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Sample records for fur seal callorhinus

  1. Salmonella meningoencephalomyelitis in a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinsus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Roelke, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the brain of a neonatal northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) with gross and microscopic lesions of meningoencephalomyelitis. Microscopic lesions in the liver and lung suggested septicemia.

  2. Organohalogen Contaminants and Vitamins in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) Collected During Subsistence Hunts in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Becker, Paul R; Gribble, Matthew O; Lynch, Jennifer M; Moors, Amanda J; Ness, Jennifer; Peterson, Danielle; Pugh, Rebecca S; Ragland, Tamika; Rimmer, Catherine; Rhoderick, Jody; Schantz, Michele M; Trevillian, Jennifer; Kucklick, John R

    2016-01-01

    During native subsistence hunts from 1987 to 2007, blubber and liver samples from 50 subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were collected on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recently phased-out/current-use POPs, and vitamins. The legacy POPs measured from blubber samples included polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, DDT (and its metabolites), chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, and mirex. Recently phased-out/current-use POPs included in the blubber analysis were the flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and hexabromocyclododecanes. The chemical surfactants, perfluorinated alkyl acids, and vitamins A and E were assessed in the liver samples. Overall, concentrations of legacy POPs are similar to levels seen in seal samples from other areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. Statistically significant correlations were seen between compounds with similar functions (pesticides, flame retardants, vitamins). With sample collection spanning two decades, the temporal trends in the concentrations of POPs and vitamins were assessed. For these animals, the concentrations of the legacy POPs tend to decrease or stay the same with sampling year; however, the concentrations of the current-use POPs increased with sampling year. Vitamin concentrations tended to stay the same across the sampling years. With the population of northern fur seals from St. Paul Island on the decline, a detailed assessment of exposure to contaminants and the correlations with vitamins fills a critical gap for identifying potential population risk factors that might be associated with health effects. PMID:26142120

  3. Organohalogen Contaminants and Vitamins in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) Collected During Subsistence Hunts in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Becker, Paul R; Gribble, Matthew O; Lynch, Jennifer M; Moors, Amanda J; Ness, Jennifer; Peterson, Danielle; Pugh, Rebecca S; Ragland, Tamika; Rimmer, Catherine; Rhoderick, Jody; Schantz, Michele M; Trevillian, Jennifer; Kucklick, John R

    2016-01-01

    During native subsistence hunts from 1987 to 2007, blubber and liver samples from 50 subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were collected on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recently phased-out/current-use POPs, and vitamins. The legacy POPs measured from blubber samples included polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, DDT (and its metabolites), chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, and mirex. Recently phased-out/current-use POPs included in the blubber analysis were the flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and hexabromocyclododecanes. The chemical surfactants, perfluorinated alkyl acids, and vitamins A and E were assessed in the liver samples. Overall, concentrations of legacy POPs are similar to levels seen in seal samples from other areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. Statistically significant correlations were seen between compounds with similar functions (pesticides, flame retardants, vitamins). With sample collection spanning two decades, the temporal trends in the concentrations of POPs and vitamins were assessed. For these animals, the concentrations of the legacy POPs tend to decrease or stay the same with sampling year; however, the concentrations of the current-use POPs increased with sampling year. Vitamin concentrations tended to stay the same across the sampling years. With the population of northern fur seals from St. Paul Island on the decline, a detailed assessment of exposure to contaminants and the correlations with vitamins fills a critical gap for identifying potential population risk factors that might be associated with health effects.

  4. Stable Isotope Models Predict Foraging Habitat of Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Zeppelin, T K; Johnson, D S; Kuhn, C E; Iverson, S J; Ream, R R

    2015-01-01

    We developed models to predict foraging habitat of adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values from plasma and red blood cells. Binomial generalized linear mixed models were developed using blood isotope samples collected from 35 adult female fur seals on three breeding colonies in Alaska during July-October 2006. Satellite location and dive data were used to define habitat use in terms of the proportion of time spent or dives made in different oceanographic/bathymetric domains. For both plasma and red blood cells, the models accurately predicted habitat use for animals that foraged exclusively off or on the continental shelf. The models did not perform as well in predicting habitat use for animals that foraged in both on- and off-shelf habitat; however, sample sizes for these animals were small. Concurrently collected scat, fatty acid, and dive data confirmed that the foraging differences predicted by isotopes were associated with diet differences. Stable isotope samples, dive data, and GPS location data collected from an additional 15 females during August-October 2008 validated the effective use of the models across years. Little within year variation in habitat use was indicated from the comparison between stable isotope values from plasma (representing 1-2 weeks) and red blood cells (representing the prior few months). Constructing predictive models using stable isotopes provides an effective means to assess habitat use at the population level, is inexpensive, and can be applied to other marine predators.

  5. Coxiella burnetii in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) placentas from St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Kersh, Gilbert J; Spraker, Terry; Patyk, Kelly A; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Massung, Robert F; Gelatt, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The decline in the number of northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) pups on St. Paul Island, Alaska, has led to multidisciplinary research, including investigation into issues of reproductive health and success. Given the recent identification of Coxiella burnetii in the placenta of two other marine mammal species, NFS placentas were collected from Reef rookery on St. Paul Island, Alaska, during the 2010 pupping season, examined histologically, and tested for C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 146 placentas examined, gram-negative intratrophoblastic bacteria that were positive for C. burnetii on immunohistochemistry were observed in 5 (3%) placentas. Placental infection was usually devoid of associated inflammation or significant ancillary pathology. One hundred nine (75%) of the placentas were positive for C. burnetii on PCR. C. burnetii is globally distributed and persists for long periods in the environment, providing ample opportunity for exposure of many species. The significance of this finding for the declining fur seal population, potential human exposure and infection, and impact on other sympatric marine mammal or terrestrial species is unclear; further investigation into the epidemiology of Coxiella in the marine ecosystem is warranted.

  6. Stable Isotope Models Predict Foraging Habitat of Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Zeppelin, T. K.; Johnson, D. S.; Kuhn, C. E.; Iverson, S. J.; Ream, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    We developed models to predict foraging habitat of adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values from plasma and red blood cells. Binomial generalized linear mixed models were developed using blood isotope samples collected from 35 adult female fur seals on three breeding colonies in Alaska during July-October 2006. Satellite location and dive data were used to define habitat use in terms of the proportion of time spent or dives made in different oceanographic/bathymetric domains. For both plasma and red blood cells, the models accurately predicted habitat use for animals that foraged exclusively off or on the continental shelf. The models did not perform as well in predicting habitat use for animals that foraged in both on- and off-shelf habitat; however, sample sizes for these animals were small. Concurrently collected scat, fatty acid, and dive data confirmed that the foraging differences predicted by isotopes were associated with diet differences. Stable isotope samples, dive data, and GPS location data collected from an additional 15 females during August-October 2008 validated the effective use of the models across years. Little within year variation in habitat use was indicated from the comparison between stable isotope values from plasma (representing 1-2 weeks) and red blood cells (representing the prior few months). Constructing predictive models using stable isotopes provides an effective means to assess habitat use at the population level, is inexpensive, and can be applied to other marine predators. PMID:26030280

  7. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, Eugene T.; Spraker, Terry R.; Kornyushyn, Vadym V.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and ecology of cestodes from the northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (NFS), were examined using newly collected material from 756 humanely harvested subadult males between 2011 and 2014. NFSs were collected from five different haul-outs on St. Paul Island, Alaska. A total of 14,660 tapeworms were collected with a prevalence of 98.5% and intensity up to 107 cestodes per host (mean intensity 19.7 ± 16.5 SD). Three species of tapeworms were found: Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothriidea) was the most prevalent (prevalence 97.4%), followed by Diplogonoporus tetrapterus (49.7%), and 5 immature specimens of Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis (Tetrabothriidea) (0.5%). Most of the cestodes found in the NFS were immature (69.7%). However, only 0.9% of cestodes were in larval (plerocercoid) stages. The species composition, prevalence and intensity of cestodes from these NFSs were not statistically different between the five separate haul-outs. Significant increases in the intensity of NFS infections were observed during the study period. PMID:26101743

  8. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended. PMID:24803576

  9. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended.

  10. Isotopic and genetic insights into the persistence of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, P. L.; Hadly, E. A.; Pinsky, M. L.; Newsome, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    What factors allow some species to survive in the face of climate change, disease, or anthropogenic disturbance? How do species shift their geographic distributions in the face of such challenges? These pressing questions in ecology and conservation biology are difficult to answer when looking solely at modern populations or the recent historical record. We explore these questions through analysis of DNA and the isotopic composition of modern and ancient northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus). The NFS is an eared seal (otariid) that ranges along the north Pacific, where it breeds on offshore islands; by far the largest modern rookeries are on the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. The species shows a high degree of philopatry, and females feed while nursing, wean pups at 4 months, and spend the rest of the year foraging far offshore further south. Archaelogical study reveals that Holocene NFS had numerous breeding colonies from the Channel Islands to the Aleutians. Temperate latitude colonies collapsed in the late Holocene in response to hunting pressures and perhaps, environmental change. The species has recolonized parts of its former range since the 1960s. Despite facing similar threats, other marine mammals have failed to rebound (e.g., Guadalupe fur seals) or have exceptionally low genetic diversity indicating recent and prolonged bottlenecks (e.g., northern elephant seals). Isotopic analyses of sub-fossil growth series indicate that extirpated mid-latitude colonies weaned much later (≥12 months), like all other otariid species that breed at temperate latitudes. As a result, females were tied to rookery sites year-round and had a much-reduced migratory range relative to modern NFS females breeding in the Bering Sea, a result also supported by isotopic analyses. Serial coalescent simulations of ancient and modern DNA reveals that exceptionally high migration rates and Arctic refugia provided resilience to NFS. These traits allowed the species to

  11. Novel polyomaviral infection in the placenta of a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Goldstein, Tracey; Hearne, Carol; Gelatt, Tom; Spraker, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In 2010, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were identified in trophoblasts of a single northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) placenta from a presumed healthy birth on St. Paul Island, Alaska. On transmission electron microscopy, virions were approximately 40 nm in diameter and were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the nucleus. The tissue was positive for the polyomaviral major capsid gene (VP1) by PCR, and the sequenced product revealed a novel Orthopolyomavirus. Twenty-nine additional NFS placentas, devoid of viral inclusions on histologic examination, were tested for polyomavirus by PCR; all were negative. The significance of this novel virus for the infected animal is unknown, but the virus does not appear to be very prevalent within the placentas from newborn northern fur seal pups. PMID:23307383

  12. Novel polyomaviral infection in the placenta of a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Goldstein, Tracey; Hearne, Carol; Gelatt, Tom; Spraker, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In 2010, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were identified in trophoblasts of a single northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) placenta from a presumed healthy birth on St. Paul Island, Alaska. On transmission electron microscopy, virions were approximately 40 nm in diameter and were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the nucleus. The tissue was positive for the polyomaviral major capsid gene (VP1) by PCR, and the sequenced product revealed a novel Orthopolyomavirus. Twenty-nine additional NFS placentas, devoid of viral inclusions on histologic examination, were tested for polyomavirus by PCR; all were negative. The significance of this novel virus for the infected animal is unknown, but the virus does not appear to be very prevalent within the placentas from newborn northern fur seal pups.

  13. Acanthocephalans in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) on St. Paul Island, Alaska: species, prevalence, and biodiversity in four fur seal subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Lisitsyna, O I; Lyons, E T; Spraker, T R; Tolliver, S C

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring studies of acanthocephalans in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) (NFSs) and a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758) were performed on St. Paul Island, Alaska, in July-August 2011. Gastrointestinal tracts of 105 humanely harvested NFS subadult males (SAMs) (3-4 years old) were collected during the annual Aleut subsistence harvest at four haul-out areas (HOAS): Lukanin (n = 26 NFSs), Polovina (n = 28), Gorbatch (n = 30), and Morzhovyi (n = 21). One gastrointestinal tract collected from a harbor seal (about 3-4 years old) found dead at Morzhovyi HOAS was also examined. The total prevalence of infection in NFSs with acanthocephalans was 29.52 % with variations from 7.69 % to 47.62 % between the four different HOAS. Eight acanthocephalan species of two genera-Corynosoma Lühe, 1904 (Corynosoma strumosum, Corynosoma alaskensis, Corynosoma cameroni, Corynosoma semerme, Corynosoma similis, Corynosoma validum, and Corynosoma villosum), and Bolbosoma Porta, 1908 (Bolbosoma nipponicum)-were found in the NFSs and a harbor seal. This is a new record of C. alaskensis for the NFSs. Short biological notes of the species found are presented. Differences in species composition as well as in prevalence of acanthocephalans parasitizing NFSs were observed in subpopulations from four different HOAS on St. Paul Island. The highest biodiversity of acanthocephalans and infection were found in subpopulations on Polovina and Morzhovyj HOAS, the lowest was on Lukanin HOAS. From 3.2 % (for C. validum) to 19.4 % (for C. villosum) of NFSs were infected by one acanthocephalan species; two species were found in 22.6 %; three in 9.7 %; and four in 3.2 %. Further studies of NFS parasites are necessary to follow the trends in parasitic infection rates and diversity in NFS population on the Pribilov Islands and for monitoring the influence of various ecological factors on NFS populations in Alaska.

  14. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Aalderink, M T; Nguyen, H P; Kass, P H; Arzi, B; Verstraete, F J M

    2015-05-01

    Skulls from 145 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. The museum specimens were acquired from strandings along the west coast of the USA between 1896 and 2008. Seventy-one skulls (49.0%) were from male animals, 56 (38.6%) from female animals and 18 (12.4%) from animals of unknown sex. Their age varied from juvenile to adult, with 58 adult animals (40.0%) and 87 juvenile animals (60.0%). The majority of teeth were available for examination (95.1%); 3.4% of teeth were artefactually absent, 0.8% were deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 0.6% were deemed congenitally absent. Males were no more likely than females to have either acquired tooth loss (P = 0.054) or congenitally absent teeth (P = 0.919). Adults had significantly more acquired tooth loss than juveniles (P = 0.0099). Malformations were seen in 11 teeth (0.2% of all 4,699 teeth available for examination). Two roots, instead of the typical one root, were found on 14 teeth (0.3%). Supernumerary teeth were associated with 14 normal teeth (0.3%) in eight specimens (5.5% of the total number of specimens). A total of 22 persistent deciduous teeth were found, 19 of which were associated with the maxillary canine teeth. Attrition/abrasion was seen on 194 teeth (3.9%); the canine teeth were most often affected, accounting for 39.7% of all abraded teeth. Adults were found to have a greater prevalence of abraded teeth than juveniles (P <0.0001). No significant difference was found in the appearance of attrition/abrasion between males and females (P = 0.072). Tooth fractures were found in 24 specimens (16.6%), affecting a total of 54 teeth (1.1%). Periapical lesions were found in two skulls (1.4%). None of the specimens showed signs of enamel hypoplasia. About a fifth (18.6%) of alveoli, either with or without teeth, showed signs of alveolar bony changes consistent with periodontitis. A total of 108 specimens (74.5%) had at least one tooth

  15. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Aalderink, M T; Nguyen, H P; Kass, P H; Arzi, B; Verstraete, F J M

    2015-05-01

    Skulls from 145 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. The museum specimens were acquired from strandings along the west coast of the USA between 1896 and 2008. Seventy-one skulls (49.0%) were from male animals, 56 (38.6%) from female animals and 18 (12.4%) from animals of unknown sex. Their age varied from juvenile to adult, with 58 adult animals (40.0%) and 87 juvenile animals (60.0%). The majority of teeth were available for examination (95.1%); 3.4% of teeth were artefactually absent, 0.8% were deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 0.6% were deemed congenitally absent. Males were no more likely than females to have either acquired tooth loss (P = 0.054) or congenitally absent teeth (P = 0.919). Adults had significantly more acquired tooth loss than juveniles (P = 0.0099). Malformations were seen in 11 teeth (0.2% of all 4,699 teeth available for examination). Two roots, instead of the typical one root, were found on 14 teeth (0.3%). Supernumerary teeth were associated with 14 normal teeth (0.3%) in eight specimens (5.5% of the total number of specimens). A total of 22 persistent deciduous teeth were found, 19 of which were associated with the maxillary canine teeth. Attrition/abrasion was seen on 194 teeth (3.9%); the canine teeth were most often affected, accounting for 39.7% of all abraded teeth. Adults were found to have a greater prevalence of abraded teeth than juveniles (P <0.0001). No significant difference was found in the appearance of attrition/abrasion between males and females (P = 0.072). Tooth fractures were found in 24 specimens (16.6%), affecting a total of 54 teeth (1.1%). Periapical lesions were found in two skulls (1.4%). None of the specimens showed signs of enamel hypoplasia. About a fifth (18.6%) of alveoli, either with or without teeth, showed signs of alveolar bony changes consistent with periodontitis. A total of 108 specimens (74.5%) had at least one tooth

  16. Energetic costs and thermoregulation in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups: the importance of behavioral strategies for thermal balance in furred marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Liwanag, Heather E M

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral thermoregulation represents an important strategy for reducing energetic costs in thermally challenging environments, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates. Because of the cryptic lifestyle of aquatic species, the energetic benefits of such behaviors in marine endotherms have been much more difficult to demonstrate. In this study, I examined the importance of behavioral thermoregulation in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pup, a small-bodied endotherm that spends prolonged periods at sea. The thermal neutral zones of three weaned male northern fur seal pups (body mass range = 11.8-12.8 kg) were determined by measuring resting metabolic rate using open-flow respirometry at water temperatures ranging from 2.5° to 25.0°C. Metabolic rate averaged 10.03 ± 2.26 mL O₂kg⁻¹ min⁻¹ for pups resting within their thermal neutral zone; lower critical temperature was 8.3° ± 2.5°C , approximately 8°C higher than the coldest sea surface temperatures encountered in northern Pacific waters. To determine whether behavioral strategies could mitigate this potential thermal limitation, I measured metabolic rate during grooming activities and the unique jughandling behavior of fur seals. Both sedentary grooming and active grooming resulted in significant increases in metabolic rate relative to rest (P = 0.001), and percent time spent grooming increased significantly at colder water temperatures (P < 0.001). Jughandling metabolic rate (12.71 ± 2.73 mL O₂kg⁻¹ min ⁻¹) was significantly greater than resting rates at water temperatures within the thermal neutral zone (P < 0.05) but less than resting metabolism at colder water temperatures. These data indicate that behavioral strategies may help to mitigate thermal challenges faced by northern fur seal pups while resting at sea.

  17. Apoptosis in normal and Coxiella burnetii-infected placentas from Alaskan northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Myers, E; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, B; Spraker, T; Gelatt, T; Duncan, C

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified in 75% of northern fur seal placentas from a single rookery in Alaska, but nothing was known about the significance of this organism in the population. Although many infectious organisms cause increased cell death, C. burnetii has been shown to suppress apoptosis of the host macrophages as an intracellular survival mechanism. To determine if infection induces a similar functional change in the placenta, immunohistochemistry for antibodies to cleaved caspase-3 (activated caspase-3) and the (TDT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique were used to compare the amount of placental apoptosis in infected and noninfected placentas. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of apoptotic cells between infected and uninfected placentas, with more apoptosis identified in the uninfected placentas. This finding suggests that the survival mechanism of C. burnetii in host macrophages to reduce apoptosis may also be utilized in trophoblasts. The significance of decreased trophoblastic apoptosis for the northern fur seal fetus requires further investigation.

  18. Update on the prevalence of the hookworm, Uncinaria lucasi, in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tolliver, Sharon C; Spraker, Terry R

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hookworms (Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901) was determined in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) on St. Paul Island (SPI), Alaska in July and August, 2011. Three of 61 (4.9%) dead pups harbored 1 to 13 adult hookworms each in their intestines. Parasitic larvae (L(3)) of hookworms were recovered from the blubber of 4 of 133 (3%) of subadult males (SAMs) examined. One parasitic L(3) was detected from each infected SAM. Adult U. lucasi (n = 3) were found in the intestine of 1 of 105 SAMs examined (0.95%). This is the first documented finding of adult U. lucasi in SAMs of the northern fur seals. Continued low prevalence of hookworms the last several years parallels the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals on SPI over a similar time period.

  19. The ontogeny of metabolic rate and thermoregulatory capabilities of northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, pups in air and water.

    PubMed

    Donohue, M J; Costa, D P; Goebel, M E; Baker, J D

    2000-03-01

    Young pinnipeds, born on land, must eventually enter the water to feed independently. The aim of this study was to examine developmental factors that might influence this transition. The ontogeny of metabolic rate and thermoregulation in northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, pups was investigated at two developmental stages in air and water using open-circuit respirometry. Mean in-air resting metabolic rate (RMR) increased significantly from 113+/-5 ml O(2 )min(-)(1) (N=18) pre-molt to 160+/-4 ml O(2 )min(-)(1) (N=16; means +/- s.e.m.) post-molt. In-water, whole-body metabolic rates did not differ pre- and post-molt and were 2.6 and 1.6 times in-air RMRs respectively. Mass-specific metabolic rates of pre-molt pups in water were 2.8 times in-air rates. Mean mass-specific metabolic rates of post-molt pups at 20 degrees C in water and air did not differ (16.1+/-1.7 ml O(2 )min(-)(1 )kg(-)(1); N=10). In-air mass-specific metabolic rates of post-molt pups were significantly lower than in-water rates at 5 degrees C (18.2+/-1.1 ml O(2 )min(-)(1 )kg(-)(1); N=10) and 10 degrees C (19.4+/-1.7 ml O(2 )min(-)(1 )kg(-)(1); N=10; means +/- s.e.m.). Northern fur seal pups have metabolic rates comparable with those of terrestrial mammalian young of similar body size. Thermal conductance was independent of air temperature, but increased with water temperature. In-water thermal conductance of pre-molt pups was approximately twice that of post-molt pups. In-water pre-molt pups matched the energy expenditure of larger post-molt pups while still failing to maintain body temperature. Pre-molt pups experience greater relative costs when entering the water regardless of temperature than do larger post-molt pups. This study demonstrates that the development of thermoregulatory capabilities plays a significant role in determining when northern fur seal pups enter the water.

  20. Short-term episodes of imposed fasting have a greater effect on young northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in summer than in winter.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A S; Volpov, Beth L; Trites, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    An unexpected shortage of food may affect wildlife in a different way depending on the time of year when it occurs. We imposed 48 h fasts on six female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus; ages 6-24 months) to identify times of year when they might be particularly sensitive to interruptions in food supply. We monitored changes in their resting metabolic rates and their metabolic response to thermal challenges, and also examined potential bioenergetic causes for seasonal differences in body mass loss. The pre-fast metabolism of the fur seals while in ambient air or submerged in water at 4°C was higher during summer (June to Sepember) than winter (November to March), and submergence did not significantly increase metabolism, indicating a lack of additional thermoregulatory costs. There was no evidence of metabolic depression following the fasting periods, nor did metabolism increase during the post-fast thermal challenge, suggesting that mass loss did not negatively impact thermoregulatory capacity. However, the fur seals lost mass at greater rates while fasting during the summer months, when metabolism is normally high to facilitate faster growth rates (which would ordinarily have been supported by higher food intake levels). Our findings suggest that summer is a more critical time of year than winter for young northern fur seals to obtain adequate nutrition.

  1. Short-term episodes of imposed fasting have a greater effect on young northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in summer than in winter

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David A. S.; Volpov, Beth L.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    An unexpected shortage of food may affect wildlife in a different way depending on the time of year when it occurs. We imposed 48 h fasts on six female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus; ages 6–24 months) to identify times of year when they might be particularly sensitive to interruptions in food supply. We monitored changes in their resting metabolic rates and their metabolic response to thermal challenges, and also examined potential bioenergetic causes for seasonal differences in body mass loss. The pre-fast metabolism of the fur seals while in ambient air or submerged in water at 4°C was higher during summer (June to Sepember) than winter (November to March), and submergence did not significantly increase metabolism, indicating a lack of additional thermoregulatory costs. There was no evidence of metabolic depression following the fasting periods, nor did metabolism increase during the post-fast thermal challenge, suggesting that mass loss did not negatively impact thermoregulatory capacity. However, the fur seals lost mass at greater rates while fasting during the summer months, when metabolism is normally high to facilitate faster growth rates (which would ordinarily have been supported by higher food intake levels). Our findings suggest that summer is a more critical time of year than winter for young northern fur seals to obtain adequate nutrition. PMID:27293642

  2. Ecological, morphological, and molecular studies of Acanthocheilonema odendhali (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Kuzmin, Y I; Tkach, V V; Spraker, T R; Lyons, E T

    2013-09-01

    Studies of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) infection by the filariid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali were carried out in 2011-2012 on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Archipelago, Alaska. Skins of 502 humanely harvested northern fur seals from haul-out areas of five rookeries, Polovina (n = 122), Morjovi (n = 54), Zapadni (n = 72), Lukanin (n = 109), and Gorbatch (n = 145), were examined. A. odendhali was found in 18% of northern fur seals. The prevalence of infection ranged from 12.5% up to 22.9% on different haul-out areas on the island. The mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (range 1-7). Detailed morphological examination of collected specimens was performed using light microscopy. Several characters were added to the morphological description of the species, among them lateral thickening of the body cuticle, especially prominent in males, variations in number and position of genital papillae in males, transverse striation of the cuticle, and terminal dilation on tail end in microfilariae. The adult specimens studied had a shorter esophagus than type specimens from the California sea lion described by Perry (1967). Comparison of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cox1 gene from specimens collected from five sampling sites on St. Paul Island and a specimen from the type host and territory in California showed no significant differences and strongly supported conspecificity of the material from Alaska with A. odendhali. PMID:23760875

  3. A NOVEL GAMMAHERPESVIRUS IN NORTHERN FUR SEALS (CALLORHINUS URSINUS) IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CALIFORNIA SEA LION (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS) CARCINOMA-ASSOCIATED OTARINE HERPESVIRUS-1.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Gulland, Frances M D; DeLong, Robert; Gelatt, Tom; Archer, Linda; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-01-01

    Otarine herpesvirus 1 (OtHV1) is strongly associated with California sea lion (CSL, Zalophus californianus) urogenital carcinoma, the most common cancer documented in marine mammals. In addition to CSL, OtHV1 has also been found in association with carcinoma in South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), demonstrating it can infect related species. Northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus) are sympatric with CSL, and copulation between these species has been observed; yet, there are no reports of urogenital carcinoma in NFS. We describe a new Otarine herpesvirus found in vaginal swabs from NFS, herein called OtHV4. Partial sequencing of the polymerase gene and the glycoprotein B gene revealed OtHV4 is closely related to OtHV1, with 95% homology in the region of polymerase sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that they are sister taxa. An OtHV4-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR was developed and validated, and its use on vaginal swabs revealed 16 of 50 (32%) wild adult female NFS were positive for OtHV4. The identification of a virus highly similar to the carcinoma-associated OtHV1 in a sympatric species without carcinoma suggests that comparative genomics of OtHV1 and OtHV4 may identify candidate viral oncogenes. PMID:26555110

  4. A NOVEL GAMMAHERPESVIRUS IN NORTHERN FUR SEALS (CALLORHINUS URSINUS) IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CALIFORNIA SEA LION (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS) CARCINOMA-ASSOCIATED OTARINE HERPESVIRUS-1.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Gulland, Frances M D; DeLong, Robert; Gelatt, Tom; Archer, Linda; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-01-01

    Otarine herpesvirus 1 (OtHV1) is strongly associated with California sea lion (CSL, Zalophus californianus) urogenital carcinoma, the most common cancer documented in marine mammals. In addition to CSL, OtHV1 has also been found in association with carcinoma in South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), demonstrating it can infect related species. Northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus) are sympatric with CSL, and copulation between these species has been observed; yet, there are no reports of urogenital carcinoma in NFS. We describe a new Otarine herpesvirus found in vaginal swabs from NFS, herein called OtHV4. Partial sequencing of the polymerase gene and the glycoprotein B gene revealed OtHV4 is closely related to OtHV1, with 95% homology in the region of polymerase sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that they are sister taxa. An OtHV4-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR was developed and validated, and its use on vaginal swabs revealed 16 of 50 (32%) wild adult female NFS were positive for OtHV4. The identification of a virus highly similar to the carcinoma-associated OtHV1 in a sympatric species without carcinoma suggests that comparative genomics of OtHV1 and OtHV4 may identify candidate viral oncogenes.

  5. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  6. Fortuitous Encounters between Seagliders and Adult Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) Coast: Upper Ocean Variability and Links to Top Predator Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pelland, Noel A.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Lee, Craig M.; Eriksen, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA) – a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  7. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  8. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  9. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  10. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  11. Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

    2011-09-01

    The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts

  12. Accelerometers identify new behaviors and show little difference in the activity budgets of lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) between breeding islands and foraging habitats in the eastern Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Battaile, Brian C; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Nordstrom, Chad A; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    We tagged 82 lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) with tri-axial accelerometers and magnetometers on two eastern Bering Sea islands (Bogoslof and St. Paul) with contrasting population trajectories. Using depth data, accelerometer data and spectral analysis we classified time spent diving (30%), resting (~7%), shaking and grooming their pelage (9%), swimming in the prone position (~10%) and two types of previously undocumented rolling behavior (29%), with the remaining time (~15%) unspecified. The reason for the extensive rolling behavior is not known. We ground-truthed the accelerometry signals for shaking and grooming and rolling behaviors--and identified the acceleration signal for porpoising--by filming tagged northern fur seals in captivity. Speeds from GPS interpolated data indicated that animals traveled fastest while in the prone position, suggesting that this behavior is indicative of destination-based swimming. Very little difference was found in the percentages of time spent in the categorical behaviors with respect to breeding islands (Bogoslof or St. Paul Island), forager type (cathemeral or nocturnal), and the region where the animals foraged (primarily on-shelf <200 m, or off-shelf > 200 m). The lack of significant differences between islands, regions and forager type may indicate that behaviors summarized over a trip are somewhat hardwired even though foraging trip length and when and where animals dive are known to vary with island, forager type and region. PMID:25807552

  13. Accelerometers Identify New Behaviors and Show Little Difference in the Activity Budgets of Lactating Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) between Breeding Islands and Foraging Habitats in the Eastern Bering Sea

    PubMed Central

    Battaile, Brian C.; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q.; Nordstrom, Chad A.; Rosen, David A. S.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    We tagged 82 lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) with tri-axial accelerometers and magnetometers on two eastern Bering Sea islands (Bogoslof and St. Paul) with contrasting population trajectories. Using depth data, accelerometer data and spectral analysis we classified time spent diving (30%), resting (~7%), shaking and grooming their pelage (9%), swimming in the prone position (~10%) and two types of previously undocumented rolling behavior (29%), with the remaining time (~15%) unspecified. The reason for the extensive rolling behavior is not known. We ground-truthed the accelerometry signals for shaking and grooming and rolling behaviors—and identified the acceleration signal for porpoising—by filming tagged northern fur seals in captivity. Speeds from GPS interpolated data indicated that animals traveled fastest while in the prone position, suggesting that this behavior is indicative of destination-based swimming. Very little difference was found in the percentages of time spent in the categorical behaviors with respect to breeding islands (Bogoslof or St. Paul Island), forager type (cathemeral or nocturnal), and the region where the animals foraged (primarily on-shelf <200m, or off-shelf > 200m). The lack of significant differences between islands, regions and forager type may indicate that behaviors summarized over a trip are somewhat hardwired even though foraging trip length and when and where animals dive are known to vary with island, forager type and region. PMID:25807552

  14. Generic names of northern and southern fur seals (Mammalia: Otariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    We have resolved a nomenclatural problem discovered during research on the northern fur seal that concerns the correct generic name for this taxon and for fur seals of the Southern Hemisphere. The unfortunate practice by some 19th century authors to use names in their Latinized form, but to date them from their first appearance as French common names led to the use of Arctocephalus for southern fur seals when the name correctly applies to the northern fur seal, known today as Callorhinus ursinus. However, Arctocephalus and Callorhinus are antedated by Otoes G. Fischer, 1817, which is the earliest available generic for the fur seal of the northern Pacific. The earliest available generic name for southern fur seals is Halarctus Gill, 1866. To avoid the confusion that would result from replacing the currently used generic names with those required by strict adherence to the Principle of Priority, we have petitioned the International Commission on Zoological nomenclature to preserve Arctocephalus and Callorhinus for the southern and northern fur seals, respectively.

  15. THE SHIFTING BASELINE OF NORTHERN FUR SEAL ECOLOGY IN THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC OCEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historical data provide a baseline against which to judge the significance of recent ecological shifts and guide conservation strategies, especially for species decimated by pre-20th century harvesting. Northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) are a common pinniped species i...

