric interior loop were observed to be unique which distinguish our isolate from other A. tubingensis.

  7. Five New Guanacastane-Type Diterpenes from Cultures of the Fungus Psathyrella candolleana.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xia; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Leng, Ying; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2014-06-01

    Five new guanacastane-type diterpenes, named guanacastepenes P-T (1-5), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Psathyrella candolleana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. All of the compounds were tested for their 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) inhibitory activity. Compound 3 exhibited inhibitory activity against both human and mouse isozymes of 11β-HSD1 with IC50 values of 6.2 and 13.9 μM, respectively.

  8. Metabolites of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. FJ-1 of Acanthus ilicifolius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Fang; Chen, Wei-Jie; Xin, Ben-Ru; Lu, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Two new compounds, named as (2R,3S)-pinobanksin-3-cinnamate (1), and 15alpha-hydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-3,5,8(14),22-tetraen-7-one (2), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. FJ-1 of Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Additionally, compound 1 exhibited potent neuroprotective effects on corticosterone-damaged PC12 cells, and compound 2 showed potent cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines.

  9. Polyketides with Immunosuppressive Activities from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY₂.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongju; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Weiyang; Liu, Yayue; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

    2016-11-25

    Nine polyketides, including two new benzophenone derivatives, peniphenone ( 1 ) and methyl peniphenone ( 2 ), along with seven known xanthones ( 3 - 9 ) were obtained from mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY₂ isolated from the leaves of Sonneratia apetala . Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1 , 3 , 5 , and 7 showed potent immunosuppressive activity with IC 50 values ranging from 5.9 to 9.3 μg/mL.

  10. Heterologous expression of VHb can improve the yield and quality of biocontrol fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus, during submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shumeng; Wang, Jieping; Wei, Yale; Tang, Qing; Ali, Maria Kanwal; He, Jin

    2014-10-10

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is an egg-parasitic fungus which is effective against plant-parasitic nematodes and it has been successfully commercialized for the control of many plant-parasitic nematodes. However, during the large-scale industrial fermentation process of the filamentous fungus, the dissolved oxygen supply is a limiting factor, which influences yield, product quality and production cost. To solve this problem, we intended to heterologously express VHb in P. lilacinus ACSS. After optimizing the vgb gene, we fused it with a selection marker gene nptII, a promoter PgpdA and a terminator TtrpC. The complete expression cassette PgpdA-nptII-vgb-TtrpC was transferred into P. lilacinus ACSS by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Consequently, we successfully screened an applicable fungus strain PNVT8 which efficiently expressed VHb. The submerged fermentation experiments demonstrated that the expression of VHb not only increased the production traits of P. lilacinus such as biomass and spore production, but also improved the beneficial product quality and application value, due to the secretion of more protease and chitinase. It can be speculated that the recombinant strain harboring vgb gene will have a growth advantage over the original strain under anaerobic conditions in soil and therefore will possess higher biocontrol efficiency against plant-parasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. D-lysergic acid-activating enzyme from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, U; Zocher, R; Krengel, U; Kleinkauf, H

    1984-01-01

    A D-lysergic acid-activating enzyme from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea was purified about 145-fold. The enzyme was able to catalyse both the D-lysergic acid-dependent ATP-pyrophosphate exchange and the formation of ATP from D-lysergic acid adenylate and pyrophosphate. Both reactions were also catalysed to a decreased but significant extent with respect to dihydrolysergic acid. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to lie between 135 and 140 kDa. The involvement of the enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergot peptide alkaloids is discussed. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6326747

  12. Melanoidin-containing wastewaters induce selective laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62.

    PubMed

    González, Tania; Terrón, María Carmen; Yagüe, Susana; Junca, Howard; Carbajo, José María; Zapico, Ernesto Javier; Silva, Ricardo; Arana-Cuenca, Ainhoa; Téllez, Alejandro; González, Aldo Enrique

    2008-03-01

    Wastewaters generated from the production of ethanol from sugar cane molasses may have detrimental effects on the environment due to their high chemical oxygen demand and dark brown color. The color is mainly associated with the presence of melanoidins, which are highly recalcitrant to biodegradation. We report here the induction of laccases by molasses wastewaters and molasses melanoidins in the basidiomycetous fungus Trametes sp. I-62. The time course of effluent decolorization and laccase activity in the culture supernatant of the fungus were correlated. The expression of laccase genes lcc1 and lcc2 increased as a result of the addition of complete molasses wastewater and its high molecular weight fraction to fungal cultures. This is the first time differential laccase gene expression has been reported to occur upon exposure of fungal cultures to molasses wastewaters and their melanoidins.

  13. Curvularides A-E: antifungal hybrid peptide-polyketides from the endophytic fungus Curvularia geniculata.

    PubMed

    Chomcheon, Porntep; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Aree, Thammarat; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2010-09-24

    Five new hybrid peptide-polyketides, curvularides A-E (1-5), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Curvularia geniculata, which was obtained from the limbs of Catunaregam tomentosa. Structure elucidation for curvularides A-E (1-5) was accomplished by analysis of spectroscopic data, as well as by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Curvularide B (2) exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, and it also showed synergistic activity with a fluconazole drug.

  14. Two new metabolites from a soil fungus Curvularia affinis strain HS-FG-196.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Mao, Liang-Liang; Qian, Ping-Ting; Shan, Wei-Guang; Wang, Ji-Dong; Bai, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Two new metabolites, pyrenocine J (1) and pyrenochaetic acid D (2), together with two known metabolites, pyrenocine A (3) and pyrenochaetic acid A (4), were isolated from a soil fungus, Curvularia affinis strain HS-FG-196. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 showed cytotoxic activity against the human hepatic cancer cell line HepG2 with an IC(50) value of 28.5 μg/ml.

  15. New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. J-54

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Liuming; Wang, Pei; Liao, Ge; Zeng, Yanbo; Cai, Caihong; Kong, Fandong; Guo, Zhikai; Proksch, Peter; Dai, Haofu; Mei, Wenli

    2018-01-01

    Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, penicieudesmol A–D (1–4), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. J-54. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, the in situ dimolybdenum CD method, and modified Mosher’s method. The bioassays results showed that 2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against K-562 cells. PMID:29597304

  16. Symbiont selection via alcohol benefits fungus farming by ambrosia beetles.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Biedermann, Peter H W; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Beligala, Gayathri U; Ghosh, Satyaki; Palmquist, Debra E; Mueller, Robert; Barnett, Jenny; Schultz, Peter B; Reding, Michael E; Benz, J Philipp

    2018-04-24

    Animal-microbe mutualisms are typically maintained by vertical symbiont transmission or partner choice. A third mechanism, screening of high-quality symbionts, has been predicted in theory, but empirical examples are rare. Here we demonstrate that ambrosia beetles rely on ethanol within host trees for promoting gardens of their fungal symbiont and producing offspring. Ethanol has long been known as the main attractant for many of these fungus-farming beetles as they select host trees in which they excavate tunnels and cultivate fungal gardens. More than 300 attacks by Xylosandrus germanus and other species were triggered by baiting trees with ethanol lures, but none of the foundresses established fungal gardens or produced broods unless tree tissues contained in vivo ethanol resulting from irrigation with ethanol solutions. More X. germanus brood were also produced in a rearing substrate containing ethanol. These benefits are a result of increased food supply via the positive effects of ethanol on food-fungus biomass. Selected Ambrosiella and Raffaelea fungal isolates from ethanol-responsive ambrosia beetles profited directly and indirectly by ( i ) a higher biomass on medium containing ethanol, ( ii ) strong alcohol dehydrogenase enzymatic activity, and ( iii ) a competitive advantage over weedy fungal garden competitors ( Aspergillus , Penicillium ) that are inhibited by ethanol. As ambrosia fungi both detoxify and produce ethanol, they may maintain the selectivity of their alcohol-rich habitat for their own purpose and that of other ethanol-resistant/producing microbes. This resembles biological screening of beneficial symbionts and a potentially widespread, unstudied benefit of alcohol-producing symbionts (e.g., yeasts) in other microbial symbioses. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. Gene action and linkage of avirulence genes to DNA makers in the rust fungus Puccinia graminis

    Treesearch

    P. J. Zambino; A. R. Kubelik; L. J. Szabo

    2000-01-01

    Two strains of the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, were crossed on barberry, and a single F1 progeny strain was seifed. The parents, F1 and 81 F2 progeny were examined for virulence phenotypes on wheat differential cultivars carrying stem...

  18. Identification and characterization of the ergochrome gene cluster in the plant pathogenic fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Lisa; Dopstadt, Julian; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Tudzynski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea is a phytopathogenic fungus infecting a broad range of grasses including economically important cereal crop plants. The infection cycle ends with the formation of the typical purple-black pigmented sclerotia containing the toxic ergot alkaloids. Besides these ergot alkaloids little is known about the secondary metabolism of the fungus. Red anthraquinone derivatives and yellow xanthone dimers (ergochromes) have been isolated from sclerotia and described as ergot pigments, but the corresponding gene cluster has remained unknown. Fungal pigments gain increasing interest for example as environmentally friendly alternatives to existing dyes. Furthermore, several pigments show biological activities and may have some pharmaceutical value. This study identified the gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of the ergot pigments. Overexpression of the cluster-specific transcription factor led to activation of the gene cluster and to the production of several known ergot pigments. Knock out of the cluster key enzyme, a nonreducing polyketide synthase, clearly showed that this cluster is responsible for the production of red anthraquinones as well as yellow ergochromes. Furthermore, a tentative biosynthetic pathway for the ergot pigments is proposed. By changing the culture conditions, pigment production was activated in axenic culture so that high concentration of phosphate and low concentration of sucrose induced pigment syntheses. This is the first functional analysis of a secondary metabolite gene cluster in the ergot fungus besides that for the classical ergot alkaloids. We demonstrated that this gene cluster is responsible for the typical purple-black color of the ergot sclerotia and showed that the red and yellow ergot pigments are products of the same biosynthetic pathway. Activation of the gene cluster in axenic culture opened up new possibilities for biotechnological applications like the dye production or the development of new pharmaceuticals.

  19. Yellow Pigment Aurovertins Mediate Interactions between the Pathogenic Fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and Its Nematode Host.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-li; Li, Lin-fang; Li, Dong-xian; Wang, Baile; Zhang, Keqin; Niu, Xuemei

    2015-07-29

    Nematophagous fungi are globally distributed soil fungi and well-known natural predators of soil-dwelling nematodes. Pochonia chlamydosporia can be found in diverse nematode-suppressive soils as a parasite of nematode eggs and is one of the most studied potential biological control agents of nematodes. However, little is known about the functions of small molecules in the process of infection of nematodes by this parasitic fungus or about small-molecule-mediated interactions between the pathogenic fungus and its host. Our recent study demonstrated that a P. chlamydosporia strain isolated from root knots of tobacco infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita produced a class of yellow pigment metabolite aurovertins, which induced the death of the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivevus. Here we report that nematicidal P. chlamydosporia strains obtained from the nematode worms tended to yield a total yellow pigment aurovertin production exceeding the inhibitory concentration shown in nematicidal bioassays. Aurovertin D was abundant in the pigment metabolites of P. chlamydosporia strains. Aurovertin D showed strong toxicity toward the root-knot nematode M. incognita and exerted profound and detrimental effects on the viability of Caenorhabditis elegans even at a subinhibitory concentration. Evaluation of the nematode mutation in the β subunit of F1-ATPase, together with the application of RNA interference in screening each subunit of F1FO-ATPase in the nematode worms, demonstrated that the β subunit of F1-ATPase might not be the specific target for aurovertins in nematodes. The resistance of C. elegans daf-2(e1370) and the hypersensitivity of C. elegans daf-16(mu86) to aurovertin D indicated that DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor in nematodes was triggered in response to the aurovertin attack. These findings advance our understanding of the roles of aurovertin production in the interactions between nematodes and the pathogen fungus P. chlamydosporia.

  20. Pestaloficiols Q-S from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuchun; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Ling

    2013-03-01

    Two new isoprenylated chromone derivatives, pestaloficiols Q (1) and R (2), and one new benzofuran derivative, pestaloficiol S (3), along with three known metabolites, anofinic acid (4), siccayne (5), and pyrenophorol (6) were isolated from solid cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici. Their structures were elucidated primarily by NMR spectroscopy, and the absolute of the C-6 secondary alcohol in 1 was deduced on the basis of circular dichroism (CD) data. Compound 5 showed cytotoxic activity against the human cancer cell lines, HeLa and HT29, with IC50 values of 48.2 and 33.9μM, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).

    PubMed

    Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

    2013-09-05

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis B1 Against Sapstain Fungus of Rubberwood Through MALDI-TOF-MS and RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Sajitha, K L; Dev, Suma Arun; Maria Florence, E J

    2016-07-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a potent biocontrol agent producing a wide array of antifungal lipopeptides for the inhibition of fungal growth. B. subtilis B1 isolated from market-available compost provided an efficient control of rubberwood sapstain fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The current study is aimed to identify and characterize the lipopeptides responsible for the biocontrol of rubberwood sapstain fungus by Bacillus subtilis B1. The bacterial whole-cell surface extract from the dual culture of B. subtilis B1 and sapstain fungus (L. theobromae) was analysed using MALDI-TOF-MS. The protonated as well as sodium, potassium adducts of homologues of iturin C, surfactin, bacillomycin D and fengycin A and B were identified and expression of the lipopeptide biosynthetic genes could be confirmed through RT-PCR. This is the first report of mycobacillin and trimethylsilyl derivative of bacilysin during antagonism through MALDI-TOF-MS. MALDI-TOF-MS with RT-PCR offered easy platforms to characterize the antifungal lipopeptides. The identification of antifungal lipopeptides can lead to the formulation of prospective biocontrol by-products which have wide-scale utility.

