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Sample records for fusarium moniliforme depsidipeptideos

  1. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

  2. Development of a selective culture medium for Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Castellá, G; Bragulat, M R; Rubiales, M V; Cabañes, F J

    1997-12-01

    Nash and Snyder medium and malachite green agar 2.5 ppm medium, a new selective culture medium designed in our laboratory, were challenged with pure cultures of Fusarium moniliforme strains and two different mixed-conidium suspensions, which included rapidly spreading fungi, for their utility in the isolation and enumeration of F. moniliforme. From the results of this comparative study, malachite green agar 2.5 ppm allowed only the selective growth of F. moniliforme whereas Nash and Snyder medium allowed both the growth of F. moniliforme and other species not belonging to Fusarium spp. The enumeration of F. moniliforme propagules was similar in both culture media.

  3. Production of Alanine by Fusarium moniliforme

    PubMed Central

    Carito, Sebastian L.; Pisano, Michael A.

    1966-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme grown in a chemically defined medium in submerged culture accumulated amino acids extracellularly. Alanine and glutamic acid were present in greatest amounts, with traces of glycine, lysine, threonine, and valine detectable. Increasing the glucose and urea concentrations of the medium increased yields of alanine. Further increases in alanine production occurred with elevated levels of mineral salts in the medium, whereas the addition of a vitamin mixture proved to be inhibitory. Chemical changes resulting from the growth of F. moniliforme in the final fermentation medium disclosed maximal alanine production, mycelial weight, and glucose consumption after 72 hr of incubation at 28.5 C. Total soluble nitrogen, by contrast, was minimal at the same time period. The pH remained in the alkaline range throughout the fermentation. PMID:5914495

  4. Absence of trichothecenes in toxigenic isolates of Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed Central

    Mirocha, C J; Abbas, H K; Vesonder, R F

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-four isolates of Fusarium moniliforme were obtained from cereal grains collected in various parts of the world. The isolates were grown on rice and tested as a diet for toxicity to rats. Of these isolates, 53% caused death, 12% caused congestion and hemorrhage of the stomach and intestine as well as hematuria, 21% caused diarrhea, 38% caused weight loss, and 9% were nontoxic. The cultures were tested to T-2, HT-2, neosolaniol, acetyl-T-2, T-2-tetraol, iso-T-2, diacetoxyscirpenol, monoacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenone-X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, zearalenone, moniliformin, fusarochromanone, fusarin-C, and wortmannin; all were negative. In addition, F. moniliforme NRRL A25820 was grown on corn and banana fruit as solid substrates as well as on a defined liquid medium; none of the above toxins were found. When F. moniliforme NRRL A25820 was incorporated into a rat diet, no toxicity was noted. Twenty-eight additional isolates of F. moniliforme, isolated from feed associated with equine leukoencephalomalacia, were grown on cracked corn for 2 weeks. The cultures were negative when tested for deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, monoacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol, and fusarenone X. Seventy-five percent of the isolates were toxic to ducklings, indicating the presence of a toxin other than trichothecenes. Our results support the conclusion that F. moniliforme does not produce trichothecenes. PMID:2306091

  5. Nitrate reduction mutants of Fusarium moniliforme (Gibberella fujikuroi)

    SciTech Connect

    Klittich, C.J.R.; Leslie, J.F.

    1988-03-01

    Twelve strains of Fusarium moniliforme were examined for their ability to sector spontaneously on toxic chlorate medium. All strains sectored frequently; 91% of over 1200 colonies examined formed chlorate-resistant, mutant sectors. Most of these mutants had lesions in the nitrate reduction pathway and were unable to utilize nitrate (nit mutants). nit mutations occurred in seven loci: a structural gene for nitrate reductase (nit1), a regulatory gene specific for the nitrate reduction pathway (nit3), and five genes controlling the production of a molybdenum-containing cofactors that is necessary for nitrate reductase activity (nit2, nit4, nit5, nit6, nit7). No mutations affecting nitrite reductase or a major nitrogen regulatory locus were found among over 1000 nit mutants. Mutations of nit1 were recovered most frequently (39-66%, depending on the strain) followed by nit3 mutations (23-42%). The frequency of isolation of each mutant type could be altered, however, by changing the source of nitrogen in the chlorate medium. The authors concluded that genetic control of nitrate reduction in F. moniliforme is similar to that in Aspergillus and Neurospora, but that the overall regulation of nitrogen metabolism may be different.

  6. Fumonisin production and other traits of Fusarium moniliforme strains from maize in northeast Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, A E; Plattner, R D; Nelson, P E

    1994-01-01

    Strains of Fusarium moniliforme from maize seed collected in four fields in northeast Mexico were tested for fumonisin production in culture, for sexual compatibility, and for vegetative compatibility by using non-nitrate-utilizing mutants. The test results indicate that a diverse population of fumonisin-producing strains of F. moniliforme (Gibberella fujikuroi) mating population A predominates and that a potential exists for production of fumonisins in Mexican maize. PMID:8017951

  7. Survival of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium moniliforme in High-Moisture Corn Stored Under Modified Atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David M.; Huang, L. H.; Jay, Edward

    1975-01-01

    Freshly harvested high-moisture corn with 29.4% moisture and corn remoistened to 19.6% moisture were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fr. and stored for 4 weeks at about 27 C in air (0.03% CO2, 21% O2, and 78% N2) and three modified atmospheres: (i) 99.7% N2 and 0.3% O2; (ii) 61.7% CO2, 8.7% O2, and 29.6% N2; and (iii) 13.5% CO2, 0.5% O2, and 84.8% N2. Kernel infections by A. flavus, Fusarium moniliforme (Sheld.) Snyd. et Hans., and other fungi were monitored weekly. The modified-atmosphere treatments delayed deterioration by A. flavus and F. moniliforme, but their growth was not completely stopped. A. flavus survived better in the remoistened than in the freshly harvested corn. F. moniliforme survived in both. A. flavus and F. moniliforme were the dominant fungi in corn removed from the modified atmospheres and exposed to normal air for 1 week. PMID:811165

  8. Efficiency of gamma irradiation to inactivate growth and fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme on corn grains.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Yu, Chun-Cheol; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-02-28

    The efficiency of gamma irradiation (0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 kGy) as a sterilization method of corn samples (30 g) artificially contaminated with Fusarium moniliforme stored at normal condition (25ºC with approximate relative humidity (RH) of 55%) and optimal condition (25ºC with a controlled RH of 97%) was studied. The results showed that the fungal growth and the amount of fumonisin were decreased as the dose of gamma irradiation increased. Gamma irradiation at 1-5 kGy treatment significantly inhibited the growth of F. moniliforme by 1-2 log reduction on corn samples (P < 0.05). Sublethal effect of gamma irradiation was observed at 10-20 kGy doses after storage, and a complete inactivation required 30 kGy. Fungal growth and fumonisin production increased with higher humidity and longer storage time in all corn samples. This study also demonstrated that there was no strict correlation between fungal growth and fumonisin production. Storage at normal condition significantly resulted in lower growth and fumonisin production of F. moniliforme as compared with those stored at optimal condition (P < 0.05). Gamma irradiation with the dose of ≥ 5 kGy followed by storage at normal condition successfully prolonged the shelf life of irradiated corns, intended for human and animal consumptions, up to 7 weeks.

  9. Microbiological Aspects in the Hydroxylation of Estrogens by Fusarium moniliforme1

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Campillo, C.; Bautista, M.

    1965-01-01

    A strain of Fusarium moniliforme (IH4), isolated from soil, showed outstanding enzymatic abilities to hydroxylate a number of estrogens. Estrone and estradiol were transformed into the 15α-hydroxy derivatives, and estradiol 3-methyl ether was transformed into the corresponding 6β-hydroxy derivative. Δ6-Estrone was not hydroxylated. The accumulation of 15α-hydroxyestrone was influenced by the nutritional conditions of the fungus. Maximal yield was obtained when the organism grew in Czapek solution supplemented with yeast extract, although good conversion was also found in a peptone-corn molasses medium. Substitution of NO3-N in Czapek medium with NH4-N, lactalbumin hydrolysate, Casitone, or Casamino Acids resulted in limited hydroxylation of estrone. A remarkable strain specificity was demonstrated in this conversion. Of 13 strains of F. moniliforme and Gibberella fujikuroi under investigation, only 2 strains (IH4 and ATCC 9851) accumulated substantial amounts of the 15α-hydroxylated product. However, marked quantitative variations were observed which are attributable to a different ability of the organisms to degrade the steroid nucleus. Biochemical instabilities were also found through the appearance of spontaneous variants lacking steroid-hydroxylating activity. Replacement culture studies revealed that 15α-hydroxylation of estrone was dependent on the supply of external phosphate; exogenous nitrogen or energy sources were not required. Most of the enzymatic activity was confined to the mycelia. Microconidia showed a very limited hydroxylating activity, even in the presence of supplements or energy sources. Images Fig. 2 PMID:5866044

  10. Thermostability of Fumonisin B1, a Mycotoxin from Fusarium moniliforme, in Corn

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, J.; Le Bars, P.; Boudra, H.; Le Bars, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin from Fusarium moniliforme that is frequently associated with corn. Thermal treatments are used in many processes concerning this cereal and its derivatives. The thermostability of this toxin in dry contaminated corn, resulting from F. moniliforme culture, was studied in different time-temperature combinations. FB1 was quantified by instrumentalized thin-layer chromatography after a two-step sequential development and postchromatographic derivatization by p-anisaldehyde. The identity of FB1 in extracts, before and after heat treatments, was confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. For each temperature, the natural logarithm of the ratio of resulting FB1 on initial content (In C/C0) is linearly correlated to exposure time. The calculated half-lives (L50), corresponding to the 50% value, were 10 min, 38 min, 175 min, and 8 h at 150, 125, 100, and 75°C, respectively. There is a linear relationship between calculated L50s on a logarithmic scale and temperature. Therefore FB1 is not significantly destroyed by the main drying processes of corn or thermal treatments used for its derivatives. Other associated means are required for detoxification. PMID:16349037

  11. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA and genomic DNA encoding PDM phosphatase of Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Mari; Narita, Takao; Norioka, Naoko; Norioka, Shigemi

    2006-12-01

    PDM phosphatase was purified approximately 500-fold through six steps from the extract of dried powder of the culture filtrate of Fusarium moniliforme. The purified preparation appeared homogeneous on SDS-PAGE although the protein band was broad. Amino acid sequence information was collected on tryptic peptides from this preparation. cDNA cloning was carried out based on the information. A full-length cDNA was obtained and sequenced. The sequence had an open reading frame of 651 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 69,988 Da. Cloning and sequencing of the genomic DNA corresponding to the cDNA was also conducted. The deduced amino acid sequence could account for many but not all of the tryptic peptides, suggesting presence of contaminant protein(s). SDS-PAGE analysis after chemical deglycosylation showed two proteins with molecular masses of 58 and 68 kDa. This implied that the 58 kDa protein had been copurified with PDM phosphatase. Homology search showed that PDM phosphatase belongs to the purple acid phosphatase family, which is widely distributed in the biosphere. Sequence data of fungal purple acid phosphatases were collected from the database. Processing of the data revealed presence of two types, whose evolutionary relationships were discussed.

  12. A Genetic Map of Gibberella Fujikuroi Mating Population a (Fusarium Moniliforme)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J. R.; Leslie, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    We constructed a recombination-based map of the fungal plant pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A (asexual stage Fusarium moniliforme). The map is based on the segregation of 142 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers, two auxotrophic genes (arg1, nic1), mating type (matA(+)/matA(-)), female sterility (ste1), spore-killer (Sk), and a gene governing the production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B(1) (fum1) among 121 random ascospore progeny from a single cross. We identified 12 linkage groups corresponding to the 12 chromosome-sized DNAs previously observed in contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gels. Linkage groups and chromosomes were correlated via Southern blots between appropriate RFLP markers and the CHEF gels. Eleven of the 12 chromosomes are meiotically stable, but the 12th (and smallest) is subject to deletions in 3% (4/121) of the progeny. Positive chiasma interference occurred on five of the 12 chromosomes, and nine of the 12 chromosomes averaged more than one crossover per chromosome. The average kb/cM ratio in this cross is ~32. PMID:8722773

  13. Photodynamic treatment with phenothiazinium photosensitizers kills both ungerminated and germinated microconidia of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Henrique Dantas; Tonani, Ludmilla; Bachmann, Luciano; Wainwright, Mark; Braga, Gilberto Úbida Leite; von Zeska Kress, Marcia Regina

    2016-11-01

    The search for alternatives to control microorganisms is necessary both in clinical and agricultural areas. Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising light-based approach that can be used to control both human and plant pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of photodynamic treatment with red light and four phenothiazinium photosensitizers (PS): methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue O (TBO), new methylene blue N (NMBN) and the phenothiazinium derivative S137 on ungerminated and germinated microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, and F. solani. APDT with each PS killed efficiently both the quiescent ungerminated microconidia and metabolically active germinated microconidia of the three Fusarium species. Washing away the unbound PS from the microconidia (both ungerminated and germinated) before red light exposure reduced but did not prevent the effect of APDT. Subcelullar localization of PS in ungerminated and germinated microconidia and the effects of photodynamic treatment on cell membranes were also evaluated in the three Fusarium species. APDT with MB, TBO, NMBN or S137 increased the membrane permeability in microconidia and APDT with NMBN or S137 increased the lipids peroxidation in microconidia of the three Fusarium species. These findings expand the understanding of photodynamic inactivation of filamentous fungi with phenothiazinium PS.

  14. Fusarium moniliforme extract fed before a single dose of diethylnitrosamine increases the numbers of placental glutathione S-transferase positive hepatocytes in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lebepe, S.; Hendrich, S. )

    1991-03-11

    The carcinogenic potential of an alcohol:water (1:1) extract of Fusarium moniliforme (FUSX), containing 20 ppm fumonisin B{sub 1} was assayed. Groups of six 5-week-old female F344/N rats were fed a semipurified diet, with and without FUSX. A dose of initiating agent, diethylnitrosamine, was given orally. Placental glutathione S-transferase-positive (PGST(+)) hepatocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry and counted on 5 frozen hepatic sections/rat, as an endpoint to assess early stages of carcinogenesis. FUSX had significant co-initiating activity. Fusarium moniliforme infection of feed has been shown to promote hepatocarcinogenesis, and may pose a cocarcinogenic risk even during short-term, low-level exposure.

  15. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility and Molecular Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme) and Fusarium thapsinum▿

    PubMed Central

    Azor, Mónica; Gené, Josepa; Cano, Josep; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Guarro, Josep

    2008-01-01

    A microdilution method was used to test 11 antifungal drugs against clinical isolates of Fusarium thapsinum and three different phylogenetic clades of Fusarium verticillioides that were characterized by sequencing a region of the β-tubulin gene. Terbinafine was the most-active drug against both species, followed by posaconazole against F. verticillioides. PMID:18391027

  16. Genetic analysis of fumonisin production and virulence of Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A (Fusarium moniliforme) on maize (Zea mays) seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, A E; Plattner, R D; Nelsen, T C; Leslie, J F

    1995-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A (anamorph, Fusarium moniliforme) produces fumonisins, which are toxic to a wide range of plant and animal species. Previous studies of field strains have identified a genetic locus, designated fum1, that can determine whether fumonisins are produced. To test the relationship between fumonisin production and virulence on maize seedlings, a cross between a fum1+ field strain that had a high degree of virulence and a fum1- field strain that had a low degree of virulence was made, and ascospore progeny were scored for these traits. Although a range of virulence levels was recovered among the progeny, high levels of virulence were associated with production of fumonisins, and highly virulent, fumonisin-nonproducing progeny were not obtained. A survey of field strains did identify a rare fumonisin-nonproducing strain that was quite high in virulence. Also, the addition of purified fumonisin B1 to virulence assays did not replicate all of the seedling blight symptoms obtained with autoclaved culture material containing fumonisin. These results support the hypothesis that fumonisin plays a role in virulence but also indicate that fumonisin production is not necessary or sufficient for virulence on maize seedlings. PMID:7887628

  17. Production of fusaric acid by Fusarium species.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C W; Porter, J K; Norred, W P; Leslie, J F

    1996-01-01

    Fusaric acid is a mycotoxin with low to moderate toxicity, which is of concern since it might be synergistic with other cooccurring mycotoxins. Fusaric acid is widespread on corn and corn-based food and feeds and is frequently found in grain, where Fusarium spp. are also isolated. We surveyed 78 strains of Fusarium moniliforme, F. crookwellense, F. subglutinans, F. sambucinum, F. napiforme, F. heterosporum, F. oxysporum, F. solani, and F. proliferatum for their ability to produce fusaric acid. Strains in Fusarium section Liseola also were assigned to mating population of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. The fungi could be divided into three classes, low (< 100 micrograms/g), moderate (100 to 500 micrograms/g), and high (> 500 micrograms/g), based on the amounts of this mycotoxin produced in culture on autoclaved corn. Strains of mating populations C from rice consistently produced moderate to high concentrations of fusaric acid. Two isolates, one each from mating populations C and D, produced fusaric acid in excess of 1,000 micrograms/g of corn. No isolates of any of the Fusarium species examined were negative for the production of fusaric acid on autoclaved corn. PMID:8899996

  18. Taxonomy, biology, and clinical aspects of Fusarium species.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, P E; Dignani, M C; Anaissie, E J

    1994-01-01

    There are several taxonomic systems available for identifying Fusarium species. The philosophy used in each taxonomic system is discussed as well as problems encountered in working with Fusarium species in culture. Fusarium species are toxigenic, and the mycotoxins produced by these organisms are often associated with animal and human diseases. The implications for the association of the carcinogens, fumonisins, produced by Fusarium moniliforme and other Fusarium species with human diseases are discussed. Foreign-body-associated fusarial infection such as keratitis in contact lens wearers, onychomycosis, skin infections, and disseminated multiorgan infections are discussed. Disseminated fusarial hyalohyphomycosis has emerged as a significant, usually fatal infection in the immunocompromised host. Successful outcome is determined by the degree of immunosuppression, the extent of the infection, and the presence of a removable focus such as an indwelling central venous catheter. These infections may be clinically suspected on the basis of a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, which should lead to prompt therapy, probably with one of the newer antifungal agents. Perhaps the use of such agents or the use of colony-stimulating factors may improve the outcome of this devastating infection. However, until new approaches for treatment develop, effective preventive measures are urgently needed. Images PMID:7834602

  19. Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium Species Isolated from Bananas

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, M.; Huerta, T.; Mateo, R.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Fusarium species isolated from bananas to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate bananas. PMID:16535503

  20. Preliminary genetic linkage maps of Chinese herb Dendrobium nobile and D. moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shangguo; Zhao, Hongyan; Lu, Jiangjie; Liu, Junjun; Shen, Bo; Wang, Huizhong

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium is an endangered genus in the orchid family with medicinal and horticultural value. Two preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed using 90 F1 progeny individuals derived from an interspecific cross between D. nobile and D. moniliforme (both, 2n = 38), using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR). A total of 286 RAPD loci and 68 ISSR loci were identified and used for genetic linkage analysis. Maps were constructed by double pseudo-testcross mapping strategy using the software Mapmaker/EXP ver. 3.0, and Kosambi map distances were constructed using a LOD score greater than or equal to 4 and a recombination threshold of 0.4. The resulting frame map of D. nobile was 1474 cM in total length with 116 loci distributed in 15 linkage groups; and the D. moniliforme linkage map had 117 loci placed in 16 linkage groups spanning 1326.5 cM. Both maps showed 76.91% and 73.59% genome coverage for D. nobile and D. moniliforme, respectively. These primary maps provide an important basis for genetic studies and further medicinal and horticultural traits mapping and marker-assisted selection in Dendrobium breeding programmes.

  1. Fusarium MLST database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre’s Fusarium MLST website (http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/Fusarium), and the corresponding Fusarium-ID site hosted at the Pennsylvania State University (http://isolate.fusariumdb.org; Geiser et al. 2004, Park et al. 2010) were constructed to facilitate identification of...

  2. Occurrence of Fusaproliferin and Beauvericin in Fusarium-Contaminated Livestock Feed in Iowa†

    PubMed Central

    Munkvold, Gary; Stahr, H. M.; Logrieco, Antonio; Moretti, Antonio; Ritieni, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    Fusarium fungal contaminants and related mycotoxins were investigated in eight maize feed samples submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Fusarium moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans were isolated from seven, eight, and five samples, respectively. These strains belonged to mating populations A, D, and E of the teleomorph Gibberella fujikuroi. Fusaproliferin was detected at concentrations of 0.1 to 30 μg/g in four samples, and beauvericin was detected (0.1 to 3.0 μg/g) in five samples. Fumonisins were detected in all eight samples (1.1 to 14 μg/g). Ten of 11 strains of F. proliferatum and all 12 strains of F. subglutinans isolated from the samples produced fusaproliferin in culture on whole maize kernels (4 to 350 and 100 to 1,000 μg/g, respectively). Nine F. proliferatum strains also produced beauvericin in culture (85 to 350 μg/g), but none of the F. subglutinans strains produced beauvericin. Fumonisin B1 was produced by all nine F. moniliforme strains (50 to 2,000 μg/g) and by 10 of the F. proliferatum strains (1,000 to 2,000 μg/g). This is the first report of the natural occurrence of fusaproliferin outside Italy and of the natural occurrence of beauvericin in North America. PMID:9758820

  3. Fusarium Wilt of Orchids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of orchids is highly destructive and economically limiting to the production of quality orchids that has steadily increased in many production facilities. Important crops such as phalaenopsis, cattleyas, and oncidiums appear to be especially susceptible to certain Fusarium species. Fu...

  4. Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of Dendrobium moniliforme aqueous extract in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mu-Jin; Jung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Min-Suk; Jang, Ji-Hun; Sim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Tea-Mook; Park, Ho; Ahn, Byung-Kwan; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw., an herb of the Orchidaceae family, has long been used in traditional medicine to strengthen bones, nourish the stomach, and promote the production of bodily fluid. Recently, polysaccharides isolated from Dendrobium have been used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. A traditional method to process Dendrobium is to soak fresh stems in an ethanol solution, which is the most important factor to ensure high yields of aqueous-extractable polysaccharides. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential acute toxicity of D. moniliforme aqueous extract (DMAE), by a single oral dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article was orally administered once by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg body weight (n=5 male and female rats for each dose). Throughout the study period, no treatment-related deaths were observed and no adverse effects were noted in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, serum biochemistry, organ weight, or gross findings at any dose tested. The results show that a single oral administration of DMAE did not induce any toxic effects at a dose below 5,000 mg/kg in rats, and the minimal lethal dose was considered to be over 5,000 mg/kg body weight for both sexes. With respect to cytotoxicity, the cell viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was less than 50% when the cells were treated with 10 mg/mL aqueous extract for 24 h. PMID:27729930

  5. Feed Refusal Factors in Pure Cultures of Fusarium roseum ”graminearum”

    PubMed Central

    Kotsonis, Frank N.; Smalley, Eugene B.; Ellison, Robert A.; Gale, Carol M.

    1975-01-01

    Isolations from 1972 Wisconsin feed refusal corn yielded predominantly cultures of Fusarium roseum ”graminearum.” With one possible exception, none of the selected isolates of this fungus induced emesis in pigeons, whereas six of nine isolates produced feed refusal responses in all test animals. A single isolate of F. roseum ”equiseti” also induced a severe refusal response and possibly slight emesis. None of the other fungi isolated from this corn (F. moniliforme, Acremoniella atra) or controls caused either emesis or feed refusal. Zearalenone was detected in all isolates and was shown to be partially responsible for refusal activity. The remaining activity was ascribed to one or more nonvolatile, neutral, relatively polar molecules. T-2 toxin, although not detected in these isolates, was shown to have dramatic refusal activity in rats. PMID:1237267

  6. Fusarium wilt of lentil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of lentil is caused by the soil borne fungus Fusaium oxysporum f. sp. lentis. The pathogen is widespread. The disease shows symptoms of wilting, and stunted plants. Other symptoms include wilting of top leaves resemble water deficiency, shrinking and curling of leaves from the lower...

  7. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  8. Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins and Fusarium mycotoxins (fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone) in corn from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Sardjono; Yamashita, A; Yoshizawa, T

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen corn samples collected from Indonesia were analysed for aflatoxins (AF), fumonisins (FM), trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZEA) using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. AF were detected in 11 (69%) samples at a mean level of 119 ng/g (maximum 487 ng/g) and FM in all of the samples at a mean level of 895 ng/g (maximum 2970 ng/g). Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and ZEA were each detected in two (12%) samples; 21 and 32 ng/g, 49 and 169 ng/g, and 11 and 12 ng/g, respectively. All of the AF-contaminated samples were co-contaminated with FM. Mycological study showed all of the AF-contaminated samples were infected with A. flavus/A. parasiticus, and the FM-contaminated samples were either infected with F. moniliforme (50%), F. proliferatum (12%), F. nygamai (6%) or F. decemcellulare (38%). Supportive mycological studies showed that Fusarium species isolated from Indonesian corn were capable of producing a mean level of 10,000 micrograms/g FM. Based on these results, the correlation between FM-producers and AF-producers on kernel infection and contamination of these mycotoxins in corn was discussed. This is the first report on the natural co-occurrence of AF and various Fusarium mycotoxins, including DON and NIV in corn from Indonesia, and also the first report on the natural occurrence of DON in corn from hot areas of Southeast Asia.

  9. Fusarium subglutinans: A new eumycetoma agent.

    PubMed

    Campos-Macías, Pablo; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2013-07-09

    Eumycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis mainly caused by Madurella spp. Fusarium opportunistic infections in humans are often caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. We report a case of eumycetoma by F. subglutinans, diagnosed by clinical aspect and culture, and confirmed by PCR sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. To our knowledge, this is the second report of human infection and the first case of mycetoma by Fusarium subglutinans.

  10. Fusarium subglutinans: A new eumycetoma agent☆

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Macías, Pablo; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis mainly caused by Madurella spp. Fusarium opportunistic infections in humans are often caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. We report a case of eumycetoma by F. subglutinans, diagnosed by clinical aspect and culture, and confirmed by PCR sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. To our knowledge, this is the second report of human infection and the first case of mycetoma by Fusarium subglutinans. PMID:24432236

  11. Fusarium temperatum and Fusarium subglutinans isolated from maize in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fumero, María Verónica; Reynoso, María Marta; Chulze, Sofía

    2015-04-16

    Fusarium temperatum and Fusarium subglutinans isolated from the Northwest region (NOA region) of Argentina were characterized using a polyphasic approach based on morphological, biological and molecular markers. Some interfertility between the species was observed. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the two species represented two clades strongly supported by bootstrap values. The toxigenic profile of the strains was also determined. F. temperatum strains were fusaproliferin and beauvericin producers, and only some strains were fumonisin B1 producers. All F. subglutinans strains produced fusaproliferin but none produced beauvericin, indicating a potential toxicological risk from maize harvested in the NOA region of Argentina. This study provides new information about F. temperatum isolated from maize in Argentina.

  12. Aromatic plants essential oils activity on Fusarium verticillioides Fumonisin B(1) production in corn grain.

    PubMed

    López, A G; Theumer, M G; Zygadlo, J A; Rubinstein, H R

    2004-10-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Origanum vulgare, Aloysia triphylla, Aloysia polystachya and Mentha piperita essential oils (EOs) against Fusarium verticillioides M 7075 (F. moniliforme, Sheldon) were assessed, using the semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) technique. O. vulgare, A. triphylla, A. polystachya and M. piperita EOs were evaluated at final concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 epsilonl per litre (epsilonl/l) of culture medium. A. triphylla and O. vulgare EOs showed the highest inhibitory effects on F. verticillioides mycelial development. This inhibition was observed at 250 and 500 epsilonl/l for EOs coming from Aloysia triphylla and O. vulgare, respectively. Thus, the effects of EOs on FB(1) production were evaluated using corn grain (Zea mays) as substrate. The EOs were inserted on the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th day of maize postinoculation with a conidia suspension of F. verticillioides. O. vulgare and A. triphylla were applied to give final concentrations of 30 ppm and 45 ppm, respectively. Different effects were observed in the toxicogenicity at the 20th day treatment. The O. vulgare EO decreased the production level of FB(1) (P < 0.01) while A. triphyla EO increased it (P < 0.001) with respect to those obtained in the inoculated maize, not EOs treated. Results obtained in the present work indicate that fumonisin production could be inhibited or stimulated by some constituents of EOs coming from aromatic plants. Further studies should be performed to identify the components of EOs with modulatory activity on the growth and fumonisins production of Fusarium verticillioides.

  13. Fusarochromanone production by Fusarium isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, W D; Nelson, P E; Cook, M E; Smalley, E B

    1990-01-01

    Sixty two Fusarium isolates representing nine species from many parts of the world were screened for fusarochromanone production. A simplified method for the detection of fusarochromanone in culture filtrates or grain cultures was used. Under UV irradiation (364 nm) the chloroform phase from fusarochromanone-positive culture extracts fluoresced a characteristic bright blue color. Results were confirmed by thin-layer-chromatography comparison with pure fusarochromanone standards. Detection was possible in cultures as young as 1 week old. Biosynthesis of fusarochromanone was rare in Fusarium spp. and was only detected in three isolates of Fusarium equiseti, namely R-4482 (barley [Federal Republic of Germany]), R-6137 (barley [Alaska]), and R-8508 (potato [Denmark]), among all the isolates tested from various geographic sources. Images PMID:2285312

  14. Challenges in Fusarium, a Trans-Kingdom Pathogen.

    PubMed

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium species are emerging human pathogens, next to being plant pathogens. Problems with Fusarium are in their diagnostics and in their difficult treatment, but also in what are actual Fusarium species or rather Fusarium-like species. In this issue Guevara-Suarez et al. (Mycopathologia. doi: 10.1007/s11046-016-9983-9 , 2016) characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium from Colombia showing especially lineages within the Fusarium solani and oxysporum species complexes to be responsible for onychomycosis.

  15. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during Brewing.

    PubMed

    Habler, Katharina; Geissinger, Cajetan; Hofer, Katharina; Schüler, Jan; Moghari, Sarah; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2017-01-11

    Some information is available about the fate of Fusarium toxins during the brewing process, but only little is known about the single processing steps in detail. In our study we produced beer from two different barley cultivars inoculated with three different Fusarium species, namely, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium avenaceum, producing a wide range of mycotoxins such as type B trichothecenes, type A trichothecenes, and enniatins. By the use of multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution methods we were able to follow the fate of Fusarium toxins during the entire brewing process. In particular, the type B trichothecenes deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol showed similar behaviors. Between 35 and 52% of those toxins remained in the beer after filtration. The contents of the potentially hazardous deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and the type A trichothecenes increased during mashing, but a rapid decrease of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside content was found during the following steps of lautering and wort boiling. The concentration of enniatins greatly decreased with the discarding of spent grains or finally with the hot break. The results of our study show the retention of diverse Fusarium toxins during the brewing process and allow for assessing the food safety of beer regarding the monitored Fusarium mycotoxins.

  16. Resistance to Fusarium wilt in chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of chickpea, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), is a destructive disease and is distributed in almost all chickpea producing regions of the world. Foc has eight physiological races designated as 0, 1A, 1B/C, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The races are different...

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  18. Brachypodium distachyon: a new pathosystem to study Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fusarium species cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) and other important diseases of cereals. The causal agents produce trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana has been used to study Fusarium-host interactions but it is not ideal for model-to-crop translation. Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) has been proposed as a new monocotyledonous model species for functional genomic studies in grass species. This study aims to assess the interaction between the most prevalent FHB-causing Fusarium species and Bd in order to develop and exploit Bd as a genetic model for FHB and other Fusarium diseases of wheat. Results The ability of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum to infect a range of Bd tissues was examined in various bioassays which showed that both species can infect all Bd tissues examined, including intact foliar tissues. DON accumulated in infected spike tissues at levels similar to those of infected wheat spikes. Histological studies revealed details of infection, colonisation and host response and indicate that hair cells are important sites of infection. Susceptibility to Fusarium and DON was assessed in two Bd ecotypes and revealed variation in resistance between ecotypes. Conclusions Bd exhibits characteristics of susceptibility highly similar to those of wheat, including susceptibility to spread of disease in the spikelets. Bd is the first reported plant species to allow successful infection on intact foliar tissues by FHB-causing Fusarium species. DON appears to function as a virulence factor in Bd as it does in wheat. Bd is proposed as a valuable model for undertaking studies of Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat. PMID:21639892

  19. Fusarium-damaged kernels and deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-infected U.S. Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that threatens wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in many areas worldwide. FHB infection results in Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and deoxynivalenol (DON) that dramatically reduce grain yield and quality. More effective and accurate disease e...

  20. Fusarium Infection in Lung Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Herman A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Restrepo, Alejandro; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium is a fungal pathogen of immunosuppressed lung transplant patients associated with a high mortality in those with severe and persistent neutropenia. The principle portal of entry for Fusarium species is the airways, and lung involvement almost always occurs among lung transplant patients with disseminated infection. In these patients, the immunoprotective mechanisms of the transplanted lungs are impaired, and they are, therefore, more vulnerable to Fusarium infection. As a result, fusariosis occurs in up to 32% of lung transplant patients. We studied fusariosis in 6 patients following lung transplantation who were treated at Massachusetts General Hospital during an 8-year period and reviewed 3 published cases in the literature. Cases were identified by the microbiology laboratory and through discharge summaries. Patients presented with dyspnea, fever, nonproductive cough, hemoptysis, and headache. Blood tests showed elevated white blood cell counts with granulocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Cultures of Fusarium were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, and sputum specimens. Treatments included amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, voriconazole, and posaconazole, either alone or in combination. Lung involvement occurred in all patients with disseminated disease and it was associated with a poor outcome. The mortality rate in this group of patients was high (67%), and of those who survived, 1 patient was treated with a combination of amphotericin B and voriconazole, 1 patient with amphotericin B, and 1 patient with posaconazole. Recommended empirical treatment includes voriconazole, amphotericin B or liposomal amphotericin B first-line, and posaconazole for refractory disease. High-dose amphotericin B is recommended for treatment of most cases of fusariosis. The echinocandins (for example, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) are generally avoided because Fusarium species have intrinsic resistance to them. Treatment

  1. Diversity of the Fusarium complex on French maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ear rot caused by Fusarium species is a major threat to maize production worldwide, causing yield reduction and poor grain quality. In addition, various species of the genus Fusarium can produce mycotoxins, which accumulate in the grain. The distribution and predominance of the different Fusarium sp...

  2. Fusarium stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium stalk blight of sugar beet can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. The causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, Fusarium solani has been demonstrated to cause a rot of sugar beet seed stalk, and other species have been reported associated with sugar beet fruit, but...

  3. Temperature effects on the interactions of sugar beet Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, causes a significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity. The environmental or agronomic factors that contribute to development and severity of Fusarium yellows have not been desc...

  4. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial agents against Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hideaki; Inuzuka, Hiroko; Hori, Nobuhide; Takahashi, Nobumichi; Ishida, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Muraosa, Yasunori; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed.

  5. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4).

  6. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  7. Investigating Spore killer of Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most important crops in the world. Fusarium verticillioides may colonize maize as an endophyte or as a pathogen, causing disease at any life stage of the plant. During growth on maize, F. verticillioides can synthesis a number of mycotoxins including fumonisins, which have been l...

  8. Identification of Ina proteins from Fusarium acuminatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of water above -36° C is based on ice nucleation activity (INA) mediated by ice nucleators (IN) which can be of various origins. Beside mineral IN, biological particles are a potentially important source of atmospheric IN. The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is induced by a surface protein on the outer cell membrane, which is fully characterized. In contrast, much less is known about the nature of fungal IN. The fungal genus Fusarium is widely spread throughout the earth. It belongs to the Ascomycota and is one of the most severe fungal pathogens. It can affect a variety of organisms from plants to animals including humans. INA of Fusarium was already described about 30 years ago and INA of Fusarium as well as other fungal genera is assumed to be mediated by proteins or at least to contain a proteinaceous compound. Although many efforts were made the precise INA machinery of Fusarium and other fungal species including the proteins and their corresponding genes remain unidentified. In this study preparations from living fungal samples of F. acuminatum were fractionated by liquid chromatography and IN active fractions were identified by freezing assays. SDS-page and de novo sequencing by mass spectrometry were used to identify the primary structure of the protein. Preliminary results show that the INA protein of F. acuminatum is contained in the early size exclusion chromatography fractions indicating a high molecular size. Moreover we could identify a single protein band from IN active fractions at 130-145 kDa corresponding to sizes of IN proteins from bacterial species. To our knowledge this is for the first time an isolation of a single protein from in vivo samples, which can be assigned as IN active from Fusarium.

  9. Distribution of disease symptoms and mycotoxins in maize ears infected by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Ellner, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Red ear rot an important disease of maize cultivated in Europe is caused by toxigenic Fusarium species like Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. To get detailed information on the time course of the infection process leading to the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize ears, a field study was conducted over 2 years with two maize varieties, which were inoculated with F. culmorum or F. graminearum isolates at the stage of female flowering. Every fortnight after inoculation, infection and contamination progress in the ears was followed by visually evaluating disease signs and analysing Fusarium toxin concentrations in the infected ear tissues. In principle, infection and mycotoxin distribution were similar in respect of pathogens, varieties, and years. External infection symptoms showing some small pale or brown-marbled kernels with dark brown pedicels were mainly seen at the ear tip, whereas internal infection symptoms on the rachis were much more pronounced and spread in the upper half showing greyish brownish or pink discoloration of the pith. Well correlated with disease symptoms, a top-down gradient from high to low toxin levels within the ear with considerably higher concentrations in the rachis compared with the kernels was observed. It is suggested that both Fusarium pathogens primarily infect the rachis from the tip toward the bottom, whereas the kernels are subsequently infected via the rachillae connected to the rachis. A special focus on the pronounced disease symptoms visible in the rachis may be an approach to improve the evaluation of maize-genotype susceptibility against red ear rot pathogens. It has to be underlined that the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in the rachis greatly accelerated 6 weeks after inoculation; therefore, highest contamination risk is indicated for feedstuffs containing large amounts of rachis (e.g., corn cob mix), especially when cut late in growing season.

  10. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during the Malting Process.

    PubMed

    Habler, Katharina; Hofer, Katharina; Geißinger, Cajetan; Schüler, Jan; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Little is known about the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins during the barley malting process. To determine the fungal DNA and mycotoxin concentrations during malting, we used barley grain harvested from field plots that we had inoculated with Fusarium species that produce type A or type B trichothecenes or enniatins. Using a recently developed multimycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass stable isotope dilution method, we identified Fusarium-species-specific behaviors of mycotoxins in grain and malt extracts and compared toxin concentrations to amounts of fungal DNA in the same samples. In particular, the type B trichothecenes and Fusarium culmorum DNA contents were increased dramatically up to 5400% after kilning. By contrast, the concentrations of type A trichothecenes and Fusarium sporotrichioides DNA decreased during the malting process. These data suggest that specific Fusarium species that contaminate the raw grain material might have different impacts on malt quality.

  11. Hyperkeratotic Warty Skin Lesion of Foot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Maheshwari, Megha

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. Human infections are usually precipitated by local or systemic predisposing factors, and disseminated infection is associated with impaired immune responses. Skin infections caused by Fusarium spp. include keratitis, onychomycosis, mycetoma, painful discrete erythematous nodules. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions caused by Fusarium spp. are, however, rarely reported. We report a case of hyperkeratotic verrucous warty skin lesion in the foot of a 50-year-old immunocompetent male, farmer by occupation. PMID:23716829

  12. Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo.

  13. Endophytic Fusarium spp. from Roots of Lawn Grass (Axonopus compressus)

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Ning, Chua Harn

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are found inside host plants but do not produce any noticeable disease symptoms in their host. In the present study, endophytic Fusarium species were isolated from roots of lawn grass (Axonopus compressus). A total of 51 isolates were recovered from 100 root segments. Two Fusarium species, F. oxysporum (53%) and F. solani (47%), were identified based on macroconidia and conidiogenous cell morphology. The detection of endophytic F. oxysporum and F. solani in the roots of lawn grass contributes to the knowledge of both the distribution of the two Fusarium species and the importance of roots as endophytic niches for Fusarium species. PMID:24575251

  14. Antifungal activity of Bacillus coagulans against Fusarium sp.

    PubMed

    Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Trojanowska, Krystyna; Mueller, Anna

    2002-01-01

    The antifungal activity of Bacillus coagulans against three pathogenic species of Fusarium was examined. Fungal growth was determined by colony forming units, dry matter and ergosterol level. Biosynthesis of Fusarium mycotoxins was also investigated. The strongest inhibition of fungal growth was noticed when Bacillus coagulans was co-inoculated at the beginning of culture. Estimation of ergosterol level as a determinant of fungal growth showed the greatest degree of Fusarium sp. inhibition. Addition of Bacillus coagulans to Fusarium culmorum culture inhibits the DON (deoxynivalenol) production.