  16. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  17. The oldest known fur seal.

    PubMed

    Boessenecker, Robert W; Churchill, Morgan

    2015-02-01

    The poorly known fossil record of fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) does not reflect their current diversity and widespread abundance. This limited fossil record contrasts with the more complete fossil records of other pinnipeds such as walruses (Odobenidae). The oldest known otariids appear 5-6 Ma after the earliest odobenids, and the remarkably derived craniodental morphology of otariids offers few clues to their early evolutionary history and phylogenetic affinities among pinnipeds. We report a new otariid, Eotaria crypta, from the lower middle Miocene 'Topanga' Formation (15-17.1 Ma) of southern California, represented by a partial mandible with well-preserved dentition. Eotaria crypta is geochronologically intermediate between 'enaliarctine' stem pinnipedimorphs (16.6-27 Ma) and previously described otariid fossils (7.3-12.5 Ma), as well as morphologically intermediate by retaining an M2 and a reduced M1 metaconid cusp and lacking P2-4 metaconid cusps. Eotaria crypta eliminates the otariid ghost lineage and confirms that otariids evolved from an 'enaliarctine'-like ancestor. PMID:25672999

  18. The oldest known fur seal.

    PubMed

    Boessenecker, Robert W; Churchill, Morgan

    2015-02-01

    The poorly known fossil record of fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) does not reflect their current diversity and widespread abundance. This limited fossil record contrasts with the more complete fossil records of other pinnipeds such as walruses (Odobenidae). The oldest known otariids appear 5-6 Ma after the earliest odobenids, and the remarkably derived craniodental morphology of otariids offers few clues to their early evolutionary history and phylogenetic affinities among pinnipeds. We report a new otariid, Eotaria crypta, from the lower middle Miocene 'Topanga' Formation (15-17.1 Ma) of southern California, represented by a partial mandible with well-preserved dentition. Eotaria crypta is geochronologically intermediate between 'enaliarctine' stem pinnipedimorphs (16.6-27 Ma) and previously described otariid fossils (7.3-12.5 Ma), as well as morphologically intermediate by retaining an M2 and a reduced M1 metaconid cusp and lacking P2-4 metaconid cusps. Eotaria crypta eliminates the otariid ghost lineage and confirms that otariids evolved from an 'enaliarctine'-like ancestor.

  19. The oldest known fur seal

    PubMed Central

    Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The poorly known fossil record of fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) does not reflect their current diversity and widespread abundance. This limited fossil record contrasts with the more complete fossil records of other pinnipeds such as walruses (Odobenidae). The oldest known otariids appear 5–6 Ma after the earliest odobenids, and the remarkably derived craniodental morphology of otariids offers few clues to their early evolutionary history and phylogenetic affinities among pinnipeds. We report a new otariid, Eotaria crypta, from the lower middle Miocene ‘Topanga’ Formation (15–17.1 Ma) of southern California, represented by a partial mandible with well-preserved dentition. Eotaria crypta is geochronologically intermediate between ‘enaliarctine’ stem pinnipedimorphs (16.6–27 Ma) and previously described otariid fossils (7.3–12.5 Ma), as well as morphologically intermediate by retaining an M2 and a reduced M1 metaconid cusp and lacking P2–4 metaconid cusps. Eotaria crypta eliminates the otariid ghost lineage and confirms that otariids evolved from an ‘enaliarctine’-like ancestor. PMID:25672999

  20. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  1. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  2. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  3. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  4. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  5. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  6. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  7. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  8. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  9. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  10. Genetic variability in Guadalupe fur seals.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, G; Fain, S R; Gallo-Reynoso, J P; Figueroa-Carranza, A L; Le Boeuf, B J

    1998-01-01

    The Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi) population underwent one or two severe bottlenecks due to commercial sealing in the late 19th century. Since then the protected population has been growing steadily around their only rookery, Isla de Guadalupe, Mexico. We probed both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes using multilocus nuclear DNA profiling and mitochondrial DNA sequencing to estimate the level of genetic variability of the present population. Unlike other pinniped populations that have experienced similar historical bottlenecks, such as Hawaiian monk seals and northern elephant seals, high levels of genetic variability were found. PMID:9703686

  11. Age dependent and geographical variations of heavy metals in northern fur seals

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, K.; Ichihash, H.; Tatsukawa, R.; Loughlin, T.R.; Baba, N.; Kiyota, M.

    1995-12-31

    The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg were determined in muscle, liver and kidney of 7 northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) collected off Sanriku, Japan and from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. Age trends, regional differences, and the possible discrimination of populations using heavy metals as tracers are also discussed. Almost all the elements except for Cd were found to be higher in liver. Cadmium levels in kidney were found to be higher than other organs. In muscle, concentrations of Hg, Cd and Fe were found to increase significantly with age. Manganese concentrations decreased with age in muscle and kidney. In kidney Cu concentration decreased with age. Cadmium concentrations of the northern fur seals in this study were higher than other otariids, reflecting a predominantly squid diet. Concentrations of Mn and Hg were found to be higher in the fur seals caught off Sanriku than in animals from the Pribilof Islands, while those of Zn and Cd were found to be higher in the samples from the Islands. The difference in concentration levels of Cd and Hg can be attributed to the sea water concentration, whereas differences in essential elements like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu could be associated with seasonal physiological changes. Discriminant analysis of heavy metal concentrations was used to identify habitat. Sixty-three of 67 animals (94%) can distinctly be classified using this technique. Heavy metal concentrations in tissues may provide a useful information to elucidate the primary feeding grounds of fur seals.

  12. Feeding kinematics and performance of basal otariid pinnipeds, Steller sea lions and northern fur seals: implications for the evolution of mammalian feeding.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-10-01

    Feeding performance studies can address questions relevant to feeding ecology and evolution. Our current understanding of feeding mechanisms for aquatic mammals is poor. Therefore, we characterized the feeding kinematics and performance of five Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and six northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). We tested the hypotheses that both species use suction as their primary feeding mode, and that rapid jaw opening was related to suction generation. Steller sea lions used suction as their primary feeding mode, but also used a biting feeding mode. In contrast, northern fur seals only used a biting feeding mode. Kinematic profiles of Steller sea lions were all indicative of suction feeding (i.e. a small gape, small gape angle, large depression of the hyolingual apparatus and lip pursing). However, jaw opening as measured by gape angle opening velocity (GAOV) was relatively slow in Steller sea lions. In contrast to Steller sea lions, the GAOV of northern fur seals was extremely fast, but their kinematic profiles indicated a biting feeding mode (i.e. northern fur seals exhibited a greater gape, a greater gape angle and minimal depression of the hyolingual apparatus compared with Steller sea lions). Steller sea lions produced both subambient and suprambient pressures at 45 kPa. In contrast, northern fur seals produced no detectable pressure measurements. Steller sea lions have a broader feeding repertoire than northern fur seals, which likely enables them to feed on a greater variety of prey, in more diverse habitats. Based on the basal phylogenetic position of northern fur seals, craniodental morphological data of the Callorhinus lineage, and the performance data provided in this study, we suggest that northern fur seals may be exhibiting their ancestral feeding mode.

  13. Feeding kinematics and performance of basal otariid pinnipeds, Steller sea lions and northern fur seals: implications for the evolution of mammalian feeding.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-10-01

    Feeding performance studies can address questions relevant to feeding ecology and evolution. Our current understanding of feeding mechanisms for aquatic mammals is poor. Therefore, we characterized the feeding kinematics and performance of five Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and six northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). We tested the hypotheses that both species use suction as their primary feeding mode, and that rapid jaw opening was related to suction generation. Steller sea lions used suction as their primary feeding mode, but also used a biting feeding mode. In contrast, northern fur seals only used a biting feeding mode. Kinematic profiles of Steller sea lions were all indicative of suction feeding (i.e. a small gape, small gape angle, large depression of the hyolingual apparatus and lip pursing). However, jaw opening as measured by gape angle opening velocity (GAOV) was relatively slow in Steller sea lions. In contrast to Steller sea lions, the GAOV of northern fur seals was extremely fast, but their kinematic profiles indicated a biting feeding mode (i.e. northern fur seals exhibited a greater gape, a greater gape angle and minimal depression of the hyolingual apparatus compared with Steller sea lions). Steller sea lions produced both subambient and suprambient pressures at 45 kPa. In contrast, northern fur seals produced no detectable pressure measurements. Steller sea lions have a broader feeding repertoire than northern fur seals, which likely enables them to feed on a greater variety of prey, in more diverse habitats. Based on the basal phylogenetic position of northern fur seals, craniodental morphological data of the Callorhinus lineage, and the performance data provided in this study, we suggest that northern fur seals may be exhibiting their ancestral feeding mode. PMID:26449976

  14. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The... seal except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Exceptions. (1) The...

  15. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The... seal except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Exceptions. (1) The...

  16. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The... seal except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Exceptions. (1) The...

  17. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The... seal except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Exceptions. (1) The...

  18. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The... seal except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Exceptions. (1) The...

  19. Fur seals display a strong drive for bilateral slow-wave sleep while on land.

    PubMed

    Lyamin, Oleg I; Kosenko, Peter O; Lapierre, Jennifer L; Mukhametov, Lev M; Siegel, Jerome M

    2008-11-26

    Fur seals (pinnipeds of the family Otariidae) display two fundamentally different patterns of sleep: bilaterally symmetrical slow-wave sleep (BSWS) as seen in terrestrial mammals and slow-wave sleep (SWS) with a striking interhemispheric EEG asymmetry (asymmetrical SWS or ASWS) as observed in cetaceans. We examined the effect of preventing fur seals from sleeping in BSWS on their pattern of sleep. Four northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) kept on land were sleep deprived (SD) of BSWS for 3 consecutive days, followed by 1 recovery day. EEG asymmetry was evaluated both visually and by EEG spectral analysis. SD significantly reduced the percentage of high-voltage BSWS (on average to 14% of baseline) and REM sleep (to 60% of baseline) whereas the percentage of low-voltage BSWS was not affected. During the SD period, all seals repeatedly tried to enter BSWS (109-411 attempts per day). SD significantly increased the amount of ASWS in each seal when scored visually (to 116-235% of baseline) and the difference in the EEG slow-wave activity (spectral power in the range of 1.2-4.0 Hz) between the two hemispheres (117-197%) as measured by the asymmetry index. High-voltage BSWS and the amount of SWS in each hemisphere were significantly elevated during the first 4 h of recovery. These data indicate that fur seals display a homeostatic response to the loss of SWS and that alternating SWS in the two hemispheres does not adequately compensate for the absence of BSWS.

  20. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    PubMed

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.

  1. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    SciTech Connect

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation

  2. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimummore » detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.« less

  3. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    PubMed

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species. PMID:26630034

  4. Monoamine Release during Unihemispheric Sleep and Unihemispheric Waking in the Fur Seal

    PubMed Central

    Lyamin, Oleg I.; Lapierre, Jennifer L.; Kosenko, Peter O.; Kodama, Tohru; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Korneva, Svetlana M.; Peever, John H.; Mukhametov, Lev M.; Siegel, Jerome M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our understanding of the role of neurotransmitters in the control of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been entirely based on studies of animals with bilateral sleep. The study of animals with unihemispheric sleep presents the opportunity of separating the neurochemical substrates of waking and sleep EEG from the systemic, bilateral correlates of sleep and waking states. Methods: The release of histamine (HI), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5HT) in cortical and subcortical areas (hypothalamus, thalamus and caudate nucleus) was measured in unrestrained northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using in vivo microdialysis, in combination with, polygraphic recording of EEG, electrooculogram, and neck electromyogram. Results: The pattern of cortical and subcortical HI, NE, and 5HT release in fur seals is similar during bilaterally symmetrical states: highest in active waking, reduced in quiet waking and bilateral slow wave sleep, and lowest in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Cortical and subcortical HI, NE, and 5HT release in seals is highly elevated during certain waking stimuli and behaviors, such as being sprayed with water and feeding. However, in contrast to acetylcholine (ACh), which we have previously studied, the release of HI, NE, and 5HT during unihemispheric sleep is not lateralized in the fur seal. Conclusions: Among the studied neurotransmitters most strongly implicated in waking control, only ACh release is asymmetric in unihemispheric sleep and waking, being greatly increased on the activated side of the brain. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 491. Citation: Lyamin OI, Lapierre JL, Kosenko PO, Kodama T, Bhagwandin A, Korneva SM, Peever JH, Mukhametov LM, Siegel JM. Monoamine release during unihemispheric sleep and unihemispheric waking in the fur seal. SLEEP 2016;39(3):625–636. PMID:26715233

  5. Serum chemistry and antibodies against pathogens in antarctic fur seals, Weddell seals, crabeater seals, and Ross seals.

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Nielsen, Ole; Nordøy, Erling S; Kovacs, Kit M; Krafft, Bjørn A; Thoresen, Stein I; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Osterrieder, Klaus; Roth, Swaantje J; Lydersen, Christian; Godfroid, Jacques; Blix, Arnoldus S

    2012-07-01

    Information on health parameters, such as antibody prevalences and serum chemistry that can reveal exposure to pathogens, disease, and abnormal physiologic conditions, is scarce for Antarctic seal species. Serum samples from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella, n=88) from Bouvetøya (2000-2001 and 2001-2002), and from Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, n=20), Ross seals (Ommatophoca rossii, n=20), and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus, n=9) from the pack-ice off Queen Maud Land, Antarctica (2001) were analyzed for enzyme activity, and concentrations of protein, metabolites, minerals, and cortisol. Adult Antarctic fur seal males had elevated levels of total protein (range 64-99 g/l) compared to adult females and pups (range 52-79 g/l). Antarctic fur seals had higher enzyme activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and amylase, compared to Weddell, Ross, and crabeater seals. Antibodies against Brucella spp. were detected in Weddell seals (37%), Ross seals (5%), and crabeater seals (11%), but not in Antarctic fur seals. Antibodies against phocine herpesvirus 1 were detected in all species examined (Antarctic fur seals, 58%; Weddell seals, 100%; Ross seals, 15%; and crabeater seals, 44%). No antibodies against Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma, or phocine distemper virus (PDV) were detected (Antarctic fur seals were not tested for PDV antibodies). Antarctic seals are challenged by reduced sea ice and increasing temperatures due to climate change, and increased anthropogenic activity can introduce new pathogens to these vulnerable ecosystems and represent a threat for these animals. Our data provide a baseline for future monitoring of health parameters of these Antarctic seal species, for tracking the impact of environmental, climatic, and anthropogenic changes in Antarctica over time. PMID:22740529

  6. Serum chemistry and antibodies against pathogens in antarctic fur seals, Weddell seals, crabeater seals, and Ross seals.

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Nielsen, Ole; Nordøy, Erling S; Kovacs, Kit M; Krafft, Bjørn A; Thoresen, Stein I; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Osterrieder, Klaus; Roth, Swaantje J; Lydersen, Christian; Godfroid, Jacques; Blix, Arnoldus S

    2012-07-01

    Information on health parameters, such as antibody prevalences and serum chemistry that can reveal exposure to pathogens, disease, and abnormal physiologic conditions, is scarce for Antarctic seal species. Serum samples from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella, n=88) from Bouvetøya (2000-2001 and 2001-2002), and from Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, n=20), Ross seals (Ommatophoca rossii, n=20), and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus, n=9) from the pack-ice off Queen Maud Land, Antarctica (2001) were analyzed for enzyme activity, and concentrations of protein, metabolites, minerals, and cortisol. Adult Antarctic fur seal males had elevated levels of total protein (range 64-99 g/l) compared to adult females and pups (range 52-79 g/l). Antarctic fur seals had higher enzyme activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and amylase, compared to Weddell, Ross, and crabeater seals. Antibodies against Brucella spp. were detected in Weddell seals (37%), Ross seals (5%), and crabeater seals (11%), but not in Antarctic fur seals. Antibodies against phocine herpesvirus 1 were detected in all species examined (Antarctic fur seals, 58%; Weddell seals, 100%; Ross seals, 15%; and crabeater seals, 44%). No antibodies against Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma, or phocine distemper virus (PDV) were detected (Antarctic fur seals were not tested for PDV antibodies). Antarctic seals are challenged by reduced sea ice and increasing temperatures due to climate change, and increased anthropogenic activity can introduce new pathogens to these vulnerable ecosystems and represent a threat for these animals. Our data provide a baseline for future monitoring of health parameters of these Antarctic seal species, for tracking the impact of environmental, climatic, and anthropogenic changes in Antarctica over time.

  7. Cortical acetylcholine release is lateralized during asymmetrical slow-wave sleep in northern fur seals.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Jennifer L; Kosenko, Peter O; Lyamin, Oleg I; Kodama, Tohru; Mukhametov, Lev M; Siegel, Jerome M

    2007-10-31

    Fur seals are unique in that they display both bilateral slow-wave sleep (BSWS), as seen in all terrestrial mammals, and slow-wave sleep with interhemispheric electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, resembling the unihemispheric slow waves of cetaceans. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, which is also termed asymmetrical slow wave sleep (ASWS). However, we may begin to understand the expression of ASWS by studying the neurotransmitter systems thought to be involved in the generation and maintenance of sleep-wake states in terrestrial mammals. We examined bilaterally the release of cortical acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter implicated in the regulation of cortical EEG and behavioral arousal, across the sleep-wake cycle in four juvenile northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). In vivo microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection were used to measure cortical ACh levels during polygraphically defined behavioral states. Cortical ACh release was state-dependent, showing maximal release during active waking (AW), similar levels during quiet waking (QW), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and minimal release during BSWS. When compared with BSWS, cortical ACh levels increased approximately 300% during AW, and approximately 200% during QW and REM sleep. During these bilaterally symmetrical EEG states, ACh was synchronously released from both hemispheres. However, during ASWS, ACh release was lateralized with greater release in the hemisphere displaying lower voltage activity, at levels approximating those seen in QW. These findings demonstrate that cortical ACh release is tightly linked to hemispheric EEG activation.

  8. Brightness discrimination in the South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, C; Dehnhardt, G

    2013-05-24

    Underwater, the contrast between object and background is much larger reduced with increasing distance between object and observer than in air. For marine predators, such as pinnipeds, it would therefore be advantageous to possess a high sensitivity for brightness differences, since this would increase the distance at which prey can be detected visually. Few studies have examined the brightness discrimination thresholds of pinnipeds. Two studies with phocid seals have confirmed low brightness discrimination thresholds in pinnipeds whereas the threshold obtained for the South African fur seal seems to be twice as high as that of the phocids. However, the experiments with the South African fur seal have been conducted under inadequate conditions which likely resulted in an underestimation of the brightness discrimination ability of this species. The study at hand reinvestigated the brightness discrimination threshold of the South African fur seal under well controlled conditions. In a two alternative forced choice task, one fur seal was trained to indicate the position of the brighter of two gray discs presented on a black background on a monitor. The thresholds were determined for 11 standard intensities each tested against 8 lower comparison intensities. It was found that the fur seal was able to perceive brightness differences of 8-10%, which is better than the phocid species tested so far. For low standard intensities, however, the threshold increased which could to be due to a relative slow dark adaptation rate of the fur seal. The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of visual information for pinnipeds during foraging dives and are directly compared to the results obtained for the harbor seal which has been tested under the same conditions as the fur seal in a previous study.

  9. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  10. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  11. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  12. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  13. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  14. Relative changes in krill abundance inferred from Antarctic fur seal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Stark, John; Wang, Yuhong; Cheng, Zhongqi; Yang, Qichao; Sun, Song

    2011-01-01

    Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a predominant species in the Southern Ocean, it is very sensitive to climate change, and it supports large stocks of fishes, seabirds, seals and whales in Antarctic marine ecosystems. Modern krill stocks have been estimated directly by net hauls and acoustic surveys; the historical krill density especially the long-term one in the Southern Ocean, however, is unknown. Here we inferred the relative krill population changes along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) over the 20th century from the trophic level change of Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella using stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of archival seal hairs. Since Antarctic fur seals feed preferentially on krill, the variation of δ(15)N in seal hair indicates a change in the proportion of krill in the seal's diets and thus the krill availability in local seawater. For the past century, enriching fur seal δ(15)N values indicated decreasing krill availability. This is agreement with direct observation for the past ∼30 years and suggests that the recently documented decline in krill populations began in the early parts of the 20th century. This novel method makes it possible to infer past krill population changes from ancient tissues of krill predators.

  15. Relative Changes in Krill Abundance Inferred from Antarctic Fur Seal

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Stark, John; Wang, Yuhong; Cheng, Zhongqi; Yang, Qichao; Sun, Song

    2011-01-01

    Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a predominant species in the Southern Ocean, it is very sensitive to climate change, and it supports large stocks of fishes, seabirds, seals and whales in Antarctic marine ecosystems. Modern krill stocks have been estimated directly by net hauls and acoustic surveys; the historical krill density especially the long-term one in the Southern Ocean, however, is unknown. Here we inferred the relative krill population changes along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) over the 20th century from the trophic level change of Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes of archival seal hairs. Since Antarctic fur seals feed preferentially on krill, the variation of δ15N in seal hair indicates a change in the proportion of krill in the seal's diets and thus the krill availability in local seawater. For the past century, enriching fur seal δ15N values indicated decreasing krill availability. This is agreement with direct observation for the past ∼30 years and suggests that the recently documented decline in krill populations began in the early parts of the 20th century. This novel method makes it possible to infer past krill population changes from ancient tissues of krill predators. PMID:22087294

  16. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 CFR 216.23(c) for the purpose of processing, and will be returned directly to the Alaskan Native..., or to an agent registered under 50 CFR 216.23(c) for resale or transfer to an Alaskan Native, who... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts....

  17. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 CFR 216.23(c) for the purpose of processing, and will be returned directly to the Alaskan Native..., or to an agent registered under 50 CFR 216.23(c) for resale or transfer to an Alaskan Native, who... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts....

  18. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 CFR 216.23(c) for the purpose of processing, and will be returned directly to the Alaskan Native..., or to an agent registered under 50 CFR 216.23(c) for resale or transfer to an Alaskan Native, who... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts....

  19. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 CFR 216.23(c) for the purpose of processing, and will be returned directly to the Alaskan Native..., or to an agent registered under 50 CFR 216.23(c) for resale or transfer to an Alaskan Native, who... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts....

  20. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 CFR 216.23(c) for the purpose of processing, and will be returned directly to the Alaskan Native..., or to an agent registered under 50 CFR 216.23(c) for resale or transfer to an Alaskan Native, who... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts....

  1. The shifting baseline of northern fur seal ecology in the northeast Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Seth D.; Etnier, Michael A.; Gifford-Gonzalez, Diane; Phillips, Donald L.; van Tuinen, Marcel; Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Costa, Daniel P.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Guilderson, Tom P.; Koch, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    Historical data provide a baseline against which to judge the significance of recent ecological shifts and guide conservation strategies, especially for species decimated by pre-20th century harvesting. Northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) are a common pinniped species in archaeological sites from southern California to the Aleutian Islands, yet today they breed almost exclusively on offshore islands at high latitudes. Harvest profiles from archaeological sites contain many unweaned pups, confirming the presence of temperate-latitude breeding colonies in California, the Pacific Northwest, and the eastern Aleutian Islands. Isotopic results suggest that prehistoric NFS fed offshore across their entire range, that California populations were distinct from populations to the north, and that populations breeding at temperate latitudes in the past used a different reproductive strategy than modern populations. The extinction of temperate-latitude breeding populations was asynchronous geographically. In southern California, the Pacific Northwest, and the eastern Aleutians, NFS remained abundant in the archaeological record up to the historical period ≈200 years B.P.; thus their regional collapse is plausibly attributed to historical hunting or some other anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance. In contrast, NFS populations in central and northern California collapsed at ≈800 years B.P., long before European contact. The relative roles of human hunting versus climatic factors in explaining this ecological shift are unclear, as more paleoclimate information is needed from the coastal zone. PMID:17526720

  2. The shifting baseline of northern fur seal ecology in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Seth D; Etnier, Michael A; Gifford-Gonzalez, Diane; Phillips, Donald L; van Tuinen, Marcel; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Costa, Daniel P; Kennett, Douglas J; Guilderson, Tom P; Koch, Paul L

    2007-06-01

    Historical data provide a baseline against which to judge the significance of recent ecological shifts and guide conservation strategies, especially for species decimated by pre-20th century harvesting. Northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) are a common pinniped species in archaeological sites from southern California to the Aleutian Islands, yet today they breed almost exclusively on offshore islands at high latitudes. Harvest profiles from archaeological sites contain many unweaned pups, confirming the presence of temperate-latitude breeding colonies in California, the Pacific Northwest, and the eastern Aleutian Islands. Isotopic results suggest that prehistoric NFS fed offshore across their entire range, that California populations were distinct from populations to the north, and that populations breeding at temperate latitudes in the past used a different reproductive strategy than modern populations. The extinction of temperate-latitude breeding populations was asynchronous geographically. In southern California, the Pacific Northwest, and the eastern Aleutians, NFS remained abundant in the archaeological record up to the historical period approximately 200 years B.P.; thus their regional collapse is plausibly attributed to historical hunting or some other anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance. In contrast, NFS populations in central and northern California collapsed at approximately 800 years B.P., long before European contact. The relative roles of human hunting versus climatic factors in explaining this ecological shift are unclear, as more paleoclimate information is needed from the coastal zone.

  3. Regional differences in cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity and interhemispheric EEG asymmetry in the fur seal.

    PubMed

    Lyamin, Oleg I; Pavlova, Ivetta F; Kosenko, Peter O; Mukhametov, Lev M; Siegel, Jerome M

    2012-12-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) is characterized by a highly expressed interhemispheric electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, called 'unihemispheric' or 'asymmetrical' SWS. The aim of this study was to examine the regional differences in slow wave activity (SWA; power in the range of 1.2-4.0 Hz) within one hemisphere and differences in the degree of interhemispheric EEG asymmetry within this species. Three seals were implanted with 10 EEG electrodes, positioned bilaterally (five in each hemisphere) over the frontal, occipital and parietal cortex. The expression of interhemispheric SWA asymmetry between symmetrical monopolar recordings was estimated based on the asymmetry index [AI = (L-R)/(L+R), where L and R are the power in the left and right hemispheres, respectively]. Our findings indicate an anterior-posterior gradient in SWA during asymmetrical SWS in fur seals, which is opposite to that described for other mammals, including humans, with a larger SWA recorded in the parietal and occipital cortex. Interhemispheric EEG asymmetry in fur seals was recorded across the entire dorsal cerebral cortex, including sensory (visual and somatosensory), motor and associative (parietal or suprasylvian) cortical areas. The expression of asymmetry was greatest in occipital-lateral and parietal derivations and smallest in frontal-medial derivations. Regardless of regional differences in SWA, the majority (90%) of SWS episodes with interhemispheric EEG asymmetry meet the criteria for 'unihemispheric SWS' (one hemisphere is asleep while the other is awake). The remaining episodes can be described as episodes of bilateral SWS with a local activation in one cerebral hemisphere.

  4. Patterns in prey use among fur seals and seabirds in the Pribilof Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, E. H.; Vlietstra, L. S.; Johnson, D. S.; Zeppelin, T. K.; Byrd, G. V.; Springer, A. M.; Ream, R. R.; Hunt, G. L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We explored correlation in diet trends for five piscivorous predators that reproduce on the Pribilof Islands as illustrative of the shifting structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. We evaluated the size and species of prey consumed by adult female and juvenile northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) and adults and chicks of black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla), red-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa brevirostris), thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia), and common murres ( Uria aalge) from data collected between July and October 1960-2000. Sample sources included stomachs from seals and seabirds collected on pelagic foraging grounds in the eastern Bering Sea, seal scats from rookeries and seabird regurgitations and whole prey from nest sites on St. Paul and St. George Islands of the Pribilof Island archipelago. Typical prey included small fish and invertebrates (⩽20 cm for seals and ⩽12 cm for seabirds) that concentrate along frontal boundaries of the continental shelf/slope and in the epi-pelagic zone. Squids and fishes including walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), capelin ( Mallotus villosus), and sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus) were variably important in the diet of all five predators. Some prey, such as capelin, were principal in predator diets during the 1960s (seals) and into the early 1980s (seabirds), but declined or disappeared from all predator diets thereafter while others, such as walleye pollock, occurred with increasing frequency from the 1970s forward. As the number of individuals consuming walleye pollock increased, the overall volume of pollock in seabird diets declined. This decline was coincident with a decrease in the age and body size of pollock consumed by both seabirds and fur seals. Squid and pollock were negatively correlated in the diets of their primary consumers, northern fur seals (Pearson's coefficient -0.71, p=0.016) and thick-billed murres (Pearson's coefficient=-0.74, p=0.015) from the 1970s forward. Inter-island variation

  5. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic Fur Seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica▿

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, F. J.; Pérez-Boto, D.; Jiménez, C.; San Miguel, E.; Echeita, A.; Rengifo-Herrera, C.; García-Párraga, D.; Ortega-Mora, L. M.; Pedraza-Díaz, S.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari. PMID:20639356

  7. Morphometric and molecular characterization of the species of Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 (Nematoda) parasitic in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber), with notes on hookworms in three other pinniped hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paul; Lynch, Michael; Hu, Min; Arnould, John P Y; Norman, Richard; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-05-01

    This study presents morphological and molecular data on hookworms from the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber) currently identified in Australian waters as Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Additional specimens from the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Péron) and the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) from Australia, and the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) from Antarctica, were included. Using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hookworms from A. p. doriferus, N. cinerea and A. forsteri were found to be genetically similar but distinct from Uncinaria spp. found in M. leonina from Antarctica, as well as from Zalophus californianus (Lesson) and Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus) from California. Few morphological differences were detected between these taxa.

  8. Morphometric and molecular characterization of the species of Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 (Nematoda) parasitic in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber), with notes on hookworms in three other pinniped hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paul; Lynch, Michael; Hu, Min; Arnould, John P Y; Norman, Richard; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-05-01

    This study presents morphological and molecular data on hookworms from the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber) currently identified in Australian waters as Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Additional specimens from the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Péron) and the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) from Australia, and the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) from Antarctica, were included. Using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hookworms from A. p. doriferus, N. cinerea and A. forsteri were found to be genetically similar but distinct from Uncinaria spp. found in M. leonina from Antarctica, as well as from Zalophus californianus (Lesson) and Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus) from California. Few morphological differences were detected between these taxa. PMID:23595493

  9. Entanglement of Antarctic fur seals at Bird Island, South Georgia.

    PubMed

    Waluda, Claire M; Staniland, Iain J

    2013-09-15

    Between November 1989 and March 2013, 1033 Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella were observed entangled in marine debris at Bird Island, South Georgia. The majority of entanglements involved plastic packaging bands (43%), synthetic line (25%) or fishing net (17%). Juvenile male seals were the most commonly entangled (44%). A piecewise regression analysis showed that a single breakpoint at 1994 gave the best description of inter-annual variability in the data, with higher levels of entanglements prior to 1994 (mean=110±28) followed by persistent lower levels (mean=28±4). Records of entanglements from other sites monitored in the Scotia Sea are also presented. Legislation imposed by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) has, to a certain extent, been effective, but persistent low levels of seal entanglements are still a cause for concern at South Georgia. PMID:23915979

  10. Encephalitozoonosis in 2 South American Fur Seal (Arctocephalus australis) Pups.

    PubMed

    Seguel, M; Howerth, E W; Ritter, J; Paredes, E; Colegrove, K; Gottdenker, N

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral and disseminated encephalitozoonosis was diagnosed by histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry in 2 free-ranging South American fur seal pups found dead at Guafo Island (43°33'S 74°49'W) in southern Chile. In the brain, lesions were characterized by random foci of necrosis with large numbers of macrophages containing numerous microsporidial organisms within parasitophorous vacuoles. In addition, occasional histiocytes loaded with numerous mature and immature microsporidia spores consistent with Encephalitozoon sp were observed in pulmonary alveolar septa, splenic red pulp, glomerular capillaries, and proximal renal tubules by Gram and immunohistochemical stains. To our knowledge, microsporidial infection in a marine mammal species has not been previously reported.

  11. 77 FR 41168 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... to 1,500 sub-adult (1-4 years old) males; hunt or harvest fur seals during a total of 329 days annually, rather than the 47-day harvest season provided for under existing regulations; and take fur seals... Island. The regulations (1) Establish a 47-day period between June 23 and August 8 of each year...

  12. 76 FR 45499 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... review (69 FR 53915, September 3, 2004), and the comments were incorporated into the final EIS (May 2005... Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Islands (the Pribilof Islands) for 2008 to 2010 and proposes annual estimates of fur seal...