  3. Cellular Immune Reactions of the Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps, to the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana and Its Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Zibaee, Arash; Bandani, Ali Reza; Talaei-Hassanlouei, Reza; Malagoli, Davide

    2011-01-01

    In this study, five morphological types of circulating hemocytes were recognized in the hemolymph of the adult sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), namely prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, and oenocytoids. The effects of the secondary metabolites of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on cellular immune defenses of Eurygaster integriceps were investigated. The results showed that the fungal secondary metabolites inhibited phagocytic activity of E. integriceps hemocytes and hampered nodule formation. A reduction of phenoloxidase activity was also observed. The data suggest that B. bassiana produce secondary metabolites that disable several immune mechanisms allowing the fungus to overcome and then kill its host. This characteristic makes B. bassiana a promising model for biological control of insect pests such as E. integriceps. PMID:22233481

  4. Effects of the Chytrid fungus on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Stephen F. Hale; Philip C. Rosen; James L. Jarchow; Gregory A. Bradley

    2005-01-01

    We conducted histological analyses on museum specimens collected 1975-1999 from 10 sites in Arizona and Sonora to test for the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in ranid frogs, focusing on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae). During 1981-2000, frogs displaying disease signs were found in the field, and...

  5. Cloning, expression and characterization of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain BKM-F-1767

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is among the small group of fungi that can degrade lignin to carbon dioxide while leaving the crystalline cellulose untouched. The efficient lignin oxidation system of this fungus requires cyclic redox reactions involving the reduction of aryl-aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols by aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase. However, the biochemical properties of this enzyme have not been extensively studied. These are of most interest for the design of metabolic engineering/synthetic biology strategies in the field of biotechnological applications of this enzyme. Results We report here the cloning of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase cDNA from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, its expression in Escherichia coli and the biochemical characterization of the encoded GST and His6 tagged protein. The purified recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 37°C and at pH 6.4 for the reduction of aryl- and linear aldehydes with NADPH as coenzyme. NADH could also be the electron donor, while having a higher Km (220 μM) compared to that of NADPH (39 μM). The purified recombinant enzyme was found to be active in the reduction of more than 20 different aryl- and linear aldehydes showing highest specificity for mono- and dimethoxylated Benzaldehyde at positions 3, 4, 3,4 and 3,5. The enzyme was also capable of oxidizing aryl-alcohols with NADP + at 30°C and an optimum pH of 10.3 but with 15 to 100-fold lower catalytic efficiency than for the reduction reaction. Conclusions In this work, we have characterized the biochemical properties of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We show that this enzyme functions in the reductive sense under physiological conditions and that it displays relatively large substrate specificity with highest activity towards the natural compound Veratraldehyde. PMID:22742413

  6. Exploring the chemodiversity and biological activities of the secondary metabolites from the marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wan-Ling; Le, Xiu; Li, Hou-Jin; Yang, Xiang-Ling; Chen, Jun-Xiong; Xu, Jun; Liu, Huan-Liang; Wang, Lai-You; Wang, Kun-Teng; Hu, Kun-Chao; Yang, De-Po; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2014-11-24

    The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY) and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY) media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2), together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (11), didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (12) and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6). However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14), a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15), gliotoxin (7) and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8), reduced gliotoxin (9), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio) gliotoxin (11) and bis-N-norgliovictin (13), were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium). This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2-14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7-13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed.

  7. Investigation on the infection mechanism of the fungus Clonostachys rosea against nematodes using the green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Jinkui; Niu, Qiuhong; Zhao, Xuna; Ye, Fengping; Liang, Lianming; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2008-04-01

    The fungus Clonostachys rosea (syn. Gliocladium roseum) is a potential biocontrol agent. It can suppress the sporulation of the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and kill pathogenic nematodes, but the process of nematode pathogenesis is poorly understood. To help understand the underlying mechanism, we constructed recombinant strains containing a plasmid with both the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene egfp and the hygromycin resistance gene hph. Expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was monitored using fluorescence microscopy. Our observations reveal that the pathogenesis started from the adherence of conidia to nematode cuticle for germination, followed by the penetration of germ tubes into the nematode body and subsequent death and degradation of the nematodes. These are the first findings on the infection process of the fungal pathogen marked with GFP, and the developed method can become an important tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of nematode infection by C. rosea.

  8. A new androstanoid metabolite from a soil fungus Curvularia borreriae strain HS-FG-237.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Fei; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Huan; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Ji-Dong; Tan, Gui-Shan

    2017-05-01

    A new androstanoid metabolite, 4α-methyl-9α-methoxyandrosta-8,15-diene-3,17-dione (1), was isolated from a soil fungus Curvularia borreriae (Pleosporaceae) strain HS-FG-237. Its structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 exhibited poor cytotoxicity toward HCT-116 cells by CCK-8 assay and weak anti-inflammatory activity in an ANA-1 murine macrophages model.

  9. Genome Sequence of an Endophytic Fungus, Fusarium solani JS-169, Which Has Antifungal Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung A; Jeon, Jongbum; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Ki-Tae; Choi, Gobong; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Yangsun; Yang, Hee-Sun; Yeo, Joo-Hong; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Soonok

    2017-10-19

    An endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani strain JS-169, isolated from a mulberry twig, showed considerable antifungal activity. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. The assembly comprises 17 scaffolds, with an N 50 value of 4.93 Mb. The assembled genome was 45,813,297 bp in length, with a G+C content of 49.91%. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

  10. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  11. Biotransformation of β-hexachlorocyclohexane by the saprotrophic soil fungus Penicillium griseofulvum.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Andrea; Pierro, Lucia; Riccardi, Carmela; Pinzari, Flavia; Maggi, Oriana; Persiani, Anna Maria; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael; Petrangeli Papini, Marco

    2015-10-01

    β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) of global concern with potentially toxic effects on humans and ecosystems. Fungal tolerance and biotransformation of toxic substances hold considerable promise in environmental remediation technologies as many fungi can tolerate extreme environmental conditions and possess efficient extracellular degradative enzymes with relatively non-specific activities. In this research, we have investigated the potential of a saprotrophic soil fungus, Penicillium griseofulvum Dierckx, isolated from soils with high concentrations of isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane, to biotransform β-HCH, the most recalcitrant isomer to microbial activity. The growth kinetics of the fungus were characterized after growth in stirred liquid Czapek-Dox medium. It was found that P. griseofulvum was able to grow in the presence of 1 mg L(-1) β-HCH and in stressful nutritional conditions at different concentrations of sucrose in the medium (0 and 5 g L(-1)). The effects of β-HCH and the toluene, used as a solvent for β-HCH addition, on P. griseofulvum were investigated by means of a Phenotype MicroArray™ technique, which suggested the activation of certain metabolic pathways as a response to oxidative stress due to the presence of the xenobiotics. Gas chromatographic analysis of β-HCH concentration confirmed biodegradation of the isomer with a minimum value of β-HCH residual concentration of 18.6%. The formation of benzoic acid derivatives as dead-end products of β-HCH biotransformation was observed and this could arise from a possible biodegradation pathway for β-HCH with important connections to fungal secondary metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A case of Candida albicans fungus balls in the urinary tract appeared during the course of antifungal treatment for Candida endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Onozawa, Kyoko; Miyake, Noriko; Iwasaki, Noriko; Nishida, Ruriko; Chong, Yong; Shimoda, Shinji; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Akashi, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Fungus balls have been rarely implicated as a cause of urinary tract obstruction. Here, we report a case of Candida albicans fungus balls in the urinary tract after the treatment of Candida endophthalmitis that has enough periods and adequate amount of antifungal agents. The patient completely recovered from this rare complication by irrigating through single-J stent and changing antifungal agents. Here we emphasize that we should take into account not only the susceptibility test results but also the difference in excretion route and tissue distribution of antifungal agents. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cd-induced production of glomalin by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis) as estimated by monoclonal antibody assay.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Elham; Aliasgharzad, Nasser; Majidi, Jafar; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal

    2016-10-01

    Glomalin is a specific fungal glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi belonging to the Glomerales which could efficiently sequestrate heavy metals. The glomalin has been introduced as a heat shock protein and there are evidences that increasing levels of heavy metals could enhance its production. We examined the influence of Cd concentrations on glomalin production by AM fungus, as well as its contribution to the sequestration of Cd in both pot and in vitro culture conditions. Pot experiment was carried out using pure sand with Trifolium repens L. as host plant, mycorrhized by Rhizophagus irregularis and treated with Cd levels of 0, 15, 30, and 45 μM. In vitro experiment was performed in two-compartment plates containing the transformed carrot roots mycorrhized with the same fungus and treated with Cd levels of 0, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mM. The immunoreactive and Bradford reactive glomalin contents in both experiments increased as so raising Cd concentration. Total Cd sequestrated by hyphal glomalin in both cultures was significantly increased as the levels of Cd increased. The highest contents of Cd sequestration in pot (75.78 μg Cd/mg glomalin) and in vitro (11.44 μg Cd/mg glomalin) cultures were recorded at the uppermost levels of Cd, which significantly differed with other levels. Our results suggested that under Cd-induced stress, stimulated production of glomalin by AM fungus may be a protective mechanism against the toxic effect of Cd.

  14. Heterogeneous occupancy and density estimates of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in waters of North America

    Treesearch

    Tara Chestnut; Chauncey Anderson; Radu Popa; Andrew R. Blaustein; Mary Voytek; Deanna H. Olson; Julie Kirshtein

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity losses are occurring worldwide due to a combination of stressors. For example, by one estimate, 40% of amphibian species are vulnerable to extinction, and disease is one threat to amphibian populations. The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a contributor to amphibian declines...

  15. Trappeindia himalayensis gen. et sp. nov., a sequestrate fungus with potential affinity to Strobilomyces (Basidiomycotina, Boletales)

    Treesearch

    M.A. Castellano; S.L. Miller; L. Singh; T.N. Lakhanpal

    2012-01-01

    An unusual sequestrate fungus forming ectomycorrhizae with Cedrus deodora (Roxb.) Laud. forms sporocarps in the northwestern Himalayas of India during spring. It has a dark brown to black peridium with a solid, white to brown, loculate gleba containing spherical, reticulate spores. It resembles no described genus and is described here as ...

  16. Gene Expression Analysis of Copper Tolerance and Wood Decay in the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Treesearch

    J. D. Tang; L. A. Parker; A. D. Perkins; T. S. Sonstegard; S. G. Schroeder; D. D. Nicholas; S. V. Diehl

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput transcriptomics was used to identify Fibroporia radiculosa genes that were differentially regulated during colonization of wood treated with a copper-based preservative. The transcriptome was profiled at two time points while the fungus was growing on wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ). A total of 917 transcripts were...

  17. Chytrid Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis , in Wild Populations of the Lake Titicaca Frog, Telmatobius culeus, in Peru.

    PubMed

    Berenguel, Raul A; Elias, Roberto K; Weaver, Thomas J; Reading, Richard P

    2016-10-01

    The Lake Titicaca frog (Telmatobius culeus) is critically endangered, primarily from overexploitation. However, additional threats, such as chytrid fungus ( Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ), are poorly studied. We found moderate levels of chytrid infection using quantitative PCR. Our results enhance our understanding of chytrid tolerance to high pH and low water temperature.

  18. Metabolites from the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. FJ-1 of Ceriops tagal.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng-fei; Zuo, Wen-jian; Guo, Zhi-kai; Mei, Wen-li; Dai, Hao-fu

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. FJ-1 of Ceriops tagal, the chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Their antibacterial activity was tested by paper disco diffusion method. Two compounds were isolated and identified as 7-hydroxy-deoxytalaroflavone (1), and deoxytalaroflavone (2). Compound 1 is a new compound, and compounds 1 and 2 showed weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  19. Potential for spread of the white-nose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) in the Americas: use of Maxent and NicheA to assure strict model transference.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Lira-Noriega, Andrés; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Townsend Peterson, A

    2014-11-01

    Emerging infectious diseases can present serious threats to wildlife, even to the point of causing extinction. Whitenose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) is causing an epizootic in bats that is expanding rapidly, both geographically and taxonomically. Little is known of the ecology and distributional potential of this intercontinental pathogen. We address this gap via ecological niche models that characterise coarse resolution niche differences between fungus populations on different continents, identifying areas potentially vulnerable to infection in South America. Here we explore a novel approach to identifying areas of potential distribution across novel geographic regions that avoids perilious extrapolation into novel environments. European and North American fungus populations show differential use of environmental space, but rather than niche differentiation, we find that changes are best attributed to climatic differences between the two continents. Suitable areas for spread of the pathogen were identified across southern South America; however caution should be taken to avoid underestimating the potential for spread of this pathogen in South America.