  15. Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish oats--occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, Elisabeth; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Börjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Lindblad, Mats

    2013-10-15

    Fusarium moulds frequently contaminate oats and other cereals world-wide, including those grown in Northern Europe. To investigate the presence of toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in oats, samples were taken during 2010 and 2011 in three geographical regions of Sweden (east, west, south). The samples were analysed by real-time PCR for the specific infection level of seven Fusarium species associated with oats and other cereals (Fusarium poae, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium avenaceum) and with a multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) for the detection of many fungal metabolites, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Most samples contained at least four of the seven Fusarium species analysed and F. poae, F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum were present in approximately 90-100% of all samples. The most common toxins detected were DON, NIV, BEA and ENNs, which were present in more than 90% of samples. Most Fusarium species and their toxins occurred in higher concentrations in 2010 than in 2011, with the exception of DON and its main producer F. graminearum. Significant regional differences were detected for some moulds and mycotoxins, with higher levels of F. graminearum, DON and ZEA in western Sweden than in the east (P<0.05) and higher levels of F. tricinctum and MON in the south (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed significant correlations between many Fusarium species and toxin levels. For example, F. tricinctum was significantly correlated to F. avenaceum (r = 0.72, P<0.001), DON to ZEA (r = 0.52, P<0.001), DON to F. graminearum (r = 0.77, P<0.001) and the sum of T-2 and HT-2 to F. langsethiae (r = 0.77, P<0.001). The multi-toxin approach employed allowed simultaneous

  16. First Report on Fusarium Wilt of Zucchini Caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Young; Kim, Ju-Hee; Lee, Wang-Hyu; Park, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of zucchini in Jeonju, Korea, was first noticed in May 2013. Symptoms included wilting of the foliage, drying and withering of older leaves, and stunting of plants. Infected plants eventually died during growth. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the molecular markers (internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1α), the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was demonstrated via artificial inoculation, and it satisfied Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum causing wilt of zucchini in Korea.

  17. Etiology and Epidemiological Conditions Promoting Fusarium Root Rot in Sweetpotato.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, A C; Quesada-Ocampo, L M

    2016-08-01

    Sweetpotato production in the United States is limited by several postharvest diseases, and one of the most common is Fusarium root rot. Although Fusarium solani is believed to be the primary causal agent of disease, numerous other Fusarium spp. have been reported to infect sweetpotato. However, the diversity of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina is unknown. In addition, the lack of labeled and effective fungicides for control of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato creates the need for integrated strategies to control disease. Nonetheless, epidemiological factors that promote Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato remain unexplored. A survey of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina identified six species contributing to disease, with F. solani as the primary causal agent. The effects of storage temperature (13, 18, 23, 29, and 35°C), relative humidity (80, 90, and 100%), and initial inoculum level (3-, 5-, and 7-mm-diameter mycelia plug) were examined for progression of Fusarium root rot caused by F. solani and F. proliferatum on 'Covington' sweetpotato. Fusarium root rot was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) at lower temperatures (13°C), low relative humidity levels (80%), and low initial inoculum levels for both pathogens. Sporulation of F. proliferatum was also reduced under the same conditions. Qualitative mycotoxin analysis of roots infected with one of five Fusarium spp. revealed the production of fumonisin B1 by F. proliferatum when infecting sweetpotato. This study is a step toward characterizing the etiology and epidemiology of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato, which allows for improved disease management recommendations to limit postharvest losses to this disease.

  18. Diversity of Fusarium Species from Highland Areas in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

  19. NIRS method for precise identification of Fusarium damaged wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of scab resistant wheat varieties may be enhanced by non-destructive evaluation of kernels for Fusarium damaged kernels (FDKs) and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels. Fusarium infection generally affects kernel appearance, but insect damage and other fungi can cause similar symptoms. Also, some...

  20. High speed sorting of Fusarium-damaged wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have found that resistance to Fusarium fungal infection can be inherited in wheat from one generation to another. However, there is not yet available a cost effective method to separate Fusarium-damaged wheat kernels from undamaged kernels so that wheat breeders can take advantage of...

  1. Diversity of the Fusarium graminearum species complex on French cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley and Gibberella ear rot (GER) on maize, and harvested grains often are contaminated with trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that are a major health and food safety concern...

  2. Metabolomic studies for the interaction Glycine max- Fusarium tucumaniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden-death syndrome (SDS) of soybean can be caused in Argentina by 4 different Fusarium species: F. brasiliense, F. crassistipitatum, F. tucumaniae and F. virguliforme. Fusarium tucumaniae and F. virguliforme are the primary etiological agents of soybean SDS in Argentina and United States, respect...

  3. Exploring Fusarium head blight disease control by RNA interference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology provides a novel tool to study gene function and plant protection strategies. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), which reduces crop yield and quality by producing trichothecene mycotoxins including 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (3-ADO...

  4. Genomics and evolution of secondary metabolism in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is a species-rich genus that causes disease on virtually all plant crops and produces diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including pigments, plant hormones, and some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety. To better understand the potential SM diversity in Fusarium ...

  5. A diagnostic guide for Fusarium Root Rot of pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a major root rot pathogen in pea production areas worldwide. Here we provide a diagnostic guide that describes: the taxonomy of the pathogen, signs and symptoms of the pathogen, host range, geographic distribution, methods used to isolate ...

  6. Release of pea germplasm with Fusarium resistance combined with desirable yield and anti-lodging traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) races 1, 2 and 5, negatively impact the pea industry worldwide. Limited pea germplasm with agronomically acceptable characteristics combined with resistance to these disease...

  7. Adventitious sporulation in Fusarium: The yeast that were not

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Matthew B.; Crescencio, Juan Carlos Rico

    2015-01-01

    In immunocompromised patients, Fusarium species cause infections that lead to high mortality. Our case report describes a case of disseminated fusariosis in a neutropenic patient with AML after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and a neutropenic multiple myeloma patient with Fusarium fungemia awaiting stem cell collection. Both cases highlight the fact that Fusarium can grow as yeast-like structures in the blood causing a delay in diagnosis, and that Fusarium has a tendency to be a resistant organism. Fusarium was only susceptible to amphotericin B in both cases, but we chose to continue treatment with voriconazole in the first case with disseminated infection, despite culture results, in view of his good clinical response. Despite high mortality rates in disseminated infection, our two patients had good outcomes. PMID:26793480

  8. Soybean SDS in South Africa is caused by Fusarium brasiliense and a novel undescribed Fusarium sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) was detected in South Africa for the first time during pathogen surveys conducted in 2013-2014. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the 16 slow-growing Fusarium strains that were isolated from the roots of symptomatic plants. Molecular phylogen...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium commune Isolates from a Conifer Nursery.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jane E; Kim, Mee-Sook; James, Robert L; Dumroese, R Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Isolates of Fusarium spp. can differ in virulence; however, virulence and colony morphology are not correlated. Forty-one isolates of Fusarium spp., morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum, were collected from nursery samples (soils, healthy seedlings, and diseased seedlings). These isolates were characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and DNA sequencing of nuclear rDNA (internal transcribed spacer including 5.8S rDNA), mitochon-drial rDNA (small subunit [mtSSU]), and nuclear translation elongation factor 1-alpha. Each isolate had a unique AFLP phenotype. Out of 121 loci, 111 (92%) were polymorphic; 30 alleles were unique to only highly virulent isolates and 33 alleles were unique to only isolates nonpathogenic on conifers. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from all three regions and the combined data set showed that all highly virulent isolates clearly separated into a common clade that contained F. commune, which was recently distinguished from its sister taxon, F. oxysporum. Interestingly, all but one of the nonpathogenic isolates grouped into a common clade and were genetically similar to F. oxysporum. The AFLP cladograms had similar topologies when compared with the DNA-based phylograms. Although all tested isolates were morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum based on currently available monographs, some morphological traits can be plastic and unreliable for identification of Fusarium spp. We consider the highly virulent isolates to be F. commune based on strong genetic evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported evidence that shows F. commune is a cause of Fusarium disease (root rot and dampingoff) on Douglas-fir seedlings. Furthermore

  10. Pathogenicity of seed transmittedFusarium spp. to triticale seedlings.

    PubMed

    Arseniuk, E; Scharen, A L; Czembor, H J

    1991-09-01

    In the conducted studies 13 species ofFusarium were isolated into pure culture from triticale seed. Their pathogenicity was assessed under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Most of the species studied were highly pathogenic to the first leaf see-dlings of triticale 'Grado' and 'Lasko' under both sets of conditions. It was shown, that seed-transmitted Fusarium spp. considerably reduced the ability of seeds to germinate and incited seedling blight. On average, triticale 'Lasko' was more resistant toFusarium spp. than 'Grado', but in some instances a reverse reaction was observed.

  11. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  12. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M; Saxena, Deep R; Jain, Yogendra K

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs.

  13. Cutinase of Fusarium solani F. sp. pisi: mechanism of induction and relatedness to other Fusarium species

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshuk, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were made on the extracellular cutinase of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. I. The production of cutinase was found to be induced in spores of F. solani f. sp. pisi, strain T-8, by cutin and cutin hydrolysate. Fractionation and analysis of the cutin hydrolysate indicated that dihydroxy-C/sub 16/ acid and trihydroxy-C/sub 18/ acid were the cutin monomers most active for inducing cutinase. Measurement of cutinase-specific RNA levels by dot-blot hybridization with a (/sup 32/P)-labeled cutinase cDNA showed that the cutinase gene transcripts could be detected within 15 min after addition of the inducers. The results indicated that the fungal spores have the capacity to recognize the unique monomer components of the plant cuticle and rapidly respond by the synthesis of cutinase. II. Analysis of the genomic DNA's of seven strains of F. solani f. sp. pisi indicated that both high and low cutinase-producing strains contain at least one copy of the cutinase structural gene and a homologous promoter region. The data suggest a different promoter sequence exists in these additional copies. III. Relatedness of five phytopathogenic Fusarium species to F. solani f. sp. pisi was determined by their cutinase antigenic properties and gene homologies of cutinase cDNA from F. solani f. sp. pisi. The results suggest that formae specialis of F. solani are phylogenetically identical and that F. solani is quite distinct from the other Fusarium species tested.

  14. Evaluating Fumonisin Gene Expression in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Visentin, Ivan; Cardinale, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Transcript levels of key genes in a biosynthetic pathway are often taken as a proxy for metabolite production. This is the case of FUM1, encoding the first dedicated enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the production of the mycotoxins Fumonisins by fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium. FUM1 expression can be quantified by different methods; here, we detail a protocol based on quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), by which relative or absolute transcript abundance can be estimated in Fusaria grown in vitro or in planta. As very seldom commercial kits for RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis are optimized for fungal samples, we developed a protocol tailored for these organisms, which stands alone but can be also easily integrated with specific reagents and kits commercially available.

  15. Bioactive dihydronaphthoquinone derivatives from Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kenji; Kamisuki, Shinji; Chia, Pei Thing; Kuriyama, Isoko; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Fumio

    2014-09-26

    New dihydronaphthoquinone derivatives, karuquinone A (1), karuquinone B (2), and karuquinone C (3), were isolated from a fungal culture broth of Fusarium solani. The structures were determined by interpretation of spectroscopic data (1D/2D NMR, MS, and IR). Three known compounds, javanicin (4), 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2,4-dimethylnaphtho[1,2-b]furan-6,9-dione (5), and 5-hydroxydihydrofusarubin C (6), were also isolated. The six isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line. Of these, karuquinone A exhibited the strongest cytotoxic activity. Karuquinone B did not affect the proliferation of the cancer cell lines but did inhibit the proliferation of HUVEC. Additionally, we demonstrated that karuquinone A induces apoptosis in cancer cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  16. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat †

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  17. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Ida; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-10-30

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology.

  18. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology. PMID:26519387

  19. INOCULATION METHODS TO ASSAY WHEAT SEEDLINGS FOR RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM CROWN ROT IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate Fusarium screening systems must be established to appropriately phenotype mapping populations for accurate QTL identification. The objective of this research was to find an inoculation method with the greatest consistency and least variation for identifying QTL. Two Fusarium pseudograminear...

  20. Near-infrared versus visual sorting of Fusarium-damaged kernels in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat, caused by Fusarium graminearum, often results in shriveled and/or discolored kernels referred to as Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK). FDK is one of the major grain grading factors and therefore is routinely determined for purposes of quality assurance. Determination o...

  1. Comparative genomics of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex: biosynthetic pathways metabolite production and plant pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is a huge genus of filamentous fungi causing plant diseases in a wide range of host plants that result in high economic losses to world agriculture every year. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Fusarium consists of different species complexes. One of them is the “Fusarium fujik...

  2. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  3. First report of Fusarium redolens causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  4. Fusarium Osteomyelitis in a Patient With Pearson Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hiebert, Rachael M.; Welliver, Robert C.; Yu, Zhongxin

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous fungi causing a wide array of infections, including invasive disease in the immunosuppressed. We present a fusarium bone infection in a child with Pearson syndrome and review the literature. Ten cases of fusarium osteomyelitis were reported in the past 40 years, and we review the treatments. PMID:27757410

  5. Effect of soil biochar amendment on grain crop resistance to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium spp. cause serious diseases in cereal crops reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins that can be deleterious to human and animal health. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infect whe...

  6. Elite-upland cotton germplasm-pool assessment of Fusarium wilt resistance in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-plant resistance is currently the most economic and effective strategy for managing Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV)] disease. Over the past nine years, a new race of Fusarium (FOV race 4) has increasingly impacted cotton (Gossypium spp.) in production fields in the Sa...

  7. Update on CODEX Committee on Contaminants in Foods & Proposed EU Regulations for Fumonisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally discovered and characterized in 1988, fumonisins are mycotoxins produced in maize by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (synonum F. moniliforme) (telomorph, Gibberella moniliformis) and Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima). Fumonisins are a structurally related family of 2-amino-12...

  8. Structural and Functional Characterization of the TRI101 Trichothecene 3-O-Acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum: KINETIC INSIGHTS TO COMBATING FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Graeme S.; McCormick, Susan P.; Rayment, Ivan

    2008-06-30

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a plant disease with serious economic and health impacts. It is caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium and the mycotoxins they produce. Although it has proved difficult to combat this disease, one strategy that has been examined is the introduction of an indigenous fungal protective gene into cereals such as wheat barley and rice. Thus far the gene of choice has been tri101 whose gene product catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to the C3 hydroxyl moiety of several trichothecene mycotoxins. In vitro this has been shown to reduce the toxicity of the toxins by {approx}100-fold but has demonstrated limited resistance to FHB in transgenic cereal. To understand the molecular basis for the differences between in vitro and in vivo resistance the three-dimensional structures and kinetic properties of two TRI101 orthologs isolated from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum have been determined. The kinetic results reveal important differences in activity of these enzymes toward B-type trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol. These differences in activity can be explained in part by the three-dimensional structures for the ternary complexes for both of these enzymes with coenzyme A and trichothecene mycotoxins. The structural and kinetic results together emphasize that the choice of an enzymatic resistance gene in transgenic crop protection strategies must take into account the kinetic profile of the selected protein.

  9. Antagonistic Activities of Novel Peptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14 against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Gwon; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kwon, Kee-Deok; Seo, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyang Burm; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-12-09

    Bacillus species have recently drawn attention due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. This paper reports on the antifungal activity of novel peptides isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that B. amyloliquefaciens PT14 produces five peptides (PT14-1, -2, -3, -4a, and -4b) that exhibit antifungal activity but are inactive against bacterial strains. In particular, PT14-3 and PT14-4a showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. The PT14-4a N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified through Edman degradation, and a BLAST homology analysis showed it not to be identical to any other protein or peptide. PT14-4a displayed strong fungicidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 3.12 mg/L (F. solani) and 6.25 mg/L (F. oxysporum), inducing severe morphological deformation in the conidia and hyphae. On the other hand, PT14-4a had no detectable hemolytic activity. This suggests PT14-4a has the potential to serve as an antifungal agent in clinical therapeutic and crop-protection applications.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Bernardi-Wenzel, J; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-06-03

    Fusarium proliferatum is an important pathogen that is associated with plant diseases and primarily affects aerial plant parts by producing different mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans and animals. Within the last decade, this fungus has also been described as one of the causes of red root rot or sudden death syndrome in soybean, which causes extensive damage to this crop. This study describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum as a tool for the disruption of pathogenicity genes. The genetic transformation was performed using two binary vectors (pCAMDsRed and pFAT-GFP) containing the hph (hygromycin B resistance) gene as a selection marker and red and green fluorescence, respectively. The presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane were evaluated for their effect on the transformation efficiency. A mean processing rate of 94% was obtained with 96 h of co-cultivation only in the presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane did not affect the transformation process. Hygromycin B resistance and the presence of the hph gene were confirmed by PCR, and fluorescence due to the expression of GFP and DsRed protein was monitored in the transformants. A high rate of mitotic stability (95%) was observed. The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum allows the technique to be used for random insertional mutagenesis studies and to analyze fungal genes involved in the infection process.

  11. Dendrobium moniliforme Exerts Inhibitory Effects on Both Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Mediated Osteoclast Differentiation in Vitro and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Erosion in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Yang, Miyoung; Oh, Jaemin; Choi, Min Kyu

    2016-03-01

    Dendrobium moniliforme (DM) is a well-known plant-derived extract that is widely used in Oriental medicine. DM and its chemical constituents have been reported to have a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities; however, no reports discuss the beneficial effects of DM on bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, we investigated the relationship between DM and osteoclasts, cells that function in bone resorption. We found that DM significantly reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast formation; DM directly induced the down-regulation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) without affecting other RANKL-dependent transduction pathways. In the later stages of osteoclast maturation, DM negatively regulated the organization of filamentous actin (F-actin), resulting in impaired bone-resorbing activity by the mature osteoclasts. In addition, micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) analysis of the murine model revealed that DM had a beneficial effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated bone erosion. Histological analysis showed that DM attenuated the degradation of trabecular bone matrix and formation of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in bone tissues. These results suggest that DM is a potential candidate for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders such as osteoporosis.

  12. Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in north central USA.

    PubMed

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Christ, Daniela S; Mathew, Febina M; Khan, Mohamed F R; Varrelmann, Mark; Bolton, Melvin D

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1α, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed.

  13. Suppression of Fusarium wilt of cucumber by ammonia gas fumigation via reduction of Fusarium population in the field.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Mei, Zhong; Zhang, Xu; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Chenzhi; Ma, Tengfei; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-02-23

    Cucumber plants subjected to consecutive monoculture for 9 years were found to suffer from severe Fusarium wilt disease, caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum J. H. Owen. In the present study, greenhouse experiments were performed to evaluate the influence of ammonia gas fumigation on Fusarium wilt suppression, fungal abundance and fungal community composition. Results showed that ammonia gas fumigation remarkably reduced disease incidence from 80% to 27%, resulting in a four-fold increase in yield, compared to the control. Total fungal abundance declined dramatically after fumigation and reached the lowest level at day 32, at 243 times lower than the control. Moreover, fumigation significantly increased soil fungal diversity, though it also decreased considerably coinciding with cucumber growth. Fumigation also significantly altered soil fungal community composition, relative to the control. Fusarium was strongly inhibited by fumigation in both relative abundance (3.8 times lower) and targeted quantification (a decrease of 167 fold). Collectively, the application of ammonia gas fumigation to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber resulted in a re-assembly of the fungal community to resemble that of a non-disease conducive consortium. Additional strategies, such as bioorganic fertilizer application, may still be required to develop sustainable disease suppression following fumigation.

  14. Suppression of Fusarium wilt of cucumber by ammonia gas fumigation via reduction of Fusarium population in the field

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Mei, Zhong; Zhang, Xu; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Chenzhi; Ma, Tengfei; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber plants subjected to consecutive monoculture for 9 years were found to suffer from severe Fusarium wilt disease, caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum J. H. Owen. In the present study, greenhouse experiments were performed to evaluate the influence of ammonia gas fumigation on Fusarium wilt suppression, fungal abundance and fungal community composition. Results showed that ammonia gas fumigation remarkably reduced disease incidence from 80% to 27%, resulting in a four-fold increase in yield, compared to the control. Total fungal abundance declined dramatically after fumigation and reached the lowest level at day 32, at 243 times lower than the control. Moreover, fumigation significantly increased soil fungal diversity, though it also decreased considerably coinciding with cucumber growth. Fumigation also significantly altered soil fungal community composition, relative to the control. Fusarium was strongly inhibited by fumigation in both relative abundance (3.8 times lower) and targeted quantification (a decrease of 167 fold). Collectively, the application of ammonia gas fumigation to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber resulted in a re-assembly of the fungal community to resemble that of a non-disease conducive consortium. Additional strategies, such as bioorganic fertilizer application, may still be required to develop sustainable disease suppression following fumigation. PMID:28230182

  15. [Tinea pedis due to Fusarium solani in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Diongue, K; Ndiaye, M; Badiane, A S; Seck, M C; Ndoye, N W; Diallo, S; Diallo, M A; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-06-01

    A patient presented with intertrigo at the second, third and fourth interdigitals spaces lasting for four years in which Fusarium solani was highlighted. The search for contributing factors revealed a concept of foot washing with water at least five times a day for ablutions, associated with wearing closed shoes all day and the absence of immunosuppression and diabetes. The diagnosis of Fusarium was made on the basis of direct examination and culture. Combined treatment with griseofulvin oral and topical ciclopirox was introduced and allowed healing after 45 days at which an antifungal powder was prescribed for relay. This case adds to the rare cases of intertrigo Fusarium sp. and confirms the frequent practice of ablutions as favoring factor.

  16. Less-Frequent Fusarium Species of Clinical Interest: Correlation between Morphological and Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility▿

    PubMed Central

    Azor, Mónica; Gené, Josepa; Cano, Josep; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Venkatapathy, Narendran; Guarro, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Forty-eight Fusarium isolates morphologically identified as belonging to seven species of clinical interest (i.e., Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium dimerum, Fusarium incarnatum, Fusarium napiforme, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium sacchari) were characterized molecularly by the analysis of the sequences of the TUB region of the β-tubulin gene. F. chlamydosporum and F. dimerum were the most genetically heterogeneous species. A high degree of correlation between the morphological and molecular identification was shown among the isolates studied. A table with the key morphological features for the identification of these Fusarium species is provided. The antifungal susceptibilities of the Fusarium isolates to 11 antifungal drugs were tested; terbinafine was the most active drug against all the species tested with the exception of F. incarnatum, for which amphotericin B was the most active. PMID:19321723

  17. Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sever, Zdravka; Ivić, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Miličević, Tihomir

    2012-12-01

    Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite.

  18. Fusarial toxins: secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi.

    PubMed

    Nesic, Ksenija; Ivanovic, Snezana; Nesic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins occurs worldwide, even though there are geographic and climatic differences in the amounts produced and occurrence of these substances.Mycotoxins are secondary chemical metabolites of different fungi. They are natural contaminants of cereals, so their presence is often inevitable. Among many genera that produce mycotoxins, Fusarium fungi are the most widespread in cereal-growing areas of the planet. Fusarium fungi produce a diversity of mycotoxin types, whose distributions are also diverse. What is produced and where it is produced is influenced primarily by environmental conditions, and crop production and storage methods. The amount of toxin produced depends on physical (viz., moisture, relative humidity, temperature, and mechanical damage), chemical (viz., carbon dioxide,oxygen, composition of substrate, insecticides and fungicides), and biological factors (viz., plant variety, stress, insects, spore load, etc.). Moisture and temperature have a major influence on mold growth rate and mycotoxin production.Among the most toxic and prevalent fusaria) toxins are the following: zearalenone,fumonisins, moniliformin and trichothecenes (T-2/HT-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol,diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol). Zearalenone (ZEA; ZON, F-2 toxin) isaphy to estrogenic compound, primarily a field contaminant, which exhibits estrogenic activity and has been implicated in numerous mycotoxicoses of farm animals,especially pigs. Recently, evidence suggests that ZEA has potential to stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells. Fumonisins are also cancer-promoting metabolites,of which Fumonisin 8 I (FBI) is the most important. Moniliformin (MON) isalso highly toxic to both animals and humans. Trichothecenes are classified as gastrointestinal toxins, dermatotoxins, immunotoxins, hematotoxins, and gene toxins.T-2 and HT-2 toxin, and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, anguidine) are the most toxic mycotoxins among the trichothecene group. Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and

  19. Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-12-01

    Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24°C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time.

  20. Reduced susceptibility to Fusarium head blight in Brachypodium distachyon through priming with the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Blümke, Antje; Sode, Björn; Ellinger, Dorothea; Voigt, Christian A

    2015-06-01

    The fungal cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum produces deoxynivalenol (DON) during infection. The mycotoxin DON is associated with Fusarium head blight (FHB), a disease that can cause vast grain losses. Whilst investigating the suitability of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for spreading resistance to F. graminearum, we unexpectedly discovered that DON pretreatment of spikelets could reduce susceptibility to FHB in this model grass. We started to analyse the cell wall changes in spikelets after infection with F. graminearum wild-type and defined mutants: the DON-deficient Δtri5 mutant and the DON-producing lipase disruption mutant Δfgl1, both infecting only directly inoculated florets, and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase disruption mutant Δgpmk1, with strongly decreased virulence but intact DON production. At 14 days post-inoculation, the glucose amounts in the non-cellulosic cell wall fraction were only increased in spikelets infected with the DON-producing strains wild-type, Δfgl1 and Δgpmk1. Hence, we tested for DON-induced cell wall changes in B. distachyon, which were most prominent at DON concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppb. To test the involvement of DON in defence priming, we pretreated spikelets with DON at a concentration of 1 ppm prior to F. graminearum wild-type infection, which significantly reduced FHB disease symptoms. The analysis of cell wall composition and plant defence-related gene expression after DON pretreatment and fungal infection suggested that DON-induced priming of the spikelet tissue contributed to the reduced susceptibility to FHB.

  1. Antifungal Effect of Essential Oils against Fusarium Keratitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    Homa, Mónika; Fekete, Ildikó Pálma; Böszörményi, Andrea; Singh, Yendrembam Randhir Babu; Selvam, Kanesan Panneer; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Juniperus communis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gaultheria procumbens, Melaleuca alternifolia, Origanum majorana, Salvia sclarea, and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Fusarium species, the most common etiologic agents of filamentous fungal keratitis in South India. C. zeylanicum essential oil showed strong anti-Fusarium activity, whereas all the other tested essential oils proved to be less effective. The main component of C. zeylanicum essential oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, was also tested and showed a similar effect as the oil. The in vitro interaction between trans-cinnamaldehyde and natamycin, the first-line therapeutic agent of Fusarium keratitis, was also investigated; an enhanced fungal growth inhibition was observed when these agents were applied in combination. Light and fluorescent microscopic observations revealed that C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces the cellular metabolism and inhibits the conidia germination. Furthermore, necrotic events were significantly more frequent in the presence of these two compounds. According to our results, C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde provides a promising basis to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of Fusarium keratitis.

  2. Effects of xanthotoxin treatment on trichothecene production in Fusarium sporotrichioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are four P450 oxygenases involved in the biosynthesis of T-2 toxin in Fusarium sporotrichioides. Exactly how these enzymes react to antimicrobial plant defense compounds is unknown. Xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen), a phototoxic furanocoumarin, is a P450 oxygenase inhibitor. A previous study...

  3. Annotation of Fusarium graminearum (PH-1) Version 5.0

    PubMed Central

    Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium graminearum floral infections are a major risk to the global supply of safe cereal grains. We report updates to the PH-1 reference genome and significant improvements to the annotation. Changes include introduction of legacy annotation identifiers, new gene models, secretome and effectorP predictions, and inclusion of extensive untranslated region (UTR) annotations. PMID:28082505

  4. Presence of Fusarium graminearum in air associated with sorghum fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum can be included in crop rotations with wheat. However, there are no known reports on the effects of sorghum grown in rotation with wheat on the epidemiology of head scab caused by Fusarium graminearum. Conidia in air samples within two sorghum fields were collected by passive spore trapping ...

  5. Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

  6. Controlling fusarium wilt of California strawberries by anaerobic soil disinfestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the 2014-15 season, the ASD-treated berry acreage exceeded 1,000 acres in California; more than doubled from the previous season. Fusarium wilt an emerging lethal disease of strawberries in California, can also be controlled by ASD. However, a study has shown that higher soil temperatures are n...

  7. Labelling studies on the biosynthesis of terpenes in Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Citron, Christian A; Brock, Nelson L; Tudzynski, Bettina; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2014-05-25

    Synthetic [2-(13)C]mevalonolactone was fed to the gibberellin producer Fusarium fujikuroi and its incorporation into four known terpenoids was investigated by (13)C NMR analysis of crude culture extracts. The experiments gave detailed insights into the mechanisms of terpene biosynthesis by this fungus.

  8. Distribution and evolution of fusarin mycotoxin biosynthetic genes in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Fusarium/Gibberella, secondary metabolite biosynthetic (SMB) genes that have a narrow distribution within the genus can have complex evolutionary histories. Whether more widely distributed SMB genes have similarly complex histories is not known. Genes responsible for production of fusarin mycot...

  9. VeA regulates some secondary metabolism in Fusarium fujikuroi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium fujikuroi is a pathogen of rice that causes hyper elongation of seedling stalks and leaves due to the fungal production of gibberellic acids (GAs). During infection of rice or after growth on other cereals, F. fujikuroi may also synthesize other toxins (e.g. fumonisins, fusarin C, and bika...

  10. [Fusarium pleural effusion after a ventricular assist device].

    PubMed

    Villacorta, J; Blancard, A; Kerbaul, F; Guidon, C; Gouin, F

    2002-05-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old man with a pleural effusion that complicates the postoperative period after the implantation of a ventricular assist device (VAD). The epidemiological, etiologic and therapeutic features of Fusarium infections were reviewed. Complete recovery of the infection was obtained after a treatment by liposomal amphotericine B (AmBisome) and 5 fluorocytosine.

  11. The depudecin cluster – a genetic curiosity in Fusarium langsethiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium langsethiae is a consistent fungal contaminant on oat cereals in the Nordic region, the UK, as well as other parts of Europe. Leaving few symptoms of disease on the plant, the fungus is, however, the main producer of T-2 and HT-2 mycotoxins which can be found contaminating food and feed der...

  12. Proposal for a new ISHAM Working group on Clinical Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections caused by Fusarium species can be classified in three classes: 1) Superficial infections of skin and nails; 2) Keratitis of the cornea; and 3) Deep and disseminated infections. Whereas the first two types of these opportunistic infections are generally seen in immunocompetent hosts, the d...

  13. Effector profiles distinguish formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formae speciales (ff. spp.) of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum are often polyphyletic in their origin, meaning that strains that infect a particular plant species are not necessarily more closely related to each other than to strains that cause disease in another host. Nevertheless, since strains of t...

  14. The transcriptome of Fusarium graminearum during the infection of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum causes head blight disease in wheat and barley. To help understand the infection process on wheat we studied global gene expression of F. graminearum in a time series from 24 to 196 hours after inoculation, compared to a water control. The infection is rapid and already after 48...

  15. Fusarium verticillioides gene expression profiling by microarray analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize and it can produce the toxic polyketide derived secondary metabolites called fumonisins. Fumonisins have been shown to cause animal diseases and are epidemiologically correlated to esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in humans. The genes necess...

  16. Compartmentalized gene regulatory network of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum (Fg) is a major limiting factor of wheat production with both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination. Here we report a model for global Fg gene regulatory networks (GRNs) inferred from a large collection of transcriptomic data using a machine-learning appro...

  17. Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Baker, Scott E.; Proctor, Robert H.

    2012-02-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based food and feed is more often associated with a variety of diseases in plants and in animals. Many of these structurally diverse metabolites are derived from a family of related enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). A search of genomic sequence of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and Nectria haematococca (anamorph F. solani) identified a total of 58 PKS genes. To gain insight into how this gene family evolved and to guide future studies, we conducted a phylogenomic and functional domain analysis. The resulting genealogy suggested that Fusarium PKSs represent 34 different groups responsible for synthesis of different core metabolites. The analyses indicate that variation in the Fusarium PKS gene family is due to gene duplication and loss events as well as enzyme gain-of-function due to the acquisition of new domains or of loss-of-function due to nucleotide mutations. Transcriptional analysis indicate that the 16 F. verticillioides PKS genes are expressed under a range of conditions, further evidence that they are functional genes that confer the ability to produce secondary metabolites.

  18. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  19. Incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins in silage maize.

    PubMed

    Eckard, Sonja; Wettstein, Felix E; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2011-08-01

    Maize is frequently infected by the Fusarium species producing mycotoxins. Numerous investigations have focused on grain maize, but little is known about the Fusarium species in the entire plant used for silage. Furthermore, mycotoxins persist during the ensiling process and thus endanger feed safety. In the current study, we analyzed 20 Swiss silage maize samples from growers' fields for the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. The species spectrum was analyzed morphologically and mycotoxins were measured by LC-MS/MS. A pre-harvest visual disease rating showed few disease symptoms. In contrast, the infection rate of two-thirds of the harvest samples ranged from 25 to 75% and twelve different Fusarium species were isolated. The prevailing species were F. sporotrichioides, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. No infection specificity for certain plant parts was observed. The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in each sample (ranging from 780 to 2990 µg kg(-1)). Other toxins detected in descending order were zearalenone, further trichothecenes (nivalenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, acetylated DON) and fumonisins. A generalized linear regression model containing the three cropping factors harvest date, pre-precrop and seed treatment was established, to explain DON contamination of silage maize. Based on these findings, we suggest a European-wide survey on silage maize.

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Biomarkers in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a combination HPLC-DART-TOF-MS system was utilized to identify and quantitatively analyze carbohydrates in wild type and mutant strains of Fusarium verticillioides. Carbohydrate fractions were isolated from F. verticillioides cellular extracts by HPLC using a cation-exchange size-excl...

  1. Comparative Genomics Reveals Mobile Pathogenicity Chromosomes in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, strains of F. oxysporum exhibit wide host range and are pathogenic to both plant and animal species, reflecting remarkable genetic adapta...

  2. Molecular Exploration of Beta-Lactamases in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mycotoxigenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) is one of the most prevalent maize fungal pathogens. Fv mycotoxins are a significant food safety issue and have given rise to exposure concerns worldwide. The FDB1 locus, a beta-lactamase-containing Fv gene cluster, was previously shown to be in...

  3. Global Analysis of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The co-occurrence of microbes within plants and other specialized niches may facilitate horizontal gene transfer (HGT) affecting host-pathogen interactions. We recently identified fungal-to-fungal HGTs involving metabolic gene clusters. For a global analysis of HGTs in the maize pathogen Fusarium ve...

  4. Molecular characterization of pathogenic Fusarium species in cucurbit plants from Kermanshah province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Chehri, K.; Salleh, B.; Yli-Mattila, T.; Reddy, K.R.N.; Abbasi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera of microfungi causing serious losses on cucurbit plants in Kermanshah province, the largest area of cucurbits plantation in Iran. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing Fusarium spp. from infected cucurbit plants, to ascertain their pathogenicity, and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 100 Fusarium isolates were obtained from diseased cucurbit plants collected from fields in different geographic regions in Kermanshah province, Iran. According to morphological characters, all isolates were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium solani. All isolates of the five Fusarium spp. were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and honeydew melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings in the glasshouse. F. oxysporum caused damping-off in 20–35 days on both cucurbit seedlings tested. Typical stem rot symptoms were observed within 15 days after inoculation with F. solani on both seedlings. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, the five Fusarium species were divided into two major groups. In particular, isolates belonging to the F. solani species complex (FSSC) were separated into two RFLP types. Grouping among Fusarium strains derived from restriction analysis was in agreement with criteria used in morphological classification. Therefore, the PCR-ITS-RFLP method provides a simple and rapid procedure for the differentiation of Fusarium strains at species level. This is the first report on identification and pathogenicity of major plant pathogenic Fusarium spp. causing root and stem rot on cucurbits in Iran. PMID:23961146

  5. Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to Fusarium crown rot (Fusarium pseudograminearum) in two spring wheat populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR), caused by F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum, reduces wheat yields in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the U.S. by as much as 35%. Currently there is no consistent durable resistance to FCR in PNW wheat cultivars. Significant QTL for crown rot resistance have been documente...

  6. Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in North Central USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1a, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and the morphol...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of an Isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, the Causal Agent of Fusarium Wilt of Eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Hsiang, Tom; Luo, Mei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we present the genome sequence of an isolate (14004) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, an eggplant pathogen. The final assembly consists of 1,631 scaffolds with 53,986,354 bp (G+C content, 46.4%) and 16,485 predicted genes. PMID:28209821

  8. Fusarium paranaense sp. nov., a member of the Fusarium solani species complex causes root rot on soybean in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sarah S; Matos, Kedma S; Tessmann, Dauri J; Seixas, Claudine D S; Pfenning, Ludwig H

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of Fusarium obtained from soybean plants showing symptoms of root rot collected in subtropical southern and tropical central Brazil were characterized based on phylogenetic analyses, sexual crossing, morphology, and pathogenicity tests. A novel species within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) causing soybean root rot is formally described herein as Fusarium paranaense. This species can be distinguished from the other soybean root rot pathogens in the FSSC, which are commonly associated with soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) based on analyses of the combined DNA sequences of translation elongation factor 1-α and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and on interspecies mating compatibility. Bayesian and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses showed that isolates of F. paranaense formed a distinct group in clade 3 of the FSSC in contrast to the pathogens currently known to cause SDS, which are in clade 2. Female fertile tester strains were developed that can be used for the identification of this new species in the FSSC based on sexual crosses. All isolates were heterothallic and belonged to a distinct mating population. Fusarium tucumaniae, a known SDS pathogen, was found in the subtropical southern region of the country.

  9. Environmental conditions that contribute to development and severity of Sugar Beet Fusarium Yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae: temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows in sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, continues to cause significant problems to sugar beet production by causing considerable reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Environment plays a critical role in pathogen i...

  10. Climate change impacts on the ecology of Fusarium graminearum species complex and susceptibility of wheat to Fusarium head blight: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat caused mainly by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is a major threat to agricultural grain production, food safety, and animal health. The severity of disease epidemics and accumulation of associated trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat kerne...

  11. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    PubMed Central

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  12. Spectrum of Fusarium infections in tropical dermatology evidenced by multilocus sequencing typing diagnostics.

    PubMed

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Feng, Peiying; Ahmed, Sarah; Sudhadham, Montarop; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species are emerging causative agents of superficial, cutaneous and systemic human infections. In a study of the prevalence and genetic diversity of 464 fungal isolates from a dermatological ward in Thailand, 44 strains (9.5%) proved to belong to the genus Fusarium. Species identification was based on sequencing a portion of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α), rDNA internal transcribed spacer and RNA-dependent polymerase subunit II (rpb2). Our results revealed that 37 isolates (84%) belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), one strain matched with Fusarium oxysporum (FOSC) complex 33, while six others belonged to the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex. Within the FSSC two predominant clusters represented Fusarium falciforme and recently described F. keratoplasticum. No gender differences in susceptibility to Fusarium were noted, but infections on the right side of the body prevailed. Eighty-nine per cent of the Fusarium isolates were involved in onychomycosis, while the remaining ones caused paronychia or severe tinea pedis. Comparing literature data, superficial infections by FSSC appear to be prevalent in Asia and Latin America, whereas FOSC is more common in Europe. The available data suggest that Fusarium is a common opportunistic human pathogens in tropical areas and has significant genetic variation worldwide.

  13. Fusarium diversity in soil using a specific molecular approach and a cultural approach.

    PubMed

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Mounier, Arnaud; Steinberg, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in soil. They cause plant and human diseases and can produce mycotoxins. Surveys of Fusarium species diversity in environmental samples usually rely on laborious culture-based methods. In the present study, we have developed a molecular method to analyze Fusarium diversity directly from soil DNA. We designed primers targeting the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) gene and demonstrated their specificity toward Fusarium using a large collection of fungi. We used the specific primers to construct a clone library from three contrasting soils. Sequence analysis confirmed the specificity of the assay, with 750 clones identified as Fusarium and distributed among eight species or species complexes. The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) was the most abundant one in the three soils, followed by the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). We then compared our molecular approach results with those obtained by isolating Fusarium colonies on two culture media and identifying species by sequencing part of the EF-1α gene. The 750 isolates were distributed into eight species or species complexes, with the same dominant species as with the cloning method. Sequence diversity was much higher in the clone library than in the isolate collection. The molecular approach proved to be a valuable tool to assess Fusarium diversity in environmental samples. Combined with high throughput sequencing, it will allow for in-depth analysis of large numbers of samples.

  14. Diagnosis of Fusarium keratitis in an animal model using the polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrakis, G.; Jalali, S.; Gloor, P.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—The purpose of this study was apply the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to develop a sensitive, specific, and rapid test to diagnose Fusarium keratitis. Fusarium is the most common cause of fungal corneal infection in some parts of the world. It is often difficult to establish that a keratitis is due to fungal infection.
METHODS—Fusarium solani keratitis was induced in three eyes of three rabbits by injection of a suspension of the fungus into the anterior corneal stroma. In one rabbit the contralateral eye served as a control. From four to 28 days after inoculation, the corneas were scraped for culture, then scraped and swabbed for PCR analysis. The PCR was performed with primers directed against a portion of the Fusarium cutinase gene, and the presence or absence of this amplified target sequence was determined by agarose gel.
RESULTS—The amplified DNA sequence was detected in 25 of 28 samples from the corneas infected with Fusarium, for a sensitivity of 89%. Only three of the 14 samples from these eyes with Fusarium keratitis were positive by culture, for a sensitivity of 21%. Seven of eight control samples were negative by the PCR based test, for a specificity of 88%.
CONCLUSION—This PCR based test holds promise of being an effective method of diagnosing Fusarium keratitis as well as Fusarium infections at other sites.

 Keywords: keratitis; Fusarium; ulcer; cornea; polymerase chain reaction PMID:9602631

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

    2014-11-11

    The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1α sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1α genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1α region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study.