  13. Identification of a Novel Circular DNA Virus in New Zealand Fur Seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) Fecal Matter.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Alyssa; Dayaram, Anisha; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-08-08

    Fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus (FSfaCV) is a novel virus isolated from the fecal matter of New Zealand fur seals. FSfaCV has two main open reading frames in its 2,925-nucleotide (nt) genome. The replication-associated protein (Rep) of FSfaCV has similarity to Rep-like sequences in the Giardia intestinalis genome.

  14. Preliminary investigation of a possible lung worm (Parafilaroides decorus), fish (Girella nigricans), and marine mammal (Callorhinus ursinus) cycle for San Miguel sea lion virus type 5.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Skilling, D E; Brown, R J

    1980-11-01

    Colostrum-deprived neonatal Northern fur seal pups (Callorhinus ursinus) were exposed to San Miguel sea lion virus type 5 (SMSV-5) by feeding them fish (Girella nigricans) infected with virus or fish infected with both the sea lion lung worm larvae (Parafilaroides decorus) and virus. Virus infection was demonstrated in 8 of 9 pups, and 1 of these developed a vesicular lesion on the flipper. In this sequence, P decorus larvae exposed to SMSV-5 were fed to G nigricans held at 15 C in a salt water aquarium; 32 days later, these fish were killed, then fed to the fur seal pups. The vesicle developed 22 days subsequent to this and SMSV-5 was reisolated from the lesion. The SMSV-5 was shown to persist for at least 23 days in infected neonatal fur seals. Attempts to establish P decorus infection in Northern fur seal pups were apparently unsuccessful. PMID:6259973

  15. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  16. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  17. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  18. Metastatic Liposarcoma in a South African Fur Seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Pervin, M; Izawa, T; Ito, S; Kuwamura, M; Yamate, J

    2016-07-01

    A 14-year-old female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) was presented with a large skin mass on the right shoulder. At necropsy examination, multiple white nodules were found in the lungs, liver, spleen and right axillary lymph nodes. Histologically, the skin mass was composed of round to polygonal neoplastic cells with round to oval nuclei and variably sized cytoplasmic vacuoles. Cellular and nuclear atypia were prominent. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, but not cytokeratins, S100 protein, adipophilin or desmin. The cytoplasmic lipid droplets stained positively with oil red O. Metastasis was seen in the lungs, liver, spleen and right axillary lymph nodes, with similar morphological features to the skin mass. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of a pleomorphic liposarcoma with systemic metastasis was made. No previous reports of metastatic liposarcomas have been published in marine mammals. PMID:27290645

  19. Encephalitozoonosis in 2 South American Fur Seal (Arctocephalus australis) Pups.

    PubMed

    Seguel, M; Howerth, E W; Ritter, J; Paredes, E; Colegrove, K; Gottdenker, N

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral and disseminated encephalitozoonosis was diagnosed by histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry in 2 free-ranging South American fur seal pups found dead at Guafo Island (43°33'S 74°49'W) in southern Chile. In the brain, lesions were characterized by random foci of necrosis with large numbers of macrophages containing numerous microsporidial organisms within parasitophorous vacuoles. In addition, occasional histiocytes loaded with numerous mature and immature microsporidia spores consistent with Encephalitozoon sp were observed in pulmonary alveolar septa, splenic red pulp, glomerular capillaries, and proximal renal tubules by Gram and immunohistochemical stains. To our knowledge, microsporidial infection in a marine mammal species has not been previously reported. PMID:25248519

  20. Metastatic Liposarcoma in a South African Fur Seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Pervin, M; Izawa, T; Ito, S; Kuwamura, M; Yamate, J

    2016-07-01

    A 14-year-old female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) was presented with a large skin mass on the right shoulder. At necropsy examination, multiple white nodules were found in the lungs, liver, spleen and right axillary lymph nodes. Histologically, the skin mass was composed of round to polygonal neoplastic cells with round to oval nuclei and variably sized cytoplasmic vacuoles. Cellular and nuclear atypia were prominent. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, but not cytokeratins, S100 protein, adipophilin or desmin. The cytoplasmic lipid droplets stained positively with oil red O. Metastasis was seen in the lungs, liver, spleen and right axillary lymph nodes, with similar morphological features to the skin mass. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of a pleomorphic liposarcoma with systemic metastasis was made. No previous reports of metastatic liposarcomas have been published in marine mammals.

  1. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  2. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch.

  3. Bilateral ocular anomalies in a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2014-07-01

    A female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) began having obvious clinical ophthalmologic problems by 8 weeks of age. The initial clinical sign was diffuse corneal edema, which progressed to bullae formation and ulcers; the underlying cause of corneal edema and bullous keratopathy was not identified antemortem.An ophthalmological evaluation was performed when the fur seal was approximately 6 months of age, but due to the diffuse corneal edema, intraocular structures could not be easily evaluated. An underlying infectious etiology was suspected; therefore,appropriate diagnostics were pursued, but did not identify a cause. Initial improvement was noted, but the fur seal then became blind and eventually became very painful.Due to decreased quality of life and aggressive behavior, the fur seal was euthanized.Histopathological diagnoses were persistent tunica vasculosa lentis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous with bilateral hypermature resorbed cataracts and retinal detachments with rosette formation. PMID:24283987

  4. Bilateral ocular anomalies in a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2014-07-01

    A female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) began having obvious clinical ophthalmologic problems by 8 weeks of age. The initial clinical sign was diffuse corneal edema, which progressed to bullae formation and ulcers; the underlying cause of corneal edema and bullous keratopathy was not identified antemortem.An ophthalmological evaluation was performed when the fur seal was approximately 6 months of age, but due to the diffuse corneal edema, intraocular structures could not be easily evaluated. An underlying infectious etiology was suspected; therefore,appropriate diagnostics were pursued, but did not identify a cause. Initial improvement was noted, but the fur seal then became blind and eventually became very painful.Due to decreased quality of life and aggressive behavior, the fur seal was euthanized.Histopathological diagnoses were persistent tunica vasculosa lentis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous with bilateral hypermature resorbed cataracts and retinal detachments with rosette formation.

  5. Identification of a Novel Circular DNA Virus in New Zealand Fur Seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) Fecal Matter

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, Alyssa; Dayaram, Anisha

    2013-01-01

    Fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus (FSfaCV) is a novel virus isolated from the fecal matter of New Zealand fur seals. FSfaCV has two main open reading frames in its 2,925-nucleotide (nt) genome. The replication-associated protein (Rep) of FSfaCV has similarity to Rep-like sequences in the Giardia intestinalis genome. PMID:23929471

  6. Identification of a Novel Circular DNA Virus in New Zealand Fur Seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) Fecal Matter.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Alyssa; Dayaram, Anisha; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus (FSfaCV) is a novel virus isolated from the fecal matter of New Zealand fur seals. FSfaCV has two main open reading frames in its 2,925-nucleotide (nt) genome. The replication-associated protein (Rep) of FSfaCV has similarity to Rep-like sequences in the Giardia intestinalis genome. PMID:23929471

  7. The Behavioural Response of Australian Fur Seals to Motor Boat Noise

    PubMed Central

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10′S, 146°18′E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64–70 dB) versus high (75–85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats. PMID:22623998

  8. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk. PMID:26639991

  9. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  10. Age-related differences revealed in Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart C; Chalker, Andrea; Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-11-01

    The gut microbiota of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was examined at different age classes using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The FISH results indicated that in the fur seal groups, the predominant phyla are Firmicutes (22.14-67.33%) followed by Bacteroidetes (3.11-15.45%) and then Actinobacteria (1.4-5.9%) consistent with other mammals. Phylum Proteobacteria had an initial abundance of 1.8% in the 2-month-old pups, but < 1% of bacterial numbers for the other fur seal age groups. Significant differences did occur in the abundance of Clostridia, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria between 2 months pups and 9 months pups and adult fur seals. Results from the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing supported the FISH data and identified significant differences in the composition of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Fusobacteria at all ages. Class Clostridia in phylum Firmicutes dominates the microbiota of the 2 months and 9 months seal pups, whilst class Bacilli dominates the 6 months pups. In addition, a high level of dissimilarity was observed between all age classes. This study provides novel insight into the gut microbiota of Australian fur seals at different age classes.

  11. Age-related differences revealed in Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart C; Chalker, Andrea; Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-11-01

    The gut microbiota of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was examined at different age classes using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The FISH results indicated that in the fur seal groups, the predominant phyla are Firmicutes (22.14-67.33%) followed by Bacteroidetes (3.11-15.45%) and then Actinobacteria (1.4-5.9%) consistent with other mammals. Phylum Proteobacteria had an initial abundance of 1.8% in the 2-month-old pups, but < 1% of bacterial numbers for the other fur seal age groups. Significant differences did occur in the abundance of Clostridia, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria between 2 months pups and 9 months pups and adult fur seals. Results from the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing supported the FISH data and identified significant differences in the composition of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Fusobacteria at all ages. Class Clostridia in phylum Firmicutes dominates the microbiota of the 2 months and 9 months seal pups, whilst class Bacilli dominates the 6 months pups. In addition, a high level of dissimilarity was observed between all age classes. This study provides novel insight into the gut microbiota of Australian fur seals at different age classes. PMID:23746080

  12. Treatment and prevention of infection following bites of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella)

    PubMed Central

    Kouliev, Timur; Cui, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, an increasing number of people have traveled to sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions each year for research, tourism, and resource exploitation. Hunting of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) almost pushed the species to extinction in the early 1900s, but populations have since shown rapid and substantial recovery. The species’ range has re-expanded to include several islands south of the Antarctic Convergence, most notably South Georgia, and now overlaps with many popular Antarctic travel destinations. Both male and female fur seals can become extremely aggressive when provoked, and their bites, if not properly treated, pose a significant risk of infection by microorganisms not usually encountered in cases of animal bites. In this report, we present the case of a patient treated for a fur seal bite during an Antarctic expedition cruise, review the literature concerning seal bites, and suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent complications. PMID:27147885

  13. Treatment and prevention of infection following bites of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella).

    PubMed

    Kouliev, Timur; Cui, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, an increasing number of people have traveled to sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions each year for research, tourism, and resource exploitation. Hunting of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) almost pushed the species to extinction in the early 1900s, but populations have since shown rapid and substantial recovery. The species' range has re-expanded to include several islands south of the Antarctic Convergence, most notably South Georgia, and now overlaps with many popular Antarctic travel destinations. Both male and female fur seals can become extremely aggressive when provoked, and their bites, if not properly treated, pose a significant risk of infection by microorganisms not usually encountered in cases of animal bites. In this report, we present the case of a patient treated for a fur seal bite during an Antarctic expedition cruise, review the literature concerning seal bites, and suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent complications. PMID:27147885

  14. Treatment and prevention of infection following bites of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella).

    PubMed

    Kouliev, Timur; Cui, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, an increasing number of people have traveled to sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions each year for research, tourism, and resource exploitation. Hunting of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) almost pushed the species to extinction in the early 1900s, but populations have since shown rapid and substantial recovery. The species' range has re-expanded to include several islands south of the Antarctic Convergence, most notably South Georgia, and now overlaps with many popular Antarctic travel destinations. Both male and female fur seals can become extremely aggressive when provoked, and their bites, if not properly treated, pose a significant risk of infection by microorganisms not usually encountered in cases of animal bites. In this report, we present the case of a patient treated for a fur seal bite during an Antarctic expedition cruise, review the literature concerning seal bites, and suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent complications.

  15. Activity Budgets of Captive Cape Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) Under a Training Regime.

    PubMed

    Wierucka, Kaja; Siemianowska, Sonia; Woźniak, Marta; Jasnosz, Katarzyna; Kieliszczyk, Magdalena; Kozak, Paulina; Sergiel, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Ethograms and time budgets are crucial for the behavioral assessment of nonhuman animals in zoos, and they serve as references for welfare research. This study was conducted to obtain detailed time budgets of trained Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) in captivity, to evaluate variations of these patterns, and to determine whether abnormal behaviors had been displayed. Behavioral data for 3 Cape fur seals in the Wroclaw Zoo were collected, and more than 300 observation hours (during a 12-month period) per individual were analyzed. The studied animals exhibited a diversified repertoire of natural behaviors with apparent seasonal and daily patterns, and they did not present stereotypic behaviors. Significant differences of interaction rates between individuals suggest more frequent affiliative interactions among related animals. The absence of stereotypic behaviors, good health of individuals, and the presence of diversified natural behaviors indicated relatively good welfare of Cape fur seals kept in the Wroclaw Zoo. PMID:26709628

  16. Activity Budgets of Captive Cape Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) Under a Training Regime.

    PubMed

    Wierucka, Kaja; Siemianowska, Sonia; Woźniak, Marta; Jasnosz, Katarzyna; Kieliszczyk, Magdalena; Kozak, Paulina; Sergiel, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Ethograms and time budgets are crucial for the behavioral assessment of nonhuman animals in zoos, and they serve as references for welfare research. This study was conducted to obtain detailed time budgets of trained Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) in captivity, to evaluate variations of these patterns, and to determine whether abnormal behaviors had been displayed. Behavioral data for 3 Cape fur seals in the Wroclaw Zoo were collected, and more than 300 observation hours (during a 12-month period) per individual were analyzed. The studied animals exhibited a diversified repertoire of natural behaviors with apparent seasonal and daily patterns, and they did not present stereotypic behaviors. Significant differences of interaction rates between individuals suggest more frequent affiliative interactions among related animals. The absence of stereotypic behaviors, good health of individuals, and the presence of diversified natural behaviors indicated relatively good welfare of Cape fur seals kept in the Wroclaw Zoo.

  17. Characteristics of marine debris that entangle Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lawson, T J; Wilcox, Chris; Johns, Karen; Dann, P; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-15

    Marine debris is a global issue that can have devastating impacts on marine mammals. To understand the types of materials that result in entanglement and thus the potential impact of entangling items on marine wildlife, we analysed data collected from items in which Australian fur seals had been entangled in southern Victoria, Australia over a 15year period. From 1997 to 2012, 138 entangling items were removed from seals. The majority of these entanglements were plastic twine or rope, and seals were entangled in green items more than in any other colour. In general, younger seals were more likely to be entangled than adults. Understanding the effects of marine debris entanglement on the Australian fur seal population can lead to more effective management of the sources of debris and the wildlife that interact with it. PMID:26165938

  18. Characteristics of marine debris that entangle Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lawson, T J; Wilcox, Chris; Johns, Karen; Dann, P; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-15

    Marine debris is a global issue that can have devastating impacts on marine mammals. To understand the types of materials that result in entanglement and thus the potential impact of entangling items on marine wildlife, we analysed data collected from items in which Australian fur seals had been entangled in southern Victoria, Australia over a 15year period. From 1997 to 2012, 138 entangling items were removed from seals. The majority of these entanglements were plastic twine or rope, and seals were entangled in green items more than in any other colour. In general, younger seals were more likely to be entangled than adults. Understanding the effects of marine debris entanglement on the Australian fur seal population can lead to more effective management of the sources of debris and the wildlife that interact with it.

  19. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  20. Ecological implications of body composition and thermal capabilities in young antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella).

    PubMed

    Rutishauser, Matthew R; Costa, Daniel P; Goebel, Michael E; Williams, Terrie M

    2004-01-01

    In comparison with other homeotherms, young recently weaned marine mammals in high latitudes face exceptional energetic demands when foraging and thermoregulating. Lipids are an important source of energy and a major component of insulation that allows them to meet these demands. To examine the role of lipid stores in a high-latitude pinniped, we measured the body composition and thermoregulatory capabilities of Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) pups and yearlings by using flow-through respirometry and hydrogen isotope dilution. From these data, we constructed a model to examine the importance of postweaning fasting capability in free-ranging young fur seals. Resting metabolic rates were different for pups and yearlings measured in 0.6 degrees C water, 10.3 degrees C water, and ambient air; however, mass and percent lipid as covariates accounted for the different metabolic responses in pups and yearlings for all treatments. The estimated lower critical temperature for combined pups and yearlings was 14.4 degrees C, 10 degrees -15 degrees C above water temperatures normally experienced by Antarctic fur seals. Modeling predicted that a weaned fur seal pup would survive at sea from 9.8 to 36.2 d before succumbing to starvation. The most likely maximum travel distance within this time constraint suggests that food resources close to the natal rookery are important to first-year survival for this species.

  1. Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination paradigm by South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias; Svelander, Madeleine; Amundin, Mats

    2008-03-18

    The present study demonstrates that South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, can successfully be trained to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. Using a task based on a food-rewarded two-choice discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli the animals acquired the basic operant conditioning paradigm within 480 to 880 stimulus contacts. Moreover, the fur seals could readily transfer to new S+ and S- stimuli, were capable of distinguishing between fish- and non-fish odors as well as between two fish odors, and were able to remember the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli even after 2- and 15-week breaks. The precision and consistency of the fur seals' performance in tests of discrimination ability and memory demonstrate the suitability of this paradigm for assessing olfactory function in this pinniped. An across-species comparison of several measures of olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master transfer tasks shows that A. pusillus is similar in performance to non-human primates, but inferior to rodents such as mice and rats. The results support the assumption that fur seals may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense of smell may play an hitherto underestimated role in the control of their behavior.

  2. Olfactory discrimination ability of South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) for enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghee; Amundin, Mats; Laska, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm we assessed the ability of South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, to discriminate between 12 enantiomeric odor pairs. The results demonstrate that the fur seals as a group were able to discriminate between the optical isomers of carvone, dihydrocarvone, dihydrocarveol, menthol, limonene oxide, α-pinene, fenchone (all p < 0.01), and β-citronellol (p < 0.05), whereas they failed to distinguish between the (+)- and (-)-forms of limonene, isopulegol, rose oxide, and camphor (all p > 0.05). An analysis of odor structure-activity relationships suggests that a combination of molecular structural properties rather than a single molecular feature may be responsible for the discriminability of enantiomeric odor pairs. A comparison between the discrimination performance of the fur seals and that of other species tested previously on the same set of enantiomers (or subsets thereof) suggests that the olfactory discrimination capabilities of this marine mammal are surprisingly well developed and not generally inferior to that of terrestrial mammals such as human subjects and non-human primates. Further, comparisons suggest that neither the relative nor the absolute size of the olfactory bulbs appear to be reliable predictors of between-species differences in olfactory discrimination capabilities. Taken together, the results of the present study support the notion that the sense of smell may play an important and hitherto underestimated role in regulating the behavior of fur seals. PMID:23011284

  3. 77 FR 6682 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... annual harvest levels for the next 3 years. On July 29, 2011 (76 FR 45499), NMFS published the summary of..., which is available on the NMFS Web site (see Electronic Access) was subjected to public review (69 FR... Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  4. Characterization of the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis).

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Aline Weber; Giongo, Adriana; Valdez, Fernanda P; Blaese de Amorin, Derek; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro A; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana P G

    2016-03-01

    The microbiota of wild marine mammals is poorly understood, perhaps due to the migratory habits of some species and the difficulty in obtaining samples. Using high-throughput sequencing, the present study examines the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Faecal samples from South American (n = 6) and Subantarctic fur seals (n = 4) found dead along the south coast of Brazil were collected. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project-Bayesian classifier. Diversity of the microbiota was assessed by categorization of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units. Results indicate that Firmicutes (88.556%-84.016%) was the predominant phylum in South American and Subantarctic fur seals. The distribution of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria varied according to the fur seal species. Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes represented less than 1% of the sequences. The most abundant order in both fur seals was Clostridiales (88.64% and 87.49%). Individual variable incidences were observed in the composition of family among the fur seals, though the families Lachnospiraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Coriobacteriaceae were more prevalent. This study provides insight into the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American and Subantarctic fur seals. PMID:26880785

  5. Characterization of the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis).

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Aline Weber; Giongo, Adriana; Valdez, Fernanda P; Blaese de Amorin, Derek; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro A; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana P G

    2016-03-01

    The microbiota of wild marine mammals is poorly understood, perhaps due to the migratory habits of some species and the difficulty in obtaining samples. Using high-throughput sequencing, the present study examines the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Faecal samples from South American (n = 6) and Subantarctic fur seals (n = 4) found dead along the south coast of Brazil were collected. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project-Bayesian classifier. Diversity of the microbiota was assessed by categorization of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units. Results indicate that Firmicutes (88.556%-84.016%) was the predominant phylum in South American and Subantarctic fur seals. The distribution of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria varied according to the fur seal species. Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes represented less than 1% of the sequences. The most abundant order in both fur seals was Clostridiales (88.64% and 87.49%). Individual variable incidences were observed in the composition of family among the fur seals, though the families Lachnospiraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Coriobacteriaceae were more prevalent. This study provides insight into the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American and Subantarctic fur seals.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA preservation across 3000-year-old northern fur seal ribs is not related to bone density: Implications for forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Barta, Jodi Lynn; Monroe, Cara; Crockford, Susan J; Kemp, Brian M

    2014-06-01

    While recent forensic research has focused on determining which skeletal elements are superior in their preservation of DNA over the long term, little focus has been placed on measuring intra-element variation. Moreover, there is a general belief that dense (cortical) bone material will contain better-preserved DNA than does spongy (cancellous) bone. To address these ideas, quantitative PCR was used to estimate the degree of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) preservation variance across sections of 19 northern fur seal ribs (Callorhinus ursinus) that date to ∼3000 years before present. Further, we developed a measure called the "density index" that was used to gauge the relative densities of the rib sections studied here to determine if density was an appropriate predictor of preservation. The average preservation among the samples was significantly different (ANOVA, p=1.9×10(-9)) with only 15% of the total variance observed within samples. However, 12 of the 19 specimens (∼63.2%) exhibited at least an order of magnitude difference in mtDNA preservation across the whole. Regression of the amount of mtDNA extracted per gram of bone material against the density index of the bone from which it was extracted demonstrates no relationship between these variables (R(2)=0.03, p=0.28). PMID:24709029

  7. Mitochondrial DNA preservation across 3000-year-old northern fur seal ribs is not related to bone density: Implications for forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Barta, Jodi Lynn; Monroe, Cara; Crockford, Susan J; Kemp, Brian M

    2014-06-01

    While recent forensic research has focused on determining which skeletal elements are superior in their preservation of DNA over the long term, little focus has been placed on measuring intra-element variation. Moreover, there is a general belief that dense (cortical) bone material will contain better-preserved DNA than does spongy (cancellous) bone. To address these ideas, quantitative PCR was used to estimate the degree of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) preservation variance across sections of 19 northern fur seal ribs (Callorhinus ursinus) that date to ∼3000 years before present. Further, we developed a measure called the "density index" that was used to gauge the relative densities of the rib sections studied here to determine if density was an appropriate predictor of preservation. The average preservation among the samples was significantly different (ANOVA, p=1.9×10(-9)) with only 15% of the total variance observed within samples. However, 12 of the 19 specimens (∼63.2%) exhibited at least an order of magnitude difference in mtDNA preservation across the whole. Regression of the amount of mtDNA extracted per gram of bone material against the density index of the bone from which it was extracted demonstrates no relationship between these variables (R(2)=0.03, p=0.28).

  8. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota.

  9. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota. PMID:26827096

  10. Helicobacter spp. from gastric biopsies of stranded South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis).

    PubMed

    Goldman, C G; Loureiro, J D; Matteo, M J; Catalano, M; Gonzalez, A Beltrán; Heredia, S Rodríguez; Zubillaga, M B; Solnick, J V; Cremaschi, G A

    2009-02-01

    Gastrointestinal lesions with uncertain etiology have been widely described among pinnipeds. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter spp. in the gastric mucosa of South American fur seals (Arctocephalusaustralis). Gastric biopsies from thirteen seals, stranded on the shores of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean in Argentina, were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter spp. by PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Six gastric biopsies were positive for Helicobacter spp. Pairwise sequence comparisons showed less than 95% identity to novel Helicobacter spp. described from pinnipeds from North America and Australia. However, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the South American fur seal sequences clustered with 99-100% homology with H. cetorum, a species isolated from dolphins and whales. The presence of H. cetorum in pinnipeds, if confirmed by its isolation from the gastric mucosa of these mammals, demonstrates the wide host range of this bacterium in the marine environment. PMID:18504051

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in the Australian fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus

    SciTech Connect

    Smillie, R.H.; Waid, J.S.

    1987-08-01

    Seals occupy a high trophic level in the marine ecosystem and have large reserves of subcutaneous fats. It is, therefore, not surprising that they accumulate high concentration of lipophilic substances such as organochlorine pesticides. Seal tissue concentration of pesticides are considered by some workers to be a good indication of local environmental loads. The Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks occupy a breading colony from which they can range into Bass Strait, Westernport Bay and Port Phillip Bay. It is, therefore, reasonable that results obtained for local seals should provide an indication of pesticides and PCBs in local squid and schooling fish. Previous results indicate that biota in Port Phillip Bay and Bass Strait, adjacent to the colony are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs. The authors have determined PCB and pesticide levels in local seals.

  12. Heavy metal accumulations in hair of northern fur seals: Application for biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, K.; Saeki, K.; Tatsukawa, R.; Baba, N.; Kiyota, M.; Nitto, H.; Watabe, M.

    1995-12-31

    Hair of northern fur seals had the highest concentrations of many heavy metals among tissues and organs analyzed. Hair could be used as a sensitive indicator for its higher element levels, and can serve as a noninvasive technique for biological monitoring. Significant positive correlation were found between Hg in muscle, Fe in kidney and Cu in liver and those in hair of 42 fur seals from Off-Sanriku, Japan. Using age as a explanatory co-variables, significant multiple regression equations to estimate metal concentrations in internal organs by those in hair were obtained for Hg, Cd, Fe, Cu, Mn. To monitor the seasonal changes in hair concentrations, from the cervical region of 7 fur seals in the Otaru aquarium, Japan, guard hair were clipped during November, 1993 March, 1994 at 7 weeks intervals. Heavy metal levels in hair from the aquarium were compared with those collected in April, 1990--1991 from Off-Sanriku, Japan and from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska which were collected in July, 1992. The levels of Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni in hair in the captive seals gradually increased and were higher than those from Off-Sanriku. Those changes could be associated with growth of hair. In the hair of the breeding animals collected from the island, concentrations of Mn, Ni and Fe were found to be significantly higher than those from Off-Sanriku. increased concentrations of Mn, Ni and Fe were supposed to be caused by exogenous contaminations derived from soil and blood. Fur seal hair seems to be an useful indicator to estimate the internal accumulations of heavy metals provided the seasonal changes and exogenous contamination are taken into account.

  13. The monophyletic origin of sea lions and fur seals (Carnivora; Otariidae) in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Takahiro; Kohno, Naoki; Hasegawa, Masami

    2009-07-15

    The pinniped family Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals) is composed of 7 extant genera with 14 species. They are mainly distributed in the Southern Hemisphere, but the fossil record is only known from the Northern Hemisphere until Pliocene. To clarify the biological and zoogeographical events during their evolution, it is necessary to reconstruct a robust phylogenetic tree. However, phylogenetic relationships among otariids continue to be controversial, except for the basal position of the northern fur seal among the extant otariids. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees of otariids based on mitochondrial genomes and multiple nuclear genes (IRBP and type I STS markers). The monophyly of the otariids including both sea lions and fur seals in the Southern Hemisphere was strongly supported by both the mitochondrial and nuclear evidence. We propose a novel evolutionary and dispersal scenario of otariids based on this phylogenetic hypothesis, estimated divergence times, and fossil records. According to our results, the center of origin of the southern otariids is hypothesized to be the eastern South Pacific along the west coast of South America.

  14. The fat and the furriest: morphological changes in harp seal fur with ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Gmuca, Natalia V; Pearson, Linnea E; Burns, Jennifer M; Liwanag, Heather E M

    2015-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in physiological performance often exemplify the development of adaptations to environmental challenges. For mammals in polar regions, the extreme cold of the environment presents a constant challenge to thermal homeostasis. The harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) is an Arctic species that shifts its thermoregulatory strategy with ontogeny. Adult harp seals primarily use blubber for insulation, but newborn harp seals instead rely on their fur coat while their blubber layer develops. Harp seal pups are weaned abruptly, less than 2 wk after birth, and must subsequently learn to swim and dive in frigid waters on their own. This study examined how the morphological characteristics of harp seal fur change with ontogeny. We compared hair length, hair circularity, and hair density for neonates (1 d old; n = 7), early-nursing pups (4 d old; n = 3), late-nursing pups (9 d old; n = 4), newly weaned (molting) pups (2 wk old; n = 5), late-weaned (molted) pups (3 wk old; n = 4), and adult harp seals (n = 4). Hairs were shorter (P < 0.001) and flatter (P < 0.001) in older animals. Additionally, hair density decreased with age (P < 0.001), in terms of both the average number of hair bundles per unit area and the average number of underhairs present in any given bundle. These morphological changes were associated with a reduced thermal resistance of the pelt in late-weaned (molted) pups and adults (P < 0.001). Results are consistent with known evolutionary patterns of fur morphology associated with the transition from fur to blubber in aquatic species, yet this is the first time such morphological differences have been demonstrated across age classes within a single species. Thus, the ontogenetic patterns described here for harp seals recapitulate the convergent phylogenetic patterns observed across secondarily aquatic species. Overall, the timing of these ontogenetic changes may limit the ability of harp seals to adapt to the deterioration of sea ice in the

  15. The fat and the furriest: morphological changes in harp seal fur with ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Gmuca, Natalia V; Pearson, Linnea E; Burns, Jennifer M; Liwanag, Heather E M

    2015-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in physiological performance often exemplify the development of adaptations to environmental challenges. For mammals in polar regions, the extreme cold of the environment presents a constant challenge to thermal homeostasis. The harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) is an Arctic species that shifts its thermoregulatory strategy with ontogeny. Adult harp seals primarily use blubber for insulation, but newborn harp seals instead rely on their fur coat while their blubber layer develops. Harp seal pups are weaned abruptly, less than 2 wk after birth, and must subsequently learn to swim and dive in frigid waters on their own. This study examined how the morphological characteristics of harp seal fur change with ontogeny. We compared hair length, hair circularity, and hair density for neonates (1 d old; n = 7), early-nursing pups (4 d old; n = 3), late-nursing pups (9 d old; n = 4), newly weaned (molting) pups (2 wk old; n = 5), late-weaned (molted) pups (3 wk old; n = 4), and adult harp seals (n = 4). Hairs were shorter (P < 0.001) and flatter (P < 0.001) in older animals. Additionally, hair density decreased with age (P < 0.001), in terms of both the average number of hair bundles per unit area and the average number of underhairs present in any given bundle. These morphological changes were associated with a reduced thermal resistance of the pelt in late-weaned (molted) pups and adults (P < 0.001). Results are consistent with known evolutionary patterns of fur morphology associated with the transition from fur to blubber in aquatic species, yet this is the first time such morphological differences have been demonstrated across age classes within a single species. Thus, the ontogenetic patterns described here for harp seals recapitulate the convergent phylogenetic patterns observed across secondarily aquatic species. Overall, the timing of these ontogenetic changes may limit the ability of harp seals to adapt to the deterioration of sea ice in the

  16. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  17. Ascent exhalations of Antarctic fur seals: a behavioural adaptation for breath-hold diving?

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Miller, Patrick J. O.; Johnson, Mark P.; Cox, Oliver P.; Boyd, Ian L.

    2005-01-01

    Novel observations collected from video, acoustic and conductivity sensors showed that Antarctic fur seals consistently exhale during the last 50–85% of ascent from all dives (10–160 m, n>8000 dives from 50 seals). The depth of initial bubble emission was best predicted by maximum dive depth, suggesting an underlying physical mechanism. Bubble sound intensity recorded from one seal followed predictions of a simple model based on venting expanding lung air with decreasing pressure. Comparison of air release between dives, together with lack of variation in intensity of thrusting movement during initial descent regardless of ultimate dive depth, suggested that inhaled diving lung volume was constant for all dives. The thrusting intensity in the final phase of ascent was greater for dives in which ascent exhalation began at a greater depth, suggesting an energetic cost to this behaviour, probably as a result of loss of buoyancy from reduced lung volume. These results suggest that fur seals descend with full lung air stores, and thus face the physiological consequences of pressure at depth. We suggest that these regular and predictable ascent exhalations could function to reduce the potential for a precipitous drop in blood oxygen that would result in shallow-water blackout. PMID:15734689

  18. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolates from wild Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal) and Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic fur seal).