  20. Effects of emulsified octadecanic acids on gas production and cellulolysis by the rumen anaerobic fungus, Piromyces communis M014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-H; Lee, Shin J; Ha, Jong K; Kim, Wan Y; Lee, Sung S

    2008-02-01

    Responses of the rumen anaerobic fungus, Piromyces communis M014, to octadecanic long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) were evaluated by measuring total and hydrogen gas productions, filter paper (FP) cellulose degradation and polysaccharidase enzyme activities. Octadecanic acids (stearic acid, C(18:0); oleic acid, C(18:1); linoleic acid, C(18:2) and linolenic acid, C(18:3)) were emulsified by ultrasonication under anaerobic conditions, and added to the medium at the level of 0.001%. When P. communis M014 was grown in culture with stearic and oleic acids, the cumulative gas production, FP cellulose digestion and enzyme activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the early incubation times relative to those for the control. However, the addition of linolenic acid inhibited all of the investigated parameters, including cellulose degradation, enzyme activities and gas production, up to 168h incubation. These results indicated that stearic and oleic acids tended to have stimulatory effects on fungal cellulolysis, whereas linolenic acid caused a significant (p<0.05) inhibitory effect on cellulolysis by the rumen fungus. The fungus, P. communis M014, can biohydrogenate C(18) unsaturated fatty acids to escape from their toxic effects. Therefore, in this study, the results indicated that the more highly the added C(18) LCFA to the fungal culture was unsaturated, the higher the inhibition of gas production and cellulase enzyme activity was.

  1. Mercury in fruiting bodies of dark honey fungus (Armillaria solidipes) and beneath substratum soils collected from spatially distant areas.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Mazur, Aneta; Kojta, Anna K; Jarzyńska, Grażyna; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Dryżałowska, Anna; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2013-03-15

    This paper reports data on bioconcentration potential and baseline mercury concentrations of fruiting bodies of dark honey fungus (Armillaria solidipes) Peck and soil substrate layer (0-10 cm) from 12 spatially distant sites across Poland. Mercury content of caps, stipes and soil samples were determined using validated analytical procedure including cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy after thermal decomposition of the sample matrix and further amalgamation and desorption of mercury from gold wool. Mean mercury concentrations ranged from 20 ± 8 to 300 ± 70 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in caps, from 20 ± 6 to 160 ± 40 ng g(-1) dw in stipes, and in underlying soil were from 20 ± 2 to 100 ± 130 ng g(-1) dw. The results showed that stipes mercury concentrations were 1.1- to 1.7-fold lower than those of caps. All caps and the majority of stipes were characterized by bioconcentration factor values > 1, indicating that dark honey fungus can be characterized as a moderate mercury accumulator. Occasional or relatively frequent eating of meals including caps of dark honey fungus is considered safe in view of the low total mercury content, and the mercury intake rates are below the current reference dose and provisionally tolerable weekly intake limits for this hazardous metal. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Thielavins A, J and K: alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the bio-active organic extract obtained from solid-media culture of MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus isolated from the Mexican medicinal plant Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), led to separation of three tridepsides which were identified as thielavins A, J and K. All ...

  3. A two-dimensional proteome map of the aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Pechanova, Olga; Pechan, Tibor; Rodriguez, Jose M; Williams, W Paul; Brown, Ashli E

    2013-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic soil-borne pathogen that produces aflatoxins, the most potent naturally occurring carcinogenic compounds known. This work represents the first gel-based profiling analysis of A. flavus proteome and establishes a 2D proteome map. Using 2DE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, we identified 538 mycelial proteins of the aflatoxigenic strain NRRL 3357, the majority of which were functionally annotated as related to various cellular metabolic and biosynthetic processes. Additionally, a few enzymes from the aflatoxin synthesis pathway were also identified. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of turning frequency on co-composting pig manure and fungus residue.

    PubMed

    Jiang-Ming, Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but also can recycle agricultural wastes and transform them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for agricultural applications. However, the composting process and final product are easily affected by the limited oxygen supply that results from insufficient aeration, especially in the center of a large-scale windrow. Hence, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the turning frequency on the composting efficiency and compost quality of used pig manure and fungus residue. Physical and chemical characteristics were measured over the course of 63 days of composting. The data indicate that higher temperatures and more rapid moisture removal generally result from a turning treatment of once every 2-4 days than in fewer, or no, turning treatments. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium contents increased in all windrows as the organic matter content decreased, but both the increases and decrease were greater in windrows that were turned more frequently. The reduction of the organic matter mass by 53.7-66.0% for a turning of once every 2-8 days is significantly higher than that for the static windrow (39.1%). Although there is an increase in nitrogen mass loss with an increased turning frequency, lower nitrogen mass losses (12.7-25.7%) in all treatments were noted compared with previous studies. A final compost product with less moisture, less weight, higher nutrient content (N, P, and K), and greater stability was obtained in windrows with turning frequencies of once every 2-4 days, which is recommended when composting pig manure and fungus residue. Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but recycling of agricultural wastes transforms them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for

  5. Drimane Sesquiterpenoids and Isochromone Derivative from the Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. M-23.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ce; Jing, Shu-Xi; Liu, Yan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Three new drimane sesquiterpenoids (1-3) together with the known 2α-hydroxyisodrimeninol (4), and a new isochromone derivative (5), were obtained from the solid cultures of fungal strain Pestalotiopsis sp. M-23, an endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Leucosceptrum canum (Labiatae). Their structures were determined by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR, and MS analyses. The metabolites were evaluated for their antibacterial activities, and compound 3 showed weak inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis.

  6. C-type lectin Mincle is an activating receptor for pathogenic fungus, Malassezia

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Sho; Matsumoto, Makoto; Takeuchi, Osamu; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Ishikawa, Eri; Sakuma, Machie; Tateno, Hiroaki; Uno, Jun; Hirabayashi, Jun; Mikami, Yuzuru; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Saito, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Mincle (also called as Clec4e and Clecsf9) is a C-type lectin receptor expressed in activated phagocytes. Recently, we have demonstrated that Mincle is an FcRγ-associated activating receptor that senses damaged cells. To search an exogenous ligand(s), we screened pathogenic fungi using cell line expressing Mincle, FcRγ, and NFAT-GFP reporter. We found that Mincle specifically recognizes the Malassezia species among 50 different fungal species tested. Malassezia is a pathogenic fungus that causes skin diseases, such as tinea versicolor and atopic dermatitis, and fatal sepsis. However, the specific receptor on host cells has not been identified. Mutation of the putative mannose-binding motif within C-type lectin domain of Mincle abrogated Malassezia recognition. Analyses of glycoconjugate microarray revealed that Mincle selectively binds to α-mannose but not mannan. Thus, Mincle may recognize specific geometry of α-mannosyl residues on Malassezia species and use this to distinguish them from other fungi. Malassezia activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. To elucidate the physiological function of Mincle, Mincle-deficient mice were established. Malassezia-induced cytokine/chemokine production by macrophages from Mincle−/− mice was significantly impaired. In vivo inflammatory responses against Malassezia was also impaired in Mincle−/− mice. These results indicate that Mincle is the first specific receptor for Malassezia species to be reported and plays a crucial role in immune responses to this fungus. PMID:19171887

  7. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for aflatoxin generation fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Han, Guomin; Shao, Qian; Li, Cuiping; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Li; Fan, Jun; Jiang, Haiyang; Tao, Fang

    2018-05-01

    Aspergillus flavus often invade many important corps and produce harmful aflatoxins both in preharvest and during storage stages. The regulation mechanism of aflatoxin biosynthesis in this fungus has not been well explored mainly due to the lack of an efficient transformation method for constructing a genome-wide gene mutant library. This challenge was resolved in this study, where a reliable and efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for A. flavus NRRL 3357 was established. The results showed that removal of multinucleate conidia, to collect a homogenous sample of uninucleate conidia for use as the transformation material, is the key step in this procedure. A. tumefaciens strain AGL-1 harboring the ble gene for zeocin resistance under the control of the gpdA promoter from A. nidulans is suitable for genetic transformation of this fungus. We successfully generated A. flavus transformants with an efficiency of ∼ 60 positive transformants per 10 6 conidia using our protocol. A small-scale insertional mutant library (∼ 1,000 mutants) was constructed using this method and the resulting several mutants lacked both production of conidia and aflatoxin biosynthesis capacity. Southern blotting analysis demonstrated that the majority of the transformants contained a single T-DNA insert on the genome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic transformation of A. flavus via ATMT and our protocol provides an effective tool for construction of genome-wide gene mutant libraries for functional analysis of important genes in A. flavus.

  8. Genome sequence and transcriptome analyses of the thermophilic zygomycete fungus Rhizomucor miehei.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Guoqiang; Chen, Shangwu; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Tang, Yanbin; Henrissat, Bernard; Yan, Qiaojuan; Yang, Shaoqing; Chen, Chin-Fu; Zhang, Bing; Du, Zhenglin

    2014-04-21

    The zygomycete fungi like Rhizomucor miehei have been extensively exploited for the production of various enzymes. As a thermophilic fungus, R. miehei is capable of growing at temperatures that approach the upper limits for all eukaryotes. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, Zygomycetes have been rarely investigated both genetically and genomically. Here, we report the genome of R. miehei CAU432 to explore the thermostable enzymatic repertoire of this fungus. The assembled genome size is 27.6-million-base (Mb) with 10,345 predicted protein-coding genes. Even being thermophilic, the G + C contents of fungal whole genome (43.8%) and coding genes (47.4%) are less than 50%. Phylogenetically, R. miehei is more closerly related to Phycomyces blakesleeanus than to Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The genome of R. miehei harbors a large number of genes encoding secreted proteases, which is consistent with the characteristics of R. miehei being a rich producer of proteases. The transcriptome profile of R. miehei showed that the genes responsible for degrading starch, glucan, protein and lipid were highly expressed. The genome information of R. miehei will facilitate future studies to better understand the mechanisms of fungal thermophilic adaptation and the exploring of the potential of R. miehei in industrial-scale production of thermostable enzymes. Based on the existence of a large repertoire of amylolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic genes in the genome, R. miehei has potential in the production of a variety of such enzymes.

  9. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell.

  10. Determination of the absolute configuration of Chaetoviridins and other bioactive Azaphilones from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical investigation of an endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum isolated from leaves of Wikstroemia uva-ursi led to the isolation of a new azaphilone, chaetoviridin J (1), and a new stereoisomer, chaetoviridin K (2), along with four known derivatives (3–6). The structures of azaphilones were dete...

  11. Effect of particle size and ammonium sulfate concentration on rice bran fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Cristiano Gautério; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2012-11-01

    The effects of rice bran particle size (0.18-0.39mm) and ammonium sulfate concentration in the nutrient solution (2-8g/L) on biomass production, protein and phenolic content generated by solid state fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae (CCT 1217) were studied. Particle size had a positive effect on biomass production and a negative effect (p⩽0.05) on protein and phenolic contents. Ammonium sulfate concentration had a positive effect (p⩽0.05) on biomass and phenolic content gain. Cultivation of fungus in rice bran with particle size of 0.18mm and in the presence of 8g/L ammonium sulfate, resulted in protein levels of 20g/100g dry wt and phenolics content of 4mg/g dry wt. These values were 53 and 65% higher than those achieved with unfermented rice bran. The results demonstrate that the fermentation process increased the value of compounds recovered for potential use in food formulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of dry-milling derived thin stillage for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Strait, Megan; Wen, Zhiyou

    2012-05-01

    This study was to explore the use of thin stillage, a major byproduct in dry milling corn-ethanol plants, for production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare. Thin stillage contains various compounds that were ideal for fungal growth. Thin stillage concentration and temperature played important roles in fungal growth and EPA production. When 50% thin stillage was used in a stepwise temperature shift culture process, the cell density reached 23 g/L at day 9 with EPA yield and productivity of 243 and 27 mg/L day, respectively. The fungal biomass contained 39% lipid, 28% protein, 30% carbohydrate, and 3% ash. The fungal culture also generated a nutrient-depleted liquid by removing organic compounds in the raw thin stillage. The results collectively showed a new use of thin stillage by feeding to the fungus P. irregulare for producing omega-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unguisin F, a new cyclic peptide from the endophytic fungus Mucor irregularis.

    PubMed

    Akone, Sergi H; Daletos, Georgios; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The new cyclic heptapeptide unguisin F (1) and the known congener unguisin E (2), were obtained from the endophytic fungus Mucor irregularis, isolated from the medicinal plant Moringa stenopetala, collected in Cameroon. The structure of the new compound was unambiguously determined on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the amino acid residues of 1 and 2 was determined using Marfey's analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal potential, but failed to display significant activities.

  14. Two new meroterpenoids produced by the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. SXH-65.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinhua; Kong, Xianglan; Gao, Huquan; Zhu, Tianjiao; Wu, Guangwei; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

    2014-08-01

    Two new meroterpenoids, arisugacins I (1) and J (2), together with five known meroterpenoids including arisugacin B (3), arisugacin F (4), arisugacin G (5), territrem B (6) and territrem C (7) were isolated from an endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. SXH-65. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic experiments and comparison with literature data. Their cytotoxicities were evaluated against Hela, HL-60 and K562 cell lines, and only 3 and 4 exhibited weak cytotoxicities against Hela, HL-60 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 24 to 60 μM.

