Science.gov

Sample records for fusion driven hybrid

  1. Effect of Lithium Enrichment on the Tritium Breeding Characteristics of Various Breeders in a Fusion Driven Hybrid Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Übeyli, Mustafa

    2009-09-01

    Selection of lithium containing materials is very important in the design of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion driven hybrid reactor in order to supply its tritium self-sufficiency. Tritium, an artificial isotope of hydrogen, can be produced in the blanket by using the neutron capture reactions of lithium in the coolants and/or blanket materials which consist of lithium. This study presents the effect of lithium-6 enrichment in the coolant of the reactor on the tritium breeding of the hybrid blanket. Various liquid-solid breeder couples were investigated to determine the effective breeders. Numerical results pointed out that the tritium production increased with increasing lithium-6 enrichment for all cases.

  2. Toroidal rotation and radial electric field driven by the lower-hybrid-wave in a tokamak fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shaojie

    2011-10-15

    A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the counter-current rotation driven by the lower-hybrid-wave observed in the tokamak lower-hybrid-wave parallel current drive experiments. It is found that ions absorb the toroidal momentum indirectly from the wave through collisional friction with the resonant electrons that directly take the momentum from the wave through Landau resonance. This momentum coupling pumps out the ions to produce a negative radial electric field and makes the plasma rotate in the counter-current direction.

  3. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  4. Laser-driven fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1973-10-01

    A laser-driven fusion reactor consisting of concentric spherical vessels in which the thermonuclear energy is derived from a deuterium-tritium (D + T) burn within a pellet'', located at the center of the vessels and initiated by a laser pulse. The resulting alpha -particle energy and a small fraction of the neutron energy are deposited within the pellet; this pellet energy is eventually transformed into sensible heat of lithium in a condenser outside the vessels. The remaining neutron energy is dissipated in a lithium blanket, located within the concentric vessels, where the fuel ingredient, tritium, is also produced. The heat content of the blanket and of the condenser lithium is eventually transferred to a conventional thermodynamic plant where the thermal energy is converted to electrical energy in a steam Rankine cycle. (Official Gazette)

  5. Tissue Regeneration in the Chronically Inflamed Tumor Environment: Implications for Cell Fusion Driven Tumor Progression and Therapy Resistant Tumor Hybrid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dittmar, Thomas; Zänker, Kurt S.

    2015-01-01

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion in a cancer context is still a matter of controversial debates. Even though a plethora of in vitro and in vivo data have been published in the past decades the ultimate proof that tumor hybrid cells could originate in (human) cancers and could contribute to the progression of the disease is still missing, suggesting that the cell fusion hypothesis is rather fiction than fact. However, is the lack of this ultimate proof a valid argument against this hypothesis, particularly if one has to consider that appropriate markers do not (yet) exist, thus making it virtually impossible to identify a human tumor cell clearly as a tumor hybrid cell. In the present review, we will summarize the evidence supporting the cell fusion in cancer concept. Moreover, we will refine the cell fusion hypothesis by providing evidence that cell fusion is a potent inducer of aneuploidy, genomic instability and, most likely, even chromothripsis, suggesting that cell fusion, like mutations and aneuploidy, might be an inducer of a mutator phenotype. Finally, we will show that “accidental” tissue repair processes during cancer therapy could lead to the origin of therapy resistant cancer hybrid stem cells. PMID:26703575

  6. Fission Fusion Hybrids: a nearer term application of Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

    2011-10-01

    Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant. For waste incineration, hybrids burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs). The number of hybrids needed is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of fast reactors (FRs). The highly sub-critical hybrids, with a thermal/epithermal spectrum, incinerate > 95% of the waste in decades rather than the centuries needed for FRs. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for 3-4 times as many LWRs with no fuel reprocessing. Thorium fuel rods exposed to neutrons in the hybrid reach fissile concentrations that enable efficient burning in LWR without the proliferation risks of reprocessing. The proliferation risks of this method are far less than other fuel breeding approaches, including today's gas centrifuge. With this cycle, US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ~ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

  7. Laser-driven fusion etching process

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Brannon, P.J.; Gerardo, J.B.

    1987-08-25

    The surfaces of solids are etched by a radiation-driven chemical reaction. The process involves exposing a substrate coated with a layer of a reactant material on its surface to radiation, e.g., a laser, to induce localized melting of the substrate which results in the occurrence of a fusion reaction between the substrate and coating material. The resultant reaction product and excess reactant salt are then removed from the surface of the substrate with a solvent which is relatively inert towards the substrate. The laser-driven chemical etching process is especially suitable for etching ionic substrates, e.g., LiNbO/sub 3/, such as used in electro-optical/acousto-optic devices. It is also suitable for applications wherein the etching process is required to produce an etched ionic substrate having a smooth surface morphology or when a very rapid etching rate is desired.

  8. Laser-driven fusion etching process

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Brannon, Paul J.; Gerardo, James B.

    1989-01-01

    The surfaces of solid ionic substrates are etched by a radiation-driven chemical reaction. The process involves exposing an ionic substrate coated with a layer of a reactant material on its surface to radiation, e.g. a laser, to induce localized melting of the substrate which results in the occurrance of a fusion reaction between the substrate and coating material. The resultant reaction product and excess reactant salt are then removed from the surface of the substrate with a solvent which is relatively inert towards the substrate. The laser-driven chemical etching process is especially suitable for etching ionic salt substrates, e.g., a solid inorganic salt such as LiNbO.sub.3, such as used in electro-optical/acousto-optic devices. It is also suitable for applications wherein the etching process is required to produce an etched ionic substrate having a smooth surface morphology or when a very rapid etching rate is desired.

  9. Tandem mirror fusion-fission hybrid studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. D.

    1980-04-01

    The concept of combining nuclear fusion and nuclear fission techniques is discussed. Initial tandem mirror hybrid studies predict the ability to produce large amounts of fissile fuel (2 to 7 tons U233 per year from a 4000 MW plant) at a cost that adds less than 25% to the cost of power from a light water reactor.

  10. Fusion-fission hybrids for nuclear waste transmutation : a synergistic step between Gen-IV fission and fusion reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Craig Lee; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2007-09-01

    Energy demand and GDP per capita are strongly correlated, while public concern over the role of energy in climate change is growing. Nuclear power plants produce 16% of world electricity demands without greenhouse gases. Generation-IV advanced nuclear energy systems are being designed to be safe and economical. Minimizing the handling and storage of nuclear waste is important. NIF and ITER are bringing sustainable fusion energy closer, but a significant gap in fusion technology development remains. Fusion-fission hybrids could be a synergistic step to a pure fusion economy and act as a technology bridge. We discuss how a pulsed power-driven Z-pinch hybrid system producing only 20 MW of fusion yield can drive a sub-critical transuranic blanket that transmutes 1280 kg of actinide wastes per year and produces 3000 MW. These results are applicable to other inertial and magnetic fusion energy systems. A hybrid system could be introduced somewhat sooner because of the modest fusion yield requirements and can provide both a safe alternative to fast reactors for nuclear waste transmutation and a maturation path for fusion technology. The development and demonstration of advanced materials that withstand high-temperature, high-irradiation environments is a fundamental technology issue that is common to both fusion-fission hybrids and Generation-IV reactors.

  11. Neutronic analysis of a fusion hybrid reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, T.

    2012-07-01

    In a PHYSOR 2010 paper(1) we introduced a fusion hybrid reactor whose fusion component is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM), and whose blanket was made of thorium - 232. The thrust of that study was to demonstrate the performance of such a reactor by establishing the breeding of uranium - 233 in the blanket, and the burning thereof to produce power. In that analysis, we utilized the diffusion equation for one-energy neutron group, namely, those produced by the fusion reactions, to establish the power distribution and density in the system. Those results should be viewed as a first approximation since the high energy neutrons are not effective in inducing fission, but contribute primarily to the production of actinides. In the presence of a coolant, however, such as water, these neutrons tend to thermalize rather quickly, hence a better assessment of the reactor performance would require at least a two group analysis, namely the fast and thermal groups. We follow that approach and write an approximate set of equations for the fluxes of these groups. From these relations we deduce the all-important quantity, k{sub eff}, which we utilize to compute the multiplication factor, and subsequently, the power density in the reactor. We show that k{sub eff} can be made to have a value of 0.99, thus indicating that 100 thermal neutrons are generated per fusion neutron, while allowing the system to function as 'subcritical.' Moreover, we show that such a hybrid reactor can generate hundreds of megawatts of thermal power per cm of length depending on the flux of the fusion neutrons impinging on the blanket. (authors)

  12. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an emerging, relatively unexplored approach to fusion for electrical power and propulsion application. The physical principles of the concept are founded upon both inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and magnetic confinement fusion (MCF). It attempts to combine the favorable attributes of both these orthogonal approaches to fusion, but at the same time, avoiding the extreme technical challenges of both by exploiting a fusion regime intermediate between them. It uses a material liner to compress, heat and contain the fusion reacting plasma (the target plasma) mentally. By doing so, the fusion burn could be made to occur at plasma densities as high as six orders of magnitude higher than conventional MCF such as tokamak, thus leading to an approximately three orders of magnitude reduction in the plasma energy required for ignition. It also uses a transient magnetic field, compressed to extremely high intensity (100's T to 1000T) in the target plasma, to slow down the heat transport to the liner and to increase the energy deposition of charged-particle fusion products. This has several compounding beneficial effects. It leads to longer energy confinement time compared with conventional ICF without magnetized target, and thus permits the use of much lower plasma density to produce reasonable burn-up fraction. The compounding effects of lower plasma density and the magneto-insulation of the target lead to greatly reduced compressional heating power on the target. The increased energy deposition rate of charged-particle fusion products also helps to lower the energy threshold required for ignition and increasing the burn-up fraction. The reduction in ignition energy and the compressional power compound to lead to reduced system size, mass and R&D cost. It is a fusion approach that has an affordable R&D pathway, and appears attractive for propulsion application in the nearer term.

  13. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing.

    PubMed

    Weirather, Jason L; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S; Underwood, Jason G; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-10-15

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes. PMID:26040699

  14. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Weirather, Jason L.; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A.; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S.; Underwood, Jason G.; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes. PMID:26040699

  15. Concept evaluation of nuclear fusion driven symbiotic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renier, J. P.; Hoffman, T. J.

    An analysis of systems based on D-T and semi-catalyzed D-D fusion-powered U233 breeders is presented. Metallic thorium pebble-bed blankets with a batch reprocessing mode and a molten salt blanket with on-line continuous or batch reprocessing were used. Neutronics depletion calculations are coupled with a scenario optimization and a cost analysis code. The fusion-driven symbiotes are compared with LMFBR-driven energy systems. The analyses of the symbiotic energy systems were performed at equilibrium, at the maximum rate of grid expansion and for a given nuclear power demand. Attractive schemes are identified based on D-T driven fusion-drivers operated with low plasma performance parameters.

  16. Heavy Ion Accelerator-Driven Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    The idea of using accelerators in the production of energy by inertial confinement fusion has been developed since the mid-1970s. The basic concept is to use accelerated beams of heavy ions to provide energy to implode and ignite a small fusion pellet. Accelerators have been seen as attractive for this application due to their reliability, high repetition rate, and potential efficiency. They are therefore competitive with high power lasers at least for the commercial production of electrical power. This review summarizes part of the development and scientific efforts directed toward this application, which has been realized over time to be an extremely demanding one. Here we focus primarily on the rf linac/storage ring driver system approach and summarize the specific development that culminated in the European HIDIF study of the late 1990s. We also discuss some of the relevant followup accelerator studies.

  17. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Richeson, Jeff; Schmidt, George; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Turchi, Peter J.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). For the successful implementation of the scheme, plasma jets of the requisite momentum flux density need to be produced. Their transport over sufficiently large distances (a few meters) needs to be assured. When they collide and merge into a liner, relative differences in velocity, density and temperature of the jets could give rise to instabilities in the development of the liner. Variation in the jet properties must be controlled to ensure that the growth rate of the instabilities are not significant over the time scale of the liner formation before engaging with the target plasma. On impact with the target plasma, some plasma interpenetration might occur between the liner and the target. The operating parameter space needs to be identified to ensure that a reasonably robust and conducting contact surface is formed between the liner and the target. A mismatch in the "impedance" between the liner and the target plasma could give rise to undesirable shock heating of the liner leading to increased entropy (thermal losses) in the liner. Any irregularities in the liner will accentuate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the compression of the target plasma by the liner.

  18. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Lee, Michael; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For practical applications of magnetized target fusion, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Quasi-spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a quasi-spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). Theoretical analysis and computer modeling of the concept are presented. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of the flow parameters in the liner and the target, the impact between the liner and the target plasma can be made to be shockless in the liner or to generate at most a very weak shock in the liner. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

    2011-10-01

    A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

  20. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  1. Laser fusion driven breeder design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berwald, D.H.; Massey, J.V.

    1980-12-01

    The results of the Laser Fusion Breeder Design Study are given. This information primarily relates to the conceptual design of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) breeder reactor (or fusion-fission hybrid) based upon the HYLIFE liquid metal wall protection concept developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The blanket design for this breeder is optimized to both reduce fissions and maximize the production of fissile fuel for subsequent use in conventional light water reactors (LWRs). When the suppressed fission blanket is compared with its fast fission counterparts, a minimal fission rate in the blanket results in a unique reactor safety advantage for this concept with respect to reduced radioactive inventory and reduced fission product decay afterheat in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident.

  2. Reprogramming of Xist against the pluripotent state in fusion hybrids.

    PubMed

    Do, Jeong Tae; Han, Dong Wook; Gentile, Luca; Sobek-Klocke, Ingeborg; Wutz, Anton; Schöler, Hans R

    2009-11-15

    The fusion of somatic cells with pluripotent cells results in the generation of pluripotent hybrid cells. Because the ;memory' of somatic cells seems to be erased during fusion-induced reprogramming, genetic reprogramming is thought to be a largely unidirectional process. Here we show that fusion-induced reprogramming, which brings about the formation of pluripotent hybrids, does not always follow a unidirectional route. Xist is a unique gene in that it is reprogrammed to the state of somatic cells in fusion-induced pluripotent hybrids. In hybrids formed from the cell fusion of embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs) with male neural stem cells (mNSCs), the Xist gene was found to be reprogrammed to the somatic cell state, whereas the pluripotency-related and tissue-specific marker genes were reprogrammed to the pluripotent cell state. Specifically, Xist is not expressed in hybrids, because the ;memory' of the somatic cell has been retained (i.e. mNSCs do not exhibit Xist expression) and that of the pluripotent cell erased (i.e. inactivation of the partially active Xist gene of ECCs, complete methylation of the Xist region). The latter phenomenon is induced by male, but not by female, NSCs.

  3. Hybrid Fusion: The Only Viable Development Path for Tokamaks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2009-03-01

    The world needs a great deal of carbon free energy, and soon, for civilization to continue. Fusion's goal is to develop such a carbon free energy source. For the last 4 decades, tokamaks have been the best magnetic fusion has to offer. But what if its development stops short of commercial fusion? This paper introduces `conservative design principles' for tokamaks. These are very simple, are reasonably based in theory, and have always constrained tokamak operation. Assuming they continue to do so, it is unlikely that tokamaks will ever make it as commercial reactors. This is independent of their confinement properties. However because of the large additional gain in hybrid fusion, tokamaks reactors look like they can make it as hybrid fuel producers, and provide large scale power by mid century or shortly thereafter.

  4. Project Icarus: Fission-Fusion Hybrid Fuel for Interstellar Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, R. M., III

    Project Icarus is a theoretical design study for an interstellar probe. The Icarus Terms of Reference [1] specify that the design must use "current or near future technology", and that the propulsion must be "mainly fusion based". The latter allows room for a propulsion system that uses hybrid fission-fusion technology. This paper explains the motivation and science behind hybrid fuel and examines the applicability of this technology to deep space propulsion. This paper is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  5. Fusion-fission hybrid studies in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Berwald, D.H.; Cheng, E.T.; Delene, J.G.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-05-20

    Systems and conceptual design studies have been carried out on the following three hybrid types: (1) The fission-suppressed hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced (Pu or /sup 233/U) per unit of total nuclear power by suppressing the fission process and multiplying neutrons by (n,2n) reactions in materials like beryllium. (2) The fast-fission hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced per unit of fusion power by maximizing fission of /sup 238/U (Pu is produced) in which twice the fissile atoms per unit of fusion power (but only a third per unit of nuclear power) are made. (3) The power hybrid, which amplifies power in the blanket for power production but does not produce fuel to sell. All three types must sell electrical power to be economical.

  6. Safety and power multiplication aspects of mirror fusion-fission hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Klaus; Ågren, Olov; Källne, Jan; Hagnestâl, Anders; Moiseenko, Vladimir E.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, in a research project at Uppsala University a simplified neutronic model for a straight field line mirror hybrid has been devised and its most important operation parameters have been calculated under the constraints of a fission power production of 3 GW and that the effective multiplication factor keff does not exceed 0.95. The model can be considered as representative for hybrids driven by other types of mirrors too. In order to reduce the demand on the fusion power of the mirror, a modified option of the hybrid has been considered that generates a reduced fission power of 1.5 GW with an increased maximal value keff =0.97. The present paper deals with nuclear safety aspects of this type of hybrids. It presents and discusses calculation results of reactivity effects as well as of driver effects.

  7. Safety and power multiplication aspects of mirror fusion-fission hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Noack, Klaus; Agren, Olov; Kaellne, Jan; Hagnestal, Anders; Moiseenko, Vladimir E.

    2012-06-19

    Recently, in a research project at Uppsala University a simplified neutronic model for a straight field line mirror hybrid has been devised and its most important operation parameters have been calculated under the constraints of a fission power production of 3 GW and that the effective multiplication factor k{sub eff} does not exceed 0.95. The model can be considered as representative for hybrids driven by other types of mirrors too. In order to reduce the demand on the fusion power of the mirror, a modified option of the hybrid has been considered that generates a reduced fission power of 1.5 GW with an increased maximal value k{sub eff}=0.97. The present paper deals with nuclear safety aspects of this type of hybrids. It presents and discusses calculation results of reactivity effects as well as of driver effects.

  8. The neutronics studies of fusion fission hybrid power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Youqi; Wu Hongchun; Zu Tiejun; Yang Chao; Cao Liangzhi

    2012-06-19

    In this paper, a series of neutronics analysis of hybrid power reactor is proposed. The ideas of loading different fuels in a modular-type fission blanket is analyzed, fitting different level of fusion developments, i.e., the current experimental power output, the level can be obtained in the coming future and the high-power fusion reactor like ITER. The energy multiplication of fission blankets and tritium breeding ratio are evaluated as the criterion of design. The analysis is implemented based on the D-type simplified model, aiming to find a feasible 1000MWe hybrid power reactor for 5 years' lifetime. Three patterns are analyzed: 1) for the low fusion power, the reprocessed fuel is chosen. The fuel with high plutonium content is loaded to achieve large energy multiplication. 2) For the middle fusion power, the spent fuel from PWRs can be used to realize about 30 times energy multiplication. 3) For the high fusion power, the natural uranium can be directly used and about 10 times energy multiplication can be achieved.

  9. Direct-indirect hybrid mode implosion in heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Miyazawa, K.; Ogoyskii, A. I.; Kikuchi, T.; Akasaka, Y.; Iizuka, Y.

    2008-05-01

    A direct-indirect hybrid implosion mode is proposed and discussed in heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (HIF) in order to release sufficient fusion energy in a robust manner. On the other hand, the HIB illumination non-uniformity depends strongly on a target displacement dz from the centre of a fusion reactor chamber. In a direct-driven implosion mode, dz of ~ 20 μm was tolerable, and in an indirect-implosion mode, dz of ~ 100 μm was allowable. In the direct-indirect mixture mode target, a low-density foam layer is inserted, and the radiation energy is confined in the foam layer. In the foam layer the radiation transport is expected to smooth the HIB illumination non-uniformity in the lateral direction. Two-dimensional implosion simulations are performed, and show that the HIB illumination non-uniformity is well smoothed in the direct-indirect hybrid-mode target. Our simulation results present that a large pellet displacement of ~ a few hundred μm is allowed in order to obtain a sufficient fusion energy output in HIF.

  10. Robust Direct-Indirect Hybrid Target Implosion in Heavy Ion Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Hisatomi, Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Koseki, S.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.

    2010-11-01

    In inertial fusion target implosion, beam illumination non-uniformity must be reduced to less than a few percent. In this study a direct-indirect hybrid implosion mode is discussed in heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (HIF) in order to release sufficient fusion energy in a robust manner. On the other hand, the HIB illumination non-uniformity depends strongly on a target displacement dz from the center of a fusion reactor chamber. In a direct-driven implosion mode, dz of about 20 micron m was tolerable, and in an indirect-implosion mode, dz of about 100 micron m was allowable. In the direct-indirect hybrid mode target, a low-density foam layer is inserted, and the radiation energy is confined in the foam layer. In the foam layer the radiation transport is expected to smooth the HIB illumination non-uniformity. Two-dimensional implosion simulations are performed, and show that the HIB illumination non-uniformity is well smoothed in the direct-indirect mixture target. The results also present that dz of a few hundred micron m is allowed in HIF.

  11. SABR Fusion-Fission Hybrid Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept is a fast reactor comprised of a tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER surrounded by an annular fission core adapted from Integral Fast Reactor designs. Previous work has examined SABR used to help close the nuclear fuel cycle by fissioning the transuranics from spent nuclear fuel. One focus of the present work is a SABR Breeder Reactor to achieve tritium self-sufficieny and a Pu breeding ratio significantly above 1 in order to provide fuel for SABR as well as for MOX-fueled LWR's and other fast reactors. Another focus of this research is the dynamic safety simulation of lloss-of-flow loss-of-heat-sink, loss-of-power, and positive reactivity accidents in the TRU fuel SABR burner reactor. The reactivity effect of thermal-induced bowing of fuel pins has been modeled, which is expected to provide passive safety.

  12. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in the critical reactors

  13. Project Icarus: Analysis of Plasma jet driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion as potential primary propulsion driver for the Icarus probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, M.; Cassibry, J. T.; Adams, R. B.

    2013-05-01

    Hopes of sending probes to another star other than the Sun are currently limited by the maturity of advanced propulsion technologies. One of the few candidate propulsion systems for providing interstellar flight capabilities is nuclear fusion. In the past many fusion propulsion concepts have been proposed and some of them have even been explored in detail, Project Daedalus for example. However, as scientific progress in this field has advanced, new fusion concepts have emerged that merit evaluation as potential drivers for interstellar missions. Plasma jet driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF) is one of those concepts. PJMIF involves a salvo of converging plasma jets that form a uniform liner, which compresses a magnetized target to fusion conditions. It is an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)-Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) hybrid approach that has the potential for a multitude of benefits over both ICF and MCF, such as lower system mass and significantly lower cost. This paper concentrates on a thermodynamic assessment of basic performance parameters necessary for utilization of PJMIF as a candidate propulsion system for the Project Icarus mission. These parameters include: specific impulse, thrust, exhaust velocity, mass of the engine system, mass of the fuel required etc. This is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  14. Fusion-Driven Space Plane for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.; Cassenti, B.

    A fusion hybrid reactor where the fusion component is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) is proposed as the driver of a rocket that would allow a space vehicle of the size of Boeing 747 to travel to the moon in about one day. The energy produced by the reactor is induced by fusion neutrons that impinge on a thorium-232 blanket where they breed uranium-233 and simultane- ously burn it to produce power. For a vehicle of mass 500 metric tons (mT), the thrust required to accelerate it at 1 g is 5 MN, and the specific impulse, Isp, necessary to accelerate 90% of the launch mass to the escape velocity of 11,200 m/sec is found to be 10,182 seconds. For these propulsion parameters, the coolant mass flow rate would be 49 kg/sec. We note that the time it takes the launch mass, initially at rest and accelerated at 1g, to reach the escape velocity is 1,020 seconds. At the above noted rate, the total propellant mass is approximately 50 mT, which is about 10% of the launch mass, validating the Isp needed to accelerate the remainder to the escape velocity. If we assume that the trajectory to the moon is linear, and we account for the deceleration of the vehicle by the earth's gravitational force, and its acceleration by the moon's gravitational force, we can calculate the average velocity and the time it takes to reach the moon. We find that the travel time is about 1.66 days, which in this model is effectively the time for a fly-by. A more rigorous calculation using the restricted three body approach with the third body being the spacecraft, and allowing for a coordinate system that rotates at the circular frequency of the larger masses, shows that the transit time is about 0.65 days, which is comparable to the flight time between New York and Sidney, Australia.

  15. Research on stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Kotenko, V. G.; Chernitskiy, S. V.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Kalyuzhnyi, V. N.; Hagnestål, A.; Källne, J.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2014-09-01

    The development of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid concept is reviewed. The hybrid comprises of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, neutrons are generated in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma, confined magnetically in a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror. Based on kinetic calculations, the energy balance for such a system is analyzed. Neutron calculations have been performed with the MCNPX code, and the principal design of the reactor part is developed. Neutron outflux at different outer parts of the reactor is calculated. Numerical simulations have been performed on the structure of a magnetic field in a model of the stellarator-mirror device, and that is achieved by switching off one or two coils of toroidal field in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The calculations predict the existence of closed magnetic surfaces under certain conditions. The confinement of fast particles in such a magnetic trap is analyzed.

  16. The Physics Design for a Fusion Driven Sub-critical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Wu

    2002-11-01

    The Fusion Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is a sub-critical nuclear energy system drive by fusion neutron source, which provides a feasible, safe, economic and highly efficient potential of disposing High Level Waste (HLW) and produce fission nuclear fuel as a early application of fusion technology. This paper reviews the past physics reactor design of fusion-fission hybrid reactor in China, and a low aspect ratio tokamak energy system that has been proposed, which aims at high β, good confinement, and steady-state operation in a compact configuration at modest field. The system includes a low aspect ratio tokamak as fusion neutron driver, a radioactivity clean nuclear power system as blanket and novel concept of liquid metal conductor as centre conductor post. Parameters of such kind reactor are the following. Major radius 1.4m, Minor radius 1m, plasma current 9.2MA, Toroidal field 2.5T, Plasma edge q=5, Average density 1.6 10^20m^3, Average temperature 10keV, Plasma volume 50m^3, Bootstrap current fraction 0.72, Fusion power 100MW, Drive power 28MW, Neutron wall loading 1.0MW/m-2. The plasma configuration is an important part in the low-A tokamak. The Eq code has been used to get a equilibrium. From this calculation, we have found a simple set of PF coils that satisfies the requirements of the large elongation plasma configuration and a vertical field with less curve field lines in the low-A tokamak. The natural elongation can be attributed mostly to differences in the current density profile. In order to determine the feasibility of the low-A tokamak operation, a transient simulation has been made which includes the equilibrium, transport and plasma position shape control in the low-A tokamak. A 1-1/2 equilibrium evolution code has been used to make this simulation. The code is two-dimensional time dependent free boundary simulation code that advances the MHD equations describing the transport time-scale evolution of a axisymmetric tokamak plasma.

  17. Density gradient effects on transverse shear driven lower hybrid waves

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, Ami M.; Thomas, Edward; Amatucci, William E.; Ganguli, Gurudas

    2014-06-15

    Shear driven instabilities are commonly observed in the near-Earth space, particularly in boundary layer plasmas. When the shear scale length (L{sub E}) is much less than the ion gyro-radius (ρ{sub i}) but greater than the electron gyro-radius (ρ{sub e}), the electrons are magnetized in the shear layer, but the ions are effectively un-magnetized. The resulting shear driven instability, the electron-ion hybrid (EIH) instability, is investigated in a new interpenetrating plasma configuration in the Auburn Linear EXperiment for Instability Studies. In order to understand the dynamics of magnetospheric boundary layers, the EIH instability is studied in the presence of a density gradient located at the boundary layer between two plasmas. This paper reports on a recent experiment in which electrostatic lower hybrid waves are identified as the EIH instability, and the effect of a density gradient on the instability properties are investigated.

  18. Fusion for Space Propulsion and Plasma Liner Driven MTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y.C. Francis; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant cannot overcome the problem. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. There are similarities as well as differences at the system level between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The differences potentially provide a wider window of opportunities for applying fusion to propulsion. For example, pulsed approaches to fusion may be attractive for the propulsion application. This is particularly so

  19. Novel Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Technique for Shutdown Dose Rate Analyses of Fusion Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L; Grove, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    The rigorous 2-step (R2S) method uses three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport simulations to calculate the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in fusion reactors. Accurate full-scale R2S calculations are impractical in fusion reactors because they require calculating space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes everywhere inside the reactor. The use of global Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques was suggested for accelerating the neutron transport calculation of the R2S method. The prohibitive computational costs of these approaches, which increase with the problem size and amount of shielding materials, inhibit their use in the accurate full-scale neutronics analyses of fusion reactors. This paper describes a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic technique that uses the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) methodology but focuses on multi-step shielding calculations. The Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) method speeds up the Monte Carlo neutron calculation of the R2S method using an importance function that represents the importance of the neutrons to the final SDDR. Using a simplified example, preliminarily results showed that the use of MS-CADIS enhanced the efficiency of the neutron Monte Carlo simulation of an SDDR calculation by a factor of 550 compared to standard global variance reduction techniques, and that the increase over analog Monte Carlo is higher than 10,000.

  20. Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, B; Gimzewski, J K; Putterman, S

    2005-04-28

    While progress in fusion research continues with magnetic and inertial confinement, alternative approaches--such as Coulomb explosions of deuterium clusters and ultrafast laser-plasma interactions--also provide insight into basic processes and technological applications. However, attempts to produce fusion in a room temperature solid-state setting, including 'cold' fusion and 'bubble' fusion, have met with deep scepticism. Here we report that gently heating a pyroelectric crystal in a deuterated atmosphere can generate fusion under desktop conditions. The electrostatic field of the crystal is used to generate and accelerate a deuteron beam (> 100 keV and >4 nA), which, upon striking a deuterated target, produces a neutron flux over 400 times the background level. The presence of neutrons from the reaction D + D --> 3He (820 keV) + n (2.45 MeV) within the target is confirmed by pulse shape analysis and proton recoil spectroscopy. As further evidence for this fusion reaction, we use a novel time-of-flight technique to demonstrate the delayed coincidence between the outgoing alpha-particle and the neutron. Although the reported fusion is not useful in the power-producing sense, we anticipate that the system will find application as a simple palm-sized neutron generator. PMID:15858570

  1. Direct-driven target implosion in heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. A fuel target alignment error would happen in a fusion reactor; the target alignment error induces heavy ion beam illumination non-uniformity on a target. On the other hand, heavy ion beam accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. First we study the effect of driver irradiation non-uniformity induced by the target alignment error (dz) on the target implosion. We found that dz should be less than about 130 μm for a sufficient fusion energy output. We also optimize the wobbling scheme. The spiral wobbling heavy ion beams would provide a promissing scheme to the uniform beam illumination.

  2. Research and development toward heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Barnard, John J.; Faltens, Andris; Friedman, Alex

    2013-02-01

    We describe near-term heavy ion fusion (HIF) research objectives associated with developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power plant. The goal of this near-term research is to lay the essential groundwork for an intermediate research experiment (IRE), designed to demonstrate all the key driver beam manipulations at a meaningful scale, and to enable HIF relevant target physics experiments. This is a very large step in size and complexity compared to HIF experiments to date, and if successful, it would justify proceeding to a demonstration fusion power plant. With an emphasis on accelerator research, this paper is focused on the most important near-term research objectives to justify and to reduce the risks associated with the IRE. The chosen time scale for this research is 5-10 years, to answer key questions associated with the HIF accelerator drivers, in turn enabling a key decision on whether to pursue a much more ambitious and focused inertial fusion energy research and development program. This is consistent with the National Academies of Sciences Review of Inertial Fusion Energy Systems Interim Report, which concludes that “it would be premature at the present time to choose a particular driver approach…” and encouraged the continued development of community consensus on critical issues, and to develop “options for a community-based roadmap for the development of inertial fusion as a practical energy source.”

  3. Progress In Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Francis Y. C.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Wu, S. T.; Schmidt, George; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC).

  4. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  5. Activities on heavy ion inertial fusion and beam-driven high energy density science in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horioka, K.; Kawamura, T.; Nakajima, M.; Kondo, K.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Hasegawa, J.; Kawata, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sasaki, T.; Murakami, M.; Takayama, K.

    2009-07-01

    Recent research activities in Japan relevant to heavy ion fusion (HIF) are presented. During the past two years, significant progress in HIF and high energy density (HED) physics research has been made by a number of research groups in universities and accelerator facilities. Evolutions in phase space during the longitudinal compression of intense beams were investigated at UU-NUT-TIT. Beam-plasma interaction experiments and related theoretical studies are in progress at RLNR-TIT. In the study, shock-heated hydrogen was used for the interaction experiments as a well-defined non-ideal-plasma target. In the beam-plasma interaction experiments, a special emphasis is placed on an evaluation of non-linear effects on the stopping power in a beam-heated plasma target. A direct-indirect hybrid scheme of a beam-driven ICF target has been proposed and discussed at UU. In the same group, a method for controlling the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in imploding fuel target has been proposed using oscillating heavy ion beams (HIBs). Core dynamics of the impact ignition has been investigated both experimentally and numerically at ILE—Osaka. Dense plasmas driven by intense ion beams and/or a pulse powered device, were evaluated by a group of DES-TIT, concerning the researches on HED and warm dense matter (WDM) physics. A quasi-statically tamped target was proposed to make a well-defined, warm dense state for equation-of-state (EOS) studies based on ion accelerators. The potentiality of the new facility planned at KEK was evaluated by a collaborating group of TIT-UU-KEK, which can extend the parameter regime for laboratory experiments to study the properties of matter under extreme conditions. A possible method to make a high-pressure condition for study of the planetary science was discussed as a short-term subject of intense HIBs.

  6. Chemotaxis of bio-hybrid multiple bacteria-driven microswimmers.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jiang; Sitti, Metin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, in a bio-hybrid microswimmer system driven by multiple Serratia marcescens bacteria, we quantify the chemotactic drift of a large number of microswimmers towards L-serine and elucidate the associated collective chemotaxis behavior by statistical analysis of over a thousand swimming trajectories of the microswimmers. The results show that the microswimmers have a strong heading preference for moving up the L-serine gradient, while their speed does not change considerably when moving up and down the gradient; therefore, the heading bias constitutes the major factor that produces the chemotactic drift. The heading direction of a microswimmer is found to be significantly more persistent when it moves up the L-serine gradient than when it travels down the gradient; this effect causes the apparent heading preference of the microswimmers and is the crucial reason that enables the seemingly cooperative chemotaxis of multiple bacteria on a microswimmer. In addition, we find that their chemotactic drift velocity increases superquadratically with their mean swimming speed, suggesting that chemotaxis of bio-hybrid microsystems can be enhanced by designing and building faster microswimmers. Such bio-hybrid microswimmers with chemotactic steering capability may find future applications in targeted drug delivery, bioengineering, and lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:27555465

  7. Chemotaxis of bio-hybrid multiple bacteria-driven microswimmers

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jiang; Sitti, Metin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, in a bio-hybrid microswimmer system driven by multiple Serratia marcescens bacteria, we quantify the chemotactic drift of a large number of microswimmers towards L-serine and elucidate the associated collective chemotaxis behavior by statistical analysis of over a thousand swimming trajectories of the microswimmers. The results show that the microswimmers have a strong heading preference for moving up the L-serine gradient, while their speed does not change considerably when moving up and down the gradient; therefore, the heading bias constitutes the major factor that produces the chemotactic drift. The heading direction of a microswimmer is found to be significantly more persistent when it moves up the L-serine gradient than when it travels down the gradient; this effect causes the apparent heading preference of the microswimmers and is the crucial reason that enables the seemingly cooperative chemotaxis of multiple bacteria on a microswimmer. In addition, we find that their chemotactic drift velocity increases superquadratically with their mean swimming speed, suggesting that chemotaxis of bio-hybrid microsystems can be enhanced by designing and building faster microswimmers. Such bio-hybrid microswimmers with chemotactic steering capability may find future applications in targeted drug delivery, bioengineering, and lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:27555465

  8. Chemotaxis of bio-hybrid multiple bacteria-driven microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Sitti, Metin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, in a bio-hybrid microswimmer system driven by multiple Serratia marcescens bacteria, we quantify the chemotactic drift of a large number of microswimmers towards L-serine and elucidate the associated collective chemotaxis behavior by statistical analysis of over a thousand swimming trajectories of the microswimmers. The results show that the microswimmers have a strong heading preference for moving up the L-serine gradient, while their speed does not change considerably when moving up and down the gradient; therefore, the heading bias constitutes the major factor that produces the chemotactic drift. The heading direction of a microswimmer is found to be significantly more persistent when it moves up the L-serine gradient than when it travels down the gradient; this effect causes the apparent heading preference of the microswimmers and is the crucial reason that enables the seemingly cooperative chemotaxis of multiple bacteria on a microswimmer. In addition, we find that their chemotactic drift velocity increases superquadratically with their mean swimming speed, suggesting that chemotaxis of bio-hybrid microsystems can be enhanced by designing and building faster microswimmers. Such bio-hybrid microswimmers with chemotactic steering capability may find future applications in targeted drug delivery, bioengineering, and lab-on-a-chip devices.