    PubMed

    Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; de Angelis Zvoboda, Dejoara; Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Medeiros, Aline Weber; de Amorin, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2015-12-01

    Enterococci are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts in humans and animals. Epidemiological data suggest that enterococci are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant genes that may be transmitted from other bacterial species The aim of this study was to investigate the species composition, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci recovered from fecal samples of wild Arctocephalus australis and A. tropicalis found dead along the South Coast of Brazil. From a total of 43 wild fur seals, eleven were selected for this study. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations were used to classify Enterococcus species. Strains were tested for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics, presence of ace, gelE, asa, cylA, tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes by PCR, and genetic variability using RAPD-PCR. Among the 50 enterococci isolated, 40% were Enterococcus faecalis, 40% E. hirae, 12% E. casseliflavus and 8 % other enterococcal species. Resistance profiles were observed to erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of virulence genes was ace (68%), gelE (54%), asa (22%) and cylA (4%). In erythromycin- and tetracycline strains, erm(B) and tet(M) were detected, respectively. The RAPD-PCR demonstrated a close phylogenetic relationship between the enterococci isolated from A. australis and A. tropicalis. In conclusion, different enterococcus species showing antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates were isolated from fecal samples of fur seals. Antibiotic resistant strains in these animals could be related within food chain and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome, and demonstrates the potential importance of these animals as reservoirs and disseminators of such determinants in marine environmental.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolates from wild Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal) and Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic fur seal).

    PubMed

    Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; de Angelis Zvoboda, Dejoara; Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Medeiros, Aline Weber; de Amorin, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2015-12-01

    Enterococci are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts in humans and animals. Epidemiological data suggest that enterococci are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant genes that may be transmitted from other bacterial species The aim of this study was to investigate the species composition, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci recovered from fecal samples of wild Arctocephalus australis and A. tropicalis found dead along the South Coast of Brazil. From a total of 43 wild fur seals, eleven were selected for this study. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations were used to classify Enterococcus species. Strains were tested for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics, presence of ace, gelE, asa, cylA, tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes by PCR, and genetic variability using RAPD-PCR. Among the 50 enterococci isolated, 40% were Enterococcus faecalis, 40% E. hirae, 12% E. casseliflavus and 8 % other enterococcal species. Resistance profiles were observed to erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of virulence genes was ace (68%), gelE (54%), asa (22%) and cylA (4%). In erythromycin- and tetracycline strains, erm(B) and tet(M) were detected, respectively. The RAPD-PCR demonstrated a close phylogenetic relationship between the enterococci isolated from A. australis and A. tropicalis. In conclusion, different enterococcus species showing antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates were isolated from fecal samples of fur seals. Antibiotic resistant strains in these animals could be related within food chain and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome, and demonstrates the potential importance of these animals as reservoirs and disseminators of such determinants in marine environmental. PMID:26347323

  20. The influence of preceding dive cycles on the foraging decisions of Antarctic fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, T.; Sakamoto, K. Q.; Edwards, E. W. J.; Staniland, I. J.; Trathan, P. N.; Goto, Y.; Sato, K.; Naito, Y.; Takahashi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The foraging strategy of many animals is thought to be determined by their past experiences. However, few empirical studies have investigated whether this is true in diving animals. We recorded three-dimensional movements and mouth-opening events from three Antarctic fur seals during their foraging trips to examine how they adapt their behaviour based on past experience—continuing to search for prey in the same area or moving to search in a different place. Each dive cycle was divided into a transit phase and a feeding phase. The linear horizontal distance travelled after feeding phases in each dive was affected by the mouth-opening rate during the previous 244 s, which typically covered two to three dive cycles. The linear distance travelled tended to be shorter when the mouth-opening rate in the previous 244 s was higher, i.e. seals tended to stay in the same areas with high prey-encounter rates. These results indicate that Antarctic fur seals follow decision-making strategies based on the past foraging experience over time periods longer than the immediately preceding dive. PMID:26156132

  1. The influence of preceding dive cycles on the foraging decisions of Antarctic fur seals.

    PubMed

    Iwata, T; Sakamoto, K Q; Edwards, E W J; Staniland, I J; Trathan, P N; Goto, Y; Sato, K; Naito, Y; Takahashi, A

    2015-07-01

    The foraging strategy of many animals is thought to be determined by their past experiences. However, few empirical studies have investigated whether this is true in diving animals. We recorded three-dimensional movements and mouth-opening events from three Antarctic fur seals during their foraging trips to examine how they adapt their behaviour based on past experience--continuing to search for prey in the same area or moving to search in a different place. Each dive cycle was divided into a transit phase and a feeding phase. The linear horizontal distance travelled after feeding phases in each dive was affected by the mouth-opening rate during the previous 244 s, which typically covered two to three dive cycles. The linear distance travelled tended to be shorter when the mouth-opening rate in the previous 244 s was higher, i.e. seals tended to stay in the same areas with high prey-encounter rates. These results indicate that Antarctic fur seals follow decision-making strategies based on the past foraging experience over time periods longer than the immediately preceding dive.

  2. Foraging-Based Enrichment Promotes More Varied Behaviour in Captive Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Evans, Alistair R.

    2015-01-01

    During wild foraging, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) encounter many different types of prey in a wide range of scenarios, yet in captive environments they are typically provided with a narrower range of opportunities to display their full repertoire of behaviours. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the effect of foraging-based enrichment on the behaviour and activity patterns displayed by two captive Australian fur seals at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. Food was presented as a scatter in open water, in a free-floating ball device, or in a static box device, with each treatment separated by control trials with no enrichment. Both subjects spent more time interacting with the ball and static box devices than the scatter feed. The total time spent pattern swimming was reduced in the enrichment treatments compared to the controls, while the time spent performing random swimming behaviours increased. There was also a significant increase in the total number of bouts of behaviour performed in all three enrichment treatments compared to controls. Each enrichment method also promoted a different suit of foraging behaviours. Hence, rather than choosing one method, the most effective way to increase the diversity of foraging behaviours, while also increasing variation in general activity patterns, is to provide seals with a wide range of foraging scenarios where food is encountered in different ways. PMID:25946412

  3. Foraging-Based Enrichment Promotes More Varied Behaviour in Captive Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus).

    PubMed

    Hocking, David P; Salverson, Marcia; Evans, Alistair R

    2015-01-01

    During wild foraging, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) encounter many different types of prey in a wide range of scenarios, yet in captive environments they are typically provided with a narrower range of opportunities to display their full repertoire of behaviours. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the effect of foraging-based enrichment on the behaviour and activity patterns displayed by two captive Australian fur seals at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. Food was presented as a scatter in open water, in a free-floating ball device, or in a static box device, with each treatment separated by control trials with no enrichment. Both subjects spent more time interacting with the ball and static box devices than the scatter feed. The total time spent pattern swimming was reduced in the enrichment treatments compared to the controls, while the time spent performing random swimming behaviours increased. There was also a significant increase in the total number of bouts of behaviour performed in all three enrichment treatments compared to controls. Each enrichment method also promoted a different suit of foraging behaviours. Hence, rather than choosing one method, the most effective way to increase the diversity of foraging behaviours, while also increasing variation in general activity patterns, is to provide seals with a wide range of foraging scenarios where food is encountered in different ways.

  4. Plasma cortisol and thyroid hormone concentrations in pre-weaning Australian fur seal pups.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Arnould, J P Y; Mashburn, K L

    2011-06-01

    The hormonal factors that influence development from birth to weaning in otariid seals is still largely unknown. In the present study, a suite of thyroid hormones and cortisol were measured in Australian fur seal pups in order to determine baseline concentrations as well as to describe their endocrinology over this critical developmental period. A cross-section of newborn pups from a breeding colony located on Kanowna Island, Australia were sampled at six different times over the course of the 10 month lactation period. Sample times were designed to correspond to periods of heightened physiological change during pre-weaning development: post-natal, pre-molt, the initiation of molt, mid-molt, period of peak milk intake and weaning. Results indicate that the greatest hormonal changes were associated with the post-natal stage and molt, with molt showing the greatest changes, as has been reported for several species of pinnipeds. Two forms of thyroid hormones analyzed (Total T(4), and Free T(3)), increased with the initiation of the molt, and Free T(3) exhibited a second increase that was associated with the period of peak milk intake. The T(3):T(4) ratio was significantly lower during the initiation of molt than either pre- or mid-molt. The study was able to describe physiological change during the first year of life in Australian fur seals as well as document basal concentrations of thyroid hormones and cortisol in pups of this species.

  5. A Bayesian hierarchical model of Antarctic fur seal foraging and pup growth related to sea ice and prey abundance.

    PubMed

    Hiruki-Raring, Lisa M; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Boveng, Peter L; Bengtson, John L

    2012-03-01

    We created a Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM) to investigate ecosystem relationships between the physical ecosystem (sea ice extent), a prey measure (krill density), predator behaviors (diving and foraging effort of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, with pups) and predator characteristics (mass of maternal fur seals and pups). We collected data on Antarctic fur seals from 1987/1988 to 1994/1995 at Seal Island, Antarctica. The BHM allowed us to link together predators and prey into a model that uses all the data efficiently and accounts for major sources of uncertainty. Based on the literature, we made hypotheses about the relationships in the model, which we compared with the model outcome after fitting the BHM. For each BHM parameter, we calculated the mean of the posterior density and the 95% credible interval. Our model confirmed others' findings that increased sea ice was related to increased krill density. Higher krill density led to reduced dive intensity of maternal fur seals, as measured by dive depth and duration, and to less time spent foraging by maternal fur seals. Heavier maternal fur seals and lower maternal foraging effort resulted in heavier pups at 22 d. No relationship was found between krill density and maternal mass, or between maternal mass and foraging effort on pup growth rates between 22 and 85 days of age. Maternal mass may have reflected environmental conditions prior to the pup provisioning season, rather than summer prey densities. Maternal mass and foraging effort were not related to pup growth rates between 22 and 85 d, possibly indicating that food was not limiting, food sources other than krill were being used, or differences occurred before pups reached age 22 d.

  6. [The parallelisms in of sound signal of domestic sheep and Northern fur seals].

    PubMed

    Nikol'skiĭ, A A; Lisitsina, T Iu

    2011-01-01

    The parallelisms in communicative behavior of domestic sheep and Northern fur seals within a herd are accompanied by parallelisms in parameters of sound signal, the calling scream. This signal ensures ties between babies and their mothers at a long distance. The basis of parallelisms is formed by amplitude modulation at two levels: the one being a direct amplitude modulation of the carrier frequency and the other--modulation of the carrier frequency oscillation. Parallelisms in the signal oscillatory process result in corresponding parallelisms in the structure of its frequency spectrum.

  7. Determinants of individual foraging specialization in large marine vertebrates, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Arnould, John P Y; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2015-07-01

    The degree of individual specialization in resource use differs widely among wild populations where individuals range from fully generalized to highly specialized. This interindividual variation has profound implications in many ecological and evolutionary processes. A recent review proposed four main ecological causes of individual specialization: interspecific and intraspecific competition, ecological opportunity and predation. Using the isotopic signature of subsampled whiskers, we investigated to what degree three of these factors (interspecific and intraspecific competition and ecological opportunity) affect the population niche width and the level of individual foraging specialization in two fur seal species, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis), over several years. Population niche width was greater when the two seal species bred in allopatry (low interspecific competition) than in sympatry or when seals bred in high-density stabilized colonies (high intraspecific competition). In agreement with the niche variation hypothesis (NVH), higher population niche width was associated with higher interindividual niche variation. However, in contrast to the NVH, all Antarctic females increased their niche width during the interbreeding period when they had potential access to a wider diversity of foraging grounds and associated prey (high ecological opportunities), suggesting they all dispersed to a similar productive area. The degree of individual specialization varied among populations and within the annual cycle. Highest levels of interindividual variation were found in a context of lower interspecific or higher intraspecific competition. Contrasted results were found concerning the effect of ecological opportunity. Depending on seal species, females exhibited either a greater or lower degree of individual specialization during the interbreeding period, reflecting species-specific biological constraints

  8. Determinants of individual foraging specialization in large marine vertebrates, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Arnould, John P Y; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2015-07-01

    The degree of individual specialization in resource use differs widely among wild populations where individuals range from fully generalized to highly specialized. This interindividual variation has profound implications in many ecological and evolutionary processes. A recent review proposed four main ecological causes of individual specialization: interspecific and intraspecific competition, ecological opportunity and predation. Using the isotopic signature of subsampled whiskers, we investigated to what degree three of these factors (interspecific and intraspecific competition and ecological opportunity) affect the population niche width and the level of individual foraging specialization in two fur seal species, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis), over several years. Population niche width was greater when the two seal species bred in allopatry (low interspecific competition) than in sympatry or when seals bred in high-density stabilized colonies (high intraspecific competition). In agreement with the niche variation hypothesis (NVH), higher population niche width was associated with higher interindividual niche variation. However, in contrast to the NVH, all Antarctic females increased their niche width during the interbreeding period when they had potential access to a wider diversity of foraging grounds and associated prey (high ecological opportunities), suggesting they all dispersed to a similar productive area. The degree of individual specialization varied among populations and within the annual cycle. Highest levels of interindividual variation were found in a context of lower interspecific or higher intraspecific competition. Contrasted results were found concerning the effect of ecological opportunity. Depending on seal species, females exhibited either a greater or lower degree of individual specialization during the interbreeding period, reflecting species-specific biological constraints

  9. Mycoplasmas in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus): identification and association with abortion.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Taylor, Trevor K; Duignan, Pádraig J; Swingler, Jane; Marenda, Marc; Arnould, John P Y; Kirkwood, Roger

    2011-11-01

    Bacteria from the genus Mycoplasma are common inhabitants of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genital tracts of mammals. The understanding of the pathological significance of mycoplasmas in seals is poor, as few studies have utilized the specific culture techniques required to isolate these bacteria. The current study surveyed for the Mycoplasma species present in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) and investigated the association between infection and pathology. Mycoplasmas were found in the nasal cavities of 55/80 (69%) of apparently healthy individuals. Isolates from 18 individuals were investigated through 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and 3 species were identified: M. zalophi, M. phocae, and Mycoplasma sp. (GenBank no. EU714238.1), all of which had previously been isolated from Northern Hemisphere pinnipeds. In addition, mycoplasmas were isolated from the lungs of 4 out of 16 juveniles and 1 out of 5 adults sampled at necropsy. Isolates obtained were M. zalophi, Mycoplasma sp. EU714238.1, and M. phocicerebrale, but infection was not associated with lung pathology in these age classes. Inflammatory disease processes of the heart and/or lungs were present in 12 out of 32 (38%) aborted fetuses on microscopic examination. Predominant findings were interstitial pneumonia, pericarditis, and myocarditis. Mycoplasma phocicerebrale was isolated from the thymus of an aborted fetus, and 3 out of 11 (27%) fetuses with inflammatory heart or lung lesions were PCR-positive for Mycoplasma. In conclusion, several species of Mycoplasma are part of the normal flora of the nasal cavity of Australian fur seals, and some mycoplasmas may be associated with abortion in this species of seal. PMID:22362792

  10. Ovarian follicular morphometry of South American fur seal pups (Arctophoca australis).

    PubMed

    Katz, Helena; Johansson, Olle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the morphometric characteristics of ovarian follicles and their distribution in the ovarian cortex in South American fur seal pups (Arctophoca australis). Samples were obtained from animals stranded in the Uruguayan Atlantic coast. Ovaries were dissected, fixed, weighed, and processed by standard histological techniques. Ovarian weight increased with pup age and body length. There was an increase in the diameter of the oocytes (22.24 ± 0.6 to 68.2 ± 5.3 µm), the nuclei (10.04 ± 0.2 to 20.7 ± 1.6 µm), and follicles (30.4 ± 1.2 to 252.6 ± 53.6 µm) of type 1 to type 5 follicles; there was a wide range of variation in the diameter of follicle type 4 and 5. Granulosa layer thickness increased between follicles type 3 and 4, whereas between type 4 and 5 there was a reduction. Thecal layer from follicles type 3 and 4 consisted of 1-2 layers of cells, whereas type 5 showed an increase in thickness (3.13 ± 0.3 to 13.8 ± 5.2 µm). Follicles type 1 and 2 occupied superficial regions within the ovarian cortex while the remaining follicles had a deeper location. These results provide a basis for comparison with females of other age categories as well as follicular dynamics studies in South American fur seals. PMID:23959768

  11. Mother Vocal Recognition in Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella Pups: A Two-Step Process.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Thierry; Jouventin, Pierre; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In otariids, mother's recognition by pups is essential to their survival since females nurse exclusively their own young and can be very aggressive towards non-kin. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, come ashore to breed and form dense colonies. During the 4-month lactation period, females alternate foraging trips at sea with suckling period ashore. On each return to the colony, females and pups first use vocalizations to find each other among several hundred conspecifics and olfaction is used as a final check. Such vocal identification has to be highly efficient. In this present study, we investigated the components of the individual vocal signature used by pups to identify their mothers by performing playback experiments on pups with synthetic signals. We thus tested the efficiency of this individual vocal signature by performing propagation tests and by testing pups at different playback distances. Pups use both amplitude and frequency modulations to identify their mother's voice, as well as the energy spectrum. Propagation tests showed that frequency modulations propagated reliably up to 64m, whereas amplitude modulations and spectral content greatly were highly degraded for distances over 8m. Playback on pups at different distances suggested that the individual identification is a two-step process: at long range, pups identified first the frequency modulation pattern of their mother's calls, and other components of the vocal signature at closer range. The individual vocal recognition system developed by Antarctic fur seals is well adapted to face the main constraint of finding kin in a crowd. PMID:26331475

  12. Mother Vocal Recognition in Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella Pups: A Two-Step Process.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Thierry; Jouventin, Pierre; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In otariids, mother's recognition by pups is essential to their survival since females nurse exclusively their own young and can be very aggressive towards non-kin. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, come ashore to breed and form dense colonies. During the 4-month lactation period, females alternate foraging trips at sea with suckling period ashore. On each return to the colony, females and pups first use vocalizations to find each other among several hundred conspecifics and olfaction is used as a final check. Such vocal identification has to be highly efficient. In this present study, we investigated the components of the individual vocal signature used by pups to identify their mothers by performing playback experiments on pups with synthetic signals. We thus tested the efficiency of this individual vocal signature by performing propagation tests and by testing pups at different playback distances. Pups use both amplitude and frequency modulations to identify their mother's voice, as well as the energy spectrum. Propagation tests showed that frequency modulations propagated reliably up to 64m, whereas amplitude modulations and spectral content greatly were highly degraded for distances over 8m. Playback on pups at different distances suggested that the individual identification is a two-step process: at long range, pups identified first the frequency modulation pattern of their mother's calls, and other components of the vocal signature at closer range. The individual vocal recognition system developed by Antarctic fur seals is well adapted to face the main constraint of finding kin in a crowd.

  13. Ovarian follicular morphometry of South American fur seal pups (Arctophoca australis).

    PubMed

    Katz, Helena; Johansson, Olle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the morphometric characteristics of ovarian follicles and their distribution in the ovarian cortex in South American fur seal pups (Arctophoca australis). Samples were obtained from animals stranded in the Uruguayan Atlantic coast. Ovaries were dissected, fixed, weighed, and processed by standard histological techniques. Ovarian weight increased with pup age and body length. There was an increase in the diameter of the oocytes (22.24 ± 0.6 to 68.2 ± 5.3 µm), the nuclei (10.04 ± 0.2 to 20.7 ± 1.6 µm), and follicles (30.4 ± 1.2 to 252.6 ± 53.6 µm) of type 1 to type 5 follicles; there was a wide range of variation in the diameter of follicle type 4 and 5. Granulosa layer thickness increased between follicles type 3 and 4, whereas between type 4 and 5 there was a reduction. Thecal layer from follicles type 3 and 4 consisted of 1-2 layers of cells, whereas type 5 showed an increase in thickness (3.13 ± 0.3 to 13.8 ± 5.2 µm). Follicles type 1 and 2 occupied superficial regions within the ovarian cortex while the remaining follicles had a deeper location. These results provide a basis for comparison with females of other age categories as well as follicular dynamics studies in South American fur seals.

  14. Variation in the mitochondrial control region in the Juan Fernández fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii).

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, S; Francis, J; Boness, D; Fleischer, R

    2000-01-01

    The Juan Fernandez fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii was allegedly extremely abundant, numbering as many as 4 million prior to sealing which continued from the late 17th to the late 19th century. By the end of the sealing era the species was thought to be extinct until they were rediscovered at Alejandro Selkirk Island in 1965. Historic records would suggest that the species underwent a substantial population bottleneck as a result of commercial sealing, and from population genetic theory we predicted that the genetic variability in the species would be low. We compared the mtDNA control region sequence from 28 Juan Fernandez fur seals from two islands in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago (Chile). Contrary to expectation, we found that variation in the Juan Fernandez fur seals is not greatly reduced in comparison to other pinniped taxa, especially given the apparent severity of the bottleneck they underwent. We also determined minor, but significantly different haplotype frequencies among the populations on the two islands (Alejandro Selkirk and Robinson Crusoe Islands), but no difference in their levels of variability. Such differences may have arisen stochastically via a recent founder event from Alejandro Selkirk to Robinson Crusoe Island or subsequent genetic drift.

  15. Effects of the presence of official-looking volunteers on harassment of New Zealand fur seals.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Acevedo, Lisa; Boren, Laura

    2011-06-01

    An increased number of tourists viewing animals in the wild have increased stress on these animals (hereafter wildlife). Many wildlife-viewing locations rely on voluntary compliance with posted regulations to protect animals from tourists because of the expense of employing on-site enforcement personnel. Voluntary compliance, however, is ineffective. The presence of official-looking volunteers may decrease the incidence of wildlife harassment by tourists. To test this possibility, we observed tourists interacting with 5- to 12-month-old New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) at the popular Ohau Stream waterfall while in the absence or presence of a young woman in plain sight wearing a neon vest (i.e., observer) and when an observer was not present. We observed 254 tourist groups at the waterfall when young seals were present. The percentage of groups in which at least one person harassed (approached, touched, or threw objects) a young seal was two-thirds lower when the official-looking observer was present. Frequency of harassment was inversely related to observer presence. Programs in which volunteers work at tourist sites are popular in countries with high tourism rates, such as New Zealand. Our results show that a relatively inexpensive and effective tourism-management strategy may be to post such volunteers as observers at sites where tourists view wildlife. PMID:21129030

  16. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    PubMed Central

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals. PMID:27620663

  17. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, L; Arnould, J P Y; Guinet, C; Cazelles, B; Richard, P; Cherel, Y

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals. PMID:27620663

  18. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, L; Arnould, J P Y; Guinet, C; Cazelles, B; Richard, P; Cherel, Y

    2016-09-13

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  19. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, L; Cherel, Y; Guinet, C; Arnould, J P Y

    2016-07-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R (2)/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills.

  20. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Cherel, Y.; Guinet, C.; Arnould, J. P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R2/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills. PMID:27493771

  1. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, L; Cherel, Y; Guinet, C; Arnould, J P Y

    2016-07-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R (2)/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills. PMID:27493771

  2. Chemical fingerprints encode mother–offspring similarity, colony membership, relatedness, and genetic quality in fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311

  3. Mother Vocal Recognition in Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella Pups: A Two-Step Process

    PubMed Central

    Jouventin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In otariids, mother’s recognition by pups is essential to their survival since females nurse exclusively their own young and can be very aggressive towards non-kin. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, come ashore to breed and form dense colonies. During the 4-month lactation period, females alternate foraging trips at sea with suckling period ashore. On each return to the colony, females and pups first use vocalizations to find each other among several hundred conspecifics and olfaction is used as a final check. Such vocal identification has to be highly efficient. In this present study, we investigated the components of the individual vocal signature used by pups to identify their mothers by performing playback experiments on pups with synthetic signals. We thus tested the efficiency of this individual vocal signature by performing propagation tests and by testing pups at different playback distances. Pups use both amplitude and frequency modulations to identify their mother’s voice, as well as the energy spectrum. Propagation tests showed that frequency modulations propagated reliably up to 64m, whereas amplitude modulations and spectral content greatly were highly degraded for distances over 8m. Playback on pups at different distances suggested that the individual identification is a two-step process: at long range, pups identified first the frequency modulation pattern of their mother’s calls, and other components of the vocal signature at closer range. The individual vocal recognition system developed by Antarctic fur seals is well adapted to face the main constraint of finding kin in a crowd. PMID:26331475

  4. Biological and environmental drivers of energy allocation in a dependent mammal, the Antarctic fur seal pup.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Birgitte I; Goebel, Michael E; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how variation in the pattern and magnitude of parental effort influences allocation decisions in offspring. We determined the energy budget of Antarctic fur seal pups and examined the relative importance of timing of provisioning, pup traits (mass, condition, sex), and weather (wind chill and solar radiation) on allocation of energy obtained in milk by measuring milk energy intake, field metabolic rate (FMR), and growth rate in 48 Antarctic fur seal pups over three developmental stages (perinatal, premolt, and molt). The relative amount of milk energy used for growth was 59.1% ± 8.1% during the perinatal period but decreased to 23.4% ± 15.5% and 26.0% ± 13.9% during the premolt and molt. This decrease was associated with a greater amount of time spent fasting, along with an increase in pup activity while the mother was at sea foraging. Average daily milk intake, pup mass, and condition were all important in determining how much energy was available for growth, but the amount of energy obtained as milk was the single most important factor determining pup growth. While mean mass-specific FMR did not change with developmental stage (range = 1.74-1.77 mL O(2)/g/h), the factors that accounted for variation in FMR did. Weather (wind chill and solar radiation) and pup traits (mass and condition) influenced mass-specific FMR, but these impacts varied across development. This study provides information about the factors influencing how offspring allocate energy toward growth and maintenance and improves our predictions about how a changing environment may affect energy allocation in pups. PMID:22418706

  5. Biological and environmental drivers of energy allocation in a dependent mammal, the Antarctic fur seal pup.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Birgitte I; Goebel, Michael E; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how variation in the pattern and magnitude of parental effort influences allocation decisions in offspring. We determined the energy budget of Antarctic fur seal pups and examined the relative importance of timing of provisioning, pup traits (mass, condition, sex), and weather (wind chill and solar radiation) on allocation of energy obtained in milk by measuring milk energy intake, field metabolic rate (FMR), and growth rate in 48 Antarctic fur seal pups over three developmental stages (perinatal, premolt, and molt). The relative amount of milk energy used for growth was 59.1% ± 8.1% during the perinatal period but decreased to 23.4% ± 15.5% and 26.0% ± 13.9% during the premolt and molt. This decrease was associated with a greater amount of time spent fasting, along with an increase in pup activity while the mother was at sea foraging. Average daily milk intake, pup mass, and condition were all important in determining how much energy was available for growth, but the amount of energy obtained as milk was the single most important factor determining pup growth. While mean mass-specific FMR did not change with developmental stage (range = 1.74-1.77 mL O(2)/g/h), the factors that accounted for variation in FMR did. Weather (wind chill and solar radiation) and pup traits (mass and condition) influenced mass-specific FMR, but these impacts varied across development. This study provides information about the factors influencing how offspring allocate energy toward growth and maintenance and improves our predictions about how a changing environment may affect energy allocation in pups.

  6. Whisker isotopic signature depicts migration patterns and multi-year intra- and inter-individual foraging strategies in fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Cherel, Y.; Kernaléguen, L.; Richard, P.; Guinet, C.

    2009-01-01

    The movement and dietary history of individuals can be studied using stable isotope records in archival keratinous tissues. Here, we present a chronology of temporally fine-scale data on the trophic niche of otariid seals by measuring the isotopic signature of serially sampled whiskers. Whiskers of male Antarctic fur seals breeding at the Crozet Islands showed synchronous and regular oscillations in both their δ13C and δ15N values that are likely to represent their annual migrations over the long term (mean 4.8 years). At the population level, male Antarctic fur seals showed substantial variation in both δ13C and δ15N values, occupying nearly all the ‘isotopic space’ created by the diversity of potential oceanic habitats (from high Antarctica to the subtropics) and prey (from Antarctic krill to subantarctic and subtropical mesopelagic fishes). At the individual level, whisker isotopic signatures depict a large diversity of foraging strategies. Some seals remained in either subantarctic or Antarctic waters, while the migratory cycle of most animals encompassed a wide latitudinal gradient where they fed on different prey. The isotopic signature of whiskers, therefore, revealed new multi-year foraging strategies of male Antarctic fur seals and is a powerful tool for investigating the ecological niche during cryptic stages of mammals' life. PMID:19793740

  7. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    PubMed

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  8. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    PubMed

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life. PMID:23951287

  9. Coping with Heat: Function of The Natal Coat of Cape Fur Seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) Pups in Maintaining Core Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life. PMID:23951287

  10. Climate change selects for heterozygosity in a declining fur seal population.

    PubMed

    Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2014-07-24

    Global environmental change is expected to alter selection pressures in many biological systems, but the long-term molecular and life history data required to quantify changes in selection are rare. An unusual opportunity is afforded by three decades of individual-based data collected from a declining population of Antarctic fur seals in the South Atlantic. Here, climate change has reduced prey availability and caused a significant decline in seal birth weight. However, the mean age and size of females recruiting into the breeding population are increasing. We show that such females have significantly higher heterozygosity (a measure of within-individual genetic variation) than their non-recruiting siblings and their own mothers. Thus, breeding female heterozygosity has increased by 8.5% per generation over the last two decades. Nonetheless, as heterozygosity is not inherited from mothers to daughters, substantial heterozygote advantage is not transmitted from one generation to the next and the decreasing viability of homozygous individuals causes the population to decline. Our results provide compelling evidence that selection due to climate change is intensifying, with far-reaching consequences for demography as well as phenotypic and genetic variation. PMID:25056064

  11. Climate change selects for heterozygosity in a declining fur seal population.

    PubMed

    Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2014-07-24

    Global environmental change is expected to alter selection pressures in many biological systems, but the long-term molecular and life history data required to quantify changes in selection are rare. An unusual opportunity is afforded by three decades of individual-based data collected from a declining population of Antarctic fur seals in the South Atlantic. Here, climate change has reduced prey availability and caused a significant decline in seal birth weight. However, the mean age and size of females recruiting into the breeding population are increasing. We show that such females have significantly higher heterozygosity (a measure of within-individual genetic variation) than their non-recruiting siblings and their own mothers. Thus, breeding female heterozygosity has increased by 8.5% per generation over the last two decades. Nonetheless, as heterozygosity is not inherited from mothers to daughters, substantial heterozygote advantage is not transmitted from one generation to the next and the decreasing viability of homozygous individuals causes the population to decline. Our results provide compelling evidence that selection due to climate change is intensifying, with far-reaching consequences for demography as well as phenotypic and genetic variation.

  12. Drivers and annual estimates of marine wildlife entanglement rates: A long-term case study with Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Rebecca R; Kirkwood, Roger; Sutherland, Duncan R; Dann, Peter

    2015-12-30

    Methods of calculating wildlife entanglement rates are not standardised between studies and often ignore the influence of observer effort, confounding comparisons. From 1997-2013 we identified 359 entangled Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks, south-eastern Australia. Most entanglement materials originated from commercial fisheries; most frequently entangling pups and juveniles. Using Generalized Additive Mixed Models, which incorporated observer effort and survey frequency, we identified that entanglements were observed more frequently amongst pups from July to October as they approached weaning. Neither the decline in regional fishing intensity nor changing seal population size influenced the incidence of entanglements. Using the models, we estimated that 302 (95% CI=182-510) entangled seals were at Seal Rocks each year, equivalent to 1.0% (CI=0.6-1.7%) of the site population. This study highlights the influence of observer effort and the value of long-term datasets for determining the drivers of marine debris entanglements. PMID:26475026

  13. Drivers and annual estimates of marine wildlife entanglement rates: A long-term case study with Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Rebecca R; Kirkwood, Roger; Sutherland, Duncan R; Dann, Peter

    2015-12-30

    Methods of calculating wildlife entanglement rates are not standardised between studies and often ignore the influence of observer effort, confounding comparisons. From 1997-2013 we identified 359 entangled Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks, south-eastern Australia. Most entanglement materials originated from commercial fisheries; most frequently entangling pups and juveniles. Using Generalized Additive Mixed Models, which incorporated observer effort and survey frequency, we identified that entanglements were observed more frequently amongst pups from July to October as they approached weaning. Neither the decline in regional fishing intensity nor changing seal population size influenced the incidence of entanglements. Using the models, we estimated that 302 (95% CI=182-510) entangled seals were at Seal Rocks each year, equivalent to 1.0% (CI=0.6-1.7%) of the site population. This study highlights the influence of observer effort and the value of long-term datasets for determining the drivers of marine debris entanglements.