  15. Pretrichodermamides D-F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Anton N; Smetanina, Olga F; Ivanets, Elena V; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Khudyakova, Yuliya V; Kirichuk, Natalya N; Popov, Roman S; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Chingizova, Ekaterina A; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A

    2016-06-27

    Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D-F (1-3), together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4) and pretrichodermamide С (5), were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1-5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1) was established by a combination of modified Mosher's method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5) showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies.

  16. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Antimicrobial metabolites from the plant endophytic fungus Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Hua; Li, Tian-Xiao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Rui-Huan; Luo, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Five rare dichloro aromatic polyketides (1-5) were obtained from an endophytic fungus Penicillium sp., along with five known metabolites (6-10). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, Mosher methods, as well as [Rh 2 (OCOCF 3 ) 4 ]-induced electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments. Compounds 2-4 and 6 structurally involved acyclic 1.3-diols, the uneasy configuration determinations of which were well carried out by double-derivation NMR methods. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against five strains of human pathogenic microorganisms. Helvolic acid (7) showed potent inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 5.8 and 4.6μg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical constituents of the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium roqueforti.

    PubMed

    Mioso, Roberto; Marante, Francisco Javier Toledo; Laguna, Irma Herrera Bravo de

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti is a well-known multifunctional cell factory of high added-value biomolecules. The objective of this work was to carry out a detailed analysis of the metabolites present in the culture broth of a new marine-derived Penicillium roqueforti strain isolated in the Canary Islands, Spain. The fungal biomass production was carried out in liquid-state fermentation, and after 10-12 days of incubation at 22-25°C, the supernatant mycelia was separated by filtration, and the culture broth (12l) was stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for a subsequent liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane (3×), in accordance with the modified Kupchan method. The volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds were separated by chromatography and analyzed using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses. Several volatile organic compounds involved in the fatty acid pathway were identified: a terpenoid, a cyclic dipeptide, phthalates, and an alkyl adipate. In addition, three categories of non-volatile compounds (alkanes, fatty acids and 1-alkanols) were identified by spectroscopy. The results show that the fermented broth of this fungal strain has no mycotoxins under the culture conditions applied. It is hoped that this chemo-specific information will offer critical input for improving the biotechnological applications of this filamentous fungus. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Whitefly Transcriptional Responses to Beauveria bassiana Infection Reveals New Insights into Insect-Fungus Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shan; Li, Fang-Fang; Feng, Ming-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background The fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is an efficient biocontrol agent against a variety of agricultural pests. A thorough understanding of the basic principles of insect-fungus interactions may enable the genetic modification of Beauveria bassiana to enhance its virulence. However, the molecular mechanism of insect response to Beauveria bassiana infection is poorly understood, let alone the identification of fungal virulent factors involved in pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, next generation sequencing technology was applied to examine the expression of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) genes in response to the infection of Beauveria bassiana. Results showed that, compared to control, 654 and 1,681genes were differentially expressed at 48 hours and 72 hours post-infected whiteflies, respectively. Functional and enrichment analyses indicated that the DNA damage stimulus response and drug metabolism were important anti-fungi strategies of the whitefly. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was also likely involved in the whitefly defense responses. Furthermore, the notable suppression of general metabolism and ion transport genes observed in 72 hours post-infected B. tabaci might be manipulated by fungal secreted effectors. By mapping the sequencing tags to B. bassiana genome, we also identified a number of differentially expressed fungal genes between the early and late infection stages. These genes are generally associated with fungal cell wall synthesis and energy metabolism. The expression of fungal cell wall protein genes might play an important role in fungal pathogenesis and the dramatically up-regulated enzymes of carbon metabolism indicate the increasing usage of energy during the fungal infection. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular mechanism of fungus-whitefly interactions. Our results provide a road map for future investigations on insect-pathogen interactions and

  20. Analysis of whitefly transcriptional responses to Beauveria bassiana infection reveals new insights into insect-fungus interactions.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Shan; Li, Fang-Fang; Feng, Ming-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is an efficient biocontrol agent against a variety of agricultural pests. A thorough understanding of the basic principles of insect-fungus interactions may enable the genetic modification of Beauveria bassiana to enhance its virulence. However, the molecular mechanism of insect response to Beauveria bassiana infection is poorly understood, let alone the identification of fungal virulent factors involved in pathogenesis. Here, next generation sequencing technology was applied to examine the expression of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) genes in response to the infection of Beauveria bassiana. Results showed that, compared to control, 654 and 1,681genes were differentially expressed at 48 hours and 72 hours post-infected whiteflies, respectively. Functional and enrichment analyses indicated that the DNA damage stimulus response and drug metabolism were important anti-fungi strategies of the whitefly. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was also likely involved in the whitefly defense responses. Furthermore, the notable suppression of general metabolism and ion transport genes observed in 72 hours post-infected B. tabaci might be manipulated by fungal secreted effectors. By mapping the sequencing tags to B. bassiana genome, we also identified a number of differentially expressed fungal genes between the early and late infection stages. These genes are generally associated with fungal cell wall synthesis and energy metabolism. The expression of fungal cell wall protein genes might play an important role in fungal pathogenesis and the dramatically up-regulated enzymes of carbon metabolism indicate the increasing usage of energy during the fungal infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular mechanism of fungus-whitefly interactions. Our results provide a road map for future investigations on insect-pathogen interactions and genetically modifying the fungus to enhance its efficiency in whitefly

  1. The Potential of Streptomyces as Biocontrol Agents against the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae).

    PubMed

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Khan, Tahir M; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food source for more than three billion people worldwide. However, rice is vulnerable to diseases, the most destructive among them being rice blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae ). This fungus attacks rice plants at all stages of development, causing annual losses of approximately 10-30% in various rice producing regions. Synthetic fungicides are often able to effectively control plant diseases, but some fungicides result in serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is growing interest in discovering and developing new, improved fungicides based on natural products as well as introducing alternative measures such as biocontrol agents to manage plant diseases. Streptomyce s bacteria appear to be promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is not surprising given their ability to produce various bioactive compounds. This review provides insight into the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces against the rice blast fungus, M. oryzae . The ability of various S treptomyces spp. to act as biocontrol agents of rice blast disease has been studied by researchers under both laboratory and greenhouse/growth chamber conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that Streptomyces exhibit inhibitory activity against M. oryzae . In greenhouse studies, infected rice seedlings treated with Streptomyces resulted in up to 88.3% disease reduction of rice blast. Studies clearly show that Streptomyces spp. have the potential to be used as highly effective biocontrol agents against rice blast disease; however, the efficacy of any biocontrol agent may be affected by several factors including environmental conditions and methods of application. In order to fully exploit their potential, further studies on the isolation, formulation and application methods of Streptomyces along with field experiments are required to establish them as effective biocontrol agents.

  2. The Potential of Streptomyces as Biocontrol Agents against the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae)

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Khan, Tahir M.; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food source for more than three billion people worldwide. However, rice is vulnerable to diseases, the most destructive among them being rice blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae). This fungus attacks rice plants at all stages of development, causing annual losses of approximately 10–30% in various rice producing regions. Synthetic fungicides are often able to effectively control plant diseases, but some fungicides result in serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is growing interest in discovering and developing new, improved fungicides based on natural products as well as introducing alternative measures such as biocontrol agents to manage plant diseases. Streptomyces bacteria appear to be promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is not surprising given their ability to produce various bioactive compounds. This review provides insight into the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces against the rice blast fungus, M. oryzae. The ability of various Streptomyces spp. to act as biocontrol agents of rice blast disease has been studied by researchers under both laboratory and greenhouse/growth chamber conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that Streptomyces exhibit inhibitory activity against M. oryzae. In greenhouse studies, infected rice seedlings treated with Streptomyces resulted in up to 88.3% disease reduction of rice blast. Studies clearly show that Streptomyces spp. have the potential to be used as highly effective biocontrol agents against rice blast disease; however, the efficacy of any biocontrol agent may be affected by several factors including environmental conditions and methods of application. In order to fully exploit their potential, further studies on the isolation, formulation and application methods of Streptomyces along with field experiments are required to establish them as effective biocontrol agents. PMID:28144236

  3. Phylogenomics and Divergence Dating of Fungus-Farming Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Genera Sericomyrmex and Apterostigma.

    PubMed

    Ješovnik, Ana; González, Vanessa L; Schultz, Ted R

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-farming ("attine") ants are model systems for studies of symbiosis, coevolution, and advanced eusociality. A New World clade of nearly 300 species in 15 genera, all attine ants cultivate fungal symbionts for food. In order to better understand the evolution of ant agriculture, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed transcriptomes of four different attine ant species in two genera: three species in the higher-attine genus Sericomyrmex and a single lower-attine ant species, Apterostigma megacephala, representing the first genomic data for either genus. These data were combined with published genomes of nine other ant species and the honey bee Apis mellifera for phylogenomic and divergence-dating analyses. The resulting phylogeny confirms relationships inferred in previous studies of fungus-farming ants. Divergence-dating analyses recovered slightly older dates than most prior analyses, estimating that attine ants originated 53.6-66.7 million of years ago, and recovered a very long branch subtending a very recent, rapid radiation of the genus Sericomyrmex. This result is further confirmed by a separate analysis of the three Sericomyrmex species, which reveals that 92.71% of orthologs have 99% - 100% pairwise-identical nucleotide sequences. We searched the transcriptomes for genes of interest, most importantly argininosuccinate synthase and argininosuccinate lyase, which are functional in other ants but which are known to have been lost in seven previously studied attine ant species. Loss of the ability to produce the amino acid arginine has been hypothesized to contribute to the obligate dependence of attine ants upon their cultivated fungi, but the point in fungus-farming ant evolution at which these losses occurred has remained unknown. We did not find these genes in any of the sequenced transcriptomes. Although expected for Sericomyrmex species, the absence of arginine anabolic genes in the lower-attine ant Apterostigma megacephala strongly suggests that the

  4. Production and characterization of bioactive metabolites from piezotolerant deep sea fungus Nigrospora sp. in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, G K; Srinivasan, S K; Joshi, G; Gopal, D; Ramalingam, K

    2015-01-01

    To produce and characterize bioactive metabolites from piezotolerant marine fungus Nigrospora sp. in submerged fermentation. A distinct marine strain, Nigrospora sp. NIOT has been isolated from a depth of 800 m at the Arabian Sea. The 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) analysis demonstrates its close association with the genus Nigrospora. Effect of pH, temperature, salinity, carbon source and amino acids was studied to optimize the fermentation conditions. Optimal mycelia growth and secondary metabolites production were observed at 6·0-8·0 pH, 20-30°C temperature, 7·5% salinity, sucrose as carbon source and tryptophan as amino acid source. The extracellular secondary metabolites exhibited high antimicrobial activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacteria with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values higher than 30 μg ml(-1). Strongest cytotoxicity was observed in all cell lines tested, GI50 (growth inhibition by 50%) was calculated to be 1·35, 3·2, 0·13 and 0·35 μg ml(-1) against U937, MCF-7, A673 and Jurkat, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of secondary metabolites confirmed the production of antimicrobial and anticancer substances. A piezotolerant fungus Nigrospora sp. NIOT isolated from deep sea environment was successfully cultured under submerged fermentation. The secondary metabolites produced from this organism showed potent antimicrobial and anticancer activities with immediate application to cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. This is the first study exploring Nigrospora sp. from 800 m in marine environment. This deep sea fungus under optimized culture conditions effectively produced bioactive secondary metabolites such as griseofulvin, spirobenzofuran and pyrone derivatives at higher concentrations. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Efficient degradation of Azo dyes by a newly isolated fungus Trichoderma tomentosum under non-sterile conditions.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Ling; Song, Chao; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ning; Xu, Lei; Han, Xin; Wei, Dong-Sheng

    2018-04-15

    A fast-growing fungus with remarkable ability to degrade several azo dyes under non-sterile conditions was isolated and identified. This fungus was identified as Trichoderma tomentosum. Textile effluent of ten-fold dilution could be decolorized by 94.9% within 72h before optimization. Acid Red 3R model wastewater with a concentration of 85.5mgL -1 could be decolorized by 99.2% within the same time after optimization. High-level of manganese peroxidase and low-level of lignin peroxidase activities were detected during the process of decolorization from the culture supernatant, indicating the possible involvement of two enzymes in azo dye decolorization. No aromatic amine products were detected from the degradation products of Acid Red 3R by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, indicating the possible involvement of a special symmetrical oxidative degradation pathway. Phytotoxicity assay confirmed the lower toxicity toward the test plant seeds of the degradation products when compared to the original dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Australasian sequestrate fungi 18: Solioccasus polychromus gen. & sp. nov., a richly colored, tropical to subtropical, hypogeous fungus

    Treesearch

    J. M. Trappe; M. A. Castellano; R. E. Halling; T. W. Osmundson; M. Binder; N. Fechner; N. Malajczuk

    2013-01-01

    Solioccasus polychromus gen. & sp. nov., the most brightly colored hypogeous fungus known, is described from Papua New Guinea and tropical northern Australia south into subtropical forests along the Queensland coast and coastal mountains to near Brisbane. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular data places it as a sister genus to Bothia...