  16. Antifungal Activity of Eugenol against Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Fusarium Species.

    PubMed

    Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2010-06-01

    The antifungal activity of eugenol in a model system against aspergilli (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, and Emericella nidulans), penicilli (Penicillium expansum, Penicillium glabrum, and Penicillium italicum), and fusaria (Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium avenaceum) was investigated. Minimum detection time (time to attain a colony diameter of 1 cm) and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. The effectiveness of the active compound seemed to be strain or genus dependent; 100 mg/liter represented a critical value for P. expansum, P. glabrum, P. italicum, A. niger, and E. nidulans because a further increase of eugenol resulted in fungistatic activity. The radial growth of A. terreus and F. avenaceum was inhibited at 140 mg/liter, and growth of F. oxysporum was completely inhibited at 150 mg/liter.

  17. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age.

  18. Benzene derivatives produced by Fusarium graminearum - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Setshedi, Itumeleng

    2015-06-01

    Using NMR spectroscopy benzene derivatives were detected in mycelia of Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize. In previous studies F. graminearum was found to cause cancer to humans and benzene derivatives were detected in breath of cancer sufferers. Surprisingly, no study found benzene derivatives to be the cancerous agents in F. graminearum. In this study we detected benzene derivatives in F. graminearum and propose to study their role as cancer agents.

  19. DNA barcoding, MALDI-TOF, and AFLP data support Fusarium ficicrescens as a distinct species within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex.

    PubMed

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Mirabolfathy, Mansoureh; Hagen, Ferry; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Stielow, J Benjamin; Karami-Osbo, Rouhollah; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-02-01

    The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of the most common groups of fusaria associated with plant diseases, mycotoxin production and traumatic and disseminated human infections. Here we present the description and taxonomy of a new taxon, Fusarium ficicrescens sp. nov., collected from contaminated fig fruits in Iran. Initially this species was identified as Fusarium andiyazi by morphology. In the present study the species was studied by multilocus sequence analysis, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and phenotypic characters. Multilocus analyses were based on translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1), RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2) and beta-tubulin (BT2) and proved F. ficicrescens as a member of the FFSC. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the fungus is closely related to Fusarium lactis, Fusarium ramigenum, and Fusarium napiforme; known plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and occasionally occurring multidrug resistant opportunists. The new species differed by being able to grow at 37 °C and by the absence of mycotoxin production. TEF1 was confirmed as an essential barcode for identifying Fusarium species. In addition to TEF1, we evaluated BT2 and RPB2 in order to provide sufficient genetic and species boundaries information for recognition of the novel species.

  20. Cyber-infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF): Three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics, and knowledge sharing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on ...

  1. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusu...

  2. Diversity of Fusarium species and mycotoxins contaminating pineapple.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Koczyk, Grzegorz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2013-08-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) is an important perennial crop in tropical and subtropical areas. It may be infected by various Fusarium species, contaminating the plant material with mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate Fusarium species variability among the genotypes isolated from pineapple fruits displaying fungal infection symptoms and to evaluate their mycotoxigenic abilities. Forty-four isolates of ten Fusarium species were obtained from pineapple fruit samples: F. ananatum, F. concentricum, F. fujikuroi, F. guttiforme, F. incarnatum, F. oxysporum, F. polyphialidicum, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum and F. verticillioides. Fumonisins B1-B3, beauvericin (BEA) and moniliformin (MON) contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in pineapple fruit tissue. Fumonisins are likely the most dangerous metabolites present in fruit samples (the maximum FB1 content was 250 μg g(-1) in pineapple skin and 20 μg ml(-1) in juice fraction). In both fractions, BEA and MON were of minor significance. FUM1 and FUM8 genes were identified in F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum and F. verticillioides. Cyclic peptide synthase gene (esyn1 homologue) from the BEA biosynthetic pathway was identified in 40 isolates of eight species. Based on the gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, none of the isolates tested were found to be able to produce trichothecenes or zearalenone.

  3. A RALDH-like enzyme involved in Fusarium verticillioides development.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; Limón, M Carmen; Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) convert retinal to retinoic acid, an important chordate morphogen. Retinal also occurs in some fungi, such as Fusarium and Ustilago spp., evidenced by the presence of rhodopsins and β-carotene cleaving, retinal-forming dioxygenases. Based on the assumption that retinoic acid may also be formed in fungi, we searched the Fusarium protein databases for RALDHs homologs, focusing on Fusarium verticillioides. Using crude lysates of Escherichia coli cells expressing the corresponding cDNAs, we checked the capability of best matches to convert retinal into retinoic acid in vitro. Thereby, we identified an aldehyde dehydrogenase, termed CarY, as a retinoic acid-forming enzyme, an activity that was also exerted by purified CarY. Targeted mutation of the carY gene in F. verticillioides resulted in alterations of mycelia development and conidia morphology in agar cultures, and reduced capacity to produce perithecia as a female in sexual crosses. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type carY allele demonstrated that these alterations are caused by the lackof CarY. However, retinoic acid could not be detected by LC-MS analysis either in the wild type or the complemented carY strain in vivo, making elusive the connection between CarY enzymatic activity and retinoic acid formation in the fungus.

  4. Effects of Phospholipase C on Fusarium graminearum Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qili; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Liang, Yuancun

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) plays important roles in regulating various biological processes in eukaryotes. Currently, little is known about the function of PLC in filamentous fungi, especially the plant pathogenic fungi. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in many cereal crops. BLAST search revealed that Fusarium genome contains six FgPLC genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, different FgPLC gene expressions in mycelia were analyzed. To investigate the role of FgPLC in F. graminearum biology, a pharmacological study using a known inhibitor of PLC (U73122) was conducted. Results showed that inhibition of FgPLC resulted in significant alterations of mycelial growth, conidiation, conidial germination, perithecium formation, and expressions of Tri5 and Tri6 genes. As expected, the treatment of F. graminearum with U73343, an inactive analog of U73122, showed no effect on F. graminearum biology. Our results suggested strongly that FgPLC plays important roles in F. graminearum growth and development.

  5. Fusarium Wilt of Banana Is Caused by Several Pathogens Referred to as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium wilt of banana (also known as Panama disease) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Where susceptible cultivars are grown, management is limited to the use of pathogen-free planting stock and clean soils. Resistant genotypes exist for some applications, but resistance is still needed in other situations. Progress has been made with this recalcitrant crop by traditional and nontraditional improvement programs. The disease was first reported in Australia in 1876, but did the greatest damage in export plantations in the western tropics before 1960. A new variant, tropical race 4, threatens the trades that are now based on Cavendish cultivars, and other locally important types such as the plantains. Phylogenetic studies indicate that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense had several independent evolutionary origins. The significance of these results and the future impact of this disease are discussed.

  6. Antifungal activity of (KW)n or (RW)n peptide against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Ramamourthy; Na, Hyungjong; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2012-11-15

    The presence of lysine (Lys) or arginine (Arg) and tryptophan (Trp) are important for the antimicrobial effects of cationic peptides. Therefore, we designed and synthesized a series of antimicrobial peptides with various numbers of Lys (or Arg) and Trp repeats [(KW and RW)(n)-NH(2), where n equals 2, 3, 4, or 5]. Antifungal activities of these peptides increased with chain length. Light microscopy demonstrated that longer peptides (n = 4, 5) strongly inhibited in vitro growth of Fusarium solani, and Fusarium oxysporum, at 4-32 μM. Furthermore, longer peptides displayed potent fungicidal activities against a variety of agronomical important filamentous fungi, including F. solani and F. oxysporum, at their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). However, RW series peptides showed slightly higher fungicidal activities than KW peptides against the two strains. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that these short peptides would be good candidates for use as synthetic or transgenic antifungal agents.

  7. A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach to assess Fusarium diversity in asparagus.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, E; Filion, M; Vujanovic, V; St-Arnaud, M

    2005-02-01

    In North America, asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) production suffers from a crown and root rot disease mainly caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum. Many other Fusarium species are also found in asparagus fields, whereas accurate detection and identification of these organisms, especially when processing numerous samples, is usually difficult and time consuming. In this study, a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was developed to assess Fusarium species diversity in asparagus plant samples. Fusarium-specific PCR primers targeting a partial region of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) gene were designed, and their specificity was tested against genomic DNA extracted from a large collection of closely and distantly related organisms isolated from multiple environments. Amplicons of 450 bp were obtained from all Fusarium isolates, while no PCR product was obtained from non-Fusarium organisms. The ability of DGGE to discriminate between Fusarium taxa was tested over 19 different Fusarium species represented by 39 isolates, including most species previously reported from asparagus fields worldwide. The technique was effective to visually discriminate between the majority of Fusarium species and/or isolates tested in pure culture, while a further sequencing step permitted to distinguish between the few species showing similar migration patterns. Total genomic DNA was extracted from field-grown asparagus plants naturally infested with different Fusarium species, submitted to PCR amplification, DGGE analysis and sequencing. The two to four bands observed for each plant sample were all affiliated with F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum or F. solani, clearly supporting the reliability, sensitivity and specificity of this approach for the study of Fusarium diversity from asparagus plants samples.

  8. Methylcitrate cycle activation during adaptation of Fusarium solani and Fusarium verticillioides to propionyl-CoA-generating carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Domin, Nicole; Wilson, Duncan; Brock, Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Propionyl-CoA is an inhibitor of both primary and secondary metabolism in Aspergillus species and a functional methylcitrate cycle is essential for the efficient removal of this potentially toxic metabolite. Although the genomes of most sequenced fungal species appear to contain genes coding for enzymes of the methylcitrate cycle, experimental confirmation of pathway activity in filamentous fungi has only been provided for Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus. In this study we demonstrate that pathogenic Fusarium species also possess a functional methylcitrate cycle. Fusarium solani appears highly adapted to saprophytic growth as it utilized propionate with high efficiency, whereas Fusarium verticillioides grew poorly on this carbon source. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of propionyl-CoA detoxification, we first identified the genes coding for methylcitrate synthase from both species. Despite sharing 96 % amino acid sequence identity, analysis of the two purified enzymes demonstrated that their biochemical properties differed in several respects. Both methylcitrate synthases exhibited low K(m) values for propionyl-CoA, but that of F. verticillioides displayed significantly higher citrate synthase activity and greater thermal stability. Activity determinations from cell-free extracts of F. solani revealed a strong methylcitrate synthase activity during growth on propionate and to a lesser extent on Casamino acids, whereas activity by F. verticillioides was highest on Casamino acids. Further phenotypic analysis confirmed that these biochemical differences were reflected in the different growth behaviour of the two species on propionyl-CoA-generating carbon sources.

  9. Biosynthesis of DON/15-ADON and NX-2 by different variants of TRI1 from Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the econimically most important plant pathogens causing diseases such as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) of small grain cereals and ear rot of maize. During a large scale survey of Fusarium graminearum (sensu strictu) in the northern United States strains (termed N-strains)...

  10. Identification of QTL controlling high levels of partial resistance to Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot is a common biotic restraint on pea yields worldwide and genetic resistance is the most feasible method for improving pea production. This study was conducted to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling genetic partial resistance to Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium s...

  11. Identification of tolerance to Fusarium root rot in wild pea germplasm with high levels of partial resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a serious root rot pathogen affecting peas in all pea growing areas of the USA and is damaging in both dryland and irrigated pea fields. Partial resistance to Fusarium root rot in 44 accessions from the Pisum Core Collection located in Pu...

  12. Trichothecene chemotype composition of Fusarium graminearum and related species in Finland and Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum and type B trichothecene producers can be divided into three chemotypes. Analysis of 290 single-spore isolates of F. graminearum and related Fusarium species revealed that all F. graminearum isolates from Finland (15) and western Russian (26) possessed the 3ADON chemotype, whil...

  13. Validation of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in US Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telemorph: Gibberella zeae Schw. (Petch)], can significantly reduce the grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to mycotoxin contamination. Two US soft red winter wheat cultivars, Bess and NC-Neuse, have moderate...

  14. Fusaric acid production and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, Fusarium wilt of cotton has gained increased importance with the emergence of extremely virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. The recent discovery of new pathotypes not previously found in the U.S. is of particular concern to the cotton industry. In addition, a ...

  15. Vine kill interval and temperature effects on Fusarium dry rot development in Russet Burbank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot disease development in potato storage is universal to all market sectors and regions. The objective of this 2-year study was to evaluate three possible management decisions that may impact Fusarium dry rot development in storage: a) vine kill to harvest time, b) harvested tuber pulp...

  16. Composition of the Fusarium graminearum species complex populations in wheat cropping environments in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) comprises several toxigenic species that cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. In this study, high number (n=671 isolates) of pathogenic isolates (isolated from infected spikes) was obtained from a 3-year large-scale survey (2009-2011) conducted o...

  17. Characterization of Fusarium strains recovered from wheat with symptoms of head blight in Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) members cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and small grains in the United States. The U.S. population is diverse, and includes several genetically distinct local emergent subpopulations, some more aggressive and toxigenic than...

  18. Effect of soil biochar amendment on wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important diseases of wheat and other cereal grains. Fusarium graminearum, the fungal pathogen responsible for FHB, reduces crop yield and results in contamination of grain w...

  19. The nivalenol-producing Fusarium graminearum genotype in scabby North Carolina wheat spikes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (or scab), caused primarily by F. graminearum in the U.S., leads to drastic decreases in yield and test weight of small grains. In addition, Fusarium mycotoxins in grain heads can render the crop unsuitable for human or animal consumption. In livestock, scabby grain can lead t...

  20. Comparative population genomics of Fusarium graminearum reveals adaptive divergence among cereal head blight pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we sequenced the genomes of 60 Fusarium graminearum, the major fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops world-wide. To investigate adaptive evolution of FHB pathogens, we performed population-level analyses to characterize genomic structure, signatures...

  1. Fusarium head blight resistance in U.S. winter wheat cultivars and elite breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium (Fusarium graminearum) head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To characterize FHB resistance in U.S. wheat germplasm, 363 U.S. winter wheat accessions were repeatedly evaluated for FHB resistance. A high correlation (r = 0.73, P < 0.001) for me...

  2. Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Properties of Fusarium Isolates: Effects of Culture Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium genus includes soil saprobes as well as pathogenic or toxin-producing species. Traditional classification of Fusarium isolates is slow and requires a high level of expertise. The objective of this project is to describe culture condition effects on mid-infrared (MidIR) and near-infrared...

  3. Genetic and phenotypic diversity within the Fusarium graminearum species complex in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As has been observed in several European countries, the frequency of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) has increased in Norwegian cereals in recent years, resulting in elevated levels of deoxynivalenol in cereal grains. The objective of t...

  4. A North American isolate of Fusarium graminearum: toxicity and biosynthesis of a new type A trichothecene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the economically most important plant pathogens causing diseases such as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) of small grain cereals and ear rot of maize. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by F. graminearum is a virulence factor in wheat and probably also on other host...

  5. Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

  6. Fusarium Head Blight resistance QTL in the NC-Neuse / AGS2000 recombinant inbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for resistance to Fusarium Head Blight is of major importance as the disease can have serious negative impacts on wheat production in warm and humid regions of the world, including the state of North Carolina. Fusarium Head Blight can cause significant grain yield reduction, but also severe...

  7. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum head blight pathogens in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we utilized comparative genomics to identify candidate adaptive alleles in the fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. Recent epidemics of FHB have been economically devastating to agriculture, as F. graminearum reduces cereal yi...

  8. Detoxification of the Fusarium toxin fusaric acid by the soil fungus Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) causes Fusarium wilt in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and produces the toxin fusaric acid (FA). Previous research indicates that in the high producing strains of Fov, FA plays an important role in virulence. To address the problems o...

  9. Variability in Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beets in the United States – Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows can cause significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Research in our laboratory and others on variability in Fusarium oxysporum associated with sugar beets demonstrated that isolates that are pathogenic on sugar beet can be hig...

  10. Genetic population structure of Fusarium graminearum species complex in Korean cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small grain cereals are frequently contaminated with toxigenic Fusarium species. Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are known as a head blight pathogens and mycotoxin producers. In order to characterize the FGSC populations associated with cereals in Korea, barley, corn, maiz...

  11. Secondary Metabolites and Toxins of Fusarium - What is Causing Disease Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species produce a plethora of phytotoxic secondary metabolites. In the case of various races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (F.o.v.) that attacks cotton, alfalfa, okra and other crops, many of these metabolites are derived from the polyketide biosynthetic pathway. The recent dis...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Hypovirus from the Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium langsethiae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Chen, Xiaoguang; He, Hao; Qiu, Dewen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We describe a novel positive single-stranded RNA virus, termed Fusarium langsethiae hypovirus 1 (FlHV1), from the isolate AH32 of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae. The properties of FlHV1 permit assignment to the genus Alphahypovirus in the family Hypoviridae. This is the first report of a mycovirus identified in F. langsethiae. PMID:28254984

  13. Assessment of inoculation methods to identify resistance to Fusarium crown rot in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rot, caused by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium pseudograminearum, is one of the most pervasive diseases of wheat throughout the world. F. culmorum is the most prevalent causal agent in Turkey while F. pseudograminearum is the most predominant in the US. Consistent and reliable screening methods...

  14. Aromatic polyketide synthases from 127 Fusarium: pas de deux for chemical diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species collectively cause disease on almost all crop plants and produce numerous natural products (NPs), including mycotoxins, of great concern. Many Fusarium NPs are derived from polyketide synthases (PKSs), large enzymes that catalyze the condensation of simple carboxylic acids. To gain ...

  15. Insights into natural products biosynthesis from analysis of 490 polyketide synthases from Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of the fungus Fusarium collectively cause disease on almost all crop plants and produce numerous natural products (NPs), including some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to agriculture. Many Fusarium NPs are derived from polyketide synthases, large multi-domain enzymes that catalyze sequ...

  16. [Fusarium species associated with basal rot of garlic in North Central Mexico and its pathogenicity].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Ortiz, Juan C; Ochoa-Fuentes, Yisa M; Cerna-Chávez, Ernesto; Beltrán-Beache, Mariana; Rodríguez-Guerra, Raúl; Aguirre-Uribe, Luis A; Vázquez-Martínez, Otilio

    Garlic in Mexico is one of the most profitable vegetable crops, grown in almost 5,451ha; out of which more than 83% are located in Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Sonora, Puebla, Baja California and Aguascalientes. Blossom-end rot caused by Fusarium spp is widely distributed worldwide and has been a limiting factor in onion and garlic production regions, not only in Mexico but also in other countries. The presence of Fusarium oxysporum has been reported in Guanajuato and Aguascalientes. Fusarium culmorum has been reported in onion cultivars of Morelos; and Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium solani and Fusarium acuminatum have been previously reported in Aguascalientes. The goal of this work was identifying the Fusarium species found in Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes, to assess their pathogenicity. Plants with disease symptoms were collected from hereinabove mentioned States. The samples resulted in the identification of: F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. solani and F. acuminatum species; out of which Aguascalientes AGS1A (F. oxysporum), AGS1B (F. oxysporum) and AGSY-10 (F. acuminatum) strains showed higher severity under greenhouse conditions.

  17. New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, whi...

  18. Genetic transformation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli with Agrobacterium to study pathogenesis in Gladiolus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Fog) is one of the most serious diseases of Gladiolus, both in the field and in stored bulbs. In order to study the pathogenesis of this fungus, we have transformed Fog with Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vectors containing the hygromycin B...

  19. Mapping of Fusarium Head Blight resistance QTL in winter wheat cultivar NC-Neuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, can significantly reduce the grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to mycotoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance in the moderately resistant so...

  20. Mechanism of disease suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by cover crop green manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  1. Identification of candidate effector proteins potentially involved in Fusarium graminearum-wheat interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen-derived small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) are known to be a common source of fungal effectors that trigger resistance or susceptibility in specific host plants. This group of proteins has not been well studied in Fusarium graminearum, the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (...

  2. First report of F. meridionale causing Fusarium Head Blight of wheat in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), also known as scab, is a destructive disease of small grain cereals caused by several species belonging to the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC). Members of the FGSC produce trichothecene toxins that represent a threat to human and animal health (1). Despite the...

  3. New tricks of an old enemy: Isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, whi...

  4. Temporal dynamics and population genetic structure of Fusarium graminearum in the upper Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, and contaminates grains with several trichothecene mycotoxins, causing destructive yield losses and economic impact in the United States. Recently, a F. graminearum strain collected from Minnesota (MN) was dete...

  5. Metabolomics analysis of the effect of elevated co2 on wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is expected to intensify Fusarium head blight (FHB) contamination of wheat and increase the associated risk of mycotoxin contamination in food and feed. Rising CO2 levels are part of climate change with still unknown effects on natural wheat resistance mechanisms against Fusarium gram...

  6. A major quantitative trait locus is associated with Fusarium Wilt Race 1 resistance in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). A genetic population of 186 F3 families (24 plants in each family) exhibited continuous segregation for Fon race 1 response. Geno...

  7. Npc1 is involved in sterol trafficking in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ortholog of the human gene NPC1 was identified in the plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum by shared amino acid sequence, protein domain structure and cellular localization of the mature fungal protein. The Fusarium Npc1 gene shares 34% amino acid sequence identity and 51% s...

  8. Novel fusarium head blight pathogens from Nepal and Louisiana revealed by multilocus genealogical concordance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to assess evolutionary relationships, species diversity, and trichothecene toxin potential of five Fusarium graminearum complex (FGSC) isolates identified as genetically novel during prior Fusarium head blight (FHB) surveys in Nepal and Louisiana. Results of a multilocus gen...

  9. Head blight of wheat in South Africa is associated with numerous Fusarium species and chemotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields during 2008 and...

  10. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  11. Greenhouse studies reveal increased aggressiveness of emergent Canadian Fusarium graminearum chemotypes in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of Fusarium graminearum trichothecene-chemotypes in disease outcomes was evaluated in a series of wheat lines with different levels of resistance to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB). Four inocula, each consisting of a composite of four strains with either 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (ADON) chemotypes...

  12. Diallel analysis of resistance to fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides infects maize ears and kernels, resulting in Fusarium ear rot disease, reduced grain yields, and contamination of grain with the mycotoxin fumonisin. Typical hybrid maize breeding programs involve selection for both favorable inbred and hybrid performance, and the...

  13. A novel transcriptional factor important for pathogenesis and ascosporogenesis in Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight or scab caused by Fusarium graminearum is an important disease of wheat and barley. The pathogen not only causes severe yield losses but also contaminates infested grains with mycotoxins. In a previous study we identified several pathogenicity mutants by random insertional mutag...

  14. Defining the genus Fusarium in a scientifically robust way that best preserves longstanding use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this talk I will present the argument of a diverse group of scientists advocating a phylogenetic circumscription of the genus Fusarium, that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine, and basic research. This will free scientists from any o...

  15. Impact of five cover crop green manures and Actinovate on Fusarium Wilt of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triploid watermelon cultivars are grown on more than 2,023 ha in Maryland and in Delaware. Triploid watermelons have little host resistance to Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum). The effects of four different fall-planted cover crops that were tilled in the spring as gree...

  16. Multiple minor QTLs are responsible for Fusarium head blight resistance in Chinese wheat landrace Haiyanzhong

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a devastatingve disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Use of host resistance is one of the most effective strategies to minimize the disease damage. Haiyanzhong (HYZ) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resi...

  17. QTL analysis for Fusarium root rot resistance in snap bean under greenhouse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR), caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli (syn.F. phaseoli T. Aoki & O’Donnell, F. cuneirostrum O’Donnell & T. Aoki), is considered as one of the most economically important and widespread fungal diseases of common bean (1). Progress in breeding for FRR resistance has been h...

  18. Evaluation of pea accessions and commercial cultivars for Fusarium Root Rot resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) can result in major yield losses in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Currently no fungicides effectively manage this disease. Previous studies evaluated the Pisum germplasm collection for resistance to Fsp, however, evaluations of commercial marke...

  19. Stalk rot of sugar beet caused by Fusarium solani on the Pacific coast.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium stalk blight can cause loss of seed production in sugar beet. The only known causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae. In 2006, plants that had been grown as stecklings in Oregon and planted in the greenhouse in California for seed production showed symptoms of stalk blight. In add...

  20. Fusarium graminearum infection and deoxynivalenol concentrations during development of wheat spikes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) affects whole spikes of small grain plants, yet little is known about the timecourse of FHB development following infection, nor about the concentration or progression of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in non-grain spike tissues. Fusarium mycotoxin levels in whole sma...

  1. Morphological and molecular variation among species of the Fusarium dimerum species group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The name Fusarium dimerum has been used in the past for saprotrophic fungi and opportunistic human pathogens with up to 3-septate but mostly 0- or 1-septate Fusarium-like conidia. On the basis of narrowly defined morphological characters, the varieties Pusillum, Nectrioides and Violaceum were disti...

  2. Acid and neutral trehalase activities in mutants of the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen known to cause corn rot and other plant diseases and to contaminate grain with toxic metabolites. We are characterizing trehalose metabolism in F. verticillioides with the hope that this pathway might serve as a target for controlling Fusarium disease. T...

  3. PCR multiplexes discriminate Fusarium symbionts of invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetles that inflict damage on numerous tree species throughout the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Euwallacea ambrosia beetles vector Fusarium mutualists. The ambrosial fusaria are all members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). Several Euwallacea-Fusarium mutualists have been introduced into non-native regions and have caused varying degr...

  4. Evaluation of two methods for direct detection of Fusarium spp. in water.

    PubMed

    Graça, Mariana G; van der Heijden, Inneke M; Perdigão, Lauro; Taira, Cleison; Costa, Silvia F; Levin, Anna S

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium is a waterborne fungus that causes severe infections especially in patients with prolonged neutropenia. Traditionally, the detection of Fusarium in water is done by culturing which is difficult and time consuming. A faster method is necessary to prevent exposure of susceptible patients to contaminated water. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular technique for direct detection of Fusarium in water. A direct DNA extraction method from water was developed and coupled to a genus-specific PCR, to detect 3 species of Fusarium (verticillioides, oxysporum and solani). The detection limits were 10 cells/L and 1 cell/L for the molecular and culture methods, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first method developed to detect Fusarium directly from water.

  5. Molecular strategies for detection and quantification of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species: a review.

    PubMed

    Gong, Liang; Jiang, Yueming; Chen, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium contamination is considered a major agricultural problem, which could not only significantly reduce yield and quality of agricultural products, but produce mycotoxins that are virulence factors responsible for many diseases of humans and farm animals. One strategy to identify toxigenic Fusarium species is the use of modern molecular methods, which include the analysis of DNA target regions for differentiation of the Fusarium species, particularly the mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species such as F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. Additionally, polymerase chain reaction assays are used to determine the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the toxins in order to facilitate a qualitative and quantitative detection of Fusarium-producing mycotoxins. Also, it is worth mentioning that some factors that modulate the biosynthesis of mycotoxins are not only determined by their biosynthetic gene clusters, but also by environmental conditions. Therefore, all of the aforementioned factors which may affect the molecular diagnosis of mycotoxins will be reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  6. Changes in communities of Fusarium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as related to different asparagus cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Vujanovic, Vladimir; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2006-07-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a high-value perennial vegetable crop that has shown a marked decline in productivity after many years of continuous harvesting. This decline is caused by an increase in both abiotic (autotoxicity, harvesting pressure) and biotic stresses [fungal infections, mainly Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR)]. To gain insight into disease development and possible mitigation strategies, we studied the effects of harvesting, time in the growing season, and field age on FCRR development, Fusarium species composition, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in both a controlled field experiment and an ecological survey of commercial fields. In one experiment, a 3-year-old asparagus field was subdivided into plots that were harvested or not and sampled throughout the growing season to assess short-term dominant Fusarium species shifts. In addition, diseased and healthy asparagus plants sampled from six commercial fields in the same geographical region were used to assess Fusarium and AMF communities in relation to different parameters. Fusarium and AMF communities were described by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach, and results were analyzed by mainly correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Results showed that dominant Fusarium taxa assemblages changed throughout the growing season. Harvested plots had significantly more FCRR symptomatic plants at the end of the growing season, but this effect was not related with any trend in Fusarium community structure. Sampling site and plant age significantly influenced AMF community structure, whereas only sampling site consistently influenced the Fusarium community. Diseased and healthy plants harbored similar Fusarium and AMF communities. Shifts in Fusarium community might not be responsible for different disease incidence because they are ubiquitous regardless of plant health status or harvesting regime

  7. Characterization of Fusarium isolates from asparagus fields in southwestern Ontario and influence of soil organic amendments on Fusarium crown and root rot.

    PubMed

    Borrego-Benjumea, Ana; Basallote-Ureba, María J; Melero-Vara, José M; Abbasi, Pervaiz A

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR) of asparagus has a complex etiology with several soilborne Fusarium spp. as causal agents. Ninety-three Fusarium isolates, obtained from plant and soil samples collected from commercial asparagus fields in southwestern Ontario with a history of FCRR, were identified as Fusarium oxysporum (65.5%), F. proliferatum (18.3%), F. solani (6.4%), F. acuminatum (6.4%), and F. redolens (3.2%) based on morphological or cultural characteristics and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with species-specific primers. The intersimple-sequence repeat PCR analysis of the field isolates revealed considerable variability among the isolates belonging to different Fusarium spp. In the in vitro pathogenicity screening tests, 50% of the field isolates were pathogenic to asparagus, and 22% of the isolates caused the most severe symptoms on asparagus. The management of FCRR with soil organic amendments of pelleted poultry manure (PPM), olive residue compost, and fish emulsion was evaluated in a greenhouse using three asparagus cultivars of different susceptibility in soils infested with two of the pathogenic isolates (F. oxysporum Fo-1.5 and F. solani Fs-1.12). Lower FCRR symptom severity and higher plant weights were observed for most treatments on 'Jersey Giant' and 'Grande' but not on 'Mary Washington'. On all three cultivars, 1% PPM consistently reduced FCRR severity by 42 to 96% and increased plant weights by 77 to 152% compared with the Fusarium control treatment. Populations of Fusarium and total bacteria were enumerated after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of soil amendment. In amended soils, the population of Fusarium spp. gradually decreased while the population of total culturable bacteria increased. These results indicate that soil organic amendments, especially PPM, can decrease disease severity and promote plant growth, possibly by decreasing pathogen population and enhancing bacterial activity in the soil.

  8. Multidrug-resistant Fusarium in keratitis: a clinico-mycological study of keratitis infections in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Tupaki-Sreepurna, Ananya; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Kindo, Anupma J; Sundaram, Murugan; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to present the first molecular epidemiological data from Chennai, India, analyse keratitis cases that have been monitored in a university hospital during 2 years, identify the responsible Fusarium species and determine antifungal susceptibilities. A total of 10 cases of keratitis were included in the study. Fusarium isolates were identified using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1). Antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methodology. The aetiological agents belonged to Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) (n = 9) and Fusarium sambucinum species complex (FSAMSC) (n = 1), and the identified species were Fusarium keratoplasticum (n = 7), Fusarium falciforme (n = 2) and Fusarium sporotrichioides (n = 1). All strains showed multidrug resistance to azoles and caspofungin but exhibited lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to natamycin and amphotericin B. Fusarium keratoplasticum and Fusarium falciforme belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex were the major aetiological agents of Fusarium keratitis in this study. Early presentation and 5% topical natamycin was associated with better patient outcome. Preventative measures and monitoring of local epidemiological data play an important role in clinical practice.

  9. [Enniatin B synthesis by a Fusarium sambucinum Fuck culture].

    PubMed

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskiĭ, D N; Ellanskaia, I A

    1978-01-01

    Three fungal strains belonging to the genus Fusarium Lk. ex. Fr. (F. sambucinum Fuck. 52377, F. avenaceum (Fr. Sacc.) 52311, F. gibbosum App. et. Wr. emend Bilai 52021) whcih form 800-1200 mg of enniatin B per litre during submerged cultivation have been selected. The morphology of F. sambucinum 52377 in the course of growth and production of enniatin B on the selected medium is described. The maximum accumulation of the product is found at the stationary growth phase. The active accumulation of fatty inclusions during this period suggests the participation of metabolism of fatty acids in the biosynthesis of enniatin B.

  10. Biodiversity of the genus Fusarium in saline soil habitats.

    PubMed

    Mandeel, Qaher A

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium species assemblage and diversity were investigated in eight different contrasting extreme saline soil habitats of the hot arid desert environment of Bahrain. Saline habitats are located towards the central-southern part of Bahrain and featured by high electrical conductivity, slightly alkaline sandy soil, poor in nutrient sources and water holding capacity and mainly dominated by a salt-tolerant flora. Quantification of data for the recovery of Fusarium species was based on morphological characters and counts by a series of ten fold dilutions plate method and direct soil plating, using two selective media supplemented with different NaCl concentrations. A total of 68 isolates, fluctuated between 1 and 23 per soil sample, were recovered among all habitats mostly at 0 and 5% NaCl concentrations, while no recovery was achieved at 20 and 25%. Grouping of these isolates has resulted in only five species (F. solani, F. oxysporum, F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti and F. compactum), all of which were previously reported from the arid terrestrial habitats of Bahrain. F. solani was the most predominant species, based on relative density, frequency of occurrence and dominance values, followed by F. oxysporum, a finding consistent with other similar arid Sahara ecosystems. Evaluation of data, supported by analysis of diversity indices and community coefficients, revealed that desert mountain habitat followed by burial mounds habitat were highly homogeneous coupled with maximum species richness, diversity indices and evenness, whereas soil habitats like cliffs, coastal and Al-Lowzy pit were the poorest. Moreover, in vitro tests showed that among other fusaria, F. solani exhibited the highest tolerance to increase NaCl concentrations (25%) and temperature (28.3 mm linear growth at 35 degrees C). At 10% NaCl concentrations, significant reduction in linear growth extensions suppressed all species accompanied by massive thick-walled, drought-resistant chlamydospores

  11. Challenges in ethanol production with Fusarium oxysporum through consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Anasontzis, George E; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum has been reported as being able to both produce the enzymes necessary to degrade lignocellulosic biomass to sugars and also ferment the monosaccharides to ethanol under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions. However, in order to become an economically feasible alternative to other ethanol-producing microorganisms, a better understanding of its physiology, metabolic pathways, and bottlenecks is required, together with an improvement in its efficiency and robustness. In this report, we describe the challenges for the future and give additional justification for our recent publication.

  12. Adaptation of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium dimerum to the specific aquatic environment provided by the water systems of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Christian; Laurent, Julie; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Barbezant, Marie; Sixt, Nathalie; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Bonnin, Alain; Hartemann, Philippe; Sautour, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Members of the Fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. An epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in Dijon and Nancy (France) and in non-hospital buildings in Dijon. The fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of Nancy. All fungi were identified as Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC) by sequencing part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene. Very low diversity was found in each complex, suggesting the existence of a clonal population for each. Density and heterogeneous distributions according to buildings and variability over time were explained by episodic detachments of parts of the colony from biofilms in the pipes. Isolates of these waterborne populations as well as soilborne isolates were tested for their ability to grow in liquid medium in the presence of increasing concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, copper sulfate, anti-corrosion pipe coating, at various temperatures (4°-42 °C) and on agar medium with amphotericin B and voriconazole. The waterborne isolates tolerated higher sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate concentrations and temperatures than did soilborne isolates but did not show any specific resistance to fungicides. In addition, unlike waterborne isolates, soilborne isolates did not survive in water even supplemented with glucose, while the former developed in the soil as well as soilborne isolates. We concluded the existence of homogeneous populations of FOSC and FDSC common to all contaminated hospital sites. These populations are present at very low densities in natural waters, making them difficult to detect, but they are adapted to the specific conditions offered by the complex water systems of public hospitals in Dijon and Nancy and probably other

  13. Insights into natural products biosynthesis from analysis of 490 polyketide synthases from Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daren W; Proctor, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Species of the fungus Fusarium collectively cause disease on almost all crop plants and produce numerous natural products (NPs), including some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to agriculture. Many Fusarium NPs are derived from polyketide synthases (PKSs), large multi-domain enzymes that catalyze sequential condensation of simple carboxylic acids to form polyketides. To gain insight into the biosynthesis of polyketide-derived NPs in Fusarium, we retrieved 488 PKS gene sequences from genome sequences of 31 species of the fungus. In addition to these apparently functional PKS genes, the genomes collectively included 81 pseudogenized PKS genes. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the PKS genes into 67 clades, and based on multiple lines of evidence, we propose that homologs in each clade are responsible for synthesis of a polyketide that is distinct from those synthesized by PKSs in other clades. The presence and absence of PKS genes among the species examined indicated marked differences in distribution of PKS homologs. Comparisons of Fusarium PKS genes and genes flanking them to those from other Ascomycetes provided evidence that Fusarium has the genetic potential to synthesize multiple NPs that are the same or similar to those reported in other fungi, but that have not yet been reported in Fusarium. The results also highlight ways in which such analyses can help guide identification of novel Fusarium NPs and differences in NP biosynthetic capabilities that exist among fungi.

  14. Effect of biofumigation with manure amendments and repeated biosolarization on Fusarium densities in pepper crops.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M A; Martínez, M C; Bielza, P; Tello, J; Lacasa, A

    2011-01-01

    In the region of Murcia (southeast Spain), sweet pepper has been grown as a monoculture in greenhouses for many years. Until 2005, when it was banned, soils were disinfested with methyl bromide (MB) to control pathogens and to prevent soil fatigue effects. The genus Fusarium plays an important role in the microbiological component associated with yield decline in pepper monocultures. In the present study, soils were treated with manure amendments, alone (biofumigation, B) or in combination with solarization (biosolarization, BS), with or without the addition of pepper plant residues. The B and BS treatments were compared with a treatment using MB. The extent of disinfestation was measured from the density of Fusarium spp. isolated from the soil before and after the respective treatments. Three different species were systematically isolated: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium equiseti. The repeated use of manure amendments with pepper crop residues, without solarization, was unable to decrease the Fusarium spp. density (which increased from 2,047.17 CFU g(-1) to 3,157.24 CFU g(-1) before and after soil disinfestation, respectively), unlike MB-treated soil (in which the fungi decreased from 481.39 CFU g(-1) to 23.98 CFU g(-1)). However, the effectiveness of the repeated application of BS in diminishing doses (with or without adding plant residues) on Fusarium populations (reductions greater than 72%) was similar to or even greater than the effect of MB.

  15. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  16. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.

  17. Fusarium species-a promising tool box for industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Pessôa, Marina Gabriel; Paulino, Bruno Nicolau; Mano, Mario Cezar Rodrigues; Neri-Numa, Iramaia Angélica; Molina, Gustavo; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2017-03-25

    Global demand for biotechnological products has increased steadily over the years. Thus, need for optimized processes and reduced costs appear as a key factor in the success of this market. A process tool of high importance is the direct or indirect use of enzymes to catalyze the generation of various substances. Also, obtaining aromas and pigments from natural sources has becoming priority in cosmetic and food industries in order to supply the demand from consumers to substitute synthetic compounds, especially when by-products can be used as starting material for this purpose. Species from Fusarium genera are recognized as promising sources of several enzymes for industrial application as well as biocatalysts in the production of aromas, pigments and second generation biofuels, among others. In addition, secondary metabolites from these strains can present important biological activities for medical field. In this approach, this review brings focus on the use of Fusarium sp. strains in biotechnological production of compounds of industrial interest, showing the most recent researches in this area, results obtained and the best process conditions for each case.

  18. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2010-03-18

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

  19. The induction of mycotoxins by trichothecene producing Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rohan; Jubault, Mélanie; Canning, Gail; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many Fusarium species have emerged which now threaten the productivity and safety of small grain cereal crops worldwide. During floral infection and post-harvest on stored grains the Fusarium hyphae produce various types of harmful mycotoxins which subsequently contaminate food and feed products. This article focuses specifically on the induction and production of the type B sesquiterpenoid trichothecene mycotoxins. Methods are described which permit in liquid culture the small or large scale production and detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its various acetylated derivatives. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ear inoculation assay is also explained which allows the direct comparison of mycotoxin production by species, chemotypes and strains with different growth rates and/or disease-causing abilities. Each of these methods is robust and can be used for either detailed time-course studies or end-point analyses. Various analytical methods are available to quantify the levels of DON, 3A-DON and 15A-DON. Some criteria to be considered when making selections between the different analytical methods available are briefly discussed.

  20. Visualizing and quantifying Fusarium oxysporum in the plant host.

    PubMed

    Diener, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    Host-specific forms of Fusarium oxysporum infect the roots of numerous plant species. I present a novel application of familiar methodology to visualize and quantify F. oxysporum in roots. Infection in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, and cotton was detected with colorimetric reagents that are substrates for Fusarium spp.-derived arabinofuranosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities and without the need for genetic modification of either plant host or fungal pathogen. Similar patterns of blue precipitation were produced by treatment with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside, and these patterns were consistent with prior histological descriptions of F. oxysporum in roots. Infection was quantified in roots of wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis using 4-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside. In keeping with an expectation that disease severity above ground is correlated with F. oxysporum infection below ground, elevated levels of arabinofuranosidase activity were measured in the roots of susceptible agb1 and rfo1 while a reduced level was detected in the resistant eir1. In contrast, disease severity and F. oxysporum infection were uncoupled in tir3. The distribution of staining patterns in roots suggests that AGB1 and RFO1 restrict colonization of the vascular cylinder by F. oxysporum whereas EIR1 promotes colonization of root apices.

  1. Fusarium toxins of the scirpentriol subgroup: a review.

    PubMed

    Schollenberger, Margit; Drochner, Winfried; Müller, Hans-Martin

    2007-09-01

    Scirpentriol and its seven acetylated derivatives comprise a family of type-A trichothecene toxins produced by several species of Fusarium fungi. Out of this group 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol has attracted most attention. It elicits toxic responses in several species and was detected in a variety of substrates. Out of the three possible monoacetylated derivatives 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol and the parent alcohol scirpentriol received some attention, whereas the remaining members of the family were mentioned in few reports. The present review deals with the structure, biosynthesis, analysis and toxicity of scirpentriol toxins. Formation by Fusarium species as well as culture conditions used for toxigenicity studies are reviewed; data about the natural occurrence of scirpentriol toxins in different cereal types, cereal associated products as well as in non-grain matrices including potato and soya bean are reported. Basing on literature reports about the toxicity of scirpentriol toxins an attempt is made to summarise the state of knowledge for risk evaluation for human and animal health.