  14. Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Shephard, Lisa; Bastian, Ivan; Globan, Maria; Fyfe, Janet A M; Cousins, Debby V; Machado, Aaron; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia with intrahistocytic acid-fast beaded filamentous bacilli was seen on histology. M. pinnipedii was confirmed by full 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spillover concerns for public health and cattle are discussed. PMID:25632695

  15. Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Shephard, Lisa; Bastian, Ivan; Globan, Maria; Fyfe, Janet A M; Cousins, Debby V; Machado, Aaron; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia with intrahistocytic acid-fast beaded filamentous bacilli was seen on histology. M. pinnipedii was confirmed by full 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spillover concerns for public health and cattle are discussed.

  16. Foraging Behavior of Subantarctic Fur Seals Supports Efficiency of a Marine Reserve's Design.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Stephen P; Yemane, Dawit G; Lamont, Tarron; Meÿer, Michael A; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of marine top predators is increasingly being used to identify areas of ecological importance. This is largely enabled by the ability of many such species to forage extensively in search of prey that is often concentrated in oceanographically productive areas. To identify important habitat in the Southern Indian Ocean within and around South Africa's Prince Edward Islands' Marine Protected Area (MPA), satellite transmitters were deployed on 12 lactating Subantarctic fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis at Prince Edward Island (PEI) itself. Switching state space models were employed to correct ARGOS tracks and estimate behavioural states for locations along predicted tracks, namely travelling or area restricted search (ARS). A random forest model showed that distance from the study colony, longitude and distance from the Subantarctic Front were the most important predictors of suitable foraging habitat (inferred from ARS). Model-predicted suitable habitat occurred within the MPA in relatively close access to the colony during summer and autumn, but shifted northwards concurrently with frontal movements in winter and spring. The association of ARS with the MPA during summer-autumn was highly significant, highlighting the effectiveness of the recently declared reserve's design for capturing suitable foraging habitat for this and probably other marine top predator species. PMID:27163373

  17. Resting metabolic rate and heat increment of feeding in juvenile South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis).

    PubMed

    Dassis, M; Rodríguez, D H; Ieno, E N; Denuncio, P E; Loureiro, J; Davis, R W

    2014-02-01

    Bio-energetic models used to characterize an animal's energy budget require the accurate estimate of different variables such as the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the heat increment of feeding (HIF). In this study, we estimated the in air RMR of wild juvenile South American fur seals (SAFS; Arctocephalus australis) temporarily held in captivity by measuring oxygen consumption while at rest in a postabsorptive condition. HIF, which is an increase in metabolic rate associated with digestion, assimilation and nutrient interconversion, was estimated as the difference in resting metabolic rate between the postabsorptive condition and the first 3.5h postprandial. As data were hierarchically structured, linear mixed effect models were used to compare RMR measures under both physiological conditions. Results indicated a significant increase (61%) for the postprandial RMR compared to the postabsorptive condition, estimated at 17.93±1.84 and 11.15±1.91mL O2 min(-1)kg(-1), respectively. These values constitute the first estimation of RMR and HIF in this species, and should be considered in the energy budgets for juvenile SAFS foraging at-sea.

  18. Foraging Behavior of Subantarctic Fur Seals Supports Efficiency of a Marine Reserve’s Design

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Stephen P.; Yemane, Dawit G.; Lamont, Tarron; Meÿer, Michael A.; Pistorius, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of marine top predators is increasingly being used to identify areas of ecological importance. This is largely enabled by the ability of many such species to forage extensively in search of prey that is often concentrated in oceanographically productive areas. To identify important habitat in the Southern Indian Ocean within and around South Africa’s Prince Edward Islands’ Marine Protected Area (MPA), satellite transmitters were deployed on 12 lactating Subantarctic fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis at Prince Edward Island (PEI) itself. Switching state space models were employed to correct ARGOS tracks and estimate behavioural states for locations along predicted tracks, namely travelling or area restricted search (ARS). A random forest model showed that distance from the study colony, longitude and distance from the Subantarctic Front were the most important predictors of suitable foraging habitat (inferred from ARS). Model-predicted suitable habitat occurred within the MPA in relatively close access to the colony during summer and autumn, but shifted northwards concurrently with frontal movements in winter and spring. The association of ARS with the MPA during summer-autumn was highly significant, highlighting the effectiveness of the recently declared reserve’s design for capturing suitable foraging habitat for this and probably other marine top predator species. PMID:27163373

  19. Gene discovery in the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skin transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Joseph I

    2011-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing provides a powerful new approach for developing functional genomic tools for nonmodel species, helping to narrow the gap between studies of model organisms and those of natural populations. Consequently, massively parallel 454 sequencing was used to characterize a normalized cDNA library derived from skin biopsy samples of twelve Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) individuals. Over 412 Mb of sequence data were generated, comprising 1.4 million reads of average length 286 bp. De novo assembly using Newbler 2.3 yielded 156 contigs plus 22 869 isotigs, which in turn clustered into 18,576 isogroups. Almost half of the assembled transcript sequences showed significant similarity to the nr database, revealing a functionally diverse array of genes. Moreover, 97.9% of these mapped to the dog (Canis lupis familiaris) genome, with a strong positive relationship between the number of sequences locating to a given chromosome and the length of that chromosome in the dog indicating a broad genomic distribution. Average depth of coverage was also almost 20-fold, sufficient to detect several thousand putative microsatellite loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms. This study constitutes an important step towards developing genomic resources with which to address consequential questions in pinniped ecology and evolution. It also supports an earlier but smaller study showing that skin tissue can be a rich source of expressed genes, with important implications for studying the genomics not only of marine mammals, but also more generally of species that cannot be destructively sampled.

  20. Flipper strokes can predict energy expenditure and locomotion costs in free-ranging northern and Antarctic fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Jeanniard-du-Dot, Tiphaine; Trites, Andrew W.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Speakman, John R.; Guinet, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flipper strokes have been proposed as proxies to estimate the energy expended by marine vertebrates while foraging at sea, but this has never been validated on free-ranging otariids (fur seals and sea lions). Our goal was to investigate how well flipper strokes correlate with energy expenditure in 33 foraging northern and Antarctic fur seals equipped with accelerometers, GPS, and time-depth recorders. We concomitantly measured field metabolic rates with the doubly-labelled water method and derived activity-specific energy expenditures using fine-scale time-activity budgets for each seal. Flipper strokes were detected while diving or surface transiting using dynamic acceleration. Despite some inter-species differences in flipper stroke dynamics or frequencies, both species of fur seals spent 3.79 ± 0.39 J/kg per stroke and had a cost of transport of ~1.6–1.9 J/kg/m while diving. Also, flipper stroke counts were good predictors of energy spent while diving (R2 = 0.76) and to a lesser extent while transiting (R2 = 0.63). However, flipper stroke count was a poor predictor overall of total energy spent during a full foraging trip (R2 = 0.50). Amplitude of flipper strokes (i.e., acceleration amplitude × number of strokes) predicted total energy expenditure (R2 = 0.63) better than flipper stroke counts, but was not as accurate as other acceleration-based proxies, i.e. Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration. PMID:27658718

  1. Temporal Allocation of Foraging Effort in Female Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Across an individual's life, foraging decisions will be affected by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic drivers that act at differing timescales. This study aimed to assess how female Australian fur seals allocated foraging effort and the behavioural changes used to achieve this at three temporal scales: within a day, across a foraging trip and across the final six months of the lactation period. Foraging effort peaked during daylight hours (57% of time diving) with lulls in activity just prior to and after daylight. Dive duration reduced across the day (196 s to 168 s) but this was compensated for by an increase in the vertical travel rate (1500–1600 m·h−1) and a reduction in postdive duration (111–90 s). This suggests physiological constraints (digestive costs) or prey availability may be limiting mean dive durations as a day progresses. During short trips (<2.9 d), effort remained steady at 55% of time diving, whereas, on long trips (>2.9 d) effort increased up to 2–3 d and then decreased. Dive duration decreased at the same rate in short and long trips, respectively, before stabilising (long trips) between 4–5 d. Suggesting that the same processes (digestive costs or prey availability) working at the daily scale may also be present across a trip. Across the lactation period, foraging effort, dive duration and vertical travel rate increased until August, before beginning to decrease. This suggests that as the nutritional demands of the suckling pup and developing foetus increase, female effort increases to accommodate this, providing insight into the potential constraints of maternal investment in this species. PMID:24244511

  2. Male reproductive strategy and the importance of maternal status in the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Joseph I; Boyd, Ian L; Amos, William

    2003-08-01

    Although mammalian mating systems are classically characterized in terms of male competition and polygyny, it is becoming increasingly apparent that alternative male strategies and female choice may play important roles. For example, females who mate with males from a dominant dynasty risk producing inbred offspring. Many pinnipeds are highly polygynous, but in some species alternative male strategies such as aquatic mating appear to be important, even when behavioral observations suggest strong polygyny. Here, we analyze male reproductive success in the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella, an otariid described behaviorally as being highly polygynous, by combining a microsatellite paternity analysis spanning seven consecutive breeding seasons with detailed behavioral data on both sexes. Territorial males fathered 59% of 660 pups analyzed from our study colony. Male reproductive skew was considerable, with a quarter of all paternities assigned to just 12 top individuals on a beach where mean annual pup production was 635. Most males were successful for only a single season, but those able to return over successive years enjoyed rapidly increasing success with each additional season of tenure. We found no evidence of alternative male reproductive tactics such as aquatic or sneaky terrestrial mating. However, paternity was strongly influenced by maternal status. Females observed on the beach without a pup were significantly less likely to conceive to a sampled territorial male than equivalent females that did pup. In addition, their pups carried combinations of paternal alleles that were less likely to be found on the study beach and exhibited lower levels of shared paternity. Thus, from a territorial male's perspective, not all females offer equal opportunities for fertilization.

  3. Hormonal responses to extreme fasting in subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) pups.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Delphine; Atkinson, Shannon; Guinet, Christophe; Groscolas, René; Arnould, John P Y

    2012-04-15

    Surviving prolonged fasting implies closely regulated alterations in fuel provisioning to meet metabolic requirements, while preserving homeostasis. Little is known, however, of the endocrine regulations governing such metabolic adaptations in naturally fasting free-ranging animals. The hormonal responses to natural prolonged fasting and how they correlate to the metabolic adaptations observed, were investigated in subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) pups, which, because of the intermittent pattern of maternal attendance, repeatedly endure exceptionally long fasting episodes throughout their development (1-3 mo). Phase I fasting was characterized by a dramatic decrease in plasma insulin, glucagon, leptin, and total l-thyroxine (T(4)) associated with reductions in mass-specific resting metabolic rate (RMR), plasma triglycerides, glycerol, and urea-to-creatine ratio, while nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-OHB increased. In contrast, the metabolic steady-state of phase II fasting reached within 6 days was associated with minimal concentrations of insulin, glucagon, and leptin; unchanged cortisol and triiodothyronine (T(3)); and moderately increased T(4). The early fall in insulin and leptin may mediate the shift to the strategy of energy conservation, protein sparing, and primary reliance on body lipids observed in response to the cessation of feeding. In contrast to the typical mammalian starvation response, nonelevated cortisol and minimal glucagon levels may contribute to body protein preservation and downregulation of catabolic pathways, in general. Furthermore, thyroid hormones may be involved in a process of energy conservation, independent of pups' nutritional state. These original hormonal settings might reflect an adaptation to the otariid repeated fasting pattern and emphasize the crucial importance of a tight physiological control over metabolism to survive extreme energetic constraints.

  4. Hematology, Serum Chemistry, and Early Hematologic Changes in Free-Ranging South American Fur Seals ( Arctocephalus australis ) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Keenan, Alessandra; Perez-Venegas, Diego J; DeRango, Eugene; Paves, Hector; Gottdenker, Nicole; Müller, Ananda

    2016-07-01

    The establishment of clinical pathology baseline data is critical to evaluate temporal and spatial changes in marine mammal groups. Despite increased availability of studies on hematology and biochemistry of marine mammals, reference ranges are lacking for many populations, especially among fur seal species. During the austral summers of 2014 and 2015, we evaluated basic hematologic and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy, physically restrained South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) lactating females and 2-mo-old pups. We also assessed the temporal variation of hematology parameters on the pups during their first 2 mo of life. Reference ranges of lactating females were similar to those previously reported in other fur seal species. In the case of pups, reference ranges are similar to values previously reported in sea lion species. As expected, most biochemical and hematologic values differ significantly between adult females and pups. As in other otariids, South American fur seals pups are born with higher values of total red blood cells, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume, and lower numbers of total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. To the best of our knowledge, data on hematology reference values for South American fur seals has not been previously reported and is useful for continued health monitoring of this species, as well as for comparisons with other otariid groups.

  5. Hematology, Serum Chemistry, and Early Hematologic Changes in Free-Ranging South American Fur Seals ( Arctocephalus australis ) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Keenan, Alessandra; Perez-Venegas, Diego J; DeRango, Eugene; Paves, Hector; Gottdenker, Nicole; Müller, Ananda

    2016-07-01

    The establishment of clinical pathology baseline data is critical to evaluate temporal and spatial changes in marine mammal groups. Despite increased availability of studies on hematology and biochemistry of marine mammals, reference ranges are lacking for many populations, especially among fur seal species. During the austral summers of 2014 and 2015, we evaluated basic hematologic and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy, physically restrained South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) lactating females and 2-mo-old pups. We also assessed the temporal variation of hematology parameters on the pups during their first 2 mo of life. Reference ranges of lactating females were similar to those previously reported in other fur seal species. In the case of pups, reference ranges are similar to values previously reported in sea lion species. As expected, most biochemical and hematologic values differ significantly between adult females and pups. As in other otariids, South American fur seals pups are born with higher values of total red blood cells, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume, and lower numbers of total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. To the best of our knowledge, data on hematology reference values for South American fur seals has not been previously reported and is useful for continued health monitoring of this species, as well as for comparisons with other otariid groups. PMID:27243331

  6. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks.

  7. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks. PMID:26056875

  8. Same size--same niche? Foraging niche separation between sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions and adult Galapagos fur seals.

    PubMed

    Jeglinski, Jana W E; Goetz, Kimberley T; Werner, Christiane; Costa, Daniel P; Trillmich, Fritz

    2013-05-01

    1. In vertebrates, patterns of resource utilization change throughout development according to age- and or size-specific abilities and requirements. Thus, interspecific competition affects different age classes differently. 2. Adults of sympatric species often show distinct foraging niche segregation, but juvenile resource use might overlap with adult competitors of similar body size. Resultant negative effects on juveniles can have important consequences for population dynamics, yet such interactions have received little attention in studies of mammalian communities. 3. Using GPS tracking devices, time-depth recorders and stable isotope data, we compared diving depth, activity time, trophic position and foraging habitat characteristics to investigate foraging niche overlap between similar-sized sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) and adult Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and compared each group with much larger-bodied adult Galapagos sea lions. 4. We found little indication for direct competition but a complex pattern of foraging niche segregation: juvenile sea lions and adult fur seals dived to shallow depths at night, but foraged in different habitats with limited spatial overlap. Conversely, juvenile and adult sea lions employed different foraging patterns, but their foraging areas overlapped almost completely. 5. Consistency of foraging habitat characteristics between juvenile and adult sea lions suggests that avoidance of competition may be important in shaping foraging habitat utilization. Resultant specialization on a limited habitat could contribute to low sea lion numbers that contrast with high fur seal abundance. Our data suggest that exploitation by multiple predators within spatially restricted foraging ranges of juveniles might negatively impact juvenile foraging success and ultimately influence population dynamics.

  9. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  10. Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Use Raptorial Biting and Suction Feeding When Targeting Prey in Different Foraging Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Evans, Alistair R.

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging. PMID:25390347

  11. Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) use raptorial biting and suction feeding when targeting prey in different foraging scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hocking, David P; Salverson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Evans, Alistair R

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging.

  12. Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) use raptorial biting and suction feeding when targeting prey in different foraging scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hocking, David P; Salverson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Evans, Alistair R

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging. PMID:25390347

  13. Unique fur and skin structure in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)--thermal insulation, drag reduction, or both?

    PubMed

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Witt, Martin; Wree, Andreas; Siebert, Ursula; Hanke, Wolf

    2015-03-01

    Vertebrate surface structures, including mammalian skin and hair structures, have undergone various modifications during evolution in accordance with functional specializations. Harbour seals rely on their vibrissal system for orientation and foraging. To maintain tactile sensitivity even at low temperatures, the vibrissal follicles are heated up intensely, which could cause severe heat loss to the environment. We analysed skin samples of different body parts of harbour seals, and expected to see higher hair densities at the vibrissal pads as a way to reduce heat loss. In addition to significantly higher hair densities around the vibrissae than on the rest of the body, we show a unique fur structure of hair bundles consisting of broad guard hairs along with hairs of a new type, smaller than guard hairs but broader than underhairs, which we defined as 'intermediate hairs'. This fur composition has not been reported for any mammal so far and may serve for thermal insulation as well as drag reduction. Furthermore, we describe a scale-like skin structure that also presumably plays a role in drag reduction. PMID:25652462

  14. Unique fur and skin structure in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)—thermal insulation, drag reduction, or both?

    PubMed Central

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Witt, Martin; Wree, Andreas; Siebert, Ursula; Hanke, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate surface structures, including mammalian skin and hair structures, have undergone various modifications during evolution in accordance with functional specializations. Harbour seals rely on their vibrissal system for orientation and foraging. To maintain tactile sensitivity even at low temperatures, the vibrissal follicles are heated up intensely, which could cause severe heat loss to the environment. We analysed skin samples of different body parts of harbour seals, and expected to see higher hair densities at the vibrissal pads as a way to reduce heat loss. In addition to significantly higher hair densities around the vibrissae than on the rest of the body, we show a unique fur structure of hair bundles consisting of broad guard hairs along with hairs of a new type, smaller than guard hairs but broader than underhairs, which we defined as ‘intermediate hairs’. This fur composition has not been reported for any mammal so far and may serve for thermal insulation as well as drag reduction. Furthermore, we describe a scale-like skin structure that also presumably plays a role in drag reduction. PMID:25652462

  15. Contamination profiles of selected PCB congeners, chlorinated pesticides, PCDD/Fs in Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Alessandra; Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of some major environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic samples. Concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Antarctic fur seal pups and eggs of three species of penguins. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was the main pollutant, followed by PCBs; other organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCDD/Fs were usually found only in minor quantities. Adélie penguin eggs had significantly higher mean PCB concentrations (p<0.05) compared to the other two penguin species, but there was no difference in DDT levels (p>0.05). TEQ values in fur seal blubber in our study were one order of magnitude lower than those considered to elicit physiological effects in aquatic mammals. In general, POP concentrations in our samples suggested that likely the study populations were not currently at risk for adverse health effects, but indicated a clear need for further monitoring to assess the presence and time trend of a broad range of contaminants, mainly emerging POPs thought to be increasing in polar regions. PMID:19375148

  16. Unique fur and skin structure in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)--thermal insulation, drag reduction, or both?

    PubMed

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Witt, Martin; Wree, Andreas; Siebert, Ursula; Hanke, Wolf

    2015-03-01

    Vertebrate surface structures, including mammalian skin and hair structures, have undergone various modifications during evolution in accordance with functional specializations. Harbour seals rely on their vibrissal system for orientation and foraging. To maintain tactile sensitivity even at low temperatures, the vibrissal follicles are heated up intensely, which could cause severe heat loss to the environment. We analysed skin samples of different body parts of harbour seals, and expected to see higher hair densities at the vibrissal pads as a way to reduce heat loss. In addition to significantly higher hair densities around the vibrissae than on the rest of the body, we show a unique fur structure of hair bundles consisting of broad guard hairs along with hairs of a new type, smaller than guard hairs but broader than underhairs, which we defined as 'intermediate hairs'. This fur composition has not been reported for any mammal so far and may serve for thermal insulation as well as drag reduction. Furthermore, we describe a scale-like skin structure that also presumably plays a role in drag reduction.

  17. Contamination profiles of selected PCB congeners, chlorinated pesticides, PCDD/Fs in Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Alessandra; Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of some major environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic samples. Concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Antarctic fur seal pups and eggs of three species of penguins. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was the main pollutant, followed by PCBs; other organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCDD/Fs were usually found only in minor quantities. Adélie penguin eggs had significantly higher mean PCB concentrations (p<0.05) compared to the other two penguin species, but there was no difference in DDT levels (p>0.05). TEQ values in fur seal blubber in our study were one order of magnitude lower than those considered to elicit physiological effects in aquatic mammals. In general, POP concentrations in our samples suggested that likely the study populations were not currently at risk for adverse health effects, but indicated a clear need for further monitoring to assess the presence and time trend of a broad range of contaminants, mainly emerging POPs thought to be increasing in polar regions.

  18. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  19. Long-Term Species, Sexual and Individual Variations in Foraging Strategies of Fur Seals Revealed by Stable Isotopes in Whiskers

    PubMed Central

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cazelles, Bernard; Arnould, John P. Y.; Richard, Pierre; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variations in the use of the species niche are an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. A challenge in testing consistency of individual foraging strategy is the repeated collection of information on the same individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings The foraging strategies of sympatric fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis) were examined using the stable isotope signature of serially sampled whiskers. Most whiskers exhibited synchronous δ13C and δ15N oscillations that correspond to the seal annual movements over the long term (up to 8 years). δ13C and δ15N values were spread over large ranges, with differences between species, sexes and individuals. The main segregating mechanism operates at the spatial scale. Most seals favored foraging in subantarctic waters (where the Crozet Islands are located) where they fed on myctophids. However, A. gazella dispersed in the Antarctic Zone and A. tropicalis more in the subtropics. Gender differences in annual time budget shape the seal movements. Males that do not perform any parental care exhibited large isotopic oscillations reflecting broad annual migrations, while isotopic values of females confined to a limited foraging range during lactation exhibited smaller changes. Limited inter-individual isotopic variations occurred in female seals and in male A. tropicalis. In contrast, male A. gazella showed large inter-individual variations, with some males migrating repeatedly to high-Antarctic waters where they fed on krill, thus meaning that individual specialization occurred over years. Conclusions/Significance Whisker isotopic signature yields unique long-term information on individual behaviour that integrates the spatial, trophic and temporal dimensions of the ecological niche. The method allows depicting the entire realized niche of the species, including some of its less well-known components such as age-, sex-, individual- and migration-related changes. It

  20. Pathological findings in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis gracilis) found dead at Guafo Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Seguel, M; Paredes, E; Pavés, H; Molina, R; Henríquez, F; De Groote, F; Schlatter, R

    2011-01-01

    During four breeding seasons (2004-2008), 78 necropsy examinations were performed on South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis gracilis) found dead on Guafo Island, southern Chile (43°36'S, 74°43'W). Tissue samples from 65 pups were examined microscopically. The primary causes of death were enteritis with microscopical lesions of bacteraemia (28.2%), starvation (23.1%), drowning (21.8%), trauma (19.2%) and stillbirth (2.6%). Those pups with enteritis and microscopical lesions of bacteraemia had haemorrhagic enteritis (100%), interstitial pneumonia (86%), periportal hepatitis (73%) and vasculitis (18%). The pups that died from starvation had atrophy of hepatocytes (61%) and cholestasis (61%). The pups that drowned had bronchoalveolar oedema (65%) and foreign bodies in the airways (65%). In animals that died from trauma, the main lesions were skull fractures (67%). This range of pathological findings is within what would be expected in a healthy otariid breeding colony.

  1. Top-down and bottom-up influences on demographic rates of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lisa K; Goebel, Michael E; Costa, Daniel P; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2013-07-01

    Two major drivers in population dynamics are bottom-up processes, such as environmental factors that affect foraging success, and the top-down impacts of predation. Many populations of marine mammal and seabird species appear to be declining in response to reductions in prey associated with the bottom-up effects of climate change. However, predation, which usually occurs at sea and is difficult to observe, may also play a key role. We analysed drivers of population dynamics of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at Cape Shirreff from 1997 to 2009, including a predator that targets pre-weaned pups and bottom-up environmental effects in an ecosystem particularly sensitive to small changes in temperature. We use Bayesian mark-recapture analysis to demonstrate that although large-scale environmental variability affects annual adult survival and reproduction, first year survival appears to be driving the current decline in this population (as defined by a decline in the annual number of pups born). Although the number of pups increased during the first third of the study, first year survival and recruitment of those pups in later years was very low. Such low survival may be driven by leopard seal Hydrurga leptonyx predation, particularly prior to weaning. Our results suggest that without leopard seal predation, this population would most likely increase in size, despite the observed bottom-up effects of climate changes on adult vital rates. More broadly, our results show how age-targeted predation could be a major factor in population decline of K-selected colonial breeders.

  2. Two behavioural traits promote fine-scale species segregation and moderate hybridisation in a recovering sympatric fur seal population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In systems where two or more species experience secondary contact, behavioural factors that regulate interspecific gene flow may be important for maintaining species boundaries and reducing the incidence of hybridisation. At subantarctic Macquarie Island, two species of fur seal breed in close proximity to one another, hybridise at very high levels (up to 21% of hybrid pups are born annually), yet retain discrete gene pools. Using spatial and genetic information collected for pups and adults over twelve years, we assessed two behavioural traits - inter-annual site fidelity and differences in habitat use between the species - as possible contributors to the maintenance of this species segregation. Further, we explored the breakdown of these traits in pure-species individuals and hybrids. Results We found virtually complete spatial segregation of the parental species, with only one exception; a single territory that contained adults of both species and also the highest concentration of hybrid pups. The spatial distribution of each species was closely linked to habitat type (pebbled vs boulder beaches), with members of each species breeding almost exclusively on one type or the other but hybrids breeding on both or at the junction between habitats. Inter-annual site fidelity was high for both sexes of pure-species adults, with 66% of females and all males returning to the same territory or a neighbouring one in different years. An important consequence for pure females of breeding on the 'wrong' habitat type, and thus in a heterospecific aggregation, was the production of hybrid pups. Low habitat fidelity of hybrid females facilitated bi-directional backcrossing, resulting in more diverse hybrid offspring. Conclusion In a disturbed system where two sympatric fur seal species breed in close proximity, discrete gene pools are retained by extremely fine-scale and strong spatial segregation of the species. Two behavioural traits were found to be important in

  3. A draft fur seal genome provides insights into factors affecting SNP validation and how to mitigate them.

    PubMed

    Humble, E; Martinez-Barrio, A; Forcada, J; Trathan, P N; Thorne, M A S; Hoffmann, M; Wolf, J B W; Hoffman, J I

    2016-07-01

    Custom genotyping arrays provide a flexible and accurate means of genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large number of individuals of essentially any organism. However, validation rates, defined as the proportion of putative SNPs that are verified to be polymorphic in a population, are often very low. A number of potential causes of assay failure have been identified, but none have been explored systematically. In particular, as SNPs are often developed from transcriptomes, parameters relating to the genomic context are rarely taken into account. Here, we assembled a draft Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) genome (assembly size: 2.41 Gb; scaffold/contig N50 : 3.1 Mb/27.5 kb). We then used this resource to map the probe sequences of 144 putative SNPs genotyped in 480 individuals. The number of probe-to-genome mappings and alignment length together explained almost a third of the variation in validation success, indicating that sequence uniqueness and proximity to intron-exon boundaries play an important role. The same pattern was found after mapping the probe sequences to the Walrus and Weddell seal genomes, suggesting that the genomes of species divergent by as much as 23 million years can hold information relevant to SNP validation outcomes. Additionally, reanalysis of genotyping data from seven previous studies found the same two variables to be significantly associated with SNP validation success across a variety of taxa. Finally, our study reveals considerable scope for validation rates to be improved, either by simply filtering for SNPs whose flanking sequences align uniquely and completely to a reference genome, or through predictive modelling. PMID:26683564

  4. A draft fur seal genome provides insights into factors affecting SNP validation and how to mitigate them.

    PubMed

    Humble, E; Martinez-Barrio, A; Forcada, J; Trathan, P N; Thorne, M A S; Hoffmann, M; Wolf, J B W; Hoffman, J I

    2016-07-01

    Custom genotyping arrays provide a flexible and accurate means of genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large number of individuals of essentially any organism. However, validation rates, defined as the proportion of putative SNPs that are verified to be polymorphic in a population, are often very low. A number of potential causes of assay failure have been identified, but none have been explored systematically. In particular, as SNPs are often developed from transcriptomes, parameters relating to the genomic context are rarely taken into account. Here, we assembled a draft Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) genome (assembly size: 2.41 Gb; scaffold/contig N50 : 3.1 Mb/27.5 kb). We then used this resource to map the probe sequences of 144 putative SNPs genotyped in 480 individuals. The number of probe-to-genome mappings and alignment length together explained almost a third of the variation in validation success, indicating that sequence uniqueness and proximity to intron-exon boundaries play an important role. The same pattern was found after mapping the probe sequences to the Walrus and Weddell seal genomes, suggesting that the genomes of species divergent by as much as 23 million years can hold information relevant to SNP validation outcomes. Additionally, reanalysis of genotyping data from seven previous studies found the same two variables to be significantly associated with SNP validation success across a variety of taxa. Finally, our study reveals considerable scope for validation rates to be improved, either by simply filtering for SNPs whose flanking sequences align uniquely and completely to a reference genome, or through predictive modelling.

  5. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae. PMID:25431362

  6. Diagnosis and treatment considerations in a case of malignant mesenchymoma in an African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Laricchiuta, Pietro; Campolo, Marco; Martelli, Paolo; Cantore, Angela; Menga, Giuseppe; Tortorella, Giovanni; Grillo, Isidoro G; de Ruvo, Giuseppe; Gelli, Donatella; Lai, Olimpia R

    2013-06-01

    A 20-yr-old African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) presented with a slowly growing mass located on the dorsum at the level of the last thoracic vertebrae. The mass was hard, 10 cm in diameter, and not adherent to the underlying tissues. Multiple biopsies were collected for histopathology and revealed extensive areas of necrosis, small nodules of malignant mesenchymal proliferation with areas of chondroid metaplasia, and atypical cells in vessel walls. The morphologic diagnosis was suggestive of malignant mesenchymal neoplasia originating from the vascular wall. The mass was removed 1 mo later due to ulceration and infection. Histologically, based on the World Health Organization's classification of neoplastic processes in domestic animals, the tumor was consistent with malignant mesenchymoma. The margins of resection revealed the presence of neoplastic cells. Based on these results, the particular species involved, the high local invasiveness, and the high metastatic index of this malignant tumor in domestic mammals and humans, the prognosis was poor. The animal died 6 mo later with metatastic disease. PMID:23805568

  7. Dynamic influence of maternal and pup traits on maternal care during lactation in an income breeder, the antarctic fur seal.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Birgitte I; Goebel, Michael E; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that selection will favor optimal levels of parental effort that balance benefits of current reproduction with costs to survival and future reproduction. The optimal level of effort depends on parental traits, offspring traits, and provisioning strategy. Additionally, how these factors influence effort may differ depending on the stage of reproduction. The relative importance of maternal and offspring traits on energy allocation to offspring was investigated in known-age Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella across four stages of reproduction, using birth mass and milk-consumption measurements. Maternal traits were important during three of the four stages investigated, with larger females giving birth to larger pups and investing more in pups during perinatal and molt stages. Pup mass influenced maternal effort during the premolt stage, and provisioning strategy influenced postnatal maternal effort at all stages. Energy provided to the offspring during an attendance visit was positively related to the duration of the foraging-trip/visit cycle; however, when investment was controlled for trip/visit cycle duration, the overall rate of energy transfer was similar across trip durations. In addition to strong effects of maternal mass, pup traits affected energy allocation, suggesting that pup demand is important in determining maternal care. These findings emphasize the importance of considering state variables in life-history studies and suggest that timing of measurements of effort in species with long provisioning periods may influence conclusions and our ability to make comparisons of reproductive effort among species.

  8. The first report of otarine herpesvirus-1-associated urogenital carcinoma in a South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis).