  7. Fungus hyphae-supported alumina: An efficient and reclaimable adsorbent for fluoride removal from water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weichun; Tian, Shunqi; Tang, Qiongzhi; Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Haiying

    2017-06-15

    A reclaimable adsorbent of fungus hyphae-supported alumina (FHSA) bio-nanocomposites was developed, characterized and applied in fluoride removal from water. This adsorbent can be fast assembled and disassemble reversibly, promising efficient reclamation and high accessible surface area for fluoride adsorption. Adsorption experiments demonstrate that the FHSA performed well over a considerable wide pH range of 3-10 with high fluoride removal efficiencies (>66.3%). The adsorption capacity was 105.60mgg -1 for FHSA, much higher than that for the alumina nanoparticles (50.55mgg -1 ) and pure fungus hyphae (22.47mgg -1 ). The adsorption capacity calculated by the pure content of alumina in the FHSA is 340.27mgg -1 of alumina. Kinetics data reveal that the fluoride adsorption process on the FHSA was fast, nearly 90% fluoride adsorption can be achieved within 40min. The fluoride adsorption on the FHSA is mainly due to the surface complexes formation of fluoride with AlOH and the attraction between protonated NH 2 and fluoride through hydrogen bonding. Findings demonstrate that the FHSA has potential applicability in fluoride removal due to its strong fluoride adsorbility and the easy reclamation by its fast reversible assembly and disassembly feature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Plant-Dependent Life Cycle of Thecaphora thlaspeos: A Smut Fungus Adapted to Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Frantzeskakis, Lamprinos; Courville, Kaitlyn J; Plücker, Lesley; Kellner, Ronny; Kruse, Julia; Brachmann, Andreas; Feldbrügge, Michael; Göhre, Vera

    2017-04-01

    Smut fungi are globally distributed plant pathogens that infect agriculturally important crop plants such as maize or potato. To date, molecular studies on plant responses to smut fungi are challenging due to the genetic complexity of their host plants. Therefore, we set out to investigate the known smut fungus of Brassicaceae hosts, Thecaphora thlaspeos. T. thlaspeos infects different Brassicaceae plant species throughout Europe, including the perennial model plant Arabis alpina. In contrast to characterized smut fungi, mature and dry T. thlaspeos teliospores germinated only in the presence of a plant signal. An infectious filament emerges from the teliospore, which can proliferate as haploid filamentous cultures. Haploid filaments from opposite mating types mate, similar to sporidia of the model smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Consistently, the a and b mating locus genes are conserved. Infectious filaments can penetrate roots and aerial tissues of host plants, causing systemic colonization along the vasculature. Notably, we could show that T. thlaspeos also infects Arabidopsis thaliana. Exploiting the genetic resources of A. thaliana and Arabis alpina will allow us to characterize plant responses to smut infection in a comparative manner and, thereby, characterize factors for endophytic growth as well as smut fungi virulence in dicot plants.

  9. Endophytic fungus Purpureocillium sp. A5 protect mangrove plant Kandelia candel under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bin; Liu, Guixiang; Liao, Rquan; Song, Jingjing; Zhang, Hong

    Mangrove is an important ecosystem in the world. Mangrove ecosystems have a large capacity in retaining heavy metals, and now they are usually considered as sinks for heavy metals. However, the mechanism of why the soil of mangrove ecosystems can retain heavy metal is not certain. In this research, endophytic fungus Purpureocillium sp. A5 was isolated and identified from the roots of Kandelia candel. When this fungus was added, it protected the growth of K. candel under Cu stress. This can be illustrated by analyzing chlorophyll A and B, RWC and WSD to leaves of K. candel. Purpureocillium sp. A5 reduces uptake of Cu in K. candel and changes the pH characterization of soil. Furthermore, A5 increase the concentration of Cu complexes in soil, and it enhanced the concentration of carbonate-bound Cu, Mn-Fe complexes Cu and organic-bound Cu in soil. Nevertheless, a significant reduction of the Cu ion was noted among A5-treated plants. This study is significant and illustrates a promising potential use for environmental remediation of endophytes, and also may partially explain the large capacity of mangrove ecosystems in retaining heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Flowers of Cypripedium fargesii (Orchidaceae) fool flat-footed flies (Platypezidae) by faking fungus-infected foliage

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zong-Xin; Li, De-Zhu; Bernhardt, Peter; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin was fascinated by the orchid–pollinator interactions, but he did not realize that many orchid species are pollinated by deceit. Cypripedium, a model lineage of nonrewarding orchid flowers, is pollinated primarily by bees. Here we present both an example of floral mimesis of fungus-infected foliage in orchids and an example of flat-footed flies (Agathomyia sp.; Platypezidae) as pollen vectors for angiosperms. Cypripedium fargesii is a nectarless, terrestrial, endangered orchid from southwestern China that requires cross-pollination to produce the maximum number of viable embryos. All insects caught entering or leaving the labellum sac were Agathomyia sp. carrying conidia of Cladosporium sp. on their mouthparts and legs, suggesting mycophagy. Blackish hairy spots on the upper surface of foliage may imitate black mold spots, serving as short-term visual lures. Some odor molecules also associated with Cladosporium cultures were isolated in the floral scent. Mimesis of fungus-infected foliage probably represents an overlooked but important option in angiosperm diversification, because there are three to five more Cypripedium spp. in southwestern China with the same mode of floral presentation and black-spotted hairy leaves. PMID:21502502

  11. Flowers of Cypripedium fargesii (Orchidaceae) fool flat-footed flies (Platypezidae) by faking fungus-infected foliage.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zong-Xin; Li, De-Zhu; Bernhardt, Peter; Wang, Hong

    2011-05-03

    Charles Darwin was fascinated by the orchid-pollinator interactions, but he did not realize that many orchid species are pollinated by deceit. Cypripedium, a model lineage of nonrewarding orchid flowers, is pollinated primarily by bees. Here we present both an example of floral mimesis of fungus-infected foliage in orchids and an example of flat-footed flies (Agathomyia sp.; Platypezidae) as pollen vectors for angiosperms. Cypripedium fargesii is a nectarless, terrestrial, endangered orchid from southwestern China that requires cross-pollination to produce the maximum number of viable embryos. All insects caught entering or leaving the labellum sac were Agathomyia sp. carrying conidia of Cladosporium sp. on their mouthparts and legs, suggesting mycophagy. Blackish hairy spots on the upper surface of foliage may imitate black mold spots, serving as short-term visual lures. Some odor molecules also associated with Cladosporium cultures were isolated in the floral scent. Mimesis of fungus-infected foliage probably represents an overlooked but important option in angiosperm diversification, because there are three to five more Cypripedium spp. in southwestern China with the same mode of floral presentation and black-spotted hairy leaves.

  12. Cross-species microarray hybridization to identify developmentally regulated genes in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Nowrousian, Minou; Ringelberg, Carol; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J; Kück, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora forms complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies that protect the developing ascospores and ensure their proper discharge. Several regulatory genes essential for fruiting body development were previously isolated by complementation of the sterile mutants pro1, pro11 and pro22. To establish the genetic relationships between these genes and to identify downstream targets, we have conducted cross-species microarray hybridizations using cDNA arrays derived from the closely related fungus Neurospora crassa and RNA probes prepared from wild-type S. macrospora and the three developmental mutants. Of the 1,420 genes which gave a signal with the probes from all the strains used, 172 (12%) were regulated differently in at least one of the three mutants compared to the wild type, and 17 (1.2%) were regulated differently in all three mutant strains. Microarray data were verified by Northern analysis or quantitative real time PCR. Among the genes that are up- or down-regulated in the mutant strains are genes encoding the pheromone precursors, enzymes involved in melanin biosynthesis and a lectin-like protein. Analysis of gene expression in double mutants revealed a complex network of interaction between the pro gene products.

  13. Lactone Derivatives Produced by a Phaeoacremonium sp., an Endophytic Fungus from Senna spectabilis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Geraldo H; Zeraik, Maria L; de Oliveira, Camila M; Teles, Helder L; Trevisan, Henrique C; Pfenning, Ludwig H; Nicolli, Camila P; Young, Maria C M; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; Abreu, Lucas M; Saraiva, Amanda C; Medeiros, Alexandra I; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Araujo, Angela R

    2017-05-26

    Three new isoaigialones, A, B, and C (1-3), along with aigialone (4), were isolated from the crude EtOAc extract of a Phaeoacremonium sp., an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of Senna spectabilis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on the analysis of spectroscopic data. Compounds 2 and 4 were active against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum. This is the first report of metabolites produced by an Phaeoacremonium sp., associated with S. spectabilis.

  14. Interactions between Co-Habitating fungi Elicit Synthesis of Taxol from an Endophytic Fungus in Host Taxus Plants

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Sameh S. M.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2012-01-01

    Within a plant, there can exist an ecosystem of pathogens and endophytes, the latter described as bacterial and fungal inhabitants that thrive without causing disease to the host. Interactions between microbial inhabitants represent a novel area of study for natural products research. Here we analyzed the interactions between the fungal endophytes of Taxus (yew) trees. Fungal endophytes of Taxus have been proposed to produce the terpenoid secondary metabolite, Taxol, an anti-cancer drug. It is widely reported that plant extracts stimulate endophytic fungal Taxol production, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, Taxus bark extracts stimulated fungal Taxol production 30-fold compared to a 10-fold induction with wood extracts. However, candidate plant-derived defense compounds (i.e., salicylic acid, benzoic acid) were found to act only as modest elicitors of fungal Taxol production from the endophytic fungus Paraconiothyrium SSM001, consistent with previous studies. We hypothesized the Taxus plant extracts may contain elicitors derived from other microbes inhabiting these tissues. We investigated the effects of co-culturing SSM001 with other fungi observed to inhabit Taxus bark, but not wood. Surprisingly, co-culture of SSM001 with a bark fungus (Alternaria) caused a ∼threefold increase in Taxol production. When SSM001 was pyramided with both the Alternaria endophyte along with another fungus (Phomopsis) observed to inhabit Taxus, there was an ∼eightfold increase in fungal Taxol production from SSM001. These results suggest that resident fungi within a host plant interact with one another to stimulate Taxol biosynthesis, either directly or through their metabolites. More generally, our results suggest that endophyte secondary metabolism should be studied in the context of its native ecosystem. PMID:23346084

  15. Hydrophobins contribute to root colonization and stress responses in the rhizosphere-competent insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Moonjely, Soumya; Keyhani, Nemat O; Bidochka, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    The hyd1/hyd2 hydrophobins are important constituents of the conidial cell wall of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This fungus can also form intimate associations with several plant species. Here, we show that inactivation of two Class I hydrophobin genes, hyd1 or hyd2, significantly decreases the interaction of B. bassiana with bean roots. Curiously, the ∆hyd1/∆hyd2 double mutant was less impaired in root association than Δhyd1 or Δhyd2. Loss of hyd genes affected growth rate, conidiation ability and oosporein production. Expression patterns for genes involved in conidiation, cell wall integrity, insect virulence, signal transduction, adhesion, hydrophobicity and oosporein production were screened in the deletion mutants grown in different conditions. Repression of the major MAP-Kinase signal transduction pathways (Slt2 MAPK pathway) was observed that was more pronounced in the single versus double hyd mutants under certain conditions. The ∆hyd1/∆hyd2 double mutant showed up-regulation of the Hog1 MAPK and the Msn2 transcription factor under certain conditions when compared to the wild-type or single hyd mutants. The expression of the bad2 adhesin and the oosporein polyketide synthase 9 gene was severely reduced in all of the mutants. On the other hand, fewer changes were observed in the expression of key conidiation and cell wall integrity genes in hyd mutants compared to wild-type. Taken together, the data from this study indicated pleiotropic consequences of deletion of hyd1 and hyd2 on signalling and stress pathways as well as the ability of the fungus to form stable associations with plant roots.

  16. TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANERO- CHAETE SORDIDA: A FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of large-scale fungal bioaugmentation was evaluated by assessing the ability of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida to decrease the soil concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 13 priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic (PNA) creosote component...

  17. Peracetic acid is effective for controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs.

    PubMed

    Straus, D L; Meinelt, T; Farmer, B D; Mitchell, A J

    2012-07-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a relatively new compound suggested for use to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), eggs. The study consisted of five PAA concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20mgL(-1) ) and an untreated control in a flow-through system. A single spawn was used for each replication (N =4). Eggs were treated twice daily until the embryos developed eyes. When hatching was complete for all viable eggs, fry were counted to determine the percent survival in each treatment. Fungal growth was severe in the untreated controls resulting in 11% survival. Treatments of 2.5, 5 and 10mgL(-1) PAA were significantly different from the controls (P<0.05). The highest percent survival of hatched fry was with 5mgL(-1) PAA administered twice daily; the 2.5mgL(-1) PAA treatment had slightly less survival, but gives a higher margin of safety in case of treatment error. Very little fungus was present in treatments receiving 2.5mgL(-1) PAA or higher, and concentrations of 15 and 20mgL(-1) PAA were toxic to the eggs. The mean survivals in the 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20mgL(-1) PAA treatments were 11%, 60%, 63%, 62%, 32% and 0%, respectively. Therefore, PAA may be a compound that merits further investigations regarding its use in U.S. aquaculture. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Identification and characterization of a mesophilic phytase highly resilient to high-temperatures from a fungus-garden associated metagenome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hao; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-03-01

    Phytases are enzymes degrading phytic acid and thereby releasing inorganic phosphate. While the phytases reported to date are majorly from culturable microorganisms, the fast-growing quantity of publicly available metagenomic data generated in the last decade has enabled bioinformatic mining of phytases in numerous data mines derived from a variety of ecosystems throughout the world. In this study, we are interested in the histidine acid phosphatase (HAP) family phytases present in insect-cultivated fungus gardens. Using bioinformatic approaches, 11 putative HAP phytase genes were initially screened from 18 publicly available metagenomes of fungus gardens and were further overexpressed in Escherichia coli. One phytase from a south pine beetle fungus garden showed the highest activity and was then chosen for further study. Biochemical characterization showed that the phytase is mesophilic but possesses strong ability to withstand high temperatures. To our knowledge, it has the longest half-life time at 100 °C (27 min) and at 80 °C (2.1 h) as compared to all the thermostable phytases publicly reported to date. After 100 °C incubation for 15 min, more than 93 % of the activity was retained. The activity was 3102 μmol P/min/mg at 37 °C and 4135 μmol P/min/mg at 52.5 °C, which is higher than all the known thermostable phytases. For the high activity level demonstrated at mesophilic temperatures as well as the high resilience to high temperatures, the phytase might be promising for potential application as an additive enzyme in animal feed.