  2. Advances in Biosensors, Chemosensors and Assays for the Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xialu; Guo, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The contaminations of Fusarium mycotoxins in grains and related products, and the exposure in human body are considerable concerns in food safety and human health worldwide. The common Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For this reason, simple, fast and sensitive analytical techniques are particularly important for the screening and determination of Fusarium mycotoxins. In this review, we outlined the related advances in biosensors, chemosensors and assays based on the classical and novel recognition elements such as antibodies, aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers. Application to food/feed commodities, limit and time of detection were also discussed. PMID:27231937

  3. Cross-Reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Esposto, Maria Carmela; Prigitano, Anna; Grancini, Anna; Ossi, Cristina; Cavanna, Caterina; Cascio, Giuliana Lo

    2012-01-01

    Nine of 11 hematological patients with disseminated/deep-seated Fusarium infection tested at least twice for Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) had repeated positive results in the absence of Aspergillus isolation in culture. The centrifuged supernatants of 12 Fusarium isolates were tested by a GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). All the isolates produced positive reactions when tested undiluted. These results show cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. with Aspergillus GM that may constitute a drawback with respect to the specificity of the Platelia EIA. PMID:22205818

  4. Fatal Fusarium solani infection after stem cell transplant for aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ping; Meng, Fankai; Zhang, Donghua

    2014-08-01

    Fusarium is a saprophytic and opportunistic pathogen that can cause local tissue infection and life-threatening systemic infection. Systemic infection is rare and is observed primarily in immunocompromised patients. The early diagnosis is difficult, and the optimal treatment is unclear. However, the mortality is high. A 21-year-old man with aplastic anemia was treated with an allogeneic stem cell transplant. He developed fatal Fusarium solani infection. Fusarium species may be overlooked pathogenic fungi in immunocompromised patients, especially bone marrow transplant recipients.

  5. Plant Community Richness Mediates Inhibitory Interactions and Resource Competition between Streptomyces and Fusarium Populations in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Essarioui, Adil; LeBlanc, Nicholas; Kistler, Harold C; Kinkel, Linda L

    2017-01-05

    Plant community characteristics impact rhizosphere Streptomyces nutrient competition and antagonistic capacities. However, the effects of Streptomyces on, and their responses to, coexisting microorganisms as a function of plant host or plant species richness have received little attention. In this work, we characterized antagonistic activities and nutrient use among Streptomyces and Fusarium from the rhizosphere of Andropogon gerardii (Ag) and Lespedeza capitata (Lc) plants growing in communities of 1 (monoculture) or 16 (polyculture) plant species. Streptomyces from monoculture were more antagonistic against Fusarium than those from polyculture. In contrast, Fusarium isolates from polyculture had greater inhibitory capacities against Streptomyces than isolates from monoculture. Although Fusarium isolates had on average greater niche widths, the collection of Streptomyces isolates in total used a greater diversity of nutrients for growth. Plant richness, but not plant host, influenced the potential for resource competition between the two taxa. Fusarium isolates had greater niche overlap with Streptomyces in monoculture than polyculture, suggesting greater potential for Fusarium to competitively challenge Streptomyces in monoculture plant communities. In contrast, Streptomyces had greater niche overlap with Fusarium in polyculture than monoculture, suggesting that Fusarium experiences greater resource competition with Streptomyces in polyculture than monoculture. These patterns of competitive and inhibitory phenotypes among Streptomyces and Fusarium populations are consistent with selection for Fusarium-antagonistic Streptomyces populations in the presence of strong Fusarium resource competition in plant monocultures. Similarly, these results suggest selection for Streptomyces-inhibitory Fusarium populations in the presence of strong Streptomyces resource competition in more diverse plant communities. Thus, landscape-scale variation in plant species richness may be

  6. Family disintegration: one fusarium verticillioides beta-lactamase at a time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a mycotoxigenic fungus found commonly on maize, where it primarily exhibits asymptomatic endophytic growth. The F. verticillioides genome possesses approximately 30 regions that potentially encode beta-lactamase enzymatic domains. These enzymes are classically involved ...

  7. Genetic variation in isolates of the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex recovered from cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) includes mycotoxigenic species associated with several diseases of cereals and other crops. These species are considered moderately aggressive and are reported to produce multiple mycotoxins, including beauvericin, zearalenone, equisetin, fusa...

  8. Fumonisin-nonproducing mutants exhibit differential expression of putative polyketide biosynthetic gene clusters in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides produces a group of polyketide derived secondary metabolites called fumonisins. Fumonisins can cause diseases in animals, and have been correlated epidemiologically with esophageal cancer and birth defects in humans. The fumonisin biosynthetic gene clust...

  9. Phylogenetically marking the limits of the genus Fusarium for post-Article 59 usage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is one of the most important and systematically challenging groups of mycotoxigenic, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic fungi. We conducted maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) analyses on partial nucleotide sequences of genes encod...

  10. Two horizontally transferred xenobiotic resistance gene clusters associated with detoxification of benzoxazolinones by Fusarium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbes encounter a broad spectrum of chemical compounds in their diverse environments. These xenobiotics may negatively impact growth or cause death. To counter such adverse effects, many microbes possess metabolic strategies to detoxify and biotransform xenobiotics. Fusarium verticillioides is a ...

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in 207 isolates of Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species are known for their ability to produce secondary metabolites (SMs), including plant hormones, pigments, mycotoxins, and other compounds with potential agricultural, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological impact. Understanding the distribution of SM biosynthetic gene clusters across th...

  12. Activity of Haliscosamine against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis: in vitro and in vivo analysis.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, Belakssem; Biard, Jean François; Ikbal, Fatima Ez-Zohra; El Wahidi, Majida; Kandil, Mostafa; El Amraoui, Mohammed; Fassouane, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are a potential source of new molecules with diverse biological activities. We have previously isolated a sphingosine derivative, (9Z)-2-amino-docos-9-ene-1,3,13,14-tetraol (Haliscosamine) from the Moroccan sea sponge Haliclona viscosa. The aim of this study was to test Haliscosamine in vitro and in vivo for its antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis causing fusarium wilt of melon. Overall, in vitro test showed that haliscosamine has a similar effect as DESOGERME SP VEGETAUX®. In addition, in vivo showed a significant effect against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis. Taking to gather, our results suggest that haliscosamine constitutes a potential candidate against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis and the possibility to use in phytopathology.

  13. Isolation and characterization of two mitoviruses and a putative alphapartitivirus from Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Hideki; Sasaki, Atsuko; Nomiyama, Koji; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Tomioka, Keisuke; Takehara, Toshiaki

    2015-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium spp. includes several important plant pathogens. We attempted to reveal presence of double-stranded (ds) RNAs in the genus. Thirty-seven Fusarium spp. at the MAFF collection were analyzed. In the strains of Fusarium coeruleum, Fusarium globosum and Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, single dsRNA bands were detected. The strains of F. coeruleum and F. solani f. sp. pisi cause potato dry rot and mulberry twig blight, respectively. Sequence analyses revealed that dsRNAs in F. coeruleum and F. globosum consisted of 2423 and 2414 bp, respectively. Using the fungal mitochondrial translation table, the positive strands of these cDNAs were found to contain single open reading frames with the potential to encode a protein of putative 757 and 717 amino acids (molecular mass 88.5 and 84.0 kDa, respectively), similar to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of members of the genus Mitovirus. These dsRNAs in F. coeruleum and F. globosum were assigned to the genus Mitovirus (family Narnaviridae), and these two mitoviruses were designated as Fusarium coeruleum mitovirus 1 and Fusarium globosum mitovirus 1. On the other hand, a positive strand of cDNA (1950 bp) from dsRNA in F. solani f. sp. pisi contained an ORF potentially encoding a putative RdRp of 608 amino acids (72.0 kDa). The putative RdRp was shown to be related to those of members of the genus of Alphapartitivirus (family Partitiviridae). We coined the name Fusarium solani partitivirus 2 for dsRNA in F. solani f. sp. pisi.

  14. Relationships between Genetic Diversity and Fusarium Toxin Profiles of Winter Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Tomasz; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Buśko, Maciej; Boczkowska, Maja; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota; Wiśniewska, Halina; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium head blight is one of the most important and most common diseases of winter wheat. In order to better understanding this disease and to assess the correlations between different factors, 30 cultivars of this cereal were evaluated in a two-year period. Fusarium head blight resistance was evaluated and the concentration of trichothecene mycotoxins was analysed. Grain samples originated from plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum and naturally infected with Fusarium species. The genetic distance between the tested cultivars was determined and data were analysed using multivariate data analysis methods. Genetic dissimilarity of wheat cultivars ranged between 0.06 and 0.78. They were grouped into three distinct groups after cluster analysis of genetic distance. Wheat cultivars differed in resistance to spike and kernel infection and in resistance to spread of Fusarium within a spike (type II). Only B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and nivalenol) produced by F. culmorum in grain samples from inoculated plots were present. In control samples trichothecenes of groups A (H-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, T-2 tetraol, T-2 triol, scirpentriol, diacetoxyscirpenol) and B were detected. On the basis of Fusarium head blight assessment and analysis of trichothecene concentration in the grain relationships between morphological characters, Fusarium head blight resistance and mycotoxins in grain of wheat cultivars were examined. The results were used to create of matrices of distance between cultivars – for trichothecene concentration in inoculated and naturally infected grain as well as for FHB resistance Correlations between genetic distance versus resistance/mycotoxin profiles were calculated using the Mantel test. A highly significant correlation between genetic distance and mycotoxin distance was found for the samples inoculated with Fusarium culmorum. Significant but weak relationships were found between genetic distance matrix and FHB resistance or

  15. The Fdb3 transcription factor of the Fusarium Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone gene cluster is required for MBOA but not BOA degradation in Fusarium pseudograminearum.

    PubMed

    Kettle, Andrew J; Carere, Jason; Batley, Jacqueline; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal; Gardiner, Donald M

    2016-03-01

    A number of cereals produce the benzoxazolinone class of phytoalexins. Fusarium species pathogenic towards these hosts can typically degrade these compounds via an aminophenol intermediate, and the ability to do so is encoded by a group of genes found in the Fusarium Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone (FDB) cluster. A zinc finger transcription factor encoded by one of the FDB cluster genes (FDB3) has been proposed to regulate the expression of other genes in the cluster and hence is potentially involved in benzoxazolinone degradation. Herein we show that Fdb3 is essential for the ability of Fusarium pseudograminearum to efficiently detoxify the predominant wheat benzoxazolinone, 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), but not benzoxazoline-2-one (BOA). Furthermore, additional genes thought to be part of the FDB gene cluster, based upon transcriptional response to benzoxazolinones, are regulated by Fdb3. However, deletion mutants for these latter genes remain capable of benzoxazolinone degradation, suggesting that they are not essential for this process.

  16. [Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum].

    PubMed

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskĭ, D N; Bezborodov, A M

    1979-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis.

  17. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    SciTech Connect

    Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S.D.; Lagashetty, Arunkumar; Rajasab, A.H.; Venkataraman, A.

    2008-05-06

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.

  18. [Biodegradation of agricultural plant residues by Fusarium oxysporum strains].

    PubMed

    Chepchak, T P; Kurchenko, I N; Iur'eva, E M

    2014-01-01

    The cellulolytic and endoglucanase activity of Fusarium oxysporum strains isolated from soil and plants in the media with plant waste as carbon source has been studied. It was established that the majority of studied strains were able to hydrolyze the filter paper, husk of sunflower seeds, wheat straw and corn stalks. Cellulolytic activity depended on the strain of microscopic fungi, type of substrate and duration of cultivation. The maximum cellulase activity 1 U/ml and the concentration of reducing sugars -0.875 mg/ml were found in soil strain F. oxysporum 420 in the medium with corn stalks. Endoglucanase activity of plant pathogenic strains was higher than that of soil ones.

  19. Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  20. Assessment of Parasitic Activity of Fusarium Strains Obtained from a Heterodera schachtii-Suppressive Soil

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuebiao; Yin, Bei; Borneman, James; Becker, J. Ole

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the potential impact of various Fusarium strains on the population development of sugarbeet cyst nematodes. Fungi were isolated from cysts or eggs of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt that were obtained from a field suppressive to that nematode. Twenty-six strains of Fusarium spp. were subjected to a phylogenic analysis of their rRNA-ITS nucleotide sequences. Seven genetically distinct Fusarium strains were evaluated for their ability to influence population development of H. schachtii and crop performance in greenhouse trials. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) seedlings were transplanted into fumigated field soil amended with a single fungal strain at 1,000 propagules/g soil. One week later, the soil was infested with 250 H. schachtii J2/100 cm3 soil. Parasitized eggs were present in all seven Fusarium treatments at 1,180 degree-days after fungal infestation. The percentage of parasitism ranged from 17 to 34%. Although the most efficacious F. oxysporum strain 471 produced as many parasitized eggs as occurred in the original suppressive soil, none of the Fusarium strains reduced the population density of H. schachtii compared to the conducive check. This supports prior results that Fusarium spp. were not the primary cause of the population suppression of sugarbeet cyst nematodes at this location. PMID:19259511

  1. Saprophytic and Potentially Pathogenic Fusarium Species from Peat Soil in Perak and Pahang

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nurul Farah Abdul; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Nor, Nik Mohd Izham Mohd; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of Fusarium were discovered in peat soil samples collected from peat swamp forest, waterlogged peat soil, and peat soil from oil palm plantations. Morphological characteristics were used to tentatively identify the isolates, and species confirmation was based on the sequence of translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the closest match of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches against the GenBank and Fusarium-ID databases, five Fusarium species were identified, namely F. oxysporum (60%), F. solani (23%), F. proliferatum (14%), F. semitectum (1%), and F. verticillioides (1%). From a neighbour-joining tree of combined TEF-1α and β-tubulin sequences, isolates from the same species were clustered in the same clade, though intraspecies variations were observed from the phylogenetic analysis. The Fusarium species isolated in the present study are soil inhabitants and are widely distributed worldwide. These species can act as saprophytes and decomposers as well as plant pathogens. The presence of Fusarium species in peat soils suggested that peat soils could be a reservoir of plant pathogens, as well-known plant pathogenic species such F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides were identified. The results of the present study provide knowledge on the survival and distribution of Fusarium species. PMID:27019679

  2. Influence of agro-environmental factors on fusarium infestation and population structure in wheat kernels.

    PubMed

    Rohácik, Tibor; Hudec, Kamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of location, year and cultivar on occurrence, level of infestation and Fusarium species spectrum in winter wheat seeds were evaluated. The wheat seeds from different cultivars and localities of the Slovak Republic were used for Fusarium species evaluation during years 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2003. The significant influence of the locality on total Fusarium kernel infestation was confirmed. The total sample infestation was significantly higher in the colder and moister localities, lower infestation was in warmer and dryer ones. Cultivar "Astella" was significantly the most susceptible. The widest Fusarium species spectrum was recorded in the locations with a high level of total kernel infestation. In localities with lower infestation, the species spectrum was less numerous. F. poae was the dominant species in all locations. The species F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and Microdochium nivale were subdominant and relatively frequent in the locations with higher altitude. The frequency and density of other isolated species (F. graminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. tricinctum, F. semitectum, F. acuminatum, F. heterosporum, F. sambucinum, F. solani, F. compactum and F. oxysporum) was trivial in all localities. The kernel infestation and Fusarium population structure in wheat grains mostly depends on microclimatic condition of the locality. Rising of rainfall rate and altitude led to an increase in the species spectrum. The wide Fusarium species spectrum is connected with the high frequency of coincident species. The species with low and medium frequency achieved low or trivial density in population structure.

  3. Saprophytic and Potentially Pathogenic Fusarium Species from Peat Soil in Perak and Pahang.

    PubMed

    Karim, Nurul Farah Abdul; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Nor, Nik Mohd Izham Mohd; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2016-02-01

    Isolates of Fusarium were discovered in peat soil samples collected from peat swamp forest, waterlogged peat soil, and peat soil from oil palm plantations. Morphological characteristics were used to tentatively identify the isolates, and species confirmation was based on the sequence of translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the closest match of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches against the GenBank and Fusarium-ID databases, five Fusarium species were identified, namely F. oxysporum (60%), F. solani (23%), F. proliferatum (14%), F. semitectum (1%), and F. verticillioides (1%). From a neighbour-joining tree of combined TEF-1α and β-tubulin sequences, isolates from the same species were clustered in the same clade, though intraspecies variations were observed from the phylogenetic analysis. The Fusarium species isolated in the present study are soil inhabitants and are widely distributed worldwide. These species can act as saprophytes and decomposers as well as plant pathogens. The presence of Fusarium species in peat soils suggested that peat soils could be a reservoir of plant pathogens, as well-known plant pathogenic species such F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides were identified. The results of the present study provide knowledge on the survival and distribution of Fusarium species.

  4. An update to polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal synthetase genes and nomenclature in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Frederik T; Gardiner, Donald M; Lysøe, Erik; Fuertes, Patricia Romans; Tudzynski, Bettina; Wiemann, Philipp; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Giese, Henriette; Brodersen, Ditlev E; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-02-01

    Members of the genus Fusarium produce a plethora of bioactive secondary metabolites, which can be harmful to humans and animals or have potential in drug development. In this study we have performed comparative analyses of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) from ten different Fusarium species including F. graminearum (two strains), F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum, F. fujikuroi, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. equiseti, and F. oxysporum (12 strains). This led to identification of 52 NRPS and 52 PKSs orthology groups, respectively, and although not all PKSs and NRPSs are assumed to be intact or functional, the analyses illustrate the huge secondary metabolite potential in Fusarium. In our analyses we identified a core collection of eight NRPSs (NRPS2-4, 6, 10-13) and two PKSs (PKS3 and PKS7) that are conserved in all strains analyzed in this study. The identified PKSs and NRPSs were named based on a previously developed classification system (www.FusariumNRPSPKS.dk). We suggest this system be used when PKSs and NRPSs have to be classified in future sequenced Fusarium strains. This system will facilitate identification of orthologous and non-orthologous NRPSs and PKSs from newly sequenced Fusarium genomes and will aid the scientific community by providing a common nomenclature for these two groups of genes/enzymes.

  5. Expression of vitamin D receptor and cathelicidin in human corneal epithelium cells during fusarium solani infection

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Lin; Xia, Yi-Ping; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Lin, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Li-Ting; Qu, Jian-Qiu; Peng, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    AIM To observe the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in human specimen and immortalized human corneal epithelium cells (HCEC) when challenged with fusarium solani. Moreover, we decided to discover the pathway of VDR expression. Also, we would like to detect the expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) in the downstream pathway of VDR. METHODS Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the VDR expression in HCEC from healthy and fungal keratitis patients. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to observe the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) change of VDR when immortalized HCEC were challenged with fusarium solani for different hours. CAMP was detected at both mRNA and protein levels. RESULTS We found out that the VDR expression in fusarium solani keratitis patients' specimen was much more than that in healthy people. The mRNA and protein expression of VDR increased when we stimulated HCEC with fusarium solani antigen (P<0.01) and it could be inhibited by toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) monoclonal antibody. The CAMP expression was decreased because of fusarium solani antigen stimulation (P<0.01). CONCLUSION The VDR expression can be increased via TLR2/1-VDR pathway while the CAMP expression is decreased by the stimulation of fusarium solani antigen. PMID:26558193

  6. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H; Geiser, David M

    2011-12-01

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections.

  7. Molecular identification of entomopathogenic Fusarium species associated with Tribolium species in stored grains.

    PubMed

    Chehri, Khosrow

    2017-03-01

    Fusarium species are common pathogens of plants, animals and insects worldwide, including Iran. The occurrence of entomopathogenic Fusarium species isolated from Tribolium species as one of the most important insect pests of stored grains were sampled from various provinces in western Iran. In total, 15 Tribolium species belonging to T. castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum (Du Val) (Col: Tenebrionidae) were detected and 8 isolates from Fusarium spp. were collected from them. Based on morphological features, the Fusarium isolates were classified into F. keratoplasticum and F. proliferatum. The phylogenetic trees based on tef1 dataset clearly separated all morphological taxa. DNA sequences of ITS regions and β-tubulin gene were also confirmed morphological taxa. All of the Fusarium isolates were evaluated for their pathogenicity on T. confusum. Maximum mortality rate was observed for F. keratoplasticum (isolate FSSCker2) and this isolate may be considered as a good candidate for biological control in the ecosystem of stored grains. This is the first report on molecular identification of Fusarium species isolated from insects in Iran and F. keratoplasticum and F. proliferatum were isolated for the first time from Tribolium species as two entomopathogenic fungi.

  8. Negative correlation between phospholipase and esterase activity produced by Fusarium isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, K.; Alviano, D.S.; Silva, B.G.; Guerra, C.R.; Costa, A.S.; Nucci, M.; Alviano, C.S.; Rozental, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium species have emerged as one of the more outstanding groups of clinically important filamentous fungi, causing localized and life-threatening invasive infections with high morbidity and mortality. The ability to produce different types of hydrolytic enzymes is thought to be an important virulence mechanism of fungal pathogens and could be associated with the environment of the microorganism. Here, we have measured the production of two distinct lipolytic enzymes, phospholipase and esterase, by sixteen Fusarium isolates recovered from the hospital environment, immunocompromised patients' blood cultures, foot interdigital space scrapings from immunocompromised patients, and foot interdigital space scrapings from immunocompetent patients (4 isolates each). Fourteen of these 16 isolates were identified as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and two were identified as F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC). Some relevant genus characteristics were visualized by light and electron microscopy such as curved and multicelled macroconidia with 3 or 4 septa, microconidia, phialides, and abundant chlamydospores. All Fusarium isolates were able to produce esterase and phospholipase under the experimental conditions. However, a negative correlation was observed between these two enzymes, indicating that a Fusarium isolate with high phospholipase activity has low esterase activity and vice versa. In addition, Fusarium isolated from clinical material produced more phospholipases, while environmental strains produced more esterases. These observations may be correlated with the different types of substrates that these fungi need to degrade during their nutrition processes. PMID:22415116

  9. Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mycotoxin producing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals in fields worldwide. Although F. graminearum is highly investigated by means of molecular genetics, detailed studies about hyphal development during initial infection stages are rare. In addition, the role of mycotoxins during initial infection stages of FHB is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the infection strategy of the fungus on different floral organs of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under real time conditions by constitutive expression of the dsRed reporter gene in a TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Additionally, trichothecene induction during infection was visualised with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) coupled TRI5 promoter. A tissue specific infection pattern and TRI5 induction were tested by using different floral organs of wheat. Through combination of bioimaging and electron microscopy infection structures were identified and characterised. In addition, the role of trichothecene production for initial infection was elucidated by a ΔTRI5-GFP reporter strain. Results The present investigation demonstrates the formation of foot structures and compound appressoria by F. graminearum. All infection structures developed from epiphytic runner hyphae. Compound appressoria including lobate appressoria and infection cushions were observed on inoculated caryopses, paleas, lemmas, and glumes of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. A specific trichothecene induction in infection structures was demonstrated by different imaging techniques. Interestingly, a ΔTRI5-GFP mutant formed the same infection structures and exhibited a similar symptom development compared to the wild type and the TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Conclusions The different specialised infection structures of F. graminearum on wheat florets, as described in this study, indicate that the penetration strategy of this fungus is far more complex than postulated to

  10. Development of cycling probe-based real-time PCR system to detect Fusarium species and Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC).

    PubMed

    Muraosa, Yasunori; Schreiber, Angelica Zaninelli; Trabasso, Plínio; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Taguchi, Hideaki; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Mikami, Yuzuru; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, we developed a new real-time PCR system based on the cycling probe technology (CPT), which is composed of two single tube real-time PCR assays: the Fusarium genus-specific assay and the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC)-specific assay with primers targeting the 28s ribosomal RNA gene. The Fusarium genus-specific assay was shown to be highly specific, detecting all reference Fusarium strains with no cross-reaction with other reference fungal strains, such as Aspergillus spp. and human DNA. The FSSC-specific assay also reacted very specifically with FSSC, except for a cross-reaction with Fusarium lunatum. To validate the real-time PCR system, we tested 87 clinical isolates of Fusarium spp. Identification results from the real-time PCR system were found to be 100% concordant with those from DNA sequencing of EF-1α gene. The sensitivity testing also demonstrated high sensitivity, enabling detection of one copy of standard DNA with good reproducibility. Furthermore, both assays were shown to be extremely sensitive even when fungal cells were mixed with human cells, detecting 3 germinated conidia spiked in 3mL of human blood. To apply our new real-time PCR system to the molecular diagnosis of fusariosis, we evaluated its efficacy using a mouse model of invasive F. solani infection. Plasma and whole blood samples of infected mice were tested using the real-time PCR system. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR system was found to be 100% (n=4) in plasma samples. In contrast, no amplification signal was detected in whole blood samples. This system could provide a rapid and precise diagnostic tool for early diagnosis, which is necessary for appropriate treatment and improvement of prognosis of disseminated fusariosis.

  11. Inhibitory effects of gossypol, gossypolone, and apogossypolone on a collection of economically important filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Racemic gossypol and derivatives gossypolone and apogossypolone demonstrated significant growth inhibition against a diverse collection of filamentous fungi that included Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. alliaceus, A. fumigatus, Fusarium graminearum, F. moniliforme, Penicillium chrysogenum, P....

  12. Effect of salicylic acid on Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of fusarium head blight in wheat.

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng-Fei; Johnston, Anne; Balcerzak, Margaret; Rocheleau, Hélène; Harris, Linda J; Long, Xiang-Yu; Wei, Yu-Ming; Zheng, You-Liang; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2012-03-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the key signal molecules in regulating plant resistance to diverse pathogens. In Arabidopsis thaliana, it is predominantly associated with resistance against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, and triggering systemic acquired resistance. In contrast, the effect of SA on the defence efficiency of wheat against fusarium head blight (FHB) and its causal agent, Fusarium graminearum, is still poorly understood. Here we show that the F. graminearum mycelial growth and conidia germination were significantly inhibited, and eventually halted in the presence of increasing concentration of SA in both liquid and solid media. Addition of SA also significantly reduced the production of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). However the inhibitory effect of SA required acidic growth conditions to be observed while basic conditions allowed F. graminearum to use SA as a carbon source. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the capacity of F. graminearum to metabolize SA. To better understand the effect of SA on F. graminearum mycelial growth, we have compared the expression profiles of SA-treated and untreated F. graminearum liquid cultures after 8 and 24 h of treatment, using an F. graminearum custom-commercial microarray. The microarray analysis suggested that F. graminearum can metabolize SA through either the catechol or gentisate pathways that are present in some fungal species. Inoculation of F. graminearum conidia in a SA-containing solution has led to reduced FHB symptoms in the very susceptible Triticum aestivum cv. Roblin. In contrast, no inhibition was observed when SA and conidia were inoculated sequentially. The expression patterns for the wheat PR1, NPR1, Pdf1.2, and PR4 genes, a group of indicator genes for the defence response, suggested that SA-induced resistance contributed little to the reduction of symptoms in our assay conditions. Our results demonstrate that, although F. graminearum has the capacity to

  13. The Status of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Emerging Trends and Post-Harvest Mitigation Strategies towards Food Control

    PubMed Central

    Chilaka, Cynthia Adaku; De Boevre, Marthe; Atanda, Olusegun Oladimeji; De Saeger, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium fungi are common plant pathogens causing several plant diseases. The presence of these molds in plants exposes crops to toxic secondary metabolites called Fusarium mycotoxins. The most studied Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes. Studies have highlighted the economic impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. These arrays of toxins have been implicated as the causal agents of wide varieties of toxic health effects in humans and animals ranging from acute to chronic. Global surveillance of Fusarium mycotoxins has recorded significant progress in its control; however, little attention has been paid to Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, thus translating to limited occurrence data. In addition, legislative regulation is virtually non-existent. The emergence of modified Fusarium mycotoxins, which may contribute to additional toxic effects, worsens an already precarious situation. This review highlights the status of Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, the possible food processing mitigation strategies, as well as future perspectives. PMID:28067768

  14. Evaluation of the removal of pyrene and fluoranthene by Ochrobactrum anthropi, Fusarium sp. and their coculture.

    PubMed

    Ortega-González, Diana K; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Flores-Ortíz, César M; Cruz-Maya, Juan A; Cancino-Díaz, Juan C; Jan-Roblero, J

    2015-01-01

    Fluoranthene and pyrene are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of high molecular weight that are recalcitrant and toxic to humans; therefore, their removal from the environment is crucial. From hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, 25 bacteria and 12 filamentous fungi capable of growth on pyrene and fluoranthene as the sole carbon and energy source were isolated. From these isolates, Ochrobactrum anthropi BPyF3 and Fusarium sp. FPyF1 were selected and identified because they grew quickly and abundantly in both hydrocarbons. Furthermore, O. anthropi BPyF3 and Fusarium sp. FPyF1 were most efficient at removing pyrene (50.39 and 51.32 %, respectively) and fluoranthene (49.85 and 49.36 %, respectively) from an initial concentration of 50 mg L(-1) after 7 days of incubation. Based on this and on the fact that there was no antagonism between the two microorganisms, a coculture composed of O. anthropi BPyF3 and Fusarium sp. FPyF1 was formed to remove fluoranthene and pyrene at an initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1) in a removal kinetic assay during 21 days. Fluoranthene removal by the coculture was higher (87.95 %) compared with removal from the individual cultures (68.95 % for Fusarium sp. FPyF1 and 64.59 % for O. anthropi BPyF3). In contrast, pyrene removal by the coculture (99.68 %) was similar to that obtained by the pure culture of Fusarium sp. FPyF1 (99.75 %). The kinetics of removal for both compounds was adjusted to a first-order model. This work demonstrates that the coculture formed by Fusarium sp. FPyF1 and O. anthropi BPyF3 has greater potential to remove fluoranthene than individual cultures; however, pyrene can be removed efficiently by Fusarium sp. FPyF1 alone.

  15. Fusarium toxins and fungi associated with handling of grain on eight Finnish farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Sanna; Nikulin, Marjo; Berg, Seija; Parikka, Päivi; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa

    Farmers' exposure to airborne dust, fungi and possibly also to Fusarium toxins during the drying and milling of grain and feeding of cattle was studied on eight Finnish farms. Airborne viable and total spores were collected on polycarbonate filters. Spore concentrations and fungal flora were determined by cultivation and epifluorescence microscope counting. Eighteen airborne dust samples were taken on glass-fiber filters with a high-volume sampler, and biological toxicity was tested from those samples. In toxic dust samples, Fusarium toxins were analyzed with a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Fungi and Fusarium toxins were also analyzed in ten grain samples collected from the farms during the air sampling. Yeasts, as well as species of Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Absidia and Fusarium occurred in the air at all three stages of grain handling. Airborne spore concentrations ranged from 103 to 10 6 cfu m -3 for viable fungi and from 10 5 to 10 7 spores m -3 for total spores; airborne dust concentrations varied from 0.04 to 81.1 mg m -3. Low deoxynivalenol concentrations (3 and 20 ng m -3) were found in two air samples collected during milling. Fusarium spp. were identified in eight grain samples, and DON concentrations of 0.004-11 mg kg -1 were detected in all samples analyzed. Although any conclusion on Finnish farmers' exposure to mycotoxins cannot be done on the basis of this small data, it can be assumed that toxigenic fungi and Fusarium toxins may occur in the air and inhalation exposure of farmers to Fusarium toxins is possible in agricultural environment.

  16. Fusarium infection in lung transplant patients: report of 6 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Herman A; Coleman, Jeffrey J; Restrepo, Alejandro; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium is a fungal pathogen of immunosuppressed lung transplant patients associated with a high mortality in those with severe and persistent neutropenia. The principle portal of entry for Fusarium species is the airways, and lung involvement almost always occurs among lung transplant patients with disseminated infection. In these patients, the immunoprotective mechanisms of the transplanted lungs are impaired, and they are, therefore, more vulnerable to Fusarium infection. As a result, fusariosis occurs in up to 32% of lung transplant patients. We studied fusariosis in 6 patients following lung transplantation who were treated at Massachusetts General Hospital during an 8-year period and reviewed 3 published cases in the literature. Cases were identified by the microbiology laboratory and through discharge summaries. Patients presented with dyspnea, fever, nonproductive cough, hemoptysis, and headache. Blood tests showed elevated white blood cell counts with granulocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Cultures of Fusarium were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, and sputum specimens.Treatments included amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, voriconazole, and posaconazole, either alone or in combination. Lung involvement occurred in all patients with disseminated disease and it was associated with a poor outcome. The mortality rate in this group of patients was high (67%), and of those who survived, 1 patient was treated with a combination of amphotericin B and voriconazole, 1 patient with amphotericin B, and 1 patient with posaconazole. Recommended empirical treatment includes voriconazole, amphotericin B or liposomal amphotericin B first-line, and posaconazole for refractory disease. High-dose amphotericin B is recommended for treatment of most cases of fusariosis. The echinocandins (for example, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) are generally avoided because Fusarium species have intrinsic resistance to them. Treatment

  17. Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance.

  18. Cross-Species Hybridization with Fusarium verticillioides Microarrays Reveals New Insights into Fusarium fujikuroi Nitrogen Regulation and the Role of AreA and NMR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In filamentous fungi, the GATA-type transcription factor AreA plays a major role in transcriptional activation of genes needed to utilize poor nitrogen sources. Previously we have shown that in Fusarium fujikuroi AreA also controls genes involved in biosynthesis of nitrogen-free secondary metabolit...

  19. Proteomics of Fusarium oxysporum race 1 and race 4 reveals enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport that might play important roles in banana Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Yi, Xiaoping; Peng, Ming; Zeng, Huicai; Wang, Dan; Li, Bo; Tong, Zheng; Chang, Lili; Jin, Xiang; Wang, Xuchu

    2014-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt is a soil-spread fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. In China, the main virulence fungi in banana are F. oxysporum race 1 (F1, weak virulence) and race 4 (F4, strong virulence). To date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between F1 and F4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. Here we report the first comparative proteomics of F1 and F4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 protein species, which represent 59 unique proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, post-translational modification, energy production, and inorganic ion transport. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that among the 46 proteins identified from F4 were several enzymes that might be important for virulence. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes for 15 of the 56 proteins revealed that their transcriptional patterns were similar to their protein expression patterns. Taken together, these data suggest that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport may be important in the pathogenesis of banana Fusarium wilt. Some enzymes such as catalase-peroxidase, galactosidase and chitinase might contribute to the strong virulence of F4. Overexpression or knockout of the genes for the F4-specific proteins will help us to further understand the molecular mechanism of Fusarium-induced banana wilt.

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to Fusarium crown rot (Fusarium pseudograminearum) in multiple assay environments in the Pacific Northwestern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR), caused by F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum, reduces wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the U.S. by as much as 35%. Resistance to FCR has not yet been discovered in currently grown PNW wheat cultivars. Several significant quantitative t...

  1. Potential use of antioxidants for control of growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on whole maize grain.

    PubMed

    Torres, A M; Ramirez, M L; Arroyo, M; Chulze, S N; Magan, N

    2003-06-25

    The effect of interactions between two food grade antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl paraben (PP, 100, 200, 500 microg g(-1)) and water activity (a(w), 0.995, 0.98, 0.95) of irradiated maize on lag phase prior to growth, growth rate and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated at 25 degrees C. Both antioxidants had an effect on growth characteristics, and fumonisin production. However, this was dependent on the dose used and the a(w) treatment. At 500 microg g(-1) BHA and PP increased the lag phase prior to growth, and reduced the growth rate of both Fusarium species significantly, especially at 0.95 a(w). Both antioxidants significantly reduced the production of fumonisin by both Fusarium species, especially at 0.98 and 0.95 a(w). These results suggest that these antioxidants have potential for treatment of maize grain for controlling growth of these mycotoxigenic species and prevent fumonisin accumulation.

  2. Vinegar residue compost as a growth substrate enhances cucumber resistance against the Fusarium wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum by regulating physiological and biochemical responses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Yuan, Yinghui; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) is the most severe soil-borne disease attacking cucumber. To assess the positive effects of vinegar residue substrate (VRS) on the growth and incidence of Fusarium wilt on cucumber, we determined the cucumber growth parameters, disease severity, defense-related enzyme and pathogenesis-related (PR) protein activities, and stress-related gene expression levels. In in vitro and pot experiments, we demonstrated the following results: (i) the VRS extract exhibited a higher biocontrol activity than that of peat against FOC, and significantly improved the growth inhibition of FOC, with values of 48.3 %; (ii) in response to a FOC challenge, antioxidant enzymes and the key enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolic activities, as well as the PR protein activities in the roots of cucumber, were significantly increased. Moreover, the activities of these proteins were higher in VRS than in peat; (iii) the expression levels of stress-related genes (including glu, pal, and ethylene receptor) elicited responses to the pathogens inoculated in cucumber leaves; and (iv) the FOC treatment significantly inhibited the growth of cucumber seedlings. Moreover, all of the growth indices of plants grown in VRS were significantly higher than those grown in peat. These results offer a new strategy to control cucumber Fusarium wilt, by upregulating the activity levels of defense-related enzymes and PR proteins and adjusting gene expression levels. They also provide a theoretical basis for VRS applications.

  3. Progress in breeding for tolerance to Fusarium wilt (FOV) races 1 and 4 in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vulnerability of cotton production in California to Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV)] highlights the need for comprehensive research to protect the future of the cotton industry in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). A recently identified problematic strain of Fusarium (race ...

  4. Species and trichothecene genotypes of the Fusarium graminearum species complex causing head blight of wheat in Rio Grande do Sul State, 2011 season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of global concern to wheat especially where legislation sets maximum limits for Fusarium mycotoxins, including Brazil. The disease is caused by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) which are commonly classified into three trichothecene ch...

  5. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4–8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125–2 μg/ml and 1–4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy

  6. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium-Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sink, Stacy; Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Hulcr, Jiri; Kasson, Matthew T; Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, Joshua L; Ploetz, Jill N; Carrillo, Daniel; Campbell, Alina; Duncan, Rita E; Liyanage, Pradeepa N H; Eskalen, Akif; Na, Francis; Geiser, David M; Bateman, Craig; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Sharon, Michal; Aoki, Takayuki; Cossé, Allard A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-09-01

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symbionts in paired mandibular mycangia from their natal gallery to woody hosts where they are cultivated in galleries as a source of food. Native to Asia, several exotic Euwallacea species were introduced into the United States and Israel within the past two decades and they now threaten urban landscapes, forests and avocado production. To assess species limits and to date the evolutionary diversification of the mutualists, we reconstructed the evolutionary histories of key representatives of the Fusarium and Euwallacea clades using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Twelve species-level lineages, termed AF 1-12, were identified within the monophyletic AFC and seven among the Fusarium-farming Euwallacea. Bayesian diversification-time estimates placed the origin of the Euwallacea-Fusarium mutualism near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary ∼19-24 Mya. Most Euwallacea spp. appear to be associated with one species of Fusarium, but two species farmed two closely related fusaria. Euwallacea sp. #2 in Miami-Dade County, Florida cultivated Fusarium spp. AF-6 and AF-8 on avocado, and Euwallacea sp. #4 farmed Fusarium ambrosium AF-1 and Fusarium sp. AF-11 on Chinese tea in Sri Lanka. Cophylogenetic analyses indicated that the Euwallacea and Fusarium phylogenies were largely incongruent, apparently due to the beetles switching fusarial symbionts (i.e., host shifts) at least five times during the evolution of this mutualism. Three cospeciation events between Euwallacea and their AFC symbionts were detected, but randomization tests failed to reject the null hypothesis that the putative parallel cladogenesis is a stochastic pattern. Lastly, two collections of Euwallacea sp. #2 from Miami

  7. Combined effect of chitosan and water activity on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize-based media.

    PubMed

    Ferrochio, Laura V; Cendoya, Eugenia; Zachetti, Vanessa G L; Farnochi, Maria C; Massad, Walter; Ramirez, Maria L

    2014-08-18

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the in vitro efficacy of chitosan (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mg/mL) under different water availabilities (0.995, 0.99, 0.98, 0.96 and 0.93) at 25°C on lag phase, growth rate and fumonisin production by isolates of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. The presence of chitosan affected growth and fumonisin production, and this effect was dependent on the dose and aW treatment used. The presence of chitosan increased the lag phase, and reduced the growth rate of both Fusarium species significantly at all concentrations used, especially at 0.93 aW. Also, significant reduction of fumonisin production was observed in both Fusarium species at all conditions assayed. The present study has shown the combined effects of chitosan and aW on growth and fumonisin production by the two most important Fusarium species present on maize. Low molecular weight (Mw) chitosan with more than 70% of degree of deacetylation (DD) at 0.5mg/mL was able to significantly reduce growth rate and fumonisin production on maize-based media, with maximum levels of reduction in both parameters obtained at the highest doses used. As fumonisins are unavoidable contaminants in food and feed chains, their presence needs to be reduced to minimize their effects on human and animal health and to diminish the annual market loss through rejected maize. In this scenario post-harvest use of chitosan could be an important alternative treatment.

  8. Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    PubMed

    Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

    2004-01-01

    A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and β-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia × hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. × hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens.

  9. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950–2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures. PMID:26225823

  10. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures.