  9. Antimatter Driven P-B11 Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, Terry; Martin, James; Godfroy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    One of the major advantages of using P-B11 fusion fuel is that the reaction produces only charged particles in the form of three alpha particles and no neutrons. A fusion concept that lends itself to this fuel cycle is the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) reactor whose distinct advantage lies in the very strong magnetic field that is created when an incident particle (or laser) beam strikes the inner wall of the target pellet. This field serves to thermally insulate the hot plasma from the metal wall thereby allowing the plasma to burn for a long time and produce a large energy magnification. If used as a propulsion device, we propose using antiprotons to drive the system, which we show to be capable of producing very large specific impulse and thrust. By way of validating the confinement properties of MICF we will address a proposed experiment in which pellets coated with P-B11 fuel at the appropriate ratio will be zapped by a beam of antiprotons that enters the target through a hole. Calculations showing the density and temperature of the generated plasma along with the strength of the magnetic field and other properties of the system will be presented and discussed.

  10. Antimatter Driven P-B11 Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammash, Terry; Martin, James; Godfroy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    One of the major advantages of using P-B11 fusion fuel is that the reaction produces only charged particles in the form of three alpha particles and no neutrons. A fusion concept that lends itself to this fuel cycle is the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) reactor whose distinct advantage lies in the very strong magnetic field that is created when an incident particle (or laser) beam strikes the inner wall of the target pellet. This field serves to thermally insulate the hot plasma from the metal wall thereby allowing thc plasma to burn for a long time and produce a large energy magnification. If used as a propulsion device, we propose using antiprotons to drive the system which we show to be capable of producing very large specific impulse and thrust. By way of validating the confinement propenies of MICF we will address a proposed experiment in which pellets coated with P-B11 fuel at the appropriate ratio will be zapped by a beam of antiprotons that enter the target through a hole. Calculations showing the density and temperature of the generated plasma along with the strength of the magnetic field and other properties of the system will be presented and discussed.

  11. Uranium resources and their implications for fission breeder and fusion hybrid development

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.

    1984-05-15

    Present estimates of uranium resources and reserves in the US and the non-Communist world are reviewed. The resulting implications are considered for two proposed breeder technologies: the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and the fusion hybrid reactor. Using both simple arguments and detailed scenarios from the published literature, conditions are explored under which the LMFBR and fusion hybrid could respectively have the most impact, considering both fuel-supply and economic factors. The conclusions emphasize strong potential advantages of the fusion hybrid, due to its inherently large breeding rate. A discussion is presented of proposed US development strategies for the fusion hybrid, which at present is far behind the LMFBR in its practical application and maturity.

  12. Principles and rationale of the Fusion-Fission Hybrid burner reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2012-06-01

    The potential advantages of Fusion-Fission Hybrid (FFH) reactors (relative to critical fast reactors) for closing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. The choices of fission and fusion technologies for FFH burner reactors that would fission the transuranics remaining in spent fuel discharged from nuclear power reactors are summarized. The conceptual design and fuel cycle performance of the SABR FFH burner reactor are presented, and a fusion power development schedule with a symbiotic dual FFH path is outlined.

  13. A fusion-driven gas core nuclear rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, T.; Godfroy, T.

    1998-01-15

    A magnetic confinement scheme is investigated as a potential propulsion device in which thrust is generated by a propellant heated by radiation emanating from a fusion plasma. The device in question is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) machine in which a hot dense plasma is confined long enough to generate fusion energy while allowing a certain fraction of its charged particle population to go through one end to a direct converter. The energy of these particles is converted into electric power which is recirculated to sustain the steady state operation of the system. The injected power heats the plasma to thermonuclear temperatures where the resulting fusion energy appears a charged particle power, neutron power, and radiated power in the form of bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation. The neutron power can be converted through a thermal converter to electric power that can be combined with the direct converter power before being fed into the injector. The radiated power, on the other hand, can be used to heat a hydrogen propellant introduced into the system at a specified pressure and mass flow rate. This propellant can be pre-heated by regeneratively cooling the (mirror) nozzle or other components of the system if feasible, or by an electrothermal unit powered by portions of the recirculated power. Using a simple heat transfer model that ignores the heat flux to the wall, and assuming total absorption of radiation energy by the propellant it is shown that such a gas core rocket is capable of producing tens of kilonewtons of thrust and several thousands of seconds of specific impulse. It is also shown that the familiar Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which arises from the relative motion of the neutral hydrogen to the ionized fuel is not likely to occur in this system due to the presence of the confining magnetic field.

  14. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  15. SEP acceleration in CME driven shocks using a hybrid code

    SciTech Connect

    Gargaté, L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-09-01

    We perform hybrid simulations of a super-Alfvénic quasi-parallel shock, driven by a coronal mass ejection (CME), propagating in the outer coronal/solar wind at distances of between 3 to 6 solar radii. The hybrid treatment of the problem enables the study of the shock propagation on the ion timescale, preserving ion kinetics and allowing for a self-consistent treatment of the shock propagation and particle acceleration. The CME plasma drags the embedded magnetic field lines stretching from the sun, and propagates out into interplanetary space at a greater velocity than the in situ solar wind, driving the shock, and producing very energetic particles. Our results show that electromagnetic Alfvén waves are generated at the shock front. The waves propagate upstream of the shock and are produced by the counter-streaming ions of the solar wind plasma being reflected at the shock. A significant fraction of the particles are accelerated in two distinct phases: first, particles drift from the shock and are accelerated in the upstream region, and second, particles arriving at the shock get trapped and are accelerated at the shock front. A fraction of the particles diffused back to the shock, which is consistent with the Fermi acceleration mechanism.

  16. A Z-Pinch Driven Fusion Reactor Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzon, Mark; Rochau, Gregory; Spielman, Rick; Slutz, Stephen; Rochau, G. E.; Peterson, R. R.; Peterson, P. F.

    1999-11-01

    Recent z-pinch target physics progress has encouraged us to consider how a power reactor could be configured based on a fast z-pinch driver. Initial cost estimates show that recyclable transmission lines (RTLs) are economically viable. Providing 'standoff' between the primary power supply and the target, which is what disposable RTLs provide, has historically been the main obstacle to the consideration of pinches as fusion drivers. We will be introducing basic reactor scaling in terms of shot rate, yield, tritium breeding and neutron flux, etc. This concept has advantages in that z-pinches provide a robust mechanical environment, as well as a chamber which does not require low-pressure pumping between shots and the wall lifetime is expected to be limited factors other than neutron damage. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy: The Fusion Driven Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Pihl, Christopher; Pfaff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a dramatically more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. A very persuasive reason for investigating the applicability of nuclear power in rockets is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion energy. Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem for space application.

  18. DNA Hybridization-Mediated Liposome Fusion at the Aqueous Liquid Crystal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Patrick S.; Mohan, Praveena; Goodwin, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The prominence of receptor-mediated bilayer fusion in cellular biology motivates development of biomimetic strategies for studying fusogenic mechanisms. An approach is reported here for monitoring receptor-mediated fusion that exploits the unique physical and optical properties of liquid crystals (LC). PEG-functionalized lipids are used to create an interfacial environment capable of inhibiting spontaneous liposome fusion with an aqueous/LC interface. Then, DNA hybridization between oligonucleotides within bulk phase liposomes and a PEG-lipid monolayer at an aqueous/LC interface is exploited to induce receptor-mediated liposome fusion. These hybridization events induce strain within the liposome bilayer, promote lipid mixing with the LC interface, and consequently create an interfacial environment favoring re-orientation of the LC to a homeotropic (perpendicular) state. Furthermore, the bi-functionality of aptamers is exploited to modulate DNA hybridization-mediated liposome fusion by regulating the availability of the appropriate ligand (i.e., thrombin). Here, a LC-based approach for monitoring receptor (i.e., DNA hybridization)-mediated liposome fusion is demonstrated, liposome properties that dictate fusion dynamics are explored, and an example of how this approach may be used in a biosensing scheme is provided. PMID:25506314

  19. Development of DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Alexeev, P. N.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-07-01

    The history of fusion-fission hybrid systems based on a tokamak device as an extremely efficient DT-fusion neutron source has passed through several periods of ample research activity in the world since the very beginning of fusion research in the 1950s. Recently, a new roadmap of the hybrid program has been proposed with the goal to build a pilot hybrid plant (PHP) in Russia by 2030. Development of the DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies, which is planned to be built by 2023, is the key milestone on the path to the PHP. This facility is in the phase of conceptual design aimed at providing feasibility studies for a full set of steady state tokamak technologies at a fusion energy gain factor Q ˜ 1, fusion power of ˜40 MW and opportunities for testing a wide range of hybrid technologies with the emphasis on continuous nuclide processing in molten salts. This paper describes the project motivations, its current status and the key issues of the design.

  20. Computational modeling of pulsed-power-driven magnetized target fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehey, P.; Kirkpatrick, R.; Lindemuth, I.

    1995-08-01

    Direct magnetic drive using electrical pulsed power has been considered impractically slow for traditional inertial confinement implosion of fusion targets. However, if the target contains a preheated, magnetized plasma, magnetothermal insulation may allow the near-adiabatic compression of such a target to fusion conditions on a much slower time scale. 100-MJ-class explosive flux compression generators with implosion kinetic energies far beyond those available with conventional fusion drivers, are an inexpensive means to investigate such magnetized target fusion (MTF) systems. One means of obtaining the preheated and magnetized plasma required for an MTF system is the recently reported {open_quotes}MAGO{close_quotes} concept. MAGO is a unique, explosive-pulsed-power driven discharge in two cylindrical chambers joined by an annular nozzle. Joint Russian-American MAGO experiments have reported D-T neutron yields in excess of 10{sup 13} from this plasma preparation stage alone, without going on to the proposed separately driven NM implosion of the main plasma chamber. Two-dimensional MED computational modeling of MAGO discharges shows good agreement to experiment. The calculations suggest that after the observed neutron pulse, a diffuse Z-pinch plasma with temperature in excess of 100 eV is created, which may be suitable for subsequent MTF implosion, in a heavy liner magnetically driven by explosive pulsed power. Other MTF concepts, such as fiber-initiated Z-pinch target plasmas, are also being computationally and theoretically evaluated. The status of our modeling efforts will be reported.

  1. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1993-08-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low-emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma types and the porous plug and hot alumino-silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino-silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented.

  2. Lower hybrid instability driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Vishwesh; Tripathi, V. K.

    2013-02-15

    A kinetic formalism of lower hybrid wave instability, driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread, is developed. The instability arises through cyclotron resonance interaction with high cyclotron harmonics of {alpha}-particles. The {alpha}-particles produced in D-T fusion reactions have huge Larmor radii ({approx}10 cm) as compared to the wavelength of the lower hybrid wave, whereas their speed is an order of magnitude smaller than the speed of light in vacuum. As a result, large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid waves, suitable for current drive in tokamak, are driven unstable via coupling to high cyclotron harmonics. The growth rate decreases with increase in pitch angle spread of the beam. At typical electron density of {approx}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, magnetic field {approx}4 Tesla and {alpha}-particle concentration {approx}0.1%, the large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid wave grows on the time scale of 20 ion cyclotron periods. The growth rate decreases with plasma density.

  3. Lower hybrid instability driven by mono-energy α-particles with finite pitch angle spread in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Vishwesh; Tripathi, V. K.

    2013-02-01

    A kinetic formalism of lower hybrid wave instability, driven by mono-energy α-particles with finite pitch angle spread, is developed. The instability arises through cyclotron resonance interaction with high cyclotron harmonics of α-particles. The α-particles produced in D-T fusion reactions have huge Larmor radii (˜10 cm) as compared to the wavelength of the lower hybrid wave, whereas their speed is an order of magnitude smaller than the speed of light in vacuum. As a result, large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid waves, suitable for current drive in tokamak, are driven unstable via coupling to high cyclotron harmonics. The growth rate decreases with increase in pitch angle spread of the beam. At typical electron density of ˜1019 m-3, magnetic field ˜4 Tesla and α-particle concentration ˜0.1%, the large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid wave grows on the time scale of 20 ion cyclotron periods. The growth rate decreases with plasma density.

  4. Hybrid Modelling Approach to Prairie hydrology: Fusing Data-driven and Process-based Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, B.; Nazemi, A.; Elshorbagy, A.; Mazurek, K.; Putz, G.

    2012-04-01

    Modeling the hydrological response in prairie regions, characterized by flat and undulating terrain, and thus, large non-contributing areas, is a known challenge. The hydrological response (runoff) is the combination of the traditional runoff from the hydrologically contributing area and the occasional overflow from the non-contributing area. This study provides a unique opportunity to analyze the issue of fusing the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in a hybrid structure to model the hydrological response in prairie regions. A hybrid SWAT-ANN model is proposed, where the SWAT component and the ANN module deal with the effective (contributing) area and the non-contributing area, respectively. The hybrid model is applied to the case study of Moose Jaw watershed, located in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. As an initial exploration, a comparison between ANN and SWAT models is established based on addressing the daily runoff (streamflow) prediction accuracy using multiple error measures. This is done to identify the merits and drawbacks of each modeling approach. It has been found out that the SWAT model has better performance during the low flow periods but with degraded efficiency during periods of high flows. The case is different for the ANN model as ANNs exhibit improved simulation during high flow periods but with biased estimates during low flow periods. The modelling results show that the new hybrid SWAT-ANN model is capable of exploiting the strengths of both SWAT and ANN models in an integrated framrwork. The new hybrid SWAT-ANN model simulates daily runoff quite satisfactorily with NSE measures of 0.80 and 0.83 during calibration and validation periods, respectively. Furthermore, an experimental assessment was performed to identify the effects of the ANN training method on the performance of the hybrid model as well as the parametric identifiability. Overall, the results obtained in this study suggest that the fusion

  5. Fusion of Ferredoxin and Cytochrome P450 Enables Direct Light-Driven Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are key enzymes in the synthesis of bioactive natural products in plants. Efforts to harness these enzymes for in vitro and whole-cell production of natural products have been hampered by difficulties in expressing them heterologously in their active form, and their requirement for NADPH as a source of reducing power. We recently demonstrated targeting and insertion of plant P450s into the photosynthetic membrane and photosynthesis-driven, NADPH-independent P450 catalytic activity mediated by the electron carrier protein ferredoxin. Here, we report the fusion of ferredoxin with P450 CYP79A1 from the model plant Sorghum bicolor, which catalyzes the initial step in the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Fusion with ferredoxin allows CYP79A1 to obtain electrons for catalysis by interacting directly with photosystem I. Furthermore, electrons captured by the fused ferredoxin moiety are directed more effectively toward P450 catalytic activity, making the fusion better able to compete with endogenous electron sinks coupled to metabolic pathways. The P450-ferredoxin fusion enzyme obtains reducing power solely from its fused ferredoxin and outperforms unfused CYP79A1 in vivo. This demonstrates greatly enhanced electron transfer from photosystem I to CYP79A1 as a consequence of the fusion. The fusion strategy reported here therefore forms the basis for enhanced partitioning of photosynthetic reducing power toward P450-dependent biosynthesis of important natural products. PMID:27119279

  6. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a /sup 233/U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed.

  7. Hybrid Image Fusion for Sharpness Enhancement of Multi-Spectral Lunar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awumah, Anna; Mahanti, Prasun; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Image fusion enhances the sharpness of a multi-spectral (MS) image by incorporating spatial details from a higher-resolution panchromatic (Pan) image [1,2]. Known applications of image fusion for planetary images are rare, although image fusion is well-known for its applications to Earth-based remote sensing. In a recent work [3], six different image fusion algorithms were implemented and their performances were verified with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera. The image fusion procedure obtained a high-resolution multi-spectral (HRMS) product from the LRO Narrow Angle Camera (used as Pan) and LRO Wide Angle Camera (used as MS) images. The results showed that the Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) algorithm results in a high-spatial quality product while the Wavelet-based image fusion algorithm best preserves spectral quality among all the algorithms. In this work we show the results of a hybrid IHS-Wavelet image fusion algorithm when applied to LROC MS images. The hybrid method provides the best HRMS product - both in terms of spatial resolution and preservation of spectral details. Results from hybrid image fusion can enable new science and increase the science return from existing LROC images.[1] Pohl, Cle, and John L. Van Genderen. "Review article multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications." International journal of remote sensing 19.5 (1998): 823-854.[2] Zhang, Yun. "Understanding image fusion." Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens 70.6 (2004): 657-661.[3] Mahanti, Prasun et al. "Enhancement of spatial resolution of the LROC Wide Angle Camera images." Archives, XXIII ISPRS Congress Archives (2016).

  8. Study of Plasma Liner Driven Magnetized Target Fusion Via Advanced Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Samulyak, Roman V.; Parks, Paul

    2013-08-31

    The feasibility of the plasma liner driven Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) via terascale numerical simulations will be assessed. In the MTF concept, a plasma liner, formed by merging of a number (60 or more) of radial, highly supersonic plasma jets, implodes on the target in the form of two compact plasma toroids, and compresses it to conditions of the fusion ignition. By avoiding major difficulties associated with both the traditional laser driven inertial confinement fusion and solid liner driven MTF, the plasma liner driven MTF potentially provides a low-cost and fast R&D path towards the demonstration of practical fusion energy. High fidelity numerical simulations of full nonlinear models associated with the plasma liner MTF using state-of-art numerical algorithms and terascale computing are necessary in order to resolve uncertainties and provide guidance for future experiments. At Stony Brook University, we have developed unique computational capabilities that ideally suite the MTF problem. The FronTier code, developed in collaboration with BNL and LANL under DOE funding including SciDAC for the simulation of 3D multi-material hydro and MHD flows, has beenbenchmarked and used for fundamental and engineering problems in energy science applications. We have performed 3D simulations of converging supersonic plasma jets, their merger and the formation of the plasma liner, and a study of the corresponding oblique shock problem. We have studied the implosion of the plasma liner on the magnetized plasma target by resolving Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in 2D and 3D and other relevant physics and estimate thermodynamic conditions of the target at the moment of maximum compression and the hydrodynamic efficiency of the method.

  9. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; et al

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurementsmore » of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  10. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J. Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Atzeni, S.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; and others

    2015-06-15

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D{sup 3}He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N{sub K}) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N{sub K} ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  11. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  12. Data fusion and classification using a hybrid intrinsic cellular inference network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Walenz, Brett; Seiffertt, John; Robinette, Paul; Wunsch, Donald

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid Intrinsic Cellular Inference Network (HICIN) is designed for battlespace decision support applications. We developed an automatic method of generating hypotheses for an entity-attribute classifier. The capability and effectiveness of a domain specific ontology was used to generate automatic categories for data classification. Heterogeneous data is clustered using an Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) inference engine on a sample (unclassified) data set. The data set is the Lahman baseball database. The actual data is immaterial to the architecture, however, parallels in the data can be easily drawn (i.e., "Team" maps to organization, "Runs scored/allowed" to Measure of organization performance (positive/negative), "Payroll" to organization resources, etc.). Results show that HICIN classifiers create known inferences from the heterogonous data. These inferences are not explicitly stated in the ontological description of the domain and are strictly data driven. HICIN uses data uncertainty handling to reduce errors in the classification. The uncertainty handling is based on subjective logic. The belief mass allows evidence from multiple sources to be mathematically combined to increase or discount an assertion. In military operations the ability to reduce uncertainty will be vital in the data fusion operation.

  13. SABR fusion-fission hybrid transmutation reactor design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Weston

    2009-11-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a sub-critical advanced burner reactor (SABR) consisting of i) a sodium cooled fast reactor fueled with the transuranics (TRU) from spent nuclear fuel, and ii) a D-T tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. Subcritical operation enables more efficient transmutation fuel cycles in TRU fueled reactors (without compromising safety), which may be essential for significant reduction in high-level waste repository requirements. ITER will serve as the prototype for the fusion neutron source, which means SABRs could be implemented to help close the nuclear fuel cycle during the 2^nd quarter of the century.

  14. Reproductive Isolation of Hybrid Populations Driven by Genetic Incompatibilities

    PubMed Central

    Schumer, Molly; Cui, Rongfeng; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Andolfatto, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite its role in homogenizing populations, hybridization has also been proposed as a means to generate new species. The conceptual basis for this idea is that hybridization can result in novel phenotypes through recombination between the parental genomes, allowing a hybrid population to occupy ecological niches unavailable to parental species. Here we present an alternative model of the evolution of reproductive isolation in hybrid populations that occurs as a simple consequence of selection against genetic incompatibilities. Unlike previous models of hybrid speciation, our model does not incorporate inbreeding, or assume that hybrids have an ecological or reproductive fitness advantage relative to parental populations. We show that reproductive isolation between hybrids and parental species can evolve frequently and rapidly under this model, even in the presence of substantial ongoing immigration from parental species and strong selection against hybrids. An interesting prediction of our model is that replicate hybrid populations formed from the same pair of parental species can evolve reproductive isolation from each other. This non-adaptive process can therefore generate patterns of species diversity and relatedness that resemble an adaptive radiation. Intriguingly, several known hybrid species exhibit patterns of reproductive isolation consistent with the predictions of our model. PMID:25768654

  15. Target Designs for an Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Driven by Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D A; Tabak, M

    2001-08-23

    We present two indirect drive inertial fusion targets driven by heavy ions beams for fusion energy production. Because there are uncertainties in the ion beam focal spot size and uncertainties in the accelerator cost, we have tried to design targets that cover a large parameter space. One of the designs requires small ion beam focal spots but produces more than adequate gain at low driver energy (gain 130 from 3.3 MJ of beam energy). The other design allows a large beam spot, but requires more driver energy (gain 55 from 6.7 MJ of beam energy). Target physics issues as well as the implications for the accelerator from each design are discussed.

  16. Robust heavy-ion-beam illumination in direct-driven heavy-ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Miyazawa, K.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Someya, T.; Kikuchi, T.

    2007-07-01

    In heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (HIF), implosion asymmetry should be less than a few percent in order to compress a fuel sufficiently and release fusion energy effectively. It is known that the HIB illumination nonuniformity and implosion symmetry are sensitive to a little pellet displacement from a reactor chamber center. We present a new HIB illumination scheme which is robust against the displacement of a direct-driven fuel pellet in an HIF reactor chamber. In conventional HIB illumination schemes a pellet displacement of 25-100 μm was tolerable. The new robust HIB illumination scheme is examined by three-dimensional computer simulations. In the new HIB illumination scheme the tolerable pellet displacement is about 200-300 μm.

  17. Expansion of nanoplasmas and laser-driven nuclear fusion in single exploding clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peano, F.; Martins, J. L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Peinetti, F.; Mulas, R.; Coppa, G.; Silva, L. O.

    2008-09-01

    The expansion of laser-irradiated clusters can be controlled by acting on the amount of energy delivered to the electrons. When increasing the electron energy, the expansion regime varies smoothly from a quasineutral, hydrodinamic-like to a Coulomb explosion (CE), as revealed by self-consistent kinetic analysis. A double-pump irradiation scheme can produce hybrid expansion regimes wherein a slow hydrodynamic expansion is followed by a fast CE, leading to ion overtaking and producing multiple ion flows expanding with different velocities, which can lead to intracluster fusion reactions in homonuclear deuterium clusters.

  18. Expansion of nanoplasmas and laser-driven nuclear fusion in single exploding clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Peano, F.; Martins, J. L.; Silva, L. O.; Peinetti, F.; Mulas, R.; Coppa, G.

    2008-09-07

    The expansion of laser-irradiated clusters can be controlled by acting on the amount of energy delivered to the electrons. When increasing the electron energy, the expansion regime varies smoothly from a quasineutral, hydrodinamic-like to a Coulomb explosion (CE), as revealed by self-consistent kinetic analysis. A double-pump irradiation scheme can produce hybrid expansion regimes wherein a slow hydrodynamic expansion is followed by a fast CE, leading to ion overtaking and producing multiple ion flows expanding with different velocities, which can lead to intracluster fusion reactions in homonuclear deuterium clusters.

  19. Engineering hybrid exosomes by membrane fusion with liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuko T.; Umezaki, Kaori; Sawada, Shinichi; Mukai, Sada-atsu; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Harada, Naozumi; Shiku, Hiroshi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are a valuable biomaterial for the development of novel nanocarriers as functionally advanced drug delivery systems. To control and modify the performance of exosomal nanocarriers, we developed hybrid exosomes by fusing their membranes with liposomes using the freeze–thaw method. Exosomes embedded with a specific membrane protein isolated from genetically modified cells were fused with various liposomes, confirming that membrane engineering methods can be combined with genetic modification techniques. Cellular uptake studies performed using the hybrid exosomes revealed that the interactions between the developed exosomes and cells could be modified by changing the lipid composition or the properties of the exogenous lipids. These results suggest that the membrane-engineering approach reported here offers a new strategy for developing rationally designed exosomes as hybrid nanocarriers for use in advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:26911358

  20. Fusion-Fission Research Facility (FFRF) as a Practical Step Toward Hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    L. Zakharov, J. Li and Y. Wu

    2010-11-18

    The project of ASIPP (with PPPL participation), called FFRF, (R/a=4/1 m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50-100 MW, Pfission=80-4000 MW, 1 m thick blanket) is outlined. FFRF stands for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility with a unique fusion mission and a pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission for accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications. The design of FFRF will use as much as possible the EAST and ITER design experience. On the other hand, FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China.

  1. ACCELERATING FUSION REACTOR NEUTRONICS MODELING BY AUTOMATIC COUPLING OF HYBRID MONTE CARLO/DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT ON CAD GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Biondo, Elliott D; Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Mosher, Scott W; Grove, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).

  2. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  3. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  4. Study on target structure for direct-indirect hybrid implosion mode in heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Yoshifumi; Kawata, Shigeo; Kodera, Tomohiro; Ogoyski, Alexander I.; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    The key issues in heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) include particle accelerator, physics of intense beam, beam final transport, target-plasma hydrodynamics, etc. In this paper, we focus on fuel implosion. In order to realize an effective implosion, beam illumination non-uniformity on a fuel target must be suppressed less than a few percent. In this study a direct-indirect hybrid implosion mode is discussed in heavy ion beam inertial confinement fusion (HIF) in order to release sufficient fusion energy in a robust manner. In the direct-indirect hybrid mode target, a low-density foam layer is inserted, and the radiation energy is confined in the foam layer. In the foam layer, the radiation transport is expected to smoothen the HIB illumination non-uniformity in the lateral direction. In this paper, we study the influences of the foam thickness and the inner radiation-shield Al density on implosion uniformity. Two-dimensional fluid simulations demonstrate that the hybrid target contributes to the HIB non-uniformity smoothing and releases a sufficient fusion energy output in HIF.

  5. Fusion of PET and MRI for Hybrid Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    Recently, the development of the fusion PET-MRI system has been actively studied to meet the increasing demand for integrated molecular and anatomical imaging. MRI can provide detailed anatomical information on the brain, such as the locations of gray and white matter, blood vessels, axonal tracts with high resolution, while PET can measure molecular and genetic information, such as glucose metabolism, neurotransmitter-neuroreceptor binding and affinity, protein-protein interactions, and gene trafficking among biological tissues. State-of-the-art MRI systems, such as the 7.0 T whole-body MRI, now can visualize super-fine structures including neuronal bundles in the pons, fine blood vessels (such as lenticulostriate arteries) without invasive contrast agents, in vivo hippocampal substructures, and substantia nigra with excellent image contrast. High-resolution PET, known as High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), is a brain-dedicated system capable of imaging minute changes of chemicals, such as neurotransmitters and -receptors, with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. The synergistic power of the two, i.e., ultra high-resolution anatomical information offered by a 7.0 T MRI system combined with the high-sensitivity molecular information offered by HRRT-PET, will significantly elevate the level of our current understanding of the human brain, one of the most delicate, complex, and mysterious biological organs. This chapter introduces MRI, PET, and PET-MRI fusion system, and its algorithms are discussed in detail.

  6. Selection of somatic hybrids after fusion of protoplasts from Datura innoxia Mill. and Atropa belladonna L.

    PubMed

    Krumbiegel, G; Schieder, O

    1979-01-01

    After fusion of protoplasts from a diploid (2n=24) and a tetraploid (4n=48) chlorophyll-deficient mutant of Datura innoxia Mill. with diploid (2n=72) green wild-type protoplasts of Atropa belladonna L. thirteen somatic hybrids could be selected, most of which had already started to produce leaves and shoots. Hybrid calli were recognizable by the production of hairs, typical for Datura innoxia, and the green colour, derived from Atropa belladonna. Further proof for the hybrid nature was furnished by cytological investigations. The metaphase chromosomes of both species are easily distinguishable in their size: chromosomes of Datura innoxia are about twice as large as those of Atropa belladonna. The chromosome numbers of the hybrids varied from ca. 84 to ca. 175.

  7. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  8. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  9. Recent U.S. advances in ion-beam-driven high energy densityphysics and heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy,P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, Qin H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev,E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2006-07-05

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport; and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by > 50 X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. They are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy.

  10. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  11. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A. Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A. Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-15

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  12. A hybrid model for coupling kinetic corrections of fusion reactivity to hydrodynamic implosion simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, C. J.; Guo, Zehua; Berk, H. L.

    2014-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires an imploded target in which a central hot spot is surrounded by a cold and dense pusher. The hot spot/pusher interface can take complicated shape in three dimensions due to hydrodynamic mix. It is also a transition region where the Knudsen and inverse Knudsen layer effect can significantly modify the fusion reactivity in comparison with the commonly used value evaluated with background Maxwellians. Here, we describe a hybrid model that couples the kinetic correction of fusion reactivity to global hydrodynamic implosion simulations. The key ingredient is a non-perturbative treatment of the tail ions in the interface region where the Gamow ion Knudsen number approaches or surpasses order unity. The accuracy of the coupling scheme is controlled by the precise criteria for matching the non-perturbative kinetic model to perturbative solutions in both configuration space and velocity space.

  13. Hybrid intelligent control concepts for optimal data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinas, James

    1994-02-01

    In the post-Cold War era, Naval surface ship operations will be largely conducted in littoral waters to support regional military missions of all types, including humanitarian and evacuation activities, and amphibious mission execution. Under these conditions, surface ships will be much more isolated and vulnerable to a variety of threats, including maneuvering antiship missiles. To deal with these threats, the optimal employment of multiple shipborne sensors for maximum vigilance is paramount. This paper characterizes the sensor management problem as one of intelligent control, identifies some of the key issues in controller design, and presents one approach to controller design which is soon to be implemented and evaluated. It is argued that the complexity and hierarchical nature of problem formulation demands a hybrid combination of knowledge-based methods and scheduling techniques from 'hard' real-time systems theory for its solution.

  14. EBW Current Drive and Heating for Fusion/Fission Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Jakub; Preinhaelter, Josef; Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Decker, Joan; Ram, Abhay

    2011-10-01

    From the RF requirements for spherical tokamak and the need to reduce antenna exposure to neutron bombardment, EBW are an important source for both heating and current drive (CD). ICRF, LH, HHFW antennas are subject to significant neutron damage (as are NBI) because of their very large size and necessary proximity to the plasma. Recently Mahajan et. al. have studied other important uses of fusion neutrons - in particular their use in the efficient breeding of fission reactor fuel as well as in the ``rapid'' destruction of nuclear waste using their Compact High Power Density Fast Neutron Source (CFNS). For overdense plasmas the standard electromagnetic O- and X- mode experience cutoffs. EBW can propagate and be absorbed in such plasmas but its characteristics are strongly dependent on the plasma parameters with important variations in the parallel wave number. If the required temperatures in CFNS are around 35 KeV, then one will may need to revisit the electrostatic approximation and incorporate relativistic effects for EBW rays.

  15. Research Needs for Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 30 - October 2, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-30

    Largely in anticipation of a possible nuclear renaissance, there has been an enthusiastic renewal of interest in the fusion-fission hybrid concept, driven primarily by some members of the fusion community. A fusion-fission hybrid consists of a neutron-producing fusion core surrounded by a fission blanket. Hybrids are of interest because of their potential to address the main long-term sustainability issues related to nuclear power: fuel supply, energy production, and waste management. As a result of this renewed interest, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with the participation of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), organized a three-day workshop in Gaithersburg, Maryland, from September 30 through October 2, 2009. Participants identified several goals. At the highest level, it was recognized that DOE does not currently support any R&D in the area of fusion-fission hybrids. The question to be addressed was whether or not hybrids offer sufficient promise to motivate DOE to initiate an R&D program in this area. At the next level, the workshop participants were asked to define the research needs and resources required to move the fusion-fission concept forward. The answer to the high-level question was given in two ways. On the one hand, when viewed as a standalone concept, the fusion-fission hybrid does indeed offer the promise of being able to address the sustainability issues associated with conventional nuclear power. On the other hand, when participants were asked whether these hybrid solutions are potentially more attractive than contemplated pure fission solutions (that is, fast burners and fast breeders), there was general consensus that this question could not be quantitatively answered based on the known technical information. Pure fission solutions are based largely on existing both fusion and nuclear technology, thereby prohibiting a fair side-by-side comparison

  16. An efficient computational approach for evaluating radiation flux for laser driven inertial confinement fusion targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiyan; Huang, Yunbao; Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei; Ding, Yongkun

    2015-08-01

    Radiation flux computation on the target is very important for laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion, and view-factor based equation models (MacFarlane, 2003; Srivastava et al., 2000) are often used to compute this radiation flux on the capsule or samples inside the hohlraum. However, the equation models do not lead to sparse matrices and may involve an intensive solution process when discrete mesh elements become smaller and the number of equations increases. An efficient approach for the computation of radiation flux is proposed in this paper, in which, (1) symmetric and positive definite properties are achieved by transformation, and (2) an efficient Cholesky factorization algorithm is applied to significantly accelerate such equations models solving process. Finally, two targets on a laser facility built in China are considered to validate the computing efficiency of present approach. The results show that the radiation flux computation can be accelerated by a factor of 2.

  17. Conceptual study of fusion-driven transmutation reactor with ITER physics and engineering constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bong

    2011-10-01

    A conceptual study of fusion-driven transmutation reactor was performed based on ITER physics and engineering constraints. A compact reactor concept is desirable from an economic viewpoint. For the optimal design of a reactor, a radial build of reactor components has to be determined by considering the plasma physics and engineering constraints which inter-relate various reactor components. In a transmutation reactor, design of blanket and shield play a key role in determining the size of a reactor; the blanket should produce enough tritium for tritium self-sufficiency, the transmutation rate of waste has to be maximized, and the shield should provide sufficient protection for the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil. To determine the radial build of the blanket and the shield, not only a radiation transport analysis but also a burnup calculation were coupled with the system analysis and it allowed the self-consistent determination of the design parameters of a transmutation reactor.

  18. Image classification using multiscale information fusion based on saliency driven nonlinear diffusion filtering.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Ruiguang; Xie, Nianhua; Ling, Haibin; Maybank, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose saliency driven image multiscale nonlinear diffusion filtering. The resulting scale space in general preserves or even enhances semantically important structures such as edges, lines, or flow-like structures in the foreground, and inhibits and smoothes clutter in the background. The image is classified using multiscale information fusion based on the original image, the image at the final scale at which the diffusion process converges, and the image at a midscale. Our algorithm emphasizes the foreground features, which are important for image classification. The background image regions, whether considered as contexts of the foreground or noise to the foreground, can be globally handled by fusing information from different scales. Experimental tests of the effectiveness of the multiscale space for the image classification are conducted on the following publicly available datasets: 1) the PASCAL 2005 dataset; 2) the Oxford 102 flowers dataset; and 3) the Oxford 17 flowers dataset, with high classification rates. PMID:24569440

  19. Contribution of neutron reactions in hybrid targets of inertial heavy ion fusion (HIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imshennik, V. S.; Zhukov, V. T.