  19. Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome in Bats Accumulates Genetic Variability in North America with No Sign of Recombination.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Jigar; Lachapelle, Josianne; Vanderwolf, Karen J; Misra, Vikram; Willis, Craig K R; Ratcliffe, John M; Ness, Rob W; Anderson, James B; Kohn, Linda M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases of wildlife are on the rise worldwide, and the white-nose syndrome (WNS) epidemic in North American bats is a catastrophic example. The causal agent of WNS is a single clone of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans . Early evolutionary change in this clonal population has major implications for disease ecology and conservation. Accumulation of variation in the fungus through mutation, and shuffling of variation through recombination, could affect the virulence and transmissibility of the fungus and the durability of what appears to be resistance arising in some bat populations. Our genome-wide analysis shows that the clonal population of P. destructans has expanded in size from a single genotype, has begun to accumulate variation through mutation, and presents no evidence as yet of genetic exchange among individuals. IMPORTANCE Since its discovery in 2006, the emerging infectious disease known as white-nose syndrome has killed millions of bats in North America, making it one of the most devastating wildlife epidemics in recorded history. We demonstrate that there has been as yet only spontaneous mutation across the North American population of P. destructans , and we find no indication of recombination. Thus, selective forces, which might otherwise impact pathogenic virulence, have so far had essentially no genetic variation on which to act. Our study confirmed the time of origin for the first and, thus far, only introduction of P. destructans to North America. This system provides an unprecedented opportunity to follow the evolution of a host-pathogen interaction unfolding in real time.

  20. The distribution and host range of the banana Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, in Asia.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Diane; Molina, Agustin B; Daniells, Jeff; Fourie, Gerda; Hermanto, Catur; Chao, Chih-Ping; Fabregar, Emily; Sinohin, Vida G; Masdek, Nik; Thangavelu, Raman; Li, Chunyu; Yi, Ganyun; Mostert, Lizel; Viljoen, Altus

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis. To simplify the identification process, the isolates were first divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis. Six lineages and 14 VCGs, representing three Foc races, were identified in this study. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester strains. In this study, Foc VCG diversity in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka was determined for the first time and VCGs 01221 and 01222 were first reported from Cambodia and Vietnam. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. Information obtained in this study could help Asian countries to develop and implement regulatory measures to prevent the incursion of Foc into areas where it does not yet occur. It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas.

  1. The distribution and host range of the banana Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Agustin B.; Daniells, Jeff; Fourie, Gerda; Hermanto, Catur; Chao, Chih-Ping; Fabregar, Emily; Sinohin, Vida G.; Masdek, Nik; Thangavelu, Raman; Li, Chunyu; Yi, Ganyun; Mostert, Lizel; Viljoen, Altus

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis. To simplify the identification process, the isolates were first divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis. Six lineages and 14 VCGs, representing three Foc races, were identified in this study. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester strains. In this study, Foc VCG diversity in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka was determined for the first time and VCGs 01221 and 01222 were first reported from Cambodia and Vietnam. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. Information obtained in this study could help Asian countries to develop and implement regulatory measures to prevent the incursion of Foc into areas where it does not yet occur. It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas. PMID:28719631

  2. A New Terminal Cyano Group-containing Benzodiazepine Alkaloid from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. .

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhong, Yi-sheng; Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Xun; Lu, Yong-jun; Lin, Yong-cheng; Liu, Lan

    2015-09-01

    A new benzodiazepine alkaloid containing terminal cyano group has been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Penicillium 299#. Structure elucidation was determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and the absolute configuration was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD). The new compound showed no cytotoxic activities in vitro against human cancer lines MDA-MB-435, HepG2, HCT-116, and Calu-3.

  3. Pestalactams A-C: novel caprolactams from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rohan A; Carroll, Anthony R; Andrews, Katherine T; Boyle, Glen M; Tran, Truc Linh; Healy, Peter C; Kalaitzis, John A; Shivas, Roger G

    2010-04-21

    Chemical investigations of a fermentation culture from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. yielded three novel caprolactams, pestalactams A-C (). The structures of were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D-NMR, UV, IR, and MS data. The structure of pestalactam A was confirmed following single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Pestalactams A-C are the first C-7 alkylated caprolactam natural products to be reported. Pestalactams A () and B () were tested against two different strains of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 and Dd2), and the mammalian cell lines, MCF-7 and NFF, and showed modest in vitro activity in all assays.

  4. A new perylenequinone from a halotolerant fungus, Alternaria sp. M6.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-Ya; Li, Zhan-Lin; Bai, Jiao; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Li-Min; Wu, Xin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2012-01-01

    To study the metabolites of a halotolerant fungus Alternaria sp. M6. The metabolites were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques. Their structures were determined on the basis of physical properties and spectroscopic data. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as 8β-chloro-3, 6aα, 7β, 9β, 10-pentahydroxy-9, 8, 7, 6a-tetrahydroperylen-4(6aH)-one (1), alterperylenol (2), dihydroalterperylenol (3), adenine (4), adenosine (5), deoxyadenosine (6), guanosine (7), tryptophan (8), and hexadecanoic acid (9). Compound 1 is a new perylenequinone. Copyright © 2012 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) growing in the dry, semideciduous tropical forest of the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile org...

  6. Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid Receptors and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two benzyl derivatives, repenol A (1) and repenol B (2). Seven known secondary metabolites were also isolated including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglauci...

  7. Hypovirulence of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea: Association with a Coinfecting Chrysovirus and a Partitivirus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, LiPing; Jiang, JingJing; Wang, YanFen; Hong, Ni; Zhang, Fangpeng

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Botryosphaeria dothidea is an important pathogenic fungus causing fruit rot, leaf and stem ring spots and dieback, stem canker, stem death or stool mortality, and decline of pear trees. Seven double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs; dsRNAs 1 to 7 with sizes of 3,654, 2,773, 2,597, 2,574, 1,823, 1,623, and 511 bp, respectively) were identified in an isolate of B. dothidea exhibiting attenuated growth and virulence and a sectoring phenotype. Characterization of the dsRNAs revealed that they belong to two dsRNA mycoviruses. The four largest dsRNAs (dsRNAs 1 to 4) are the genomic components of a novel member of the family Chrysoviridae (tentatively designated Botryosphaeria dothidea chrysovirus 1 [BdCV1]), a view supported by the morphology of the virions and phylogenetic analysis of the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps). Two other dsRNAs (dsRNAs 5 and 6) are the genomic components of a novel member of the family Partitiviridae (tentatively designated Botryosphaeria dothidea partitivirus 1 [BdPV1]), which is placed in a clade distinct from other established partitivirus genera on the basis of the phylogenetic analysis of its RdRp. The smallest dsRNA, dsRNA7, seems to be a noncoding satellite RNA of BdPV1 on the basis of the conservation of its terminal sequences in BdPV1 genomic segments and its cosegregation with BdPV1 after horizontal transmission. This is the first report of a chrysovirus and a partitivirus infecting B. dothidea and of a chrysovirus associated with the hypovirulence of a phytopathogenic fungus. IMPORTANCE Our studies identified and characterized two novel mycoviruses, Botryosphaeria dothidea chrysovirus 1 (BdCV1) and Botryosphaeria dothidea partitivirus 1 (BdPV1), associated with the hypovirulence of an important fungus pathogenic to fruit trees. This is the first report of a chrysovirus and a partitivirus infecting B. dothidea and of a chrysovirus associated with the hypovirulence of a phytopathogenic fungus. BdCV1 appears to be a good

  8. Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Martel, A.; Beukema, W.; Fisher, M. C.; Farrer, R. A.; Schmidt, B. R.; Tobler, U.; Goka, K.; Lips, K. R.; Muletz, C.; Zamudio, K. R.; Bosch, J.; Lötters, S.; Wombwell, E.; Garner, T.W. J.; Cunningham, A. A.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A.; Salvidio, S.; Ducatelle, R.; Nishikawa, K.; Nguyen, T. T.; Kolby, J. E.; Van Bocxlaer, I.; Bossuyt, F.; Pasmans, F.

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naïve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss. PMID:25359973

  9. Two new triterpenoids from fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen-Zhu; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, He-Ping; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Cui, Bao-Kai; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids, (24E)-9α,11α-epoxy-3β-hydroxylanosta-7,24-dien-26-al (1) and (22Z,24Z)-13-hydroxy-3-oxo-14(13 → 12)abeo-lanosta-8,22,24-trien-26,23-olide (2) were isolated from dried fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of these two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 possessed a lanostane skeleton, while compound 2 was based on a rare 14 (13 → 12)abeo-lanostane skeleton with a 26,23-olide moiety. Both of them were evaluated for their antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Neither of them displayed obvious inhibition on Candida albicans and five human cancer cell lines.

  10. Comparative Genomics Reveals the Core Gene Toolbox for the Fungus-Insect Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Stata, Matt; Wang, Wei; White, Merlin M.; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Modern genomics has shed light on many entomopathogenic fungi and expanded our knowledge widely; however, little is known about the genomic features of the insect-commensal fungi. Harpellales are obligate commensals living in the digestive tracts of disease-bearing insects (black flies, midges, and mosquitoes). In this study, we produced and annotated whole-genome sequences of nine Harpellales taxa and conducted the first comparative analyses to infer the genomic diversity within the members of the Harpellales. The genomes of the insect gut fungi feature low (26% to 37%) GC content and large genome size variations (25 to 102 Mb). Further comparisons with insect-pathogenic fungi (from both Ascomycota and Zoopagomycota), as well as with free-living relatives (as negative controls), helped to identify a gene toolbox that is essential to the fungus-insect symbiosis. The results not only narrow the genomic scope of fungus-insect interactions from several thousands to eight core players but also distinguish host invasion strategies employed by insect pathogens and commensals. The genomic content suggests that insect commensal fungi rely mostly on adhesion protein anchors that target digestive system, while entomopathogenic fungi have higher numbers of transmembrane helices, signal peptides, and pathogen-host interaction (PHI) genes across the whole genome and enrich genes as well as functional domains to inactivate the host inflammation system and suppress the host defense. Phylogenomic analyses have revealed that genome sizes of Harpellales fungi vary among lineages with an integer-multiple pattern, which implies that ancient genome duplications may have occurred within the gut of insects. PMID:29764946

  11. Molecular Karyotype of the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gumer; Peñas, María M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    1999-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic constitution of P. ostreatus by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis optimized for the separation of its chromosomes. We have determined that it contains 11 pairs of chromosomes with sizes ranging from 1.4 to 4.7 Mbp. In addition to chromosome separation, the use of single-copy DNA probes allowed us to resolve the ambiguities caused by chromosome comigration. When the two nuclei present in the dikaryon were separated by protoplasting, analysis of their karyotypes revealed length polymorphisms affecting various chromosomes. This is, to our knowledge, the clearest chromosome separation available for this species. PMID:10427028

  12. Two-dimensional proteome reference maps for the human pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Vödisch, Martin; Albrecht, Daniela; Lessing, Franziska; Schmidt, André D; Winkler, Robert; Guthke, Reinhard; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2009-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus has become the most important airborne fungal pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. We established a 2-D reference map for A. fumigatus. Using MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, we identified 381 spots representing 334 proteins. Proteins involved in cellular metabolism, protein synthesis, transport processes and cell cycle were most abundant. Furthermore, we established a protocol for the isolation of mitochondria of A. fumigatus and developed a mitochondrial proteome reference map. 147 proteins represented by 234 spots were identified.

  13. Three Colopterus beetle species carry the oak wilt fungus to fresh wounds on red oak in Missouri

    Treesearch

    Maya Hayslett; Jennifer Juzwik; Bruce Moltzan

    2008-01-01

    Beetles in the family Nitidulidae can transmit the oak wilt fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum, to fresh wounds on healthy oak trees, leading to infection and disease development. Historically, nitidulid beetles have not been considered important vectors of the pathogen in Missouri. Studies were conducted in the spring of 2005 and 2006 to determine...

  14. Assessing host specialization among aecial and telial hosts of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola

    Treesearch

    Bryce A. Richardson; Paul J. Zambino; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Lori M. Carris

    2007-01-01

    The white-pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola Fisch. in Rabenh., continues to spread in North America, utilizing various aecial (primary) and telial (alternate) hosts, some of which have only recently been discovered. This introduced pathogen has been characterized as having low genetic diversity in North America, yet it has demonstrated a...