  11. Nitrate Increased Cucumber Tolerance to Fusarium Wilt by Regulating Fungal Toxin Production and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jinyan; Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Saydin, Asanjan; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber Fusarium wilt, induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), causes severe losses in cucumber yield and quality. Nitrogen (N), as the most important mineral nutrient for plants, plays a critical role in plant–pathogen interactions. Hydroponic assays were conducted to investigate the effects of different N forms (NH4+ vs. NO3‒) and supply levels (low, 1 mM; high, 5 mM) on cucumber Fusarium wilt. The NO3‒-fed cucumber plants were more tolerant to Fusarium wilt compared with NH4+-fed plants, and accompanied by lower leaf temperature after FOC infection. The disease index decreased as the NO3‒ supply increased but increased with the NH4+ level supplied. Although the FOC grew better under high NO3− in vitro, FOC colonization and fusaric acid (FA) production decreased in cucumber plants under high NO3− supply, associated with lower leaf membrane injury. There was a positive correlation between the FA content and the FOC number or relative membrane injury. After the exogenous application of FA, less FA accumulated in the leaves under NO3− feeding, accompanied with a lower leaf membrane injury. In conclusion, higher NO3− supply protected cucumber plants against Fusarium wilt by suppressing FOC colonization and FA production in plants, and increasing the plant tolerance to FA. PMID:28287458

  12. Paenibacillus polymyxa NSY50 suppresses Fusarium wilt in cucumbers by regulating the rhizospheric microbial community.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Li, Shuzhan; Guo, Shirong

    2017-02-13

    Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa) NSY50, isolated from vinegar residue substrate, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NSY50 application on cucumber growth, soil properties and composition of the rhizospheric soil microbial community after exposure to Fusarium oxysporum. Bacterial and fungal communities were investigated by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1 and ITS2). The results showed that NSY50 effectively reduced the incidence of Fusarium wilt (56.4%) by altering the soil physico-chemical properties (e.g., pH, Cmic, Rmic, total N and Corg) and enzyme activities, especially of urease and β-glucosidase, which were significantly increased by 2.25- and 2.64-fold, respectively, relative to the pathogen treatment condition. More specifically, NSY50 application reduced the abundance of Fusarium and promoted potentially beneficial groups, including the Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Streptomyces, Actinospica, Catenulispora and Pseudomonas genera. Thus, our results suggest that NSY50 application can improve soil properties, shift the microbial community by increasing beneficial strains and decreasing pathogen colonization in the cucumber rhizosphere, and reduce the occurrence of cucumber Fusarium wilt, thereby promoting cucumber growth.

  13. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  14. Fusarium species causing eumycetoma: Report of two cases and comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren; Ahmed, Sarah A

    2017-03-01

    Recently, mycetoma was added to the World Health Organization's list of neglected tropical disease priorities. Fusarium as a genus has been reported to cause eumycetoma, but little is known about the species involved in this infection and their identification. In this study, molecular tools were applied to identify Fusarium agents from human eumycetoma cases. The partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene was used as diagnostic parameter. Two additional cases of eumycetoma, due to F. keratoplasticum and F. pseudensiforme, respectively, are presented. A systematic literature review was performed to assess general features, identification, treatment and outcome of eumycetoma infections due to Fusarium species. Of the 20 reviewed patients, the majority (75%) were male. Most agents belonged to the F. solani species complex, ie F. keratoplasticum, F. pseudensiforme, and an undescribed lineage of F. solani. In addition, F. thapsinum, a member of Fusarium fujikuroi species complex was encountered. The main antifungal drugs used were itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B, but cure rates were low (15%). Partial response or relapse was observed in some cases, and a case ended in amputation. Clinical management of eumycetoma due to Fusarium is complex and combination therapy might be required to increase cure rates.

  15. Fusarium culmorum is a single phylogenetic species based on multilocus sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Obanor, Friday; Erginbas-Orakci, G; Tunali, B; Nicol, J M; Chakraborty, S

    2010-09-01

    Fusarium culmorum is a major pathogen of wheat and barley causing head blight and crown rot in cooler temperate climates of Australia, Europe, West Asia and North Africa. To better understand its evolutionary history we partially sequenced single copy nuclear genes encoding translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF), reductase (RED) and phosphate permease (PHO) in 100 F. culmorum isolates with 11 isolates of Fusarium crookwellense, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium pseudograminearum. Phylogenetic analysis of multilocus sequence (MLS) data using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony analysis showed that F. culmorum from wheat is a single phylogenetic species with no significant linkage disequilibrium and little or no lineage development along geographic origin. Both MLS and TEF and RED gene sequence analysis separated the four Fusarium species used and delineated three to four groups within the F. culmorum clade. But the PHO gene could not completely resolve isolates into their respective species. Fixation index and gene flow suggest significant genetic exchange between the isolates from distant geographic regions. A lack of strong lineage structure despite the geographic separation of the three collections indicates a frequently recombining species and/or widespread distribution of genotypes due to international trade, tourism and long-range dispersal of macroconidia. Moreover, the two mating type genes were present in equal proportion among the F. culmorum collection used in this study, leaving open the possibility of sexual reproduction.

  16. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R. N.; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg). PMID:22069576

  17. An antibody that confers plant disease resistance targets a membrane-bound glyoxal oxidase in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiu-Shi; Xing, Shu; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Qu, Bo; Jiang, Jin-He; Fan, Chao; Yang, Peng; Liu, Jin-Long; Hu, Zu-Quan; Xue, Sheng; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-05-01

    Plant germplasm resources with natural resistance against globally important toxigenic Fusarium are inadequate. CWP2, a Fusarium genus-specific antibody, confers durable resistance to different Fusarium pathogens that infect cereals and other crops, producing mycotoxins. However, the nature of the CWP2 target is not known. Thus, investigation of the gene coding for the CWP2 antibody target will likely provide critical insights into the mechanism underlying the resistance mediated by this disease-resistance antibody. Immunoblots and mass spectrometry analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels containing cell wall proteins from Fusarium graminearum (Fg) revealed that a glyoxal oxidase (GLX) is the CWP2 antigen. Cellular localization studies showed that GLX is localized to the plasma membrane. This GLX efficiently catalyzes hydrogen peroxide production; this enzymatic activity was specifically inhibited by the CWP2 antibody. GLX-deletion strains of Fg, F. verticillioides (Fv) and F. oxysporum had significantly reduced virulence on plants. The GLX-deletion Fg and Fv strains had markedly reduced mycotoxin accumulation, and the expression of key genes in mycotoxin metabolism was downregulated. This study reveals a single gene-encoded and highly conserved cellular surface antigen that is specifically recognized by the disease-resistance antibody CWP2 and regulates both virulence and mycotoxin biosynthesis in Fusarium species.

  18. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health.

  19. Evaluation of two novel barcodes for species recognition of opportunistic pathogens in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Van Den Ende, A H G Gerrits; Stielow, J Benjamin; Van Diepeningen, Anne D; Seifert, Keith A; McCormick, Wayne; Assabgui, Rafik; Gräfenhan, Tom; De Hoog, G Sybren; Levesque, C André

    2016-02-01

    The genus Fusarium includes more than 200 species of which 73 have been isolated from human infections. Fusarium species are opportunistic human pathogens with variable aetiology. Species determination is best made with the combined phylogeny of protein-coding genes such as elongation factor (TEF1), RNA polymerase (RPB2) and the partial β-tubulin (BT2) gene. The internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S rRNA gene (ITS) have also been used, however, ITS cannot discriminate several closely related species and has nonorthologous copies in Fusarium. Currently, morphological approaches and tree-building methods are in use to define species and to discover hitherto undescribed species. Aftter a species is defined, DNA barcoding approaches can be used to identify species by the presence or absence of discrete nucleotide characters. We demonstrate the potential of two recently discovered DNA barcode loci, topoisomerase I (TOP1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), in combination with other routinely used markers such as TEF1, in an analysis of 144 Fusarium strains belonging to 52 species. Our barcoding study using TOP1 and PKG provided concordance of molecular data with TEF1. The currently accepted Fusarium species sampled were well supported in phylogenetic trees of both new markers.

  20. Toxicity of abiotic stressors to Fusarium species: differences in hydrogen peroxide and fungicide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nagygyörgy, Emese D; Kovács, Barbara; Leiter, Eva; Miskei, Márton; Pócsi, István; Hornok, László; Adám, Attila L

    2014-06-01

    Stress sensitivity of three related phytopathogenic Fusarium species (Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium verticillioides) to different oxidative, osmotic, cell wall, membrane, fungicide stressors and an antifungal protein (PAF) were studied in vitro. The most prominent and significant differences were found in oxidative stress tolerance: all the three F. graminearum strains showed much higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and, to a lesser extent, to menadione than the other two species. High sensitivity of F. verticillioides strains was also detectable to an azole drug, Ketoconazole. Surprisingly, no or limited differences were observed in response to other oxidative, osmotic and cell wall stressors. These results indicate that fungal oxidative stress response and especially the response to hydrogen peroxide (this compound is involved in a wide range of plant-fungus interactions) might be modified on niche-specific manner in these phylogenetically related Fusarium species depending on their pathogenic strategy. Supporting the increased hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of F. graminearum, genome-wide analysis of stress signal transduction pathways revealed the absence one CatC-type catalase gene in F. graminearum in comparison to the other two species.

  1. Dermatitis in captive Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) associated with Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Perpiñán, David; Trupkiewicz, John G; Armbrust, Amy L; Geiser, David M; Armstrong, Sarah; Garner, Michael M; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2010-10-01

    From May 2007 to June 2008, 30 of 49 Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) kept at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Nebraska, USA) died showing clinical signs of ventral erythema, inappetance, lethargy, and delayed righting reflex. Treatment with antifungals and antibiotics was unsuccessful in all cases. Histopathologic analyses revealed dermatitis as the primary problem in 20 of 21 toads in which skin was examined. Fungal dermatitis was present in 17 toads, with hyphae approximately 1-3 μm in diameter, and parallel cell walls and frequent septations. In 14 animals, the fungal dermatitis was the main pathologic lesion. Several species of bacteria were associated with all cases. A few animals tested positive for Ranavirus using polymerase chain reaction. Fusarium sp. was consistently cultured from skin, feces, kidneys, and from powdered food provided to crickets. Four isolates were identified as Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Fusarium verticillioides, which suggested a secondary role of fungi. A specific underlying cause of disease could not be found, although the roles of humidity and Ranavirus infection are discussed, along with the well-known susceptibility of bufonids to fungal dermatitis.

  2. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli on Selected Bean Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    France, R. A.; S.Abawi, G.

    1994-01-01

    Four bean genotypes (IPA-1, A-107, A-211, and Calima), representing all possible combinations of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop) and Meloidogyne incognita, were each inoculated with three population densities of these pathogens. Calima and A-107 were resistant to Fop; A-107 and A-211 were resistant to M. incognita; and IPA-1 was susceptible to both pathogens. In Fop-susceptible lines (IPA-1 and A-211), the presence of M. incognita contributed to an earlier onset and increased severity of Fusarium wilt symptoms and plant stunting. However, the Fop-resistant Calima developed symptoms of Fusarium wilt only in the presence of M. incognita. Genotype A-107 (resistant to both M. incognita and Fop) exhibited Fusarium wilt symptoms and a moderately susceptible reaction to Fop only after the breakdown of its M. incognita resistance by elevated incubation temperatures (27 C). Root galling and reproduction of M. incognita was generally increased as inoculum density of M. incognita was increased on the M. incognita susceptible cultivars. However, these factors were decreased as the inoculum density of Fop was increased. It was concluded that severe infections of bean roots by M. incognita increase the severity of Fusarium wilt on Fop-susceptible genotypes and may modify the resistant reaction to Fop. PMID:19279917

  3. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli on Selected Bean Genotypes.

    PubMed

    France, R A; S Abawi, G

    1994-12-01

    Four bean genotypes (IPA-1, A-107, A-211, and Calima), representing all possible combinations of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop) and Meloidogyne incognita, were each inoculated with three population densities of these pathogens. Calima and A-107 were resistant to Fop; A-107 and A-211 were resistant to M. incognita; and IPA-1 was susceptible to both pathogens. In Fop-susceptible lines (IPA-1 and A-211), the presence of M. incognita contributed to an earlier onset and increased severity of Fusarium wilt symptoms and plant stunting. However, the Fop-resistant Calima developed symptoms of Fusarium wilt only in the presence of M. incognita. Genotype A-107 (resistant to both M. incognita and Fop) exhibited Fusarium wilt symptoms and a moderately susceptible reaction to Fop only after the breakdown of its M. incognita resistance by elevated incubation temperatures (27 C). Root galling and reproduction of M. incognita was generally increased as inoculum density of M. incognita was increased on the M. incognita susceptible cultivars. However, these factors were decreased as the inoculum density of Fop was increased. It was concluded that severe infections of bean roots by M. incognita increase the severity of Fusarium wilt on Fop-susceptible genotypes and may modify the resistant reaction to Fop.

  4. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-12

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants.

  5. Fusarium and mycotoxin spectra in Swiss barley are affected by various cropping techniques

    PubMed Central

    Schöneberg, Torsten; Martin, Charlotte; Wettstein, Felix E.; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Mascher, Fabio; Bertossa, Mario; Musa, Tomke; Keller, Beat; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium head blight is one of the most important cereal diseases worldwide. Cereals differ in terms of the main occurring Fusarium species and the infection is influenced by various factors, such as weather and cropping measures. Little is known about Fusarium species in barley in Switzerland, hence harvest samples from growers were collected in 2013 and 2014, along with information on respective cropping factors. The incidence of different Fusarium species was obtained by using a seed health test and mycotoxins were quantified by LC-MS/MS. With these techniques, the most dominant species, F. graminearum, and the most prominent mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), were identified. Between the three main Swiss cropping systems, Organic, Extenso and Proof of ecological performance, we observed differences with the lowest incidence and toxin accumulation in organically cultivated barley. Hence, we hypothesise that this finding was based on an array of growing techniques within a given cropping system. We observed that barley samples from fields with maize as previous crop had a substantially higher F. graminearum incidence and elevated DON accumulation compared with other previous crops. Furthermore, the use of reduced tillage led to a higher disease incidence and toxin content compared with samples from ploughed fields. Further factors increasing Fusarium infection were high nitrogen fertilisation as well as the application of fungicides and growth regulators. Results from the current study can be used to develop optimised cropping systems that reduce the risks of mycotoxin contamination. PMID:27491813

  6. Predictive factors for the suppression of fusarium wilt of tomato in plant growth media.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Celia; Trillas, M Isabel; Ordovás, José; Tello, Julio C; Avilés, Manuel

    2004-10-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium wilts are economically important diseases for which there are no effective chemical control measures. However, biological control and fertility management are becoming efficient alternatives for controlling this disease. Growth media formulated with composts that are able to suppress Fusarium wilt of tomato provide a control system that integrates both strategies. The aim of this study was to predict Fusarium wilt suppression of growth media using abiotic and biotic variables. Grape marc compost was the most effective medium used to suppress Fusarium wilt. Cork compost was intermediate, and light peat and expanded vermiculite were the most conducive growth media. The growth media evaluated were in a pH range of 6.26 to 7.97. Both composts had high beta-glucosidase activity. When pH and beta-glucosidase activity were taken into account as predictive variables, more than 91% of the variation in severity of Fusarium wilt was explained. This relationship illustrates the effect of nutrient availability and the degree of microbiostasis, two key factors in this pathosystem. Microbial populations involved in suppressiveness were cellulolytic and oligotrophic actinomycetes, fungi, and the ratios cellulolytic actinomycetes/cellulolytic bacteria, oligotrophic bacteria/copiotrophic bacteria, and oligotrophic actinomycetes/oligotrophic bacteria. Based on community level physiological profiles, different community structures were evident among growth media evaluated.

  7. Expected shifts in Fusarium species' composition on cereal grain in Northern Europe due to climatic change.

    PubMed

    Parikka, P; Hakala, K; Tiilikkala, K

    2012-01-01

    In Northern Europe, changes in climate may result in better growing conditions for many crops. However, the expected warmer and more humid conditions are favourable for Fusarium head blight infections on cereals. The Fusarium species prevalent in Nordic areas to date are the same as in Central Europe: F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. poae. The prevalence of F. graminearum in cereal grain has already increased in Central Europe and is likely to increase in the North due to the expected changes in weather conditions, reduced tillage and the predicted increase in maize cultivation in Nordic countries. The possible weather extremes predispose cereals to Fusarium infections by increasing the populations of insect pests injuring plants. Adverse conditions may even create conditions suitable for F. subglutinans or F. verticilloides to infect maize and possibly other cereals in rotation in southern parts of Scandinavia. The importance of the species that infect in relatively dry conditions, F. langsethiae and F. poae, may also increase on winter cereals which are predicted to be more prevalent in future farming. If the number of crop species cultivated will increase and non-cereal crops are included in rotations effects of reduced tillage on Fusarium infections in grain could be limited. The predicted changes in climate towards 2050 are expected to slightly change Fusarium species composition in Northern Europe. An increase in F. graminearum and possibly the invasion of northern parts of Central Europe and Denmark by fumonisin producers is expected.

  8. Paenibacillus polymyxa NSY50 suppresses Fusarium wilt in cucumbers by regulating the rhizospheric microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Li, Shuzhan; Guo, Shirong

    2017-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa) NSY50, isolated from vinegar residue substrate, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NSY50 application on cucumber growth, soil properties and composition of the rhizospheric soil microbial community after exposure to Fusarium oxysporum. Bacterial and fungal communities were investigated by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1 and ITS2). The results showed that NSY50 effectively reduced the incidence of Fusarium wilt (56.4%) by altering the soil physico-chemical properties (e.g., pH, Cmic, Rmic, total N and Corg) and enzyme activities, especially of urease and β-glucosidase, which were significantly increased by 2.25- and 2.64-fold, respectively, relative to the pathogen treatment condition. More specifically, NSY50 application reduced the abundance of Fusarium and promoted potentially beneficial groups, including the Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Streptomyces, Actinospica, Catenulispora and Pseudomonas genera. Thus, our results suggest that NSY50 application can improve soil properties, shift the microbial community by increasing beneficial strains and decreasing pathogen colonization in the cucumber rhizosphere, and reduce the occurrence of cucumber Fusarium wilt, thereby promoting cucumber growth. PMID:28198807

  9. Mutual Exclusion between Fungal Species of the Fusarium Head Blight Complex in a Wheat Spike

    PubMed Central

    Siou, Dorothée; Gélisse, Sandrine; Laval, Valérie; Lannou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. FHB is caused by a species complex that includes two genera of Ascomycetes: Microdochium and Fusarium. Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium poae, and Microdochium nivale are among the most common FHB species in Europe and were chosen for these experiments. Field studies and surveys show that two or more species often coexist within the same field or grain sample. In this study, we investigated the competitiveness of isolates of different species against isolates of F. graminearum at the scale of a single spike. By performing point inoculations of a single floret, we ensured that each species was able to establish independent infections and competed for spike colonization only. The fungal colonization was assessed in each spike by quantitative PCR. After establishing that the spike colonization was mainly downwards, we compared the relative colonization of each species in coinoculations. Classical analysis of variance suggested a competitive interaction but remained partly inconclusive because of a large between-spike variance. Further data exploration revealed a clear exclusion of one of the competing species and the complete absence of coexistence at the spike level. PMID:25934622

  10. Fusarium avenaceum causes burn spot disease syndrome in noble crayfish (Astacus astacus).

    PubMed

    Makkonen, J; Jussila, J; Koistinen, L; Paaver, T; Hurt, M; Kokko, H

    2013-06-01

    Burn spot disease has been causing epidemics both in the Estonian mainland and in Saaremaa Island in the threatened noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) stocks. To study the cause of the disease, we isolated several Fusarium spp. from Estonian noble crayfish (A. astacus) populations suffering from burn spot disease syndrome. We first identified fungi directly from melanised cuticle by their ITS sequences. Then we isolated Fusarium spp. from melanised spots of crayfish showing burn spot disease symptoms, such as melanisation and shell erosion, from two different crayfish populations and watercourses in Estonia. The isolates were then identified based on ITS and EF1α-gene sequences. Isolates of Fusarium spp. taken from two separate Estonian noble crayfish populations were used in infection studies. Koch postulates confirmed that the studied agent was causing burn spot disease symptoms including shell erosion in the noble crayfish, which were significantly more severe after molts. After the infection period, an identical Fusarium spp. was re-isolated from carapace lesions and was thus shown to be the disease agent causing burn spot disease syndrome and shell erosion in noble crayfish. Based on GenBank database searches, the isolates causing burn spot disease symptoms were identified as Fusarium avenaceum in mainland Estonia and F. solani in Saaremaa crayfish.

  11. Virulence and secondary metabolite profiles of vascular competent and vascular incompetent pathotypes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of cotton, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov), occurs in most cotton growing areas of the world. Pathotypes of Fov have been categorized into eight races based on virulence to different hosts. However, lack of reciprocal resistance reactions among cotton cultivars t...

  12. Success evaluation of the biological control of Fusarium wilts of cucumber, banana, and tomato since 2000 and future research strategies.

    PubMed

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Zhang, Ruifu; Huang, Qiwei; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong

    2017-03-01

    The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum strains is the most devastating disease of cucumber, banana, and tomato. The biological control of this disease has become an attractive alternative to the chemical fungicides and other conventional control methods. In this review, the research trends and biological control efficiencies (BCE) of different microbial strains since 2000 are reviewed in detail, considering types of microbial genera, inoculum application methods, plant growth medium and conditions, inoculum application with amendments, and co-inoculation of different microbial strains and how those affect the BCE of Fusarium wilt. The data evaluation showed that the BCE of biocontrol agents was higher against the Fusarium wilt of cucumber compared to the Fusarium wilts of banana and tomato. Several biocontrol agents mainly Bacillus, Trichoderma, Pseudomonas, nonpathogenic Fusarium, and Penicillium strains were evaluated to control Fusarium wilt, but still this lethal disease could not be controlled completely. We have discussed different reasons of inconsistent results and recommendations for the betterment of BCE in the future. This review provides knowledge of the biotechnology of biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber, banana, and tomato in a nut shell that will provide researchers a beginning line to start and to organize and plan research for the future studies.

  13. NMR metabolomics analysis of the effect of elevated CO2 on wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily induced by the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum (Fg), is one of the most damaging diseases in wheat and other small grain cereals worldwide. Current methods for disease control include utilization of less susceptible cultivars and treatment with fungi...

  14. Bacillus velezensis RC 218 as a biocontrol agent to reduce Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus velezensis RC 218 was originally isolated for the anthers of wheat as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearium, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight. It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen with in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study ...

  15. Registration of the Soft Red Winter Wheat Germplasm MD01W233-06-1 Resistant to Fusarium Head Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) [caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe; telomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch] is a major disease of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the US mid- Atlantic region. The objective of this research was to derive soft red winter wheat (SRWW) germplasm with enhanced ...

  16. Multilocus Genotyping and Molecular Phylogenetics Resolve a Novel Head Blight Pathogen within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex from Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Fusarium head blight (FHB)-contaminated wheat in Ethiopia recovered 31 isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for FHB species and trichothecene chemotype determination suggested that 22 of these isolates m...

  17. Effects of fungicide application timing and cultivar resistance on Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. FHB reduces yield and quality and contaminates grain with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Effective management strategies are needed. The objectives of this research were to 1) Determine the effect of fungicide application timing a...

  18. Transgenic wheat carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance by detoxifying trichothecenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a worldwide disease of wheat and barley, mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. During infection, the fungal pathogen produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that increase fungal virulence. Moreover, grains contaminated with t...

  19. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase detoxifies deoxynivalenol and provides high levels of resistance to Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that results in huge economic losses worldwide. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), that increase fungal virulence and decreas...

  20. Rainfastness of Prothioconazole+Tebuconazole for Fusarium head blight and Deoxynivalenol management in soft red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides are most warranted for control of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a disease of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, when wet, rainy conditions occurs during anthesis. However, it is unclear whether rainfall directly following application affects fungicide efficacy against...

  1. Examining the transcriptional response in wheat Fhb1 near-isogenic lines to Fusarium graminearum infection and deoxynivalenol treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum that affects wheat and other small grain cereals and can lead to severe yield loss and reduction in grain quality. Trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), accumulate during infection and increa...

  2. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  3. Population dynamics of the fusarium head blight biocontrol agent cryptococcus flavescens OH182.9 on wheat anthers and heads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptococcus flavescens OH 182.9 (NRRL Y-30216) reduces Fusarium head blight (FHB) incited by Fusarium graminearum and DON contamination of grain in greenhouse and field settings. Yet little is known about the population dynamics of OH 182.9 on wheat heads and anthers from the time of inoculating he...

  4. Fusarium euwallaceae, a novel species cultivated by a Euwallacea ambrosia beetle that threatens avocado production in Israel and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocado production in Israel and California, USA is facing a serious threat due to damage caused by an invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetle and a novel Fusarium that it cultivates as a source of food. Adult female beetles possess mandibular mycangia within which they carry the Fusarium symbiont. At l...

  5. Clonality, recombination, and hybridization in the plumbing-inhabiting human pathogen Fusarium keratoplasticum inferred from multilocus sequence typing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work has shown that Fusarium species and genotypes most commonly associated with human infections, particularly of the cornea (mycotic keratitis), are the same as those most commonly isolated from plumbing systems. The species most dominant in plumbing biofilms is Fusarium keratoplasticum, a ...

  6. Inhibition of Fusarium graminiarum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum) while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical c...

  7. User-friendly markers linked to Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance Fw gene for marker-assisted selection in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is one of the most widespread diseases of pea. Resistance to Fusarium wilt race 1 was reported as a single gene, Fw, located on linkage group III. The previously reported AFLP and RAPD markers linked to Fw have limited usage in marker-assisted selection due to their map distance and l...

  8. Expression of a truncated form of yeast ribosomal protein L3 in transgenic wheat improves resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease that causes major economic losses in wheat and barley production worldwide. Contamination of food with the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium is a major health concern for humans and animals because trichothecenes are potent cyt...

  9. Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli in transgenic Gladiolus plants expressing either a bacterial chloroperoxidase or fungal chitinase genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three antifungal genes, a non-heme chloroperoxidase from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia, and an exochitinase and endochitinase from Fusarium venetanum under regulation by the CaMV 35S promoter, were used to transform Gladiolus for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli. Gladiolus plants were conf...

  10. PvPGIP2 accumulation in specific floral tissues, but not in the endosperm, limits Fusarium graminearum infection in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of wheat worldwide. The pathogen infects the spike at flowering time and causes severe yield losses, deterioration of grain quality, and accumulation of mycotoxins. The understanding of the prec...

  11. Genomic analysis of Bacillus subtilis OH 131.1 and coculturing with Cryptococcus flavescens for control of fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus subtilis OH131.1 is a bacterial antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, a plant pathogen which causes Fusarium head blight in wheat. The genome of B. subtilis OH131.1 was sequenced, annotated and analyzed to understand its potential to produce bioactive metabolites. The analysis identified 6 sy...

  12. Genome Sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Strain NRRL 26406, a Fungus Causing Wilt Disease on Melon

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Kistler, H. Corby

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal chromosome transfer introduces host-specific pathogenicity among members of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex and is responsible for some of the most destructive and intractable plant diseases. This paper reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis (NRRL 26406), a causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease on melon. PMID:25081257

  13. First report of Fusarium graminearum, F. asiaticum and F. cortaderiae as head blight pathogens of annual ryegrass in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grains and several grasses, including annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), an important forage crop, but also a common weed in wheat, rice and maize agroecosystem in southern Brazil. Although i...

  14. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition.

  15. One Fungus, One Name: Defining the genus Fusarium in a scientifically robust way that preserves longstanding use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this letter, we advocate recognizing the genus Fusarium as the sole name for a group that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine and basic research. This phylogenetically-guided circumscription will free scientists from any obligation to...

  16. Quantification of Fusarium virguliforme in soybean roots of partially resistant and susceptible genotypes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean sudden death syndrome, caused by Fusarium virguliforme (syn. Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines), was first reported in 1971, in Arkansas. Since then, the fungus has spread to the northern United States, causing significant soybean yield losses. Soybean resistance to F. virguliforme is consider...

  17. Development and evaluation of a TaqMan Real-Time PCR assay for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae, causal agent of spinach Fusarium wilt, is an important soilborne pathogen in many areas of the world where spinach is grown. The pathogen is persistent in acid soils of maritime western Oregon and Washington, the only region of the USA suitable for commercial spi...

  18. Extracellular mycosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, K.; Arumugam, A.

    2014-08-01

    The development of eco-friendly methods for the synthesis of nanomaterial shape and size is an important area of research in the field of nanotechnology. The present investigation deals with the extracellular rapid biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani culture filtrate. The UV-vis spectra of the fungal culture filtrate medium containing gold ion showed peak at 527 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of gold nanoparticles. FTIR spectra provide an evidence for the presence of heterocyclic compound in the culture filtrate, which increases the stability of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The X-ray analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of the gold nanoparticles. AFM analysis showed the results of particle sizes (41 nm). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles are spherical in shape with the size range from 20 to 50 nm. The use of F. solani will offer several advantages since it is considered as a non-human pathogenic organism. The fungus F. solani has a fast growth rate, rapid capacity of metallic ions reduction, NPs stabilization and facile and economical biomass handling. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles could be highly advantageous from the point of view of synthesis in large quantities, time consumption, eco-friendly, non-toxic and easy downstream processing.

  19. Coordinated and Distinct Functions of Velvet Proteins in Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Nan; Zhang, Hanxing; Hu, Chengcheng; Wang, Wenzhao; Calvo, Ana M.; Harris, Steven D.; Chen, She

    2014-01-01

    Velvet-domain-containing proteins are broadly distributed within the fungal kingdom. In the corn pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, previous studies showed that the velvet protein F. verticillioides VE1 (FvVE1) is critical for morphological development, colony hydrophobicity, toxin production, and pathogenicity. In this study, tandem affinity purification of FvVE1 revealed that FvVE1 can form a complex with the velvet proteins F. verticillioides VelB (FvVelB) and FvVelC. Phenotypic characterization of gene knockout mutants showed that, as in the case of FvVE1, FvVelB regulated conidial size, hyphal hydrophobicity, fumonisin production, and oxidant resistance, while FvVelC was dispensable for these biological processes. Comparative transcriptional analysis of eight genes involved in the ROS (reactive oxygen species) removal system revealed that both FvVE1 and FvVelB positively regulated the transcription of a catalase-encoding gene, F. verticillioides CAT2 (FvCAT2). Deletion of FvCAT2 resulted in reduced oxidant resistance, providing further explanation of the regulation of oxidant resistance by velvet proteins in the fungal kingdom. PMID:24792348

  20. Extracellular peptidases of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rohan G. T.; McCorkelle, Owen; Bleackley, Mark; Collins, Christine; Faou, Pierre; Mathivanan, Suresh; Anderson, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (Fgr) creates economic and health risks in cereals agriculture. Fgr causes head blight (or scab) of wheat and stalk rot of corn, reducing yield, degrading grain quality, and polluting downstream food products with mycotoxins. Fungal plant pathogens must secrete proteases to access nutrition and to breakdown the structural protein component of the plant cell wall. Research into the proteolytic activity of Fgr is hindered by the complex nature of the suite of proteases secreted. We used a systems biology approach comprising genome analysis, transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics to characterize the peptidases deployed by Fgr during growth. A combined analysis of published microarray transcriptome datasets revealed seven transcriptional groupings of peptidases based on in vitro growth, in planta growth, and sporulation behaviors. A high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis defined the extracellular proteases secreted by F. graminearum. A meta-classification based on sequence characters and transcriptional/translational activity in planta and in vitro provides a platform to develop control strategies that target Fgr peptidases. PMID:26635820

  1. Efficacy of female Culex quinquefasciatus with entomopathogenic fungus Fusarium pallidoroseum.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Suman Sundar; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Rai, Usha; Dash, Aditya Prasad

    2008-06-01

    This study was conducted to isolate and identify natural entomopathogenic fungi from female Culex quinquefasciatus and to test their adulticidal activity. Field-collected female C. quinquefasciatus died early and were placed on a Saboraud's dextrose agar plates for growth and isolation of natural entomopathogenic fungi. The plates were maintained in an incubator at 24+/-2 degrees C for 3 days. Four fungal species were isolated in two genera namely, Aspergillus and Fusarium. The identified fungal species were A. niger, A. flavus, A. nidulans var acristatus (ITCC-6327.04), and F. pallidoroseum (ITCC-6324.06). Adult bioassays were carried out using spore-impregnated paper in WHO-holding tubes. F. pallidoroseum was found to be more effective than the others. Exposure of C. quinquefasciatus to spores of A. flavus and A. niger for 4 h caused 5.53% and 5.51% mortality in the mosquitoes within a week, respectively. All the female C. quinquefasciatus were killed within 4 days of exposure to F. pallidoroseum at a concentration of 1.11 x 10(10) conidia per m2. Significant difference of longevity was observed between the F. pallidoroseum-treated C. quinquefasciatus and control mosquitoes. The LT50 of F. pallidoroseum was 2.08 days for 4 h exposure to C. quinquefasciatus. Results of the present study confirm that F. pallidoroseum is one of the alternative biological control agents of adult mosquitoes.

  2. Purification, characterization, and synergistic action of endoglucanases from Fusarium lini

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.; Deshpande, V.; Mishra, C.

    1986-07-01

    Five endoglucanses (1,4 - ..beta.. - d - glucan - glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.4) were isolated from Fusarium lini. Endo 1 and 2 were purified by a preparative gel electrophoresis and Endo 3, 4, and 5 were purified in a single-step procedure involving preparative flat-bed isoelectric focusing. All the endoglucanases were homogenous on disk gel electrophoresis and analytical isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel. The pl values were between 6 and 6.6 for Endo 3, 4, and 5; for Endo 1, the pl value was 8. The molecular weights of the enzymes were between 4 x 10/sup 4/ and 6.5 x 10/sup 4/. The Km values for endoglucanases using carboxymethyl cellulose (CM-cellulose) as the substrate were 2-12 mg/ml. The specificity of the enzymes was restricted to ..beta..-1,4-linkages. All the enzymes showed activity towards D-Xylan. The endoglucanases had high viscosity reducing activity with CM-cellulose. Striking synergism was observed for the hydrolysis of CM-cellulose by endoglucanases. Endo 2, 4 and 5 attacked cellopentaose and cellotetraose more readily than cellotriose. Endo 2 and 5 hydrolyzed cellotriose, cellotetraose, and cellopentaose, yielding a mixture of cellobiose with a trace amount of glucose; endo 4 produced only cellobiose. 23 references.

  3. Fusarium fungi and associated metabolites presence on grapes from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Mikušová, Petra; Šrobárová, Antónia; Sulyok, Michael; Santini, Antonello

    2013-05-01

    Toxinogenic Fusarium species were identified on grape berries from Slovak vineyards, and their toxic metabolites were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides were found with varying frequency. F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum, cultured in vitro on Czapek yeast autolysate agar and yeast extract sucrose agar, produced beauvericin, in the range from 3,265 to 13,400 μg/kg, and fusaproliferin in high concentration, ranging from 49,850 to 259,500 μg/kg. A maximum value of 2.24 μg/kg has been observed for beauvericin in dried grape berries. Fumonisin B1, and fumonisin B2 were also identified, and the observed levels ranged from 500 to 2,040 μg/kg. Over 2 years (namely 2008 and 2009) many other metabolites have been identified and analysed in grape berries, in particular: avenacein Y, apicidin, aurofusarin, chlamydosporol, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol, enniatin A, enniatin A1, enniatin B2, enniatin B3, and equisetin.

  4. Transcription Profiling Analysis of Mango–Fusarium mangiferae Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Wu, Jing-bo; Zhan, Ru-lin; Ou, Xiong-chang

    2016-01-01

    Malformation caused by Fusarium mangiferae is one of the most destructive mango diseases affecting the canopy and floral development, leading to dramatic reduction in fruit yield. To further understand the mechanism of interaction between mango and F. mangiferae, we monitored the transcriptome profiles of buds from susceptible mango plants, which were challenged with F. mangiferae. More than 99 million reads were deduced by RNA-sequencing and were assembled into 121,267 unigenes. Based on the sequence similarity searches, 61,706 unigenes were identified, of which 21,273 and 50,410 were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively, and 33,243 were mapped to 119 KEGG pathways. The differentially expressed genes of mango were detected, having 15,830, 26,061, and 20,146 DEGs respectively, after infection for 45, 75, and 120 days. The analysis of the comparative transcriptome suggests that basic defense mechanisms play important roles in disease resistance. The data also show the transcriptional responses of interactions between mango and the pathogen and more drastic changes in the host transcriptome in response to the pathogen. These results could be used to develop new methods to broaden the resistance of mango to malformation, including the over-expression of key mango genes. PMID:27683574

  5. Enhancement of trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum by cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Rie; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Naoko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2011-03-09

    The effects of cobalt chloride on the production of trichothecene and ergosterol in Fusarium graminearum were examined. Incorporation experiments with (13)C-labeled acetate and leucine confirmed that both 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and ergosterol were biosynthesized via a mevalonate pathway by the fungus, although hydroxymethyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) from intact leucine was able to be partially used for ergosterol production. Addition of cobalt chloride at concentrations of 3-30 μM into liquid culture strongly enhanced 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol production by the fungus, whereas the amount of ergosterol and the mycelial weight of the fungus did not change. The mRNA levels of genes encoding trichothecene biosynthetic proteins (TRI4 and TRI6), ergosterol biosynthetic enzymes (ERG3 and ERG25), and enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway (HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR)) were all strongly up-regulated in the presence of cobalt chloride. Precocene II, a specific trichothecene production inhibitor, suppressed the effects of cobalt chloride on Tri4, Tri6, HMGS, and HMGR, but did not affect erg3 and erg25. These results indicate that cobalt chloride is useful for investigating regulatory mechanisms of trichothecene and ergosterol production in F. graminearum.

  6. Optimization of Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Ashari, Zeynab; Iravani, Siavash; Abbasi, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in various fields of biotechnology and applications in the medicine. Objectives of this study were optimization of production of silver nanoparticles using biotransformations by Fusarium oxysporum, and a further study on the location of nanoparticles synthesis in this microorganism. The reaction mixture contained the following ingredients (final concentrations): AgNO3 (1-10 mM) as the biotransformation substrate, biomass as the biocatalyst, glucose (560 mM) as the electron donor, and phosphate buffer (pH= 7, 100 mM). The samples were taken from the reaction mixtures at different times, and the absorbance (430 nm) of the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles hydrosols was read freshly (without freezing) and immediately after dilution (1:40). SEM and TEM analyses were performed on selected samples. The presence of AgNO3 (0.1 mM) in the culture as enzyme inducer, and glucose (560 mM) as electron donor had positive effects on nanoparticle production. In SEM micrographs, silver nanoparticles were almost spherical, single (25-50 nm) or in aggregates (100 nm), attached to the surface of biomass. The reaction mixture was successfully optimized to increase the yield of silver nanoparticles production. More details of the location of nanoparticles production by this fungus were revealed, which support the hypothesis that silver nanoparticles are synthesized intracellularly and not extracellularly. PMID:24250635

  7. The galactolipase activity of Fusarium solani (phospho)lipase.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Raida; Othman, Houcemeddine; Amara, Sawsan; Parsiegla, Goetz; Carriere, Frédéric; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gargouri, Youssef; Bezzine, Sofiane

    2015-03-01

    The purified (phospho)lipase of Fusarium solani (FSL), was known to be active on both triglycerides and phospholipids. This study aimed at assessing the potential of this enzyme in hydrolyzing galactolipids. FSL was found to hydrolyze at high rates of synthetic medium chains monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (4658±146U/mg on DiC8-MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (3785±83U/mg on DiC8-DGDG) and natural long chain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol extracted from leek leaves (991±85U/mg). It is the microbial enzyme with the highest activity on galactolipids identified so far with a level of activity comparable to that of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2. FSL maximum activity on galactolipids was measured at pH8. The analysis of the hydrolysis product of natural MGDG from leek showed that FSL hydrolyzes preferentially the ester bond at the sn-1 position of galactolipids. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of FSL, a 3D model of this enzyme was built. In silico docking of medium chains MGDG and DGDG and phospholipid in the active site of FSL reveals structural solutions which are in concordance with in vitro tests.

  8. Pathogenicity of Conidiobolus coronatus and Fusarium solani in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Li, Yadi; Fang, Xiangang; Zhou, Xiaoqian; Geng, Suying; Wang, Yuxin; Yang, Xiumin

    2017-02-27

    To study the pathogenicity of Conidiobolus coronatus (C. coronatus) and Fusarium solani (F. solani) in animal models. Immunocompromised mice were treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone via intraperitoneal injection before and after inoculation. According to pathogenic characteristics of different fungi, C. coronatus was used to infect mice via intravenous inoculation, intraperitoneal inoculation, gastrointestinal infusion and intradermal inoculation methods. And F. solani was used to infect mice by inoculation via the abraded or normal skin. In the group of immunocompromised mice, C. coronatus was isolated from the lung tissues of one mouse on day 7 and another on day 10 respectively. The corresponding histopathology revealed infiltration of local inflammatory cells in the lung tissue. Pathogenic lesions were observed in all normal and immunocompromised mice infected with F. solani via abraded skin. The lesions in the immunocompromised mice were more severe and persisted longer than those in the normal mice. Moreover, hyphae were mostly observed in the histopathological examination and fungal culture from the immunocompromised mouse. The pathogenicity of C. coronatus was relatively weak as it did not induce local infections and did not disseminate the disease in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. Therefore, F. solani is a type of opportunistic pathogenic fungus, and abraded skin is one of the causative routes of infection.