    2006-08-01

    Recently some simple estimations (Koskarev, Sharkov) were made for capability of achievement of critical conditions in an uranium shell of HIF energetic target, and afterwards it was proved use of an uranium shell (pusher) for substantial expansion of energy-release in a such hybrid target. The mentioned justification is included accounting of neutron-induced fission in the pusher. This accounting is formulated as generalization for cylindrical geometry of the well-known Axiezer-Pomeranchuk solution. A corresponding analytical solution of one-speed Payerls equation allows sufficiently accurately to compute the critical parameters of the uranium pusher in hydrodynamic model of compression and fusion of HIF target ( taking into account of development of chain nuclear fission reaction under critical condition achievement). Nevertheless the implemented computations show that the most essential effect is forced nuclear fission of uranium under the influence of thermonuclear neutrons generated by fusion of deuterium- tritium fuel in the central region of the target. In these computations we use a simple analytical description of forced nuclear fission of uranium by thermonuclear neutrons. The critical conditions are not achieved in the considered ( not optimized) hybrid targets but they are close to accomplishment in the investigated shock-free compression regime. This regime of compression is the most adequate one for hybrid HIF targets. The obtained results allow us to make conclusion of advisability of further development of energetic hybrid HIF targets particularly their optimization and utilization of natural uranium as pusher materials.

  20. Rapid fusion between mesenchymal stem cells and cardiomyocytes yields electrically active, non-contractile hybrid cells

    PubMed Central

    Shadrin, Ilya Y.; Yoon, Woohyun; Li, Liqing; Shepherd, Neal; Bursac, Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac cell therapies involving bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have shown promising results, although their mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated direct interactions between hMSCs and cardiomyocytes in vitro. Using a genetic Ca2+ indicator gCaMP3 to efficiently label hMSCs in co-cultures with neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), we determined that 25–40% of hMSCs (from 4 independent donors) acquired periodic Ca2+ transients and cardiac markers through spontaneous fusion with NRVMs. Sharp electrode and voltage-clamp recordings in fused cells showed action potential properties and Ca2+ current amplitudes in between those of non-fused hMSCs and NRVMs. Time-lapse video-microscopy revealed the first direct evidence of active fusion between hMSCs and NRVMs within several hours of co-culture. Application of blebbistatin, nifedipine or verapamil caused complete and reversible inhibition of fusion, suggesting potential roles for actomyosin bridging and Ca2+ channels in the fusion process. Immunostaining for Cx43, Ki67, and sarcomeric α-actinin showed that fused cells remain strongly coupled to surrounding NRVMs, but downregulate sarcomeric structures over time, acquiring a non-proliferative and non-contractile phenotype. Overall, these results describe the phenotype and mechanisms of hybrid cell formation via fusion of hMSCs and cardiomyocytes with potential implications for cardiac cell therapy. PMID:26159124

  1. Progress in heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy: From scaledexperiments to the integrated research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Baca, D.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek,F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Franks, R.M.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; deHoon, M.J.L.; Kaganovich, I.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G-L.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.; Vay, J.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Yu, S.S.

    2001-06-22

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents ({approx}100s Amperesheam) and ion energies ({approx}1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions. and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial Fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned.

  2. Recent Advances in Applicability of TEMHD Driven Liquid Lithium as a Fusion Relevant PFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szott, Matthew; Fiflis, Peter; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N.

    2015-11-01

    Liquid lithium displays increasing promise as a replacement to solid plasma facing components (PFC) in fusion device applications. Liquid PFCs reduce erosion and thermal stress damage, prolonging device lifetime, while lithium has been shown to decrease edge recycling, reduce impurities, and enhance plasma performance. The Liquid Metal Infused Trench (LiMIT) concept developed at UIUC successfully demonstrates horizontal and vertical thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) flow of liquid lithium through metal trenches for use as a PFC. Installed in the HT-7 tokamak and at the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device, the system performed effectively in fusion relevant conditions. In high heat flux tests, trench dry-out was observed, which exposes solid trench material due to higher TEMHD force on the area with the highest heat flux. A 3D free surface fluid model of dry-out and experimental tests conducted to mitigate the detrimental effect are described. The final designs for the upcoming test of LiMIT as a limiter for the EAST tokamak are discussed, along with velocity characteristics of steady-state TEMHD driven flow through the LiMIT system inclined up to 180 degrees from horizontal, which is necessary for broad applicability of a liquid lithium PFC system.

  3. Experimental research on indirectly-driven fast ignition in the research center of laser fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weimin; Shan, Lianqiang; Liu, Hongjie; Gu, Yuqiu; Ding, Yongkun; Zhang, Baohan

    2011-10-01

    Compared with central ignition of laser fusion, fast ignition separates compression and ignition thus it can relax the requirements on the implosion symmetry and the driven energy. Since 2008, the Research Center of Laser Fusion has begun the experimental researches on fast ignition based on Shenguang and SILEX-I laser facilities. The small scale cone-in-shell target for fast ignition was pre-compressed by the Shenguang II eight 260J/2ns/3 ω laser beams indirectly since beam smoothing was not available currently. The maximum density of the compressed cone-in-shell target 1.3 ns after the lasers' irradiation on the inside wall of hohlraum is about 4.8 g/cm3, and the implosion velocity is close to 1.9*107 cm/s, which are well consistent with the simulation results with two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code. Experiments on the production and the transport of hot electrons were performed on SILEX-I 200TW femtosecond laser facility. The laser-hot electrons conversion efficiency of metal film target was measured to be 10% ~20% with various laser parameters. The transport of hot electrons over hundreds of microns was carried out successfully in experiment by the use of axially symmetrical two-layer target.

  4. Thermal Performance of Deep-Burn Fusion-Fission Hybrid Waste in a Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J A; Chipman, V; Farmer, J; Shaw, H; Zhao, P

    2008-11-25

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine [1] combines a neutron-rich but energy-poor inertial fusion system with an energy-rich but neutron-poor subcritical fission blanket. Because approximately 80% of the LIFE Engine energy is produced from fission, the requirements for laser efficiency and fusion target performance are relaxed, compared to a pure-fusion system, and hence a LIFE Engine prototype can be based on target performance in the first few years of operation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Similarly, because of the copious fusion neutrons, the fission blanket can be run in a subcritical, driven, mode, without the need for control rods or other sophisticated reactivity control systems. Further, because the fission blanket is inherently subcritical, fission fuels that can be used in LIFE Engine designs include thorium, depleted uranium, natural uranium, spent light water reactor fuel, highly enriched uranium, and plutonium. Neither enrichment nor reprocessing is required for the LIFE Engine fuel cycle, and burnups to 99% fraction of initial metal atoms (FIMA) being fissioned are envisioned. This paper discusses initial calculations of the thermal behavior of spent LIFE fuel following completion of operation in the LIFE Engine [2]. The three time periods of interest for thermal calculations are during interim storage (probably at the LIFE Engine site), during the preclosure operational period of a geologic repository, and after closure of the repository.

  5. Electron beam driven lower hybrid waves in a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Ved; Vijayshri; Sharma, Suresh C.; Gupta, Ruby

    2013-05-15

    An electron beam propagating through a magnetized dusty plasma drives electrostatic lower hybrid waves to instability via Cerenkov interaction. A dispersion relation and the growth rate of the instability for this process have been derived taking into account the dust charge fluctuations. The frequency and the growth rate of the unstable wave increase with the relative density of negatively charged dust grains. Moreover, the growth rate of the instability increases with beam density and scales as the one-third power of the beam density. In addition, the dependence of the growth rate on the beam velocity is also discussed.

  6. Progress in Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion Energy: From Scaled Experiments to the Integrated Research Experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Ahle, L E; Baca, D; Bangerter, R O; Bieniosek, F M; Celata, C M; Chacon-Golcher, E; Davidson, R C; Faltens, A; Friedman, A; Franks, R M; Grote, D P; Haber, I; Henestroza, E; de Hoon, M J; Kaganovich, I; Karpenko, V P; Kishek, R A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Meier, W R; Molvik, W; Olson, C; Prost, L R; Qin, H; Rose, D; Sabbi, G L; Sangster, T C; Seidl, P A; Sharp, W M; Shuman, D; Vay, J L; Waldron, W L; Welch, D; Yu, S S

    2001-07-10

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (approx 100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies ({approx} 1 - 10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tun depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now beginning at LBNL. The mission of the HCX is to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will provide an

  7. Cell fusion as the formation mechanism of unreduced gametes in the gynogenetic diploid hybrid fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qingfeng; Luo, Kaikun; Chen, Xuan; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    The gynogenetic diploid hybrid clone line (GDH) derived from red crucian carp (♀ RCC) × common carp (♂ CC) possesses the unusual reproductive trait of producing unreduced diploid eggs. To identify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we examined the structure, in vivo developmental process and in vitro dynamic development of the GDH gonad. In summary, compared with RCC and CC, GDH showed certain special straits. First, a high frequency (84.7%) of germ cell fusion occurred in gonadal tissue culture in vitro as observed by time-lapse microscopy. Second, microstructural and ultrastructural observation showed numerous binucleated and multinucleated germ cells in the gonad, providing evidence of germ cell fusion in vivo. By contrast, in the diploid RCC and CC ovaries, neither cell fusion nor multinucleated cells were observed during the development of gonads. Third, the ovary of GDH remained at stage I for 10 months, whereas those of RCC and CC remained at that stage for 2 months, indicating that the GDH germ cells underwent abnormal development before meiosis. This report is the first to demonstrate that cell fusion facilitates the formation of unreduced gametes in vertebrates, which is a valuable finding for both evolutionary biology and reproductive biology. PMID:27530321

  8. Cell fusion as the formation mechanism of unreduced gametes in the gynogenetic diploid hybrid fish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qingfeng; Luo, Kaikun; Chen, Xuan; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    The gynogenetic diploid hybrid clone line (GDH) derived from red crucian carp (♀ RCC) × common carp (♂ CC) possesses the unusual reproductive trait of producing unreduced diploid eggs. To identify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we examined the structure, in vivo developmental process and in vitro dynamic development of the GDH gonad. In summary, compared with RCC and CC, GDH showed certain special straits. First, a high frequency (84.7%) of germ cell fusion occurred in gonadal tissue culture in vitro as observed by time-lapse microscopy. Second, microstructural and ultrastructural observation showed numerous binucleated and multinucleated germ cells in the gonad, providing evidence of germ cell fusion in vivo. By contrast, in the diploid RCC and CC ovaries, neither cell fusion nor multinucleated cells were observed during the development of gonads. Third, the ovary of GDH remained at stage I for 10 months, whereas those of RCC and CC remained at that stage for 2 months, indicating that the GDH germ cells underwent abnormal development before meiosis. This report is the first to demonstrate that cell fusion facilitates the formation of unreduced gametes in vertebrates, which is a valuable finding for both evolutionary biology and reproductive biology. PMID:27530321

  9. Hybrid modeling of plasmas and applications to fusion and space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeminejad, Farzad

    Since the early days of controlled fusion research, plasma physicists have encountered great challenges in obtaining solutions to the highly nonlinear equations which govern the behavior of fusion plasmas; with the growth of other applications of plasma physics these problems have grown in importance. Obtaining reasonable solutions to the nonlinear equations is crucial to understanding the behavior of plasmas. With the advent of high speed computers, computer modeling of plasmas has moved into the front row of the tools used in research of their nonlinear plasma dynamics. There are roughly speaking two types of plasma models, particle models and fluid models. Particle models in general require larger memory for the computer due to the massive amounts of data associated with the particles' kinematical variables. Fluid models are better fit to handle large scales and long times. The drawback of fluid models however, is that they miss the physical phenomena taking place at the microscale and these phenomena can influence the properties of the fluids. Another approach is to start with fluid models and incorporate more physics. Such models are referred to as hybrid models: two such models are discussed. They are then applied to two problems; the first is a simulation of the artificial comet generated by the AMPTE experiment; the second is the production of enhanced noise in fusion plasmas by injected energetic ions or by fusion reaction products. In both cases, the models demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  10. Actinide incineration in fusion-fission hybrid-A model nuclear synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taczanowski, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The alliance of fusion with fission is a cause worthy of great efforts, as being able to ease (if not even to solve) serious problems that both these forms of nuclear energy are facing. Very high investment costs caused by tokamak enormous size, material consumption and difficult technology put in doubt whether alone the minute demand for fuel raw material (Li) and lack of danger of uncontrolled supercriticality prove sufficient for making it competitive. Preliminary evaluations demonstrated that a radical shift of energy production i.e. the energy gain from plasma to fission blanket is feasible [1]. A reduction in the fusion component to about 2% at given system power allows for a radical drop in plasma Q down to the values of ˜0.2-0.3 achievable in small systems [2] (e.g. mirrors) of sizes comparable to fission reactors. As a result in a Fusion-Driven Actinide Incinerator (FDI) both radiations from the plasma: corpuscular (i.e. neutrons and ions) and photons are drastically reduced. Thus are too, first of all - the neutron induced radiation damage: DPA and gas production, then plasma-wall interactions. The fundamental safety of the system has been proved by simulation of its collapse that has shown preservation its subcriticality. Summarizing, all the above problems may be solved with synergic union of fusion with fission embodied in the concept of FDI - small and less expensive.

  11. Evaluation of the operational parameters for NBI-driven fusion in low-gain tokamaks with two-component plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Low gain (Q ~ 1) fusion plasma systems are of interest for concepts of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. Operational regimes of large modern tokamaks are close to Q  ≈  1. Therefore, they can be considered as prototypes of neutron sources for fusion-fission hybrids. Powerful neutral beam injection (NBI) can support the essential population of fast particles compared with the Maxwellial population. In such two-component plasma, fusion reaction rate is higher than for Maxwellian plasma. Increased reaction rate allows the development of relatively small-size and relatively inexpensive neutron sources. Possible operating regimes of the NBI-heated tokamak neutron source are discussed. In a relatively compact device, the predictions of physics of two-component fusion plasma have some volatility that causes taking into account variations of the operational parameters. Consequent parameter ranges are studied. The feasibility of regimes with Q  ≈  1 is shown for the relatively small and low-power system. The effect of NBI fraction in total heating power is analyzed.

  12. Properties of the ion-ion hybrid resonator in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, George J.

    2015-10-06

    The project developed theoretical and numerical descriptions of the properties of ion-ion hybrid Alfvén resonators that are expected to arise in the operation of a fusion reactor. The methodology and theoretical concepts were successfully compared to observations made in basic experiments in the LAPD device at UCLA. An assessment was made of the excitation of resonator modes by energetic alpha particles for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. The broader impacts included the generation of basic insight useful to magnetic fusion and space science researchers, defining new avenues for exploration in basic laboratory experiments, establishing broader contacts between experimentalists and theoreticians, completion of a Ph.D. dissertation, and promotion of interest in science through community outreach events and classroom instruction.

  13. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid arrays applicable to current drive in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosia, G.; Helou, W.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Ragona, R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents concepts for Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Current Drive arrays applicable to fusion reactors and based on periodically loaded line power division. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactor applications, these schemes can offer, in principle, a number of practical advantages, compared with currently adopted ones, such as in-blanket operation at significantly reduced power density, lay out suitable for water cooling, single ended or balanced power feed, simple and load independent impedance matching In addition, a remote and accurate real time measurement of the complex impedance of all array elements as well as detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of a single arc occurring anywhere in the structure is possible.

  14. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 mum of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb 83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by

  15. Global Hybrid Simulations of Energetic Particle-driven Modes in Toroidal Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    G.Y. Fu; J. Breslau; E. Fredrickson; W. Park; H.R. Strauss

    2004-12-14

    Global hybrid simulations of energetic particle-driven MHD modes have been carried out for tokamaks and spherical tokamaks using the hybrid code M3D. The numerical results for the National Spherical Tokamak Experiments (NSTX) show that Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes are excited by beam ions with their frequencies consistent with the experimental observations. Nonlinear simulations indicate that the n=2 mode frequency chirps down as the mode moves out radially. For ITER, it is shown that the alpha-particle effects are strongly stabilizing for internal kink mode when central safety factor q(0) is sufficiently close to unity. However, the elongation of ITER plasma shape reduces the stabilization significantly.

  16. Radiological Aspects of Deep-Burn Fusion-Fission Hybrid Waste in a Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, H F; Blink, J A; Farmer, J C; Karmer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Zhao, P

    2008-11-25

    The quantity, radioactivity, and isotopic characteristics of the spent fission fuel from a hybrid fusion-fission system capable of extremely high burnups are described. The waste generally has higher activity per unit mass of heavy metal, but much lower activity per unit energy generated. The very long-term radioactivity is dominated by fission products. Simple scaling calculations suggest that the dose from a repository containing such waste would be dominated by {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, and {sup 242}Pu. Use of such a system for generating energy would greatly reduce the need for repository capacity.

  17. Feasibility of recycling thorium in a fusion-fission hybrid/PWR symbiotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Josephs, J. M.

    1980-12-31

    A study was made of the economic impact of high levels of radioactivity in the thorium fuel cycle. The sources of this radioactivity and means of calculating the radioactive levels at various stages in the fuel cycle are discussed and estimates of expected levels are given. The feasibility of various methods of recycling thorium is discussed. These methods include direct recycle, recycle after storage for 14 years to allow radioactivity to decrease, shortening irradiation times to limit radioactivity build up, and the use of the window in time immediately after reprocessing where radioactivity levels are diminished. An economic comparison is made for the first two methods together with the throwaway option where thorium is not recycled using a mass energy flow model developed for a CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor), a fusion-fission hybrid reactor which serves as fuel producer for several PWR reactors.

  18. A hybrid brain-computer interface based on the fusion of electroencephalographic and electromyographic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeb, Robert; Sagha, Hesam; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Millán, José del R.

    2011-04-01

    Hybrid brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are representing a recent approach to develop practical BCIs. In such a system disabled users are able to use all their remaining functionalities as control possibilities in parallel with the BCI. Sometimes these people have residual activity of their muscles. Therefore, in the presented hybrid BCI framework we want to explore the parallel usage of electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity, whereby the control abilities of both channels are fused. Results showed that the participants could achieve a good control of their hybrid BCI independently of their level of muscular fatigue. Thereby the multimodal fusion approach of muscular and brain activity yielded better and more stable performance compared to the single conditions. Even in the case of an increasing muscular fatigue a good control (moderate and graceful degradation of the performance compared to the non-fatigued case) and a smooth handover could be achieved. Therefore, such systems allow the users a very reliable hybrid BCI control although they are getting more and more exhausted or fatigued during the day.

  19. Numerical study of the irradiation uniformity of a directly driven inertial confinement fusion target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temporal, M.; Canaud, B.; Laffite, S.; Le Garrec, B. J.; Murakami, M.

    2010-11-01

    In the Inertial Confinement Fusion the uniformity of the irradiation still represents a crucial issue. In this context a spherical capsule directly driven by laser beams have been assessed numerically [1]. Two schemes characterized by 32 and 48 directions of irradiation [2] with associated a single laser beam or a bundle of laser beams [3] characterized by a super-Gaussian intensity profile are considered. Beam imperfections as power imbalance and pointing errors have been taken into account. It is found that the focal spot that minimizes the rms deviation depends on the beam imperfections [4]. The numerical calculations show that the uniformity of the irradiation evolves in time. The results calculated considering the illumination of a spherical target will be compared with those obtained when the irradiation is taken into account. [1] M. Temporal, B. Canaud. Eur. Phys. J. D 55 139 (2009). [2] M. Murakami, N. Sarukura, H. Azechi, M. Temporal, A.J. Schmitt, in press to Phys. Plasmas (July issue, 2010). [3] M. Temporal, B. Canaud, B. J. Le Garrec, Phys. Plasmas 17 022701 (2010). [4] M. Temporal, B. Canaud, S. Laffite, B.J. Le Garrec, M. Murakami. Phys. Plasmas 17 064504 (2010).

  20. Novel free-form hohlraum shape design and optimization for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao

    2014-10-15

    The hohlraum shape attracts considerable attention because there is no successful ignition method for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility. The available hohlraums are typically designed with simple conic curves, including ellipses, parabolas, arcs, or Lame curves, which allow only a few design parameters for the shape optimization, making it difficult to improve the performance, e.g., the energy coupling efficiency or radiation drive symmetry. A novel free-form hohlraum design and optimization approach based on the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) model is proposed. In the present study, (1) all kinds of hohlraum shapes can be uniformly represented using NURBS, which is greatly beneficial for obtaining the optimal available hohlraum shapes, and (2) such free-form uniform representation enables us to obtain an optimal shape over a large design domain for the hohlraum with a more uniform radiation and higher drive temperature of the fuel capsule. Finally, a hohlraum is optimized and evaluated with respect to the drive temperature and symmetry at the Shenguang III laser facility in China. The drive temperature and symmetry results indicate that such a free-form representation is advantageous over available hohlraum shapes because it can substantially expand the shape design domain so as to obtain an optimal hohlraum with high performance.

  1. Three-dimensional neutronics optimization of helium-cooled blanket for multi-functional experimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FDS-MFX)

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.; Yuan, B.; Jin, M.; Wang, M.; Long, P.; Hu, L.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional neutronics optimization calculations were performed to analyse the parameters of Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) and maximum average Power Density (PDmax) in a helium-cooled multi-functional experimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor named FDS (Fusion-Driven hybrid System)-MFX (Multi-Functional experimental) blanket. Three-stage tests will be carried out successively, in which the tritium breeding blanket, uranium-fueled blanket and spent-fuel-fueled blanket will be utilized respectively. In this contribution, the most significant and main goal of the FDS-MFX blanket is to achieve the PDmax of about 100 MW/m3 with self-sustaining tritium (TBR {>=} 1.05) based on the second-stage test with uranium-fueled blanket to check and validate the demonstrator reactor blanket relevant technologies based on the viable fusion and fission technologies. Four different enriched uranium materials were taken into account to evaluate PDmax in subcritical blanket: (i) natural uranium, (ii) 3.2% enriched uranium, (iii) 19.75% enriched uranium, and (iv) 64.4% enriched uranium carbide. These calculations and analyses were performed using a home-developed code VisualBUS and Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (HENDL). The results showed that the performance of the blanket loaded with 64.4% enriched uranium was the most attractive and it could be promising to effectively obtain tritium self-sufficiency (TBR-1.05) and a high maximum average power density ({approx}100 MW/m{sup 3}) when the blanket was loaded with the mass of {sup 235}U about 1 ton. (authors)

  2. Hierarchical Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Mesostructures by Crystallization-Driven Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Petretic, Amy; Molev, Gregory; Guerin, Gerald; Manners, Ian; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-24

    Multistep crystallization-driven self-assembly has great potential to enable the construction of sophisticated hybrid mesostructures. During the assembly procedure, each step modifies the properties of the overall structure. Here, we demonstrate the flexibility and efficiency of this approach by preparing polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid mesostructures. We started by growing polyferrocenyldimethylsilane (PFS) homopolymer crystals onto multiwalled CNTs. This first step facilitated the redispersion of the coated CNTs in both polar (2-propanol) and nonpolar (decane) solvents. In the second step of hybrid construction, a unimer solution of a PFS block copolymer was added into the PFS-CNT solution. The PFS coating on the CNT initiated the growth of elongated micelles, resulting in structures that resembled hairy caterpillars. PFS-b-P2VP (P2VP = poly-2-vinylpyridine) micelles were grown from the surface of PFS-CNT hybrids in 2-propanol, and PFS-b-PI (PI = polyisoprene) micelles were grown from these hybrids in decane. These micelles, by transmission electron microscopy were seen to have an unusual wavy kinked structure, very different from the uniform smooth structures normally formed by both block copolymers. For hybrids with PFS-b-PI micelles, cross-linking of the micelle coronas locked the whole structure in place and allowed us to use the partial oxidation of PFS components to grow metal nanoparticles in the core of these micelles. We finally investigated the influence of the corona-forming block used to grow the micelles on the wettability of films made from these mesostructures. Films formed with CNT hybrids grafted with PFS-b-PI micelles were superhydrophobic (contact angle, 152°). In contrast, the surface of the films was much more hydrophilic (contact angle, 54°) when they were prepared from CNT hybrids grafted with PFS-b-P2VP micelles.

  3. Hierarchical Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Mesostructures by Crystallization-Driven Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Petretic, Amy; Molev, Gregory; Guerin, Gerald; Manners, Ian; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-24

    Multistep crystallization-driven self-assembly has great potential to enable the construction of sophisticated hybrid mesostructures. During the assembly procedure, each step modifies the properties of the overall structure. Here, we demonstrate the flexibility and efficiency of this approach by preparing polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid mesostructures. We started by growing polyferrocenyldimethylsilane (PFS) homopolymer crystals onto multiwalled CNTs. This first step facilitated the redispersion of the coated CNTs in both polar (2-propanol) and nonpolar (decane) solvents. In the second step of hybrid construction, a unimer solution of a PFS block copolymer was added into the PFS-CNT solution. The PFS coating on the CNT initiated the growth of elongated micelles, resulting in structures that resembled hairy caterpillars. PFS-b-P2VP (P2VP = poly-2-vinylpyridine) micelles were grown from the surface of PFS-CNT hybrids in 2-propanol, and PFS-b-PI (PI = polyisoprene) micelles were grown from these hybrids in decane. These micelles, by transmission electron microscopy were seen to have an unusual wavy kinked structure, very different from the uniform smooth structures normally formed by both block copolymers. For hybrids with PFS-b-PI micelles, cross-linking of the micelle coronas locked the whole structure in place and allowed us to use the partial oxidation of PFS components to grow metal nanoparticles in the core of these micelles. We finally investigated the influence of the corona-forming block used to grow the micelles on the wettability of films made from these mesostructures. Films formed with CNT hybrids grafted with PFS-b-PI micelles were superhydrophobic (contact angle, 152°). In contrast, the surface of the films was much more hydrophilic (contact angle, 54°) when they were prepared from CNT hybrids grafted with PFS-b-P2VP micelles. PMID:26418346

  4. Pulsed-Power-Driven High Energy Density Physics and Inertial Confinement Fusion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzen, M. Keith

    2004-11-01

    There continues to be dramatic progress in applying pulsed-power drivers to research in High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories delivers 20-MA load currents to create high magnetic fields (> 1000 T) and pressures (Mbar to Gbar). In a z-pinch configuration, the magnetic pressure (Lorentz Force) supersonically implodes a plasma created from a cylindrical wire array, which at stagnation generates a plasma with energy densities of 10 MJ/cm^3 and temperatures exceeding 1 keV at 0.1% of solid density. These HED plasmas produce x-ray energies approaching 2 MJ at powers greater than 200 TW for ICF, radiation hydrodynamics, radiation-material interactions, Inertial Fusion Energy, astrophysics, and opacity experiments. In an alternate configuration, the large magnetic pressure is used to directly drive Isentropic Compression Experiments (ICE) to pressures greater than 3 Mbar and accelerate flyer plates to 27 km/s for equation of state (EOS) experiments at pressures up to 10 Mbar in Al. The challenge to model these complex geometric configurations over multiple orders of magnitude in spatial scale, temperatures, densities, and radiation fluxes is daunting. Nevertheless, development of multi-dimensional radiation-MHD codes (e.g. ALEGRA) coupled with more accurate material models (e.g. quantum molecular dynamics calculations within density functional theory) has resulted in a productive synergy between validating the simulations and guiding the experiments. The Z facility is now routinely used to drive ICF capsules (focusing on implosion symmetry and neutron production) and several different HEDP experiments (including radiation-driven hydrodynamic jets; material EOS, phase transitions, and strength; and the detailed behavior of z-pinch wire array initiation and implosion). This research is performed in collaboration with many other groups from around the world. A $60M, five-year project to enhance

  5. Lipid mixing and content release in single-vesicle, SNARE-driven fusion assay with 1-5 ms resolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Smith, Elizabeth A; Chapman, Edwin R; Weisshaar, James C

    2009-05-20

    A single-vesicle, fluorescence-based, SNARE-driven fusion assay enables simultaneous measurement of lipid mixing and content release with 5 ms/frame, or even 1 ms/frame, time resolution. The v-SNARE vesicles, labeled with lipid and content markers of different color, dock and fuse with a planar t-SNARE bilayer supported on glass. A narrow (<5 ms duration), intense spike of calcein fluorescence due to content release and dequenching coincides with inner-leaflet lipid mixing within 10 ms. The spike provides more sensitive detection of productive hemifusion events than do lipid labels alone. Consequently, many fast events previously thought to be prompt, full fusion events are now reclassified as productive hemifusion. Both full fusion and hemifusion occur with a time constant of 5-10 ms. At 60% phosphatidylethanolamine lipid composition, productive and dead-end hemifusion account for 65% of all fusion events. However, quantitative analysis shows that calcein is released into the space above the bilayer (vesicle bursting), rather than the thin aqueous space between the bilayer and glass. Evidently, at the instant of inner-leaflet mixing, flattening of the vesicle increases the internal pressure beyond the bursting point. This may be related to in vivo observations suggesting that membrane lysis often competes with membrane fusion.

  6. Interference patterns in the Spacelab 2 plasma wave data: Lower hybrid waves driven by pickup ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Wei; Gurnett, Donald A.; Cairns, Iver H.

    1993-01-01

    During the Spacelab 2 mission the University of Iowa's Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) was released from the shuttle to explore the plasma environment around the shuttle. Wideband spectrograms were obtained from the PDP at frequencies from 0 to 30 kHz and distances up to 400 m from the shuttle. The wideband data frequently showed antenna interference patterns when the PDP was on the downstream side of the shuttle. Analysis of these interference patterns allows a determination of the wavelength, the plasma rest frame frequency, the direction of propagation, the power spectrum, and in some cases the location of the source. We concentrate our analysis on interference patterns due to lower hybrid waves: waves which have rest frame frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency and propagate perpendicular to the magnetic field. The waves have an almost flat dispersion relation with frequencies just above the lower hybrid frequency and relatively short wavelengths (1 - 4 m). The observed lower hybrid waves depend strongly on the position of the PDP relative to the shuttle and the magnetic field direction. Our results confirm previous suggestions that the lower hybrid waves are generated primarily in the vicinity of the shuttle and that they are driven by a charge exchange interaction between the ambient ionosphere and a H2O cloud around the shuttle.

  7. The Radiological and Thermal Characteristics of Fission Waste from a Deep-Burn Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LIFE) and Implications for Repository Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, H F; Blink, J; Farmer, J; Latkowski, J; Kramer, K

    2009-09-08

    We are studying the use of a Laser Inertial-confinement Fusion Engine (LIFE) to drive a hybrid fusion-fission system that can generate electrical power and/or burn nuclear waste. The system uses the neutrons from laser driven ICF to produce tritium and to drive nuclear reactions in a subcritical fission blanket. The fusion neutron source obviates the need for a self-sustaining chain reaction in the fission blanket. Either fissile or fertile could be used as fission fuel, thus eliminating the need for isotopic enrichment. The 'driven' system potentially allows very high levels of burnup to be reached, extracting a large fraction of the available energy in the fission fuel without the need for reprocessing. In this note, we discuss the radionuclide inventory of a depleted uranium (DU) fuel burned to greater than 95% FIMA (Fissions per Initial heavy Metal Atom), the implications for thermal management of the resulting waste, and the implications of this waste for meeting the dose standards for releases from a geological repository for high-level waste. The fission waste discussed here would be that produced by a LIFE hybrid with a 500-MW fusion source. The fusion neutrons are multiplied and moderated by a sequence of concentric shells of materials before encountering the fission fuel, and fission in this region is largely due to thermal neutrons. The fission blanket consists of 40 metric tons (MT) of DU, assumed to be in the form of TRISO-like UOC fuel particles embedded in 2-cm-diameter graphite pebbles. (It is recognized that TRISO-based fuel may not reach the high burnup of the fertile fuel considered here, and other fuel options are being investigated. We postulate the existence of a fuel that can reach >95% FIMA so that the waste disposal implications of high burnup can be assessed.) The engine and plant design considered here would receive one load of fission fuel and produce {approx}2 GWt of power (fusion + fission) over its 50- to 70-year lifetime. Neutron and

  8. Fast ion motion in the plasma part of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Kasilov, S. V.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments of a stellarator-mirror (SM) fission-fusion hybrid concept are reviewed. The hybrid consists of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror is used. The stellarator confines deuterium plasma with moderate temperature, 1-2 keV. In the magnetic mirror, a hot component of sloshing tritium ions is trapped. There, the fusion neutrons are generated. A candidate for a combined SM system is a DRACON magnetic trap. A basic idea behind an SM device is to maintain local neutron production in a mirror part, but at the same time eliminate the end losses by using a toroidal device. A possible drawback is that the stellarator part can introduce collision-free radial drift losses, which is the main topic for this study. For high energy ions of tritium with an energy of 70 keV, comparative computations of collisionless losses in the rectilinear part of a specific design of the DRACON type trap are carried out. Two versions of the trap are considered with different lengths of the rectilinear sections. Also the total number of current-carrying rings in the magnetic system is varied. The results predict that high energy ions from neutral beam injection can be satisfactorily confined in the mirror part during 0.1-1 s. The Uragan-2M experimental device is used to check key points of the SM concept. The magnetic configuration of a stellarator with an embedded magnetic mirror is arranged in this device by switching off one toroidal coil. The motion of particles magnetically trapped in the embedded mirror is analyzed numerically with use of motional invariants. It is found that without radial electric field particles quickly drift out of the SM, even if the particles initially are located on a nested magnetic surface. We will show that a weak radial electric field, which

  9. Fast ion motion in the plasma part of a stellarator-mirror fission–fusion hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Kasilov, S. V.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments of a stellarator-mirror (SM) fission–fusion hybrid concept are reviewed. The hybrid consists of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror is used. The stellarator confines deuterium plasma with moderate temperature, 1–2 keV. In the magnetic mirror, a hot component of sloshing tritium ions is trapped. There, the fusion neutrons are generated. A candidate for a combined SM system is a DRACON magnetic trap. A basic idea behind an SM device is to maintain local neutron production in a mirror part, but at the same time eliminate the end losses by using a toroidal device. A possible drawback is that the stellarator part can introduce collision-free radial drift losses, which is the main topic for this study. For high energy ions of tritium with an energy of 70 keV, comparative computations of collisionless losses in the rectilinear part of a specific design of the DRACON type trap are carried out. Two versions of the trap are considered with different lengths of the rectilinear sections. Also the total number of current-carrying rings in the magnetic system is varied. The results predict that high energy ions from neutral beam injection can be satisfactorily confined in the mirror part during 0.1–1 s. The Uragan-2M experimental device is used to check key points of the SM concept. The magnetic configuration of a stellarator with an embedded magnetic mirror is arranged in this device by switching off one toroidal coil. The motion of particles magnetically trapped in the embedded mirror is analyzed numerically with use of motional invariants. It is found that without radial electric field particles quickly drift out of the SM, even if the particles initially are located on a nested magnetic surface. We will show that a weak radial electric field

  10. 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Ford Fusion HEV (VIN: 3FADP0L34AR144757). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Hybrid neural-based decision level fusion architecture: application to road traffic collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Kurosh; Chebira, Abdennasser; Bouchefra, Kamel; Maurin, Thierry; Reynaud, Roger

    1998-02-01

    A hybrid decision level architecture for a road collision risks avoidance system is presented. The goal of the decision level is to classify the behavior of the vehicles observed by a smart system or vehicle. The knowledge of vehicle behavior enables the best management of the smart system resources. The association of a model to each observed vehicle mainly enables the limitation of inference and of the set of actions to be activated; thus the interactions between system levels can be more intelligent. The decision level of this architecture is composed of a neural classifier, which is associated to a numerical classifier. Each of these classifiers provides decisions that are expressed within the framework of fuzzy theory. An optimal fusion policy is reached using the functional neural network tool.

  12. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle analysis of the SABR fusion-fission hybrid transmutation reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Chris; Stacey, Weston; Petrovic, Bojan

    2009-11-01

    Various fuel cycles have been designed and analyzed for the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR). SABR is a sodium cooled fast reactor fueled with transuranics (TRU) from spent fuel of light water reactors and driven by a tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. SABR employs a four batch fuel cycle using an out-to-in shuffling pattern, with the fuel being reprocessed at the end of each cycle. The reprocessing method assumes recovery rates of 99.9% of the actinides and 0.1% of the fission products remain in the recycled fuel. The reprocessing fuel cycles were analyzed to find an optimal cycle length in terms of burn up, power distribution, and materials limitations. Fuel cycles are analyzed using CEA's ERANOS2.0 code, with fuel residence times limited by radiation damage at 100, 150 and 200 dpa.