  15. The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea and its compatibility with buprofezin: effects on the rugose spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus rugioperculatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gumbo limbo or rugose spiraling whitefly is a new invasive pest of palms, woody ornamentals, and fruits in Florida. The pathogenicity of a naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea (PFR 97) is well known for its activity against commonly found whiteflies species in the regi...

  16. Generation of lycopene-overproducing strains of the fungus Mucor circinelloides reveals important aspects of lycopene formation and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingtong; Chen, Haiqin; Navarro, Eusebio; López-García, Sergio; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano

    2017-03-01

    To generate lycopene-overproducing strains of the fungus Mucor circinelloides with interest for industrial production and to gain insight into the catalytic mechanism of lycopene cyclase and regulatory process during lycopene overaccumulation. Three lycopene-overproducing mutants were generated by classic mutagenesis techniques from a β-carotene-overproducing strain. They carried distinct mutations in the carRP gene encoding lycopene cyclase that produced loss of enzymatic activity to different extents. In one mutant (MU616), the lycopene cyclase was completely destroyed, and a 43.8% (1.1 mg/g dry mass) increase in lycopene production was observed in comparison to that by the previously existing lycopene overproducer. In addition, feedback regulation of the end product was suggested in lycopene-overproducing strains. A lycopene-overaccumulating strain of the fungus M. circinelloides was generated that could be an alternative for the industrial production of lycopene. Vital catalytic residues for lycopene cyclase activity and the potential mechanism of lycopene formation and accumulation were identified.

  17. Morphometric and molecular characterization of fungus Pestalotiopsis using nuclear ribosomal DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Gehlot, Praveen; Singh, S K; Pathak, Rakesh

    2012-09-01

    Taxonomy of the fungus Pestalotiopsis based on morphological characters has been equivocal. Molecular characterization often Pestalotiopsis species was done based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplifications. Results of the analyses showed that species of genus Pestalotiopsis are monophyletic. We report ITS length variations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/ deletions (INDELS) among ten species of Pestalotiopsis that did not cause any phylogenetic error at either genus or species designation levels. New gene sequences have been assigned (Gen Accession numbers from HM 190146 to HM 190155) by the National Centre for Biotechnology Information, USA.

  18. New spiral γ-lactone enantiomers from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Li, Zhuang-Zhuang

    2013-02-11

    (-)-(4S, 8S)-Foedanolide (1a) and (+)-(4R, 8R)-foedanolide (1b), a pair of new spiro-γ-lactone enantiomers, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan by HPLC using a chiral column, achieving over 7% ee. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined on the basis of extensive analysis of NMR spectra combined with computational methods via calculation of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and optical rotation (OR). Compounds 1a and 1b showed moderate activities against HeLa, A-549, U-251, HepG2 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines.

  19. A new isobenzofuranone from the mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. (ZH58).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianxiang; Huang, Riming; Qiu, Sheng Xiang; She, Zhigang; Lin, Yongcheng

    2013-10-01

    A new isobenzofuranone, 4-(methoxymethyl)-7-methoxy-6-methyl-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (1), together with seven known compounds, dilation (2), lumichrome (3), curvulari (4), 5,5'-oxy-dimethylene-bis(2-furaldehyde) (5), chromone (6), harman(1-methyl-β-carboline) (7), N9-methyl-1methyl-β-carboline (8), was isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp. ZH58 obtained from the South China Sea coast. Their structures were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against KB and KBV200 cells with IC50 values of 6 and 10 μg/mL, respectively.

  20. Three New Asperentin Derivatives from the Algicolous Fungus Aspergillus sp. F00785

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qian; Guo, Kai; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zheng, Xiu-Ying; Kong, Xiang-Jian; Zheng, Zhong-Hui; Xu, Qing-Yan; Deng, Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Three new asperentin-type compounds, 6-O-α-d-ribosylasperentin (1) and 6-O-α-d-ribosyl-8-O-methylasperentin (2) and 5-hydroxyl-6-O-methylasperentin (3), along with asperentin (4) and its known analogues (5–9), were isolated from a halotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain F00785, an endotrophic fungus from marine alga. Their structures were determined using extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of compound 9. Compound 4 exhibited highly potent inhibitory activity against crop pathogens, Colletotrichum gleosporioides Penz. and Colletotrichum gleosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. PMID:25517217

  1. Three new asperentin derivatives from the algicolous fungus Aspergillus sp. F00785.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qian; Guo, Kai; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zheng, Xiu-Ying; Kong, Xiang-Jian; Zheng, Zhong-Hui; Xu, Qing-Yan; Deng, Xianming

    2014-12-15

    Three new asperentin-type compounds, 6-O-α-d-ribosylasperentin (1) and 6-O-α-d-ribosyl-8-O-methylasperentin (2) and 5-hydroxyl-6-O-methylasperentin (3), along with asperentin (4) and its known analogues (5-9), were isolated from a halotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain F00785, an endotrophic fungus from marine alga. Their structures were determined using extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of compound 9. Compound 4 exhibited highly potent inhibitory activity against crop pathogens, Colletotrichum gleosporioides Penz. and Colletotrichum gleosporioides (Penz.) Sacc.

  2. The widely used ATB FUNGUS 3 automated readings in China and its misleading high MICs of Candida spp. to azoles: challenges for developing countries' clinical microbiology labs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, He; Xiao, Meng; Kudinha, Timothy; Mao, Lei-Li; Zhao, Hao-Ran; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development in the clinical microbiology diagnostic assays presents more challenges for developing countries than for the developed world, especially in the area of test validation before the introduction of new tests. Here we report on the misleading high MICs of Candida spp. to azoles using the ATB FUNGUS 3 (bioMérieux, La Balme-les Grottes, France) with automated readings in China to highlight the dangers of introducing a diagnostic assay without validation. ATB FUNGUS 3 is the most commonly used commercial antifungal susceptibility testing method in China. An in-depth analysis of data showed higher levels of resistance to azoles when ATB FUNGUS 3 strips were read automatically than when read visually. Based on this finding, the performance of ATB FUNGUS 3, read both visually and automatically, was evaluated by testing 218 isolates of five clinically important Candida species, using broth microdilution (BMD) following CLSI M27-A3 as the gold-standard. The overall essential agreement (EA) between ATB visual readings and BMD was 99.1%. In contrast, the ATB automated readings showed higher discrepancies with BMD, with overall EA of 86.2%, and specifically lower EA was observed for fluconazole (80.7%), voriconazole (77.5%), and itraconazole (73.4%), which was most likely due to the trailing effect of azoles. The major errors in azole drug susceptibilities by ATB automated readings is a concern in China that can result in misleading clinical antifungal drug selection and pseudo high rates of antifungal resistance. Therefore, the ATB visual reading is generally recommended. In the meantime, we propose a practical algorithm to be followed for ATB FUNGUS 3 antifungal susceptibility for Candida spp. before the improvement in the automated reading system.

  3. Mechanisms of Surface Antigenic Variation in the Human Pathogenic Fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.

    PubMed

    Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Richard, Sophie; Luraschi, Amanda; Mühlethaler, Konrad; Pagni, Marco; Hauser, Philippe M

    2017-11-07

    Microbial pathogens commonly escape the human immune system by varying surface proteins. We investigated the mechanisms used for that purpose by Pneumocystis jirovecii This uncultivable fungus is an obligate pulmonary pathogen that in immunocompromised individuals causes pneumonia, a major life-threatening infection. Long-read PacBio sequencing was used to assemble a core of subtelomeres of a single P. jirovecii strain from a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen from a single patient. A total of 113 genes encoding surface proteins were identified, including 28 pseudogenes. These genes formed a subtelomeric gene superfamily, which included five families encoding adhesive glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoproteins and one family encoding excreted glycoproteins. Numerical analyses suggested that diversification of the glycoproteins relies on mosaic genes created by ectopic recombination and occurs only within each family. DNA motifs suggested that all genes are expressed independently, except those of the family encoding the most abundant surface glycoproteins, which are subject to mutually exclusive expression. PCR analyses showed that exchange of the expressed gene of the latter family occurs frequently, possibly favored by the location of the genes proximal to the telomere because this allows concomitant telomere exchange. Our observations suggest that (i) the P. jirovecii cell surface is made of a complex mixture of different surface proteins, with a majority of a single isoform of the most abundant glycoprotein, (ii) genetic mosaicism within each family ensures variation of the glycoproteins, and (iii) the strategy of the fungus consists of the continuous production of new subpopulations composed of cells that are antigenically different. IMPORTANCE Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus causing severe pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals. It is the second most frequent life-threatening invasive fungal infection. We have studied the mechanisms

  4. Comparative Genomics Reveals the Core Gene Toolbox for the Fungus-Insect Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Stata, Matt; Wang, Wei; Stajich, Jason E; White, Merlin M; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2018-05-15

    Modern genomics has shed light on many entomopathogenic fungi and expanded our knowledge widely; however, little is known about the genomic features of the insect-commensal fungi. Harpellales are obligate commensals living in the digestive tracts of disease-bearing insects (black flies, midges, and mosquitoes). In this study, we produced and annotated whole-genome sequences of nine Harpellales taxa and conducted the first comparative analyses to infer the genomic diversity within the members of the Harpellales. The genomes of the insect gut fungi feature low (26% to 37%) GC content and large genome size variations (25 to 102 Mb). Further comparisons with insect-pathogenic fungi (from both Ascomycota and Zoopagomycota), as well as with free-living relatives (as negative controls), helped to identify a gene toolbox that is essential to the fungus-insect symbiosis. The results not only narrow the genomic scope of fungus-insect interactions from several thousands to eight core players but also distinguish host invasion strategies employed by insect pathogens and commensals. The genomic content suggests that insect commensal fungi rely mostly on adhesion protein anchors that target digestive system, while entomopathogenic fungi have higher numbers of transmembrane helices, signal peptides, and pathogen-host interaction (PHI) genes across the whole genome and enrich genes as well as functional domains to inactivate the host inflammation system and suppress the host defense. Phylogenomic analyses have revealed that genome sizes of Harpellales fungi vary among lineages with an integer-multiple pattern, which implies that ancient genome duplications may have occurred within the gut of insects. IMPORTANCE Insect guts harbor various microbes that are important for host digestion, immune response, and disease dispersal in certain cases. Bacteria, which are among the primary endosymbionts, have been studied extensively. However, fungi, which are also frequently encountered

  5. Endemic infection of the amphibian chytrid fungus in a frog community post-decline.

    PubMed

    Retallick, Richard W R; McCallum, Hamish; Speare, Rick

    2004-11-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of B. dendrobatidis infections in toe tips of T. eungellensis and sympatric species collected in a mark-recapture study between 1994 and 1998. This longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions. We found a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation. The overall prevalence of infection was 18% in T. eungellensis and 28% in Litoria wilcoxii/jungguy, a sympatric frog that appeared not to decline in 1985-1986. No infection was found in any of the other sympatric species. Most importantly, we found no consistent evidence of lower survival in T. eungellensis that were infected at the time of first capture, compared with uninfected individuals. These results refute the hypothesis that remnant populations of T. eungellensis recovered after a B. dendrobatidis epidemic because the pathogen had disappeared. They show that populations of T. eungellensis now persist with stable, endemic infections of B. dendrobatidis.

  6. Reclassification of the butternut canker fungus, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum, into the genus Ophiognomonia.