    PubMed

    Dagleish, M P; Barrows, M; Maley, M; Killick, R; Finlayson, J; Goodchild, R; Valentine, A; Saunders, R; Willoughby, K; Smith, K C; Stidworthy, M F

    2013-07-01

    Otarine herpesvirus (OtHV)-1-associated urogenital carcinoma has been well documented in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus, CSL), but this is the first report of this tumour in a captive South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis, SAFS). The gross and microscopical morphology of the tumour in the SAFS was identical to that described previously in CSLs and the tumour in the present case had metastasized within the urogenital tract and draining lymph nodes and to the lungs and one kidney. Immunohistochemistry revealed intra- and extracytoplasmic labelling of herpesvirus antigen in the cells of the tumour tissue and transitional epithelium of the urethra. OtHV-1 nucleic acids were detected within tumour tissue and from a urogenital swab by polymerase chain reaction. The ranges of these two species of pinniped do not overlap normally in the wild, suggesting that transmission of OtHV-1 probably occurred in captivity. This confirmed susceptibility of the SAFS to the development of OtHV-1-associated urogenital carcinoma suggests that all species of Otariidae should be screened for OtHV-1 infection prior to movement within and between zoological collections.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment considerations in a case of malignant mesenchymoma in an African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Laricchiuta, Pietro; Campolo, Marco; Martelli, Paolo; Cantore, Angela; Menga, Giuseppe; Tortorella, Giovanni; Grillo, Isidoro G; de Ruvo, Giuseppe; Gelli, Donatella; Lai, Olimpia R

    2013-06-01

    A 20-yr-old African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) presented with a slowly growing mass located on the dorsum at the level of the last thoracic vertebrae. The mass was hard, 10 cm in diameter, and not adherent to the underlying tissues. Multiple biopsies were collected for histopathology and revealed extensive areas of necrosis, small nodules of malignant mesenchymal proliferation with areas of chondroid metaplasia, and atypical cells in vessel walls. The morphologic diagnosis was suggestive of malignant mesenchymal neoplasia originating from the vascular wall. The mass was removed 1 mo later due to ulceration and infection. Histologically, based on the World Health Organization's classification of neoplastic processes in domestic animals, the tumor was consistent with malignant mesenchymoma. The margins of resection revealed the presence of neoplastic cells. Based on these results, the particular species involved, the high local invasiveness, and the high metastatic index of this malignant tumor in domestic mammals and humans, the prognosis was poor. The animal died 6 mo later with metatastic disease.

  10. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae.

  11. Lunar cycles in diel prey migrations exert a stronger effect on the diving of juveniles than adult Galápagos fur seals.

    PubMed

    Horning, M; Trillmich, F

    1999-06-01

    In our study of the development of diving in Galápagos fur seals, we analysed changes in diving activity and body mass trends over the lunar cycle. Based on previously observed lunar cycles in colony attendance patterns, we hypothesized a greater impact of prey migrations of deep scattering layer organisms on younger fur seals. Using electronic dive recorders, we determined that seals dived less and deeper on moonlit nights than at new moon, and incurred body mass losses. These changes in foraging over the lunar cycle correlate with the suppression of the vertical migration of prey by lunar light. All effects were more pronounced in juveniles than adult females, with greater relative mass loss during full moon, which must (i) negatively affect long-term juvenile growth rates, (ii) lengthen periods of maternal dependence, and (iii) contribute to the lowest reproductive rate reported for seals. This underlines the importance of studying ontogeny in order to understand life histories, and for determining the susceptibility of animal populations to fluctuations in food availability.

  12. Lunar cycles in diel prey migrations exert a stronger effect on the diving of juveniles than adult Galápagos fur seals.

    PubMed Central

    Horning, M; Trillmich, F

    1999-01-01

    In our study of the development of diving in Galápagos fur seals, we analysed changes in diving activity and body mass trends over the lunar cycle. Based on previously observed lunar cycles in colony attendance patterns, we hypothesized a greater impact of prey migrations of deep scattering layer organisms on younger fur seals. Using electronic dive recorders, we determined that seals dived less and deeper on moonlit nights than at new moon, and incurred body mass losses. These changes in foraging over the lunar cycle correlate with the suppression of the vertical migration of prey by lunar light. All effects were more pronounced in juveniles than adult females, with greater relative mass loss during full moon, which must (i) negatively affect long-term juvenile growth rates, (ii) lengthen periods of maternal dependence, and (iii) contribute to the lowest reproductive rate reported for seals. This underlines the importance of studying ontogeny in order to understand life histories, and for determining the susceptibility of animal populations to fluctuations in food availability. PMID:10406130

  13. Dive characteristics can predict foraging success in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) as validated by animal-borne video

    PubMed Central

    Volpov, Beth L.; Rosen, David A. S.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Lourie, Holly J.; Dorville, Nicole; Baylis, Alastair M. M.; Wheatley, Kathryn E.; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Semmens, Jayson; Hindell, Mark A.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dive characteristics and dive shape are often used to infer foraging success in pinnipeds. However, these inferences have not been directly validated in the field with video, and it remains unclear if this method can be applied to benthic foraging animals. This study assessed the ability of dive characteristics from time-depth recorders (TDR) to predict attempted prey capture events (APC) that were directly observed on animal-borne video in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, n=11). The most parsimonious model predicting the probability of a dive with ≥1 APC on video included only descent rate as a predictor variable. The majority (94%) of the 389 total APC were successful, and the majority of the dives (68%) contained at least one successful APC. The best model predicting these successful dives included descent rate as a predictor. Comparisons of the TDR model predictions to video yielded a maximum accuracy of 77.5% in classifying dives as either APC or non-APC or 77.1% in classifying dives as successful verses unsuccessful. Foraging intensity, measured as either total APC per dive or total successful APC per dive, was best predicted by bottom duration and ascent rate. The accuracy in predicting total APC per dive varied based on the number of APC per dive with maximum accuracy occurring at 1 APC for both total (54%) and only successful APC (52%). Results from this study linking verified foraging dives to dive characteristics potentially opens the door to decades of historical TDR datasets across several otariid species. PMID:26873950

  14. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, John P. Y.; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A.; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development. PMID:26132329

  15. Return customers: foraging site fidelity and the effect of environmental variability in wide-ranging antarctic fur seals.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; Trathan, Phil; Jonsen, Ian; Staniland, Iain; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Wege, Mia; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Strategies employed by wide-ranging foraging animals involve consideration of habitat quality and predictability and should maximise net energy gain. Fidelity to foraging sites is common in areas of high resource availability or where predictable changes in resource availability occur. However, if resource availability is heterogeneous or unpredictable, as it often is in marine environments, then habitat familiarity may also present ecological benefits to individuals. We examined the winter foraging distribution of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazelle, over four years to assess the degree of foraging site fidelity at two scales; within and between years. On average, between-year fidelity was strong, with most individuals utilising more than half of their annual foraging home range over multiple years. However, fidelity was a bimodal strategy among individuals, with five out of eight animals recording between-year overlap values of greater than 50%, while three animals recorded values of less than 5%. High long-term variance in sea surface temperature, a potential proxy for elevated long-term productivity and prey availability, typified areas of overlap. Within-year foraging site fidelity was weak, indicating that successive trips over the winter target different geographic areas. We suggest that over a season, changes in prey availability are predictable enough for individuals to shift foraging area in response, with limited associated energetic costs. Conversely, over multiple years, the availability of prey resources is less spatially and temporally predictable, increasing the potential costs of shifting foraging area and favouring long-term site fidelity. In a dynamic and patchy environment, multi-year foraging site fidelity may confer a long-term energetic advantage to the individual. Such behaviours that operate at the individual level have evolutionary and ecological implications and are potential drivers of niche specialization and modifiers of

  16. Dive characteristics can predict foraging success in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) as validated by animal-borne video.

    PubMed

    Volpov, Beth L; Rosen, David A S; Hoskins, Andrew J; Lourie, Holly J; Dorville, Nicole; Baylis, Alastair M M; Wheatley, Kathryn E; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Semmens, Jayson; Hindell, Mark A; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-02-12

    Dive characteristics and dive shape are often used to infer foraging success in pinnipeds. However, these inferences have not been directly validated in the field with video, and it remains unclear if this method can be applied to benthic foraging animals. This study assessed the ability of dive characteristics from time-depth recorders (TDR) to predict attempted prey capture events (APC) that were directly observed on animal-borne video in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, n=11). The most parsimonious model predicting the probability of a dive with ≥1 APC on video included only descent rate as a predictor variable. The majority (94%) of the 389 total APC were successful, and the majority of the dives (68%) contained at least one successful APC. The best model predicting these successful dives included descent rate as a predictor. Comparisons of the TDR model predictions to video yielded a maximum accuracy of 77.5% in classifying dives as either APC or non-APC or 77.1% in classifying dives as successful verses unsuccessful. Foraging intensity, measured as either total APC per dive or total successful APC per dive, was best predicted by bottom duration and ascent rate. The accuracy in predicting total APC per dive varied based on the number of APC per dive with maximum accuracy occurring at 1 APC for both total (54%) and only successful APC (52%). Results from this study linking verified foraging dives to dive characteristics potentially opens the door to decades of historical TDR datasets across several otariid species.

  17. Return Customers: Foraging Site Fidelity and the Effect of Environmental Variability in Wide-Ranging Antarctic Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; Trathan, Phil; Jonsen, Ian; Staniland, Iain; Oosthuizen, W. Chris; Wege, Mia; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Strategies employed by wide-ranging foraging animals involve consideration of habitat quality and predictability and should maximise net energy gain. Fidelity to foraging sites is common in areas of high resource availability or where predictable changes in resource availability occur. However, if resource availability is heterogeneous or unpredictable, as it often is in marine environments, then habitat familiarity may also present ecological benefits to individuals. We examined the winter foraging distribution of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazelle, over four years to assess the degree of foraging site fidelity at two scales; within and between years. On average, between-year fidelity was strong, with most individuals utilising more than half of their annual foraging home range over multiple years. However, fidelity was a bimodal strategy among individuals, with five out of eight animals recording between-year overlap values of greater than 50%, while three animals recorded values of less than 5%. High long-term variance in sea surface temperature, a potential proxy for elevated long-term productivity and prey availability, typified areas of overlap. Within-year foraging site fidelity was weak, indicating that successive trips over the winter target different geographic areas. We suggest that over a season, changes in prey availability are predictable enough for individuals to shift foraging area in response, with limited associated energetic costs. Conversely, over multiple years, the availability of prey resources is less spatially and temporally predictable, increasing the potential costs of shifting foraging area and favouring long-term site fidelity. In a dynamic and patchy environment, multi-year foraging site fidelity may confer a long-term energetic advantage to the individual. Such behaviours that operate at the individual level have evolutionary and ecological implications and are potential drivers of niche specialization and modifiers of

  18. Return customers: foraging site fidelity and the effect of environmental variability in wide-ranging antarctic fur seals.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; Trathan, Phil; Jonsen, Ian; Staniland, Iain; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Wege, Mia; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Strategies employed by wide-ranging foraging animals involve consideration of habitat quality and predictability and should maximise net energy gain. Fidelity to foraging sites is common in areas of high resource availability or where predictable changes in resource availability occur. However, if resource availability is heterogeneous or unpredictable, as it often is in marine environments, then habitat familiarity may also present ecological benefits to individuals. We examined the winter foraging distribution of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazelle, over four years to assess the degree of foraging site fidelity at two scales; within and between years. On average, between-year fidelity was strong, with most individuals utilising more than half of their annual foraging home range over multiple years. However, fidelity was a bimodal strategy among individuals, with five out of eight animals recording between-year overlap values of greater than 50%, while three animals recorded values of less than 5%. High long-term variance in sea surface temperature, a potential proxy for elevated long-term productivity and prey availability, typified areas of overlap. Within-year foraging site fidelity was weak, indicating that successive trips over the winter target different geographic areas. We suggest that over a season, changes in prey availability are predictable enough for individuals to shift foraging area in response, with limited associated energetic costs. Conversely, over multiple years, the availability of prey resources is less spatially and temporally predictable, increasing the potential costs of shifting foraging area and favouring long-term site fidelity. In a dynamic and patchy environment, multi-year foraging site fidelity may confer a long-term energetic advantage to the individual. Such behaviours that operate at the individual level have evolutionary and ecological implications and are potential drivers of niche specialization and modifiers of

  19. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed

    Arnould, John P Y; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  20. Organochlorine contaminants in blubber of four seal species: integrating biomonitoring and specimen banking.

    PubMed

    Krahn, M M; Becker, P R; Tilbury, K L; Stein, J E

    1997-05-01

    Blubber samples from four Alaska seal species (bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus, harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, ringed seal, P. hispida) were collected for inclusion in the US National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank, as well as for immediate analysis as part of the contaminant monitoring component of the US National Marine Fisheries Service's Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program. The blubber samples were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) contaminants (e.g., PCB congeners, pesticides, DDTs). Results for bearded and ringed seals from the Alaska Arctic revealed low blubber concentrations of OC contaminants. Harbor seals from Prince William Sound. Gulf of Alaska, had somewhat higher blubber concentrations of OC contaminants. In contrast, northern fur seals sampled from the Pribilof Islands had blubber concentrations of certain OC contaminants that were about an order of magnitude higher than those found in the other seal species. Differences in contaminant concentrations among the Alaska seals may be explained by differences in feeding habits and migratory patterns, age or gender did not appear to account for the differences observed. The highest concentrations of OCs were found in harbor seals stranded along the northwestern US mainland, which is consistent with higher concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants being found in urban coastal areas than in more remote Arctic environments. The integration of real-time contaminant monitoring with specimen banking provides important baseline data that can be used to plan and manage banking activities. This includes identifying appropriate specimens that are useful in assessing temporal trends and increasing the utility of the banked samples in assessing chemical contaminant accumulation and relationships to biological effects.

  1. Thoracic auscultation in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with an electronic stethoscope.

    PubMed

    Scharpegge, Julia; Hartmann, Manuel García; Eulenberger, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    Thoracic auscultation is an important diagnostic method used in cases of suspected pulmonary disease in many species, as respiratory sounds contain significant information on the physiology and pathology of the lungs and upper airways. Respiratory diseases are frequent in marine mammals and are often listed as one of their main causes of death. The aim of this study was to investigate and report baseline parameters for the electronic-mediated thoracic auscultation of one cetacean species and two pinniped species in captivity. Respiratory sounds from 20 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and 5 South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) were recorded with an electronic stethoscope. The sounds were analyzed for duration of the respiratory cycle, adventitious sounds, and peak frequencies of recorded sounds during expiration and inspiration as well as for sound intensity as reflected by waveform amplitude during the respiratory cycle. In respiratory cycles of the bottlenose dolphins' expiring "on command," the duration of the expiration was significantly shorter than the duration of the inspiration. In the examined pinnipeds of this study, there was no clear pattern concerning the duration of one breathing phase: Adventitious sounds were detected most often in bottlenose dolphins that were expiring on command and could be compared with "forced expiratory wheezes" in humans. This is the first report of forced expiratory wheezes in bottlenose dolphins; they can easily be misinterpreted as pathologic respiratory sounds. The peak frequencies of the respiratory sounds reached over 2,000 Hz in bottlenose dolphins and over 1,000 Hz in California sea lions and South African fur seals, but the variation of the frequency spectra was very high in all animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of respiratory sounds of bottlenose dolphins and two species of pinnipeds. PMID:22779229

  2. Multisystemic toxoplasmosis associated with a type II-like Toxoplasma gondii strain in a New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Slapeta, Jan

    2014-09-15

    We report the first confirmed case of toxoplasmosis in an Australian pinniped. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the brain of a free-ranging subadult New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hypophysitis, posterior uveitis, retrobulbar cellulitis, and myocarditis associated with protozoan cysts and tachyzoites. The emaciated seal stranded moribund on a beach in northern Sydney in New South Wales. Histopathology coupled with specific immunohistochemistry and PCR assays confirmed the presence of T. gondii. The T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified in this study has an identical genotype as the type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) based on the direct sequencing and virtual RFLP of multilocus DNA markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Direct sequencing of T. gondii B1 DNA marker from the T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified a type II-like strain, based on presence of non-archetypal B1 gene polymorphisms previously reported as unique to Australia. This study suggests that T. gondii oocysts originating from mainland Australia, which has a large population of feral cats, may act as a disease threat to native marine fauna. Therefore, emerging toxoplasmosis in the Arctic has a relevant parallel in the Southern Ocean within Australian waters with yet unknown relevance to Antarctica. PMID:25123611

  3. Multisystemic toxoplasmosis associated with a type II-like Toxoplasma gondii strain in a New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Slapeta, Jan

    2014-09-15

    We report the first confirmed case of toxoplasmosis in an Australian pinniped. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the brain of a free-ranging subadult New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hypophysitis, posterior uveitis, retrobulbar cellulitis, and myocarditis associated with protozoan cysts and tachyzoites. The emaciated seal stranded moribund on a beach in northern Sydney in New South Wales. Histopathology coupled with specific immunohistochemistry and PCR assays confirmed the presence of T. gondii. The T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified in this study has an identical genotype as the type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) based on the direct sequencing and virtual RFLP of multilocus DNA markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Direct sequencing of T. gondii B1 DNA marker from the T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified a type II-like strain, based on presence of non-archetypal B1 gene polymorphisms previously reported as unique to Australia. This study suggests that T. gondii oocysts originating from mainland Australia, which has a large population of feral cats, may act as a disease threat to native marine fauna. Therefore, emerging toxoplasmosis in the Arctic has a relevant parallel in the Southern Ocean within Australian waters with yet unknown relevance to Antarctica.

  4. From video recordings to whisker stable isotopes: a critical evaluation of timescale in assessing individual foraging specialisation in Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Dorville, Nicole; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hoskins, Andrew J; Baylis, Alastair M M; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J; Cherel, Yves; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    Estimating the degree of individual specialisation is likely to be sensitive to the methods used, as they record individuals' resource use over different time-periods. We combined animal-borne video cameras, GPS/TDR loggers and stable isotope values of plasma, red cells and sub-sampled whiskers to investigate individual foraging specialisation in female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) over various timescales. Combining these methods enabled us to (1) provide quantitative information on individuals' diet, allowing the identification of prey, (2) infer the temporal consistency of individual specialisation, and (3) assess how different methods and timescales affect our estimation of the degree of specialisation. Short-term inter-individual variation in diet was observed in the video data (mean pairwise overlap = 0.60), with the sampled population being composed of both generalist and specialist individuals (nested network). However, the brevity of the temporal window is likely to artificially increase the level of specialisation by not recording the entire diet of seals. Indeed, the correlation in isotopic values was tighter between the red cells and whiskers (mid- to long-term foraging ecology) than between plasma and red cells (short- to mid-term) (R(2) = 0.93-0.73 vs. 0.55-0.41). δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers confirmed the temporal consistency of individual specialisation. Variation in isotopic niche was consistent across seasons and years, indicating long-term habitat (WIC/TNW = 0.28) and dietary (WIC/TNW = 0.39) specialisation. The results also highlight time-averaging issues (under-estimation of the degree of specialisation) when calculating individual specialisation indices over long time-periods, so that no single timescale may provide a complete and accurate picture, emphasising the benefits of using complementary methods.

  5. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras.

    PubMed

    Volpov, Beth L; Hoskins, Andrew J; Battaile, Brian C; Viviant, Morgane; Wheatley, Kathryn E; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application. PMID:26107647

  6. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Volpov, Beth L.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Battaile, Brian C.; Viviant, Morgane; Wheatley, Kathryn E.; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application. PMID:26107647

  7. Death of a South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) after the ingestion of toads--evaluation of toad poisoning by toxicological analysis.

    PubMed

    Toennes, Stefan W; Peters, Martin; Osmann, Christine; Pogoda, Werner; Mebs, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Animals in zoological gardens are at risk of severe and even lethal poisoning when they accidentally ingest toads. Here we report the case of an eleven month old male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) which was found dead in its outdoor enclosure in the zoo of Dortmund, Germany. Autopsy revealed the presence of two adult, partly digested common toads (Bufo bufo) in the stomach. Toxicological analysis of the stomach content using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS) proved the presence of bufadienolides, the major cardiotoxic components of toad poisons. Using electrochemical luminescens immunoassay (ECLIA) compounds equivalent to digitoxin were detected in the blood sample confirming the absorption of toad poison components from the intestines into the circulation potentially leading to cardiac failure. In zoological gardens special precautions are necessary to protect non-native animals from encountering toads and the risk of poisoning, particularly in early spring, the spawning period of the toads. PMID:26054232

  8. Death of a South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) after the ingestion of toads--evaluation of toad poisoning by toxicological analysis.

    PubMed

    Toennes, Stefan W; Peters, Martin; Osmann, Christine; Pogoda, Werner; Mebs, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Animals in zoological gardens are at risk of severe and even lethal poisoning when they accidentally ingest toads. Here we report the case of an eleven month old male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) which was found dead in its outdoor enclosure in the zoo of Dortmund, Germany. Autopsy revealed the presence of two adult, partly digested common toads (Bufo bufo) in the stomach. Toxicological analysis of the stomach content using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS) proved the presence of bufadienolides, the major cardiotoxic components of toad poisons. Using electrochemical luminescens immunoassay (ECLIA) compounds equivalent to digitoxin were detected in the blood sample confirming the absorption of toad poison components from the intestines into the circulation potentially leading to cardiac failure. In zoological gardens special precautions are necessary to protect non-native animals from encountering toads and the risk of poisoning, particularly in early spring, the spawning period of the toads.

  9. Gross and microscopic visceral anatomy of the male Cape fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus (Pinnipedia: Otariidae), with reference to organ size and growth

    PubMed Central

    STEWARDSON, CAROLYN L.; HEMSLEY, SUSAN; MEYER, MIKE A.; CANFIELD, PAUL J.; MAINDONALD, JOHN H.

    1999-01-01

    The gross and microscopic anatomy of the Cape fur seal heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, intestine and kidneys (n = 31 seals) is described. Absolute and relative size of organs from 30 male seals are presented, with histological examination conducted on 7 animals. The relationship between log body weight, log organ weight and age was investigated using linear regression. Twenty five animals were of known age, while 6 were aged from counts of incremental lines observed in the dentine of tooth sections. For the range of ages represented in this study, body weight changes were accurately described by the exponential growth equation, weight = wort, with body weight increasing by 23% per annum until at least 9–10 y of age. Organ weight increased at a rate of between 25% and 33% per annum until at least 9–10 y of age, with the exception of the intestines, where exponential increase appeared to have ceased by about 7 y. The relationship between body weight and organ weight was investigated using logarithmic transformations of the allometric equation, y = axb, where the exponent b is 1 if organ weight is proportional to body weight. Most organs increased in proportion to the body. However, the heart, liver and spleen had exponents b > 1, suggesting that these organs increased at a faster rate than the body. The basic anatomical features of the viscera were similar to those of other pinnipeds, with some exceptions, including the arrangement of the multilobed lung and liver. Apart from the large liver and kidneys, relative size of the organs did not differ greatly from similar sized terrestrial carnivores. The histological features of the organs were generally consistent with those previously described for this species and other otariids. The heart, as in other pinnipeds, was unlike that of cetacea in not having unusually thick endocardium or prominent Purkinje cells. Notable histological features of the lungs included prominent fibrous septa, prominent smooth muscle

  10. Born blonde: a recessive loss-of-function mutation in the melanocortin 1 receptor is associated with cream coat coloration in Antarctic fur seals.

    PubMed

    Peters, Lucy; Humble, Emily; Kröcker, Nicole; Fuchs, Birgit; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-08-01

    Although the genetic basis of color variation has been extensively studied in humans and domestic animals, the genetic polymorphisms responsible for different color morphs remain to be elucidated in many wild vertebrate species. For example, hypopigmentation has been observed in numerous marine mammal species but the underlying mutations have not been identified. A particularly compelling candidate gene for explaining color polymorphism is the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), which plays a key role in the regulation of pigment production. We therefore used Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) as a highly tractable marine mammal system with which to test for an association between nucleotide variation at the MC1R and melanin-based coat color phenotypes. By sequencing 70 wild-type individuals with dark-colored coats and 26 hypopigmented individuals with cream-colored coats, we identified a nonsynonymous mutation that results in the substitution of serine with phenylalanine at an evolutionarily highly conserved structural domain. All of the hypopigmented individuals were homozygous for the allele coding for phenylalanine, consistent with a recessive loss-of-function allele. In order to test for cryptic population structure, which can generate artefactual associations, and to evaluate whether homozygosity at the MC1R could be indicative of low genome-wide heterozygosity, we also genotyped all of the individuals at 50 polymorphic microsatellite loci. We were unable to detect any population structure and also found that wild-type and hypopigmented individuals did not differ significantly in their standardized multilocus heterozygosity. Such a lack of association implies that hypopigmented individuals are unlikely to suffer disproportionately from inbreeding depression, and hence, we have no reason to believe that they are at a selective disadvantage in the wider population. PMID:27547348

  11. Born blonde: a recessive loss-of-function mutation in the melanocortin 1 receptor is associated with cream coat coloration in Antarctic fur seals.

    PubMed

    Peters, Lucy; Humble, Emily; Kröcker, Nicole; Fuchs, Birgit; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-08-01

    Although the genetic basis of color variation has been extensively studied in humans and domestic animals, the genetic polymorphisms responsible for different color morphs remain to be elucidated in many wild vertebrate species. For example, hypopigmentation has been observed in numerous marine mammal species but the underlying mutations have not been identified. A particularly compelling candidate gene for explaining color polymorphism is the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), which plays a key role in the regulation of pigment production. We therefore used Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) as a highly tractable marine mammal system with which to test for an association between nucleotide variation at the MC1R and melanin-based coat color phenotypes. By sequencing 70 wild-type individuals with dark-colored coats and 26 hypopigmented individuals with cream-colored coats, we identified a nonsynonymous mutation that results in the substitution of serine with phenylalanine at an evolutionarily highly conserved structural domain. All of the hypopigmented individuals were homozygous for the allele coding for phenylalanine, consistent with a recessive loss-of-function allele. In order to test for cryptic population structure, which can generate artefactual associations, and to evaluate whether homozygosity at the MC1R could be indicative of low genome-wide heterozygosity, we also genotyped all of the individuals at 50 polymorphic microsatellite loci. We were unable to detect any population structure and also found that wild-type and hypopigmented individuals did not differ significantly in their standardized multilocus heterozygosity. Such a lack of association implies that hypopigmented individuals are unlikely to suffer disproportionately from inbreeding depression, and hence, we have no reason to believe that they are at a selective disadvantage in the wider population.

  12. Rates of assay success and genotyping error when single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in non-model organisms: a case study in the Antarctic fur seal.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, J I; Tucker, R; Bridgett, S J; Clark, M S; Forcada, J; Slate, J

    2012-09-01

    Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are increasingly being recognized as powerful molecular markers, their application to non-model organisms can bring significant challenges. Among these are imperfect conversion rates of assays designed from in silico resources and the enhanced potential for genotyping error relative to pre-validated, highly optimized human SNPs. To explore these issues, we used Illumina's GoldenGate assay to genotype 480 Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) individuals at 144 putative SNPs derived from a 454 transcriptome assembly. One hundred and thirty-five polymorphic SNPs (93.8%) were automatically validated by the program GenomeStudio, and the initial genotyping error rate, estimated from nine replicate samples, was 0.004 per reaction. However, an almost tenfold further reduction in the error rate was achieved by excluding 31 loci (21.5%) that exhibited unclear clustering patterns, manually editing clusters to allow rescoring of ambiguous or incorrect genotypes, and excluding 18 samples (3.8%) with unreliable genotypes. After stringent quality filtering, we also found a counter-intuitive negative relationship between in silico minor allele frequency and the conversion rate, suggesting that some of our assays may have been designed from paralogous loci. Nevertheless, we obtained over 45 000 individual SNP genotypes with a final error rate of 0.0005, indicating that the GoldenGate assay is eminently capable of generating large, high-quality data sets for non-model organisms. This has positive implications for future studies of the evolutionary, behavioural and conservation genetics of natural populations.

  13. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  14. 50 CFR 216.120 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) of this section, is limited to the following species: Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina); California sea lions (Zalophus californianus); northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris); and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus)....

  15. 50 CFR 216.120 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) of this section, is limited to the following species: Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina); California sea lions (Zalophus californianus); northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris); and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus)....

  16. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R.; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E.; Rosales-Nanduca, Hiram; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014–2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015). Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014) and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg) than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg). The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs). This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters. PMID:27171473

  17. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E; Rosales-Nanduca, Hiram; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014-2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015). Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014) and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg) than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg). The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs). This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters.

  18. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E; Rosales-Nanduca, Hiram; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014-2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015). Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014) and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg) than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg). The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs). This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters. PMID:27171473

  19. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  20. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  1. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  2. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  3. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  4. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  5. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  6. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  7. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  8. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  9. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  10. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  11. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  12. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  13. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  14. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  15. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  16. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  17. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  18. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  19. 77 FR 12815 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... FR 268) that an application had been filed by the above named applicant for a permit to harass 13,000...), 10 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), and 10 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) over the... Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for Steller Sea Lion and Northern Fur Seal Research...

  20. Fur productivity of submarginal farmland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uhler, F.M.; Llewellyn, L.M.

    1952-01-01

    A submarginal tract of a thousand acres on the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland, was trapped for three seasons (1943-46) to determine the fur-productivity of the area. The tract yielded 392 fur animals, the pelts of which were sold at public auction for $1119.00. This resulted in an average income from trapping of approximately forty cents per acre per year. The habitats most productive of catches of fur animals were hedgerows and wood and road margins, followed by bottomland forests and lake margins. Some suggestions for improving habitat for fur animals are given.

  1. Seals and Sealing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Developments by the aerospace industry in seals and sealing techniques are announced for possible use in other areas. The announcements presented are grouped as: sealing techniques for cryogenic fluids, high pressure applications, and modification for improved performance.

  2. Tuberculosis in wild seals and characterisation of the seal bacillus.

    PubMed

    Cousins, D V; Williams, S N; Reuter, R; Forshaw, D; Chadwick, B; Coughran, D; Collins, P; Gales, N

    1993-03-01

    Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 3 otariid seals found dead on beaches at 3 locations on the south coast of Western Australian between May 1990 and March 1991. This confirms that tuberculosis is present in the 2 native seals (Neophoca cinerea and Arctocephalus forsteri) in Western Australian waters. Mycobacterium sp isolated from the lungs of 2 of the seals were studied to determine the similarity of the strains to each other, to the strains isolated during 1986 from Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals kept in captivity at a marine park near Perth, Western Australia, and to a strain isolated in 1988 from a seal trainer who worked with the infected captive seals for 3 years. After restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) with the endonucleases Bst EII, Bcl I and Pvu II, one of the wild seal strains appeared to have identical DNA fragment patterns to the strains from the captive seals and the seal trainer. The other wild seal isolate had identical REA profiles using Bst EII and Bcl I, but a minor difference was detected using Pvu II. Differences in these isolates were more clearly seen in restriction fragment length polymorphisms after hybridisation with two DNA probes. The secretory protein MPB70, present in M bovis, was not detected in wild seal isolates using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting techniques. Analysis of protein and DNA fragment profiles indicated that seal tuberculosis isolates form a unique cluster within the M tuberculosis complex.

  3. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  4. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  5. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  6. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  7. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  8. Field Lines of Flying Fur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a demonstration that uses insulated conductors and hairs clipped from rabbit fur to help students visualize the electric field in three dimensions and motivate them to try their own variations. (JRH)

  9. 50 CFR 218.171 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...); (2) Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus)—220 (an average of 44 annually); (3) California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)—570 (an average of 114 annually); (4) Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)—70 (an average of 14 annually); (5) Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) (Washington...

  10. 50 CFR 217.62 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Level B harassment takes on an annual basis of the following species: (1) Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina)—31,161; (2) California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)—465,129; (3) Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)—80,024; (4) Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus)—62,500; and (5) Steller...

  11. 50 CFR 218.171 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...); (2) Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus)—220 (an average of 44 annually); (3) California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)—570 (an average of 114 annually); (4) Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)—70 (an average of 14 annually); (5) Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) (Washington...

  12. 50 CFR 218.171 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...); (2) Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus)—220 (an average of 44 annually); (3) California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)—570 (an average of 114 annually); (4) Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)—70 (an average of 14 annually); (5) Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) (Washington...

  13. 50 CFR 218.171 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...); (2) Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus)—220 (an average of 44 annually); (3) California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)—570 (an average of 114 annually); (4) Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)—70 (an average of 14 annually); (5) Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) (Washington...

  14. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decrease the normal life and durability of such product. (b) When damaged furs are used in a fur product..., or advertising such product; as for example: Mink Fur origin: Canada Contains Damaged Fur...

  15. 75 FR 21233 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Replacement and Repair of Fur...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... details regarding the authorized action were included in the proposed IHA notice (75 FR 11121, March 10..., 2010 (75 FR 11121). During the comment period, NMFS received comments from the Marine Mammal Commission... fur seal population depleted on June 17, 1988 (53 FR 17888) because it declined to less than...

  16. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  17. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur product containing material other than fur. 301.32 Section 301.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.32 Fur...

  18. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur product containing material other than fur. 301.32 Section 301.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.32 Fur...

  19. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur product containing material other than fur. 301.32 Section 301.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.32 Fur...

  20. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur product containing material other than fur. 301.32 Section 301.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.32 Fur...

  1. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur product containing material other than fur. 301.32 Section 301.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.32 Fur...

  2. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  3. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  4. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  5. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sectional fur products. 301.36 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.36 Sectional fur products. (a) Where a fur product is composed of two or more sections containing different animal furs the...