  14. Toroidal rotation of multiple species of ions in tokamak plasma driven by lower-hybrid-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Yang; Wang, Shaojie; Pan, Chengkang

    2012-10-01

    A numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the toroidal rotation of multiple species of ions and the radial electric field in a tokamak plasma driven by the lower-hybrid-wave (LHW). The theoretical model is based on the neoclassical transport theory associated with the anomalous transport model. Three species of ions (primary ion and two species of impurity ions) are taken into consideration. The predicted toroidal velocity of the trace impurities during the LHW injection agrees reasonably well with the experimental observation. It is shown that the toroidal rotation velocities of the trace impurity ions and the primary ions are close, therefore the trace impurity ions are representative of the primary ions in the toroidal rotation driven by the LHW.

  15. Toroidal rotation of multiple species of ions in tokamak plasma driven by lower-hybrid-waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo Yang; Wang Shaojie; Pan Chengkang

    2012-10-15

    A numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the toroidal rotation of multiple species of ions and the radial electric field in a tokamak plasma driven by the lower-hybrid-wave (LHW). The theoretical model is based on the neoclassical transport theory associated with the anomalous transport model. Three species of ions (primary ion and two species of impurity ions) are taken into consideration. The predicted toroidal velocity of the trace impurities during the LHW injection agrees reasonably well with the experimental observation. It is shown that the toroidal rotation velocities of the trace impurity ions and the primary ions are close, therefore the trace impurity ions are representative of the primary ions in the toroidal rotation driven by the LHW.

  16. The ion-ion hybrid Alfvén resonator in a fusion environment

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.

    2014-06-01

    An investigation is made of a shear Alfvén wave resonator for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. For small perpendicular scale-lengths the shear mode, which propagates predominantly along the magnetic field direction, experiences a parallel reflection where the wave frequency matches the local ion-ion hybrid frequency. In a tokamak device operating with a deuterium–tritium fuel, this effect can form a natural resonator because of the variation in local field strength along a field line. The relevant kinetic dispersion relation is examined to determine the relative importance of Landau and cyclotron damping over the possible resonator parameter space. A WKB model based on the kinetic dispersion relation is used to determine the eigenfrequencies and the quality factors of modes trapped in the resonator. The lowest frequency found has a value slightly larger than the ion-ion hybrid frequency at the outboard side of a given flux surface. The possibility that the resonator modes can be driven unstable by energetic alpha particles is considered. It is found that within a bandwidth of roughly 600 kHz above the ion-ion hybrid frequency on the outboard side of the flux surface, the shear modes can experience significant spatial amplification. An assessment is made of the form of an approximate global eigenmode that possesses the features of a resonator. It is identified that magnetic field shear combined with large ion temperature can cause coupling to an ion-Bernstein wave, which can limit the instability.

  17. The ion-ion hybrid Alfvén resonator in a fusion environment

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.

    2014-06-15

    An investigation is made of a shear Alfvén wave resonator for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. For small perpendicular scale-lengths the shear mode, which propagates predominantly along the magnetic field direction, experiences a parallel reflection where the wave frequency matches the local ion-ion hybrid frequency. In a tokamak device operating with a deuterium–tritium fuel, this effect can form a natural resonator because of the variation in local field strength along a field line. The relevant kinetic dispersion relation is examined to determine the relative importance of Landau and cyclotron damping over the possible resonator parameter space. A WKB model based on the kinetic dispersion relation is used to determine the eigenfrequencies and the quality factors of modes trapped in the resonator. The lowest frequency found has a value slightly larger than the ion-ion hybrid frequency at the outboard side of a given flux surface. The possibility that the resonator modes can be driven unstable by energetic alpha particles is considered. It is found that within a bandwidth of roughly 600 kHz above the ion-ion hybrid frequency on the outboard side of the flux surface, the shear modes can experience significant spatial amplification. An assessment is made of the form of an approximate global eigenmode that possesses the features of a resonator. It is identified that magnetic field shear combined with large ion temperature can cause coupling to an ion-Bernstein wave, which can limit the instability.

  18. Experimental verification of beta-decay-driven sublimation in deuterium-tritium ice held in spherical fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Mruzek, M.T.; Musinski, D.L.; Ankney, J.S.

    1988-04-01

    A nonuniform layer of deuterium-tritium (DT) ice inside a spherical inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target held in an isothermal cryogenic environment should be driven toward uniformity by the beta-decay heat of the tritium. Experiments have been performed at KMS fusion to verify this hypothesis. Two major conclusions may be drawn from the initial results: (1) the beta decay of the tritium does deposit energy in the target, as evidenced by melting of DT ice when the target is well insulated from its surroundings, and (2) solid layers of DT ice sublime because of beta-decay heat. Both conclusions are reinforced by companion studies with nonradioactive hydrogen-deuterium (HD) ice in similar targets held under similar experimental conditions.

  19. A fission-fusion hybrid reactor in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with natural uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Mark; Parker, Ronald R.; Forget, Benoit

    2012-06-19

    This work develops a conceptual design for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor operating in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with a subcritical natural or depleted uranium pebble bed blanket. A liquid lithium-lead alloy breeds enough tritium to replenish that consumed by the D-T fusion reaction. The fission blanket augments the fusion power such that the fusion core itself need not have a high power gain, thus allowing for fully non-inductive (steady-state) low confinement mode (L-mode) operation at relatively small physical dimensions. A neutron transport Monte Carlo code models the natural uranium fission blanket. Maximizing the fission power gain while breeding sufficient tritium allows for the selection of an optimal set of blanket parameters, which yields a maximum prudent fission power gain of approximately 7. A 0-D tokamak model suffices to analyze approximate tokamak operating conditions. This fission blanket would allow the fusion component of a hybrid reactor with the same dimensions as ITER to operate in steady-state L-mode very comfortably with a fusion power gain of 6.7 and a thermal fusion power of 2.1 GW. Taking this further can determine the approximate minimum scale for a steady-state L-mode tokamak hybrid reactor, which is a major radius of 5.2 m and an aspect ratio of 2.8. This minimum scale device operates barely within the steady-state L-mode realm with a thermal fusion power of 1.7 GW. Basic thermal hydraulic analysis demonstrates that pressurized helium could cool the pebble bed fission blanket with a flow rate below 10 m/s. The Brayton cycle thermal efficiency is 41%. This reactor, dubbed the Steady-state L-mode non-Enriched Uranium Tokamak Hybrid (SLEUTH), with its very fast neutron spectrum, could be superior to pure fission reactors in terms of breeding fissile fuel and transmuting deleterious fission products. It would likely function best as a prolific plutonium breeder, and the plutonium it produces could actually be more

  20. Feasibility of recycling thorium in a fusion-fission hybrid/PWR symbiotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Josephs, J.M.

    1980-12-31

    A study was made of the economic impact of high levels of radioactivity in the thorium fuel cycle. The sources of this radioactivity and means of calculating the radioactive levels at various stages in the fuel cycle are discussed and estimates of expected levels are given. The feasibility of various methods of recycling thorium is discussed. These methods include direct recycle, recycle after storage for 14 years to allow radioactivity to decrease, shortening irradiation times to limit radioactivity build up, and the use of the window in time immediately after reprocessing where radioactivity levels are diminished. An economic comparison is made for the first two methods together with the throwaway option where thorium is not recycled using a mass energy flow model developed for a CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor), a fusion fission hybrid reactor which serves as fuel producer for several PWR reactors. The storage option is found to be most favorable; however, even this option represents a significant economic impact due to radioactivity of 0.074 mills/kW-h which amounts to $4 x 10/sup 9/ over a 30 year period assuming a 200 gigawatt supply of electrical power.

  1. Hybrid Modeling of Plasmas and Applications to Fusion and Space Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeminejad, Farzad

    Since the early days of controlled fusion research, plasma physicists have encountered great challenges in obtaining solutions to the highly nonlinear equations which govern the behavior of fusion plasmas; with the growth of other applications of plasma physics (space plasmas, plasma accelerators, ... etc.) these problems have grown in importance. Obtaining reasonable solutions to the nonlinear equations is crucial to our understanding of the behavior of plasmas. With the advent of high speed computers, computer modeling of plasmas has moved into the front row of the tools used in research of their nonlinear plasma dynamics. There are roughly speaking two types of plasma models, particle models and fluid models. Particle models try to emulate nature by following the motion of a large number of charged particles in their self consistent electromagnetic fields. Fluid models on the other hand use macroscopic fluid equations to model the plasma. MHD models are typical of this type. Particle models in general require larger memory for the computer due to the massive amounts of data associated with the particles' kinematical variables. Particle models are generally limited to studying small regions of plasma for relatively short time intervals. Fluid models are better fit to handle large scales and long times; i.e., quite often the complete plasma involved in an experiment. The drawback of the fluid models however is that, they miss the physical phenomenon taking place at the microscale and these phenomenon can influence the properties of fluid; i.e., its resistivity, viscosity, heat transport, etc. One can attempt to put these effects in as phenomenological coefficients, but such approaches are always somewhat ad hoc. Another approach is to start with fluid models and incorporate more physics. Such models are referred to as hybrid models. In this thesis, two such models are discussed. They are then applied to two problems; the first is a simulation of the artificial

  2. A New Interpretation of Alpha-particle-driven Instabilities in Deuterium-Tritium Experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    R. Nazikian; G.J. Kramer; C.Z. Cheng; N.N. Gorelenkov; H.L. Berk; S.E. Sharapov

    2003-03-26

    The original description of alpha-particle-driven instabilities in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in terms of Toroidal Alfvin Eigenmodes (TAEs) remained inconsistent with three fundamental characteristics of the observations: (i) the variation of the mode frequency with toroidal mode number, (ii) the chirping of the mode frequency for a given toroidal mode number, and (iii) the anti-ballooning density perturbation of the modes. It is now shown that these characteristics can be explained by observing that cylindrical-like modes can exist in the weak magnetic shear region of the plasma that then make a transition to TAEs as the central safety factor decreases in time.

  3. Physics Issues of Heavy-Ion-Beam-Driven Inertial Confinement Fusion*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celata, Christine

    2003-04-01

    The heavy ion fusion concept envisions using of the order of a hundred intense few-GeV ion beams to implode an inertial fusion target, in order to produce commercial electricity using nuclear fusion reactions. The current density of the beams is high enough that each beam is a nonneutral plasma, with dynamics dominated by space charge. The stability, wave phenomena, and nonlinear dynamics of such a system then determine whether beam quality can be preserved through the length of the accelerator and final focus, so that an adequate focus on target occurs. Five experiments are currently exploring the physics of the transport, neutralization, and focusing of these intense heavy ion beams. The targets for heavy ion fusion build upon the work done for indirect drive, laser targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Many of the fundamental target physics issues for heavy ion targets will be addressed on NIF. Using these targets for a power plant adds additional issues, including heavy ion beam/target interactions, the interface with the fusion chamber, and mass-production of targets. In this paper the physics issues for heavy ion fusion will be discussed, and results from both the experimental program and an extensive simulation program will be shown.

  4. Data-driven aggregative schemes for multisource estimation fusion: a road travel time application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Faouzi, Nour-Eddin

    2004-04-01

    The principal motivation for combining estimators has been to avoid the a priori choice of which estimation method to use, by attempting to aggregate all the information which each estimation model embodies. In selecting the "best" model, one is often discarding useful independent evidence in those models which are rejected. This paper deals with estimation fusion; that is, data fusion for the purpose of estimation. More specifically, estimation fusion is studied under heterogeneous data source configurations. Two estimation fusion schemes could be considered: projective and aggregative. An unified linear model and general framework for later schemes are established. Explicit optimal fusion strategies in the sense of the best linear estimation and weighted least squares are presented. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed schemes was conducted on the traffic application, namely, travel time estimation in a given path of a road network. In this problem, data comes from sensors and other sources of information geographically distributed where communication limitations and other considerations often eliminate the possibility of transmitting the observations into a central node processing where computation is performed.

  5. Particle-in-cell simulations of the excitation mechanism for fusion-product-driven ion cyclotron emission from tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, Richard; Cook, James; Chapman, Sandra

    2009-11-01

    Suprathermal ion cyclotron emission (ICE) was the first collective radiative instability, driven by fusion products, observed on JET and TFTR. Strong emission occurs at sequential cyclotron harmonics of the energetic ion population at the outer mid-plane. Its intensity scales linearly with fusion reactivity, including its time evolution during a discharge. The emission mechanism is probably the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI), involving resonance between: fast Alfv'en waves; cyclotron harmonic waves supported by the energetic particle population and by the background thermal plasma; and a subset of the centrally born fusion products, just inside the trapped-passing boundary, whose drift orbits make large radial excursions. The linear growth rate of the MCI has been intensively studied analytically, and yields good agreement with several key observational features of ICE. To address outstanding issues in the nonlinear ICE regime, we have developed a particle-in-cell code which self-consistently evolves electron and multi-species ion macroparticles and the electromagnetic field. We focus on the growth rate of the MCI, as it evolves from the linear into the nonlinear regime for JET-like parameters.

  6. Hybrid Surgery Versus Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in Multilevel Cervical Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Meng, Fanxin; Ding, Yan; Li, Jie; Han, Jian; Zhang, Xintao; Dong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the outcomes and reliability of hybrid surgery (HS) versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylosis and disc diseases. Hybrid surgery, combining cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) with fusion, is a novel treatment to multilevel cervical degenerated disc disease in recent years. However, the effect and reliability of HS are still unclear compared with ACDF. To investigate the studies of HS versus ACDF in patients with multilevel cervical disease, electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched. Studies were included when they compared HS with ACDF and reported at least one of the following outcomes: functionality, neck pain, arm pain, cervical range of motion (ROM), quality of life, and incidence of complications. No language restrictions were used. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies and extracted the relevant data. Seven clinical controlled trials were included in this study. Two trials were prospective and the other 5 were retrospective. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that HS achieved better recovery of NDI score (P = 0.038) and similar recovery of VAS score (P = 0.058) compared with ACDF at 2 years follow-up. Moreover, the total cervical ROM (C2–C7) after HS was preserved significantly more than the cervical ROM after ACDF (P = 0.000) at 2 years follow-up. Notably, the compensatory increase of the ROM of superior and inferior adjacent segments was significant in ACDF groups at 2-year follow-up (P < 0.01), compared with HS. The results demonstrate that HS provides equivalent outcomes and functional recovery for cervical disc diseases, and significantly better preservation of cervical ROM compared with ACDF in 2-year follow-up. This suggests the HS is an effective alternative invention for the treatment of multilevel cervical

  7. One-stage débridement and knee fusion for infected total knee arthroplasty using the hybrid frame.

    PubMed

    VanRyn, Jacques S; Verebelyi, David M

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998, a hybrid fixator was used for a one-step arthrodesis in 2 cases of infected total knee arthroplasty. One patient had rheumatoid arthritis, and the other had an infected reimplant arthroplasty. Neither patient was a candidate for reimplantation. Fusions were achieved with the hybrid frame in an average of 10 weeks. All signs of local and systemic infections were eliminated. After 24 months for patient 1 and 37 months for patient 2, both are infection-free and ambulatory without the aid of a wheelchair. PMID:11805940

  8. Generation of Mie size microdroplet aerosols with applications in laser-driven fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, A P; Semonin, O; Bruce, S; Chan, C; Maindi, M; Donnelly, T D; Maurer, M; Bang, W; Churina, I; Osterholz, J; Kim, I; Bernstein, A C; Ditmire, T

    2009-06-01

    We have developed a tunable source of Mie scale microdroplet aerosols that can be used for the generation of energetic ions. To demonstrate this potential, a terawatt Ti:Al2O3 laser focused to 2 x 10(19) W/cm2 was used to irradiate heavy water (D2O) aerosols composed of micron-scale droplets. Energetic deuterium ions, which were generated in the laser-droplet interaction, produced deuterium-deuterium fusion with approximately 2 x 10(3) fusion neutrons measured per joule of incident laser energy. PMID:19566203

  9. Automatic Mesh Adaptivity for Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Neutronics Modeling of Fusion Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Wilson, P.; Sawan, M.; Mosher, Scott W; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to facilitate and expedite the use of the CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques in accurate full-scale neutronics simulations of fusion energy systems with immense sizes and complicated geometries. First, a macromaterial approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm decouples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility and resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation. Additionally, because of the significant increase in the efficiency of FW-CADIS simulations, the three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved on a regular computer cluster, eliminating the need for a world-class super computer.

  10. Fast surrogate-assisted simulation-driven optimization of compact microwave hybrid couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgan, Piotr; Koziel, Slawomir

    2016-07-01

    This work presents a robust methodology for expedited simulation-driven design optimization of compact microwave hybrid couplers. The technique relies on problem decomposition, and a bottom-up design strategy, starting from the level of basic building blocks of the coupler, and finishing with a tuning procedure that exploits a fast surrogate model of the entire structure. The latter is constructed by cascading local response surface approximations of coupler elementary elements. The cross-coupling effects within the structure are neglected in the first stage of the design process; however, they are accounted for in the tuning phase by means of space-mapping correction of the surrogate. The proposed approach is demonstrated through the design of a compact rat-race and two branch-line couplers. In all cases, the computational cost of the optimization process is very low and corresponds to just a few high-fidelity electromagnetic simulations of respective structures. Experimental validation is also provided.

  11. Nanoporous-Gold-Based Hybrid Cantilevered Actuator Dealloyed and Driven by A Modified Rotary Triboelectric Nanogenerator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuequan; Liu, Mengmeng; Huang, Baisheng; Liu, Hong; Hu, Weiguo; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    We firstly designed an electrochemical system for dealloying to synthesize nanoporous gold (NPG) and also driving the novel NPG based actuator by utilizing a modified rotary triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Compared to the previous reported TENG whose outputs decline due to temperature rising resulting from electrodes friction, the modified TENG with a cooling system has stable output current and voltage increased by 14% and 20%, respectively. The novel cantilevered hybrid actuator characterised by light-weight (ca. 3 mg) and small volume (ca. 30 mm × 2 mm × 10 μm) is driven by a microcontroller modulated TENG with the displacement of 2.2 mm, which is about 106 times larger than that of traditional cantilever using planar surfaces. The energy conversion efficiencies defined as the energy consumed during dealloying and actuation compared with the output of TENG are 47% and 56.7%, respectively. PMID:27063987

  12. Full wave effects on the lower hybrid wave spectrum and driven current profile in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraiwa, S.; Ko, J.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R.; Schmidt, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J.; Ma, Y.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Wallace, G.; Wolfe, S. M.; C-Mod Group, Alcator; Scott, S.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-08-15

    A numerical modeling of current profile modification by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) using a fullwave/Fokker-Planck simulation code is presented. A MHD stable LHCD discharge on Alcator C-Mod was analyzed, and the current profile from full wave simulations was found to show better agreement with the experiment than a ray-tracing code. Comparison of full wave and ray-tracing simulation shows that, although ray-tracing can reproduce the stochastic wave spectrum broadening, the full wave calculation predicts even wider spectrum broadening, and the wave spectrum fills all of the kinematically allowed domain. This is the first demonstration of LHCD current profile modeling using a full wave simulation code in a multi-pass absorption regime, showing the clear impact of full wave effects on the LHCD driven current profile.

  13. A new hybrid scheme for simulations of highly collisional RF-driven plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Denis; Hemke, Torben; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This work describes a new 1D hybrid approach for modeling atmospheric pressure discharges featuring complex chemistry. In this approach electrons are described fully kinetically using particle-in-cell/Monte-Carlo (PIC/MCC) scheme, whereas the heavy species are modeled within a fluid description. Validity of the popular drift-diffusion approximation is verified against a ‘full’ fluid model accounting for the ion inertia and a fully kinetic PIC/MCC code for ions as well as electrons. The fluid models require knowledge of the momentum exchange frequency and dependence of the ion mobilities on the electric field when the ions are in equilibrium with the latter. To this end an auxiliary Monte-Carlo scheme is constructed. It is demonstrated that the drift-diffusion approximation can overestimate ion transport in simulations of RF-driven discharges with heavy ion species operated in the γ mode at the atmospheric pressure or in all discharge simulations for lower pressures. This can lead to exaggerated plasma densities and incorrect profiles provided by the drift-diffusion models. Therefore, the hybrid code version featuring the full ion fluid model should be favored against the more popular drift-diffusion model, noting that the suggested numerical scheme for the former model implies only a small additional computational cost.

  14. Dynamic modeling and motion simulation for a winged hybrid-driven underwater glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-Xin; Sun, Xiu-Jun; Wang, Yan-Hui; Wu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2011-03-01

    PETREL, a winged hybrid-driven underwater glider is a novel and practical marine survey platform which combines the features of legacy underwater glider and conventional AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle). It can be treated as a multi-rigid-body system with a floating base and a particular hydrodynamic profile. In this paper, theorems on linear and angular momentum are used to establish the dynamic equations of motion of each rigid body and the effect of translational and rotational motion of internal masses on the attitude control are taken into consideration. In addition, due to the unique external shape with fixed wings and deflectable rudders and the dual-drive operation in thrust and glide modes, the approaches of building dynamic model of conventional AUV and hydrodynamic model of submarine are introduced, and the tailored dynamic equations of the hybrid glider are formulated. Moreover, the behaviors of motion in glide and thrust operation are analyzed based on the simulation and the feasibility of the dynamic model is validated by data from lake field trials.

  15. A HYBRID MAGNETICALLY/THERMALLY DRIVEN WIND IN THE BLACK HOLE GRO J1655-40?

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Joseph; Homan, Jeroen

    2012-05-01

    During its 2005 outburst, GRO J1655-40 was observed twice with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer; the second observation revealed a spectrum rich with ionized absorption lines from elements ranging from O to Ni, indicative of an outflow too dense and too ionized to be driven by radiation or thermal pressure. To date, this spectrum is the only definitive evidence of an ionized wind driven off the accretion disk by magnetic processes in a black hole X-ray binary. Here we present our detailed spectral analysis of the first Chandra observation, nearly three weeks earlier, in which the only signature of the wind is the Fe XXVI absorption line. Comparing the broadband X-ray spectra via photoionization models, we argue that the differences in the Chandra spectra cannot possibly be explained by the changes in the ionizing spectrum, which implies that the properties of the wind cannot be constant throughout the outburst. We explore physical scenarios for the changes in the wind, which we suggest may begin as a hybrid MHD/thermal wind, but evolves over the course of weeks into two distinct outflows with different properties. We discuss the implications of our results for the links between the state of the accretion flow and the presence of transient disk winds.

  16. FusionArc optimization: A hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Matuszak, Martha M.; McShan, Daniel L.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Steers, Jennifer M.; Long, Troy; Edwin Romeijn, H.; Fraass, Benedick A.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To introduce a hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy/intensity modulated radiation therapy (VMAT/IMRT) optimization strategy called FusionArc that combines the delivery efficiency of single-arc VMAT with the potentially desirable intensity modulation possible with IMRT.Methods: A beamlet-based inverse planning system was enhanced to combine the advantages of VMAT and IMRT into one comprehensive technique. In the hybrid strategy, baseline single-arc VMAT plans are optimized and then the current cost function gradients with respect to the beamlets are used to define a metric for predicting which beam angles would benefit from further intensity modulation. Beams with the highest metric values (called the gradient factor) are converted from VMAT apertures to IMRT fluence, and the optimization proceeds with the mixed variable set until convergence or until additional beams are selected for conversion. One phantom and two clinical cases were used to validate the gradient factor and characterize the FusionArc strategy. Comparisons were made between standard IMRT, single-arc VMAT, and FusionArc plans with one to five IMRT/hybrid beams.Results: The gradient factor was found to be highly predictive of the VMAT angles that would benefit plan quality the most from beam modulation. Over the three cases studied, a FusionArc plan with three converted beams achieved superior dosimetric quality with reductions in final cost ranging from 26.4% to 48.1% compared to single-arc VMAT. Additionally, the three beam FusionArc plans required 22.4%-43.7% fewer MU/Gy than a seven beam IMRT plan. While the FusionArc plans with five converted beams offer larger reductions in final cost-32.9%-55.2% compared to single-arc VMAT-the decrease in MU/Gy compared to IMRT was noticeably smaller at 12.2%-18.5%, when compared to IMRT.Conclusions: A hybrid VMAT/IMRT strategy was implemented to find a high quality compromise between gantry-angle and intensity-based degrees of freedom. This

  17. FusionArc optimization: A hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning strategy

    PubMed Central

    Matuszak, Martha M.; Steers, Jennifer M.; Long, Troy; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Edwin Romeijn, H.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy/intensity modulated radiation therapy (VMAT/IMRT) optimization strategy called FusionArc that combines the delivery efficiency of single-arc VMAT with the potentially desirable intensity modulation possible with IMRT. Methods: A beamlet-based inverse planning system was enhanced to combine the advantages of VMAT and IMRT into one comprehensive technique. In the hybrid strategy, baseline single-arc VMAT plans are optimized and then the current cost function gradients with respect to the beamlets are used to define a metric for predicting which beam angles would benefit from further intensity modulation. Beams with the highest metric values (called the gradient factor) are converted from VMAT apertures to IMRT fluence, and the optimization proceeds with the mixed variable set until convergence or until additional beams are selected for conversion. One phantom and two clinical cases were used to validate the gradient factor and characterize the FusionArc strategy. Comparisons were made between standard IMRT, single-arc VMAT, and FusionArc plans with one to five IMRT/hybrid beams. Results: The gradient factor was found to be highly predictive of the VMAT angles that would benefit plan quality the most from beam modulation. Over the three cases studied, a FusionArc plan with three converted beams achieved superior dosimetric quality with reductions in final cost ranging from 26.4% to 48.1% compared to single-arc VMAT. Additionally, the three beam FusionArc plans required 22.4%–43.7% fewer MU/Gy than a seven beam IMRT plan. While the FusionArc plans with five converted beams offer larger reductions in final cost—32.9%–55.2% compared to single-arc VMAT—the decrease in MU/Gy compared to IMRT was noticeably smaller at 12.2%–18.5%, when compared to IMRT. Conclusions: A hybrid VMAT/IMRT strategy was implemented to find a high quality compromise between gantry-angle and intensity-based degrees of freedom

  18. NIMROD: A Customer Focused, Team Driven Approach for Fusion Code Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karandikar, H. M.; Schnack, D. D.

    1996-11-01

    NIMROD is a new code that will be used for the analysis of existing fusion experiments, prediction of operational limits, and design of future devices. An approach called Integrated Product Development (IPD) is being used for the development of NIMROD. It is a dramatic departure from existing practice in the fusion program. Code development is being done by a self-directed, multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional team that consists of experts in plasma theory, experiment, computational physics, and computer science. Customer representatives (ITER, US experiments) are an integral part of the team. The team is using techniques such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Pugh Concept Selection, Rapid Prototyping, and Risk Management, during the design phase of NIMROD. Extensive use is made of communication and internet technology to support collaborative work. Our experience with using these team techniques for such a complex software development project will be reported.

  19. Numerical study of neutron beam divergence in a beam-fusion scenario employing laser driven ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; McKenna, P.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.

    2016-09-01

    The most established route to create a laser-based neutron source is by employing laser accelerated, low atomic-number ions in fusion reactions. In addition to the high reaction cross-sections at moderate energies of the projectile ions, the anisotropy in neutron emission is another important feature of beam-fusion reactions. Using a simple numerical model based on neutron generation in a pitcher-catcher scenario, anisotropy in neutron emission was studied for the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. Simulation results are consistent with the narrow-divergence (∼ 70 ° full width at half maximum) neutron beam recently served in an experiment employing multi-MeV deuteron beams of narrow divergence (up to 30° FWHM, depending on the ion energy) accelerated by a sub-petawatt laser pulse from thin deuterated plastic foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism. By varying the input ion beam parameters, simulations show that a further improvement in the neutron beam directionality (i.e. reduction in the beam divergence) can be obtained by increasing the projectile ion beam temperature and cut-off energy, as expected from interactions employing higher power lasers at upcoming facilities.

  20. Improving the yeast two-hybrid system with permutated fusions proteins: the Varicella Zoster Virus interactome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens have been among the most powerful methods to detect and analyze protein-protein interactions. However, they suffer from a significant degree of false negatives, i.e. true interactions that are not detected, and to a certain degree from false positives, i.e. interactions that appear to take place only in the context of the Y2H assay. While the fraction of false positives remains difficult to estimate, the fraction of false negatives in typical Y2H screens is on the order of 70-90%. Here we present novel Y2H vectors that significantly decrease the number of false negatives and help to mitigate the false positive problem. Results We have constructed two new vectors (pGBKCg and pGADCg) that allow us to make both C-terminal fusion proteins of DNA-binding and activation domains. Both vectors can be combined with existing vectors for N-terminal fusions and thus allow four different bait-prey combinations: NN, CC, NC, and CN. We have tested all ~4,900 pairwise combinations of the 70 Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) proteins for interactions, using all possible combinations. About ~20,000 individual Y2H tests resulted in 182 NN, 89 NC, 149 CN, and 144 CC interactions. Overlap between screens ranged from 17% (NC-CN) to 43% (CN-CC). Performing four screens (i.e. permutations) instead of one resulted in about twice as many interactions and thus much fewer false negatives. In addition, interactions that are found in multiple combinations confirm each other and thus provide a quality score. This study is the first systematic analysis of such N- and C-terminal Y2H vectors. Conclusions Permutations of C- and N-terminal Y2H vectors dramatically increase the coverage of interactome studies and thus significantly reduce the number of false negatives. We suggest that future interaction screens should use such vector combinations on a routine basis, not the least because they provide a built-in quality score for Y2H interactions that can provide a

  1. One-Dimensional Lagrangian Code for Plasma Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Fusion Pellet Driven by Ion Beams.

    1986-12-01

    Version 00 The MEDUSA-IB code performs implosion and thermonuclear burn calculations of an ion beam driven ICF target, based on one-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics and transport theory. It can calculate the following values in spherical geometry through the progress of implosion and fuel burnup of a multi-layered target. (1) Hydrodynamic velocities, density, ion, electron and radiation temperature, radiation energy density, Rs and burn rate of target as a function of coordinates and time, (2) Fusion gainmore » as a function of time, (3) Ionization degree, (4) Temperature dependent ion beam energy deposition, (5) Radiation, -particle and neutron spectra as a function of time.« less

  2. Plasma-Jet-Driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF): Physics and Design for a Plasma Liner Formation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Scott; Cassibry, Jason; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Spherically imploding plasma liners are a potential standoff compression driver for magneto-inertial fusion, which is a hybrid of and operates in an intermediate density between those of magnetic and inertial fusion. We propose to use an array of merging supersonic plasma jets to form a spherically imploding plasma liner. The jets are to be formed by pulsed coaxial guns with contoured electrodes that are placed sufficiently far from the location of target compression such that no hardware is repetitively destroyed. As such, the repetition rate can be higher (e.g., 1 Hz) and ultimately the power-plant economics can be more attractive than most other MIF approaches. During the R&D phase, a high experimental shot rate at reasonably low cost (e.g., < 1 k/shot) may be achieved with excellent diagnostic access, thus enabling a rapid learning rate. After some background on PJMIF and its prospects for reactor-relevant energy gain, this poster describes the physics objectives and design of a proposed 60-gun plasma-liner-formation experiment, which will provide experimental data on: (i) scaling of peak liner ram pressure versus initial jet parameters, (ii) liner non-uniformity characterization and control, and (iii) control of liner profiles for eventual gain optimization.

  3. Upper-hybrid wave-driven Alfvénic turbulence in magnetized dusty plasmas.

    PubMed

    Misra, A P; Banerjee, S

    2011-03-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of coupled electrostatic upper-hybrid (UH) and Alfvén waves (AWs) is revisited in a magnetized electron-ion plasma with charged dust impurities. A pair of nonlinear equations that describe the interaction of UH wave envelopes (including the relativistic electron mass increase) and the density as well as the compressional magnetic field perturbations associated with the AWs are solved numerically to show that many coherent solitary patterns can be excited and saturated due to modulational instability of unstable UH waves. The evolution of these solitary patterns is also shown to appear in the states of spatiotemporal coherence, temporal as well as spatiotemporal chaos, due to collision and fusion among the patterns in stochastic motion. Furthermore, these spatiotemporal features are demonstrated by the analysis of wavelet power spectra. It is found that a redistribution of wave energy takes place to higher harmonic modes with small wavelengths, which, in turn, results in the onset of Alfvénic turbulence in dusty magnetoplasmas. Such a scenario can occur in the vicinity of Saturn's magnetosphere as many electrostatic solitary structures have been observed there by the Cassini spacecraft. PMID:21517632

  4. Upper-hybrid wave-driven Alfvenic turbulence in magnetized dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A. P.; Banerjee, S.

    2011-03-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of coupled electrostatic upper-hybrid (UH) and Alfven waves (AWs) is revisited in a magnetized electron-ion plasma with charged dust impurities. A pair of nonlinear equations that describe the interaction of UH wave envelopes (including the relativistic electron mass increase) and the density as well as the compressional magnetic field perturbations associated with the AWs are solved numerically to show that many coherent solitary patterns can be excited and saturated due to modulational instability of unstable UH waves. The evolution of these solitary patterns is also shown to appear in the states of spatiotemporal coherence, temporal as well as spatiotemporal chaos, due to collision and fusion among the patterns in stochastic motion. Furthermore, these spatiotemporal features are demonstrated by the analysis of wavelet power spectra. It is found that a redistribution of wave energy takes place to higher harmonic modes with small wavelengths, which, in turn, results in the onset of Alfvenic turbulence in dusty magnetoplasmas. Such a scenario can occur in the vicinity of Saturn's magnetosphere as many electrostatic solitary structures have been observed there by the Cassini spacecraft.

  5. A hybrid-drive nonisobaric-ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X. T.; Li, J. W.; Fan, Z. F.; Wang, L. F.; Liu, J.; Lan, K.; Wu, J. F.; Ye, W. H.

    2016-08-01

    A new hybrid-drive (HD) nonisobaric ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is proposed, in which a HD pressure to drive implosion dynamics increases via increasing density rather than temperature in the conventional indirect drive (ID) and direct drive (DD) approaches. In this HD (combination of ID and DD) scheme, an assembled target of a spherical hohlraum and a layered deuterium-tritium capsule inside is used. The ID lasers first drive the shock to perform a spherical symmetry implosion and produce a large-scale corona plasma. Then, the DD lasers, whose critical surface in ID corona plasma is far from the radiation ablation front, drive a supersonic electron thermal wave, which slows down to a high-pressure electron compression wave, like a snowplow, piling up the corona plasma into high density and forming a HD pressurized plateau with a large width. The HD pressure is several times the conventional ID and DD ablation pressure and launches an enhanced precursor shock and a continuous compression wave, which give rise to the HD capsule implosion dynamics in a large implosion velocity. The hydrodynamic instabilities at imploding capsule interfaces are suppressed, and the continuous HD compression wave provides main pdV work large enough to hotspot, resulting in the HD nonisobaric ignition. The ignition condition and target design based on this scheme are given theoretically and by numerical simulations. It shows that the novel scheme can significantly suppress implosion asymmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities of current isobaric hotspot ignition design, and a high-gain ICF is promising.

  6. Possible energy gain for a plasma-liner-driven magneto-inertial fusion concept

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C. E.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.

    2014-07-15

    A one-dimensional parameter study of a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) concept indicates that significant gain may be achievable. This concept uses a dynamically formed plasma shell with inwardly directed momentum to drive a magnetized fuel to ignition, which in turn partially burns an intermediate layer of unmagnetized fuel. The concept is referred to as Plasma Jet MIF or PJMIF. The results of an adaptive mesh refinement Eulerian code (Crestone) are compared to those of a Lagrangian code (LASNEX). These are the first published results using the Crestone and LASNEX codes on the PJMIF concept.

  7. Evaluation of a Hybrid Dynamic Stabilization and Fusion System in the Lumbar Spine: A 10 Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kashkoush, Ahmed; Agarwal, Nitin; Paschel, Erin; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The development of adjacent-segment disease is a recognized consequence of lumbar fusion surgery. Posterior dynamic stabilization, or motion preservation, techniques have been developed which theoretically decrease stress on adjacent segments following fusion. This study presents the experience of using a hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion construct for degenerative lumbar spine pathology in place of rigid arthrodesis. Methods: A clinical cohort investigation was conducted of 66 consecutive patients (31 female, 35 male; mean age: 53 years, range: 25 – 76 years) who underwent posterior lumbar instrumentation with the Dynesys Transition Optima (DTO) implant (Zimmer-Biomet Spine, Warsaw, IN) hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion system over a 10-year period. The median length of follow-up was five years. DTO consists of pedicle screw fixation coupled to a rigid rod as well as a flexible longitudinal connecting system. All patients had symptoms of back pain and neurogenic claudication refractory to non-surgical treatment. Patients underwent lumbar arthrodesis surgery in which the hybrid system was used for stabilization instead of arthrodesis of the stenotic adjacent level. Results: Indications for DTO instrumentation were primary degenerative disc disease (n = 52) and failed back surgery syndrome (n = 14). The most common dynamically stabilized and fused segments were L3-L4 (n = 37) and L5-S1 (n = 33), respectively. Thirty-eight patients (56%) underwent decompression at the dynamically stabilized level, and 57 patients (86%) had an interbody device placed at the level of arthrodesis. Complications during the follow-up period included a single case of screw breakage and a single case of pseudoarthrosis. Ten patients (15%) subsequently underwent conversion of the dynamic stabilization portion of their DTO instrumentation to rigid spinal arthrodesis. Conclusion: The DTO system represents a novel hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion construct

  8. Neutronic Model of a Mirror Based Fusion-Fission Hybrid for the Incineration of Spent Nuclear Fuel and with Potential for Energy Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Klaus; Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O.; Hagnestall, A.