  9. Gene expression in Fusarium graminearum grown on plant cell wall.

    PubMed

    Carapito, Raphaël; Hatsch, Didier; Vorwerk, Sonja; Petkovski, Elizabet; Jeltsch, Jean-Marc; Phalip, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus attacking a wide range of plants including Humulus lupulus (hop). Transcriptional analysis of F. graminearum grown on minimal media containing hop cell wall or glucose as the sole carbon source was performed by applying a highly stringent method combining microarrays and a subtracted cDNA library. In addition to genes coding for various cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), several metabolic pathways were induced in response to the plant cell wall substrate. Many genes participating in these pathways are probably involved in cellular transport. But the most interesting was that all the genes composing the 4-aminobutyrate-shunt (GABA-shunt) were also up-regulated in the presence of plant cell wall material and were present in the cDNA library. This study provides a description of a part of the fungal gene expression profile when it is in contact with raw biological materials, and helps in understanding the plant cell wall degradation and the infection process.

  10. Chondroclasts in fusarium-induced tibial dyschondroplasia. A histomorphometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, E. M.; Fletcher, T. F.; Walser, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of chondroclasts in the pathogenesis of Fusarium roseum-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) was examined in a histomorphometric study. TD developed rapidly in broiler chickens placed at 1 day of age on rations containing either 3% (Experiment 1) or 2% (Experiment 2) F roseum cultures. In Experiment 1 the frequency of TD in birds killed at 4 weeks of age was 90%. In Experiment 2, birds were killed at intervals from 4 days until 4 weeks of age. By 1 week of age, 70% of birds examined had characteristic accumulations of prehypertrophic cartilage at the proximal tibial physis, and the frequency of TD in 4-week-old birds was 80%. Sections of hypertrophic cartilage from F roseum-fed and control birds from both experiments were examined for determination of the volume density of chondroclasts along the vascular channel boundary. Chondroclast density was consistently lower in F roseum-fed than in control birds, but the difference was significant only at 4 weeks of age. The fact that gross lesions were evident before a significant decrease in chondroclast density occurred indicates that a decrease in the density of chondroclasts was not an essential factor in the accumulation of cartilage characteristic of TD. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:4025512

  11. Extracellular peptidases of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rohan G T; McCorkelle, Owen; Bleackley, Mark; Collins, Christine; Faou, Pierre; Mathivanan, Suresh; Anderson, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (Fgr) creates economic and health risks in cereals agriculture. Fgr causes head blight (or scab) of wheat and stalk rot of corn, reducing yield, degrading grain quality, and polluting downstream food products with mycotoxins. Fungal plant pathogens must secrete proteases to access nutrition and to breakdown the structural protein component of the plant cell wall. Research into the proteolytic activity of Fgr is hindered by the complex nature of the suite of proteases secreted. We used a systems biology approach comprising genome analysis, transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics to characterize the peptidases deployed by Fgr during growth. A combined analysis of published microarray transcriptome datasets revealed seven transcriptional groupings of peptidases based on in vitro growth, in planta growth, and sporulation behaviors. A high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis defined the extracellular proteases secreted by F. graminearum. A meta-classification based on sequence characters and transcriptional/translational activity in planta and in vitro provides a platform to develop control strategies that target Fgr peptidases.

  12. Factors Influencing Production of Fusaristatin A in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Hegge, Anne; Lønborg, Rikke; Nielsen, Ditte Møller; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a ubiquitous plant pathogen, which is able to produce several bioactive secondary metabolites. Recently, the cyclic lipopeptide fusaristatin A was isolated from this species and the biosynthetic gene cluster identified. Fusaristatin A consists of a C24 reduced polyketide and the three amino acids dehydroalanine, β-aminoisobutyric acid and glutamine and is biosynthesized by a collaboration of a polyketide synthase and a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. To gain insight into the environmental factors, which controls the production of fusaristatin A, we cultivated F. graminearum under various conditions. We developed an LC-MS/MS method to quantify fusaristatin A in F. graminearum extracts. The results showed that yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium was the best medium for fusaristatin A production and that the optimal pH was 7.5 and temperature 25–30 °C. Furthermore, production of fusaristatin A was more than four times higher in stationary cultures than in agitated cultures when F. graminearum was grown in liquid YES medium. The results also showed that fusaristatin A was only present in the mycelium and not in the liquid, which suggests that fusaristatin A is stored intracellulally and not exported to the extracellular environment. PMID:25838075

  13. Factors Influencing Production of Fusaristatin A in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Hegge, Anne; Lønborg, Rikke; Nielsen, Ditte Møller; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a ubiquitous plant pathogen, which is able to produce several bioactive secondary metabolites. Recently, the cyclic lipopeptide fusaristatin A was isolated from this species and the biosynthetic gene cluster identified. Fusaristatin A consists of a C24 reduced polyketide and the three amino acids dehydroalanine, β-aminoisobutyric acid and glutamine and is biosynthesized by a collaboration of a polyketide synthase and a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. To gain insight into the environmental factors, which controls the production of fusaristatin A, we cultivated F. graminearum under various conditions. We developed an LC-MS/MS method to quantify fusaristatin A in F. graminearum extracts. The results showed that yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium was the best medium for fusaristatin A production and that the optimal pH was 7.5 and temperature 25-30 °C. Furthermore, production of fusaristatin A was more than four times higher in stationary cultures than in agitated cultures when F. graminearum was grown in liquid YES medium. The results also showed that fusaristatin A was only present in the mycelium and not in the liquid, which suggests that fusaristatin A is stored intracellulally and not exported to the extracellular environment.

  14. [Confocal microscopy as an early relapse marker after keratoplasty due to Fusarium solani keratitis].

    PubMed

    Daas, L; Bischoff-Jung, M; Viestenz, A; Seitz, B; Viestenz, A

    2017-01-01

    In the case of therapy-resistant keratitis an infection with Fusarium solani should be taken into consideration as a rare but very severe eye disease. In the majority of cases Fusarium solani keratitis will result in a protracted clinical course despite aggressive medicinal and surgical interventions. We describe the case of a referred patient after intensive topical, intracameral and systemic antibacterial and antimycotic therapy as well as surgical treatment with emergency keratoplasty à chaud because of Fusarium solani keratitis. The patient presented to our department with persistent discomfort for further therapeutic interventions. Using confocal microscopy we were able to demonstrate the presence of fungal hyphae in the host cornea and the graft, which was important for making further surgical decisions. Furthermore, this emphasizes the role of confocal microscopy as an early relapse marker during the clinical monitoring.

  15. Isolation and identification of biocontrol agent Streptomyces rimosus M527 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dandan; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Xianhao; Yu, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents against fungal plant pathogens and as plant growth promoters. In this study, a total of 320 actinomycetes were isolated from various habitats in China. Among which, 77 strains have been identified as antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum which usually caused fusarium wilt of cucumber. Of these, isolate actinomycete M527 not only displayed broad-spectrum antifungal activity but also showed the strongest antagonistic activity against the spore germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. In pot experiments, the results indicated that isolate M527 could promote the shoot growth and prevent the development of the disease on cucumber caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. The control efficacy against seedling fusarium wilt of cucumber after M527 fermentation broth root-irrigation was up to 72.1% as compared to control. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate M527 was identified as Streptomyces rimosus.

  16. The fibrinolytic activity of a novel protease derived from a tempeh producing fungus, Fusarium sp. BLB.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fujii, Tadashi; Morimiya, Tatsuo; Johdo, Osamu; Nakamura, Takumi

    2007-09-01

    Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian soybean-fermented food produced by filamentous fungi, Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium sp. We isolated and sequenced the genomic gene and a cDNA clone encoding a novel protease (FP) from Fusarium sp. BLB. The genomic gene was 856 bp in length and contained two introns. An isolated cDNA clone encoded a protein of 250 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence of FP showed highest homology, of 76%, with that of trypsin from Fusarium oxysporum. The hydrolysis activity of FP toward synthetic peptide was higher than that of any other protease tested, including Nattokinases. Furthermore, the thrombolytic activity of FP was about 2.1-fold higher than that of Nattokinase when the concentration of plasminogen was 24 units/ml. These results suggest that FP is superior to Nattokinases in dissolving fibrin when absorbed into the blood.

  17. Identification of Fusarium solani species complex from infected zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiaoli; Lu, Maixin; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-11-01

    Although Fusarium sp. infections have been reported in aquatic invertebrates, studies of Fusarium spp. as fish pathogens remain very limited. In our study, a fungus was isolated from diseased zebrafish (Danio rerio). DNA sequence analysis of the fungus, based on a partial region of the translation elongation factor 1α gene (EF-1α), the internal transcribed spacer region and domains D1 and D2 of the large subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene (ITS plus LSU), and the RNA polymerase II subunit gene (RPB2), showed 99.9-100% homology to Fusarium solani species complex sequences. Multilocus sequence typing analysis based on 3-locus haplotypes (EF-1α, ITS plus LSU, and RPB2) suggests that the isolated strain was type 3+4-P. Challenge experiments showed that this organism could be pathogenic to zebrafish, but usually does not infect healthy subjects under normal circumstances.

  18. Skin Microvascular Thrombosis in Fusarium Infection in Two Early Biopsied Cases.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang; Willems, Lise; Leboeuf, Christophe; Li, Wang; Lacroix, Claire; Robin, Marie; Socié, Gérard; Ribaud, Patricia; Verneuil, Laurence; Janin, Anne

    2010-05-07

    Fusarium species cause rare and severe infections. Their incidence is increasing in immunocompromised patients but they are also observed in healthy hosts. Because of the rapid dissemination of infection and the frequent resistance of Fusarium species to antifungal drugs, histopathologic evidence of hyphae is very helpful to obtain the diagnosis rapidly. We report the clinical and pathological features of two patients with initial cutaneous lesions. Cutaneous early biopsies showed microvessel involvement with hyphae and thrombosis. Fusarium infection was confirmed by skin culture. Hyphae within a microvessel thrombus in the skin were highly suggestive of disseminated fungal infection. These pathological features enabled to establish an early diagnosis and to start efficient antifungal treatment. In early cutaneous biopsies of immunocompromised patients, the presence of cutaneous vessel thrombosis can suggest a fungal infection and may help to start specific therapy without delay for these life-threatening infections.

  19. Intact Cell/Spore Mass Spectrometry of Fusarium Macro Conidia for Fast Isolate and Species Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hongjuan; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Winkler, Wolfgang; Lohninger, Hans; Allmaier, Guenter

    The focus of this paper is the development of an approach called intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) or intact spore mass spectrometry (ISMS) based on the technique matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the rapid differentiation and identification of Fusarium species. Several parameters, which are known to affect the quality of IC mass spectra, have been investigated in detail by varying the MALDI matrix as well as the solvent system, in which the matrix has been dissolved, the solvent system for sample purification and the type of sample/MALDI matrix deposition technique. In the end characteristic as well as highly reproducible IC or IS mass spectra or peptide/protein fingerprints of three Fusarium species (F. cerealis, F. graminearum and F. poae) including 16 Fusarium isolates derived from different hosts and geographical locations have been obtained. Unscaled hierarchical cluster analysis based on ICMS data of eight selected Fusarium isolates of two species F. graminearum and F. poae revealed significant difference among the peptide/protein pattern of them. The results of the applied cluster analysis proved that, ICMS is a powerful approach for the rapid differentiation of Fusarium species. In addition, an on-target tryptic digestion was applied to Fusarium macro conidia spores to identify proteins using MALDI post source decay (PSD) fragment ion analysis. Two kinds of trypsin, namely bead-immobilized - to favor cleavage of surface-associated proteins - and non-immobilized trypsin were applied and compared. The results showed that the latter is more suitable for generating sequence tags by PSD fragment ion analysis.

  20. Polyamine metabolism in flax in response to treatment with pathogenic and non–pathogenic Fusarium strains

    PubMed Central

    Wojtasik, Wioleta; Kulma, Anna; Namysł, Katarzyna; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flax crop yield is limited by various environmental stress factors, but the largest crop losses worldwide are caused by Fusarium infection. Polyamines are one of the many plant metabolites possibly involved in the plant response to infection. However, in flax plants the polyamine composition, genes involved in polyamine synthesis, and in particular their regulation, were previously unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the polyamine synthesis pathway in flax and its involvement in response to pathogen infection. It is well established that polyamines are essential for the growth and development of both plants and fungi, but their role in pathogen infection still remains unknown. In our study we correlated the expression of genes involved in polyamine metabolism with the polyamine levels in plant tissues and compared the results for flax seedlings treated with two pathogenic and one non-pathogenic strains of Fusarium. We observed an increase in the expression of genes participating in polyamine synthesis after fungal infection, and it was reflected in an increase of polyamine content in the plant tissues. The highest level of mRNA was characteristic for ornithine decarboxylase during infection with all tested, pathogenic and non-pathogenic, Fusarium strains and the arginine decarboxylase gene during infection with the pathogenic strain of Fusarium culmorum. The main polyamine identified in the flax seedlings was putrescine, and its level changed the most during infection. Moreover, the considerable increase in the contents of cell wall-bound polyamines compared to the levels of free and conjugated polyamines may indicate that their main role during pathogen infection lies in strengthening of the cell wall. In vitro experiments showed that the polyamines inhibit Fusarium growth, which suggests that they play an important role in plant defense mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in metabolism and content of polyamines indicate different defense mechanisms

  1. Toxigenic profiles and trinucleotide repeat diversity of Fusarium species isolated from banana fruits

    PubMed Central

    Alghuthaymi, Mousa Abdullah; Bahkali, Ali Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Infesting Fusarium species isolated from banana fruit samples were identified and quantified by morphological, mycotoxicological and molecular tools. A total of 19 Fusarium isolates were obtained: F. semitectum was most predominant (26%), followed by F. proliferatum (16%), F. circinatum (16%), F. chlamydosporum (10.5%), F. solani (10.5%), F. oxysporum (10.5%) and F. thapsinum (5%). Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seventeen isolates, belonging to F. chlamydosporum, F. circinatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. thapsinum, F. proliferatum and Fusarium spp., produced mycotoxins when cultured on rice medium. Fumonisin was produced by all of the studied Fusarium isolates, except F. oxysporum, at a concentration of over 1 μg/mL. F. citrinium isolates 4 and 5 and F. solani isolate 3 were the most potent producers of deoxynivalenol. We compared the 19 Fusarium isolates based on the bands amplified by 10 microsatellite primers. Of these, seven primers, (TCC)5, (TGG)5, (GTA)5, (ATG)5, (TAC)5, (TGC)5 and (TGT)5, yielded a high number of bands and different mean number of alleles. The similarity level between isolates was calculated using a simple matching coefficient. Dendrograms were constructed by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetical averages (UPGMA). Two main clusters were observed. The interspecific genetic similarity between Fusarium spp. isolates was between 40% and 58% and the intraspecific similarity from 58% to 100%, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity in the tested isolates. Some unexpected genetic similarities were observed among the isolates, indicating non-agreement between morphological and molecular identification of the isolates. PMID:26019647

  2. Toxigenic profiles and trinucleotide repeat diversity of Fusarium species isolated from banana fruits.

    PubMed

    Alghuthaymi, Mousa Abdullah; Bahkali, Ali Hassan

    2015-03-04

    Infesting Fusarium species isolated from banana fruit samples were identified and quantified by morphological, mycotoxicological and molecular tools. A total of 19 Fusarium isolates were obtained: F. semitectum was most predominant (26%), followed by F. proliferatum (16%), F. circinatum (16%), F. chlamydosporum (10.5%), F. solani (10.5%), F. oxysporum (10.5%) and F. thapsinum (5%). Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seventeen isolates, belonging to F. chlamydosporum, F. circinatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. thapsinum, F. proliferatum and Fusarium spp., produced mycotoxins when cultured on rice medium. Fumonisin was produced by all of the studied Fusarium isolates, except F. oxysporum, at a concentration of over 1 μg/mL. F. citrinium isolates 4 and 5 and F. solani isolate 3 were the most potent producers of deoxynivalenol. We compared the 19 Fusarium isolates based on the bands amplified by 10 microsatellite primers. Of these, seven primers, (TCC)5, (TGG)5, (GTA)5, (ATG)5, (TAC)5, (TGC)5 and (TGT)5, yielded a high number of bands and different mean number of alleles. The similarity level between isolates was calculated using a simple matching coefficient. Dendrograms were constructed by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetical averages (UPGMA). Two main clusters were observed. The interspecific genetic similarity between Fusarium spp. isolates was between 40% and 58% and the intraspecific similarity from 58% to 100%, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity in the tested isolates. Some unexpected genetic similarities were observed among the isolates, indicating non-agreement between morphological and molecular identification of the isolates.

  3. Phenazine antibiotics produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Mazurier, Sylvie; Corberand, Thérèse; Lemanceau, Philippe; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2009-08-01

    Natural disease-suppressive soils provide an untapped resource for the discovery of novel beneficial microorganisms and traits. For most suppressive soils, however, the consortia of microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. To date, soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease has been ascribed to carbon and iron competition between pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum and fluorescent pseudomonads. In this study, the role of bacterial antibiosis in Fusarium wilt suppressiveness was assessed by comparing the densities, diversity and activity of fluorescent Pseudomonas species producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) (phlD+) or phenazine (phzC+) antibiotics. The frequencies of phlD+ populations were similar in the suppressive and conducive soils but their genotypic diversity differed significantly. However, phlD genotypes from the two soils were equally effective in suppressing Fusarium wilt, either alone or in combination with non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strain Fo47. A mutant deficient in DAPG production provided a similar level of control as its parental strain, suggesting that this antibiotic does not play a major role. In contrast, phzC+ pseudomonads were only detected in the suppressive soil. Representative phzC+ isolates of five distinct genotypes did not suppress Fusarium wilt on their own, but acted synergistically in combination with strain Fo47. This increased level of disease suppression was ascribed to phenazine production as the phenazine-deficient mutant was not effective. These results suggest, for the first time, that redox-active phenazines produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to the natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease and may act in synergy with carbon competition by resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum.

  4. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  5. First Report of Fusarium subglutinans Causing Leaf Spot Disease on Cymbidium Orchids in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jong-Han; Back, Chang-Gi; Park, Mi-Jeong

    2015-09-01

    In 2006~2010, leaf spot symptoms, that is, small, yellow spots that turned into dark brown-to-black lesions surrounded by a yellow halo, were observed on Cymbidium spp. in Gongju, Taean, and Gapyeong in Korea. A Fusarium species was continuously isolated from symptomatic leaves; in pathogenicity testing, isolates caused leaf spot symptoms consisting of sunken, dark brown lesions similar to the original ones. The causal pathogen was identified as Fusarium subglutinans based on morphological and translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequence analyses. This is the first report of F. subglutinans as the cause of leaf spot disease in Cymbidium spp. in Korea.

  6. First Report of Fusarium subglutinans Causing Leaf Spot Disease on Cymbidium Orchids in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jong-Han; Back, Chang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    In 2006~2010, leaf spot symptoms, that is, small, yellow spots that turned into dark brown-to-black lesions surrounded by a yellow halo, were observed on Cymbidium spp. in Gongju, Taean, and Gapyeong in Korea. A Fusarium species was continuously isolated from symptomatic leaves; in pathogenicity testing, isolates caused leaf spot symptoms consisting of sunken, dark brown lesions similar to the original ones. The causal pathogen was identified as Fusarium subglutinans based on morphological and translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequence analyses. This is the first report of F. subglutinans as the cause of leaf spot disease in Cymbidium spp. in Korea. PMID:26539053

  7. Determination of the ice-nucleating ability of Fusarium caucascium microconidia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Ryan H.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have indicated that biological particles may be an important class of ice nuclei on regional scales. Quantitative measurements on the immersion ice-activity of spores of the common genus Fusarium have been performed. Droplets containing an average of approximately five Fusarium caucasicum microconidia were found to have a median freezing temperature of -33.6°C. The activity spectrum revealed that 0.1% and 1% of spores are active at -29.1°C and -30.7°C, respectively.

  8. Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Nelson; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; De Souza, Gabriel IH; Esposito, Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was carried out. It was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several Fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20–50 nm in dimensions. The reduction of the metal ions occurs by a nitrate-dependent reductase and a shuttle quinone extracellular process. The potentialities of this nanotechnological design based in fugal biosynthesis of nanoparticles for several technical applications are important, including their high potential as antibacterial material. PMID:16014167

  9. Fusarium spp. recovered from waste peanuts associated with sandhill crane mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, P.E.; Cole, R.J.; Tousson, T.A.; Dorner, J.W.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 5000 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis ) died from undetermined causes in Gains County, Texas, 1985, and an additional 200 died in 1986. Prominent clinical signs were the inability of many sick cranes to hold their necks horizontal and the neck, head, and legs sometimes drooped perpendicularly during flight. Approximately 95% of the dead cranes' gizzards contained peanuts. Culturing of peanuts, shells, soil and soil debris from fields in which sandhill cranes died showed that Fusarium species were the fungi most frequently isolated and eight species were recovered from these substrates. Fusarium compactum, F. solani , and F. equiseti were the only species recovered from all substrates cultured from both fields.

  10. Mixed Infection Caused by Two Species of Fusarium in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Nucci, Marcio; Akiti, Tiyomi; Gené, Josepa

    2000-01-01

    We report on a case of mixed infection caused by two species of Fusarium in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with lymphoma who was neutropenic due to chemotherapy. The patient showed the typical signs of a disseminated fusarial infection, with Fusarium solani isolated from skin lesions and F. verticillioides isolated from blood. The report discusses how difficult it is to make an accurate diagnosis when an immunosuppressed patient is infected with more than one fungal species, especially when the species are morphologically very similar. PMID:10970404

  11. Fatal Cases of Bloodstream Infection by Fusarium solani and Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Dabas, Yubhisha; Bakhshi, Sameer; Xess, Immaculata

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitously present in environment and are well known as human pathogens with high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. We report here two cases where immunocompromised patients developed fatal bloodstream infections by this organism. Isolates were further identified by ITS1 region sequencing which confirmed them as Fusarium solani. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done following CLSI M38-A2 guidelines to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and micafungin. Both patients had a fatal outcome and expired of septic shock. Therefore, identification up to species level is of utmost importance as that helps in directing the management of the patient thereby leading to a favourable outcome.

  12. Fusarium oxysporum infection of stasis ulcer: eradication with measures aimed to improve stasis.

    PubMed

    Mansur, A Tülin; Artunkal, Seza; Ener, Beyza

    2011-07-01

    Fusarium species may cause localised skin infections in immunocompetent individuals. At least half of these infections are preceded by skin breakdown. The lesions are characterised by slow progression and good response to therapy. Here we present a 60-year-old non-diabetic man with stasis ulcers showing Fusarium oxysporum growth in culture of both pus swabs and skin biopsy specimens. The patient was confined to wheelchair because of recurrent sacral chordoma of 15 years duration, which was not under treatment for the last 3 years. Leg ulcers were resistant to antifungal therapy, and healed rapidly after improving of stasis with local and systemic measures.

  13. Molecular variability among isolates of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot disease of Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Vega-Ramos, Karla L; Uvalle-Bueno, J Xavier; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F

    2013-04-01

    In this study, 115 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from roots of Agave tequilana Weber cv azul plants and soil in commercial plantations in western Mexico were characterized using morphological and molecular methods. Genetic analyses of monosporic isolates included restriction enzyme analysis of rDNA (ARDRA) using HaeIII and HinfI, and genetic diversity was determined using Box-PCR molecular markers. Box-PCR analysis generated 14 groups. The groups correlated highly with the geographic location of the isolate and sample type. These results demonstrate the usefulness of ARDRA and Box-PCR techniques in the molecular characterization of the Fusarium genus for the discrimination of pathogenic isolates.

  14. Synergistic estrogenic effects of Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Hahn, Kathrin; Braun, Dominik; Warth, Benedikt; Marko, Doris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites formed by various fungal species that are found as natural contaminants in food. This very heterogeneous group of compounds triggers multiple toxic mechanisms, including endocrine disruptive potential. Current risk assessment of mycotoxins, as for most chemical substances, is based on the effects of single compounds. However, concern on a potential enhancement of risks by interactions of single substances in naturally occurring mixtures has greatly increased recently. In this study, the combinatory effects of three mycoestrogens were investigated in detail. This includes the endocrine disruptors zearalenone (ZEN) and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) produced by Fusarium fungi and alternariol (AOH), a cytotoxic and estrogenic mycotoxin formed by Alternaria species. For evaluation of effects, estrogen-dependent activation of alkaline phosphatase (AlP) and cell proliferation were tested in the adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. The estrogenic potential varied among the single substances. Half maximum effect concentrations (EC50) for AlP activation were evaluated for α-ZEL, ZEN and AOH as 37 pM, 562 pM and 995 nM, respectively. All three mycotoxins were found to act as partial agonists. The majority of binary combinations, even at very low concentrations in the case of α-ZEL, showed strong synergism in the AlP assay. These potentiating phenomena of mycotoxin mixtures highlight the urgent need to incorporate combinatory effects into future risk assessment, especially when endocrine disruptors are involved. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first investigation on synergistic effects of mycoestrogens.

  15. Bacterial Cytochrome P450 System Catabolizing the Fusarium Toxin Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Michihiro; Sato, Ikuo; Ishizaka, Masumi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a natural toxin of fungi that cause Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and other small-grain cereals. DON accumulates in infected grains and promotes the spread of the infection on wheat, posing serious problems to grain production. The elucidation of DON-catabolic genes and enzymes in DON-degrading microbes will provide new approaches to decrease DON contamination. Here, we report a cytochrome P450 system capable of catabolizing DON in Sphingomonas sp. strain KSM1, a DON-utilizing bacterium newly isolated from lake water. The P450 gene ddnA was cloned through an activity-based screening of a KSM1 genomic library. The genes of its redox partner candidates (flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD]-dependent ferredoxin reductase and mitochondrial-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin) were not found adjacent to ddnA; the redox partner candidates were further cloned separately based on conserved motifs. The DON-catabolic activity was reconstituted in vitro in an electron transfer chain comprising the three enzymes and NADH, with a catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 6.4 mM−1 s−1. The reaction product was identified as 16-hydroxy-deoxynivalenol. A bioassay using wheat seedlings revealed that the hydroxylation dramatically reduced the toxicity of DON to wheat. The enzyme system showed similar catalytic efficiencies toward nivalenol and 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, toxins that frequently cooccur with DON. These findings identify an enzyme system that catabolizes DON, leading to reduced phytotoxicity to wheat. PMID:23275503

  16. Role of activated macrophages in experimental Fusarium solani keratitis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianzhang; Hu, Yingfeng; Chen, Shikun; Dong, Chenhuan; Zhang, Jingjin; Li, Yanling; Yang, Juan; Han, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xuejun; Xu, Guoxing

    2014-12-01

    Macrophages under the conjunctival tissue are the first line defender cells of the corneas. Elimination of these cells would lead to aggravation of fungal keratitis. To determine how the course of fungal keratitis would be altered after the activation of these macrophages, a murine model was achieved by intrastromal instillation of latex beads before the corneas were infected with Fusarium solani. The keratitis was observed and clinically scored daily. Infected corneas were homogenized for colony counts. The levels of the IL-12, IL-4, MPO, MIF and iNOS cytokines were measured in the corneas using real-time polymerase chain reactions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the corneas, submaxillary lymph nodes and peripheral blood were detected using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. The latex bead-treated mice exhibited aggravated keratitis. Substantially increased macrophage and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration was detected in the corneas, although few colonies were observed. There was a marked increase in the IL-12, IL-4, MPO, MIF and iNOS expression in the corneas. The numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly enhanced in the corneas and submaxillary lymph nodes. However, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes was decreased in the peripheral blood, while the number of CD8+ lymphocytes increased. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the activation of macrophages in the cornea may cause an excessive immune response. Macrophages appear to play a critical role in regulating the immune response to corneal infections with F. solani.

  17. Detection of invasive infection caused by Fusarium solani and non-Fusarium solani species using a duplex quantitative PCR-based assay in a murine model of fusariosis.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Buitrago, Maria J; Castelli, Maria V; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2012-04-01

    A duplex Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) assay for detecting DNA of members of the genus Fusarium has been developed and validated by using two mouse models of invasive infection. The duplex RT-PCR technique employed two specific molecular beacon probes targeting a highly conserved region of the fungal rDNA gene. This technique showed a detection limit of 10 fg DNA per μl of sample and a specificity of 100%. The sensitivity in a total of 48 samples from a murine model of Fusarium solani infection was 93.9% for lung tissues and 86.7% for serum samples. In comparison, the sensitivity in a total of 45 samples of a F. oxysporum murine model infection was 87% for lung tissues and 42.8% for serum samples. This molecular technique could be a reliable method for the quantification and the evaluation of the disease in animal models and for the clinical diagnosis of fusariosis.

  18. Fusarium spp. is able to grow and invade healthy human nails as a single source of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Galletti, J; Negri, M; Grassi, F L; Kioshima-Cotica, É S; Svidzinski, T I E

    2015-09-01

    Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. is emerging, but some factors associated with its development remain unclear, such as whether this genus is keratinolytic. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of Fusarium to use the human nail as a single source of nutrients. We also performed an epidemiological study and antifungal susceptibility testing of Fusarium spp. that were isolated from patients with onychomycosis. The epidemiological study showed that Fusarium species accounted for 12.4 % of onychomycosis cases, and it was the most common among nondermatophyte molds. The most frequent species identified were F. oxysporum (36.5 %), F. solani (31.8 %), and F. subglutinans (8.3 %). Fluconazole was not active against Fusarium spp., and the response to terbinafine varied according to species. Fusarium was able to grow in vitro without the addition of nutrients and invade healthy nails. Thus, we found that Fusarium uses keratin as a single source of nutrients, and the model proposed herein may be useful for future studies on the pathogenesis of onychomycosis.

  19. The role of mycelium production and a MAPK-mediated immune response in the C. elegans-Fusarium model system

    PubMed Central

    Muhammed, Maged; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; WU, Michael P.; Breger, Julia; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Fusariosis is an emerging infectious complication of immune deficiency, but models to study this infection are lacking. The use of the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host to study the pathogenesis of Fusarium spp. was investigated. We observed that Fusarium conidia consumed by C. elegans can cause a lethal infection and result in more than 90% killing of the host within 120 hours, and the nematode had a significantly longer survival when challenged with Fusarium proliferatum compared to other species. Interestingly, mycelium production appears to be a major contributor in nematode killing in this model system, and C. elegans mutant strains with the immune response genes, tir-1 (encoding a protein containing a TIR domain that functions upstream of PMK-1) and pmk-1 (the homolog of the mammalian p38 MAPK) lived significantly shorter when challenged with Fusarium compared to the wild type strain. Furthermore, we used the C. elegans model to assess the efficacy and toxicity of various compounds against Fusarium. We demonstrated that amphotericin B, voriconazole, mancozeb, and phenyl mercury acetate significantly prolonged the survival of Fusarium-infected C. elegans, although mancozeb was toxic at higher concentrations. In conclusion, we describe a new model system for the study of Fusarium pathogenesis and evolutionarily preserved host responses to this important fungal pathogen. PMID:22225407

  20. Evaluations of shorter exposures of contact lens cleaning solutions against Fusarium oxysporum species complex and Fusarium solani species complex to simulate inappropriate usage.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Rama; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of Fusarium keratitis in contact lens users resulted in withdrawal of ReNu with MoistureLoc solution, although the exact cause of the outbreak remains enigmatic. We evaluated current and discontinued multipurpose cleaning solutions (MPSs; MoistureLoc, Equate, MultiPlus, and OptiFree Express) against plankton- and biofilm-derived cells of Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and F. solani species complex (FSSC). The methods included a traditional assay based on CFU counts and a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay based on percent cell subpopulation (PCS) stained with two fluorochromes (Sytox Red and 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate). The tests were done with the respective manufacturers' recommended cleaning regimens (240 to 360 min) and under shorter exposures (15 to 60 min) to simulate inappropriate usage by the customers. FC assay measured PCS, which was available rapidly, in 5 to 7 h, whereas 24 to 48 h was needed for CFU counts, and there was good correlation between the two methods (r2=0.97). FC assays allowed identification of injured fungal cells, which are likely to be missed with growth assays. In general, a time- and inoculum-dependent survival pattern was seen for both FOSC and FSSC cells, and biofilm-derived cells were more resistant than plankton-derived cells. MultiPlus and Equate produced 100% sterilization of fungi even under shorter exposures. However, biofilm FOSC and FSSC cells survived for up to 4 h in MoistureLoc solution and up to 6 h in OptiFree Express solution under shorter exposure times. This finding was enigmatic, as OptiFree Express is not associated with any outbreak of Fusarium keratitis. This study provides additional support for possible roles that improper lens cleaning regimens and fungal biofilms could play as predisposing factors for Fusarium keratitis.

  1. Modified primers for the identification of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolates that have biological control potential against Fusarium wilt of cucumber in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber.

  2. Monitoring and Predicting the Long Distance Transport of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat and Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prussin, Aaron Justin, II

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a serious disease of wheat and barley that has caused several billion dollars in crop losses over the last decade in the United States. Spores of F. graminearum are released from corn and small grain residues left-over from the previous growing season and are transported long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. Current risk assessment tools consider environmental conditions favorable for disease development, but do not include spore transport. Long distance transport models have been proposed for a number of plant pathogens, but many of these models have not been experimentally validated. In order to predict the atmospheric transport of F. graminearum, the potential source strength ( Qpot) of inoculum must be known. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to estimate Qpot from a field-scale source of inoculum of F. graminearum. Perithecia were generated on artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates. Artificial substrate (carrot agar) produced 15+/-0.4 perithecia cm-2, and natural substrate (corn stalk) produced 44+/-2 perithecia cm-2. Individual perithecia were excised from both substrate types and allowed to release ascospores every 24 hours. Perithecia generated from artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates released a mean of 104+/-5 and 276+/-16 ascospores, respectively. A volumetric spore trap was placed inside a 3,716 m2 clonal source of inoculum in 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that ascospores were released under field conditions predominantly (>90%) during the night (1900 to 0700 hours). Estimates of Qpot for our field-scale sources of inoculum were approximately 4 billion ascospores per 3,716 m 2. Release-recapture studies were conducted from a clonal field-scale source of F. graminearum in 2011 and 2012. Microsatellites were used to identify the released clone of F. graminearum at distances up to 1 km from the source

  3. Real-time PCR detection of toxigenic Fusarium in airborne and settled grain dust and associations with trichothecene mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Eduard, Wijnand; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner

    2006-12-01

    Inhalation of immunomodulating mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. that are commonly found in grain dust may imply health risks for grain farmers. Airborne Fusarium and mycotoxin exposure levels are mainly unknown due to difficulties in identifying Fusarium and mycotoxins in personal aerosol samples. We used a novel real-time PCR method to quantify the fungal trichodiene synthase gene (tri5) and DNA specific to F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum in airborne and settled grain dust, determined the personal inhalant exposure level to toxigenic Fusarium during various activities, and evaluated whether quantitative measurements of Fusarium-DNA could predict trichothecene levels in grain dust. Airborne Fusarium-DNA was detected in personal samples even from short tasks (10-60 min). The median Fusarium-DNA level was significantly higher in settled than in airborne grain dust (p < 0.001), and only the F. langsethiae-DNA levels correlated significantly in settled and airborne dust (r(s) = 0.20, p = 0.003). Both F. langsethiae-DNA and tri5-DNA were associated with HT-2 and T-2 toxins (r(s) = 0.24-0.71, p < 0.05 to p < 00.01) in settled dust, and could thus be suitable as indicators for HT-2 and T-2. The median personal inhalant exposure to specific toxigenic Fusarium spp. was less than 1 genome m(-3), but the exposure ranged from 0-10(5) genomes m(-3). This study is the first to apply real-time PCR on personal samples of inhalable grain dust for the quantification of tri5 and species-specific Fusarium-DNA, which may have potential for risk assessments of inhaled trichothecenes.

  4. Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize.

    PubMed

    Parsons, M W; Munkvold, G P

    2010-05-01

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and planting date upon Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Three hybrids varying in partial resistance to Fusarium ear rot were sown on three planting dates and subjected to four irrigation regimes to induce differing levels of drought stress. A foliar-spray insecticide treatment was imposed to induce differing levels of insect injury. Populations of thrips (Frankliniella spp.), damage by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zeae), Fusarium ear rot symptoms, and fumonisin B1 levels were assessed. There were significant effects of hybrid, planting date, insecticide treatment, and drought stress on Fusarium ear rot symptoms and fumonisin B1 contamination, and these factors also had significant interacting effects. The most influential factors were hybrid and insecticide treatment, but their effects were influenced by planting date and drought stress. The more resistant hybrids and the insecticide-treated plots consistently had lower Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Later planting dates typically had higher thrips populations, more Fusarium ear rot, and higher levels of fumonisin B1. Insect activity was significantly correlated with disease severity and fumonisin contamination, and the correlations were strongest for thrips. The results of this study confirm the influence of thrips on Fusarium ear rot severity in California, USA, and also establish a strong association between thrips and fumonisin B1 levels.

  5. Assessing pigmented pericarp of maize kernels as possible source of resistance to fusarium ear rot, Fusarium spp. infection and fumonisin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Giovanni; Babazadeh, Laleh; Casati, Paola; Pilu, Roberto; Salomoni, Daiana; Toffolatti, Silvia L

    2016-06-16

    One of the purposes of maize genetic improvement is the research of genotypes resistant to fusarium ear rot (FER) and fumonisin accumulation. Flavonoids in the pericarp of the kernels are considered particularly able to reduce the fumonisin accumulation (FUM). The aim of this field study was to assess the effect of flavonoids, associated with anti-insect protection and Fusarium verticillioides inoculation, on FER symptoms and fumonisin contamination in maize kernels. Two isogenic hybrids, one having pigmentation in the pericarp (P1-rr) and the other without it (P1-wr), were compared. P1-rr showed lower values of FER symptoms and FUM contamination than P1-wr only if the anti-insect protection and the F. verticillioides inoculations were applied in combination. Fusarium spp. kernel infection was not influenced by the presence of flavonoids in the pericarp. Artificial F. verticillioides inoculation was more effective than anti-insect protection in enhancing the inhibition activity of flavonoids toward FUM contamination. The interactions between FUM contamination levels and FER ratings were better modeled in the pigmented hybrid than in the unpigmented one. The variable role that the pigment played in kernel defense against FER and FUM indicates that flavonoids alone may not be completely effective in the resistance of fumonisin contamination in maize.

  6. Epitypification of Fusisporium (Fusarium) solani and its assignment to a common phylogenetic species in the Fusarium solani species complex.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Hans-Josef; Samuels, Gary J; Zhang, Ning; Short, Dylan P G; Juba, Jean; Geiser, David M

    2016-01-01

    Fusisporium solani was described as the causal agent of a dry rot of potato in Germany in the mid 19th century. As Fusarium solani, the species became known as a plurivorous plant pathogen, endophyte, decomposer, and opportunistic pathogen of humans and nutritional symbiont of insects. In parallel, it became evident that the morphologically defined species F. solani represents a phylogenetically and biologically complex group of often morphologically cryptic species that has come to be known in part as the F. solani species complex (FSSC), accommodating several formae speciales and mating populations/biological species. The FSSC currently includes more than 60 phylogenetic species. Several of these have been named, but the majority remains unnamed and the identity of F. solani sensu stricto is unclear. To promote further taxonomic developments in the FSSC, lectoand epitypification is proposed for Fusisporium solani Although no type material for F. solani is known to exist, the species was abundantly illustrated in the protologue. Thus, a relevant illustration provided by von Martius is selected as the lectotype. The epitype selected here originates from a rotting potato collected in a field in Slovenia. This strain causes a dry rot of artificially inoculated potatoes. It groups in the heretofore unnamed phylogenetic species 5, which is nested within clade 3 of the FSSC (FSSC 5). Members of this phylogenetic species have a wide geographic distribution and include soil saprotrophs and plant and opportunistic human pathogens. This typification is consistent with the original description of Fusisporium solani and the concept of F. solani as a widely distributed soil inhabitant and pathogen.

  7. Dry heat and hot water treatments for disinfesting cottonseed of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of low- and high-temperature dry heat, and hot water treatments, for disinfesting cottonseed of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was investigated. Naturally infected seeds from Louisiana were air-heated in incubators set at temperatures of 30, 35, and 40 degrees C for up to 24 we...

  8. Characterization and complementation of an apparent FUM gene cluster deletion in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides is a worldwide pathogen of maize and produces the fumonisin mycotoxins. Contamination of maize kernels with fumonisin B1 (FB1) is of significant concern because of its causal role in equine leukoencephalomalacia, porcine pulmonary edema, liver and...

  9. Progress report on a contemporary survey of the Fusarium wilt fungus in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The last survey of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in the U.S. was conducted in 1985. Since that time, race 4, previously thought to occur only in Asia, appeared in California in 2001, causing significant problems for the San Joaquin Valley cotton industry. Also, the presence of race 8 has bee...

  10. Can Host Plant Resistance Protect the Quality of Wheat from Fusarium Head Blight?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) infection reduces the amount of millable grain from an infected field, reduces mill yields, and generally degrades end-use quality. In 2009, the Logan County, KY, wheat trial had extended conditions for infection with FHB resulting in extensive and uniform infection withi...

  11. Altered expression of polyketide biosynthetic gene clusters in fumonisin-deficient mutants of Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize and produces fumonisins, a group of polyketide derived secondary metabolites. Fumonisins cause diseases in animals, and they have been correlated epidemiologically with esophageal cancer and birth defects in humans. Fumonisin biosynthetic genes are c...