  6. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sectional fur products. 301.36 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.36 Sectional fur products. (a) Where a fur product is composed of two or more sections containing different animal furs the...

  7. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  8. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  9. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  10. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sectional fur products. 301.36 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.36 Sectional fur products. (a) Where a fur product is composed of two or more sections containing different animal furs the...

  11. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  12. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  13. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  14. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sectional fur products. 301.36 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.36 Sectional fur products. (a) Where a fur product is composed of two or more sections containing different animal furs the...

  15. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  16. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  17. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sectional fur products. 301.36 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.36 Sectional fur products. (a) Where a fur product is composed of two or more sections containing different animal furs the...

  18. Building America Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Forced air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as an attic or crawlspace. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system (duct leakage) in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution to this problem is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (sealed attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. This case study examines one Building America builder partner's implementation of an inexpensive, quick and effective method of building a fur-down or dropped ceiling chase.

  19. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  20. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  1. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  2. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  3. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  4. Pet fur or fake fur? A forensic approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In forensic science there are many types of crime that involve animals. Therefore, the identification of the species has become an essential investigative tool. The exhibits obtained from such offences are very often a challenge for forensic experts. Indeed, most biological materials are traces, hair or tanned fur. With hair samples, a common forensic approach should proceed from morphological and structural microscopic examination to DNA analysis. However, the microscopy of hair requires a lot of experience and a suitable comparative database to be able to recognize with a high degree of accuracy that a sample comes from a particular species and then to determine whether it is a protected one. DNA analysis offers the best opportunity to answer the question, ‘What species is this?’ In our work, we analyzed different samples of fur coming from China used to make hats and collars. Initially, the samples were examined under a microscope, then the mitochondrial DNA was tested for species identification. For this purpose, the genetic markers used were the 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA, while the hypervariable segment I of the control region was analyzed afterwards, to determine whether samples belonged to the same individual. Results Microscopic examination showed that the fibres were of animal origin, although it was difficult to determine with a high degree of confidence which species they belonged to and if they came from a protected species. Therefore, DNA analysis was essential to try to clarify the species of these fur samples. Conclusions Macroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the hypothesis regarding the analyzed hair belonging to real animals, although it failed to prove with any kind of certainty which actual family it came from, therefore, the species remains unknown. Sequence data analysis and comparisons with the samples available in GenBank showed that the hair, in most cases, belonged to the Canidae family, and in one case only to

  5. Glass sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  6. Coining seal

    DOEpatents

    Mancebo, Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    A bakeable high pressure-vacuum seal is provided in which an inductile sealing element having a butterfly shaped crosssection with protruding sharp edges at each of the four corners, is sandwiched between two ductile sealing elements, the sandwiched assembly then being compressed between the surfaces of the flange elements of a high pressure or high vacuum vessel to coin the ductile sealing element into the surface of the inductile sealing element as well as the surfaces of the flange elements.

  7. Sealing device

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  8. α-fur, an antisense RNA gene to fur in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Lefimil, C; Jedlicki, E; Holmes, D S

    2014-03-01

    A large non-coding RNA, termed α-Fur, of ~1000 nt has been detected in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans encoded on the antisense strand to the iron-responsive master regulator fur (ferric uptake regulator) gene. A promoter for α-fur was predicted bioinformatically and validated using gene fusion experiments. The promoter is situated within the coding region and in the same sense as proB, potentially encoding a glutamate 5-kinase. The 3' termination site of the α-fur transcript was determined by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends to lie 7 nt downstream of the start of transcription of fur. Thus, α-fur is antisense to the complete coding region of fur, including its predicted ribosome-binding site. The genetic context of α-fur is conserved in several members of the genus Acidithiobacillus but not in all acidophiles, indicating that it is monophyletic but not niche specific. It is hypothesized that α-Fur regulates the cellular level of Fur. This is the fourth example of an antisense RNA to fur, although it is the first in an extreme acidophile, and underscores the growing importance of cis-encoded non-coding RNAs as potential regulators involved in the microbial iron-responsive stimulon.

  9. 76 FR 13550 - Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... of paws, tails, bellies, or waste fur, if that is the case; (4) the name or Registered Identification... on the label for identification purposes. 16 CFR 301.40. The Fur Rules also provide requirements for... Commission to initiate a review and opportunity to comment on the Name Guide. TFLA gives the Commission...

  10. Pet fur color and texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  11. Detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori Fur-regulated promoters reveals a Fur box core sequence and novel Fur-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-06-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, iron balance is controlled by the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron-sensing repressor protein that typically regulates expression of genes implicated in iron transport and storage. Herein, we carried out extensive analysis of Fur-regulated promoters and identified a 7-1-7 motif with dyad symmetry (5'-TAATAATnATTATTA-3'), which functions as the Fur box core sequence of H. pylori. Addition of this sequence to the promoter region of a typically non-Fur regulated gene was sufficient to impose Fur-dependent regulation in vivo. Moreover, mutation of this sequence within Fur-controlled promoters negated regulation. Analysis of the H. pylori chromosome for the occurrence of the Fur box established the existence of well-conserved Fur boxes in the promoters of numerous known Fur-regulated genes, and revealed novel putative Fur targets. Transcriptional analysis of the new candidate genes demonstrated Fur-dependent repression of HPG27_51, HPG27_52, HPG27_199, HPG27_445, HPG27_825 and HPG27_1063, as well as Fur-mediated activation of the cytotoxin associated gene A, cagA (HPG27_507). Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed specific binding of Fur to the promoters of each of these genes. Future experiments will determine whether loss of Fur regulation of any of these particular genes contributes to the defects in colonization exhibited by the H. pylori fur mutant.

  12. Detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori Fur-regulated promoters reveals a Fur box core sequence and novel Fur-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-06-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, iron balance is controlled by the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron-sensing repressor protein that typically regulates expression of genes implicated in iron transport and storage. Herein, we carried out extensive analysis of Fur-regulated promoters and identified a 7-1-7 motif with dyad symmetry (5'-TAATAATnATTATTA-3'), which functions as the Fur box core sequence of H. pylori. Addition of this sequence to the promoter region of a typically non-Fur regulated gene was sufficient to impose Fur-dependent regulation in vivo. Moreover, mutation of this sequence within Fur-controlled promoters negated regulation. Analysis of the H. pylori chromosome for the occurrence of the Fur box established the existence of well-conserved Fur boxes in the promoters of numerous known Fur-regulated genes, and revealed novel putative Fur targets. Transcriptional analysis of the new candidate genes demonstrated Fur-dependent repression of HPG27_51, HPG27_52, HPG27_199, HPG27_445, HPG27_825 and HPG27_1063, as well as Fur-mediated activation of the cytotoxin associated gene A, cagA (HPG27_507). Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed specific binding of Fur to the promoters of each of these genes. Future experiments will determine whether loss of Fur regulation of any of these particular genes contributes to the defects in colonization exhibited by the H. pylori fur mutant. PMID:22507395

  13. The Fur regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium: identification of new Fur targets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcriptional regulator that controls iron homeostasis in bacteria. Although the regulatory role of Fur in Escherichia coli is well characterized, most of the studies were conducted under routine culture conditions, i.e., in ambient oxygen concentration. To reveal potentially novel aspects of the Fur regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under oxygen conditions similar to that encountered in the host, we compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s) and its isogenic Δfur strain under anaerobic conditions. Results Microarray analysis of anaerobically grown Δfur S. Typhimurium identified 298 differentially expressed genes. Expression of several genes controlled by Fnr and NsrR appeared to be also dependent on Fur. Furthermore, Fur was required for the activity of the cytoplasmic superoxide disumutases (MnSOD and FeSOD). The regulation of FeSOD gene, sodB, occurred via small RNAs (i.e., the ryhB homologs, rfrA and rfrB) with the aid of the RNA chaperone Hfq. The transcription of sodA was increased in Δfur; however, the enzyme was inactive due to the incorporation of iron instead of manganese in SodA. Additionally, in Δfur, the expression of the gene coding for the ferritin-like protein (ftnB) was down-regulated, while the transcription of the gene coding for the nitric oxide (NO·) detoxifying flavohemoglobin (hmpA) was up-regulated. The promoters of ftnB and hmpA do not contain recognized Fur binding motifs, which indicated their probable indirect regulation by Fur. However, Fur activation of ftnB was independent of Fnr. In addition, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, H-NS (hns) was increased in Δfur. This may explain the observed down-regulation of the tdc operon, responsible for the anaerobic degradation of threonine, and ftnB in Δfur. Conclusions This study determined that Fur is a positive factor in ftnB regulation, while

  14. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a fur product has been used or worn by an ultimate consumer and is subsequently marketed in its...

  15. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  16. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a fur product has been used or worn by an ultimate consumer and is subsequently marketed in its...

  17. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a fur product has been used or worn by an ultimate consumer and is subsequently marketed in its...

  18. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a fur product has been used or worn by an ultimate consumer and is subsequently marketed in its...

  19. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  20. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  1. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a fur product has been used or worn by an ultimate consumer and is subsequently marketed in its...

  2. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  3. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  4. Conformable seal

    DOEpatents

    Neef, W.S.; Lambert, D.R.

    1982-08-10

    Sealing apparatus and method, comprising first and second surfaces or membranes, at least one of which surfaces is deformable, placed in proximity to one another. Urging means cause these surfaces to contact one another in a manner such that the deformable surface deforms to conform to the geometry of the other surface, thereby creating a seal. The seal is capable of undergoing multiple cycles of sealing and unsealing.

  5. Security seal

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  6. Seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  7. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    Forced-air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as attics or crawlspaces. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. In this project, Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction team partnered with Tommy Williams Homes to implement an inexpensive, quick, and effective method of building a fur-down chase.

  9. 76 FR 43988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14525

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 64986) that a request for a permit to import northern fur seal (Callorhinus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ86 Marine Mammals; File No. 14525 AGENCY...), 16111 Plummer St., North Hills, CA 91343, to import and export marine mammal specimens for...

  10. Nozzle seal

    DOEpatents

    Groff, Russell Dennis; Vatovec, Richard John

    1978-06-11

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with annular sealing members operatively disposed between the outlet nozzle and the hoop and partly within a retaining annulus formed in the hoop. The sealing members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop and one of the sealing members is provided with a piston type pressure ring sealing member which effectively closes the path between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle establishing a leak-proof condition. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel.

  11. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  12. Nozzle seal

    DOEpatents

    Herman, Richard Frederick

    1977-10-25

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing members operatively disposed between the outlet nozzle and the hoop. The sealing members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop and are connected by a leak restraining member establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel.

  13. Ferrules seals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.L.

    1984-07-10

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible. 3 figs.

  14. Ferrules seals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.

    1984-01-01

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible.

  15. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  16. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  17. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  18. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  19. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  20. Seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Lundholm, Gunnar

    1987-01-01

    A seal arrangement is provided for preventing gas leakage along a reciprocating piston rod or other reciprocating member passing through a wall which separates a high pressure gas chmber and a low pressure gas chamber. Liquid lubricant is applied to the lower pressure side of a sealing gland surrounding the piston rod to prevent the escape of gas between the rod and the gland. The sealing gland is radially forced against the piston rod by action of a plurality of axially stacked O-rings influenced by an axially acting spring as well as pressure from the gas.

  1. [Christmas seals].

    PubMed

    Loytved, G

    2006-11-01

    Christmas seals, i. e., special stamps used to decorate or seal Christmas and New Year's mail, were created by the Danish post office clerk E. Holboell. The proceeds from the sale of the stickers were meant to alleviate the suffering of children sick with tuberculosis. The first Christmas seal, showing a portrait of Queen Louise of Denmark, was issued on December 10, 1904. The demand at the post office was enormous. The funds raised exceeded all expectations and made it possible to finance the construction of a sanatorium for tuberculosis children. The idea of Christmas seals spread quickly around the world and ended up being copied in 130 countries. At the beginning of the 20 (th) century, the small stamp with the red double-barred cross became a banner for the crusade against tuberculosis. For many patients, it also represented a symbol of hope for recovery even though this hope, given the cure rates of a sanatorium treatment, only became a reality for a few. Worldwide, Christmas seals were and are colourful and imaginatively designed, mostly with Christmas symbols or motives relating to the fight against tuberculosis. The funds raised through the sale of the seals initially helped to build hospitals and were later also used to screen persons at risk for tuberculosis, to improve housing conditions of patients and for other measures of support. With the decrease of tuberculosis, some organisations discontinued fundraising through Christmas seals while others widened their intended purpose and supported, for example, the prevention of and research on lung diseases. In Germany, Christmas seals are closely connected with the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis. Today the "Kuratorium Tuberkulose in der Welt" is the only organisation in this country that still raises funds by this means. The funds are mostly used to assist developing countries with a high burden of tuberculosis.

  2. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  3. Fur-mediated global regulatory circuits in pathogenic Neisseria species.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-12-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein has been shown to function as a repressor of transcription in a number of diverse microorganisms. However, recent studies have established that Fur can function at a global level as both an activator and a repressor of transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Fur-mediated indirect activation occurs via the repression of additional repressor proteins, or small regulatory RNAs, thereby activating transcription of a previously silent gene. Fur mediates direct activation through binding of Fur to the promoter regions of genes. Whereas the repressive mechanism of Fur has been thoroughly investigated, emerging studies on direct and indirect Fur-mediated activation mechanisms have revealed novel global regulatory circuits.

  4. Fur-Mediated Global Regulatory Circuits in Pathogenic Neisseria Species

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunxiao

    2012-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein has been shown to function as a repressor of transcription in a number of diverse microorganisms. However, recent studies have established that Fur can function at a global level as both an activator and a repressor of transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Fur-mediated indirect activation occurs via the repression of additional repressor proteins, or small regulatory RNAs, thereby activating transcription of a previously silent gene. Fur mediates direct activation through binding of Fur to the promoter regions of genes. Whereas the repressive mechanism of Fur has been thoroughly investigated, emerging studies on direct and indirect Fur-mediated activation mechanisms have revealed novel global regulatory circuits. PMID:22885296

  5. Sharks shape the geometry of a selfish seal herd: experimental evidence from seal decoys.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Alta; O'Riain, M Justin

    2010-02-23

    Many animals respond to predation risk by forming groups. Evolutionary explanations for group formation in previously ungrouped, but loosely associated prey have typically evoked the selfish herd hypothesis. However, despite over 600 studies across a diverse array of taxa, the critical assumptions of this hypothesis have remained collectively untested, owing to several confounding problems in real predator-prey systems. To solve this, we manipulated the domains of danger of Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) decoys to provide evidence that a selfish reduction in a seals' domain of danger results in a proportional reduction in its predation risk from ambush shark attacks. This behaviour confers a survival advantage to individual seals within a group and explains the evolution of selfish herds in a prey species. These findings empirically elevate Hamilton's selfish herd hypothesis to more than a 'theoretical curiosity'.

  6. Sharks shape the geometry of a selfish seal herd: experimental evidence from seal decoys

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Alta; O'Riain, M. Justin

    2010-01-01

    Many animals respond to predation risk by forming groups. Evolutionary explanations for group formation in previously ungrouped, but loosely associated prey have typically evoked the selfish herd hypothesis. However, despite over 600 studies across a diverse array of taxa, the critical assumptions of this hypothesis have remained collectively untested, owing to several confounding problems in real predator–prey systems. To solve this, we manipulated the domains of danger of Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) decoys to provide evidence that a selfish reduction in a seals' domain of danger results in a proportional reduction in its predation risk from ambush shark attacks. This behaviour confers a survival advantage to individual seals within a group and explains the evolution of selfish herds in a prey species. These findings empirically elevate Hamilton's selfish herd hypothesis to more than a ‘theoretical curiosity’. PMID:19793737

  7. Identification of Fur-regulated genes in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Haraszthy, Violet I; Jordan, Shawn F; Zambon, Joseph J

    2006-03-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is an oral pathogen that causes aggressive periodontitis as well as sometimes life-threatening, extra-oral infections. Iron regulation is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of A. actinomycetemcomitans infections and, consistent with this hypothesis, the fur gene has recently been identified and characterized in A. actinomycetemcomitans. In this study, 14 putatively Fur-regulated genes were identified by Fur titration assay (Furta) in A. actinomycetemcomitans, including afuA, dgt, eno, hemA, tbpA, recO and yfe - some of which are known to be Fur regulated in other species. A fur mutant A. actinomycetemcomitans strain was created by selecting for manganese resistance in order to study the Fur regulon. Comparisons between the fur gene sequences revealed that nucleotide 66 changed from C in the wild-type to T in the mutant strain, changing leucine to isoleucine. The fur mutant strain expressed a nonfunctional Fur protein as determined by Escherichia coli-based ferric uptake assays and Western blotting. It was also more sensitive to acid stress and expressed higher levels of minC than the wild-type strain. minC, which inhibits cell division in other bacterial species and whose regulation by iron has not been previously described, was found to be Fur regulated in A. actinomycetemcomitans by Furta, by gel shift assays, and by RT-qPCR assays for gene expression. PMID:16514158

  8. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  9. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  10. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  11. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  12. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  13. Sensitivity analysis of heat flow through irradiated fur of calves

    SciTech Connect

    Gebremedhin, K.G.; Porter, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Fractional factorial formations are used in conjunction with a fur heat transfer model in screening variables in which only a subset of the variables is expected to be important on heat transfer through irradiated fur, but which subset is unknown. Nine of the eleven variables tested have statistically significant effects on heat transfer through irradiated fur. The sensitivity of the variables is illustrated. 15 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Python fiber optic seal

    SciTech Connect

    Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

  15. GAS SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

    1961-07-11

    A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

  16. Variable friction secondary seal for face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirusso, E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Vibration and stability of a primary seal ring is controlled by a secondary seal system. An inflatable bladder which forms a portion of the secondary seal varies the damping applied to this seal ring. The amplitude of vibration of the primary seal ring is sensed with a proximity probe that is connected to a microprocessor in a control system. The bladder pressure is changed by the control system to mitigate any sensed instability or vibration.

  17. Monoclonal antibody to alkaline phosphatase from the intestinal mucosa of the harp seal, Phoca groenlandica.

    PubMed

    Sakharov IYu; Mechetner, E B; Stepanova, I E; Shekhonin, B V; Pletjushkina OYu

    1992-04-01

    1. Hybridoma secreting a monoclonal antibody APP.1 to the harp seal alkaline phosphatase (A1Ph) was obtained by fusing murine myeloma Sp 2/0 cells with the splenocytes of BALB/c mice immunized with purified isozyme K. 2. The antibody has no effect on the enzyme activity and shows a high affinity for harp seal A1Ph (KD = 8.5 x 10(-10) M). The antibody has similar affinities for the AlPh of harp seal, fur seal, common seal and deer. 3. The antibody APP.1 was coupled to Sepharose and employed in chromatographic purification of the harp seal intestinal AlPh. Alkaline phosphatase isolated on this immunosorbent has a spec. act. of 20,800 units per mg of protein. 4. The antibody-enzyme complex gives an excellent immunocytochemical labeling of tissue sections, cell cultures and smears.

  18. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  19. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  20. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  1. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  2. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  3. Using Fur to Estimate Mercury Concentrations in Mink

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fur and muscle tissue from mink (Mustela vison) were compared to determine the utility of fur analysis as a non-lethal and convenient method for predicting mercury concentrations in tissues. Sixty nine wild-trapped mink were collected in Rhode...

  4. Dynamic Face Seal Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A radial face seal arrangement is disclosed comprising a stationary seal ring that is spring loaded against a seal seat affixed to a rotating shaft. The radial face seal arrangement further comprises an arrangement that not only allows for preloading of the stationary seal ring relative to the seal seat, but also provides for dampening yielding a dynamic seating response for the radial face seal arrangement. The overall seal system, especially regarding the selection of the material for the stationary seal ring, is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from below ambient up to 900 C.

  5. Regenerator seal design

    DOEpatents

    Eckart, Francis H.

    1982-01-01

    A rotary regenerator disc matrix has a face seal with a cross arm and arcuate rim segments joined by prestress clamps to prestrain the arcuate rim seals so as to compensate seal rim twisting or coning and resultant disc face seal leakage as produced by operating thermal gradients across the seal.

  6. Transcriptional regulation by Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) in pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Bryan; Hassan, Hosni M

    2013-01-01

    In the ancient anaerobic environment, ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was one of the first metal cofactors. Oxygenation of the ancient world challenged bacteria to acquire the insoluble ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and later to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the Fenton chemistry. To acquire Fe(3+), bacteria produce low-molecular weight compounds, known as siderophores, which have extremely high affinity for Fe(3+). However, during infection the host restricts iron from pathogens by producing iron- and siderophore-chelating proteins, by exporting iron from intracellular pathogen-containing compartments, and by limiting absorption of dietary iron. Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor which utilizes Fe(2+) as a corepressor and represses siderophore synthesis in pathogens. Fur, directly or indirectly, controls expression of enzymes that protect against ROS damage. Thus, the challenges of iron homeostasis and defense against ROS are addressed via Fur. Although the role of Fur as a repressor is well-documented, emerging evidence demonstrates that Fur can function as an activator. Fur activation can occur through three distinct mechanisms (1) indirectly via small RNAs, (2) binding at cis regulatory elements that enhance recruitment of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and (3) functioning as an antirepressor by removing or blocking DNA binding of a repressor of transcription. In addition, Fur homologs control defense against peroxide stress (PerR) and control uptake of other metals such as zinc (Zur) and manganese (Mur) in pathogenic bacteria. Fur family members are important for virulence within bacterial pathogens since mutants of fur, perR, or zur exhibit reduced virulence within numerous animal and plant models of infection. This review focuses on the breadth of Fur regulation in pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Regenerator seal

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Leonard C.; Pacala, Theodore; Sippel, George R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a hot side regenerator cross arm seal assembly having a thermally stablilized wear coating with a substantially flat wear surface thereon to seal between low pressure and high pressure passages to and from the hot inboard side of a rotary regenerator matrix includes the steps of forming a flat cross arm substrate member of high nickel alloy steel; fixedly securing the side edges of the substrate member to a holding fixture with a concave surface thereacross to maintain the substrate member to a slightly bent configuration on the fixture surface between the opposite ends of the substrate member to produce prestress therein; applying coating layers on the substrate member including a wear coating of plasma sprayed nickel oxide/calcium flouride material to define a wear surface of slightly concave form across the restrained substrate member between the free ends thereon; and thereafter subjecting the substrate member and the coating thereon to a heat treatment of 1600.degree. F. for sixteen hours to produce heat stabilizing growth in the coating layers on the substrate member and to produce a thermally induced growth stress in the wear surface that substantially equalizes the prestress in the substrate whereby when the cross arm is removed from the fixture surface following the heat treatment step a wear face is formed on the cross arm assembly that will be substantially flat between the ends.

  8. Improved circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Comparative tests of modified and unmodified carbon ring seals showed that addition of helical grooves to conventional segmented carbon ring seals reduced leakage significantly. Modified seal was insensitive to shaft runout and to flooding by lubricant.

  9. Triple acting radial seal

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A; Carella, John A

    2012-03-13

    A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.

  10. Damper Spring For Omega Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclaughlin, Scott T.; Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1993-01-01

    Damper spring reduces deflections of omega-cross-section seal, reducing probability of failure and extending life of seal. Spring is split ring with U-shaped cross section. Placed inside omega seal and inserted with seal into seal cavity. As omega seal compressed into cavity, spring and seal make contact near convolution of seal, and spring becomes compressed also. During operation, when seal dynamically loaded, spring limits deflection of seal, reducing stress on seal.

  11. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  12. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  13. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  14. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  15. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Country of origin of imported furs. 301.12... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported furs. (a)(1) In the case of furs imported into the United States from a foreign country, the country...

  16. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Country of origin of imported furs. 301.12... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported furs. (a)(1) In the case of furs imported into the United States from a foreign country, the country...

  17. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  18. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  19. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  20. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  1. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  2. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  3. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  4. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  5. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  6. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  7. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  8. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  9. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  10. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  11. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  12. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Country of origin of imported furs. 301.12... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported furs. (a)(1) In the case of furs imported into the United States from a foreign country, the country...

  13. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin of imported furs. 301.12... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported furs. (a)(1) In the case of furs imported into the United States from a foreign country, the country...

  14. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  15. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  16. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  17. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  18. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  19. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  20. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Country of origin of imported furs. 301.12... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported furs. (a)(1) In the case of furs imported into the United States from a foreign country, the country...

  1. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  2. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  3. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  4. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  5. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  6. Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that the ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) functions as a transcriptional repressor in diverse microorganisms. Recent studies demonstrated that Fur also functions as a transcriptional activator. In this study we defined Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the sexually transmitted disease pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Analysis of 37 genes which were previously determined to be iron induced and which contained putative Fur boxes revealed that only 30 of these genes exhibited reduced transcription in a gonococcal fur mutant strain. Fur-mediated activation was established by examining binding of Fur to the putative promoter regions of 16 Fur-activated genes with variable binding affinities observed. Only ∼50% of the newly identified Fur-regulated genes bound Fur in vitro, suggesting that additional regulatory circuits exist which may function through a Fur-mediated indirect mechanism. The gonococcal Fur-activated genes displayed variable transcription patterns in a fur mutant strain, which correlated with the position of the Fur box in each (promoter) region. These results suggest that Fur-mediated direct transcriptional activation is fulfilled by multiple mechanisms involving either competing with a repressor or recruiting RNA polymerase. Collectively, our studies have established that gonococcal Fur functions as an activator of gene transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:22287521

  7. Fur-Mediated Activation of Gene Transcription in the Human Pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunxiao

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that the ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) functions as a transcriptional repressor in diverse microorganisms. Recent studies demonstrated that Fur also functions as a transcriptional activator. In this study we defined Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the sexually transmitted disease pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Analysis of 37 genes which were previously determined to be iron induced and which contained putative Fur boxes revealed that only 30 of these genes exhibited reduced transcription in a gonococcal fur mutant strain. Fur-mediated activation was established by examining binding of Fur to the putative promoter regions of 16 Fur-activated genes with variable binding affinities observed. Only ∼50% of the newly identified Fur-regulated genes bound Fur in vitro, suggesting that additional regulatory circuits exist which may function through a Fur-mediated indirect mechanism. The gonococcal Fur-activated genes displayed variable transcription patterns in a fur mutant strain, which correlated with the position of the Fur box in each (promoter) region. These results suggest that Fur-mediated direct transcriptional activation is fulfilled by multiple mechanisms involving either competing with a repressor or recruiting RNA polymerase. Collectively, our studies have established that gonococcal Fur functions as an activator of gene transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:22287521

  8. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  9. Keeping warm with fur in cold water: entrainment of air in hairy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasto, Alice; Regli, Marianne; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Clanet, Christophe; Hosoi, Anette

    2015-11-01

    Instead of relying on a thick layer of body fat for insulation as many aquatic mammals do, fur seals and otters trap air in their dense fur for insulation in cold water. Using a combination of model experiments and theory, we rationalize this mechanism of air trapping underwater for thermoregulation. For the model experiments, hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with PDMS. Modeling the hairy texture as a network of capillary tubes, the imbibition speed of water into the hairs is obtained through a balance of hydrostatic pressure and viscous stress. In this scenario, the bending of the hairs and capillary forces are negligible. The maximum diving depth that can be achieved before the hairs are wetted to the roots is predicted from a comparison of the diving speed and imbibition speed. The amount of air that is entrained in hairy surfaces is greater than what is expected for classic Landau-Levich-Derjaguin plate plunging. A phase diagram with the parameters from experiments and biological data allows a comparison of the model system and animals.

  10. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  11. Indium sealing techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochuli, U.; Haldemann, P.

    1972-01-01

    Gold films are used as an alloying flux to form 5-micron-thick indium film seals at temperatures below 300 C. Pyrex was sealed to quartz, ULE, CER-VIT, Irtran 2, Ge, GaAs, Invar, Kovar, Al, and Cu. The seals can also be used as current feedthroughs and graded seals.

  12. Sealing packer

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, T.G.; Brookey, R.L.

    1987-02-03

    A sealing packer is described for a well casing characterized by: a tubular inner sleeve with a passage therethrough; an upper outer sleeve assembly mounted about the inner sleeve and including: a resiliently deformable upper packing element; seat means for seating the upper packing element; hold down means for engaging a well casing and retaining the outer sleeve assembly stationary against upwardly directed well pressures; a lower outer sleeve assembly slidably mounted about the inner sleeve and including: a resiliently deformable lower packing element; first seat means for seating the lower packing element; abutment means for compressing the upper packing element between the abutment means and the seat of the upper outer sleeve assembly; the upper packing element constructed such that when compressed it engages the well casing, setting means for fixing a second seat means of the lower outer sleeve assembly relative to the well casing: the lower packing element being deformable between the first and second seat means of the lower outer sleeve assembly to engage the well casing; and piston means normally adjacent the abutment means and separable therefrom, the piston means responsive to fluid pressure in the passage and in the well casing between the lower and upper packing elements when the packing elements deformably engage the well casing to separate from the abutment means and further deform the upper packing element.

  13. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  14. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  15. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  16. Turbine blade platform seal

    DOEpatents

    Zagar, Thomas W.; Schiavo, Anthony L.

    2001-01-01

    A rotating blade group 90 for a turbo-machine having an improved device for sealing the gap 110 between the edges 112,114 of adjacent blade platforms 96,104. The gap 110 between adjacent blades 92,100 is sealed by a seal pin 20 its central portion 110 and by a seal plate 58,60 at each of the front 54 and rear 56 portions. The seal plates 58,60 are inserted into corresponding grooves 62,64 formed in the adjacent edges 112,114 of adjoining blades 92,100 and held in place by end plates 40,42. The end of the seal plates 58,60 may be chamfered 78,80 to improve the seal against the end plate 40,42. The seal pin 20 provides the required damping between the blades 92,100 and the seal plates 58,60 provide improved sealing effectiveness.

  17. 11. Architect's rendering of the Arcade Building by Furness, Evans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Architect's rendering of the Arcade Building by Furness, Evans and Co., from Moses King's Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians, published 1902 for the City's 220th birthday - Arcade Building, Fifteenth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Correlations between elements in the fur of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Długaszek, Maria; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    There is little data on the elemental composition of wild animals fur. In the paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the concentration of elements in the fur of roe deer, wild boar and hare. The contents of following elements: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), aluminium (Al), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry method. Their content was in the range 0.01 (Cd) to 1,519 (Ca) μg/g. Correlations between the content of Mn, Al, Ca, Pb, Cr, Ni in the fur of animals, liver and muscle tissues were found. Thus it can be assumed that the fur of wild animals can provide an information on the bioavailability of elements and environmental exposure and can be considered as an useful biomarker in animals and environmental studies, although research on this subject should be continued.

  19. Estimating animal resource selection from telemetry data using point process models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Devin S.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Kuhn, Carey E.

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the analysis of telemetry data with the point process approach, we analysed a data set of telemetry locations from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. Both a space–time and an aggregated space-only model were fitted. At the individual level, the space–time analysis showed little selection relative to the habitat covariates. However, at the study area level, the space-only model showed strong selection relative to the covariates.

  20. Myth or relict: Does ancient DNA detect the enigmatic Upland seal?

    PubMed

    Salis, Alexander T; Easton, Luke J; Robertson, Bruce C; Gemmell, Neil; Smith, Ian W G; Weisler, Marshall I; Waters, Jonathan M; Rawlence, Nicolas J

    2016-04-01

    The biological status of the so-called 'Upland seal' has remained contentious ever since historical records described a distinct seal from the uplands of New Zealand's (NZ) remote sub-Antarctic islands. Subsequent genetic surveys of the NZ fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) detected two highly-divergent mtDNA clades, hypothesized to represent a post-sealing hybrid swarm between 'mainland' (Australia-NZ; A. forsteri) and sub-Antarctic (putative 'Upland'; A. snaresensis) lineages. We present ancient-DNA analyses of prehistoric mainland NZ and sub-Antarctic fur seals, revealing that both of these genetic lineages were already widely distributed across the region at the time of human arrival. These findings indicate that anthropogenic factors did not contribute to the admixture of these lineages, and cast doubt on the validity of the Upland seal. Human-mediated impacts on Arctocephalus genetic diversity are instead highlighted by a dramatic temporal haplotype frequency-shift due to genetic drift in heavily bottlenecked populations following the cessation of industrial-scale harvesting. These extinction-recolonisation dynamics add to a growing picture of human-mediated change in NZ's coastal and marine ecosystems. PMID:26768113

  1. Myth or relict: Does ancient DNA detect the enigmatic Upland seal?

    PubMed

    Salis, Alexander T; Easton, Luke J; Robertson, Bruce C; Gemmell, Neil; Smith, Ian W G; Weisler, Marshall I; Waters, Jonathan M; Rawlence, Nicolas J

    2016-04-01

    The biological status of the so-called 'Upland seal' has remained contentious ever since historical records described a distinct seal from the uplands of New Zealand's (NZ) remote sub-Antarctic islands. Subsequent genetic surveys of the NZ fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) detected two highly-divergent mtDNA clades, hypothesized to represent a post-sealing hybrid swarm between 'mainland' (Australia-NZ; A. forsteri) and sub-Antarctic (putative 'Upland'; A. snaresensis) lineages. We present ancient-DNA analyses of prehistoric mainland NZ and sub-Antarctic fur seals, revealing that both of these genetic lineages were already widely distributed across the region at the time of human arrival. These findings indicate that anthropogenic factors did not contribute to the admixture of these lineages, and cast doubt on the validity of the Upland seal. Human-mediated impacts on Arctocephalus genetic diversity are instead highlighted by a dramatic temporal haplotype frequency-shift due to genetic drift in heavily bottlenecked populations following the cessation of industrial-scale harvesting. These extinction-recolonisation dynamics add to a growing picture of human-mediated change in NZ's coastal and marine ecosystems.