    2010-11-01

    In the last decade the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) published several design concepts of tokamak based fusion-fission hybrids which use solid fuels consisting of transuranic elements of the spent nuclear fuel from Light-Water-Reactors. The objectives of the hybrids are the incineration of the transuranic elements and an additional net energy production under the condition of tritium self-sufficiency. The present paper presents a preliminary scientific design of the blanket of a mirror based hybrid which was derived from the results of Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. The main operation parameters of two hybrid options were specified. One is the analog to Georgia Techs first version of a ``fusion transmutation of waste reactor'' (FTWR) and the other is a possible near-term option which requires minimal fusion power. The latter version shows considerably better performance parameters.

  9. Climate-Driven Reshuffling of Species and Genes: Potential Conservation Roles for Species Translocations and Recombinant Hybrid Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Scriber, Jon Mark

    2013-01-01

    Comprising 50%–75% of the world’s fauna, insects are a prominent part of biodiversity in communities and ecosystems globally. Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity. However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change. The genetics of hybrid introgression as a source of novel variation for ecological divergence and evolutionary speciation (and resilience) may generate adaptive potential and diversity fast enough to respond to locally-altered environmental conditions. Major plant and herbivore hybrid zones with associated communities deserve conservation consideration. This review addresses functional genetics across multi-trophic-level interactions including “invasive species” in various ecosystems as they may become disrupted in different ways by rapid climate change. “Invasive genes” (into new species and populations) need to be recognized for their positive creative potential and addressed in conservation programs. “Genetic rescue” via hybrid translocations may provide needed adaptive flexibility for rapid adaptation to environmental change. While concerns persist for some conservationists, this review emphasizes the positive aspects of hybrids and hybridization. Specific implications of natural genetic introgression are addressed with a few examples from butterflies, including transgressive phenotypes and climate-driven homoploid recombinant hybrid speciation. Some specific examples illustrate these points using the swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae) with their long-term historical data base (phylogeographical diversity changes) and recent (3-decade) climate-driven temporal and genetic divergence in recombinant homoploid hybrids and relatively recent hybrid speciation of Papilio appalachiensis in North America. Climate-induced “reshuffling” (recombinations) of species composition, genotypes, and genomes

  10. Climate-Driven Reshuffling of Species and Genes: Potential Conservation Roles for Species Translocations and Recombinant Hybrid Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Scriber, Jon Mark

    2013-01-01

    Comprising 50%-75% of the world's fauna, insects are a prominent part of biodiversity in communities and ecosystems globally. Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity. However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change. The genetics of hybrid introgression as a source of novel variation for ecological divergence and evolutionary speciation (and resilience) may generate adaptive potential and diversity fast enough to respond to locally-altered environmental conditions. Major plant and herbivore hybrid zones with associated communities deserve conservation consideration. This review addresses functional genetics across multi-trophic-level interactions including "invasive species" in various ecosystems as they may become disrupted in different ways by rapid climate change. "Invasive genes" (into new species and populations) need to be recognized for their positive creative potential and addressed in conservation programs. "Genetic rescue" via hybrid translocations may provide needed adaptive flexibility for rapid adaptation to environmental change. While concerns persist for some conservationists, this review emphasizes the positive aspects of hybrids and hybridization. Specific implications of natural genetic introgression are addressed with a few examples from butterflies, including transgressive phenotypes and climate-driven homoploid recombinant hybrid speciation. Some specific examples illustrate these points using the swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae) with their long-term historical data base (phylogeographical diversity changes) and recent (3-decade) climate-driven temporal and genetic divergence in recombinant homoploid hybrids and relatively recent hybrid speciation of Papilio appalachiensis in North America. Climate-induced "reshuffling" (recombinations) of species composition, genotypes, and genomes may become

  11. Data-driven and hybrid coastal morphological prediction methods for mesoscale forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Dominic E.; Karunarathna, Harshinie; Pan, Shunqi; Horrillo-Caraballo, Jose M.; Różyński, Grzegorz; Ranasinghe, Roshanka

    2016-03-01

    It is now common for coastal planning to anticipate changes anywhere from 70 to 100 years into the future. The process models developed and used for scheme design or for large-scale oceanography are currently inadequate for this task. This has prompted the development of a plethora of alternative methods. Some, such as reduced complexity or hybrid models simplify the governing equations retaining processes that are considered to govern observed morphological behaviour. The computational cost of these models is low and they have proven effective in exploring morphodynamic trends and improving our understanding of mesoscale behaviour. One drawback is that there is no generally agreed set of principles on which to make the simplifying assumptions and predictions can vary considerably between models. An alternative approach is data-driven techniques that are based entirely on analysis and extrapolation of observations. Here, we discuss the application of some of the better known and emerging methods in this category to argue that with the increasing availability of observations from coastal monitoring programmes and the development of more sophisticated statistical analysis techniques data-driven models provide a valuable addition to the armoury of methods available for mesoscale prediction. The continuation of established monitoring programmes is paramount, and those that provide contemporaneous records of the driving forces and the shoreline response are the most valuable in this regard. In the second part of the paper we discuss some recent research that combining some of the hybrid techniques with data analysis methods in order to synthesise a more consistent means of predicting mesoscale coastal morphological evolution. While encouraging in certain applications a universally applicable approach has yet to be found. The route to linking different model types is highlighted as a major challenge and requires further research to establish its viability. We argue that

  12. Fast electron flux driven by lower hybrid wave in the scrape-off layer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Chen, R.; Wang, L.; Gan, K. F.; Yang, J. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Liu, S. C.; Li, M. H.; Ding, S.; Yan, N.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Liu, Y. L.; Shao, L. M.; Li, J.; Chen, L.; Zhao, N.; and others

    2015-02-15

    The fast electron flux driven by Lower Hybrid Wave (LHW) in the scrape-off layer (SOL) in EAST is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The five bright belts flowing along the magnetic field lines in the SOL and hot spots at LHW guard limiters observed by charge coupled device and infrared cameras are attributed to the fast electron flux, which is directly measured by retarding field analyzers (RFA). The current carried by the fast electron flux, ranging from 400 to 6000 A/m{sup 2} and in the direction opposite to the plasma current, is scanned along the radial direction from the limiter surface to the position about 25 mm beyond the limiter. The measured fast electron flux is attributed to the high parallel wave refractive index n{sub ||} components of LHW. According to the antenna structure and the LHW power absorbed by plasma, a broad parallel electric field spectrum of incident wave from the antennas is estimated. The radial distribution of LHW-driven current density is analyzed in SOL based on Landau damping of the LHW. The analytical results support the RFA measurements, showing a certain level of consistency. In addition, the deposition profile of the LHW power density in SOL is also calculated utilizing this simple model. This study provides some fundamental insight into the heating and current drive effects induced by LHW in SOL, and should also help to interpret the observations and related numerical analyses of the behaviors of bright belts and hot spots induced by LHW.

  13. Advanced scheme for high-yield laser driven proton-boron fusion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarone, D.; Picciotto, A.; Velyhan, A.; Krasa, J.; Kucharik, M.; Morrissey, M.; Mangione, A.; Szydlowsky, A.; Malinowska, A.; Bertuccio, G.; Shi, Y.; Crivellari, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Bellutti, P.; Korn, G.

    2015-02-01

    A low contrast nanosecond laser pulse with relatively low intensity (3 × 1016 W cm-2) was used to enhance the yield of induced nuclear reactions in advanced solid targets. In particular the "ultraclean" proton-boron fusion reaction, producing energetic alpha-particles without neutron generation, was chosen. A spatially well-defined layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen-enriched silicon substrate was used as target. The combination of the specific target geometry and the laser pulse temporal shape allowed enhancing the yield of alpha-particles up to 109 per steradian, i.e 100 times higher than previous experimental achievements. Moreover the alpha particle stream presented a clearly peaked angular and energy distribution, which make this secondary source attractive for potential applications. This result can be ascribed to the interaction of the long laser pre-pulse with the target and to the optimal target geometry and composition.

  14. Dynamic symmetry of indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion capsules on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Kritcher, A.; Jones, O. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Tommasini, R.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Döppner, T.; Dewald, E. L.; Eder, D. C.; Field, J. E.; Glenn, S. M.; Izumi, N.; Haan, S. W.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Pak, A.; Peterson, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Ross, J. S.; Scott, R. H. H.; Spears, B. K.; Edwards, M. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Landen, O. L.

    2014-05-01

    In order to achieve ignition using inertial confinement fusion it is important to control the growth of low-mode asymmetries as the capsule is compressed. Understanding the time-dependent evolution of the shape of the hot spot and surrounding fuel layer is crucial to optimizing implosion performance. A design and experimental campaign to examine sources of asymmetry and to quantify symmetry throughout the implosion has been developed and executed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We have constructed a large simulation database of asymmetries applied during different time intervals. Analysis of the database has shown the need to measure and control the hot-spot shape, areal density distribution, and symmetry swings during the implosion. The shape of the hot spot during final stagnation is measured using time-resolved imaging of the self-emission, and information on the shape of the fuel at stagnation can be obtained from Compton radiography [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011)]. For the first time on NIF, two-dimensional inflight radiographs of gas-filled and cryogenic fuel layered capsules have been measured to infer the symmetry of the radiation drive on the capsule. These results have been used to modify the hohlraum geometry and the wavelength tuning to improve the inflight implosion symmetry. We have also expanded our shock timing capabilities by the addition of extra mirrors inside the re-entrant cone to allow the simultaneous measurement of shock symmetry in three locations on a single shot, providing asymmetry information up to Legendre mode 4. By diagnosing the shape at nearly every step of the implosion, we estimate that shape has typically reduced fusion yield by about 50% in ignition experiments.

  15. Single pass, THz spectral range free-electron laser driven by a photocathode hybrid rf linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Yu.; Friedman, A.; Pinhasi, Y.

    2015-07-01

    A single pass, THz spectral range free-electron laser (FEL) driven by a photocathode hybrid rf-LINAC is considered, taking the Israeli THz FEL project developed in Ariel University as an example. Two possible configurations of such FEL are discussed: an enhanced coherent spontaneous emission FEL, and a prebunched FEL utilizing periodically modulated short electron beam pulses. A general study of the FEL configurations is carried out in the framework of a space-frequency approach, realized in WB3D numerical code. The configurations are studied and compared based on preliminary parameters of a drive hybrid rf-LINAC gun under development in University of California, Los Angeles.

  16. Fast ignition of inertial fusion targets by laser-driven carbon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Honrubia, J. J.; Temporal, M.; Fernandez, J. C.; Hegelich, B. M.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2009-10-15

    Two-dimensional simulations of ion beam driven fast ignition are presented. Ignition energies of protons with Maxwellian spectrum and carbon ions with quasimonoenergetic and Maxwellian energy distributions are evaluated. The effect of the coronal plasma surrounding the compressed deuterium-tritium is studied for three different fuel density distributions. It is found that quasimonoenergetic ions have better coupling with the compressed deuterium-tritium and substantially lower ignition energies. Comparison of quasimonoenergetic carbon ions and relativistic electrons as ignitor beams shows similar laser energy requirements, provided that a laser to quasimonoenergetic carbon ion conversion efficiency around 10% can be achieved.

  17. Subproton-scale Cascades in Solar Wind Turbulence: Driven Hybrid-kinetic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, S. S.; Califano, F.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.; Rincon, F.

    2016-05-01

    A long-lasting debate in space plasma physics concerns the nature of subproton-scale fluctuations in solar wind (SW) turbulence. Over the past decade, a series of theoretical and observational studies were presented in favor of either kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) or whistler turbulence. Here, we investigate numerically the nature of the subproton-scale turbulent cascade for typical SW parameters by means of unprecedented high-resolution simulations of forced hybrid-kinetic turbulence in two real-space and three velocity-space dimensions. Our analysis suggests that small-scale turbulence in this model is dominated by KAWs at β ≳ 1 and by magnetosonic/whistler fluctuations at lower β. The spectral properties of the turbulence appear to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. A tentative interpretation of this result in terms of relative changes in the damping rates of the different waves is also presented. Overall, the results raise interesting new questions about the properties and variability of subproton-scale turbulence in the SW, including its possible dependence on the plasma β, and call for detailed and extensive parametric explorations of driven kinetic turbulence in three dimensions.

  18. Proton temperature-anisotropy-driven instabilities in weakly collisional plasmas: Hybrid simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic instabilities in weakly collisional, high beta plasmas are investigated using two-dimensional hybrid expanding box simulations with Coulomb collisions modeled through the Langevin equation (corresponding to the Fokker-Planck one). The expansion drives a parallel or perpendicular temperature anisotropy (depending on the orientation of the ambient magnetic field). For the chosen parameters the Coulomb collisions are important with respect to the driver but are not strong enough to keep the system stable with respect to instabilities driven by the proton temperature anisotropy. In the case of the parallel temperature anisotropy the dominant oblique fire hose instability efficiently reduces the anisotropy in a quasilinear manner. In the case of the perpendicular temperature anisotropy the dominant mirror instability generates coherent compressive structures which scatter protons and reduce the temperature anisotropy. For both the cases the instabilities generate temporarily enough wave energy so that the corresponding (anomalous) transport coefficients dominate over the collisional ones and their properties are similar to those in collisionless plasmas.

  19. Large-Scale, Multi-Sensor Atmospheric Data Fusion Using Hybrid Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian; Manipon, Gerald; Hua, Hook; Fetzer, Eric

    2014-05-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is an ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the "A-Train" platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over decades. Moving to multi-sensor, long-duration analyses of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the "cloud scenes" from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over 10 years of data. To efficiently assemble such datasets, we are utilizing Elastic Computing in the Cloud and parallel map-reduce-based algorithms. However, these problems are Data Intensive computing so the data transfer times and storage costs (for caching) are key issues. SciReduce is a Hadoop-like parallel analysis system, programmed in parallel python, that is designed from the ground up for Earth science. SciReduce executes inside VMWare images and scales to any number of nodes in a hybrid Cloud (private eucalyptus & public Amazon). Unlike Hadoop, SciReduce operates on bundles of named numeric arrays, which can be passed in memory or serialized to disk in netCDF4 or HDF5. Multi-year datasets are automatically "sharded" by time and space across a cluster of nodes so that years of data (millions of files) can be processed in a massively parallel way. Input variables (arrays) are pulled on-demand into the Cloud using OPeNDAP URLs or other subsetting services, thereby minimizing the size of the cached input and intermediate datasets. We are using SciReduce to automate the production of multiple versions of a ten-year A-Train water vapor climatology under a NASA MEASURES grant. We will present the architecture of SciReduce, describe the

  20. Large-Scale, Multi-Sensor Atmospheric Data Fusion Using Hybrid Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is an ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the "A-Train" platforms (AIRS, MODIS, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over decades. Moving to multi-sensor, long-duration presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the "cloud scenes" from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over 10 years of data. HySDS is a Hybrid-Cloud Science Data System that has been developed and applied under NASA AIST, MEaSUREs, and ACCESS grants. HySDS uses the SciFlow workflow engine to partition analysis workflows into parallel tasks (e.g. segmenting by time or space) that are pushed into a durable job queue. The tasks are "pulled" from the queue by worker Virtual Machines (VM's) and executed in an on-premise Cloud (Eucalyptus or OpenStack) or at Amazon in the public Cloud or govCloud. In this way, years of data (millions of files) can be processed in a massively parallel way. Input variables (arrays) are pulled on-demand into the Cloud using OPeNDAP URLs or other subsetting services, thereby minimizing the size of the transferred data. We are using HySDS to automate the production of multiple versions of a ten-year A-Train water vapor climatology under a MEASURES grant. We will present the architecture of HySDS, describe the achieved "clock time" speedups in fusing datasets on our own nodes and in the Amazon Cloud, and discuss the Cloud cost tradeoffs for storage, compute, and data transfer. Our system demonstrates how one can pull A-Train variables (Levels 2 & 3) on-demand into the Amazon Cloud, and cache only those variables that are heavily used, so that any number of compute jobs can be

  1. Ways to improve the efficiency and reliability of radio frequency driven negative ion sources for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, W.; Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.; Gutmann, P.; Doerfler, J.

    2014-02-15

    Large RF driven negative hydrogen ion sources are being developed at IPP Garching for the future neutral beam injection system of ITER. The overall power efficiency of these sources is low, because for the RF power supply self-excited generators are utilized and the plasma is generated in small cylindrical sources (“drivers”) and expands into the source main volume. At IPP experiments to reduce the primary power and the RF power required for the plasma production are performed in two ways: The oscillator generator of the prototype source has been replaced by a transistorized RF transmitter and two alternative driver concepts, a spiral coil, in which the field is concentrated by ferrites, which omits the losses by plasma expansion and a helicon source are being tested.

  2. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, Andrei N.; Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D.; Batha, Steven H.

    2014-02-01

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  3. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Andrei N. Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Batha, Steven H.; Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D.

    2014-02-15

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  4. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R G; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites. PMID:26042130

  5. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R G; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites.

  6. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R. G.; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites. PMID:26042130

  7. Numerical and experimental study of capillary-driven flow of PCR solution in hybrid hydrophobic microfluidic networks.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Naveen; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Ramalingam, Neevan; Keshavarzi, Gholamreza; Hao-Bing, Liu; Hai-Qing, Thomas Gong

    2016-08-01

    Capillary-driven microfluidics is essential for development of point-of-care diagnostic micro-devices. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based micro-devices are widely developed and used in such point-of-care settings. It is imperative to characterize the fluid parameters of PCR solution for designing efficient capillary-driven microfluidic networks. Generally, for numeric modelling, the fluid parameters of PCR solution are approximated to that of water. This procedure leads to inaccurate results, which are discrepant to experimental data. This paper describes mathematical modeling and experimental validation of capillary-driven flow inside Poly-(dimethyl) siloxane (PDMS)-glass hybrid micro-channels. Using experimentally measured PCR fluid parameters, the capillary meniscus displacement in PDMS-glass microfluidic ladder network is simulated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD), and experimentally verified to match with the simulated data. PMID:27432321

  8. Neutronics for critical fission reactors and subcritical fission in hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2012-06-01

    The requirements of future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will focus on safety, sustainability and radioactive waste minimization. Critical fast neutron reactors and sub-critical, external source driven systems (accelerator driven and fusion-fission hybrids) have a potential role to meet these requirements in view of their physics characteristics. This paper provides a short introduction to these features.

  9. Neutronics for critical fission reactors and subcritical fission in hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2012-06-19

    The requirements of future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will focus on safety, sustainability and radioactive waste minimization. Critical fast neutron reactors and sub-critical, external source driven systems (accelerator driven and fusion-fission hybrids) have a potential role to meet these requirements in view of their physics characteristics. This paper provides a short introduction to these features.

  10. Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Betti, R.; Yu Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Bellei, C.; Amendt, P.; Landen, O.; Rygg, J. R.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Wilks, S.; Greenwood, A.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-05-19

    Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or ''exploding pushers,'' generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D3He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure 3He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important in the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations

  11. Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; et al

    2014-05-19

    Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or ''exploding pushers,'' generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D3He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure 3He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important inmore » the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations« less

  12. Hybrid surgery versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Peng; Fu, Xin; Li, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Xin-Long

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis is to compare hybrid surgery (HS) and cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases (DDD). Systematic searches of all published studies through March 2015 were identified from Cochrane Library, Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, CNKI, WANFANG DATA and CQVIP. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs involving HS and ACDF for multilevel DDD were included. All literature was searched and assessed by two independent reviewers according to the standard of Cochrane systematic review. Data of functional and radiological outcomes in two groups were pooled, which was then analyzed by RevMan 5.2 software. One RCT and four non-RCTs encompassing 160 patients met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis revealed significant differences in blood loss (p = 0.005), postoperative C2-C7 ROM (p = 0.002), ROM of superior adjacent segment (p < 0.00001) and ROM of inferior adjacent segment (p = 0.0007) between the HS group and the ACDF group. No significant differences were found regarding operation time (p = 0.75), postoperative VAS (p = 0.18) and complications (p = 0.73) between the groups. Hybrid surgery demonstrated excellent clinical efficacy and radiological results. Postoperative C2-C7 ROM was closer to the physiological status. No decrease in the ROM of the adjacent segment was noted in the hybrid surgery group. PMID:26307360

  13. Speciation driven by hybridization and chromosomal plasticity in a wild yeast.

    PubMed

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Charron, Guillaume; Eberlein, Chris; Verta, Jukka-Pekka; Samani, Pedram; Sylvester, Kayla; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Bell, Graham; Landry, Christian R

    2016-01-11

    Hybridization is recognized as a powerful mechanism of speciation and a driving force in generating biodiversity. However, only few multicellular species, limited to a handful of plants and animals, have been shown to fulfil all the criteria of homoploid hybrid speciation. This lack of evidence could lead to the interpretation that speciation by hybridization has a limited role in eukaryotes, particularly in single-celled organisms. Laboratory experiments have revealed that fungi such as budding yeasts can rapidly develop reproductive isolation and novel phenotypes through hybridization, showing that in principle homoploid speciation could occur in nature. Here, we report a case of homoploid hybrid speciation in natural populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus inhabiting the North American forests. We show that the rapid evolution of chromosome architecture and an ecological context that led to secondary contact between nascent species drove the formation of an incipient hybrid species with a potentially unique ecological niche.

  14. Speciation driven by hybridization and chromosomal plasticity in a wild yeast.

    PubMed

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Charron, Guillaume; Eberlein, Chris; Verta, Jukka-Pekka; Samani, Pedram; Sylvester, Kayla; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Bell, Graham; Landry, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is recognized as a powerful mechanism of speciation and a driving force in generating biodiversity. However, only few multicellular species, limited to a handful of plants and animals, have been shown to fulfil all the criteria of homoploid hybrid speciation. This lack of evidence could lead to the interpretation that speciation by hybridization has a limited role in eukaryotes, particularly in single-celled organisms. Laboratory experiments have revealed that fungi such as budding yeasts can rapidly develop reproductive isolation and novel phenotypes through hybridization, showing that in principle homoploid speciation could occur in nature. Here, we report a case of homoploid hybrid speciation in natural populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus inhabiting the North American forests. We show that the rapid evolution of chromosome architecture and an ecological context that led to secondary contact between nascent species drove the formation of an incipient hybrid species with a potentially unique ecological niche. PMID:27571751

  15. A Wind-Driven, Hybrid Latent and Sensible Heat Coastal Polynya at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, D.; Fukamachi, Y.; Watanabe, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Mahoney, A. R.; Eicken, H.; Shimizu, D.; Ohshima, K. I.; Tamura, T.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of the Barrow Coastal Polynya (BCP) formed off the Alaska Coast in winter is examined using mooring data (temperature, salinity, and ocean current), atmospheric re-analysis data (ERA-Interim), and AMSR-E-derived sea-ice concentration and production data (Iwamoto et al., 2014). Previously, the BCP has been considered to be a latent heat polynya formed by predominantly offshore winds resulting in sea-ice divergence. Recently, it has been suggested that the sea-ice production rate in the BCP is suppressed by warm Pacific- or Atlantic-origin waters distributed beneath the BCP (e.g. Itoh et al., 2012). In this study, we focus on the oceanographic conditions such as water mass distribution and ocean current structure beneath the BCP, which have not been fully documented. A mooring was deployed off Barrow, Alaska in the northeast Chukchi Sea (71.23°N, 157.65°W, water depth 55 m) from August 2009 to July 2010. During the freeze-up period from December to May, five BCP events occurred in the same manner; 1) dominant wind parallel to Barrow Canyon, with an offshore component near Barrow, 2) high sea-ice production followed by sudden cessation of ice growth, 3) upwelling of warm (>2 K above freezing point) and saline (>34) Atlantic Water (AW) beneath the BCP, 4) strong up-canyon flow (>100cm/s) associated with density fluctuations. A baroclinic current structure, established after the upwelling, resulted in enhanced vertical shear, promoting vertical mixing. The mixing event and open water formation occurred simultaneously, once sea-ice production had stopped. Thus, mixing events accompanied by ocean heat flux from AW into the surface layer were likely to form/maintain the open water area that is a sensible heat polynya. The transition from a latent to a sensible heat polynya was well reproduced by a pan-Arctic ice-ocean model (COCO). We propose that the BCP is a hybrid latent and sensible heat polynya, with both processes driven by the same offshore wind.

  16. Parametric coupling of lower hybrid wave with gyrating ion beam driven ion cyclotron instability in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rohtash; Tripathi, V. K.

    2013-07-01

    A lower hybrid wave, launched into a tokamak for supplementary heating in the presence of neutral beam turned gyrating ion beam, is seen to excite some prominent channels of parametric decay. The beam driven deuterium cyclotron mode is further destabilized by the lower hybrid pump through the nonlinear 4-wave coupling, involving higher and lower frequency lower hybrid sidebands, when ω0/k0zv0z=(1-ωLH2/ω02) , where ωLH is the lower hybrid frequency, ω0 and k0z are the frequency and parallel wave number of the pump wave, and v0z is the velocity of ion beam parallel to the magnetic field. The growth rate increases with parallel wave number of the ion-cyclotron mode. The pump is also susceptible to parametric upconversion into an upper sideband shifted by the frequency of the negative energy deuterium cyclotron mode. For typical parameters, the growth rate of this channel is around one fiftieth of deuterium cyclotron frequency and falls off with the transverse wave number of the mode.

  17. Parametric coupling of lower hybrid wave with gyrating ion beam driven ion cyclotron instability in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rohtash; Tripathi, V. K.

    2013-07-15

    A lower hybrid wave, launched into a tokamak for supplementary heating in the presence of neutral beam turned gyrating ion beam, is seen to excite some prominent channels of parametric decay. The beam driven deuterium cyclotron mode is further destabilized by the lower hybrid pump through the nonlinear 4-wave coupling, involving higher and lower frequency lower hybrid sidebands, when ω{sub 0}/k{sub 0z}v{sub 0z}=(1−ω{sub LH}{sup 2}/ω{sub 0}{sup 2}) , where ω{sub LH} is the lower hybrid frequency, ω{sub 0} and k{sub 0z} are the frequency and parallel wave number of the pump wave, and v{sub 0z} is the velocity of ion beam parallel to the magnetic field. The growth rate increases with parallel wave number of the ion-cyclotron mode. The pump is also susceptible to parametric upconversion into an upper sideband shifted by the frequency of the negative energy deuterium cyclotron mode. For typical parameters, the growth rate of this channel is around one fiftieth of deuterium cyclotron frequency and falls off with the transverse wave number of the mode.

  18. Neutron Damage in the Plasma Chamber First Wall of the GCFTR-2 Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, L. N.; Gonnelli, E.; Rossi, P. C. R.; Carluccio, T.; dos Santos, A.

    2015-07-01

    The successful development of energy-conversion machines based on either nuclear fission or fusion is completely dependent on the behaviour of the engineering materials used to construct the fuel containment and primary heat extraction systems. Such materials must be designed in order to maintain their structural integrity and dimensional stability in an environment involving high temperatures and heat fluxes, corrosive media, high stresses and intense neutron fluxes. However, despite the various others damage issues, such as the effects of plasma radiation and particle flux, the neutron flux is sufficiently energetic to displace atoms from their crystalline lattice sites. It is clear that the understanding of the neutron damage is essential for the development and safe operation of nuclear systems. Considering this context, the work presents a study of neutron damage in the Gas Cooled Fast Transmutation Reactor (GCFTR-2) driven by a Tokamak D-T fusion neutron source of 14.03 MeV. The theoretical analysis was performed by MCNP-5 and the ENDF/B-VII.1 neutron data library. A brief discussion about the determination of the radiation damage is presented, along with an analysis of the total neutron energy deposition in seven points through the material of the plasma source wall (PSW), in which was considered the HT-9 steel. The neutron flux was subdivided into three energy groups and their behaviour through the material was also examined.

  19. Hybrid fusions show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly supports cytochrome bc{sub 1} function in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiert, Robert; Czapla, Monika; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • We used hybrid fusion bc{sub 1} complex to test inter-monomer electron transfer in vivo. • Cross-inactivated complexes were able to sustain photoheterotrophic growth. • Inter-monomer electron transfer supports catalytic cycle in vivo. • bc{sub 1} dimer is functional even when cytochrome b subunits come from different species. - Abstract: Electronic connection between Q{sub o} and Q{sub i} quinone catalytic sites of dimeric cytochrome bc{sub 1} is a central feature of the energy-conserving Q cycle. While both the intra- and inter-monomer electron transfers were shown to connect the sites in the enzyme, mechanistic and physiological significance of the latter remains unclear. Here, using a series of mutated hybrid cytochrome bc{sub 1}-like complexes, we show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly sustains the function of the enzyme in vivo, even when the two subunits in a dimer come from different species. This indicates that minimal requirement for bioenergetic efficiency is to provide a chain of cofactors for uncompromised electron flux between the catalytic sites, while the details of protein scaffold are secondary.

  20. Separation of the osmotically driven fusion event from vesicle-planar membrane attachment in a model system for exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We demonstrate that there are two experimentally distinguishable steps in the fusion of phospholipid vesicles with planar bilayer membranes. In the first step, the vesicles form a stable, tightly bound pre-fusion state with the planar membrane; divalent cations (Ca++) are required for the formation of this state if the vesicular and/or planar membrane contain negatively charged lipids. In the second step, the actual fusion of vesicular and planar membranes occurs. The driving force for this step is the osmotic swelling of vesicles attached (in the pre- fusion state) to the planar membrane. We suggest that osmotic swelling of vesicles may also be crucial for biological fusion and exocytosis. PMID:6699082

  1. A natural driven membrane process for brackish and wastewater treatment: photovoltaic powered ED and FO hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-17

    In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m(-3) (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system.

  2. A natural driven membrane process for brackish and wastewater treatment: photovoltaic powered ED and FO hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-17

    In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m(-3) (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system. PMID:23957893

  3. CEREF: A hybrid data-driven model for forecasting annual streamflow from a socio-hydrological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Singh, Vijay P.; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yinghao

    2016-09-01

    Hydrological forecasting is complicated by flow regime alterations in a coupled socio-hydrologic system, encountering increasingly non-stationary, nonlinear and irregular changes, which make decision support difficult for future water resources management. Currently, many hybrid data-driven models, based on the decomposition-prediction-reconstruction principle, have been developed to improve the ability to make predictions of annual streamflow. However, there exist many problems that require further investigation, the chief among which is the direction of trend components decomposed from annual streamflow series and is always difficult to ascertain. In this paper, a hybrid data-driven model was proposed to capture this issue, which combined empirical mode decomposition (EMD), radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN), and external forces (EF) variable, also called the CEREF model. The hybrid model employed EMD for decomposition and RBFNN for intrinsic mode function (IMF) forecasting, and determined future trend component directions by regression with EF as basin water demand representing the social component in the socio-hydrologic system. The Wuding River basin was considered for the case study, and two standard statistical measures, root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE), were used to evaluate the performance of CEREF model and compare with other models: the autoregressive (AR), RBFNN and EMD-RBFNN. Results indicated that the CEREF model had lower RMSE and MAE statistics, 42.8% and 7.6%, respectively, than did other models, and provided a superior alternative for forecasting annual runoff in the Wuding River basin. Moreover, the CEREF model can enlarge the effective intervals of streamflow forecasting compared to the EMD-RBFNN model by introducing the water demand planned by the government department to improve long-term prediction accuracy. In addition, we considered the high-frequency component, a frequent subject of concern in EMD

  4. Linear benchmarks between the hybrid codes HYMAGYC and HMGC to study energetic particle driven Alfvénic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogaccia, G.; Vlad, G.; Briguglio, S.

    2016-11-01

    Resonant interaction between energetic particles (EPs), produced by fusion reactions and/or additional heating systems, and shear Alfvén modes can destabilize global Alfvénic modes enhancing the EP transport. In order to investigate the EP transport in present and next generation fusion devices, numerical simulations are recognized as a very important tool. Among the various numerical models, the hybrid MHD gyrokinetic one has shown to be a valid compromise between a sufficiently accurate wave-particle interaction description and affordable computational resource requirements. This paper presents a linear benchmark between the hybrid codes HYMAGYC and HMGC. The HYMAGYC code solves the full, linear MHD equations in general curvilinear geometry for the bulk plasma and describes the EP population by the nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation. On the other side, HMGC solves the nonlinear, reduced O≤ft(ε 03\\right) , pressureless MHD equations ({ε0} being the inverse aspect ratio) for the bulk plasma and the drift kinetic Vlasov equation for the EPs. The results of the HYMAGYC and HMGC codes have been compared both in the MHD limit and in a wide range of the EP parameter space for two test cases (one of which being the so-called TAE n  =  6 ITPA Energetic Particle Group test case), both characterized by {ε0}\\ll 1 . In the first test case (test case A), good qualitative agreement is found w.r.t. real frequencies, growth rates and spatial structures of the most unstable modes, with some quantitative differences for the growth rates. For the so-called ITPA test case (test case B), at the nominal energetic particle density value, the disagreement between the two codes is, on the contrary, also qualitative, as a different mode is found as the most unstable one.

  5. Fill-Tube-Induced Mass Perturbations on X-Ray-Driven, Ignition-Scale, Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Capsule Shells and the Implications for Ignition Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Breden, E. W.; Christenson, P. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Keller, K. L.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K.; Porter, J. L.; Russell, C. O.; Sinars, D. B.; Smith, I. C.; Stamm, R. M.; Vesey, R. A.; Edwards, M. J.; Spears, B. K.; Back, C. A.; Dannenburg, K. L.; Frederick, C.; Nikroo, A.

    2007-11-16

    On the first inertial-confinement-fusion ignition facility, the target capsule will be DT filled through a long, narrow tube inserted into the shell. {mu}g-scale shell perturbations {delta}m{sup '} arising from multiple, 10-50 {mu}m-diameter, hollow SiO{sub 2} tubes on x-ray-driven, ignition-scale, 1-mg capsules have been measured on a subignition device. Simulations compare well with observation, whence it is corroborated that {delta}m{sup '} arises from early x-ray shadowing by the tube rather than tube mass coupling to the shell, and inferred that 10-20 {mu}m tubes will negligibly affect fusion yield on a full-ignition facility.

  6. Fill-tube-induced mass perturbations on x-ray-driven, ignition-scale, inertial-confinement-fusion capsule shells and the implications for ignition experiments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G R; Herrmann, M C; Edwards, M J; Spears, B K; Back, C A; Breden, E W; Christenson, P J; Cuneo, M E; Dannenburg, K L; Frederick, C; Keller, K L; Mulville, T D; Nikroo, A; Peterson, K; Porter, J L; Russell, C O; Sinars, D B; Smith, I C; Stamm, R M; Vesey, R A

    2007-11-16

    On the first inertial-confinement-fusion ignition facility, the target capsule will be DT filled through a long, narrow tube inserted into the shell. microg-scale shell perturbations Delta m' arising from multiple, 10-50 microm-diameter, hollow SiO2 tubes on x-ray-driven, ignition-scale, 1-mg capsules have been measured on a subignition device. Simulations compare well with observation, whence it is corroborated that Delta m' arises from early x-ray shadowing by the tube rather than tube mass coupling to the shell, and inferred that 10-20 microm tubes will negligibly affect fusion yield on a full-ignition facility. PMID:18233149

  7. Salt, shake, fuse--giant hybrid polymer/lipid vesicles through mechanically activated fusion.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Ian M; Paxton, Walter F

    2014-03-24

    Large (200 nm) poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(butadiene) polymer vesicles fuse into giant (>1 μm) vesicles with mild agitation in dilute aqueous NaCl solutions. This unusual effect is attributed to the salt-induced contraction of the poly(ethylene oxide) corona, reducing steric resistance between vesicles and, with agitation, increasing the probability of contact between the hydrophobic cores of adjacent membranes. In addition, NaCl and agitation facilitated the creation of giant hybrid vesicles from much smaller homogeneous polymersomes and liposomes. Whereas lipid vesicles do not readily fuse with each other under the same circumstances, they did fuse with polymersomes to produce hybrid polymer/lipid vesicles.