  12. Effects of elevated CO2 on maize defense against mycotoxigenic Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) increased maize susceptibility to Fusarium verticillioides stalk rot. Even though the pathogen biomass accumulated to significantly higher levels at double ambient [CO2] (2x[CO2]), the projected [CO2] concentration to occur at the end of this...

  13. Iturin levels on wheat spikes linked to biological control of fusarium head blight by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TrigoCor strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens provides consistent control against Fusarium head blight of wheat in controlled settings but there is a lack of disease and deoxynivalenol suppression in field settings. Since production of antifungal compounds is thought to be the main mode of actio...

  14. Seed treatment with live or dead Fusarium verticillioides equivalently reduces the severity of subsequent stalk rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a widely distributed fungus that can associate with maize as a deleterious pathogen and an advantageous endophyte. Here, we show that seed treatment with live F.verticillioides enhances maize resistance to secondary stalk rot infection, and demonstrate that dead F.vertici...

  15. Exploring the role of trehalose metabolism in resistance to oxidative and desiccation stress in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogenic filamentous fungus that primarily affects maize. We are exploring stress response mechanisms in F. verticillioides, particularly the role of trehalose, a disaccharide known to be involved in the ability of several organisms to withstand desiccation or drought...

  16. Quantitative trait loci for Fusarium head blight resistance in Huangcandou x 'Jagger' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum), and growing resistant cultivars is one of the most effective strategies to minimize its damage. Huangcandou (HCD) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resistance to FHB spread within a spike (type II)...

  17. Effects of elevated [CO2] on the defense response of wheat against Fusarium graminearum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the world’s most devastating wheat diseases, and results in significant yield loss and contamination of grain with harmful mycotoxins called trichothecenes. Despite emerging risks of increased mycotoxin contamination in food and feed associated with climate chang...

  18. StuA is a key regulator of fumonisin production and virulence in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most important pathogens of maize, producing fumonisin mycotoxins during infection. Ingestion of fumonisin-contaminated corn causes fatal toxicity in livestock and is associated with neural tube birth defects and growth stunting in children. It is also a potent...

  19. Genome sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungus causing wilt disease on melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt disease on melon (Cucumis melo). The project is part of a large comparative study designed to explore the genetic composition and evolutionary origin of this group of horizontally ...

  20. Genome Sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungus causing wilt disease on melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt disease on melon (Cucumis melo). The project is part of a large comparative study designed to explore the genetic composition and evolutionary origin of this group of horizontally ...

  1. Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Vania C.; Mirabelli, Valentina; Cimmarusti, Maria Teresa; Haidukowski, Miriam; Leslie, John F.; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Caliandro, Rocco; Fanelli, Francesca; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Members of the fungal genus Fusarium can produce numerous secondary metabolites, including the nonribosomal mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Both mycotoxins are synthesized by the multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase (ESYN1) that contains both peptide synthetase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent N-methyltransferase activities. Several Fusarium species can produce ENNs, BEA or both, but the mechanism(s) enabling these differential metabolic profiles is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the primary structure of ESYN1 by sequencing esyn1 transcripts from different Fusarium species. We measured ENNs and BEA production by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and Acquity QDa mass detector (UPLC-PDA-QDa) analyses. We predicted protein structures, compared the predictions by multivariate analysis methods and found a striking correlation between BEA/ENN-producing profiles and ESYN1 three-dimensional structures. Structural differences in the β strand’s Asn789-Ala793 and His797-Asp802 portions of the amino acid adenylation domain can be used to distinguish BEA/ENN-producing Fusarium isolates from those that produce only ENN. PMID:28125067

  2. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    PubMed

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models.

  3. Quantitative expression of Fusarium sporotrichioides genes in the presence of xanthotoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen) is a phototoxic furocoumarin that covalently binds to and crosslinks with deoxyribonucleic (DNA). It is also known to inhibit P450 oxygenases. To test the effect of xanthotoxin on gene expression in Fusarium sporotrichioides, we developed a reverse transcriptase qua...

  4. A new carotenoid glycosyl ester isolated from a marine microorganism, Fusarium strain T-1.

    PubMed

    Sakaki, Hideyuki; Kaneno, Hirokazu; Sumiya, Yasuji; Tsushima, Miyuki; Miki, Wataru; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Fujita, Tokio; Matsumoto, Sadayoshi; Komemushi, Sadao; Sawabe, Akiyoshi

    2002-11-01

    A new carotenoid glycosyl ester, neurosporaxanthin beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with neurosporaxanthin (1), beta-carotene, gamma-carotene, and torulene were isolated from cultured cells of a marine microorganism, strain T-1, which was identified as Fusarium sp. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectral data.

  5. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-16

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  6. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  7. Molecular phylogeny and diversity of Fusarium endophytes isolated from tomato stems.

    PubMed

    Imazaki, Iori; Kadota, Ikuo

    2015-09-01

    Plant tissues are a known habitat for two types of Fusarium species: plant pathogens and endophytes. Here, we investigated the molecular phylogeny and diversity of endophytic fusaria, because endophytes are not as well studied as pathogens. A total of 543 Fusarium isolates were obtained from the inside of tomato stems cultivated in soils mainly obtained from agricultural fields. We then determined partial nucleotide sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) genes of the isolates. Among the isolates from tomato, 24 EF-1α gene sequence types (EFST) were found: nine were classified as being from the Fusarium oxysporum species complex and its sister taxa (FOSC, 332 isolates), seven from the F. fujikuroi species complex (FFSC, 75 isolates) and eight from the F. solani species complex (FSSC, 136 isolates). To determine more characteristic details of the tomato isolates, we isolated 180 fusaria directly from soils and found 95% of them were nested within the FOSC (82 isolates; five EFSTs), FFSC (21 isolates; six FESTs) and FSSC (68 isolates; 11 EFSTs). These results suggested that the dominant Fusarium endophytes within tomato stems were members of the same three species complexes, which were also the dominant fusaria in the soils.

  8. Development of Durum Wwheat Germplasm with Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight Derived from Emmer Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) is a unique class of commercial wheat specifically for making pasta products. Durum production has been seriously challenged by the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in the United States in the past decade. Although utilization of resistant cultivar...

  9. Comparison of virulence between vascular competent and incompetent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum pathotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Australian biotype and California race 4 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum (Fov) are pathologically distinct from the Fov U.S. race 1 isolates in that they do not cause disease when stem-puncture inoculated while race 1 isolates do. When root-dip inoculation method was used, bot...

  10. Structural and Functional Characterization of TRI3 Acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of cereal crops whose worldwide incidence is increasing and at present there is no satisfactory way of combating this pathogen or its associated toxins. There is a wide variety of trichothecene mycotoxins and they all contain a 12,13-epoxytrichoth...

  11. EBR1 genomic expansion and its role in virulence of Fusarium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome sequencing of Fusarium oxysporum revealed that pathogenic forms of this fungus harbor supernumerary chromosomes with a wide variety of genes, many of which likely encode traits required for pathogenicity or niche specialization. Specific transcription factor (TF) gene families are expanded on...

  12. DNA sequence-based identification of Fusarium: Current status and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium easily ranks as one of the most important mycotoxigenic plant pathogens and emergent opportunistic pathogen of immunologically impaired humans. Informed disease management and infection control are heavily reliant on an accurate identification of the toxigenic and/or etiological agent. Howe...

  13. Identification of Fusarium graminearum infection severity of wheat grains by digitally aided spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkai, Géza; Erostyák, János; Mesterházy, Ákos

    2013-05-01

    The Fusarium head blight caused mostly by Fusarium graminearum (F.g.) is the most important disease of wheat because it not only leads to yield loss, but the toxin contamination makes the yield harvested. First, visual assessment of the heads was made, then the ratio of Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) becomes the attention, and since introduction of the toxin limits for wheat, the deoxynivalenol contamination has gained significance. However, the FDK has a greater practical significance, as the identification of Fusarium damaged kernels is the precondition of their separation.For this reason a more exact and more sensitive method was developed by using updated spectroscopy methods. The infection sensitive spectral index (ISSI) function has been developed to characterize spectral features of images of grains with different infection severities. The green and red color ranges could be best used in this analysis. It was also found that the way how different spectra from different grains or samples can be normalized and compared. This histogram analyzing method uses scanned images and it seems to be useful in describing the infection severity of heterogeneous samples better than available before.This might serve as scientific background to develop new instruments for rapid tests.

  14. Validation of Fusarium head blight resistance QTL using the NC-Neuse / Bess doubled haploid population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. It lowers the grain yield and quality, and contaminates grain with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Genetic resistance is a critical control measure and breeding objective. Many studies have focused on the genetic basis of ...

  15. North American isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a novel type A trichothecene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a virulence factor of Fusarium graminearum on wheat and most likely on other host plants. A large scale survey of F. graminearum (sensu strictu) conducted in the northern United States revealed the existence of strains which - based on molecular markers - belong to the 3-acet...

  16. Integration of fungicide application and cultivar resistance to manage fusarium head blight in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), also known as scab, is a destructive disease of wheat and other small grain cereals. Losses are compounded by the associated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) which contaminates grain. This chapter provides a brief review of FHB of wheat in North America including occurren...

  17. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in hard red spring wheat inoculated with Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin which isproduced by plant pathogens such as Fusarium species. The formation of the "masked" mycotoxin deoxinyvalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) results from a defense mechanism the plant uses for detoxification. These two mycotoxins are important from the food safety poi...

  18. Production of a new type A trichothecene by isolates of Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of deoxynivalenol (DON) is a virulence factor of Fusarium graminearum on wheat and most likely on other host plants. A large survey of F. graminearum (sensu strictu) in the northern United States revealed the existence of strains which - based on molecular markers - belong to the 3-acetyl...

  19. Comparative population genomics of fusarium graminearum reveals adaptive divergence among cereal head blight pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the last decade, a combination of molecular surveillance and population genetic analyses have significantly altered our understanding of Fusarium graminearum, the major FHB pathogen in North America. In addition to the native NA1 population (largely 15ADON toxin type) and the invasive NA2 pop...

  20. Down with DON: Strategies for precise transgene delivery and rnai-based suppression of fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic strategies can effectively supplement other methods for controlling Fusarium head blight (FHB). Impediments to deploying FHB-resistant transgenic barley include a long time-frame for creating and testing transgenes in barley, imprecise transgene insertions that lead to unstable gene expre...

  1. Evolution of the Fusarium – Euwallacea mutualism and their cophylogenetic history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to characterize the genetic diversity of wood-boring ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and the Fusarium fungi they cultivate for food. Native to Asia, five different infestations of these economically destructive mutualists h...

  2. Aggressiveness of Fusarium species and impact of root infection on growth and yield of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Arias, María M Díaz; Leandro, Leonor F; Munkvold, Gary P

    2013-08-01

    Fusarium spp. are commonly isolated from soybean roots but the pathogenic activity of most species is poorly documented. Aggressiveness and yield impact of nine species of Fusarium were determined on soybean in greenhouse (50 isolates) and field microplot (19 isolates) experiments. Root rot severity and shoot and root dry weights were compared at growth stages V3 or R1. Root systems were scanned and digital image analysis was conducted; yield was measured in microplots. Disease severity and root morphology impacts varied among and within species. Fusarium graminearum was highly aggressive (root rot severity >90%), followed by F. proliferatum and F. virguliforme. Significant variation in damping-off (20 to 75%) and root rot severity (<20 to >60%) was observed among F. oxysporum isolates. In artificially-infested microplots, root rot severity was low (<25%) and mean yield was not significantly reduced. However, there were significant linear relationships between yield and root symptoms for some isolates. Root morphological characteristics were more consistent indicators of yield loss than root rot severity. This study provides the first characterization of aggressiveness and yield impact of Fusarium root rot species on soybean at different plant stages and introduces root image analysis to assess the impact of root pathogens on soybean.

  3. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  4. Metabolic profiles of soybean roots during early stages of Fusarium tucumaniae infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean germplasm exhibits various levels of resistance to Fusarium tucumaniae, the main causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean in Argentina. In this study, two soybean genotypes, one susceptible (NA 4613) and one partially resistant (DM 4670) to SDS infection, were inoculated with F...

  5. Fusarium head blight resistance loci in a stratified population of wheat landraces and varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Chinese and Japanese wheat landraces and varieties have unique sources of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, an association mapping panel of 195 wheat accessions including both commercial varieties and landraces was genotyped with 364 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) and ...

  6. Molecular Diversity of Seed-borne Fusarium Species Associated with Maize in India

    PubMed Central

    Aiyaz, Mohammed; Divakara, Shetty Thimmappa; Mudili, Venkataramana; Moore, Geromy George; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Niranjana, Siddapura Ramachandrappa

    2016-01-01

    A total of 106 maize seed samples were collected from different agro-climatic regions of India. Sixty-two Fusarium isolates were recovered, 90% of which were identified as Fusarium verticillioides based on morphological and molecular characters. Use of the tef-1α gene corrected/refined the morphological species identifications of 11 isolates, and confirmed those of the remaining isolates. Genetic diversity among the Fusarium isolates involved multilocus fingerprinting profiles by Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) UPGMA and tef-1α gene phenetic analyses; for which, we observed no significant differences among the isolates based on geographic origin or fumonisin production; most of the subdivision related to species. Genotyping was performed on the F. verticillioides isolates, using 12 primer sets from the fumonisin pathway, to elucidate the molec-ular basis of fumonisin production or non-production. One fumonisin-negative isolate, UOMMF-16, was unable to amplify nine of the 12 fumonisin cluster genes tested. We also used the CD-ELISA method to confirm fumonisin production for our 62 Fusarium isolates. Only 15 isolates were found to be fumonisin-negative. Interestingly, genotypic characterization re-vealed six isolates with various gene deletion patterns that also tested positive for the production of fumonisins via CD-ELISA. Our findings confirm the importance of molecular studies for species delimitation, and for observing genetic and phenotypic diversity, among the Fusaria. PMID:27226769

  7. First report of Fusarium hostae causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rot disease of wheat is caused by a complex of Fusarium species. To identify species associated with crown rot in Turkey, crowns and stems of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) were collected from the Central and Southeast Anatolia, Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterr...

  8. A spontaneous segmental deletion from chromosome arm 3DL enhances Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much effort has been directed at identifying sources of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. We sought to identify molecular markers for what we hypothesized was a new major FHB resistance locus originating from the wheat cultivar 'Freedom' and introgressed into the susceptible wheat c...

  9. Evidence for multiple introductions and clonality in Spanish populations of Fusarium circinatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium circinatum is thought to have been moved around the world with pine planting stock consisting most probably of infected seeds. In this work we investigate the genetic structure of F. circinatum in Spain at a regional scale relative to global populations, and the relative contributions of re...

  10. Identification of two tagged-insertional mutants of Fusarium graminearum impaired in asexual reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important fungal pathogen of small grains and maize cultivated throughout the world. This pathogen not only causes extensive crop losses due to the destructive nature of the disease but also has the ability to contaminate grains with mycotoxins. To better understand funga...

  11. Identification of gene clusters associated with fusaric acid, fusarin, and perithecial pigment production in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Fusarium is of concern to agricultural production and food/feed safety because of its ability to cause crop disease and to produce mycotoxins, secondary metabolites (SMs) that are toxic to humans and other animals. Understanding the genetic basis for production of mycotoxins and other SMs ...

  12. How does VeA Regulates some Secondary Metabolism in Fusarium fujikuroi?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium fujikuroi is best known as a pathogen of rice that causes hyper elongation of seedling stalks and leaves due to the production of gibberellic acids (GAs). Besides GAs, F. fujikuroi may also synthesize other toxins like fumonisins, fusarin C, and bikaverin as well as carotenoids. Although ...

  13. How does VeA effect secondary metabolism in Fusarium fujikuroi?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium fujikuroi is best known as a pathogen of rice that causes hyper elongation of seedling stalks and leaves due to the production of gibberellic acids (GAs). Besides GAs, F. fujikuroi may also synthesize other toxins like fumonisins, fusarin C, and bikaverin as well as carotenoids. Although ...

  14. Relationship between mycoparasites lifestyles and biocontrol behaviors against Fusarium spp. and mycotoxins production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Hwa; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Global food security research is seeking eco-friendly solutions to control mycotoxins in grain infected by fungi (molds). In particular, mycotoxigenic Fusarium spp. outbreak is a chronic threat for cereal grain production, human, and animal health. In this review paper, we discuss up-to-date biological control strategies in applying mycoparasites as biological control agents (BCA) to prevent plant diseases in crops and mycotoxins in grain, food, and feed. The aim is to increase food safety and to minimize economic losses due to the reduced grain yield and quality. However, recent papers indicate that the study of the BCA specialists with biotrophic lifestyle lags behind our understanding of the BCA generalists with necrotrophic lifestyle. We examine critical behavioral traits of the two BCA groups of mycoparasites. The goal is to highlight their major characteristics in the context of future research towards an efficient biocontrol strategy against mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. The emphasis is put on biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum, F. avenaceum, and F. culmorum causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals and their mycotoxins.

  15. Food Fight: Fungal Foe Frustration (Fusarium verticillioides vs. the world of xenobiotics)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides infects maize and produces the fumonisin mycotoxins. The genome of the fungus encodes approximately 30 proteins containing beta-lactamase domains that are roughly evenly split between two families, metallo beta-lactamases and cephalosporinases. In bacteria beta-lactamases ar...

  16. Characterization of Two ABC Transporters from Biocontrol and Phytopathogenic Fusarium oxysporus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABC transporter genes from four strains of Fusarium oxysporum [two biocontrol and two phytopathogenic (f. sp. lycopersici Race 1) isolates] indicated that this gene is well conserved. However, sequences of promoter regions of FoABC1 differed between 8 phytopathogenic and 11 biocontrol strains of F....

  17. Identical homologs of the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin in Zea mays and Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Fouquaert, Elke; Peumans, Willy J; Gheysen, Godelieve; Van Damme, Els J M

    2011-01-01

    The structural domain corresponding to the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) is a mannose-binding motif that was originally discovered in plants but according to recent data also occurs in other eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Transcriptome analyses revealed that Fusarium verticillioides expresses a protein (FvGLLc1) identical to a recently identified cytoplasmic/nuclear GNA-like lectin from maize (ZmGLLc). The FvGLLc1 and ZmGLLc gene sequences are nearly identical in the coding region as well as in the intron and the 5 and 3 prime untranslated regions. However, whereas the Fusarium genome contains only a single gene with an intron, both an intronless and an intron containing lectin gene can be amplified from maize DNA. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of this cytoplasmic GNA-like gene in the maize and rice genome. A comparative analysis of the products amplified by different PCRs using genomic DNA from Fusarium species and maize DNA samples from sterile as well as contaminated plant material strongly indicated that the GNA-like sequence found in maize grown under sterile conditions is not derived from a contaminating Fusarium species. Furthermore, using a PCR-based approach it could be demonstrated that this particular type of lectin occurs also in other plants from distant taxa and is markedly conserved.

  18. Potential and optimization of genomic selection for fusarium head blight resistance in six-row barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of barley, causing reductions in yield and quality. Marker-based selection for resistance to FHB and lowered deoxynivalenol (DON) grain concentration would save considerable costs and time associated with phenotyping. A comprehensive marker-based s...

  19. PAM: Particle automata model in simulation of Fusarium graminearum pathogen expansion.

    PubMed

    Wcisło, Rafał; Miller, S Shea; Dzwinel, Witold

    2016-01-21

    The multi-scale nature and inherent complexity of biological systems are a great challenge for computer modeling and classical modeling paradigms. We present a novel particle automata modeling metaphor in the context of developing a 3D model of Fusarium graminearum infection in wheat. The system consisting of the host plant and Fusarium pathogen cells can be represented by an ensemble of discrete particles defined by a set of attributes. The cells-particles can interact with each other mimicking mechanical resistance of the cell walls and cell coalescence. The particles can move, while some of their attributes can be changed according to prescribed rules. The rules can represent cellular scales of a complex system, while the integrated particle automata model (PAM) simulates its overall multi-scale behavior. We show that due to the ability of mimicking mechanical interactions of Fusarium tip cells with the host tissue, the model is able to simulate realistic penetration properties of the colonization process reproducing both vertical and lateral Fusarium invasion scenarios. The comparison of simulation results with micrographs from laboratory experiments shows encouraging qualitative agreement between the two.

  20. Fusarium falciforme vertebral abscess and osteomyelitis: case report and molecular classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is a ubiquitous filamentous mold that rarely causes disease in immunocompetent humans but can be fatal in immunocompromised hosts. We report an unusual case of vertebral abscess and osteomyelitis in a patient with an autoimmune disorder who was on long term glucocorticoids. Multilocus DNA s...

  1. Grain biodeterioration of sorghum converted lines inoculated with a mixture of Fusarium thapsinum and Curvularia lunata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, grain mold is a major hurdle affecting sorghum productivity and quality. This disease is caused by complex fungal pathogens, among them Fusarium thapsinum and Curvularia lunata are the major fungi prevalent in many sorghum growing regions. This study examined the effect of inoculating a ...

  2. Metabolomic evaluation of conditions favoring mycotoxin production in isolates of Fusarium fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of Fusarium have the potential to produce secondary metabolites that have been identified as mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are often found in plants that serve as hosts for invasive fungi. Toxicity can serve as a mechanism for imparting virulence to invasive fungi, and can cause toxicity in...

  3. Functional characterization of candidate effector proteins identified from the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal pathogens often produce certain small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) during pathogenesis that may function in triggering resistance or susceptibility in specific host plants. We have recently identified a total of 190 SSCPs encoded in the genome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium gra...

  4. A fungal symbiont of plant-roots modulates mycotoxin gene expression in the pathogen Fusarium sambucinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium trichothecenes are fungal toxins that cause disease on infected plants and, more importantly, health problems for humans and animals that consume infected fruits or vegetables. Unfortunately, there are few methods for controlling the growth of mycotoxin production pathogens. In this study, ...

  5. Cyclic lipopeptide profile of three Bacillus subtilus strains; antagonists of Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cyclic lipopeptide profile of three Bacillus subtilis strains (AS 43.3, AS 43.4, and OH 131.1) was determined using mass spectroscopy. The strains are antagonists of Gibberella zeae and have been shown to be effective in reducing Fusarium head blight in wheat. Strains AS 43.3 and AS 43.4 produ...

  6. Characterization of stuA mutants in the mycotoxigenic maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a major pathogen of maize, causing root, stalk and ear rots and seedling blight. It also produces fumonisin mycotoxins. Ingestion of fumonisin-contaminated corn causes acute toxicity in livestock and is a potential carcinogen to humans. StuA, an APSES protein class transc...

  7. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of sexual development in a nematode-associated strain of Fusarium neocosmosporiellum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium neocosmosporiellum (formerly Neocosmospora vasinfecta) is a ubiquitous saprobic fungus that has been isolated from plants, fungi, nematodes, dung and soil. This homothallic species is nested in a clade within the F. solani species complex near a lineage of fusaria farmed by ambrosia beetles...

  8. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  9. Nitric oxide detoxification by Fusarium verticillioides flavohemoglobin and role in pathogenicity of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a non-obligate plant pathogen of maize causing a number of specific diseases, including root rot, kernel rot, seed rot, stalk rot, and seedling blight. The saprophytic nature of this fungus, its production of the mycotoxin fumonisin, and complex relationship maize puts t...

  10. The Genetic Basis of Fusarium Root Rot Tolerance in the Afghanistan Pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic basis of tolerance to Fusarium root rot found in many landraces grown in the region that includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal and northwestern India was examined in a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between a tolerant accession. Three loci appear to be primarily resp...

  11. Fusarium graminearum: an pathogen of maize in Nepal, pathogenic variability and mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of maize in hills of Nepal. It predominantly occurs on maize grown in cool and humid environment of high hills. The pathogen is also known to infect other cereal crops including wheat and rice causing important diseases. The incidence of ear rot is hi...

  12. Molecular markers for improving control of soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB) is an important pathogen of sugar beet worldwide causing leaf yellowing and vascular discoloration. The use of tolerant varieties is one of the most effective methods for managing this disease. In this study, a large germplasm collection,comprised of 29 sugar be...

  13. Colonization of Clonostachys rosea on soybean root inoculated with Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean root rot, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease. Clonostachys rosea has been reported to have protection against plant pathogens in different crops. The objectives of this study were to determine if a strain of C. rosea (ACM941) can colonize soybean root that were inocula...

  14. Elevated [CO2] compromises both Type I and Type II wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the world’s most devastating wheat diseases, and results in significant yield loss and contamination of grain with harmful mycotoxins called trichothecenes. Despite emerging risks of increased mycotoxin contamination in food and feed associated with climate chang...

  15. Investigation of Genetic Diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae Using PCR-RFLP

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Su; Kang, Nam Jun; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Lee, Choungkeun

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilts of strawberry, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae, is a serious soil-borne disease. Fusarium wilt causes dramatic yield losses in commercial strawberry production and it is a very stubborn disease to control. Reliable chemical control of strawberry Fusarium wilt disease is not yet available. Moreover, other well-known F. oxysporum have different genetic information from F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae. This analysis investigates the genetic diversity of strawberry Fusairum wilt pathogen. In total, 110 pathogens were isolated from three major strawberry production regions, namely Sukok, Hadong, Sancheong in Gyeongnam province in South Korea. The isolates were confirmed using F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae species-specific primer sets. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses were executed using the internal transcribed spacer, intergenic spacer, translation elongation factor1-α, and β-tubulin genes of the pathogens and four restriction enzymes: AluI, HhaI, HinP1I and HpyCH4V. Regarding results, there were diverse patterns in the three gene regions except for the β-tubulin gene region. Correlation analysis of strawberry cultivation region, cultivation method, variety, and phenotype of isolated pathogen, confirmed that genetic diversity depended on the classification of the cultivated region. PMID:28381961

  16. Genes, Gene Clusters, and Biosynthesis of Trichothecenes and Fumonisins in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes and fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, a filamentous fungus that can cause disease on some crop plants, including corn, rice, and wheat. Research on the genetics and biochemistry of trichothecene and fumonisin biosynthesis has provided important insights into the genetic...

  17. Survival of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum chlamydospores under solarization temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solarization is an effective soil treatment against race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Despite the lack of effective alternatives, solarization is rarely used in cotton because of its high cost. Use of solarization might be increased if soil temperatures could be used to predict redu...

  18. A morel improved growth and suppressed Fusarium infection in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Bu, Fangfang; Hou, Jiaojiao; Kang, Yongxiang; Yu, Zhongdong

    2016-12-01

    A post-fire morel collected from Populus simonii stands in Mt. Qingling was identified as Morchella crassipes Mes-20 by using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogeny. It was inoculated into sweet corn to observe colonized roots in purified culture and in greenhouse experiments. The elongation and maturation zones of sweet corn were remarkably colonized at the cortex intercellular and intracellular cells, vessel cells, and around the Casparian strip, forming ectendomycorrhiza-like structures. Colonization was also observed in the zone of cell division proximal to the root cap. Greenhouse assays with sweet corn showed that this morel stimulated the development of the root system and significantly increased the dry root biomass. M. crassipes also significantly reduced the incidence of Fusarium verticillioides in the kernels of mature ears when inoculated into young ears before Fusarium inoculation and prevented Fusarium infection in corn ears compared with that of the control in the greenhouse. When grown under axenic conditions, M. crassipes produced the phytohormones abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and salicylic acid. The benefits to plants elicited by M. crassipes may result from these phytohormones which may improve the drought resistance, biomass growth and resistance to Fusarium.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi CF-295141, Isolated from Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Bertoni-Mann, Michele; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; González-Menéndez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a new strain of Fusarium fujikuroi, isolated from Pinus sylvestris, which was also found to produce the mycotoxin beauvericin. The Illumina-based sequence analysis revealed an approximate genome size of 44.2 Mbp, containing 164 secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters. PMID:27795279

  20. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  1. Nitric oxide metabolism and the role of NO detoxifying flavohaemoglobin in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free radical, highly reactive, and responsible for both cytotoxic and cytostimulant effects in the cell. The dual nature of NO makes it the perfect candidate for both molecular signaling and an effective first line of defense against pathogens. Fusarium verticillioides i...

  2. In silico analysis and prioritization of drug targets in Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Sivashanmugam, Muthukumaran; Nagarajan, Hemavathy; Vetrivel, Umashankar; Ramasubban, Gayathri; Therese, Kulandai Lily; Narahari, Madhavan Hajib

    2015-02-01

    Mycotic keratitis has emerged as a major ophthalmic problem and a leading cause of blindness, since its recognition in 1879. Filamentous fungi are major causative of mycotic keratitis. In India, the main etiological organism responsible for mycotic keratitis is Aspergillus species followed by Fusarium species. In South India, Fusarium based keratitis scales up to 43%. Nearly one-third of mycotic keratitis treatment results in failure, as fungal infections are highly resistant to antibiotic therapies. Therefore, there is need to determine novel and specific targets to constrain Fusarium infections in human eye. In this study, we implemented subtractive proteomics coupled with in silico functional annotation to prioritize potential and specific drug targets which can be used to modulate the virulence of Fusarium solani subsp.pisi (Nectria haematococca MPVI). The results infer that Thiamine thiazole synthase (Thi4), an intracellular membrane bound protein as the potential target, which is a core protein in biological and metabolic process of this pathogen. Moreover, this protein occurs in the thiamine thiazole biosynthesis pathway which is unique to F.solani and devoid in human. Hence, we predicted a plausible structure for this protein and also performed ligand-binding cavity analysis which can be for a strong base for drug designing studies. This study will pave way in better understanding of potential drug targets in F.solani and also leading to therapeutic interventions of fungal keratitis.

  3. Identification and Characterization of Partial Resistance to Fusarium root rot in the Pisum Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) is a serious seed and root rot pathogen found in both dryland and irrigated peas in the USA. Resistance to Fsp in 44 wild pea accessions from the Pisum Core Collection located in Pullman, WA, USA was characterized under greenhouse conditions. Germination rates, ro...

  4. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis in sugar beet: identification of SNP markers associated to Fusarium resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium spp. cause severe damage in many agricultural crops including sugar beet. Sugar beet needs to be protected from these soil borne pathogens to guarantee an optimal sugar yield in the field. The genetic control is the key to overcoming this disease. Identification of single nucleotide polymor...

  5. First Report of Sexual Reproduction by the Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome Pathogen Fusarium tucumaniae in Nature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the four fusaria that have been shown to cause soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), field surveys indicate that Fusarium tucumaniae is the most important and genetically diverse SDS pathogen in Argentina. Although none of the SDS fusaria have been shown to produce perithecia in nature, a heteroth...

  6. Evaluation of sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali against Fusarium thapsinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-eight sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali along with resistant (Sureno and SC719) and susceptible (RTx430 and RTx2536) checks were evaluated in replicated plots for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum at Isabela, Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions such as temperature, relative hum...

  7. On the reliability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum research: Do we need standardized testing methods?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. nivium (Fon) is a pathogen highly variable in aggressiveness that requires a standardized testing method to more accurately define isolate aggressiveness (races) and to identify resistant watermelon lines. Isolates of Fon vary in aggressiveness from weakly to highly aggres...

  8. Response of Fusarium thapsinum to sorghum brown midrib lines and to phenolic metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presentation type: poster Presentation title: Response of Fusarium thapsinum to sorghum brown midrib lines and to phenolic metabolites Sorghum lines were bred for reduced lignin for cellulosic bioenergy uses, through the incorporation of brown midrib (bmr) bmr6 and/or 12 into two gen...

  9. Evaluations of Fusarium wilt resistance in Upland cotton from Uzbek cotton germplasm resources.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Atk. Sny & Hans (FOV), in combination with Verticillium dahliae Kleb, causes a wilt disease complex in cotton that significantly reduces yield. A highly virulent strain of FOV, No. 316, was isolated that caused up to 80% plant death in commercial cotton in Uzbe...

  10. Proteomic analysis of Fusarium solani isolated from the Asian Longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) revealed that a fungal species, Fusarium solani, is consistently associated with the larval stage of this insect. Previous work demonstrated that larval guts collected from a variety of geographically di...

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium solani associated with the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culture-independent analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) revealed that a fungal species, Fusarium solani, is consistently associated with the larval stage of this insect. Using the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region for phylogene...

  12. Molecular diversity of seed-borne Fusarium species associated with maize in India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 62 Fusarium isolates were recovered from 106 maize seeds sampled across 13 states in India, 90% of which were identified as F. verticillioides. Our study included (1) species confirmation through PCR assay using the tef-1a gene, (2) a fumonisin cluster genotype assay using developed multi...

  13. Evaluation of genomic prediction methods for fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance is quantitative and difficult to evaluate. Genomic selection (GS) could accelerate FHB resistance breeding. We used US cooperative FHB wheat nursery data to evaluate GS models for several FHB resistance traits including deoxynivalenol (DON) levels. For all trait...

  14. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  15. Interaction of Aceria mangiferae with Fusarium mangiferae, the causal agent of mango malformation disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study examines the role of the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, in carrying Fusarium mangiferae’s conidia, vectoring them into the penetration sites and assisting fungal penetration and dissemination. Conidia that were exposed to a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-marked isolate of F. mangifer...

  16. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  17. Cyanonectria, a new genus for “Nectria” cyanostoma and its Fusarium anamorph

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new genus Cyanonectria is proposed for Nectria cyanostoma (= Cyanonectria cyanostoma comb. nov.). This genus is characterized by Nectria-like, red perithecia that have a bluish-purple papilla and a Fusarium anamorph. DNA sequences (large subunit and internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rD...

  18. Inoculum Potential of Fusarium spp. Relates to Tillage and Straw Management in Norwegian Fields of Spring Oats.

    PubMed

    Hofgaard, Ingerd S; Seehusen, Till; Aamot, Heidi U; Riley, Hugh; Razzaghian, Jafar; Le, Vinh H; Hjelkrem, Anne-Grete R; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Brodal, Guro

    2016-01-01

    The increased occurrence of Fusarium-mycotoxins in Norwegian cereals over the last decade, is thought to be caused by increased inoculum resulting from more cereal residues at the soil surface as a result of reduced tillage practices. In addition, weather conditions have increasingly promoted inoculum development and infection by Fusarium species. The objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of different tillage regimes (autumn plowing; autumn harrowing; spring plowing; spring harrowing) on the inoculum potential (IP) and dispersal of Fusarium spp. in spring oats. Tillage trials were conducted at two different locations in southeast Norway from 2010 to 2012. Oat residues from the previous year's crop were collected within a week after sowing for evaluation. IP was calculated as the percentage of residues infested with Fusarium spp. multiplied by the proportion of the soil surface covered with residues. Fusarium avenaceum and F. graminearum were the most common Fusarium species recovered from oat residues. The IP of Fusarium spp. was significantly lower in plowed plots compared to those that were harrowed. Plowing in either the autumn or spring resulted in a low IP. Harrowing in autumn was more effective in reducing IP than the spring harrowing, and IP levels for the spring harrowed treatments were generally higher than all other tillage treatments examined. Surprisingly low levels of F. langsethiae were detected in the residues, although this species is a common pathogen of oat in Norway. The percentage of the residues infested with F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. langsethiae generally related to the quantity of DNA of the respective Fusarium species determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Fusarium dispersal, quantified by qPCR analysis of spore trap samples collected at and after heading, generally corresponded to the IP. Fusarium dispersal was also observed to increase after rainy periods. Our findings are in line with the general

  19. Inoculum Potential of Fusarium spp. Relates to Tillage and Straw Management in Norwegian Fields of Spring Oats

    PubMed Central

    Hofgaard, Ingerd S.; Seehusen, Till; Aamot, Heidi U.; Riley, Hugh; Razzaghian, Jafar; Le, Vinh H.; Hjelkrem, Anne-Grete R.; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Brodal, Guro

    2016-01-01

    The increased occurrence of Fusarium-mycotoxins in Norwegian cereals over the last decade, is thought to be caused by increased inoculum resulting from more cereal residues at the soil surface as a result of reduced tillage practices. In addition, weather conditions have increasingly promoted inoculum development and infection by Fusarium species. The objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of different tillage regimes (autumn plowing; autumn harrowing; spring plowing; spring harrowing) on the inoculum potential (IP) and dispersal of Fusarium spp. in spring oats. Tillage trials were conducted at two different locations in southeast Norway from 2010 to 2012. Oat residues from the previous year’s crop were collected within a week after sowing for evaluation. IP was calculated as the percentage of residues infested with Fusarium spp. multiplied by the proportion of the soil surface covered with residues. Fusarium avenaceum and F. graminearum were the most common Fusarium species recovered from oat residues. The IP of Fusarium spp. was significantly lower in plowed plots compared to those that were harrowed. Plowing in either the autumn or spring resulted in a low IP. Harrowing in autumn was more effective in reducing IP than the spring harrowing, and IP levels for the spring harrowed treatments were generally higher than all other tillage treatments examined. Surprisingly low levels of F. langsethiae were detected in the residues, although this species is a common pathogen of oat in Norway. The percentage of the residues infested with F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. langsethiae generally related to the quantity of DNA of the respective Fusarium species determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Fusarium dispersal, quantified by qPCR analysis of spore trap samples collected at and after heading, generally corresponded to the IP. Fusarium dispersal was also observed to increase after rainy periods. Our findings are in line with the

  20. Microscopic Evaluation, Molecular Identification, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Clinical Outcomes in Fusarium, Aspergillus and, Dematiaceous Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Devarshi U.; Pal, Anuradha K.; Ghodadra, Bharat K.; Vasavada, Abhay R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Dematiaceous are the most common fungal species causing keratitis in tropical countries. Herein we report a prospective study on fungal keratitis caused by these three fungal species. Methodology. A prospective investigation was undertaken to evaluate eyes with presumed fungal keratitis. All the fungal isolates (n = 73) obtained from keratitis infections were identified using morphological and microscopic characters. Molecular identification using sequencing of the ITS region and antifungal susceptibility tests using microdilution method were done. The final clinical outcome was evaluated in terms of the time taken for resolution of keratitis and the final visual outcome. The results were analyzed after segregating the cases into three groups, namely, Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Dematiaceous keratitis. Results. Diagnosis of fungal keratitis was established in 73 (35.9%) cases out of 208 cases. The spectra of fungi isolated were Fusarium spp. (26.6%), Aspergillus spp. (21.6%), and Dematiaceous fungi (11.6%). The sequence of the ITS region could identify the Fusarium and Aspergillus species at the species complex level, and the Dematiaceous isolates were accurately identified. Using antifungal agents such as fluconazole, natamycin, amphotericin B, and itraconazole, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Fusarium spp. were >32 μg/mL, 4–8 μg/mL, 0.5–1 μg/mL, and >32 μg/mL, respectively. Antifungal susceptibility data showed that Curvularia spp. was highly resistant to all the antifungal agents. Overall, natamycin and amphotericin B were found to be the most effective antifungal agents. The comparative clinical outcomes in all cases showed that the healing response in terms of visual acuity of the Dematiaceous group was significantly good when compared with the Fusarium and Aspergillus groups (P < 0.05). The time required for healing in the Fusarium group was statistically significantly less when compared with

  1. New species of Fusarium associated with dieback of Spartina alterniflora in Atlantic salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Wade H; Marra, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Sudden vegetation dieback (SVD) is the loss of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) along intertidal creeks in salt marshes of the Atlantic and Gulf states. The underlying cause of SVD remains unclear, but earlier work suggested a contributing role for Fusarium spp. in Louisiana. This report investigated whether these or other Fusarium species were associated with S. alterniflora dieback in mid- to north-Atlantic states. Isolations from seven SVD sites yielded 192 isolates of Fusarium spp., with more than 75% isolated from aboveground tissue. Most isolates (88%) fell into two undescribed morphospecies (MS) distinguished from each other by macroconidial shape, phialide ontogeny and growth rates. Pathogenicity tests on wound-inoculated S. alterniflora stems and seedling roots revealed that isolates in MS1 were more virulent than those in MS2 but no single isolate caused plant mortality. No matches to known species of Fusarium were revealed by DNA sequence queries of translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) sequences. A phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of three genes, β-tubulin (β-tub), calmodulin (cal) and tef1, was conducted on representative isolates from MS1 (n = 20) and MS2 (n = 18); it provided strong evidence that the MS1 isolates form a clade that represents a heretofore undescribed species, which we designate Fusarium palustre sp. nov. Isolates from the more variable MS2 clustered with the F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex as F. cf. incarnatum. Although a strong association exists between both species and declining S. alterniflora in SVD sites, neither appears to play a primary causal role in SVD. However, our findings suggest that F. palustre might play an important secondary role in the ecological disruption of the salt marshes.

  2. Genetic mapping of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae in tulip.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nan; van der Lee, Theo; Shahin, Arwa; Holdinga, Maarten; Bijman, Paul; Caser, Matteo; Visser, Richard G F; van Tuyl, Jaap M; Arens, Paul

    Fusarium oxysporum is a major problem in the production of tulip bulbs. Breeding for resistant cultivars through a conventional approach is a slow process due to the long life cycle of tulip. Until now, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been hampered by the large genome size and the absence of a genetic map. This study is aimed at construction of the first genetic map for tulip and at the identification of loci associated with resistance to F. oxysporum. A cross-pollinated population of 125 individuals segregating for Fusarium resistance was obtained from Tulipa gesneriana "Kees Nelis" and T. fosteriana "Cantata." Fusarium resistance of the mapping population was evaluated through a soil infection test in two consecutive years, and a spot inoculation test in which a green fluorescent protein tagged Fusarium strain was used for inoculation. The genetic maps have been constructed for the parents separately. The genetic map of "Kees Nelis" comprised 342 markers on 27 linkage groups covering 1707 cM, while the map of "Cantata" comprised 300 markers on 21 linkage groups covering 1201 cM. Median distance between markers was 3.9 cM for "Kees Nelis" and 3.1 cM for "Cantata." Six putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Fusarium resistance were identified, derived from both parents. QTL2, QTL3, and QTL6 were significant in all disease tests. For the flanking markers of the QTLs, phenotypic means of the two allelic groups, segregating from a parent for such a marker, were significantly different. These markers will be useful for the development of MAS in tulip breeding.