  2. Rod-cone based color vision in seals under photopic conditions.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Daniela; Schramme, Jürgen; Neumeyer, Christa

    2016-08-01

    Marine mammals have lost the ability to express S-cone opsin, and possess only one type of M/L-cone in addition to numerous rods. As they are cone monochromats they should be color blind. However, early behavioral experiments with fur seals and sea lions indicated discrimination ability between many shades of grey and blue or green. On the other hand, most recent training experiments with harbor seals under "mesopic" conditions demonstrated rod based color blindness (Scholtyssek et al., 2015). In our experiments we trained two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and two South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with surface colors under photopic conditions. The seals had to detect a triangle on grey background shown on one of three test fields while the other two test fields were homogeneously grey. In a first series of experiments we determined brightness detection. We found a luminance contrast of >3% sufficient for correctly choosing the triangle. In the tests for color vision the triangle was blue, green or yellow in grey surround. The results show that the animals could see the colored triangle despite minimal or zero brightness contrast. Thus, seals have color vision based on the contribution of cones and rods even in bright daylight.

  3. Rod-cone based color vision in seals under photopic conditions.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Daniela; Schramme, Jürgen; Neumeyer, Christa

    2016-08-01

    Marine mammals have lost the ability to express S-cone opsin, and possess only one type of M/L-cone in addition to numerous rods. As they are cone monochromats they should be color blind. However, early behavioral experiments with fur seals and sea lions indicated discrimination ability between many shades of grey and blue or green. On the other hand, most recent training experiments with harbor seals under "mesopic" conditions demonstrated rod based color blindness (Scholtyssek et al., 2015). In our experiments we trained two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and two South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with surface colors under photopic conditions. The seals had to detect a triangle on grey background shown on one of three test fields while the other two test fields were homogeneously grey. In a first series of experiments we determined brightness detection. We found a luminance contrast of >3% sufficient for correctly choosing the triangle. In the tests for color vision the triangle was blue, green or yellow in grey surround. The results show that the animals could see the colored triangle despite minimal or zero brightness contrast. Thus, seals have color vision based on the contribution of cones and rods even in bright daylight. PMID:27245870

  4. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  5. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  6. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv. PMID:26910324

  7. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv.

  8. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem; O'Brien, Edward J; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2014-09-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to iron availability using genome-wide measurements. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 81 genes in 42 transcription units are directly regulated by three different modes of Fur regulation, including apo- and holo-Fur activation and holo-Fur repression. We show that Fur connects iron transport and utilization enzymes with negative-feedback loop pairs for iron homeostasis. In addition, direct involvement of Fur in the regulation of DNA synthesis, energy metabolism and biofilm development is found. These results show how Fur exhibits a comprehensive regulatory role affecting many fundamental cellular processes linked to iron metabolism in order to coordinate the overall response of E. coli to iron availability.

  9. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv. PMID:26910324

  10. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem; O'Brien, Edward J; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2014-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to iron availability using genome-wide measurements. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 81 genes in 42 transcription units are directly regulated by three different modes of Fur regulation, including apo- and holo-Fur activation and holo-Fur repression. We show that Fur connects iron transport and utilization enzymes with negative-feedback loop pairs for iron homeostasis. In addition, direct involvement of Fur in the regulation of DNA synthesis, energy metabolism and biofilm development is found. These results show how Fur exhibits a comprehensive regulatory role affecting many fundamental cellular processes linked to iron metabolism in order to coordinate the overall response of E. coli to iron availability. PMID:25222563

  11. Quantification of the effects of fur, fur color, and velocity on Time-Of-Flight technology in dairy production.

    PubMed

    Salau, Jennifer; Bauer, Ulrike; Haas, Jan H; Thaller, Georg; Harms, Jan; Junge, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    With increasing herd sizes, camera based monitoring solutions rise in importance. 3D cameras, for example Time-Of-Flight (TOF) cameras, measure depth information. These additional information (3D data) could be beneficial for monitoring in dairy production. In previous studies regarding TOF technology, only standing cows were recorded to avoid motion artifacts. Therefore, necessary conditions for a TOF camera application in dairy cows are examined in this study. For this purpose, two cow models with plaster and fur surface, respectively, were recorded at four controlled velocities to quantify the effects of movement, fur color, and fur. Comparison criteria concerning image usability, pixel-wise deviation, and precision in coordinate determination were defined. Fur and fur color showed large effects (η (2)=0.235 and η (2)=0.472, respectively), which became even more considerable when the models were moving. The velocity of recorded animals must therefore be controlled when using TOF cameras. As another main result, body parts which lie in the middle of the cow model's back can be determined neglecting the effect of velocity or fur. With this in mind, further studies may obtain sound results using TOF technology in dairy production.

  12. Quantification of the effects of fur, fur color, and velocity on Time-Of-Flight technology in dairy production.

    PubMed

    Salau, Jennifer; Bauer, Ulrike; Haas, Jan H; Thaller, Georg; Harms, Jan; Junge, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    With increasing herd sizes, camera based monitoring solutions rise in importance. 3D cameras, for example Time-Of-Flight (TOF) cameras, measure depth information. These additional information (3D data) could be beneficial for monitoring in dairy production. In previous studies regarding TOF technology, only standing cows were recorded to avoid motion artifacts. Therefore, necessary conditions for a TOF camera application in dairy cows are examined in this study. For this purpose, two cow models with plaster and fur surface, respectively, were recorded at four controlled velocities to quantify the effects of movement, fur color, and fur. Comparison criteria concerning image usability, pixel-wise deviation, and precision in coordinate determination were defined. Fur and fur color showed large effects (η (2)=0.235 and η (2)=0.472, respectively), which became even more considerable when the models were moving. The velocity of recorded animals must therefore be controlled when using TOF cameras. As another main result, body parts which lie in the middle of the cow model's back can be determined neglecting the effect of velocity or fur. With this in mind, further studies may obtain sound results using TOF technology in dairy production. PMID:25859424

  13. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    DOEpatents

    McEdwards, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.

  14. Inboard seal mounting

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, John R.

    1983-01-01

    A regenerator assembly for a gas turbine engine has a hot side seal assembly formed in part by a cast metal engine block having a seal recess formed therein that is configured to supportingly receive ceramic support blocks including an inboard face thereon having a regenerator seal face bonded thereto. A pressurized leaf seal is interposed between the ceramic support block and the cast metal engine block to bias the seal wear face into sealing engagement with a hot side surface of a rotary regenerator matrix.

  15. Seals, seal trainers, and mycobacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P J; Cousins, D V; Gow, B L; Collins, D M; Williamson, B H; Dagnia, H T

    1993-01-01

    In 1986, three seals died in a marine park in Western Australia; culture of postmortem tissue suggested infection with Mycobacterium bovis. In 1988, a seal trainer who had been employed at the Western Australian marine park until 1985 developed pulmonary tuberculosis caused by M. bovis while working in a zoo 3,000 km away on the east coast of Australia. Culture characteristics, biochemical behavior, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and restriction endonuclease analysis suggested that the strains of M. bovis infecting the seals and trainer were identical but unique and differed from reference strains and local cattle strains of M. bovis. The infection in both the seals and the trainer had a destructive but indolent course. This is the first time that M. bovis has been observed in seals and the first time that tuberculous infection has been documented to be transmitted from seals to humans. Further investigation of the extent of tuberculous infection in seal populations elsewhere in the world seems warranted, and those working with seals and other marine animals should be monitored for infection. PMID:8420412

  16. Magnetically Actuated Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinera, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a magnetically actuated seal in which either a single electromagnet, or multiple electromagnets, are used to control the seal's position. This system can either be an open/ close type of system or an actively controlled system.

  17. Sealed container sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Sampling device, by means of a tapered needle, pierces a sealed container while maintaining the seal and either evacuates or pressurizes the container. This device has many applications in the chemical, preservative and battery-manufacturing industries.

  18. Seal Out Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics > Tooth Decay (Caries) > Seal Out Tooth Decay Seal Out Tooth Decay Main Content What are dental ... back teeth decay so easily? Who should get seal​ants? Should sealants be put on baby teeth? ...

  19. Energy efficient face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.

  20. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-12-02

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 2 figs.

  1. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2 and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  2. Resilient Braided Rope Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Kren, Lawrence A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A resilient braided rope seal for use in high temperature applications. The resilient braided rope seal includes a center core of fibers, a resilient 5 member overbraided by at least one layer of braided sheath fibers tightly packed together. The resilient member adds significant stiffness to the seal while maintaining resiliency. Furthermore, the seal permanent set and hysteresis are greatly reduced. Finally, improved load capabilities are provided.

  3. Security seal. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, G.W.

    1981-11-17

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to fingerprints are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  4. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  5. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, Sidney; Degen, Michael F.; Peters, Henry F.

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over the item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection.

  6. Damping seals for turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    A rotor seal is proposed that restricts leakage like a labyrinth seal, but extends the stabilizing speed range beyond twice the first critical speed. The dynamic parameters were derived from bulk flow equations without requiring a dominant axial flow. The flow is considered incompressible and turbulent. Damping seals are shown to be feasible for extending the speed range of high performance turbomachinery beyond the limit imposed by conventional seals.

  7. Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal

    DOEpatents

    Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.

    2001-01-01

    A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.

  8. Circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal comprising two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band is disclosed. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  9. Circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal is described which comprises two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  10. Collapsable seal member

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1983-12-08

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  11. Collapsable seal member

    DOEpatents

    Sherrell, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  12. Quaternary Structure of Fur Proteins, a New Subfamily of Tetrameric Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pérard, Julien; Covès, Jacques; Castellan, Mathieu; Solard, Charles; Savard, Myriam; Miras, Roger; Galop, Sandra; Signor, Luca; Crouzy, Serge; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; de Rosny, Eve

    2016-03-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) belongs to the family of the DNA-binding metal-responsive transcriptional regulators. Fur is a global regulator found in all proteobacteria. It controls the transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in iron metabolism but also in oxidative stress or virulence factor synthesis. When bound to ferrous iron, Fur can bind to specific DNA sequences, called Fur boxes. This binding triggers the repression or the activation of gene expression, depending on the regulated genes. As a general view, Fur proteins are considered to be dimeric proteins both in solution and when bound to DNA. In this study, we have purified Fur from four pathogenic strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and Legionella pneumophila) and compared them to Fur from Escherichia coli (EcFur), the best characterized of this family. By using a series of "in solution" techniques, including multiangle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as cross-linking experiments, we have shown that the Fur proteins can be classified into two groups, according to their quaternary structure. The group of dimers is represented by EcFur and YpFur and the group of very stable tetramers by PaFur, FtFur, and LpFur. Using PaFur as a case study, we also showed that the dissociation of the tetramers into dimers is necessary for binding of Fur to DNA, and that this dissociation requires the combined effect of metal ion binding and DNA proximity.

  13. Quaternary Structure of Fur Proteins, a New Subfamily of Tetrameric Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pérard, Julien; Covès, Jacques; Castellan, Mathieu; Solard, Charles; Savard, Myriam; Miras, Roger; Galop, Sandra; Signor, Luca; Crouzy, Serge; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; de Rosny, Eve

    2016-03-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) belongs to the family of the DNA-binding metal-responsive transcriptional regulators. Fur is a global regulator found in all proteobacteria. It controls the transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in iron metabolism but also in oxidative stress or virulence factor synthesis. When bound to ferrous iron, Fur can bind to specific DNA sequences, called Fur boxes. This binding triggers the repression or the activation of gene expression, depending on the regulated genes. As a general view, Fur proteins are considered to be dimeric proteins both in solution and when bound to DNA. In this study, we have purified Fur from four pathogenic strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and Legionella pneumophila) and compared them to Fur from Escherichia coli (EcFur), the best characterized of this family. By using a series of "in solution" techniques, including multiangle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as cross-linking experiments, we have shown that the Fur proteins can be classified into two groups, according to their quaternary structure. The group of dimers is represented by EcFur and YpFur and the group of very stable tetramers by PaFur, FtFur, and LpFur. Using PaFur as a case study, we also showed that the dissociation of the tetramers into dimers is necessary for binding of Fur to DNA, and that this dissociation requires the combined effect of metal ion binding and DNA proximity. PMID:26886069

  14. Better high temperature sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.V.

    1987-01-01

    Acceptance of welded metal bellows designs, superior seal face materials and advancement of environmental control systems has extended the limits of mechanical seals to the operating limits of the process systems themselves. The nonpusher type welded metal bellows designs have overcome past seal hang-up problems. Material combinations such as silicon carbide versus silicon carbide and silicon carbide versus tungsten carbide have proven to be capable of handling the harsh abrasives encountered on high temperature sealing applications. Steam purges have done a good job of flushing away the deposits and sludges that form on the atmospheric side of the seal and cause seal hang-up. Today's field experience shows that hot water at temperatures up to 350/sup 0/F in the seal cavity can be handled with nothing more than a bypass flush per API piping plan 11 as long as adequate vapor pressure of the fluid is available. For temperatures above 350/sup 0/F, only moderate cooling is now required on hot water applications, where full cooling and a reduction of the seal cavity temperature to something below 180/sup 0/F were once necessary. Initially, the move towards high temperature seals was made for safety, long seal life and reliability reasons. Users wanted seals on their equipment that would avoid the danger of catastrophic seal failures in the event the environmental control systems failed. More recently, the economic advantages of running seals hot have been recognized. It is estimated that an annual savings of $1,000 per inch of shaft size can be realized for every 100/sup 0/F of cooling requirements that can be removed from the seal cavity. This cost savings is due to the elimination or reduction of energy sources used to cool the mechanical seal.

  15. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics.

    PubMed

    Bondeson, J

    2015-01-01

    This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the 'Solid' gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer) or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to 'Solid' being dominant over 'spotted', and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an 'Irish spotted' fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes.

  16. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the ‘Solid’ gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer) or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to ‘Solid’ being dominant over ‘spotted’, and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an ‘Irish spotted’ fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes. PMID:26623371

  17. Fuel cell manifold sealing system

    DOEpatents

    Grevstad, Paul E.; Johnson, Carl K.; Mientek, Anthony P.

    1980-01-01

    A manifold-to-stack seal and sealing method for fuel cell stacks. This seal system solves the problem of maintaining a low leak rate manifold seal as the fuel cell stack undergoes compressive creep. The seal system eliminates the problem of the manifold-to-stack seal sliding against the rough stack surface as the stack becomes shorter because of cell creep, which relative motion destroys the seal. The seal system described herein utilizes a polymer seal frame firmly clamped between the manifold and the stack such that the seal frame moves with the stack. Thus, as the stack creeps, the seal frame creeps with it, and there is no sliding at the rough, tough to seal, stack-to-seal frame interface. Here the sliding is on a smooth easy to seal location between the seal frame and the manifold.

  18. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, S.; Degen, M.F.; Peters, H.F.

    1982-08-13

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over th item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection. The seal is particularly applicable to UF/sub 6/ cylinder valves.

  19. SEAL FOR ROTATING SHAFT

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1957-12-10

    A seal is described for a rotatable shaft that must highly effective when the shaft is not rotating but may be less effective while the shaft is rotating. Weights distributed about a sealing disk secured to the shaft press the sealing disk against a tubular section into which the shiilt extends, and whem the shaft rotates, the centrifugal forces on the weights relieve the pressurc of the sealing disk against the tubular section. This action has the very desirible result of minimizing the wear of the rotating disk due to contact with the tubular section, while affording maximum sealing action when it is needed.

  20. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  1. Role of a Fur homolog in iron metabolism in Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In response to environmental iron concentrations, many bacteria coordinately regulate transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition via the ferric uptake regulation (Fur) system. The genome of Nitrosomonas europaea, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, carries three genes (NE0616, NE0730 and NE1722) encoding proteins belonging to Fur family. Results Of the three N. europaea fur homologs, only the Fur homolog encoded by gene NE0616 complemented the Escherichia coli H1780 fur mutant. A N. europaea fur:kanP mutant strain was created by insertion of kanamycin-resistance cassette in the promoter region of NE0616 fur homolog. The total cellular iron contents of the fur:kanP mutant strain increased by 1.5-fold compared to wild type when grown in Fe-replete media. Relative to the wild type, the fur:kanP mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to iron at or above 500 μM concentrations. Unlike the wild type, the fur:kanP mutant was capable of utilizing iron-bound ferrioxamine without any lag phase and showed over expression of several outer membrane TonB-dependent receptor proteins irrespective of Fe availability. Conclusions Our studies have clearly indicated a role in Fe regulation by the Fur protein encoded by N. europaea NE0616 gene. Additional studies are required to fully delineate role of this fur homolog. PMID:21338516

  2. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  3. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  4. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  5. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  6. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  7. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  8. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  9. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  10. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  11. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  12. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  13. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  14. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  15. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  16. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  17. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  18. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  19. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  20. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  1. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  2. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  3. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  4. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F.; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator. PMID:25705205

  5. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator.

  6. Rotary kiln seal

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  7. Regulation of haemolysin (VvhA) production by ferric uptake regulator (Fur) in Vibrio vulnificus: repression of vvhA transcription by Fur and proteolysis of VvhA by Fur-repressive exoproteases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jeong-A; Lee, Mi-Ae; Park, Soon-Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho

    2013-05-01

    VvhA produced by Vibrio vulnificus exhibits cytolytic activity to human cells including erythrocytes. Since haemolysis by VvhA may provide iron for bacterial growth and pathogenicity, we investigated the expression of VvhA to elucidate the regulatory roles of Fur, a major transcription factor controlling iron-homeostasis. Fur repressed the transcription of vvhBA operon via binding to the promoter region. However, haemolysin content and haemolytic activity were lowered in cell-free supernatant of fur mutant. This discrepancy between the levels of vvhA transcript and VvhA protein in fur mutant was caused by exoproteolytic activities of the elastase VvpE and another metalloprotease VvpM, which were also regulated by Fur. vvpE gene expression was repressed by Fur via binding to the Fur-box homologous region. Regulation of VvpM expression by Fur did not occur at the level of vvpM transcription. In vitro proteolysis assays showed that both proteases efficiently degraded VvhA. In addition, the extracellular levels of VvhA were higher in culture supernatants of vvpE or vvpM mutants than in the wild type. Thus this study demonstrates that Fur regulates haemolysin production at the transcription level of the vvhBA operon and at the post-translation level by regulating the expressions of two VvhA-degrading exoproteases, VvpE and VvpM.

  8. 75 FR 21243 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    .... These regulations, which were promulgated by an emergency final rule in 1986 (51 FR 24828, July 9, 1986... receipt of a petition for rulemaking under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). The Pribilof Island... with subsequent reports submitted by the Council to be a formal petition for rulemaking under the...

  9. Characterisation of the mitochondrial genome of Parafilaroides normani (lungworm) of Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Australian fur seal).

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Mohandas, Namitha; Gasser, Robin B

    2014-08-01

    Parafilaroides normani is a metastrongyloid nematode of clinical relevance in some species of pinnipeds. The taxonomy, biology and epidemiology of this and related species are not well understood. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA can provide markers for studies in these areas, but genetic data are scant. Here, we characterised the mt genome of P. normani. Adults of this nematode were collected from Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus from Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia, and genomic DNA was extracted from individuals. The complete mt genome was amplified from DNA from a single adult male by long-range PCR, as two overlapping amplicons (~5 and ~10 kb), and then sequenced employing 454 technology (Roche). The mt genome was assembled from reads of ~300 bp and annotated using an established bioinformatic pipeline. This circular mt genome is 13,411 bp and contains two ribosomal RNA, 12 protein-coding and 22 transfer RNA genes, consistent with those of other lungworms studied to date. This mt genome is intended to provide a source of genetic markers for future investigations of the biology, epidemiology and systematics of Parafilaroides spp. and related lungworms. PMID:24924434

  10. Characterisation of the mitochondrial genome of Parafilaroides normani (lungworm) of Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Australian fur seal).

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Mohandas, Namitha; Gasser, Robin B

    2014-08-01

    Parafilaroides normani is a metastrongyloid nematode of clinical relevance in some species of pinnipeds. The taxonomy, biology and epidemiology of this and related species are not well understood. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA can provide markers for studies in these areas, but genetic data are scant. Here, we characterised the mt genome of P. normani. Adults of this nematode were collected from Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus from Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia, and genomic DNA was extracted from individuals. The complete mt genome was amplified from DNA from a single adult male by long-range PCR, as two overlapping amplicons (~5 and ~10 kb), and then sequenced employing 454 technology (Roche). The mt genome was assembled from reads of ~300 bp and annotated using an established bioinformatic pipeline. This circular mt genome is 13,411 bp and contains two ribosomal RNA, 12 protein-coding and 22 transfer RNA genes, consistent with those of other lungworms studied to date. This mt genome is intended to provide a source of genetic markers for future investigations of the biology, epidemiology and systematics of Parafilaroides spp. and related lungworms.

  11. A molecular view of pinniped relationships with particular emphasis on the true seals.

    PubMed

    Arnason, U; Bodin, K; Gullberg, A; Ledje, C; Mouchaty, S

    1995-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of conservative nucleotide substitutions in 18 complete sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of Phocidae (true seals), Odobenidae (walruses), and Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals), plus three ursid and three felid sequences, identified the pinnipeds as monophyletic with Otariidae and Odobenidae on a common evolutionary branch. Analysis of total nucleotide differences separated the evolutionary lineages of northern and southern phocids. Both lineages are distinct from the most ancestral phocid genus, Monachus (monk seals), represented by the Hawaiian monk seal. The inclusion of the Hawaiian monk seal in the subfamily Monachinae makes the subfamily paraphyletic. Among the northern phocids, the hooded seal (genus Cystophora, chromosome number 2n = 34) is sister taxon to the Phoca complex. The Phoca complex, which is characterized by the chromosome number 2n = 32, includes genus Phoca and the monotypic genus Halichoerus (grey seal). The comparison does not support a generic distinction of Halichoerus within the Phoca complex. The present data suggest that Cystophora and Phoca separated > or = 6 million years ago. Among the southern phocids the close molecular relationship of the Weddell and leopard seals relative to their morphological distinction exemplifies rapid adaptation to different ecological niches. This result stands in contrast to the limited morphological differentiation relative to the pronounced molecular distinctions that may occur within the Phoca complex. PMID:7714914

  12. A molecular view of pinniped relationships with particular emphasis on the true seals.

    PubMed

    Arnason, U; Bodin, K; Gullberg, A; Ledje, C; Mouchaty, S

    1995-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of conservative nucleotide substitutions in 18 complete sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of Phocidae (true seals), Odobenidae (walruses), and Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals), plus three ursid and three felid sequences, identified the pinnipeds as monophyletic with Otariidae and Odobenidae on a common evolutionary branch. Analysis of total nucleotide differences separated the evolutionary lineages of northern and southern phocids. Both lineages are distinct from the most ancestral phocid genus, Monachus (monk seals), represented by the Hawaiian monk seal. The inclusion of the Hawaiian monk seal in the subfamily Monachinae makes the subfamily paraphyletic. Among the northern phocids, the hooded seal (genus Cystophora, chromosome number 2n = 34) is sister taxon to the Phoca complex. The Phoca complex, which is characterized by the chromosome number 2n = 32, includes genus Phoca and the monotypic genus Halichoerus (grey seal). The comparison does not support a generic distinction of Halichoerus within the Phoca complex. The present data suggest that Cystophora and Phoca separated > or = 6 million years ago. Among the southern phocids the close molecular relationship of the Weddell and leopard seals relative to their morphological distinction exemplifies rapid adaptation to different ecological niches. This result stands in contrast to the limited morphological differentiation relative to the pronounced molecular distinctions that may occur within the Phoca complex.

  13. The allosteric behavior of Fur mediates oxidative stress signal transduction in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Pelliciari, Simone; Vannini, Andrea; Roncarati, Davide; Danielli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The microaerophilic gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is exposed to oxidative stress originating from the aerobic environment, the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the formation of reactive oxygen species, catalyzed by iron excess. Accordingly, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense have been repeatedly linked to the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Moreover, mutations in the Fur protein affect the resistance to metronidazole, likely due to loss-of-function in the regulation of genes involved in redox control. Although many advances in the molecular understanding of HpFur function were made, little is known about the mechanisms that enable Fur to mediate the responses to oxidative stress. Here we show that iron-inducible, apo-Fur repressed genes, such as pfr and hydA, are induced shortly after oxidative stress, while their oxidative induction is lost in a fur knockout strain. On the contrary, holo-Fur repressed genes, such as frpB1 and fecA1, vary modestly in response to oxidative stress. This indicates that the oxidative stress signal specifically targets apo-Fur repressed genes, rather than impairing indiscriminately the regulatory function of Fur. Footprinting analyses showed that the oxidative signal strongly impairs the binding affinity of Fur toward apo-operators, while the binding toward holo-operators is less affected. Further evidence is presented that a reduced state of Fur is needed to maintain apo-repression, while oxidative conditions shift the preferred binding architecture of Fur toward the holo-operator binding conformation, even in the absence of iron. Together the results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of Fur enables transduction of oxidative stress signals in H. pylori, supporting the concept that apo-Fur repressed genes can be considered oxidation inducible Fur regulatory targets. These findings may have important implications in the study of H. pylori treatment and resistance to antibiotics.

  14. The allosteric behavior of Fur mediates oxidative stress signal transduction in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Pelliciari, Simone; Vannini, Andrea; Roncarati, Davide; Danielli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The microaerophilic gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is exposed to oxidative stress originating from the aerobic environment, the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the formation of reactive oxygen species, catalyzed by iron excess. Accordingly, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense have been repeatedly linked to the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Moreover, mutations in the Fur protein affect the resistance to metronidazole, likely due to loss-of-function in the regulation of genes involved in redox control. Although many advances in the molecular understanding of HpFur function were made, little is known about the mechanisms that enable Fur to mediate the responses to oxidative stress. Here we show that iron-inducible, apo-Fur repressed genes, such as pfr and hydA, are induced shortly after oxidative stress, while their oxidative induction is lost in a fur knockout strain. On the contrary, holo-Fur repressed genes, such as frpB1 and fecA1, vary modestly in response to oxidative stress. This indicates that the oxidative stress signal specifically targets apo-Fur repressed genes, rather than impairing indiscriminately the regulatory function of Fur. Footprinting analyses showed that the oxidative signal strongly impairs the binding affinity of Fur toward apo-operators, while the binding toward holo-operators is less affected. Further evidence is presented that a reduced state of Fur is needed to maintain apo-repression, while oxidative conditions shift the preferred binding architecture of Fur toward the holo-operator binding conformation, even in the absence of iron. Together the results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of Fur enables transduction of oxidative stress signals in H. pylori, supporting the concept that apo-Fur repressed genes can be considered oxidation inducible Fur regulatory targets. These findings may have important implications in the study of H. pylori treatment and resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26347726

  15. The allosteric behavior of Fur mediates oxidative stress signal transduction in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Pelliciari, Simone; Vannini, Andrea; Roncarati, Davide; Danielli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The microaerophilic gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is exposed to oxidative stress originating from the aerobic environment, the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the formation of reactive oxygen species, catalyzed by iron excess. Accordingly, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense have been repeatedly linked to the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Moreover, mutations in the Fur protein affect the resistance to metronidazole, likely due to loss-of-function in the regulation of genes involved in redox control. Although many advances in the molecular understanding of HpFur function were made, little is known about the mechanisms that enable Fur to mediate the responses to oxidative stress. Here we show that iron-inducible, apo-Fur repressed genes, such as pfr and hydA, are induced shortly after oxidative stress, while their oxidative induction is lost in a fur knockout strain. On the contrary, holo-Fur repressed genes, such as frpB1 and fecA1, vary modestly in response to oxidative stress. This indicates that the oxidative stress signal specifically targets apo-Fur repressed genes, rather than impairing indiscriminately the regulatory function of Fur. Footprinting analyses showed that the oxidative signal strongly impairs the binding affinity of Fur toward apo-operators, while the binding toward holo-operators is less affected. Further evidence is presented that a reduced state of Fur is needed to maintain apo-repression, while oxidative conditions shift the preferred binding architecture of Fur toward the holo-operator binding conformation, even in the absence of iron. Together the results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of Fur enables transduction of oxidative stress signals in H. pylori, supporting the concept that apo-Fur repressed genes can be considered oxidation inducible Fur regulatory targets. These findings may have important implications in the study of H. pylori treatment and resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26347726

  16. The fur gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae: characterization, genomic organization and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, L A; Yang, W

    1997-02-01

    The Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein controls the expression of a number of bacterial virulence determinants including those involved in iron uptake. The fur gene was cloned and characterized from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The gene is preceded by a single autoregulated promoter whose -10 region overlaps the putative Fur binding site. The autoregulated nature of the K. pneumoniae fur gene and functionality of the encoded Fur repressor were tested in Fur titration and complementation assays. A partial open reading frame upstream from the fur gene was identified as a flavodoxin (fldA) gene. An open reading frame located 50 bases downstream from the fur stop codon appears to be a truncated citA gene that, if functional, would encode only the carboxy terminus of a citrate utilization protein. The fldA-fur arrangement is also present in Escherichia coli. However, the fur-citA arrangement found in K. pneumoniae is novel. It appears that the chromosomal region downstream from the fur gene is unstable and, thus, variable even in closely related bacterial lineages. To assess of the ability of the Fur protein sequence to reflect organismal phylogeny, the Fur protein tree was compared to the tree of 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA). The Fur dataset comprises almost an order of magnitude fewer characters than the 16S rRNA but is nonetheless able to track the phylogenetic signal reasonably well, suggesting that the fur gene, like the 16S rDNA, may not be subject to horizontal gene transfer in these bacteria.

  17. COMPRESSION SEAL AND SEALING MATERIAL THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Branin, T.G.

    1962-05-29

    This patent relates to compression seal and more particularly to a seaiing material therefor. The sealing surface is a coating consisting of alternate layers of gold and of a non-gold metal having similar plastic flow properties under pressure as gold. The coating is substantially free from oxidation effects when exposed to ambient atmosphere and does not become brittle when worked, as in a valve. (AEC)

  18. Shaft seal system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

  19. Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin X. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals are disclosed which use the different properties of thermal contraction and expansion of selected dissimilar materials in accord with certain design criteria to yield self-tightening seals via sloped-surface sealing. The seals of the subject invention are reusable, simple to assemble, and adaptable to a wide variety of cryogenic applications.

  20. Analysis of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur) knockout mutant in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Ebanks, Roger O; Goguen, Michel; Knickle, Leah; Dacanay, Andrew; Leslie, Andrew; Ross, Neil W; Pinto, Devanand M

    2013-03-23

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis; a serious infectious disease in aquaculture raised salmonids. Iron acquisition has been shown to be critical for the survival of pathogenic bacteria during the course of infection. Previous work has demonstrated that A. salmonicida expresses iron-repressible IROMP proteins, suggesting the presence of iron acquisition systems that are under the control of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur). In this study, the A. salmonicida fur has been sequenced and a fur deletion strain generated. The A. salmonicida fur gene has an open reading frame of 428 bp, coding for a protein of 143 amino acids, and with high homology to previously described Fur proteins. The Fur protein product had a 94% sequence identity and 96% sequence similarity to the Aeromonas hydrophila Fur protein product. Transcription of the A. salmonicida fur gene was not regulated by the iron status of the bacterium and is not autoregulated, as in Escherichia coli. Proteomic analysis of the A. salmonicida fur mutant, fails to repress iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in the presence of iron. The A. salmonicida fur::KO mutant shows significantly reduced pathogenicity compared to the wild-type parental strain. In addition, the A. salmonicida fur mutant provides an important tool for further investigation of the iron acquisition mechanisms utilized by A. salmonicida.