  8. Dry powder inhaler formulation of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles via electrostatically-driven nanoparticle assembly onto microscale carrier particles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2012-09-15

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles have emerged as promising nanoscale carriers of therapeutics as they combine the attractive characteristics of liposomes and polymers. Herein we develop dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of hybrid nanoparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and soybean lecithin as the polymer and lipid constituents, respectively. The hybrid nanoparticles are transformed into inhalable microscale nanocomposite structures by a novel technique based on electrostatically-driven adsorption of nanoparticles onto polysaccharide carrier particles, which eliminates the drawbacks of conventional techniques based on controlled drying (e.g. nanoparticle-specific formulation, low yield). First, we engineer polysaccharide carrier particles made up of chitosan cross-linked with tripolyphosphate and dextran sulphate to exhibit the desired aerosolization characteristics and physical robustness. Second, we investigate the effects of nanoparticle to carrier mass ratio and salt inclusion on the adsorption efficiency, in terms of the nanoparticle loading and yield, from which the optimal formulation is determined. Desorption of the nanoparticles from the carrier particles in phosphate buffer saline is also examined. Lastly, we characterize aerosolization efficiency of the nanocomposite product in vitro, where the emitted dose and respirable fraction are found to be comparable to the values of conventional DPI formulations.

  9. Gene fusion detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded benign fibrous histiocytomas using fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Walther, Charles; Hofvander, Jakob; Nilsson, Jenny; Magnusson, Linda; Domanski, Henryk A; Gisselsson, David; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Doyle, Leona A; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mertens, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytomas (FH) can be subdivided into several morphological and clinical subgroups. Recently, gene fusions involving either one of two protein kinase C genes (PRKCB and PRKCD) or the ALK gene were described in FH. We here wanted to evaluate the frequency of PRKCB and PRKCD gene fusions in FH. Using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors, 36 cases could be analyzed. PRKCB or PRKCD rearrangements were seen in five tumors: 1/7 regular, 0/3 aneurysmal, 0/6 cellular, 2/7 epithelioid, 0/1 atypical, 2/10 deep, and 0/2 metastatic lesions. We also evaluated the status of the ALK gene in selected cases, finding rearrangements in 3/7 epithelioid and 0/1 atypical lesions. To assess the gene fusion status of FH further, deep sequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) was performed on FFPE tissue from eight cases with unknown gene fusion status, as well as on two FH and six soft tissue sarcomas with known gene fusions; of the latter eight positive controls, the expected fusion transcript was found in all but one, while 2/8 FH with unknown genetic status showed fusion transcripts, including a novel KIRREL/PRKCA chimera. Thus, also a third member of the PRKC family is involved in FH tumorigenesis. We conclude that gene fusions involving PRKC genes occur in several morphological (regular, cellular, aneurysmal, epithelioid) and clinical (cutaneous, deep) subsets of FH, but they seem to account for only a minority of the cases. In epithelioid lesions, however, rearrangements of PRKC or ALK were seen, as mutually exclusive events, in the majority (5/7) of cases. Finally, the study also shows that RNA-Seq is a promising tool for identifying gene fusions in FFPE tissues.

  10. Gene fusion detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded benign fibrous histiocytomas using fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Walther, Charles; Hofvander, Jakob; Nilsson, Jenny; Magnusson, Linda; Domanski, Henryk A; Gisselsson, David; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Doyle, Leona A; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mertens, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytomas (FH) can be subdivided into several morphological and clinical subgroups. Recently, gene fusions involving either one of two protein kinase C genes (PRKCB and PRKCD) or the ALK gene were described in FH. We here wanted to evaluate the frequency of PRKCB and PRKCD gene fusions in FH. Using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors, 36 cases could be analyzed. PRKCB or PRKCD rearrangements were seen in five tumors: 1/7 regular, 0/3 aneurysmal, 0/6 cellular, 2/7 epithelioid, 0/1 atypical, 2/10 deep, and 0/2 metastatic lesions. We also evaluated the status of the ALK gene in selected cases, finding rearrangements in 3/7 epithelioid and 0/1 atypical lesions. To assess the gene fusion status of FH further, deep sequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) was performed on FFPE tissue from eight cases with unknown gene fusion status, as well as on two FH and six soft tissue sarcomas with known gene fusions; of the latter eight positive controls, the expected fusion transcript was found in all but one, while 2/8 FH with unknown genetic status showed fusion transcripts, including a novel KIRREL/PRKCA chimera. Thus, also a third member of the PRKC family is involved in FH tumorigenesis. We conclude that gene fusions involving PRKC genes occur in several morphological (regular, cellular, aneurysmal, epithelioid) and clinical (cutaneous, deep) subsets of FH, but they seem to account for only a minority of the cases. In epithelioid lesions, however, rearrangements of PRKC or ALK were seen, as mutually exclusive events, in the majority (5/7) of cases. Finally, the study also shows that RNA-Seq is a promising tool for identifying gene fusions in FFPE tissues. PMID:26121314

  11. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  12. Multi dose computed tomography image fusion based on hybrid sparse methodology.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Anuyogam; Alirezaie, Javad; Babyn, Paul; Ahmadian, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing utilization of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) in medical diagnosis, obtaining higher quality image with lower exposure to radiation has become a highly challenging task in image processing. In this paper, a novel sparse fusion algorithm is proposed to address the problem of lower Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in low dose CT images. Initial fused image is obtained by combining low dose and medium dose images in sparse domain, utilizing the Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) dictionary which is trained by high dose image. And then, the strongly focused image is obtained by determining the pixels of source images which have high similarity with the pixels of the initial fused image. Final denoised image is obtained by fusing strongly focused image and decomposed sparse vectors of source images, thereby preserving the edges and other critical information needed for diagnosis. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm both quantitatively and qualitatively. PMID:25570844

  13. Hybrid Surgery Versus Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in Multilevel Cervical Disc Diseases: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Meng, Fanxin; Ding, Yan; Li, Jie; Han, Jian; Zhang, Xintao; Dong, Wei

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the outcomes and reliability of hybrid surgery (HS) versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylosis and disc diseases.Hybrid surgery, combining cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) with fusion, is a novel treatment to multilevel cervical degenerated disc disease in recent years. However, the effect and reliability of HS are still unclear compared with ACDF.To investigate the studies of HS versus ACDF in patients with multilevel cervical disease, electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched. Studies were included when they compared HS with ACDF and reported at least one of the following outcomes: functionality, neck pain, arm pain, cervical range of motion (ROM), quality of life, and incidence of complications. No language restrictions were used. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies and extracted the relevant data.Seven clinical controlled trials were included in this study. Two trials were prospective and the other 5 were retrospective. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that HS achieved better recovery of NDI score (P = 0.038) and similar recovery of VAS score (P = 0.058) compared with ACDF at 2 years follow-up. Moreover, the total cervical ROM (C2-C7) after HS was preserved significantly more than the cervical ROM after ACDF (P = 0.000) at 2 years follow-up. Notably, the compensatory increase of the ROM of superior and inferior adjacent segments was significant in ACDF groups at 2-year follow-up (P < 0.01), compared with HS.The results demonstrate that HS provides equivalent outcomes and functional recovery for cervical disc diseases, and significantly better preservation of cervical ROM compared with ACDF in 2-year follow-up. This suggests the HS is an effective alternative invention for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylosis to

  14. Hybrid Surgery Versus Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in Multilevel Cervical Disc Diseases: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Meng, Fanxin; Ding, Yan; Li, Jie; Han, Jian; Zhang, Xintao; Dong, Wei

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the outcomes and reliability of hybrid surgery (HS) versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylosis and disc diseases.Hybrid surgery, combining cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) with fusion, is a novel treatment to multilevel cervical degenerated disc disease in recent years. However, the effect and reliability of HS are still unclear compared with ACDF.To investigate the studies of HS versus ACDF in patients with multilevel cervical disease, electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched. Studies were included when they compared HS with ACDF and reported at least one of the following outcomes: functionality, neck pain, arm pain, cervical range of motion (ROM), quality of life, and incidence of complications. No language restrictions were used. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies and extracted the relevant data.Seven clinical controlled trials were included in this study. Two trials were prospective and the other 5 were retrospective. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that HS achieved better recovery of NDI score (P = 0.038) and similar recovery of VAS score (P = 0.058) compared with ACDF at 2 years follow-up. Moreover, the total cervical ROM (C2-C7) after HS was preserved significantly more than the cervical ROM after ACDF (P = 0.000) at 2 years follow-up. Notably, the compensatory increase of the ROM of superior and inferior adjacent segments was significant in ACDF groups at 2-year follow-up (P < 0.01), compared with HS.The results demonstrate that HS provides equivalent outcomes and functional recovery for cervical disc diseases, and significantly better preservation of cervical ROM compared with ACDF in 2-year follow-up. This suggests the HS is an effective alternative invention for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylosis to

  15. Fusion Energy and Stopping Power in a Degenerate DT Pellet Driven by a Laser-Accelerated Proton Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrangiz, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Jafari, S.; Khanbabaei, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have improved the fast ignition scheme in order to have more authority needed for high-energy-gain. Due to the more penetrability and energy deposition of the particle beams in fusion targets, we employ a laser-to-ion converter foil as a scheme for generating energetic ion beams to ignite the fusion fuel. We find the favorable intensity and wavelength of incident laser by evaluating the laser-proton conversion gain. By calculating the source-target distance, proton beam power and energy are estimated. Our analysis is generalized to the plasma degeneracy effects which can increase the fusion gain several orders of magnitude by decreasing the ion-electron collisions in the plasma. It is found that the wavelength of 0.53 μm and the intensity of about 1020 W/cm2, by saving about 10% conversion coefficient, are the suitable measured values for converting a laser into protons. Besides, stopping power and fusion burn calculations have been done in degenerate and non-degenerate plasma mediums. The results indicate that in the presence of degeneracy, the rate of fusion enhances. Supported by the Research Council of University of Guilan

  16. Beam driven upper-hybrid-wave instability in quantized semiconductor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Rozina, Ch.; Moslem, W. M.; Salimullah, M.

    2014-02-15

    The excitation of Upper-Hybrid waves (UHWs) induced by electron beam in semiconductor plasma is examined using quantum hydrodynamic model. Various quantum effects are taken into account including recoil effect, Fermi degenerate pressure, and exchange-correlation potential. The bandwidth of the UHWs spectrum shows that the system supports purely growing unstable mode. The latter has been studied for diversified parameters of nano-sized GaAs semiconductor.

  17. Particle-in-cell simulations of an alpha channeling scenario: electron current drive arising from lower hybrid drift instability of fusion-born ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, James; Chapman, Sandra; Dendy, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of fusion-born protons in deuterium plasmas demonstrate a key alpha channeling phenomenon for tokamak fusion plasmas. We focus on obliquely propagating modes at the plasma edge, excited by centrally born fusion products on banana orbits, known to be responsible for observations of ion cyclotron emission in JET and TFTR. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic 1D3V PIC code evolves a ring-beam distribution of 3MeV protons in a 10keV thermal deuterium-electron plasma with realistic mass ratio. A collective instability occurs, giving rise to electromagnetic field activity in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. Waves spontaneously excited by this lower hybrid drift instability undergo Landau damping on resonant electrons, drawing out an asymmetric tail in the distribution of electron parallel velocities, which constitutes a net current. These simulations demonstrate a key building block of some alpha channeling scenarios: the direct collisionless coupling of fusion product energy into a form which can help sustain the equilibrium of the tokamak.

  18. Validation of break-apart and fusion MYC probes using a digital fluorescence in situ hybridization capture and imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Michael; Rowe, Leslie; Clement, Parker W.; Miles, Rodney R.; Salama, Mohamed E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Detection of MYC translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is important in the evaluation of lymphomas, in particular, Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Our aim was to validate a digital FISH capture and imaging system for the detection of MYC 8q24 translocations using LSI-MYC (a break-apart probe) and MYC 8;14 translocation using IGH-MYC (a fusion probe). Materials and Methods: LSI-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from 35 patients. IGH-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from forty patients. Sections were processed for FISH and analyzed using traditional methods. FISH slides were then analyzed using the GenASIs capture and analysis system. Results: Results for LSI-MYC had a high degree of correlation between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Results for IGH-MYC had a 100% concordance between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Conclusion: Annotated whole slide images of H and E and FISH sections can be digitally aligned, so that areas of tumor within a section can be matched and evaluated with a greater degree of accuracy. Images can be archived permanently, providing a means for examining the results retrospectively. Digital FISH imaging of the MYC translocations provides a better diagnostic tool compared to traditional methods for evaluating lymphomas. PMID:27217970

  19. A practical approach for active camera coordination based on a fusion-driven multi-agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Alvaro Luis; Molina, José M.; Patricio, Miguel A.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system architecture to manage spatially distributed active (or pan-tilt-zoom) cameras. Traditional video surveillance algorithms are of no use for active cameras, and we have to look at different approaches. Such multi-sensor surveillance systems have to be designed to solve two related problems: data fusion and coordinated sensor-task management. Generally, architectures proposed for the coordinated operation of multiple cameras are based on the centralisation of management decisions at the fusion centre. However, the existence of intelligent sensors capable of decision making brings with it the possibility of conceiving alternative decentralised architectures. This problem is approached by means of a MAS, integrating data fusion as an integral part of the architecture for distributed coordination purposes. This paper presents the MAS architecture and system agents.

  20. Two state coercivity driven by phase coexistence in vanadium sesquioxide/nickel bulk hybrid material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, C.; Quesada, A.; Saerbeck, T.; Garcia, M. A.; de la Rubia, M. A.; Valmianski, I.; Fernández, J. F.; Schuller, I. K.

    2016-09-01

    We developed a bulk hybrid material consisting of a vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) matrix with nickel (Ni) rich inclusions that exhibit a switchable two-state magnetic coercivity. The V2O3 matrix magnetoelastically couples with the Ni-rich inclusions and its structural phase transition causes two possible magnetic coercivity states. Differences of up to 13% in the temperature window of 14 K are observed, depending whether the transition occurs from rhombohedral to monoclinic or vice versa. These findings provide a pathway for the development of bulk switchable coercivity materials. We present routes to further enhance the magnetoelastic effect by increasing the oxide/ferromagnetic material coupling.

  1. A Hybrid Knowledge-Based and Data-Driven Approach to Identifying Semantically Similar Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Pivovarov, Rimma; Elhadad, Noémie

    2012-01-01

    An open research question when leveraging ontological knowledge is when to treat different concepts separately from each other and when to aggregate them. For instance, concepts for the terms "paroxysmal cough" and "nocturnal cough" might be aggregated in a kidney disease study, but should be left separate in a pneumonia study. Determining whether two concepts are similar enough to be aggregated can help build better datasets for data mining purposes and avoid signal dilution. Quantifying the similarity among concepts is a difficult task, however, in part because such similarity is context-dependent. We propose a comprehensive method, which computes a similarity score for a concept pair by combining data-driven and ontology-driven knowledge. We demonstrate our method on concepts from SNOMED-CT and on a corpus of clinical notes of patients with chronic kidney disease. By combining information from usage patterns in clinical notes and from ontological structure, the method can prune out concepts that are simply related from those which are semantically similar. When evaluated against a list of concept pairs annotated for similarity, our method reaches an AUC (area under the curve) of 92%. PMID:22289420

  2. An Event-Driven Hybrid Molecular Dynamics and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Donev, A; Garcia, A L; Alder, B J

    2007-07-30

    A novel algorithm is developed for the simulation of polymer chains suspended in a solvent. The polymers are represented as chains of hard spheres tethered by square wells and interact with the solvent particles with hard core potentials. The algorithm uses event-driven molecular dynamics (MD) for the simulation of the polymer chain and the interactions between the chain beads and the surrounding solvent particles. The interactions between the solvent particles themselves are not treated deterministically as in event-driven algorithms, rather, the momentum and energy exchange in the solvent is determined stochastically using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The coupling between the solvent and the solute is consistently represented at the particle level, however, unlike full MD simulations of both the solvent and the solute, the spatial structure of the solvent is ignored. The algorithm is described in detail and applied to the study of the dynamics of a polymer chain tethered to a hard wall subjected to uniform shear. The algorithm closely reproduces full MD simulations with two orders of magnitude greater efficiency. Results do not confirm the existence of periodic (cycling) motion of the polymer chain.

  3. AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrids with highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Masanao; Suzuki, Tohru; Kaneco, Satoshi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid was prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method. • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} displays the excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} readily transforms to be Ag@AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} system. • h{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup ·−} play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization over AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • The activity enhancement is ascribed to a Z-scheme system composed of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Ag and AgI. - Abstract: Highly efficient visible-light-driven AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid photocatalysts with different mole ratios of AgI were prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) technique. Under visible light irradiation (>420 nm), the AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} photocatalysts displayed the higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and AgI for the decolorization of acid orange 7 (AO 7). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with 80% of AgI exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of AO 7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} readily transformed to be Ag@AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} system while the photocatalytic activity of AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} remained after 5 recycling runs. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers displayed that the reactive h{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup ·−} play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrids can be ascribed to the efficient separation of electron–hole pairs through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Ag and AgI, in which Ag nanoparticles act as the charge separation center.

  4. Characterization and development of an event-driven hybrid CMOS x-ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Hybrid CMOS detectors (HCD) have provided great benefit to the infrared and optical fields of astronomy, and they are poised to do the same for X-ray astronomy. Infrared HCDs have already flown on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission and are slated to fly on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Hybrid CMOS X-ray detectors offer low susceptibility to radiation damage, low power consumption, and fast readout time to avoid pile-up. The fast readout time is necessary for future high throughput X-ray missions. The Speedster-EXD X-ray HCD presented in this dissertation offers new in-pixel features and reduces known noise sources seen on previous generation HCDs. The Speedster-EXD detector makes a great step forward in the development of these detectors for future space missions. This dissertation begins with an overview of future X-ray space mission concepts and their detector requirements. The background on the physics of semiconductor devices and an explanation of the detection of X-rays with these devices will be discussed followed by a discussion on CCDs and CMOS detectors. Next, hybrid CMOS X-ray detectors will be explained including their advantages and disadvantages. The Speedster-EXD detector and its new features will be outlined including its ability to only read out pixels which contain X-ray events. Test stand design and construction for the Speedster-EXD detector is outlined and the characterization of each parameter on two Speedster-EXD detectors is detailed including read noise, dark current, interpixel capacitance crosstalk (IPC), and energy resolution. Gain variation is also characterized, and a Monte Carlo simulation of its impact on energy resolution is described. This analysis shows that its effect can be successfully nullified with proper calibration, which would be important for a flight mission. Appendix B contains a study of the extreme tidal disruption event, Swift J1644+57, to search for

  5. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; et al

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  6. Selective Inactivation of Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens with a Light-Driven Hybrid Nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Grüner, Malte; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Löffler, Bettina; Gonnissen, Dominik; Riehemann, Kristina; Staniford, Mark C; Kynast, Ulrich; Strassert, Cristian A

    2015-09-23

    Herein, we present a straightforward strategy to disperse highly insoluble photosensitizers in aqueous environments, without major synthetic efforts and keeping their photosensitizing abilities unaffected. A layered nanoclay was employed to adsorb and to solubilize a highly efficient yet hydrophobic Si(IV) phthalocyaninate in water. The aggregation of the photoactive dye was correlated with its photophysical properties, particularly with the ability to produce highly cytotoxic singlet oxygen. Moreover, the resulting hybrid nanomaterial is able to selectively photoinactivate Gram-positive pathogens, due to local interactions between the bacterial membranes and the negatively charged nanodiscs. Nanotoxicity assays confirmed its innocuousness toward eukaryotic cells, showing that it constitutes a new class of "phototriggered magic bullet" for the inactivation of pathogens in phototherapy, as well as in the development of coatings for self-disinfecting surfaces. PMID:26360157

  7. Real-time Data Fusion Platforms: The Need of Multi-dimensional Data-driven Research in Biomedical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Raje, Satyajeet; Kite, Bobbie; Ramanathan, Jay; Payne, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Systems designed to expedite data preprocessing tasks such as data discovery, interpretation, and integration that are required before data analysis drastically impact the pace of biomedical informatics research. Current commercial interactive and real-time data integration tools are designed for large-scale business analytics requirements. In this paper we identify the need for end-to-end data fusion platforms from the researcher's perspective, supporting ad-hoc data interpretation and integration.

  8. FN-DFE: Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine for Enhanced State-Awareness of Resilient Hybrid Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Craig Rieger

    2014-11-01

    Resiliency and improved state-awareness of modern critical infrastructures, such as energy production and industrial systems, is becoming increasingly important. As control systems become increasingly complex, the number of inputs and outputs increase. Therefore, in order to maintain sufficient levels of state-awareness, a robust system state monitoring must be implemented that correctly identifies system behavior even when one or more sensors are faulty. Furthermore, as intelligent cyber adversaries become more capable, incorrect values may be fed to the operators. To address these needs, this paper proposes a Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine (FN-DFE) for resilient state-awareness of control systems. The designed FN-DFE is composed of a three-layered system consisting of: 1) traditional threshold based alarms, 2) anomalous behavior detector using self-organizing fuzzy logic system, and 3) artificial neural network based system modeling and prediction. The improved control system state-awareness is achieved via fusing input data from multiple sources and combining them into robust anomaly indicators. In addition, the neural network based signal predictions are used to augment the resiliency of the system and provide coherent state-awareness despite temporary unavailability of sensory data. The proposed system was integrated and tested with a model of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) hybrid energy system facility know as HYTEST. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed FN-DFE provides timely plant performance monitoring and anomaly detection capabilities. It was shown that the system is capable of identifying intrusive behavior significantly earlier than conventional threshold based alarm systems.

  9. Nuclear-Driven Copper-Based Hybrid Thermo/Electro Chemical Cycle for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Yehia F.; Rostkowski, Katherine H.

    2006-07-01

    With a worldwide need for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, hydrogen gas has become a primary focus of energy researchers as a promising substitute of nonrenewable energy sources. For instance, use of hydrogen gas in fuel cells has received special technological interest particularly from the transportation sector, which is presently dominated by fuel oil. It is not only gaseous hydrogen that is in demand, but the need for liquid hydrogen is growing as well. For example, the aerospace industry uses liquid hydrogen as fuel for space shuttles. The use of liquid hydrogen during a single space shuttle launch requires about 15,000 gallons per minute, which is equivalent to about forty-five hydrogen trailers, each with 13,000 gallons capacity. The hydrogen required to support a single Mars mission would be at least ten times that required for one space shuttle launch. In this work, we provide mass and energy balances, major equipment sizing, and costing of a hybrid CuO-CuSO{sub 4} plant with 1000 MW (30,240 kg/hr) H{sub 2} production capacity. With a 90% annual availability factor, the estimated hydrogen production rate is about 238,412 tons annually, the predicted plant efficiency is about 36%, and the estimated hydrogen production cost is about $4.0/kg (not including storage and transportation costs). In addition to hydrogen production, the proposed plant generates oxygen gas as a byproduct with an estimated flowrate of about 241,920 kg/hr (equivalent to 1,907,297 tons annually). We also propose a novel technology for separating SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} from O{sub 2} using a battery of redundant fixed-bed reactors containing CuO impregnated in porous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). This technology accommodates online regeneration of the CuO. Other practical approaches for gaseous separation are also examined including use of ceramic membranes, liquefaction, and regenerable wet scrubbing with slurried magnesium oxide or solutions of sodium salts such as sodium sulfite

  10. Relative Advantages of Direct and Indirect Drive for an Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Driven by a Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.

    2001-03-06

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the relative advantages of direct drive (DD) and indirect drive (ID) for a 1 GWe inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant driven by a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). This comparison is motivated by a recent study (1) that shows that the projected cost of electricity (COE) for DD is actually about the same as that for ID even though the target gain for DD can be much larger. We can therefore no longer assume that DD is the ultimate targeting scenario for IFE, and must begin a more rigorous comparison of these two drive options. The comparison begun here shows that ID may actually end up being preferred, but the uncertainties are still rather large.

  11. Effects of the radial dependence of the fast electron diffusion coefficient on the current driven by lower-hybrid waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xianmei; Wang Yanhui; Yu Limin; Shen Xin; Wang Jianbin

    2012-07-15

    The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is one of the promising methods not only for driving the non-inductive current required for steady-state tokamak operation, but also for controlling the plasma current profile to improve confinement in tokamak experiments. A direct consequence of experimental imperfection is difficult to obtain reliable estimate of the radial diffusion coefficient (D{sub st}) of the lower hybrid driven current. In this paper, the radial profile of D{sub st} is estimated to investigate its effect on the current driven by lower hybrid wave (LHW) in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Compared with the case of the constant radial diffusion coefficient, the efficiency of LHW driven current with the radial dependent diffusion coefficient D{sub st} ({rho}) becomes either higher or lower with respect to the plasma parameters, such as the density and the magnetic fluctuation. It is also found that the profiles of the LHW driven current are different. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the radial dependence of D{sub st} in order to get an accurate and reliable result in the numerical simulation of LHCD.

  12. Effects of the radial dependence of the fast electron diffusion coefficient on the current driven by lower-hybrid waves in tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianmei; Wang, Yanhui; Yu, Limin; Shen, Xin; Wang, Jianbin

    2012-07-01

    The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is one of the promising methods not only for driving the non-inductive current required for steady-state tokamak operation, but also for controlling the plasma current profile to improve confinement in tokamak experiments. A direct consequence of experimental imperfection is difficult to obtain reliable estimate of the radial diffusion coefficient (Dst) of the lower hybrid driven current. In this paper, the radial profile of Dst is estimated to investigate its effect on the current driven by lower hybrid wave (LHW) in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Compared with the case of the constant radial diffusion coefficient, the efficiency of LHW driven current with the radial dependent diffusion coefficient Dst (ρ) becomes either higher or lower with respect to the plasma parameters, such as the density and the magnetic fluctuation. It is also found that the profiles of the LHW driven current are different. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the radial dependence of Dst in order to get an accurate and reliable result in the numerical simulation of LHCD.

  13. The Speedster-EXD- A New Event-Driven Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher V.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Prieskorn, Zachary R.; Burrows, David N.

    2016-01-01

    The Speedster-EXD is a new 64×64 pixel, 40-μm pixel pitch, 100-μm depletion depth hybrid CMOS x-ray detector with the capability of reading out only those pixels containing event charge, thus enabling fast effective frame rates. A global charge threshold can be specified, and pixels containing charge above this threshold are flagged and read out. The Speedster detector has also been designed with other advanced in-pixel features to improve performance, including a low-noise, high-gain capacitive transimpedance amplifier that eliminates interpixel capacitance crosstalk (IPC), and in-pixel correlated double sampling subtraction to reduce reset noise. We measure the best energy resolution on the Speedster-EXD detector to be 206 eV (3.5%) at 5.89 keV and 172 eV (10.0%) at 1.49 keV. The average IPC to the four adjacent pixels is measured to be 0.25%±0.2% (i.e., consistent with zero). The pixel-to-pixel gain variation is measured to be 0.80%±0.03%, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to better characterize the contributions to the energy resolution.

  14. An event driven hybrid identity management approach to privacy enhanced e-health.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guerrero, Rosa; Almenárez, Florina; Díaz-Sánchez, Daniel; Marín, Andrés; Arias, Patricia; Sanvido, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Credential-based authorization offers interesting advantages for ubiquitous scenarios involving limited devices such as sensors and personal mobile equipment: the verification can be done locally; it offers a more reduced computational cost than its competitors for issuing, storing, and verification; and it naturally supports rights delegation. The main drawback is the revocation of rights. Revocation requires handling potentially large revocation lists, or using protocols to check the revocation status, bringing extra communication costs not acceptable for sensors and other limited devices. Moreover, the effective revocation consent--considered as a privacy rule in sensitive scenarios--has not been fully addressed. This paper proposes an event-based mechanism empowering a new concept, the sleepyhead credentials, which allows to substitute time constraints and explicit revocation by activating and deactivating authorization rights according to events. Our approach is to integrate this concept in IdM systems in a hybrid model supporting delegation, which can be an interesting alternative for scenarios where revocation of consent and user privacy are critical. The delegation includes a SAML compliant protocol, which we have validated through a proof-of-concept implementation. This article also explains the mathematical model describing the event-based model and offers estimations of the overhead introduced by the system. The paper focus on health care scenarios, where we show the flexibility of the proposed event-based user consent revocation mechanism.

  15. An Event Driven Hybrid Identity Management Approach to Privacy Enhanced e-Health

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Guerrero, Rosa; Almenárez, Florina; Díaz-Sánchez, Daniel; Marín, Andrés; Arias, Patricia; Sanvido, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Credential-based authorization offers interesting advantages for ubiquitous scenarios involving limited devices such as sensors and personal mobile equipment: the verification can be done locally; it offers a more reduced computational cost than its competitors for issuing, storing, and verification; and it naturally supports rights delegation. The main drawback is the revocation of rights. Revocation requires handling potentially large revocation lists, or using protocols to check the revocation status, bringing extra communication costs not acceptable for sensors and other limited devices. Moreover, the effective revocation consent—considered as a privacy rule in sensitive scenarios—has not been fully addressed. This paper proposes an event-based mechanism empowering a new concept, the sleepyhead credentials, which allows to substitute time constraints and explicit revocation by activating and deactivating authorization rights according to events. Our approach is to integrate this concept in IdM systems in a hybrid model supporting delegation, which can be an interesting alternative for scenarios where revocation of consent and user privacy are critical. The delegation includes a SAML compliant protocol, which we have validated through a proof-of-concept implementation. This article also explains the mathematical model describing the event-based model and offers estimations of the overhead introduced by the system. The paper focus on health care scenarios, where we show the flexibility of the proposed event-based user consent revocation mechanism. PMID:22778634

  16. Comparison of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against pancreatic cancer induced by dendritic cells transfected with total tumor RNA and fusion hybrided with tumor cell

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang; Li, Hong-Yu; Wang, Di; Shao, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a deadly human malignancy. Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy with whole tumor antigens demonstrates potential efficiency in cancer treatment. Tumor RNA and tumor fusion hybrid cells are sources of whole tumor antigens for preparing DC tumor vaccines. However, the efficacy of these sources in eliciting immune responses against PC has not yet to be directly compared. In the present study, patient-derived PC cells and DCs were fused (DC–tumor hybrids) and primary cultured PC cell-derived total RNA was electroporated into autologous DCs (DC–tumor RNA). The antitumor immune responses induced by DC–tumor hybrids and DC–tumor RNA were compared directly. The results showed that both RNA and hybrid methodologies could induce tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, but pulsing DCs with total tumor RNA could induce a higher frequency of activated CTLs and T-helper cells than fusing DCs with autologous tumor cells. In addition, DC–tumor RNA triggered stronger autologous tumor cell lysis than DC–tumor hybrids. It could be concluded that DCs pulsed with whole tumor RNA are superior to those fused with tumor cells in priming anti-PC CTL responses. Electroporation with total tumor RNA may be more suitable for DC-based PC vaccination. PMID:25736302

  17. Identification of PML/RARalpha fusion gene transcripts that showed no t(15;17) with conventional karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Choughule, A; Polampalli, S; Amre, P; Shinde, S; Banavali, S; Prabhash, K; Nair, R; Subramanian, P G; Gujral, S; Parikh, P M

    2009-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by a reciprocal translocation, t(15;17)(q22;q11-21), resulting in the fusion of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) genes. Using conventional cytogenetic methods, these translocations are normally detected in about 70-90% of patients; most negative results are due to technical problems or cryptic variants. These masked PML/RARalpha fusions can be identified by molecular analyses, such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Approximately 5 to 10% of all APL cases reported do not show PML/RARalpha fusion transcripts, even with dual-colored FISH. We report three of 40 diagnosed APL cases that showed morphological, cytochemical, and immunophenotypic features of hypergranular APL, but did not show a PML/RARalpha fusion signal or any of its variants, on FISH. All cases were identified by RT-PCR, which was further confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Conventional karyotyping showed other clonal aberrations in these cases, but failed to show t(15;17) or any other variants or complex translocations. PMID:19224461

  18. A hybrid evolutionary data driven model for river water quality early warning.

    PubMed

    Burchard-Levine, Alejandra; Liu, Shuming; Vince, Francois; Li, Mingming; Ostfeld, Avi

    2014-10-01

    China's fast pace industrialization and growing population has led to several accidental surface water pollution events in the last decades. The government of China, after the 2005 Songhua River incident, has pushed for the development of early warning systems (EWS) for drinking water source protection. However, there are still many weaknesses in EWS in China such as the lack of pollution monitoring and advanced water quality prediction models. The application of Data Driven Models (DDM) such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has acquired recent attention as an alternative to physical models. For a case study in a south industrial city in China, a DDM based on genetic algorithm (GA) and ANN was tested to increase the response time of the city's EWS. The GA-ANN model was used to predict NH3-N, CODmn and TOC variables at station B 2 h ahead of time while showing the most sensitive input variables available at station A, 12 km upstream. For NH3-N, the most sensitive input variables were TOC, CODmn, TP, NH3-N and Turbidity with model performance giving a mean square error (MSE) of 0.0033, mean percent error (MPE) of 6% and regression (R) of 92%. For COD, the most sensitive input variables were Turbidity and CODmn with model performance giving a MSE of 0.201, MPE of 5% and R of 0.87. For TOC, the most sensitive input variables were Turbidity and CODmn with model performance giving a MSE of 0.101, MPE of 2% and R of 0.94. In addition, the GA-ANN model performed better for 8 h ahead of time. For future studies, the use of a GA-ANN modelling technique can be very useful for water quality prediction in Chinese monitoring stations which already measure and have immediately available water quality data.

  19. 2D hybrid simulations of super-diffusion at the magnetopause driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    SciTech Connect

    Cowee, Misa M; Winske, Dan; Gary, S Peter

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript describes the self-consistent simulation of diffusion at the magnetopause driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. Two-dimensional hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations of the most KH-unstable configuration where the shear flow is oriented perpendicular to the uniform magnetic field are carried out. The motion of the simulation particles are tracked during the run and their mean-square displacement normal to the magnetopause is calculated from which diffusion coefficients are determined. The diffusion coefficients are found to be time dependent, with D{sub x} {proportional_to} t{sup {alpha}}, where {alpha} > 1. Additionally, the probability distribution functions (PDF) of the 'jump lengths' the particles make over time are found to be non-gaussian. Such time-dependent diffusion coefficients and non-gaussian PDF's have been associated with so-called 'super-diffusion', in which diffusive mixing of particles is enhanced over classical diffusion. The results indicate that while turbulence associated with the break-down of vortices contributes to this enhanced diffusion, it is the growth of large-scale, coherent vortices is the more important process in facilitating it.

  20. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Buice, E S; Alger, E T; Antipa, N A; Bhandarkar, S D; Biesiada, T A; Conder, A D; Dzenitis, E G; Flegel, M S; Hamza, A V; Heinbockel, C L; Horner, J; Johnson, M A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Meyer, J S; Montesanti, R C; Reynolds, J L; Taylor, J S; Wegner, P J

    2011-02-18

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 {micro}m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10{micro} diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1{sigma}), which corresponds to approximately 5 {micro}m linear error on the capsule surface.

  1. Exciton energy recycling from ZnO defect levels: towards electrically driven hybrid quantum-dot white light-emitting-diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Weizhen; Chen, Rui; Gao, Yuan; Zhu, Binbin; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Wang, Shijie; Sun, Handong

    2016-03-21

    An electrically driven quantum-dot hybrid white light-emitting diode is fabricated via spin coating CdSe quantum dots onto a GaN/ZnO nanorod matrix. For the first time, quantum dots are excited by fluorescence resonance energy transfer from the carriers trapped at surface defect levels. The prototype device exhibits achromatic emission, with a chromaticity coordinate of (0.327, 0.330), and correlated color temperature similar to sunlight.

  2. Misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila hybrids is lineage-specific and driven by the combined effects of sterility and fast male regulatory divergence.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S; Civetta, A

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common outcome of crosses between different species. Gene expression studies have found that a number of spermatogenesis genes are differentially expressed in sterile hybrid males, compared with parental species. Late-stage sperm development genes are particularly likely to be misexpressed, with fewer early-stage genes affected. Thus, a link has been posited between misexpression and sterility. A more recent alternative explanation for hybrid gene misexpression has been that it is independent of sterility and driven by divergent evolution of male-specific regulatory elements between species (faster male hypothesis). The faster male hypothesis predicts that misregulation of spermatogenesis genes should be independent of sterility and approximately the same in both hybrids, whereas sterility should only affect gene expression in sterile hybrids. To test the faster male hypothesis vs. the effect of sterility on gene misexpression, we analyse spermatogenesis gene expression in different species pairs of the Drosophila phylogeny, where hybrid male sterility occurs in only one direction of the interspecies cross (i.e. unidirectional sterility). We find significant differences among genes in misexpression with effects that are lineage-specific and caused by sterility or fast male regulatory divergence.