    PubMed

    Broders, K D; Boland, G J

    2011-01-01

    Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Sc-j), which causes a canker disease on butternut, is largely responsible for the decline of this tree in the United States and Canada. The original description of the species was based on anamorphic characters because the teleomorph is unknown. Recent phylogenetic investigations have found that Sc-j is not a member of the genus Sirococcus, and accurate taxonomic classification is required. The objective of this study is to use sequence data to determine the phylogenetic placement of Sc-j within the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales. Isolates were recovered from infected Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis (heartnut), Juglans cinerea (butternut), and Juglans nigra (black walnut) in Ontario and the eastern United States. The genes coding for β-tubulin, actin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha from 28 isolates of Sc-j and representatives of the major lineages within the Gnomoniaceae were evaluated. There was no difference in the sequences of the five genes among the isolates of Sc-j studied, indicating a recent introduction followed by asexual reproduction and spread via conidia. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrate this fungus does not belong to the genus Sirococcus, and provides strong support (99% MP and 100% NJ bootstrap values, and 100% Bayesian posterior probabilities) for its inclusion in the genus Ophiognomonia, thereby supporting a reclassification of the butternut canker fungus to Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Glyoxylate Cycle in an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus. Carbon Flux and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Peter J.; Jun, Jeongwon; Abubaker, Jehad; Arreola, Raul; Gopalan, Anjali; Bago, Berta; Hernandez-Sebastia, Cinta; Allen, James W.; Douds, David D.; Pfeffer, Philip E.; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2001-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is responsible for huge fluxes of photosynthetically fixed carbon from plants to the soil. Lipid, which is the dominant form of stored carbon in the fungal partner and which fuels spore germination, is made by the fungus within the root and is exported to the extraradical mycelium. We tested the hypothesis that the glyoxylate cycle is central to the flow of carbon in the AM symbiosis. The results of 13C labeling of germinating spores and extraradical mycelium with 13C2-acetate and 13C2-glycerol and analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicate that there are very substantial fluxes through the glyoxylate cycle in the fungal partner. Full-length sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction from a cDNA library from germinating spores of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices showed strong homology to gene sequences for isocitrate lyase and malate synthase from plants and other fungal species. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction measurements show that these genes are expressed at significant levels during the symbiosis. Glyoxysome-like bodies were observed by electron microscopy in fungal structures where the glyoxylate cycle is expected to be active, which is consistent with the presence in both enzyme sequences of motifs associated with glyoxysomal targeting. We also identified among several hundred expressed sequence tags several enzymes of primary metabolism whose expression during spore germination is consistent with previous labeling studies and with fluxes into and out of the glyoxylate cycle. PMID:11706207

  8. Interactions between the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sonorensis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) and the saprobic fungus Fusarium oxysporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Navarro, P D; McMullen, J G; Stock, S P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the effect of the saprobic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on the fitness of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sonorensis (Caborca strain). Sand column assays were considered to evaluate the effect of fungal mycelia on infective juvenile (IJ) movement and host access. Additionally, we investigated the effect of fungal spores on the nematodes' ability to search for a host, its virulence, penetration efficiency and reproduction. Three application timings were considered to assess interactions between the fungus and the nematodes. In vitro assays were also considered to determine the effect of fungal extracts on the nematode's symbiotic bacteria. Our observations indicate that presence and age of fungal mycelia significantly affect IJ movement in the sand columns and their ability to establish in the host. These results were also reflected in a reduced insect mortality. In particular, treatments with the 15 days old mycelia showed a significant reduction in insect mortality and penetration efficiency. Presence of fungal spores also impacted nematode virulence and reproduction. In particular, two of the application timings tested (simultaneous [EPN and fungal spores applied at the same time] and alternate I [EPN applied first, fungus applied 24h later]) resulted in antagonistic interactions. Moreover, IJ progeny was reduced to half in the simultaneous application. In vitro assays revealed that fungal extracts at the highest concentration tested (10mg/ml) inhibited the growth of the symbiotic bacteria. Overall, these results suggest that saprobic fungi may play an important role in regulating. EPN populations in the soil, and that they may be one of the factors that impact nematode survival in the soil and their access to insect hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogenetic placement of an unusual coral mushroom challenges the classic hypothesis of strict coevolution in the apterostigma pilosum group ant-fungus mutualism.

    PubMed

    Dentinger, Bryn T M; Lodge, D Jean; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Desjardin, Dennis E; McLaughlin, David J

    2009-08-01

    The approximately 50 million-year-old fungus-farming ant mutualism is a classic example of coevolution, involving ants that subsist on asexual, fungal biomass, in turn propagating the fungus clonally through nest-to-nest transmission. Most mutualistic ants cultivate two closely related groups of gilled mushrooms, whereas one small group of ants in the genus Apterostigma cultivates a distantly related lineage comprised of the G2 and G4 groups. The G2 and G4 fungi were previously shown to form a monophyletic group sister to the thread-like coral mushroom family Pterulaceae. Here, we identify an enigmatic coral mushroom that produces both fertile and sterile fruiting structures as the closest free-living relative of the G4 fungi, challenging the monophyly of the Apterostigma-cultivated fungi for the first time. Both nonparametric bootstrap and Bayesian posterior probability support the node leading to the G4 cultivars and a free-living Pterula mushroom. These data suggest three scenarios that contradict the hypothesis of strict coevolution: (1) multiple domestications, (2) escape from domestication, (3) selection of single cultivar lineages from an ancestral mixed-fungus garden. These results illustrate how incomplete phylogenies for coevolved symbionts impede our understanding of the patterns and processes of coevolution.

  10. Genetically divergent types of the wheat leaf fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a center of tetraploid wheat diversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. ...

  11. Effect of diflubenzuron on the development of Pinus pinaster seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Miguel A; Sousa, Nadine R; Franco, Albina R; Costa, Vítor; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB) is an insecticide commonly used to control forest pests. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of diflubenzuron on the development of Pinus pinaster seedlings and Pisolithus tinctorius under laboratory conditions and to study the possible protective role of this ectomycorrhizal fungus against the effects of diflubenzuron. In vitro experiments revealed that diflubenzuron inhibited fungal growth at all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg L(-1)). Root growth was inhibited at the two highest diflubenzuron concentrations. The activity of the antioxidant defence system of non-inoculated P. pinaster increased at 1 and 10 mg DFB kg(-1) substrate, and inoculation increased the threshold to the highest concentration. The protective role of the ectomycorrhizal fungus was seen in the increase of CAT activity. This study revealed that despite causing no mortality, diflubenzuron has the ability to cause sub-lethal damage to P. pinaster. The disproportionate use of this insecticide may lead to higher amounts of its residues in soil and the biosphere, endangering trees, fungi and their symbiosis.

  12. Significant genetic and phenotypic changes arising from clonal growth of a single spore of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus over multiple generations.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, Martine O; Croll, Daniel; Koch, Alexander M; Sanders, Ian R

    2012-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are highly successful plant symbionts. They reproduce clonally producing multinucleate spores. It has been suggested that some AMF harbor genetically different nuclei. However, recent advances in sequencing the Glomus irregulare genome have indicated very low within-fungus polymorphism. We tested the null hypothesis that, with no genetic differences among nuclei, no significant genetic or phenotypic variation would occur among clonal single spore lines generated from one initial AMF spore. Furthermore, no additional variation would be expected in the following generations of single spore lines. Genetic diversity contained in one initial spore repeatedly gave rise to genetically different variants of the fungus with novel phenotypes. The genetic changes represented quantitative changes in allele frequencies, most probably as a result of changes in the frequency of genetic variation partitioned on different nuclei. The genetic and phenotypic variation is remarkable, given that it arose repeatedly from one clonal individual. Our results highlight the dynamic nature of AMF genetics. Even though within-fungus genetic variation is low, some is probably partitioned among nuclei and potentially causes changes in the phenotype. Our results are important for understanding AMF genetics, as well as for researchers and biotechnologists hoping to use AMF genetic diversity for the improvement of AMF inoculum. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann as a novel source of the anticancer pro-drug deoxypodophyllotoxin.

    PubMed

    Kusari, S; Lamshöft, M; Spiteller, M

    2009-09-01

    Isolation, identification and characterization of an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann, as a novel producer of deoxypodophyllotoxin and its in vitro antimicrobial assay. The methodology for the isolation, identification and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from the twigs of the J. communis L. Horstmann plant, which specifically and consistently produces deoxypodophyllotoxin, was unequivocally established. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius by molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Deoxypodophyllotoxin was identified and quantified by high-resolution LC-MS, LC-MS(2) and LC-MS(3). The antimicrobial efficacy of the fungal deoxypodophyllotoxin against a panel of pathogenic bacteria was established. The production of deoxypodophyllotoxin (found in the host) by the cultured endophyte is an enigmatic observation. It demonstrates the transfer of gene(s) for such accumulation by horizontal means from the host plant to its endophytic counterpart. It would be interesting to further study the deoxypodophyllotoxin production and regulation by the cultured endophyte in J. communis and in axenic cultures. This endophyte is a potential handle for scientific and commercial exploitation. Although the current accumulation of deoxypodophyllotoxin by the endophyte is not very high, it could be scaled-up to provide adequate production to satisfy new drug development and clinical needs. However, further refined precursor-feeding and mass-balance studies are required to result in the consistent and dependable production.

  14. Interactions between Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae and Sublethal Doses of Spinosad for Control of House Fly, Musca domestica

    PubMed Central

    Sharififard, M; Mossadegh, MS; Vazirianzadeh, B; Zarei-Mahmoudabadi, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Metarhizium anisopliae strain IRAN 437C is one of the most virulent fungal isolates against house fly, Musca domestica. The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of this isolate with sublethal doses of spinosad against housefly. Methods: In adult bioassay, conidia of entomopathogenic fungus were applied as inoculated bait at 105 and 107 spore per gram and spinosad at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 μg (A.I.) per gram bait. In larval bioassay, conidia were applied as combination of spore with larval bedding at 106 and 108 spore per gram and spinosad at sublethals of 0.002, 0.004 and 0.006 μg (AI) per gram medium. Results: Adult mortality was 48% and 72% for fungus alone but ranged from 66–87% and 89–95% in combination treatments of 105 and 107 spore/g with sublethal doses of spinosad respectively. The interaction between 105 spore/g with sublethals exhibited synergistic effect, but in combination of 107 spore in spite of higher mortality, the interaction was additive. There was significant difference in LT50 among various treatments. LT50 values in all combination treatments were smaller than LT50 values in alone ones. Larval mortality was 36% and 69% for fungus alone but ranged from 58%–78% and 81%–100% in combination treatments of 106 and 108 spore/g medium with sublethals of spinosad respectively. The interaction was synergistic in all combination treatments of larvae. Conclusion: The interaction between M. anispliae and spinosad indicated a synergetic effect that increased the house fly mortality as well as reduced the lethal time. PMID:22808408

  15. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  16. Sodium Chloride Inhibits the Growth and Infective Capacity of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus and Increases Host Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0–5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1–4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

  17. Redoxcitrinin, a biogenetic precursor of citrinin from marine isolate of fungus Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dahai; Li, Xianguo; Kang, Jung Sook; Choi, Hong Dae; Jung, Jee H; Son, Byeng Wha

    2007-05-01

    A chemical analysis of the fermentation of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. led to the isolation of a biogenetic precursor of citrinin, redoxcitrinin (1), together with polyketide mycotoxins, phenol A (2), citrinin H2 (3), 4-hydroxymellein (4), citrinin (5), and phenol A acid (6). The structures of compounds 1-6 were determined on the basis of physicochemical data analyses. Among them, compounds 1-3 exhibited a potent radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC50 values of 27.7, 23.4, and 27.2 microM, respectively.

  18. GiFRD encodes a protein involved in anaerobic growth in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices.

    PubMed

    Sędzielewska, Kinga A; Vetter, Katja; Bode, Rüdiger; Baronian, Keith; Watzke, Roland; Kunze, Gotthard

    2012-04-01

    Fumarate reductase is a protein involved in the maintenance of redox balance during oxygen deficiency. This enzyme irreversibly catalyzes the reduction of fumarate to succinate and requires flavin cofactors as electron donors. Two examples are the soluble mitochondrial and the cytosolic fumarate reductases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoded by the OSM1 and FRDS1 genes, respectively. This work reports the identification and characterization of the gene encoding cytosolic fumarate reductase enzyme in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices and the establishment of its physiological role. Using a yeast expression system, we demonstrate that G. intraradices GiFRD encodes a protein that has fumarate reductase activity which can functionally substitute for the S. cerevisiae fumarate reductases. Additionally, we showed that GiFRD transformants are not affected by presence of salt in medium, indicating that the presence of this gene has no effect on yeast behavior under osmotic stress. The fact that GiFRD expression and enzymatic activity was present only in asymbiotic stage confirmed existence of at least one anaerobic metabolic pathway in this phase of fungus life cycle. This suggests that the AMF behave as facultative anaerobes in the asymbiotic stage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic variation and factors affecting the genetic structure of the lichenicolous fungus Heterocephalacria bachmannii (Filobasidiales, Basidiomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Laakso, Into; Stenroos, Soili

    2017-01-01

    Heterocephalacria bachmannii is a lichenicolous fungus that takes as hosts numerous lichen species of the genus Cladonia. In the present study we analyze whether the geographical distance, the host species or the host secondary metabolites determine the genetic structure of this parasite. To address the question, populations mainly from the Southern Europe, Southern Finland and the Azores were sampled. The specimens were collected from 20 different host species representing ten chemotypes. Three loci, ITS rDNA, LSU rDNA and mtSSU, were sequenced. The genetic structure was assessed by AMOVA, redundance analyses and Bayesian clustering methods. The results indicated that the host species and the host secondary metabolites are the most influential factors over the genetic structure of this lichenicolous fungus. In addition, the genetic structure of H. bachmannii was compared with that of one of its hosts, Cladonia rangiformis. The population structure of parasite and host were discordant. The contents in phenolic compounds and fatty acids of C. rangiformis were quantified in order to test whether it had some influence on the genetic structure of the species. But no correlation was found with the genetic clusters of H. bachmannii. PMID:29253026

  20. A dipeptide transporter from the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis is upregulated in the intraradical phase.

    PubMed

    Belmondo, Simone; Fiorilli, Valentina; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ferrol, Nuria; Marmeisse, Roland; Lanfranco, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which form an ancient and widespread mutualistic symbiosis with plants, are a crucial but still enigmatic component of the plant micro biome. Nutrient exchange has probably been at the heart of the success of this plant-fungus interaction since the earliest days of plants on land. To characterize genes from the fungal partner involved in nutrient exchange, and presumably important for the functioning of the AM symbiosis, genome-wide transcriptomic data obtained from the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis were exploited. A gene sequence, showing amino acid sequence and transmembrane domains profile similar to members of the PTR2 family of fungal oligopeptide transporters, was identified and called RiPTR2. The functional properties of RiPTR2 were investigated by means of heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective in either one or both of its di/tripeptide transporter genes PTR2 and DAL5. These assays showed that RiPTR2 can transport dipeptides such as Ala-Leu, Ala-Tyr or Tyr-Ala. From the gene expression analyses it seems that RiPTR2 responds to different environmental clues when the fungus grows inside the root and in the extraradical phase.