  3. Fusaric acid accelerates the senescence of leaf in banana when infected by Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xian; Xiong, Yinfeng; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC) is a causal agent of vascular wilt and leaf chlorosis of banana plants. Chloroses resulting from FOC occur first in the lowest leaves of banana seedlings and gradually progress upward. To investigate the responses of different leaf positions to FOC infection, hydroponic experiments with FOC inoculation were conducted in a greenhouse. Fusarium-infected seedlings exhibited a decrease in net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of all leaves. The wilting process in Fusarium-infected seedlings varied with leaf position. Measurements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(V)/F(max) and visualization with transmission electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between chloroplast impairment and severity of disease symptoms. Furthermore, results of malondialdehyde content and relative membrane conductivity measurements demonstrated that the membrane system was damaged in infected leaves. Additionally, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were increased and total soluble phenolic compounds were significantly accumulated in the leaves of infected plants. The structural and biochemical changes of infected plants was consistent with plant senescence. As the FOC was not detected in infected leaves, we proposed that the chloroplast and membrane could be damaged by fusaric acid produced by Fusarium. During the infection, fusaric acid was first accumulated in the lower leaves and water-soluble substances in the lower leaves could dramatically enhance fusaric acid production. Taken together, the senescence of infected banana plants was induced by Fusarium infection with fusaric acid production and the composition of different leaf positions largely contribute to the particular senescence process.

  4. Contribution of the endogeic earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa to the degradation of deoxynivalenol and Fusarium biomass in wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Wolfarth, Friederike; Schrader, Stefan; Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Weinert, Joachim

    2011-08-01

    In arable fields managed by conservation tillage combined with crop residue mulching, plant pathogen repression is an important ecosystem service to prevent cultivated plants from fungal diseases and mycotoxin contamination. A laboratory microcosm study was conducted to investigate the contribution of the endogeic, geophagous earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa as a secondary decomposer to the reduction of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum and its mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat straw residues. After 5 weeks experimental time, the Fusarium biomass and the DON concentration in aboveground straw were reduced considerably to the same extent both in presence and absence of A. caliginosa. Another substantial reduction of Fusarium biomass and DON concentration was found in belowground straw, which A. caliginosa had buried into the soil. Thus, we conclude that the particular contribution of secondary decomposers like A. caliginosa to the degradation of phytopathogenic fungi like Fusarium species and their mycotoxins like DON in the soil systems has to be assessed as minor.

  5. Genomic and biochemical characterization of cyclic lipopeptides of Bacillus mojavensis RRC101, an antagonist of Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is an ubiquitous, mycotoxigenic maize pathogen alternately persisting as an asymptomatic endophyte. Consumption of fumonisins, the main class of mycotoxins produced by F. verticillioides in maize kernels, causes severe livestock diseases. Additionally, human consumption of...

  6. Genome-wide macrosynteny among Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Lieschen; Steenkamp, Emma T; Martin, Simon H; Santana, Quentin C; Fourie, Gerda; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2014-01-01

    The Gibberella fujikuroi complex includes many Fusarium species that cause significant losses in yield and quality of agricultural and forestry crops. Due to their economic importance, whole-genome sequence information has rapidly become available for species including Fusarium circinatum, Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium verticillioides, each of which represent one of the three main clades known in this complex. However, no previous studies have explored the genomic commonalities and differences among these fungi. In this study, a previously completed genetic linkage map for an interspecific cross between Fusarium temperatum and F. circinatum, together with genomic sequence data, was utilized to consider the level of synteny between the three Fusarium genomes. Regions that are homologous amongst the Fusarium genomes examined were identified using in silico and pyrosequenced amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fragment analyses. Homology was determined using BLAST analysis of the sequences, with 777 homologous regions aligned to F. fujikuroi and F. verticillioides. This also made it possible to assign the linkage groups from the interspecific cross to their corresponding chromosomes in F. verticillioides and F. fujikuroi, as well as to assign two previously unmapped supercontigs of F. verticillioides to probable chromosomal locations. We further found evidence of a reciprocal translocation between the distal ends of chromosome 8 and 11, which apparently originated before the divergence of F. circinatum and F. temperatum. Overall, a remarkable level of macrosynteny was observed among the three Fusarium genomes, when comparing AFLP fragments. This study not only demonstrates how in silico AFLPs can aid in the integration of a genetic linkage map to the physical genome, but it also highlights the benefits of using this tool to study genomic synteny and architecture.

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium. solani and F. oxysporum associated with crown disease of oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Hafizi, R.; Salleh, B.; Latiffah, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Crown disease (CD) is infecting oil palm in the early stages of the crop development. Previous studies showed that Fusarium species were commonly associated with CD. However, the identity of the species has not been resolved. This study was carried out to identify and characterize through morphological approaches and to determine the genetic diversity of the Fusarium species. 51 isolates (39%) of Fusarium solani and 40 isolates (31%) of Fusarium oxysporum were recovered from oil palm with typical CD symptoms collected from nine states in Malaysia, together with samples from Padang and Medan, Indonesia. Based on morphological characteristics, isolates in both Fusarium species were classified into two distinct morphotypes; Morphotypes I and II. Molecular characterization based on IGS-RFLP analysis produced 27 haplotypes among the F. solani isolates and 33 haplotypes for F. oxysporum isolates, which indicated high levels of intraspecific variations. From UPGMA cluster analysis, the isolates in both Fusarium species were divided into two main clusters with the percentage of similarity from 87% to 100% for F. solani, and 89% to 100% for F. oxysporum isolates, which was in accordance with the Morphotypes I and II. The results of the present study indicated that F. solani and F. oxysporum associated with CD of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia were highly variable. PMID:24516465

  8. Quantitative and Microscopic Assessment of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions between Chickpea Cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Races

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B.; Kang, Seogchan; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Methodology We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Findings The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized ‘JG-62’ xylem vessels of root and stem but in ‘WR-315’, it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. Conclusions The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms. PMID:23613839

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium. solani and F. oxysporum associated with crown disease of oil palm.

    PubMed

    Hafizi, R; Salleh, B; Latiffah, Z

    2013-01-01

    Crown disease (CD) is infecting oil palm in the early stages of the crop development. Previous studies showed that Fusarium species were commonly associated with CD. However, the identity of the species has not been resolved. This study was carried out to identify and characterize through morphological approaches and to determine the genetic diversity of the Fusarium species. 51 isolates (39%) of Fusarium solani and 40 isolates (31%) of Fusarium oxysporum were recovered from oil palm with typical CD symptoms collected from nine states in Malaysia, together with samples from Padang and Medan, Indonesia. Based on morphological characteristics, isolates in both Fusarium species were classified into two distinct morphotypes; Morphotypes I and II. Molecular characterization based on IGS-RFLP analysis produced 27 haplotypes among the F. solani isolates and 33 haplotypes for F. oxysporum isolates, which indicated high levels of intraspecific variations. From UPGMA cluster analysis, the isolates in both Fusarium species were divided into two main clusters with the percentage of similarity from 87% to 100% for F. solani, and 89% to 100% for F. oxysporum isolates, which was in accordance with the Morphotypes I and II. The results of the present study indicated that F. solani and F. oxysporum associated with CD of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia were highly variable.

  10. A revision of Cyanonectria and Geejayessia gen. nov., and related species with Fusarium-like anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Schroers, H.-J.; Gräfenhan, T.; Nirenberg, H.I.; Seifert, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    A revision of Fusarium-like species associated with the plant genus Buxus led to a reconsideration of generic concepts in the Fusarium clade of the Nectriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (rpb2) and the larger subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1) gene exons confirm the existence of a clade, here called the terminal Fusarium clade, that includes genera such as Fusarium sensu stricto (including its Gibberella teleomorphs), Albonectria, Cyanonectria, “Haematonectria”, the newly described genus Geejayessia, and “Nectria” albida. Geejayessia accommodates five species. Four were previously classified in Nectria sensu lato, namely the black perithecial, KOH–species G. atrofusca and the orange or reddish, KOH+ G. cicatricum, G. desmazieri and G. zealandica. Geejayessia celtidicola is newly described. Following our phylogenetic analyses showing its close relationship with Cyanonectria cyanostoma, the former Gibbera buxi is recombined as the second species of Cyanonectria. A three gene phylogenetic analysis of multiple strains of each morphological species using translation elongation factor 1 α (tef-1), rpb2 and acl1 gene exons and introns confirms their status as distinct phylogenetic species. Internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and nuclear large ribosomal subunit sequences were generated as additional DNA barcodes for selected strains. The connection of Fusarium buxicola, often erroneously reported as the anamorph of G. desmazieri, with the bluish black and KOH+ perithecial species C. buxi is reinstated. Most Cyanonectria and Geejayessia species exhibit restricted host ranges on branches or twigs of Buxus species, Celtis occidentalis, or Staphylea trifolia. Their perithecia form caespitose clusters on well-developed, mostly erumpent stromata on the bark or outer cortex of the host and are relatively thin-walled, mostly smooth, and therefore reminiscent of the more or less

  11. Integrated management of fusarium wilt of chickpea with sowing date, host resistance, and biological control.

    PubMed

    Landa, Blanca B; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M

    2004-09-01

    ABSTRACT A 3-year experiment was conducted in field microplots infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5 at Córdoba, Spain, in order to assess efficacy of an integrated management strategy for Fusarium wilt of chickpea that combined the choice of sowing date, use of partially resistant chickpea genotypes, and seed and soil treatments with biocontrol agents Bacillus megaterium RGAF 51, B. subtilis GB03, nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo 90105, and Pseudomonas fluorescens RG 26. Advancing the sowing date from early spring to winter significantly delayed disease onset, reduced the final disease intensity (amount of disease in a microplot that combines disease incidence and severity, expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible amount of disease in that microplot), and increased chickpea seed yield. A significant linear relationship was found between disease development over time and weather variables at the experimental site, with epidemics developing earlier and faster as mean temperature increased and accumulated rainfall decreased. Under conditions highly conducive for Fusarium wilt development, the degree of disease control depended primarily on choice of sowing date, and to a lesser extent on level of resistance of chickpea genotypes to F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5, and the biocontrol treatments. The main effects of sowing date, partially resistant genotypes, and biocontrol agents were a reduction in the rate of epidemic development over time, a reduction of disease intensity, and an increase in chickpea seedling emergence, respectively. Chickpea seed yield was influenced by all three factors in the study. The increase in chickpea seed yield was the most consistent effect of the biocontrol agents. However, that effect was primarily influenced by sowing date, which also determined disease development. Effectiveness of biocontrol treatments in disease management was lowest in January sowings, which were least favorable for Fusarium wilt. Sowing

  12. Unique Phylogenetic Lineage Found in the Fusarium-like Clade after Re-examining BCCM/IHEM Fungal Culture Collection Material.

    PubMed

    Triest, David; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the Fusarium genus has been narrowed based upon phylogenetic analyses and a Fusarium-like clade was adopted. The few species of the Fusarium-like clade were moved to new, re-installed or existing genera or provisionally retained as "Fusarium." Only a limited number of reference strains and DNA marker sequences are available for this clade and not much is known about its actual species diversity. Here, we report six strains, preserved by the Belgian fungal culture collection BCCM/IHEM as a Fusarium species, that belong to the Fusarium-like clade. They showed a slow growth and produced pionnotes, typical morphological characteristics of many Fusarium-like species. Multilocus sequencing with comparative sequence analyses in GenBank and phylogenetic analyses, using reference sequences of type material, confirmed that they were indeed member of the Fusarium-like clade. One strain was identified as "Fusarium" ciliatum whereas another strain was identified as Fusicolla merismoides. The four remaining strains were shown to represent a unique phylogenetic lineage in the Fusarium-like clade and were also found morphologically distinct from other members of the Fusarium-like clade. Based upon phylogenetic considerations, a new genus, Pseudofusicolla gen. nov., and a new species, Pseudofusicolla belgica sp. nov., were installed for this lineage. A formal description is provided in this study. Additional sampling will be required to gather isolates other than the historical strains presented in the present study as well as to further reveal the actual species diversity in the Fusarium-like clade.

  13. Unique Phylogenetic Lineage Found in the Fusarium-like Clade after Re-examining BCCM/IHEM Fungal Culture Collection Material

    PubMed Central

    De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Fusarium genus has been narrowed based upon phylogenetic analyses and a Fusarium-like clade was adopted. The few species of the Fusarium-like clade were moved to new, re-installed or existing genera or provisionally retained as "Fusarium." Only a limited number of reference strains and DNA marker sequences are available for this clade and not much is known about its actual species diversity. Here, we report six strains, preserved by the Belgian fungal culture collection BCCM/IHEM as a Fusarium species, that belong to the Fusarium-like clade. They showed a slow growth and produced pionnotes, typical morphological characteristics of many Fusarium-like species. Multilocus sequencing with comparative sequence analyses in GenBank and phylogenetic analyses, using reference sequences of type material, confirmed that they were indeed member of the Fusarium-like clade. One strain was identified as "Fusarium" ciliatum whereas another strain was identified as Fusicolla merismoides. The four remaining strains were shown to represent a unique phylogenetic lineage in the Fusarium-like clade and were also found morphologically distinct from other members of the Fusarium-like clade. Based upon phylogenetic considerations, a new genus, Pseudofusicolla gen. nov., and a new species, Pseudofusicolla belgica sp. nov., were installed for this lineage. A formal description is provided in this study. Additional sampling will be required to gather isolates other than the historical strains presented in the present study as well as to further reveal the actual species diversity in the Fusarium-like clade. PMID:27790062

  14. Genotyping of Fusarium Isolates from Onychomycoses in Colombia: Detection of Two New Species Within the Fusarium solani Species Complex and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Suarez, Marcela; Cano-Lira, José Francisco; de García, María Caridad Cepero; Sopo, Leticia; De Bedout, Catalina; Cano, Luz Elena; García, Ana María; Motta, Adriana; Amézquita, Adolfo; Cárdenas, Martha; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Guarro, Josep; Restrepo, Silvia; Celis, Adriana

    2016-04-01

    Fusariosis have been increasing in Colombia in recent years, but its epidemiology is poorly known. We have morphologically and molecularly characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium obtained between 2010 and 2012 in the cities of Bogotá and Medellín. Using a multi-locus sequence analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer, a fragment of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (Tef-1α) and of the RNA-dependent polymerase subunit II (Rpb2) genes, we identified the phylogenetic species and circulating haplotypes. Since most of the isolates studied were from onychomycoses (nearly 90 %), we carried out an epidemiological study to determine the risk factors associated with such infections. Five phylogenetic species of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), i.e., F. falciforme, F. keratoplasticum, F. lichenicola, F. petroliphilum, and FSSC 6 as well as two of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), i.e., FOSC 3 and FOSC 4, were identified. The most prevalent species were FOSC 3 (38.2%) followed by F. keratoplasticum (33.7%). In addition, our isolates were distributed into 23 haplotypes (14 into FOSC and nine into FSSC). Two of the FSSC phylogenetic species and two haplotypes of FSSC were not described before. Our results demonstrate that recipients of pedicure treatments have a lower probability of acquiring onychomycosis than those not receiving such treatments. The antifungal susceptibility of all the isolates to five clinically available agents showed that amphotericin B was the most active drug, while the azoles exhibited lower in vitro activity.

  15. Proteomic analysis of conidia germination in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 reveals new targets in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway for controlling Fusarium wilt of banana.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Ming; Yang, Qiao-Song; He, Wei-Di; Li, Chun-Yu; Yang, Jing; Zuo, Cun-Wu; Gao, Jie; Sheng, Ou; Lu, Shao-Yun; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Conidial germination is a crucial step of the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), a most important lethal disease of banana. In this study, a total of 3659 proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based comparative proteomic approach, of which 1009 were differentially expressed during conidial germination of the fungus at 0, 3, 7, and 11 h. Functional classification and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the majority of the differentially expressed proteins are involved in six metabolic pathways. Particularly, all differential proteins involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway were significantly upregulated, indicating the importance of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway to the conidial germination of Foc TR4. Quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting, and in vitro growth inhibition assay by several categories of fungicides on the Foc TR4 were used to validate the proteomics results. Four enzymes, C-24 sterol methyltransferase (ERG6), cytochrome P450 lanosterol C-14α-demethylase (EGR11), hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (ERG13), and C-4 sterol methyl oxidase (ERG25), in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway were identified and verified, and they hold great promise as new targets for effective inhibition of Foc TR4 early growth in controlling Fusarium wilt of banana. To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the first comprehensive study on proteomics profiling of conidia germination in Foc TR4. It provides new insights into a better understanding of the developmental processes of Foc TR4 spores. More importantly, by host plant-induced gene silencing (HIGS) technology, the new targets reported in this work allow us to develop novel transgenic banana leading to high protection from Fusarium wilt and to explore more effective antifungal drugs against either individual or multiple target proteins of Foc TR4.

  16. Influence of plant root exudates, germ tube orientation and passive conidia transport on biological control of fusarium wilt by strains of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Mandeel, Qaher A

    2006-03-01

    In earlier studies, biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was demonstrated using nonpathogenic strains C5 and C14 of Fusarium oxysporum. Strain C14 induced resistance and competed for infection sites whether roots were wounded or intact, whereas strain C5 required wounds to achieve biocontrol. In the current work, additional attributes involved in enhanced resistance by nonpathogenic biocontrol agents strains to Fusarium wilt of cucumber and pea were further investigated. In pre-penetration assays, pathogenic formae specials exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spore germination in 4-day-old root exudates of cucumber and pea than nonpathogens. Also, strain C5 exhibited the lowest significant reduction in spore germination in contrast to strain C14 or control. One-day-old cucumber roots injected with strain C14 resulted in significant reduction in germ tube orientation towards the root surface, 48-96 h after inoculation with F. o. cucumerinum spores, whereas strain C5 induced significantly lower spore orientation of the pathogen and only at 72 and 96 h after inoculation. In post-penetration tests, passive transport of microconidia of pathogenic and nonpathogens in stems from base to apex were examined when severed plant roots were immersed in spore suspension. In repeated trials, strain C5, F. o. cucumerinum and F. o. pisi were consistently isolated from stem tissues of both cucumber and pea at increasing heights over a 17 days incubation period. Strain C14 however, was recovered at a maximum translocation distance of 4.6 cm at day 6 and later height of isolation significantly declined thereafter to 1.2 cm at day 17. In pea stem, the decline was even less. Significant induction of resistance to challenge inoculation by the pathogen in cucumber occurred 72 and 96 h after pre-inoculation with biocontrol agents. Nonetheless, strain C14 induced protection as early as 48 h and the maximum resistance was

  17. Innovative Approach to the Accumulation of Rubrosterone by Fermentation of Asparagus filicinus with Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Cai, Le; Dong, Jian-Wei; Xing, Yun; Duan, Wei-He; Zhou, Hao; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-07-29

    Rubrosterone, possessing various remarkable bioactivities, is an insect-molting C19-steroid. However, only very small amounts are available for biological tests due to its limited content from plant sources. Fungi of genus Fusarium have been reported to have the ability to convert C27-steroids into C19-steroids. In this study, Asparagus filicinus, containing a high content of 20-hydroxyecdysone, was utilized to accumulate rubrosterone through solid fermentation by Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed that F. oxysporum had the ability to facilitate the complete biotransformation of 20-hydroxyecdysone to rubrosterone by solid-state fermentation. The present method could be an innovative and efficient approach to accumulate rubrosterone with an outstanding conversion ratio.

  18. [Cellulase and xylanase activities of Fusarium Lk:Fr. genus fungi of different trophic groups].

    PubMed

    Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Zhdanova, N M; Iarynchyn, A M; Iovenko, O M

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of cellulase and xylanase activities of 26 fungal strains of phytopathogenic, saprophytic and endophytic Fusarium species has been realized using the qualitative reactions. The rare of their linear growth on the media with carboxymethyl cellulose or xylane has been studied. It was shown that the fungi of genus Fusarium belonging to different trophic groups possessed low activities of investigated enzymes as a whole, but in endophytic strains their levels were lower than in phytopathogenic ones. At the same time the distinct strain dependence of cellulase and xylanase activities was fixed in the fungi of different trophic groups. As far as the cellulase and xylanase activities in phytopathogenic isolates varied from complete absence to high levels, and since the activity maximum for each of the investigated strains was observed in different growth terms the conclusion was made that the cellulase and xylanase activities could not be considered as possible markers of the fungal isolate pathogenicity on the strain level.

  19. Effect of the Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ren, Z H; Deng, H D; Deng, Y T; Deng, J L; Zuo, Z C; Yu, S M; Shen, L H; Cui, H M; Xu, Z W; Hu, Y C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to find effects of Fusarium toxins on brain injury in mice. We evaluated the individual and combined effect of the Fusarium toxins zearalenone and deoxynivalenol on the mouse brain. We examined brain weight, protein, antioxidant indicators, and apoptosis. After 3 and 5days of treatment, increased levels of nitric oxide, total nitric oxide synthase, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and malondialdehyde were observed in the treatment groups. This was accompanied by reduced levels of brain protein, superoxide dismutase (apart from the low-dose zearalenone groups), glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, and percentage of apoptotic cells. By day 12, most of these indicators had returned to control group levels. The effects of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol were dose-dependent, and were synergistic in combination. Our results suggest that brain function is affected by zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.

  20. Metabolomics to Decipher the Chemical Defense of Cereals against Fusarium graminearum and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Léa; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Chéreau, Sylvain; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Gibberella ear rot (GER), two devastating diseases of wheat, barley, and maize. Furthermore, F. graminearum species can produce type B trichothecene mycotoxins that accumulate in grains. Use of FHB and GER resistant cultivars is one of the most promising strategies to reduce damage induced by F. graminearum. Combined with genetic approaches, metabolomic ones can provide powerful opportunities for plant breeding through the identification of resistant biomarker metabolites which have the advantage of integrating the genetic background and the influence of the environment. In the past decade, several metabolomics attempts have been made to decipher the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum. By covering the major classes of metabolites that have been highlighted and addressing their potential role, this review demonstrates the complex and integrated network of events that cereals can orchestrate to resist to F. graminearum. PMID:26492237

  1. Antifungal efficacy of plant essential oils against stored grain fungi of Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Atul; Sharma, Amit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The control potential of seven plant essential oils was evaluated against Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg and Fusarium verticillioides Sheldon. The fungicidal activity was assessed through microtiter plate assay to determine the minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentration of essential oils. The essential oil of Mentha arvensis was adjudged as best for inhibiting the fungal growth, while oil of Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolens showed high efficacy in terms of fungicidal activity. The oil of M. arvensis and T. vulgaris also showed good inhibition activity in agar disc diffusion assay. M. arvensis essential oil was analysed for its composition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealing menthol (63.18 %), menthone (15.08 %), isomenthyl acetate (5.50 %) and limonene (4.31 %) as major components. Significant activity of M. arvensis essential oil against F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides isolates obtained, pave the way for its use as antifungal control agents.

  2. Metabolic Biomarker Panels of Response to Fusarium Head Blight Infection in Different Wheat Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Forseille, Lily; Boyle, Kerry; Merkley, Nadine; Burton, Ian; Fobert, Pierre R.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic changes in spikelets of wheat varieties FL62R1, Stettler, Muchmore and Sumai3 following Fusarium graminearum infection were explored using NMR analysis. Extensive 1D and 2D 1H NMR measurements provided information for detailed metabolite assignment and quantification leading to possible metabolic markers discriminating resistance level in wheat subtypes. In addition, metabolic changes that are observed in all studied varieties as well as wheat variety specific changes have been determined and discussed. A new method for metabolite quantification from NMR data that automatically aligns spectra of standards and samples prior to quantification using multivariate linear regression optimization of spectra of assigned metabolites to samples’ 1D spectra is described and utilized. Fusarium infection-induced metabolic changes in different wheat varieties are discussed in the context of metabolic network and resistance. PMID:27101152

  3. Thyme essential oil as a defense inducer of tomato against gray mold and Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Ben-Jabeur, Maissa; Ghabri, Emna; Myriam, Machraoui; Hamada, Walid

    2015-09-01

    The potential of thyme essential oil in controlling gray mold and Fusarium wilt and inducing systemic acquired resistance in tomato seedlings and tomato grown in hydroponic system was evaluated. Thyme oil highly reduced 64% of Botrytis cinerea colonization on pretreated detached leaves compared to untreated control. Also, it played a significant decrease in Fusarium wilt severity especially at7 days post treatment when it was reduced to 30.76%. To explore the plant pathways triggered in response to thyme oil, phenolic compounds accumulation and peroxidase activity was investigated. Plant response was observed either after foliar spray or root feeding in hydroponics which was mostly attributed to peroxidases accumulation rather than phenolic compounds accumulation, and thyme oil seems to be more effective when applied to the roots.

  4. In vivo toxicity studies of fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: a review.

    PubMed

    Escrivá, L; Font, G; Manyes, L

    2015-04-01

    This review summarizes the information regarding the in vivo studies of Fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade. The most common studies are classified as subacute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, acute toxicity, toxicokinetic studies and teratogenicity in order of importance. The most used animals in in vivo studies are pigs, rats, chickens and mice. Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, nivalenol and T-2 toxin are the most studied fusarotoxins. Studies with combinations of mycotoxins are also frequent, deoxynivalenol generally being one of them. The predominant route of administration is oral, administered mostly in the form of naturally contaminated feed. Other administration routes also used are intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous. In vivo research on Fusarium mycotoxins has increased since 2010 highlighting the need for such studies in the field of food and feed safety.

  5. Natural occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins in feed and fish from aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Josefa; Font, Guillermina; Mañes, Jordi; Ferrer, Emilia

    2014-12-24

    A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of enniatins (ENs) and beauvericin (BEA) in fish feed and fish tissues by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with linear ion trap (LC-MS/MS-LIT) was developed. Results showed that the developed method is precise and sensitive. The presence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins, ENs and BEA, was determined in samples of aquaculture fish and feed for farmed fish, showing that all feed samples analyzed were contaminated with mycotoxins, with 100% coexistence. In aquacultured fish samples, the highest incidence was found in edible muscle and liver. As for the exposure assessment calculated, it was found that average consumer intake was lower than tolerable daily intake (TDI) values for other Fusarium mycotoxins.

  6. Identification of pathogenicity‐related genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae

    PubMed Central

    Vágány, Viktória; Jackson, Alison C.; Harrison, Richard J.; Rainoni, Alessandro; Clarkson, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We characterized 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. In onion seedling and bulb tests, 21 isolates were pathogenic and 10 were non‐pathogenic. The molecular characterization of these isolates, and 21 additional isolates comprising other f. spp. and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. A concatenated tree separated the F. oxysporum isolates into six clades, but did not distinguish between pathogenic and non‐pathogenic isolates. Ten putative effectors were identified within FOC, including seven Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes first reported in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs (CRX1/CRX2) and a gene with no previously characterized domains (C5) were also identified. The presence/absence of nine of these genes was strongly related to pathogenicity against onion and all were shown to be expressed in planta. Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp., but none were identified in three other Fusarium species from onion. Although the FOC SIX genes had a high level of homology with other f. spp., there were clear differences in sequences which were unique to FOC, whereas CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific. PMID:26609905

  7. A European Database of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum Trichothecene Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Matias; Beyer, Marco; Logrieco, Antonio; Audenaert, Kris; Balmas, Virgilio; Basler, Ryan; Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Chrpová, Jana; Czembor, Elżbieta; Gagkaeva, Tatiana; González-Jaén, María T; Hofgaard, Ingerd S; Köycü, Nagehan D; Hoffmann, Lucien; Lević, Jelena; Marin, Patricia; Miedaner, Thomas; Migheli, Quirico; Moretti, Antonio; Müller, Marina E H; Munaut, Françoise; Parikka, Päivi; Pallez-Barthel, Marine; Piec, Jonathan; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Scherm, Barbara; Stanković, Slavica; Thrane, Ulf; Uhlig, Silvio; Vanheule, Adriaan; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, particularly Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, are the main cause of trichothecene type B contamination in cereals. Data on the distribution of Fusarium trichothecene genotypes in cereals in Europe are scattered in time and space. Furthermore, a common core set of related variables (sampling method, host cultivar, previous crop, etc.) that would allow more effective analysis of factors influencing the spatial and temporal population distribution, is lacking. Consequently, based on the available data, it is difficult to identify factors influencing chemotype distribution and spread at the European level. Here we describe the results of a collaborative integrated work which aims (1) to characterize the trichothecene genotypes of strains from three Fusarium species, collected over the period 2000-2013 and (2) to enhance the standardization of epidemiological data collection. Information on host plant, country of origin, sampling location, year of sampling and previous crop of 1147 F. graminearum, 479 F. culmorum, and 3 F. cortaderiae strains obtained from 17 European countries was compiled and a map of trichothecene type B genotype distribution was plotted for each species. All information on the strains was collected in a freely accessible and updatable database (www.catalogueeu.luxmcc.lu), which will serve as a starting point for epidemiological analysis of potential spatial and temporal trichothecene genotype shifts in Europe. The analysis of the currently available European dataset showed that in F. graminearum, the predominant genotype was 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) (82.9%), followed by 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) (13.6%), and nivalenol (NIV) (3.5%). In F. culmorum, the prevalent genotype was 3-ADON (59.9%), while the NIV genotype accounted for the remaining 40.1%. Both, geographical and temporal patterns of trichothecene genotypes distribution were identified.

  8. A European Database of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum Trichothecene Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Matias; Beyer, Marco; Logrieco, Antonio; Audenaert, Kris; Balmas, Virgilio; Basler, Ryan; Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Chrpová, Jana; Czembor, Elżbieta; Gagkaeva, Tatiana; González-Jaén, María T.; Hofgaard, Ingerd S.; Köycü, Nagehan D.; Hoffmann, Lucien; Lević, Jelena; Marin, Patricia; Miedaner, Thomas; Migheli, Quirico; Moretti, Antonio; Müller, Marina E. H.; Munaut, Françoise; Parikka, Päivi; Pallez-Barthel, Marine; Piec, Jonathan; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Scherm, Barbara; Stanković, Slavica; Thrane, Ulf; Uhlig, Silvio; Vanheule, Adriaan; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, particularly Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, are the main cause of trichothecene type B contamination in cereals. Data on the distribution of Fusarium trichothecene genotypes in cereals in Europe are scattered in time and space. Furthermore, a common core set of related variables (sampling method, host cultivar, previous crop, etc.) that would allow more effective analysis of factors influencing the spatial and temporal population distribution, is lacking. Consequently, based on the available data, it is difficult to identify factors influencing chemotype distribution and spread at the European level. Here we describe the results of a collaborative integrated work which aims (1) to characterize the trichothecene genotypes of strains from three Fusarium species, collected over the period 2000–2013 and (2) to enhance the standardization of epidemiological data collection. Information on host plant, country of origin, sampling location, year of sampling and previous crop of 1147 F. graminearum, 479 F. culmorum, and 3 F. cortaderiae strains obtained from 17 European countries was compiled and a map of trichothecene type B genotype distribution was plotted for each species. All information on the strains was collected in a freely accessible and updatable database (www.catalogueeu.luxmcc.lu), which will serve as a starting point for epidemiological analysis of potential spatial and temporal trichothecene genotype shifts in Europe. The analysis of the currently available European dataset showed that in F. graminearum, the predominant genotype was 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) (82.9%), followed by 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) (13.6%), and nivalenol (NIV) (3.5%). In F. culmorum, the prevalent genotype was 3-ADON (59.9%), while the NIV genotype accounted for the remaining 40.1%. Both, geographical and temporal patterns of trichothecene genotypes distribution were identified. PMID:27092107

  9. Methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol degradation by Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Reyes, Miguel; Morales, Marcia; Revah, Sergio

    2005-11-01

    Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The maximum degradation rate of MTBE was 16 mg protein h and 46 mg/g protein h for TBA. The culture transformed 77% of the total carbon to 14CO2. The estimated yield for MTBE was 0.18 g dry wt/g MTBE.

  10. Adjustment of a rapid method for quantification of Fusarium spp. spore suspensions in plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Caligiore-Gei, Pablo F; Valdez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The use of a Neubauer chamber is a broadly employed method when cell suspensions need to be quantified. However, this technique may take a long time and needs trained personnel. Spectrophotometry has proved to be a rapid, simple and accurate method to estimate the concentration of spore suspensions of isolates of the genus Fusarium. In this work we present a linear formula to relate absorbance measurements at 530nm with the number of microconidia/ml in a suspension.

  11. Biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato by Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN38.

    PubMed

    Naing, Kyaw Wai; Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Anees, Muhammad; Lee, Yong Seong; Kim, Yong Cheol; Kim, Sang Jun; Kim, Myung Hee; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kil Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate biocontrol potential of Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN38 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici causing Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Our result showed that P. ehimensis KWN38 produced extracellular organic compounds and crude enzyme to inhibit F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici conidial germination in in vitro assays. Tomato seedlings were treated with water (W), grass medium (G), G with P. ehimensis KWN38 inoculation (GP) and G along with synthetic fungicide (GSf). Disease symptoms were was first observed in G and W at 12 days after infection (DAI) while symptoms were noticeable in the GP and GSf treatments at 20 and 24 DAI, respectively. Tomato plants treated with P. ehimensis KWN38 or fungicide significantly reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence and severity as compared to control tomato plants treated with water and grass medium. The similar results were also found in the root mortality of tomato plants. At 25 DAI, most plants in control treatments (W and G) wilted and the brown vascular systems of infected plants was clearly differentiable from normal green vascular system of healthy plants from GP and GSf. Plants in the GP showed higher fresh and dry weights of both root and shoots than those in W and G treatments. Leaf peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities of tomato plants in G and W were higher than those in GP and GSf. Root enzyme activities showed a similar pattern but the values were higher than leaf enzyme. The results clearly demonstrated that P. ehimensis KWN38 may be considered as biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato.

  12. Stable integration and expression of a plant defensin in tomato confers resistance to fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Naglaa A; Shah, Dilip; Abbas, Dina; Madkour, Magdy

    2010-01-01

    Plant defensins are small cysteine-rich peptides which belong to a group of pathogenasis related defense mechanism proteins. The proteins inhibit the growth of a broad range of microbes and are highly stable under extreme environmental stresses. Tomato cultivation is affected by fungal disease such as Fusarium wilt. In order to overcome fungal damages, transgenic tomato plants expressing the Medicago sativa defensin gene MsDef1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter were developed. The Fusarium-susceptible tomato (Lycobersicum esculentum Mill) cultivar CastleRock was used for transformation to acquire fungal resistance. Hypocotyl with a part of cotyledon (hypocotyledonary) for young tomato seedlings were used as an explant material and transformation was performed using the biolistic delivery system. Bombarded shoots were selected on regeneration medium supplemented with hygromycin and suitable concentrations of BA, zeatin ripozide and AgNO(3). Putative transgenic plantlets of T(0) were confirmed by PCR analysis using primers specific for the transgene and the transformation frequency obtained was 52.3%. Transformation and transcription of transgenes were confirmed in T(1) by PCR, Southern hybridizations, and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The copy numbers of integrated transgene into tomato genome ranged between 1-3 copies. Greenhouse bioassay was performed on the transgenic T(1) and T(2) young seedlings and non-transgenic controls by challenging with a vigorous isolate of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici. The level of fungal infectivity was determined using RT-PCR with tomatinase specific primers. Transgenic lines were more resistant to infection by fusarium than the control plants. These results indicated that overexpressing defensins in transgenic plants confer resistance to fungal pathogens.

  13. In vitro generation of somaclonal variant plants of sugarcane for tolerance to Fusarium sacchari.

    PubMed

    Mahlanza, Tendekai; Rutherford, R Stuart; Snyman, Sandy J; Watt, M Paula

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : A combination of in vitro culture and mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) followed by culture filtrate-mediated selection produced variant sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to Fusarium sacchari. Eldana saccharina is a destructive pest of the sugarcane crop in South Africa. Fusarium sacchari PNG40 (a fungal strain harmful to E. saccharina) has the potential to be an endophytic biological control agent of the stalk borer. However, the fungus causes Fusarium stalk rot in sugarcane. In the current study, sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to F. sacchari PNG40 were produced by exposing embryogenic calli to the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), followed by in vitro selection during somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration on media containing F. sacchari culture filtrates (CF). The incorporation of 100 ppm CF in the culture media at the embryo maturation stage, at germination, or at both, resulted in callus necrosis and consequent reduced plantlet yield. Subsequent trimming of the roots of regenerated plants and their exposure to 1,500 ppm CF served as a further selection treatment. Plants produced from EMS-treated calli displayed improved root re-growth in the presence of CF pressure compared with those from non-treated calli. The tolerance of CF-selected plants was confirmed in greenhouse tests by inoculation with F. sacchari PNG40, re-isolation of Fusarium spp. from undamaged tissue of asymptomatic plants and establishment of the identity of fungal isolates as PNG40 using molecular analysis. The restriction of PNG40 presence to the inoculation lesion in some plants suggested their resistance to the fungus. Genotypes exhibiting symptomless endophytic colonization by PNG40 were identified and will be utilised for testing biological control strategies against E. saccharina.

  14. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt.

  15. Efficacy of sludge and manure compost amendments against Fusarium wilt of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Shi, Dezhi; Sun, Faqian; Lu, Haohao; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Weixiang

    2012-11-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most destructive soilborne diseases and can result in serious economic loss. No efficient fungicide is currently available to control the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the disease suppression ability of pig manure and sludge composts in peat-based container media and explore the possible disease suppression mechanisms. Pig manure and sewage sludge compost were made in laboratory-scale tanks. Plant growth media were formulated with peat mixture and compost (or 60 °C heated compost) in a 4:1 ratio (v/v). Cucumber seedlings were artificially inoculated with F. oxysporum conidia (5 × 10(5) conidia mL(-1)) by the root-dip method. Cucumber Fusarium wilt was effectively suppressed in sludge compost-amended media, while the disease suppression effect of pig manure compost was limited. The ammonia levels in the manure compost-amended media were significantly higher than those of sludge compost-amended media, which could explain its lower disease suppression ability. Heated composts behaved similarly with respect to disease suppression. Adding composts increased microbial biomass, microbial activity, and the microbial diversity of the growth media. PCR-DGGE results indicated that the fungal community had a significant correlation to the disease severity. The artificially inoculated pathogen was retrieved in all treatments and one possible biocontrol agent was identified as a strain of F. oxysporum by phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the sludge compost used in this study could be applied as a method for biocontrol of cucumber Fusarium wilt.

  16. Identification of pathogenicity-related genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Vágány, Viktória; Jackson, Alison C; Harrison, Richard J; Rainoni, Alessandro; Clarkson, John P

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We characterized 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. In onion seedling and bulb tests, 21 isolates were pathogenic and 10 were non-pathogenic. The molecular characterization of these isolates, and 21 additional isolates comprising other f. spp. and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. A concatenated tree separated the F. oxysporum isolates into six clades, but did not distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates. Ten putative effectors were identified within FOC, including seven Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes first reported in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs (CRX1/CRX2) and a gene with no previously characterized domains (C5) were also identified. The presence/absence of nine of these genes was strongly related to pathogenicity against onion and all were shown to be expressed in planta. Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp., but none were identified in three other Fusarium species from onion. Although the FOC SIX genes had a high level of homology with other f. spp., there were clear differences in sequences which were unique to FOC, whereas CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific.

  17. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section.

  18. Synthesis of a natural gamma-butyrolactone from nerylacetone by Acremonium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum cultures.

    PubMed

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Switalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2011-03-01

    Natural gamma-butyrolactone - (4R, 5R)-5-(4'-methyl-3'pentenyl)-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-dihydrofuran-2-one (2) was isolated as the product of microbial transformation of nerylacetone (1) by fungal strains. This product was obtained as the enantiomer (+) in high yields 24% and 61% with ee=94% and 82% by the biotransformation in the cultures of Acremonium roseum AM336 and Fusarium oxysporum AM13 respectively.

  19. Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.

    PubMed

    Linkmeyer, A; Götz, M; Hu, L; Asam, S; Rychlik, M; Hausladen, H; Hess, M; Hückelhoven, R

    2013-12-01

    Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work, FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley 'Chevron' to FHB in Germany was compared with those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. avenaceum under field conditions, Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only a little susceptible to deoxynivalenol-producing Fusarium spp. but also to Fusarium spp. producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser-scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, because direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested that Qrgz-2H-8 was functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared with quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds.

  20. Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen; Tan, Yanglan; Wang, Shuangxia; Gardiner, Donald M.; De Saeger, Sarah; Liao, Yucai; Wang, Cheng; Fan, Yingying; Wang, Zhouping; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the mycotoxin profiles for the twenty fungi, suggesting that these fungi species could be discriminated and divided into three groups as follows. Group I, the fusaric acid producers, were defined into two subgroups, namely subgroup I as producers of fusaric acid and fumonisins, comprising of F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi and F. solani, and subgroup II considered to only produce fusaric acid, including F. temperatum, F. subglutinans, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first time, and thus from an application point of view, provides key information to explore mycotoxigenic potentials of Fusarium species and forecast the Fusarium infestation/mycotoxins contamination. PMID:28035973