  3. Verification of gyrokinetic particle simulation of current-driven instability in fusion plasmas. I. Internal kink mode

    SciTech Connect

    McClenaghan, J.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Deng, W.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-15

    The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) capability has been extended for simulating internal kink instability with kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. The global simulation domain covers the magnetic axis, which is necessary for simulating current-driven instabilities. GTC simulation in the fluid limit of the kink modes in cylindrical geometry is verified by benchmarking with a magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue code. Gyrokinetic simulations of the kink modes in the toroidal geometry find that ion kinetic effects significantly reduce the growth rate even when the banana orbit width is much smaller than the radial width of the perturbed current layer at the mode rational surface.

  4. Proton Radiography of Spontaneous Fields, Plasma Flows and Dynamics in X-Ray Driven Inertial-Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Back, C. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2010-11-01

    Backlighting of x-ray-driven implosions in empty hohlraums with mono-energetic protons on the OMEGA laser facility has allowed a number of important phenomena to be observed. Several critical parameters were determined, including plasma flow, three types of spontaneous electric fields and megaGauss magnetic fields. These results provide insight into important issues in indirect-drive ICF. Even though the cavity is effectively a Faraday cage, the strong, local fields inside the hohlraum can affect laser-plasma instabilities, electron distributions and implosion symmetry. They are of fundamental scientific importance for a range of new experiments at the frontiers of high-energy-density physics. Future experiments designed to characterize the field formation and evolution in low-Z gas fill hohlraums will be discussed.

  5. Experimental Characterization of Thermo-electric Driven Liquid Lithium Flow in Narrow Trenches for Magnetic Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenyu; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Curreli, Davide; Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David

    2013-10-01

    The application of liquid metal, especially liquid lithium has become an important topic for plasma facing component (PFC) design. A liquid PFC can effectively eliminate the erosion and thermal stress problems compared to the solid PFC while transferring heat and prolong the lifetime limit of the PFCs. A liquid lithium surface can also suppress the hydrogen isotopes recycling and getter the impurities in fusion reactors. The Lithium/metal infused trench (LiMIT) concept successfully proved that the thermoelectric effect can be utilized to drive liquid lithium flow within horizontally placed metallic open trenches in transverse magnetic field. A limiter based on this concept was tested in HT-7 and gave out positive results. However a broader application of this concept may require the trench be tilted or even placed vertically, for which strong capillary force caused by narrow trenches may be the solution. A new LiMIT design with very narrow trenches have been manufactured and tested in University of Illinois and related results will be presented. Based on this idea new limiters are designed for EAST and LTX and scheduled experiments on both devices will be discussed. This project is supported by DOE/ALPS contract: DEFG02- 99ER54515.

  6. Detection of numerical and structural alterations and fusion of chromosomes 16 and 1 in low-grade papillary breast carcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, H; Takarabe, T; Susumu, N; Inazawa, J; Okada, S; Hirohashi, S

    1997-10-01

    Intracystic papillary breast tumors, including intraductal papilloma and low-grade intracystic papillary carcinoma, constitute a group for which differential diagnosis is frequently difficult. We examined the status of chromosomes 16 and 1 by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses and the DNA ploidy patterns by flow cytometry in 26 intracystic papillary tumors. Alterations of chromosomes 16 and 1 were detected by FISH in 93 and 85%, respectively, of 14 low-grade papillary carcinomas, and the latter alterations always concurred with the former. Two-color FISH using probes for the D1Z1 (1q12) and D16Z2 (16cen) loci or the D1Z1 and D16Z3 (16q11) loci showed that fusion of chromosomes 16 and 1, mostly with breakpoints distal to 16q11.2 and proximal to 1q12, occurred in 77% of the papillary carcinomas. DNA aneuploidy was detected in 6% of these carcinomas. No papilloma showed these chromosome alterations or DNA aneuploidy. Chromosome 16 and 1 fusions appeared to occur frequently in diploid breast carcinomas and to be involved in the acquisition of a malignant phenotype by duct epithelial cells. We suggest that two-color FISH methods for detecting 1;16 fusions might be applicable as supportive methods for the differential diagnosis of intracystic papillary breast tumors. PMID:9327736

  7. A low cost, fully integrated, event-driven, real-time control and data acquisition system for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, A. J. N.; Combo, A.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    2003-03-01

    A new, real-time, distributed, control and data acquisition system architecture for long duration fusion experiments was developed based on the new optical communications technologies and the "System on a Chip" methodology. The architecture integrates data routing, data storage, real-time data processing and control and data acquisition nodes, interconnected by a switched-packed, gigabit, point-to-point, communications network. The routing nodes provide connections to the autonomous storage and processing nodes through standard network links. The control and data acquisition nodes are connected to the routing nodes by specifically designed optical links which provide both data transport and timing/synchronism support. The acquired data are time stamped and can be dynamically processed for local control or sent to the external storage, the real-time processing or the control nodes. The standard processor and the reconfigurable field programmable gate array included in each node allow the programming of the data reduction, adaptive signal processing, and control algorithms from a high level system description language. All nodes will be controlled through an instrumentation-specific implementation of the Extensible Markup Language. A control and data acquisition node with 32 independent and galvanically isolated analog channels of 16 bits resolution is under development. All input signals are continuously and simultaneously sampled at a rate of 2 MSPS, time stamped, optionally digitally filtered, and stored in a large circular memory buffer. Three other node configuration sets will also be implemented: 16 channels, 20 MSPS, 16 bit; 8 channels, 100 MSPS, 12 bit; 2 channels, 1 GSPS, 8 bit.

  8. (Cd,Mn)Te detectors for characterization of x-ray emissions generated during laser-driven fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cross,A.S.; Knauer, J. P.; Mycielski, A.; Kochanowska, D.; Wiktowska-Baran, M.; Jakiela, R.; Domagala, J.; Cui, Y.; James, R.; Sobolewski, R.

    2008-10-19

    We present our measurements of (Cd,Mn)Te photoconductive detectors (PCDs), fabricated for the goal of measuring both the temporal and spectral dependences of X-ray emissions generated from laser-illuminated targets during the inertial confinement fusion experiments. Our Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te (x = 0.05) single crystals, doped with V, were grown using a vertical Bridgman method and, subsequently, annealed in Cd for the highest resistivity ({approx}10{sup 10} {Omega}cm) and a good mobility-lifetime product ({approx}10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/V). The 1-mm- and 2.3-mm-thick detectors were placed in the same housing as two 1-mm-thick diamond PCDs. All devices were pre-screened by a 7.6-mm-thick Be X-ray filter with a frequency cutoff of 1 keV. The incident shots from the OMEGA laser were 1-ns-long square pulses with energies ranging from 2.3 kJ to 22.6 kJ, and the PCDs were biased with 5000 V/cm. The response amplitudes and rise times of our (Cd,Mn)Te PCDs were comparable with the diamond detector performance, while the decay times were 4 to 10 times longer and in the 2-5 ns range. We observed two X-ray emission events separated by 1.24 ns. The first was identified as caused by heating of the target and creating a hot corona, while the second one was from the resulting compressed core. For comparison purposes, our testing was performed using {approx}1 keV X-ray photons, optimal for the diamond PCD. According to the presented simulations, however, at X-ray energies >10 keV diamond absorption efficiency drops to <50%, whereas for (Cd,Mn)Te the drop occurs at {approx}100 keV with near perfect, 100% absorption, up to 50 keV.

  9. Novel fusion for hybrid optical/microcomputed tomography imaging based on natural light surface reconstruction and iterated closest point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Nannan; Tian, Jie; Liu, Xia; Deng, Kexin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Bo; Wang, Kun; Ma, Xibo

    2014-02-01

    In mathematics, optical molecular imaging including bioluminescence tomography (BLT), fluorescence tomography (FMT) and Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) are concerned with a similar inverse source problem. They all involve the reconstruction of the 3D location of a single/multiple internal luminescent/fluorescent sources based on 3D surface flux distribution. To achieve that, an accurate fusion between 2D luminescent/fluorescent images and 3D structural images that may be acquired form micro-CT, MRI or beam scanning is extremely critical. However, the absence of a universal method that can effectively convert 2D optical information into 3D makes the accurate fusion challengeable. In this study, to improve the fusion accuracy, a new fusion method for dual-modality tomography (luminescence/fluorescence and micro-CT) based on natural light surface reconstruction (NLSR) and iterated closest point (ICP) was presented. It consisted of Octree structure, exact visual hull from marching cubes and ICP. Different from conventional limited projection methods, it is 360° free-space registration, and utilizes more luminescence/fluorescence distribution information from unlimited multi-orientation 2D optical images. A mouse mimicking phantom (one XPM-2 Phantom Light Source, XENOGEN Corporation) and an in-vivo BALB/C mouse with implanted one luminescent light source were used to evaluate the performance of the new fusion method. Compared with conventional fusion methods, the average error of preset markers was improved by 0.3 and 0.2 pixels from the new method, respectively. After running the same 3D internal light source reconstruction algorithm of the BALB/C mouse, the distance error between the actual and reconstructed internal source was decreased by 0.19 mm.

  10. Comparison of Hybrid Surgery Incorporating Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion and Artificial Arthroplasty versus Multilevel Fusion for Multilevel Cervical Spondylosis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zang, Leyuan; Ma, Min; Hu, Jianxin; Qiu, Hao; Huang, Bo; Chu, Tongwei

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few studies have reported the safety and efficacy of hybrid surgery (HS), and some of the studies comparing HS with ACDF have reported conflicting results. We conducted this meta-analysis to clarify the advantages of HS in the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Medline, and CNKI to identify relevant controlled trials published up to October 2015. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the perioperative parameters, visual analogue scale pain score (VAS), neck disability index (NDI), and range of motion (ROM) of C2-C7 and adjacent segments were calculated. We also analyzed complications and Odom scale scores using risk difference (RD) and 95% CI. RESULTS In total, 7 studies were included. The pooled data exhibited significant differences in blood loss between the 2 groups. However, there was no evidence indicating significant differences in operation time, complications, VAS, NDI, or Odom scale scores. Compared with the ACDF group, the HS group exhibited significantly protected C2-C7 ROM and reduced adjacent-segment ROM. CONCLUSIONS The safety of HS may be as good as that of ACDF. Furthermore, HS is superior to ACDF in conserving cervical spine ROM and decreasing adjacent-segment ROM. However, the results should be accepted cautiously due to the limitations of the study. Studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are required to confirm and update the results of the present study. PMID:26709008

  11. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  12. Corrosion of oxide dispersion strengthened iron-chromium steels and tantalum in fluoride salt coolant: An in situ compatibility study for fusion and fusion-fission hybrid reactor concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dasher, Bassem; Farmer, Joseph; Ferreira, James; de Caro, Magdalena Serrano; Rubenchik, Alexander; Kimura, Akihiko

    2011-12-01

    Primary candidate classes of materials for future nuclear power plants, whether they be fission, fusion or hybrids, include oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels which rely on a dispersion of nano-oxide particles in the matrix for both mechanical strength and swelling resistance, or tantalum alloys which have an inherent neutron-induced swelling resistance and high temperature strength. For high temperature operation, eutectic molten lithium containing fluoride salts are attractive because of their breeding capability as well as their relatively high thermal capacity, which allow for a higher average operating temperature that increases power production. In this paper we test the compatibility of Flinak (LiF-NaF-KF) salts on ODS steels, comparing the performance of current generation ODS steels developed at Kyoto University with the commercial alloy MA956. Pure tantalum was also tested for comparative purposes. In situ data was obtained for temperatures ranging from 600 to 900 °C using a custom-built high temperature electrochemical impedance spectroscopy cell. Results for ODS steels show that steel/coolant interfacial resistance increases from 600 to 800 °C due to an aluminum enriched layer forming at the surface, however an increase in temperature to 900 °C causes this layer to break up and aggressive attack to occur. Performance of current generation ODS steels surpassed that of the MA956 ODS steel, with an in situ impedance behavior similar or better than that of pure tantalum.

  13. Facile synthesis of ternary Ag/AgBr-Ag2CO3 hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic removal of elemental mercury driven by visible light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Lu, Hao; Chen, Guoyan; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun; Sun, Lushi

    2016-08-15

    A novel technique for photocatalytic removal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) using visible-light-driven Ag/AgBr-Ag2CO3 hybrids was proposed. The ternary Ag/AgBr-Ag2CO3 hybrids were synthesized by a simple modified co-precipitation method and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques. The effects of AgBr content, fluorescent lamp (FSL) irradiation, solution temperature, SO2 and NO on Hg(0) removal were investigated in detail. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism for higher Hg(0) removal was proposed, and the simultaneous removal of Hg(0), SO2 and NO was studied. The results showed that a high efficiency of Hg(0) removal was obtained by using Ag/AgBr-Ag2CO3 hybrids under fluorescent lamp irradiation. The AgBr content, FSL irradiation, solution temperature, and SO2 all exhibited significant effects on Hg(0) removal, while NO had slight effect on Hg(0) removal. The addition of Ca(OH)2 demonstrated a little impact on Hg(0) removal and could significantly improve the SO2-resistance performance of Ag/AgBr(0.7)-Ag2CO3 hybrid. The characterization results exhibited that hydroxyl radical (OH), superoxide radical (O2(-)), hole (h(+)), and Br(0), were reactive species responsible for removing Hg(0), and the h(+) played a key role in Hg(0) removal. PMID:27135702

  14. Highly selective fusion and accumulation of hybrid liposomes into primary effusion lymphoma cells along with induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Towata, Tomomi; Komizu, Yuji; Suzu, Shinya; Ueoka, Ryuichi; Okada, Seiji

    2010-03-12

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human herpes virus-8 infection, and is generally resistant to chemotherapy. Hybrid liposomes, composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene (21) dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}(EO){sub 21}) (HL-21), were rapidly accumulated in the membrane of PEL cells. HL-21 also increased membrane fluidity of PEL cells, and induced caspase-3 activation along with cell death. These results suggest that HL-21 should be an effective and attractive regent for PEL treatment.

  15. Dependence of synergy current driven by lower hybrid wave and electron cyclotron wave on the frequency and parallel refractive index of electron cyclotron wave for Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.; Chen, S. Y. Tang, C. J.

    2014-01-15

    The physical mechanism of the synergy current driven by lower hybrid wave (LHW) and electron cyclotron wave (ECW) in tokamaks is investigated using theoretical analysis and simulation methods in the present paper. Research shows that the synergy relationship between the two waves in velocity space strongly depends on the frequency ω and parallel refractive index N{sub //} of ECW. For a given spectrum of LHW, the parameter range of ECW, in which the synergy current exists, can be predicted by theoretical analysis, and these results are consistent with the simulation results. It is shown that the synergy effect is mainly caused by the electrons accelerated by both ECW and LHW, and the acceleration of these electrons requires that there is overlap of the resonance regions of the two waves in velocity space.

  16. Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Polyoxometalate-Based Hybrids Driven by Metal Coordination and Electrostatic Interactions: From Discrete Supramolecular Species to Dense Monodisperse Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Izzet, Guillaume; Abécassis, Benjamin; Brouri, Dalil; Piot, Madeleine; Matt, Benjamin; Serapian, Stefano Artin; Bo, Carles; Proust, Anna

    2016-04-20

    The metal-driven self-assembly processes of a covalent polyoxometalate (POM)-based hybrid bearing remote terpyridine binding sites have been investigated. In a strongly dissociating solvent, a discrete metallomacrocycle, described as a molecular triangle, is formed and characterized by 2D diffusion NMR spectroscopy (DOSY), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and molecular modeling. In a less dissociating solvent, the primary supramolecular structure, combining negatively charged POMs and cationic metal linkers, further self-assemble through intermolecular electrostatic interactions in a reversible process. The resulting hierarchical assemblies are dense monodisperse nanoparticles composed of ca. 50 POMs that were characterized by SAXS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This multiscale organized system directed by metal coordination and electrostatic interactions constitutes a promising step for the future design of POM self-assemblies with controllable structure-directing factors. PMID:27019075

  17. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Deuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m(2) of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m(3) seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%.

  18. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Deuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m(2) of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m(3) seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%. PMID:27176649

  19. Hybrid fusion-fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Salahutdinov, G. H.; Kulikov, E. G.; Apse, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Discussions are currently going on as to whether it is suitable to employ thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. This work demonstrates that the 231Pa-232U-233U-Th composition to be produced in the thorium blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor (HTR) as a fuel for light-water reactors opens up the possibility of achieving high, up to 30% of heavy metals (HM), or even ultrahigh fuel burnup. This is because the above fuel composition is able to stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties in the process of high fuel burnup. In addition, it allows the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) to be better protected against unauthorized proliferation of fissile materials owing to an unprecedentedly large fraction of 232U (several percent!) in the uranium bred from the Th blanket, which will substantially hamper the use of fissile materials in a closed NFC for purposes other than power production.

  20. Real-time atmospheric imaging and processing with hybrid adaptive optics and hardware accelerated lucky-region fusion (LRF) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jony Jiang; Carhart, Gary W.; Beresnev, Leonid A.; Aubailly, Mathieu; Jackson, Christopher R.; Ejzak, Garrett; Kiamilev, Fouad E.

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulences can significantly deteriorate the performance of long-range conventional imaging systems and create difficulties for target identification and recognition. Our in-house developed adaptive optics (AO) system, which contains high-performance deformable mirrors (DMs) and the fast stochastic parallel gradient decent (SPGD) control mechanism, allows effective compensation of such turbulence-induced wavefront aberrations and result in significant improvement on the image quality. In addition, we developed advanced digital synthetic imaging and processing technique, "lucky-region" fusion (LRF), to mitigate the image degradation over large field-of-view (FOV). The LRF algorithm extracts sharp regions from each image obtained from a series of short exposure frames and fuses them into a final improved image. We further implemented such algorithm into a VIRTEX-7 field programmable gate array (FPGA) and achieved real-time video processing. Experiments were performed by combining both AO and hardware implemented LRF processing technique over a near-horizontal 2.3km atmospheric propagation path. Our approach can also generate a universal real-time imaging and processing system with a general camera link input, a user controller interface, and a DVI video output.

  1. A study of 239Pu production rate in a water cooled natural uranium blanket mock-up of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Song; Liu, Rong; Lu, Xinxin; Yang, Yiwei; Xu, Kun; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Tonghua; Jiang, Li; Qin, Jianguo; Jiang, Jieqiong; Han, Zijie; Lai, Caifeng; Wen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    The 239Pu production rate is important data in neutronics design for a natural uranium blanket of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, and the accuracy and reliability should be validated by integral experiments. The distribution of 239Pu production rates in a subcritical natural uranium blanket mock-up was obtained for the first time with a D-T neutron generator by using an activation technique. Natural uranium foils were placed in different spatial locations of the mock-up, the counts of 277.6 keV γ-rays emitted from 239Np generated by 238U capture reaction were measured by an HPGe γ spectrometer, and the self-absorption of natural uranium foils was corrected. The experiment was analyzed using the Super Monte Carlo neutron transport code SuperMC2.0 with recent nuclear data of 238U from the ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u2, JEFF-3.2 and CENDL-3.1 libraries. Calculation results with the JEFF-3.2 library agree with the experimental ones best, and they agree within the experimental uncertainty in general with the average ratios of calculation results to experimental results (C/E) in the range of 0.93 to 1.01.

  2. Strain-driven and ultrasensitive resistive sensor/switch based on conductive alginate/nitrogen-doped carbon-nanotube-supported Ag hybrid aerogels with pyramid design.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Songfang; Zhang, Guoping; Gao, Yongju; Deng, Libo; Li, Jinhui; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2014-12-24

    Flexible strain-driven sensor is an essential component in the flexible electronics. Especially, high durability and sensitivity to strain are required. Here, we present an efficient and low-cost fabrication strategy to construct a highly sensitive and flexible pressure sensor based on a conductive, elastic aerogel with pyramid design. When pressure is loaded, the contact area between the interfaces of the conductive aerogel and the copper electrode as well as among the building blocks of the nitrogen-doped carbon-nanotube-supported Ag (N-CNTs/Ag) aerogel monoliths, changes in reversible and directional manners. This contact resistance mechanism enables the hybrid aerogels to act as strain-driven sensors with high sensitivity and excellent on/off swithching behavior, and the gauge factor (GF) is ∼15 under strain of 3%, which is superior to those reported for other aerogels. In addition, robust, elastomeric and conductive nanocomposites can be fabricated by injecting polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into alginate/N-CNTs/Ag aerogels. Importantly, the building blocks forming the aerogels retain their initial contact and percolation after undergoing large-strain deformation, PDMS infiltration, and cross-linking of PDMS, suggesting their potential applications as strain sensors.

  3. Strain-driven and ultrasensitive resistive sensor/switch based on conductive alginate/nitrogen-doped carbon-nanotube-supported Ag hybrid aerogels with pyramid design.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Songfang; Zhang, Guoping; Gao, Yongju; Deng, Libo; Li, Jinhui; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2014-12-24

    Flexible strain-driven sensor is an essential component in the flexible electronics. Especially, high durability and sensitivity to strain are required. Here, we present an efficient and low-cost fabrication strategy to construct a highly sensitive and flexible pressure sensor based on a conductive, elastic aerogel with pyramid design. When pressure is loaded, the contact area between the interfaces of the conductive aerogel and the copper electrode as well as among the building blocks of the nitrogen-doped carbon-nanotube-supported Ag (N-CNTs/Ag) aerogel monoliths, changes in reversible and directional manners. This contact resistance mechanism enables the hybrid aerogels to act as strain-driven sensors with high sensitivity and excellent on/off swithching behavior, and the gauge factor (GF) is ∼15 under strain of 3%, which is superior to those reported for other aerogels. In addition, robust, elastomeric and conductive nanocomposites can be fabricated by injecting polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into alginate/N-CNTs/Ag aerogels. Importantly, the building blocks forming the aerogels retain their initial contact and percolation after undergoing large-strain deformation, PDMS infiltration, and cross-linking of PDMS, suggesting their potential applications as strain sensors. PMID:25423613

  4. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  5. Hybridization-driven gap in U3Bi4Ni3: a 209Bi NMR/NQR study

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Seung H

    2009-01-01

    We report {sup 209}Bi nuclear-magnetic-resonance and nuclear-quadrupole-resonance measurements on a single crystal of the Kondo insulator U{sub 3}Bi{sub 4}Ni{sub 3}. The {sup 209}Bi nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate (T{sub 1}{sup -1}) shows activated behavior and is well fit by a spin gap of 220 K. The {sup 209}Bi Knight shift (K) exhibits a strong temperature dependence arising from 5f electrons, in which K is negative at high temperatures and increases as the temperature is lowered. Below 50 K, K shows a broad maximum and decreases slightly upon further cooling. Our data provide insight into the evolution of the hyperfine fields in a fully gapped Kondo insulator based on 5f electron hybridization.

  6. Toward direct light-to-digital conversion using a pulse-driven hybrid MOS-PN photodetector.

    PubMed

    Sallin, Denis; Koukab, Adil; Kayal, Maher

    2015-02-15

    In this Letter, a direct light-to-digital converter based on an MOS-PN photodetector driven by pulsed voltage is presented. The objective is to avoid any analog-to-digital or time-to-digital conversion and, thereby, to pave the way for a new generation of fully digital imaging sensors with reduced complexity, area, and power consumption. Moreover, the pulsed voltage operation allows for a significant reduction of the dark level. The concept is validated by a theoretical study and TCAD simulations. A first prototype fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology is presented. The experimental results under various light conditions show that the pulsed voltage improves the light sensitivity by several orders of magnitude.

  7. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Jeffrey James

    2011-11-30

    This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated

  8. A handy-motion driven, frequency up-converted hybrid vibration energy harvester using PZT bimorph and nonmagnetic ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, M. A.; Cho, H. O.; Park, J. Y.

    2014-11-01

    We have presented a frequency up-converted hybrid type (Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic) vibration energy harvester that can be used in powering portable and wearable smart devices by handy motion. A transverse impact mechanism has been employed for frequency up-conversion. Use of two transduction mechanisms increases the output power as well as power density. The proposed device consists of a non-magnetic spherical ball (freely movable at handy motion frequency) to impact periodically on the parabolic top of a piezoelectric (PZT) cantilevered mass by sliding over it, allowing it to vibrate at its higher resonant frequency and generates voltage by virtue of piezoelectric effect. A magnet attached to the cantilever vibrates along with it at the same frequency and a relative motion between the magnet and a coil placed below it, induces emf voltage across the coil terminals as well. A macro-scale prototype of the harvester has been fabricated and tested by handy motion. With an optimum magnet-coil overlap, a maximum 0.98mW and 0.64mW peak powers have been obtained from the piezoelectric and the electromagnetic transducers of the proposed device while shaken, respectively. It offers 84.4μWcm-3 peak power density.

  9. Gravity-driven hybrid membrane for oleophobic-superhydrophilic oil-water separation and water purification by graphene.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun; Na, Seung-Heon; Choi, Jae-Young; Latthe, Sanjay S; Swihart, Mark T; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Yoon, Sam S

    2014-10-01

    We prepared a simple, low-cost membrane suitable for gravity-driven oil-water separation and water purification. Composite membranes with selective wettability were fabricated from a mixture of aqueous poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution, sodium perfluorooctanoate, and silica nanoparticles. Simply dip-coating a stainless steel mesh using this mixture produced the oil-water separator. The contact angles (CAs) of hexadecane and water on the prepared composite membranes were 95 ± 2° and 0°, respectively, showing the oleophobicity and superhydrophilicity of the membrane. In addition, a graphene plug was stacked below the membrane to remove water-soluble organics by adsorption. As a result, this multifunctional device not only separates hexadecane from water, but also purifies water by the permeation of the separated water through the graphene plug. Here, methylene blue (MB) was removed as a demonstration. Membranes were characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to elucidate the origin of their selective wettability. PMID:25192514

  10. Gravity-driven hybrid membrane for oleophobic-superhydrophilic oil-water separation and water purification by graphene.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun; Na, Seung-Heon; Choi, Jae-Young; Latthe, Sanjay S; Swihart, Mark T; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Yoon, Sam S

    2014-10-01

    We prepared a simple, low-cost membrane suitable for gravity-driven oil-water separation and water purification. Composite membranes with selective wettability were fabricated from a mixture of aqueous poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution, sodium perfluorooctanoate, and silica nanoparticles. Simply dip-coating a stainless steel mesh using this mixture produced the oil-water separator. The contact angles (CAs) of hexadecane and water on the prepared composite membranes were 95 ± 2° and 0°, respectively, showing the oleophobicity and superhydrophilicity of the membrane. In addition, a graphene plug was stacked below the membrane to remove water-soluble organics by adsorption. As a result, this multifunctional device not only separates hexadecane from water, but also purifies water by the permeation of the separated water through the graphene plug. Here, methylene blue (MB) was removed as a demonstration. Membranes were characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to elucidate the origin of their selective wettability.

  11. Big fusion, little fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Frank; ddtuttle

    2016-08-01

    In reply to correspondence from George Scott and Adam Costley about the Physics World focus issue on nuclear energy, and to news of construction delays at ITER, the fusion reactor being built in France.

  12. MoS2/reduced graphene oxide hybrid with CdS nanoparticles as a visible light-driven photocatalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wen-chao; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiao-yan

    2016-05-15

    Photocatalytic reduction of nitroaromatic compounds to aromatic amines using visible light is an attractive process that utilizes sunlight as the energy source for the chemical conversions. Herewith we synthesized a composite material consisting of CdS nanoparticles grown on the surface of MoS2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid as a novel photocatalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The CdS-MoS2/rGO composite is shown as a high-performance visible light-driven photocatalyst. Even without a noble-metal cocatalyst, the catalyst exhibited a great activity under visible light irradiation for the reduction of 4-NP to much less toxic 4-aminophenol (4-AP) with ammonium formate as the sacrificial agent. Composite CdS-0.03(MoS2/0.01rGO) was found to be the most effective photocatalyst for 4-NP reduction. The high photocatalytic performance is apparently resulted from the synergetic functions of MoS2 and graphene in the composite, i.e. the cocatalysts serve as both the active adsorption sites for 4-NP and electron collectors for the separation of electron-hole pairs generated by CdS nanoparticles. The laboratory results show that the CdS-MoS2/rGO composite is a low-cost and stable photocatalyst for effective reduction and detoxification of nitroaromatic compounds using solar energy.

  13. Label fusion strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Nicolas; Duchesne, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Label fusion is used in medical image segmentation to combine several different labels of the same entity into a single discrete label, potentially more accurate, with respect to the exact, sought segmentation, than the best input element. Using simulated data, we compared three existing label fusion techniques-STAPLE, Voting, and Shape-Based Averaging (SBA)-and observed that none could be considered superior depending on the dissimilarity between the input elements. We thus developed an empirical, hybrid technique called SVS, which selects the most appropriate technique to apply based on this dissimilarity. We evaluated the label fusion strategies on two- and three-dimensional simulated data and showed that SVS is superior to any of the three existing methods examined. On real data, we used SVS to perform fusions of 10 segmentations of the hippocampus and amygdala in 78 subjects from the ICBM dataset. SVS selected SBA in almost all cases, which was the most appropriate method overall. PMID:22518113

  14. Catalytically-relevant electron transfer between two hemes bL in the hybrid cytochrome bc1-like complex containing a fusion of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and capsulatus cytochromes b.

    PubMed

    Czapla, Monika; Cieluch, Ewelina; Borek, Arkadiusz; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2013-06-01

    To address mechanistic questions about the functioning of dimeric cytochrome bc1 new genetic approaches have recently been developed. They were specifically designed to enable construction of asymmetrically-mutated variants suitable for functional studies. One approach exploited a fusion of two cytochromes b that replaced the separate subunits in the dimer. The fusion protein, built from two copies of the same cytochrome b of purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, served as a template to create a series of asymmetrically-mutated cytochrome bc1-like complexes (B-B) which, through kinetic studies, disclosed several important principles of dimer engineering. Here, we report on construction of another fusion protein complex that adds a new tool to investigate dimeric function of the enzyme through the asymmetrically mutated forms of the protein. This complex (BS-B) contains a hybrid protein that combines two different cytochromes b: one coming from R. capsulatus and the other - from a closely related species, R. sphaeroides. With this new fusion we addressed a still controversial issue of electron transfer between the two hemes bL in the core of dimer. Kinetic data obtained with a series of BS-B variants provided new evidence confirming the previously reported observations that electron transfer between those two hemes occurs on a millisecond timescale, thus is a catalytically-relevant event. Both types of the fusion complexes (B-B and BS-B) consistently implicate that the heme-bL-bL bridge forms an electronic connection available for inter-monomer electron transfer in cytochrome bc1.

  15. Plasma sheath driven targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, J. H.; Freeman, B. L.

    1980-02-01

    Plasma focus driven target implosions are simulated using hydrodynamic-burn codes. Support is given to the idea that the use of a target in a plasma focus should allow 'impedance matching' between the fuel and gun, permitting larger fusion yields from a focus-target geometry than the scaling laws for a conventional plasma focus would predict.

  16. Comparison of the recently proposed super-Marx generator approach to thermonuclear ignition with the deuterium-tritium laser fusion-fission hybrid concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). In a super-Marx generator, a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultrahigh voltage Marx generator from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium microexplosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. Typical examples of the LIFE concept are a fusion gain of 30 and a fission gain of 10, making up a total gain of 300, with about ten times more energy released into fissionmore » as compared to fusion. This means the substantial release of fission products, as in fissionless pure fission reactors. In the super-Marx approach for the ignition of pure deuterium microdetonation, a gain of the same magnitude can, in theory, be reached. If feasible, the super-Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions.« less

  17. Comparison of the recently proposed super-Marx generator approach to thermonuclear ignition with the deuterium-tritium laser fusion-fission hybrid concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). In a super-Marx generator, a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultrahigh voltage Marx generator from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium microexplosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. Typical examples of the LIFE concept are a fusion gain of 30 and a fission gain of 10, making up a total gain of 300, with about ten times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means the substantial release of fission products, as in fissionless pure fission reactors. In the super-Marx approach for the ignition of pure deuterium microdetonation, a gain of the same magnitude can, in theory, be reached. If feasible, the super-Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions.

  18. Recurrent Fusions in MYB and MYBL1 Define a Common, Transcription Factor-Driven Oncogenic Pathway in Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brayer, Kathryn J.; Frerich, Candace A.; Kang, Huining; Ness, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC), the second most common malignancy of salivary glands, is a rare tumor with bleak prognosis for which therapeutic targets are unavailable. We used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze low-quality RNA from archival, formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. In addition to detecting the most common ACC translocation, t(6;9) fusing the MYB proto-oncogene to NFIB, we also detected previously unknown t(8;9) and t(8;14) translocations fusing the MYBL1 gene to the NFIB and RAD51B genes, respectively. RNA-seq provided information about gene fusions, alternative RNA splicing and gene expression signatures. Interestingly, tumors with MYB and MYBL1 translocations displayed similar gene expression profiles, and the combined MYB and MYBL1 expression correlated with outcome, suggesting that the related Myb proteins are interchangeable oncogenic drivers in ACC. Our results provide important details about the biology of ACC and illustrate how archival tissue samples can be used for detailed molecular analyses of rare tumors. PMID:26631070

  19. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, John T.; Keefer, Christopher J.; Slaughter, James C.; Kulp, Daniel W.; Schief, William R.

    2014-04-15

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (K{sub on}) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (K{sub off}) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced K{sub on} with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased K{sub on} found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants. - Highlights: • The relationship of affinity to neutralization for virus antibodies is uncertain. • Palivizumab binds to RSV escape mutant fusion proteins, but with reduced affinity. • Association rate (K{sub on}) correlated well with the potency of neutralization.

  20. Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, G.

    This chapter is devoted to the fundamental concepts of nuclear fusion. To be more precise, it is devoted to the theoretical basics of fusion reactions between light nuclei such as hydrogen, helium, boron, and lithium. The discussion is limited because our purpose is to focus on laboratory-scale fusion experiments that aim at gaining energy from the fusion process. After discussing the methods of calculating the fusion cross section, it will be shown that sustained fusion reactions with energy gain must happen in a thermal medium because, in beam-target experiments, the energy of the beam is randomized faster than the fusion rate. Following a brief introduction to the elements of plasma physics, the chapter is concluded with the introduction of the most prominent fusion reactions ongoing in the Sun.

  1. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  2. Design of indirectly driven, high-compression Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions with improved hydrodynamic stability using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm2, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 1014 and 5.5 × 1014) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the "high-foot" experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3-10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm2. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  3. Design of indirectly driven, high-compression Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions with improved hydrodynamic stability using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    SciTech Connect

    Milovich, J. L. Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-12-15

    Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 10{sup 14} and 5.5 × 10{sup 14}) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the “high-foot” experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3–10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm{sup 2}. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  4. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  5. Impact of loss of BH3-only proteins on the development and treatment of MLL-fusion gene-driven AML in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bilardi, Rebecca A; Anstee, Natasha S; Glaser, Stefan P; Robati, Mikara; Vandenberg, Cassandra J; Cory, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the apoptosis pathway controlled by opposing members of the Bcl-2 protein family plays a central role in cancer development and resistance to therapy. To investigate how pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins impact on acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we generated mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)-AF9 and MLL-ENL AMLs from BH3-only gene knockout mice. Disease development was not accelerated by loss of Bim, Puma, Noxa, Bmf, or combinations thereof; hence these BH3-only proteins are apparently ineffectual as tumor suppressors in this model. We tested the sensitivity of MLL-AF9 AMLs of each genotype in vitro to standard chemotherapeutic drugs and to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, with or without the BH3 mimetic ABT-737. Loss of Puma and/or Noxa increased resistance to cytarabine, daunorubicin and etoposide, while loss of Bim protected against cytarabine and loss of Bmf had no impact. ABT-737 increased sensitivity to the genotoxic drugs but was not dependent on any BH3-only protein tested. The AML lines were very sensitive to bortezomib and loss of Noxa conveyed significant resistance. In vivo, several MLL-AF9 AMLs responded well to daunorubicin and this response was highly dependent on Puma and Noxa but not Bim. Combination therapy with ABT-737 provided little added benefit at the daunorubicin dose trialed. Bortezomib also extended survival of AML-bearing mice, albeit less than daunorubicin. In summary, our genetic studies reveal the importance of Puma and Noxa for the action of genotoxics currently used to treat MLL-driven AML and suggest that, while addition of ABT-737-like BH3 mimetics might enhance their efficacy, new Noxa-like BH3 mimetics targeting Mcl-1 might have greater potential. PMID:27584789

  6. Impact of loss of BH3-only proteins on the development and treatment of MLL-fusion gene-driven AML in mice.

    PubMed

    Bilardi, Rebecca A; Anstee, Natasha S; Glaser, Stefan P; Robati, Mikara; Vandenberg, Cassandra J; Cory, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the apoptosis pathway controlled by opposing members of the Bcl-2 protein family plays a central role in cancer development and resistance to therapy. To investigate how pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins impact on acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we generated mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)-AF9 and MLL-ENL AMLs from BH3-only gene knockout mice. Disease development was not accelerated by loss of Bim, Puma, Noxa, Bmf, or combinations thereof; hence these BH3-only proteins are apparently ineffectual as tumor suppressors in this model. We tested the sensitivity of MLL-AF9 AMLs of each genotype in vitro to standard chemotherapeutic drugs and to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, with or without the BH3 mimetic ABT-737. Loss of Puma and/or Noxa increased resistance to cytarabine, daunorubicin and etoposide, while loss of Bim protected against cytarabine and loss of Bmf had no impact. ABT-737 increased sensitivity to the genotoxic drugs but was not dependent on any BH3-only protein tested. The AML lines were very sensitive to bortezomib and loss of Noxa conveyed significant resistance. In vivo, several MLL-AF9 AMLs responded well to daunorubicin and this response was highly dependent on Puma and Noxa but not Bim. Combination therapy with ABT-737 provided little added benefit at the daunorubicin dose trialed. Bortezomib also extended survival of AML-bearing mice, albeit less than daunorubicin. In summary, our genetic studies reveal the importance of Puma and Noxa for the action of genotoxics currently used to treat MLL-driven AML and suggest that, while addition of ABT-737-like BH3 mimetics might enhance their efficacy, new Noxa-like BH3 mimetics targeting Mcl-1 might have greater potential. PMID:27584789

  7. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.

  8. [Recent Advances of Biomechanical Studies on Cervical Fusion and Non-fusion Surgery].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenhua; Liu, Weiqiang

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews the progress of biomechanical studies on anterior cervical fusion and non-fusion surgery in recent years. The similarities and differences between animal and human cervical spines as well as the major three biomechanical test methods are introduced. Major progresses of biomechanical evaluation in anterior cervical fusion and non-fusion devices, hybrid surgery, coupled motion and biomechanical parameters, such as the instant center of rotation, are classified and summarized. Future development of loading method, multilevel hybrid surgery and coupling character are also discussed. PMID:27382760

  9. An Alternate Development Path for Magnetic Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-12-01

    Mid-century requirements for carbon free energy are daunting. Perhaps fusion could play a vital role. One of rather few possible solutions for sustainable development might be the fission fusion hybrid coupled with transmutation of the long lived actinide wastes. This paper suggests such an alternate development path for fusion, one that could lead to the production of multi-terawatts of carbon free power by 2050.

  10. A Melanoma Brain Metastasis with a Donor-Patient Hybrid Genome following Bone Marrow Transplantation: First Evidence for Fusion in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, Eric; Spoelstra, Nicole; Klump, Vincent; Sznol, Mario; Cooper, Dennis; Spritz, Richard A.; Chang, Joseph T.; Pawelek, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor cell fusion with motile bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) has long been posited as a mechanism for cancer metastasis. While there is much support for this from cell culture and animal studies, it has yet to be confirmed in human cancer, as tumor and marrow-derived cells from the same patient cannot be easily distinguished genetically. Methods We carried out genotyping of a metastatic melanoma to the brain that arose following allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation (BMT), using forensic short tandem repeat (STR) length-polymorphisms to distinguish donor and patient genomes. Tumor cells were isolated free of leucocytes by laser microdissection, and tumor and pre-transplant blood lymphocyte DNAs were analyzed for donor and patient alleles at 14 autosomal STR loci and the sex chromosomes. Results All alleles in the donor and patient pre-BMT lymphocytes were found in tumor cells. The alleles showed disproportionate relative abundances in similar patterns throughout the tumor, indicating the tumor was initiated by a clonal fusion event. Conclusions Our results strongly support fusion between a BMDC and a tumor cell playing a role in the origin of this metastasis. Depending on the frequency of such events, the findings could have important implications for understanding the generation of metastases, including the origins of tumor initiating cells and the cancer epigenome. PMID:23840523

  11. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression.

  12. Facile formation of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) hybrid nanorods with enhanced visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingjing; Yu, Caiyun; Zheng, Changcheng; Etogo, Atangana; Xie, Yunlong; Zhong, Yijun; Hu, Yong

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/AgX hybrid nanorods were prepared by a facile in-situ anion exchange reaction. • Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanorods and different X{sup −} ions were reacted in water at room temperature. • The hybrids possess significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical properties. • Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/AgBr hybrids exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity among three samples. • The active species tests were also investigated to confirm photocatalytic mechanism. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrated a general strategy for the preparation of a series of uniform Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) hybrid nanorods by a facile in-situ anion exchange reaction occurring at room temperature between pregrown Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanorods and different X{sup −} ions in water. Compared with Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanorods, further investigation has revealed that the as-prepared hybrid nanorods possess significantly enhanced photocurrent response and photocatalytic activity in degrading methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation. In particular, the Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/AgBr hybrid nanorods exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity among the three kinds of samples. The active species tests indicate that superoxide anion radicals and photogenerated holes are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  13. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  14. Comparison of Hybrid Constructs with 2-Level Artificial Disc Replacement and 2-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Surgical Reconstruction of the Cervical Spine: A Kinematic Study in Whole Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoge; Zeng, Zheng; Van Hoof, Tom; Kalala, Jean Pierre; Liu, Zhenyu; Wu, Bingxuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-level cervical degeneration of the spine is a common clinical pathology that is often repaired by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of the cervical spine after hybrid surgery compared with 2-level ACDF. Material/Methods Five freshly frozen, unembalmed whole human cadavers were used including 3 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51±8 years. After evaluating the intact spine for range of motion (ROM), sagittal alignment and instantaneous center of rotation (ICR), each cadaver underwent 4 consecutive surgeries: 2-level artificial disc replacement (ADR) from C4 to C6 (ADR surgery); 2-level ACDF from C4 to C6 (ACDF surgery); hybrid C4–5 ACDF and C5–6 ADR (ACDF+ADR surgery); and hybrid C4–5 ADR and C5–6 ACDF (ADR+ACDF surgery). The ROM and ICR of adjacent intact segments (C3–4; C6–7), and whole sagittal alignment were revaluated. Results Two-level ACDF resulted in increased ROM at C3–4 and C6–7 compared with intact spine. ROM was significantly different to intact spine using ACDF surgery at C3–C4 and C6–C7 and ROM was increased with ACDF+ADR surgery at C6–C7 (all P<0.05). No improvement in sagittal alignment was observed with any approach. The localization of the ICR shifted upwards and anteriorly at C3–C4 after reconstruction. ICR changes at C3–C4 were greatest for ADR+ACDF surgery and were significantly different to ACDF surgery (P<0.05), but not between ADR surgery and ACDF+ADR surgery. At C6–C7, the ICR was more posterior and superior than in the intact condition. The greatest change in ICR was observed in ACDF surgery at the C6–C7 level, significantly different from the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusions For 2-level reconstruction, hybrid surgery and ADR did not alter ROM and minimally changed ICR at the adjacent-level. The type of surgery had a significant impact on the ICR location. This suggests that hybrid surgery may be a viable option for 2

  15. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite: High-performance and recyclable visible light driven photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Bharat; Surendar, T.; Shanker, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High-performance and recyclable visible-light driven g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} hybrid nanocomposite photocatalysts have been prepared by a facile ultrasonic dispersion method. The hybrid nanocomposite photocatalyst can be promising photocatalytic material for practical application in water splitting and environmental remediation. - Highlights: • Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} nanocomposites as a high performance and recyclable photocatalysts. • These catalysts exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity under UV–visible light irradiation. • More attractively, dramatic activity is generated under visible light irradiation due to the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} loaded. • Interestingly, the as-prepared hybrid nanocomposites possess high reusability. - Abstract: Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} hybrid nanocomposites have been prepared by a facile ultrasonic dispersion method. Our results clearly show the formation of interface between NaTaO{sub 3} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and further loading of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} did not affect the crystal structure and morphology of NaTaO{sub 3}. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} nanocomposites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of Rhodamine B under UV–visible and visible light irradiation compared to pure NaTaO{sub 3} and Degussa P25. Interestingly, the visible light photocatalytic activity is generated due to the loading of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. A mechanism is proposed to discuss the enhanced photocatalytic activity based on trapping experiments of photoinduced radicals and holes. Under visible light irradiation, electron excited from the valance band (VB) to conduction band (CB) of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} could directly inject into the CB of NaTaO{sub 3}, making g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} visible light driven photocatalyst. Since the as-prepared hybrid nanocomposites possess high reusability therefore it can be promising photocatalyst for

  16. Construction of hormonally responsive intact cell hybrids by cell fusion: transfer of. beta. -adrenergic receptor and nucleotide regulatory protein(s) in normal and desensitized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schulster, D.; Salmon, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fusion of normal, untreated human erythrocytes with desensitized turkey erythrocytes increases isoproterenol stimulation of cyclic (/sup 3/H)AMP accumulation over basal rates. Moreover, pretreatment of the human erythrocytes with cholera toxin before they are fused with desensitized turkey erthythrocytes leads to a large stimulation with isoproterenol. This is even greater and far more rapid than the response obtained if turkey erythrocytes are treated directly with cholera toxin. It is concluded that the stimulation in the fused system is due to the transfer of an ADP-ribosylated subunit of nucleotide regulatory protein.

  17. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  18. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V.

    2010-11-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  19. A computational magnetohydrodynamic model of a gasdynamic fusion space propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlandt, Chad J. R.

    This work advances the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion space propulsion system concept by testing the potential of an advanced aneutronic fusion fuel combination of proton-11boron and evaluating GDMs operating at less than breakeven being driven with nuclear electric reactors. Finding neither option to be a panacea, the author moves forward in developing an ideal 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computational model for simulating concept GDMs. The challenges identified and remediated include Alfven wave-speeds a few percent the speed of light with characteristic lengths on the order of a centimeter, the extreme aspect ratio of GDM systems, massive background magnetic fields, and traveling waves along the length of the GDM. Due to the remaining physical challenges of modeling the GDM system, including a slow systemic relaxation time and localized radiation losses, the computational requirements of the full 3-D MHD model remains too computationally demanding, which suggests a future approach involving a hybrid of 1-D and 3-D models.

  20. Experiments in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-03-28

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models.

  1. Fusion Power Program biannual progress report, April-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This biannual report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the April-September 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Separate abstracts were prepared for three sections. (MOW)

  2. Prospects for fusion applications of reversed-field pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathke, C. G.; Krakowski, R. A.; Hagenson, R. L.

    1985-11-01

    The applicability of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) as a source of fusion neutrons for use in developing key fusion nuclear technologies is examined. This Fusion Test Facility (FTF) would emphasize high neutron wall loading, small plasma volume, low fusion and driver powers, and steady-state operation. Both parametric tradeoffs based on present-day physics understanding and a conceptual design based on an approx. 1-MW/m (neutron) driven operation are reported.

  3. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  4. Imaging multiple intermediates of single-virus membrane fusion mediated by distinct fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Joo, Kye-Il; Tai, April; Lee, Chi-Lin; Wong, Clement; Wang, Pin

    2010-09-01

    Membrane fusion plays an essential role in the entry of enveloped viruses into target cells. The merging of viral and target cell membranes is catalyzed by viral fusion proteins, which involves multiple sequential steps in the fusion process. However, the fusion mechanisms mediated by different fusion proteins involve multiple transient intermediates that have not been well characterized. Here, we report a synthetic virus platform that allows us to better understand the different fusion mechanisms driven by the diverse types fusion proteins. The platform consists of lentiviral particles coenveloped with a surface antibody, which serves as the binding protein, along with a fusion protein derived from either influenza virus (HAmu) or Sindbis virus (SINmu). By using a single virus tracking technique, we demonstrated that both HAmu- and SINmu-bearing viruses enter cells through clathrin-dependent endocytosis, but they required different endosomal trafficking routes to initiate viral fusion. Direct observation of single viral fusion events clearly showed that hemifusion mediated by SINmu upon exposure to low pH occurs faster than that mediated by HAmu. Monitoring sequential fusion processes by dual labeling the outer and inner leaflets of viral membranes also revealed that the SINmu-mediated hemifusion intermediate is relatively long-lived as compared with that mediated by HAmu. Taken together, we have demonstrated that the combination of this versatile viral platform with the techniques of single virus tracking can be a powerful tool for revealing molecular details of fusion mediated by various fusion proteins.

  5. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOEpatents

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1987-10-14

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems for ICF targets are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel. The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system, or by an ion beam system, that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion. 3 figs.

  6. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOEpatents

    Mark, James W.

    1988-08-02

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems (20,40) for ICF targets (10,22,42) are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator (12) surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel (14). The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system (24), or by an ion beam system (44), that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system (30,48) that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel (14) is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion.

  7. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOEpatents

    Mark, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems (20,40) for ICF targets (10,22,42) are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator (12) surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel (14). The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system (24), or by an ion beam system (44), that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system (30,48) that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel (14) is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion.

  8. Hybrid Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  9. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  10. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  11. TFE3-Fusion Variant Analysis Defines Specific Clinicopathologic Associations Among Xp11 Translocation Cancers.

    PubMed

    Argani, Pedram; Zhong, Minghao; Reuter, Victor E; Fallon, John T; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-06-01

    Xp11 translocation cancers include Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), Xp11 translocation perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer. In Xp11 translocation cancers, oncogenic activation of TFE3 is driven by the fusion of TFE3 with a number of different gene partners; however, the impact of individual fusion variant on specific clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyze 60 Xp11 translocation cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes to establish their TFE3 fusion gene partner. In 5 cases RNA sequencing was also used to further characterize the fusion transcripts. The 60 Xp11 translocation cancers included 47 Xp11 translocation RCC, 8 Xp11 translocation PEComas, and 5 melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers. A fusion partner was identified in 53/60 (88%) cases, including 18 SFPQ (PSF), 16 PRCC, 12 ASPSCR1 (ASPL), 6 NONO, and 1 DVL2. We provide the first morphologic description of the NONO-TFE3 RCC, which frequently demonstrates subnuclear vacuoles leading to distinctive suprabasal nuclear palisading. Similar subnuclear vacuolization was also characteristic of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, creating overlapping features with clear cell papillary RCC. We also describe the first RCC with a DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion, in addition to an extrarenal pigmented PEComa with a NONO-TFE3 gene fusion. Furthermore, among neoplasms with the SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, DVL2-TFE3, and ASPL-TFE3 gene fusions, the RCCs are almost always PAX8 positive, cathepsin K negative by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mesenchymal counterparts (Xp11 translocation PEComas, melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, and alveolar soft part sarcoma) are PAX8 negative, cathepsin K positive. These findings support the concept that despite an identical gene fusion, the RCCs are distinct from the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, perhaps due to

  12. Current-Driven Filament Instabilities in Relativistic Plasmas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Chuang

    2013-02-13

    This grant has supported a study of some fundamental problems in current- and flow-driven instabilities in plasmas and their applications in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysics. It addressed current-driven instabilities and their roles in fast ignition, and flow-driven instabilities and their applications in astrophysics.

  13. Antiproton catalyzed microfission/fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Pi-Ren; Lewis, Raymond A.; Smith, Gerald A.; Newton, Richard; Dailey, James; Werthman, W. Lance; Chakrabarti, Suman

    1994-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) utilizing an antiproton catalyzed hybrid fission/fusion target is discussed as a potential energy source for interplanetary propulsion. A proof-of-principle experiment underway at Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB and antiproton trapping experiments at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, are presented. The ICAN propulsion concept is described and results of performance analyses are reviewed. Future work to further define the ICAN concept is outlined.

  14. Facile construction of vertically aligned EuS-ZnO hybrid core shell nanorod arrays for visible light driven photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjith, K. S.; Kumar, D. Ranjith; Kumar, R. T. Rajendra

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrated the development of coupled semiconductor in the form of hybrid heterostructures for significant advancement in catalytic functional materials. In this article, we report the preparation of vertically aligned core shell ZnO-EuS nanorod photocatalyst arrays by a simple chemical solution process followed by sulfudation process. The XRD pattern confirmed formation of the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and cubic nature of the EuS. Cross sectional FESEM images show vertical rod array structure, and the size of the nanorods ranges from 80 to 120 nm. UV-Vis DRS spectra showed that the optical absorption of ZnO was significantly enhanced to the visible region by modification with EuS surfaces. TEM study confirmed that the surface of ZnO was drastically improved by the modification with EuS nanoparticle. The catalytic activity of EuS−ZnO core shell nanorod arrays were evaluated by the photodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye under visible irradiation. The results revealed that the photocatalytic activity of EuS−ZnO was much higher than that of ZnO under natural sunlight. EuS−ZnO was found to be stable and reusable without appreciable loss of catalytic activity up to four consecutive cycles.

  15. Freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ precursors to novel AgBr/AgCl-Ag hybrid nanocrystals for visible-light-driven photodegradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Wenjie; Ge, Lianfang; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Lu, Hongxia; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Daoyuan; Shao, Guosheng

    2015-04-01

    AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals with various molar Br-to-Ag ratios (RBr/Ag = 0, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 1) and different photoreduction times (0-20 min) were synthesized via stepwise liquid-solid reactions using the freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ hybrid as the Ag source, followed by a photoreduction reaction. The AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals obtained take on a spherical morphology with a particle-size range of 58 ± 15 nm. The photocatalytic performance of AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals was evaluated by photodegrading organic dyes, 4-chlorophenol and isopropanol under artificial visible light (λ ⩾ 420 nm, 100 mW cm-2). For the decomposition of rhodamine B, the AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals has a photodegradation rate of ∼0.87 min-1, ∼159 times higher than that (∼0.0054 min-1) of TiO2 (P25), whereas the AgCl-Ag and AgBr-Ag nanocrystals have photodegradation rates of 0.35 min-1 and 0.45 min-1, respectively. The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the ternary system consisting of AgBr, AgCl and Ag species plays a key role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance.

  16. Basics of Fusion-Fissison Research Facility (FFRF) as a Fusion Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2011-06-03

    FFRF, standing for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility represents an option for the next step project of ASIPP (Hefei, China) aiming to a first fusion-fission multifunctional device [1]. FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China. With R/a=4/1m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50- 100 MW, Pfission=80-4000MW, 1 m thick blanket, FFRF has a unique fusion mission of a stationary fusion neutron source. Its pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission consists in accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications.

  17. Exploring Multimodal Data Fusion Through Joint Decompositions with Flexible Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral Farias, Rodrigo; Cohen, Jeremy Emile; Comon, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    A Bayesian framework is proposed to define flexible coupling models for joint tensor decompositions of multiple data sets. Under this framework, a natural formulation of the data fusion problem is to cast it in terms of a joint maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator. Data driven scenarios of joint posterior distributions are provided, including general Gaussian priors and non Gaussian coupling priors. We present and discuss implementation issues of algorithms used to obtain the joint MAP estimator. We also show how this framework can be adapted to tackle the problem of joint decompositions of large datasets. In the case of a conditional Gaussian coupling with a linear transformation, we give theoretical bounds on the data fusion performance using the Bayesian Cramer-Rao bound. Simulations are reported for hybrid coupling models ranging from simple additive Gaussian models, to Gamma-type models with positive variables and to the coupling of data sets which are inherently of different size due to different resolution of the measurement devices.

  18. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  19. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S

  20. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  1. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  2. Inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, L.; Condouris, R.; Kotowski, M.; Murphy, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains seven articles that describe recent progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's ICF program. The Department of Energy recently initiated an effort to design a 1--2 MJ glass laser, the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). These articles span various aspects of a program which is aimed at moving forward toward such a facility by continuing to use the Nova laser to gain understanding of NIF-relevant target physics, by developing concepts for an NIF laser driver, and by envisioning a variety of applications for larger ICF facilities. This report discusses research on the following topics: Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen; A Maxwell Equation Solver in LASNEX for the Simulation of Moderately Intense Ultrashort Pulse Experiments; Measurements of Radial Heat-Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Plasmas; Laser-Seeded Modulation Growth on Directly Driven Foils; Stimulated Raman Scattering in Large-Aperture, High-Fluence Frequency-Conversion Crystals; Fission Product Hazard Reduction Using Inertial Fusion Energy; Use of Inertial Confinement Fusion for Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulations.

  3. Protoplast Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Hara, Yasuhiro; Katagi, Hiroaki; Senda, Mitsugi

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the composition of the phospholipid molecular species in a cell membrane and the velocity of protoplast fusion was studied using cells cultured at a low temperature (10 C). Cells cultured at a low temperature contained larger proportions of phospholipids of low phase transition point, the 1,2-dilinoleoyl-type, than those cultured at a normal temperature (25 C). When treated with polyethylene glycol 6000, protoplasts from cells cultured at 10 C fused and progressed to the fused sphere stage more rapidly than did those from cells cultured at 25 C. PMID:16661339

  4. Splenogonadal fusion.

    PubMed

    Tsingoglou, S; Wilkinson, A W

    1976-04-01

    The fusion between splenic tissue and the left gonad or the derivatives of the left mesonephros is a rare congenital anomaly first described in detail by Pommer in 1887/9 and divided into two forms by Putschar and Manion in 1956. In the first or continuous type a cord of splenic or fibrous tissue connects the spleen and the gonadalmesonephric structures. In the second type the fused splenomesonephric structures have lost continuity with the main spleen. An example of the continuous form is presented and the previous reports are briefly reviewed.

  5. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  6. Neutron diagnostics for mirror hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Kaellne, Jan; Noack, Klaus; Agren, Olov; Gorini, Giuseppe; Tardocchi, Marco; Grosso, Giovanni

    2012-06-19

    Fusion-fission (FuFi) hybrids will need instrumentation to diagnose the deuteriumtritium plasma, whose 14-MeV neutron emission is the driver of the sub-critical fission core. While the fission neutron yield rate (Y{sub fi} and hence power P{sub fi}) can be monitored with standard instrumentation, fusion plasmas in hybrids require special diagnostics where the determination of Y{sub th} ({proportional_to}P{sub fu}) is a challenge. Information on Y{sub fu} is essential for assessing the fusion plasma performance which together with Y{sub fi} allows for the validation of the neutron multiplication factor (k) of the subcritical fission core. Diagnostics for hybrid plasmas are heuristically discussed with special reference to straight field line mirror (SFLM). Relevant DT plasma experience from JET and plans for ITER in the main line of fusion research were used as input. It is shown that essential SFLM plasma information can potentially be obtained with proposed instrumentation, but the state of the hybrid plasma must be predictably robust as derived from fully diagnosed dedicated experiments without interface restrictions of the hybrid application.

  7. Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T ..-->.. n(14.1 MeV) + ..cap alpha..(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device.

  8. Reactor for boron fusion with picosecond ultrahigh power laser pulses and ultrahigh magnetic field trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, G. H.; Hora, H.; Kirchhoff, G.

    2016-05-01

    Compared with the deuterium tritium (DT) fusion, the environmentally clean fusion of protons with 11B is extremely difficult. When instead of nanosecond laser pulses for thermal-ablating driven ignition, picosecond pulses are used, a drastic change by nonlinearity results in ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks. This radically changes to economic boron fusion by a measured new avalanche ignition.

  9. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  10. Exocytotic fusion pores are composed of both lipids and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Huan; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel; Jeggle, Pia; Chanda, Baron; Edwardson, J Michael; Chapman, Edwin R

    2016-01-01

    During exocytosis, fusion pores form the first aqueous connection that allows escape of neurotransmitters and hormones from secretory vesicles. Although it is well established that SNARE proteins catalyze fusion, the structure and composition of fusion pores remain unknown. Here, we exploited the rigid framework and defined size of nanodiscs to interrogate the properties of reconstituted fusion pores, using the neurotransmitter glutamate as a content-mixing marker. Efficient Ca2+-stimulated bilayer fusion, and glutamate release, occurred with approximately two molecules of mouse synaptobrevin 2 reconstituted into ~6-nm nanodiscs. The transmembrane domains of SNARE proteins assumed distinct roles in lipid mixing versus content release and were exposed to polar solvent during fusion. Additionally, tryptophan substitutions at specific positions in these transmembrane domains decreased glutamate flux. Together, these findings indicate that the fusion pore is a hybrid structure composed of both lipids and proteins. PMID:26656855

  11. Equivalence of measurement space solution data fusion and complete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccherini, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Many observation systems are operating on space-borne and airborne platforms, as well as from ground-based stations, providing measurements of vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters. When independent measurements of the same profile are available data fusion methods can be used to combine them and exploit all the available information for a more comprehensive and accurate description of the atmospheric state. Several data fusion methods can be used. Among the others, both the measurement space solution data fusion method and the complete fusion method have the remarkable properties of using all the acquired information and of providing results that are independent from a priori information used in the individual retrievals. For this reason, though the two methods use two completely different procedures, it is reasonable to expect that they give the same results and in this paper the rigorous proof of the equivalence of the two methods is given. Therefore, the choice between them is only driven by the advantages of the different implementations.

  12. Magnetic mirror fusion-fission early history and applicability to other systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R

    2009-08-24

    In the mid 1970s to mid 1980s the mirror program was stuck with a concept, the Standard Mirror that was Q {approx} 1 where Q=P{sub fusion}/P{sub injection}. Heroic efforts were put into hybridizing thinking added energy and fuel sales would make a commercial product. At the same time the tokamak was thought to allow ignition and ultrahigh Q values of 20 or even higher. There was an effort to use neutral beams to drive the tokamak just like the mirror machines were driven in which case the Q value plunged to a few, however this was thought to be achievable decades earlier than the high Q versions. Meanwhile current drive and other features of the tokamak have seen the projected Q values come down to the range of 10. Meanwhile the mirror program got Q enhancement into high gear and various tandem mirrors projected Q values up towards 10 and with advanced features over 10 with axi-symmetric magnets (See R. F. Post papers), however the experimental program is all but non-existent. Meanwhile, the gas dynamic trap mirror system which is present day state-of-the-art can with low risk produce Q of {approx}0.1 useful for a low risk, low cost neutron source for materials development useful for the development of materials for all fusion concepts (see Simonen white paper: 'A Physics-Based Strategy to Develop a Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid' and D.D. Ryutov, 'Axisymmetric MHD-stable mirror as a neutron source and a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid'). Many early hybrid designs with multi-disciplinary teams were carried out in great detail for the mirror system with its axi-symmetric blanket modules. It is recognized that most of these designs are adaptable to tokamak or inertial fusion geometry. When Q is low (1 to 2) economics gives a large economic penalty for high recirculating power. These early studies covered the three design types: Power production, fuel production and waste burning. All three had their place but power production fell away because every study showed

  13. FY2014 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Theory & Simulation Performance Target, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Guoyong; Budny, Robert; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Poli, Francesca; Chen, Yang; McClenaghan, Joseph; Lin, Zhihong; Spong, Don; Bass, Eric; Waltz, Ron

    2014-10-14

    We report here the work done for the FY14 OFES Theory Performance Target as given below: "Understanding alpha particle confinement in ITER, the world's first burning plasma experiment, is a key priority for the fusion program. In FY 2014, determine linear instability trends and thresholds of energetic particle-driven shear Alfven eigenmodes in ITER for a range of parameters and profiles using a set of complementary simulation models (gyrokinetic, hybrid, and gyrofluid). Carry out initial nonlinear simulations to assess the effects of the unstable modes on energetic particle transport". In the past year (FY14), a systematic study of the alpha-driven Alfven modes in ITER has been carried out jointly by researchers from six institutions involving seven codes including the transport simulation code TRANSP (R. Budny and F. Poli, PPPL), three gyrokinetic codes: GEM (Y. Chen, Univ. of Colorado), GTC (J. McClenaghan, Z. Lin, UCI), and GYRO (E. Bass, R. Waltz, UCSD/GA), the hybrid code M3D-K (G.Y. Fu, PPPL), the gyro-fluid code TAEFL (D. Spong, ORNL), and the linear kinetic stability code NOVA-K (N. Gorelenkov, PPPL). A range of ITER parameters and profiles are specified by TRANSP simulation of a hybrid scenario case and a steady-state scenario case. Based on the specified ITER equilibria linear stability calculations are done to determine the stability boundary of alpha-driven high-n TAEs using the five initial value codes (GEM, GTC, GYRO, M3D-K, and TAEFL) and the kinetic stability code (NOVA-K). Both the effects of alpha particles and beam ions have been considered. Finally, the effects of the unstable modes on energetic particle transport have been explored using GEM and M3D-K.

  14. Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë grass endophytes.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Jun-Ya; Charlton, Nikki D; Yi, Mihwa; Young, Carolyn A; Craven, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

  15. Changes in Parthenogenetic Imprinting Patterns during Reprogramming by Cell Fusion.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Sik; Hong, Yean Ju; Choi, Hyun Woo; Song, Hyuk; Byun, Sung June; Uhm, Sang Jun; Seo, Han Geuk; Do, Jeong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into the pluripotent state by cell-cell fusion. In the pluripotent state, reprogrammed cells may then self-renew and differentiate into all three germ layers. Fusion-induced reprogramming also epigenetically modifies the somatic cell genome through DNA demethylation, X chromosome reactivation, and histone modification. In this study, we investigated whether fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) also reprograms genomic imprinting patterns in somatic cells. In particular, we examined imprinting changes in parthenogenetic neural stem cells fused with biparental ESCs, as well as in biparental neural stem cells fused with parthenogenetic ESCs. The resulting hybrid cells expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4 and Nanog. In addition, methylation of several imprinted genes except Peg3 was comparable between hybrid cells and ESCs. This finding indicates that reprogramming by cell fusion does not necessarily reverse the status of all imprinted genes to the state of pluripotent fusion partner. PMID:27232503

  16. Changes in Parthenogenetic Imprinting Patterns during Reprogramming by Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun Sik; Hong, Yean Ju; Choi, Hyun Woo; Song, Hyuk; Byun, Sung June; Uhm, Sang Jun; Seo, Han Geuk; Do, Jeong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into the pluripotent state by cell-cell fusion. In the pluripotent state, reprogrammed cells may then self-renew and differentiate into all three germ layers. Fusion-induced reprogramming also epigenetically modifies the somatic cell genome through DNA demethylation, X chromosome reactivation, and histone modification. In this study, we investigated whether fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) also reprograms genomic imprinting patterns in somatic cells. In particular, we examined imprinting changes in parthenogenetic neural stem cells fused with biparental ESCs, as well as in biparental neural stem cells fused with parthenogenetic ESCs. The resulting hybrid cells expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4 and Nanog. In addition, methylation of several imprinted genes except Peg3 was comparable between hybrid cells and ESCs. This finding indicates that reprogramming by cell fusion does not necessarily reverse the status of all imprinted genes to the state of pluripotent fusion partner. PMID:27232503

  17. Fusion Research in Ioffe Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, L. G.; Afanasyev, V. I.; Altukhov, A. B.; Bakharev, N. N.; Belokurov, A. A.; Bulanin, V. V.; Bykov, A. S.; Chernyshev, F. V.; Chugunov, I.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Esipov, L. A.; Gin, D.; Goncharov, P. R.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Gusev, V. K.; Heuraux, S.; Iblyaminova, A. D.; Irzak, M. A.; Kantor, M. Yu.; Kaveeva, E. G.; Kiviniemi, T.; Khilkevitch, E. M.; Khitrov, S. A.; Khromov, N. A.; Kornev, V. A.; Kouprienko, D. V.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Lashkul, S. I.; Lebedev, S. V.; Leerink, S.; Melnik, A. D.; Minaev, V. B.; Mironov, M. I.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Mukhin, E. E.; Nesenevich, V. G.; Niskala, P.; Novokhatsky, A. N.; Patrov, M. I.; Perevalov, A. A.; Petrov, M. P.; Petrov, A. V.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Popov, A. Yu.; Rozhansky, V. A.; Rozhdestvenskiy, V. V.; Sakharov, N. V.; Saveliev, A. N.; Senichenkov, I. Yu.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Shchegolev, P. B.; Shatalin, S. V.; Shcherbinin, O. N.; Shevelev, A. E.; Sidorov, A. V.; da Silva, F.; Smirnov, A. I.; Stepanov, A. Yu.; Sysoeva, E. V.; Teplova, N. V.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Varfolomeev, V. I.; Vekshina, E. O.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Voronin, A. V.; Voskoboinikov, S. P.; Wagner, F.; Yashin, A. Yu.; Zhubr, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the fusion related activities of the Plasma Physics Division at the Ioffe Institute. The first experiments on lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in a spherical tokamak performed at the Globus-M tokamak (R = 0.36 m, a = 0.24 m, Bt = 0.4 T, Ip = 200 kA) with a novel poloidally oriented grill resulted in an RF driven current of up to 30 kA at (100 kW, 2.5 GHz), exceeding the modelling predictions. At the FT-2 tokamak (R = 0.56 m, a = 0.08 m, Bt = 3 T, Ip = 30 kA) experiments with a traditional toroidally oriented grill revealed no strong dependence of the LHCD density limit on the H/D ratio in spite of LH resonance densities differing by a factor of 3. Microwave Doppler reflectometry (DR) at the Globus-M, and DR and heavy ion beam probe measurements at the tokamak TUMAN-3M (R = 0.53 m, a = 0.24 m, Bt = 1.0 T, Ip = 190 kA) demonstrated geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) suppression at the L to H transition. Observations at FT-2 using Doppler Enhanced Scattering showed that the GAM amplitude is anti-correlated both spatially and temporally to the drift turbulence level and electron thermal diffusivity. For the first time turbulence amplitude modulation at the GAM frequency was found both experimentally and in global gyrokinetic modelling. A model of the L-H transition is proposed based on this effect. The loss mechanisms of energetic ions' (EI) were investigated in the neutral beam injection (NBI) experiments on Globus-M and TUMAN-3M. Empirical scaling of the 2.45 MeV DD neutron rate for the two devices shows a strong dependence on toroidal field Bt1.29 and plasma current Ip1.34 justifying the Bt and Ip increase by a factor of 2.5 for the proposed upgrade of Globus-M. Bursts of ˜1 MHz Alfvenic type oscillations correlating with sawtooth crashes were observed in ohmic TUMAN-3M discharges. The possibility of low threshold parametric excitation of Bernstein and upper hybrid waves trapped in drift-wave eddies resulting in anomalous absorption in electron

  18. Perspectives on Magnetized Target Fusion Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    One approach to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) builds upon the ongoing experimental effort (FRX-L) to generate a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma suitable for translation and cylindrical-liner (i.e., converging flux conserver) implosion. Numerical modeling is underway to elucidate key performance drivers for possible future power-plant extrapolations. The fusion gain, Q (ratio of DT fusion yield to the sum of initial liner kinetic energy plus plasma formation energy), sets the power-plant duty cycle for a nominal design electric power [ e.g. 1,000 MWe(net)]. A pulsed MTF power plant of this type derives from the historic Fast Liner Reactor (FLR) concept and shares attributes with the recent Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Z-pinch and laser-driven pellet HYLIFE-II conceptual designs.

  19. Laser fusion pulse shape controller

    DOEpatents

    Siebert, Larry D.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for controlling the pulse shape, i.e., the pulse duration and intensity pattern, of a pulsed laser system, and which is particularly well adapted for controlling the pellet ignition pulse in a laser-driven fusion reaction system. The apparatus comprises a laser generator for providing an optical control pulse of the shape desired, a pulsed laser triggered by the control pulse, and a plurality of optical Kerr-effect gates serially disposed at the output of the pulsed laser and selectively triggered by the control pulse to pass only a portion of the pulsed laser output generally corresponding in shape to the control pulse.

  20. Experimental Study of Current-Driven Turbulence During Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Porkolab, Miklos; Egedal-Pedersen, Jan; Fox, William

    2010-08-31

    CMPD Final Report Experimental Study of Current-Driven Turbulence During Magnetic Reconnection Miklos Porkolab, PI, Jan Egedal, co-PI, William Fox, graduate student. This is the final report for Grant DE-FC02-04ER54786, MIT Participation in the Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics, which was active from 8/1/2004 to 7/31/2010. This Grant supported the thesis work of one MIT graduate student, William Fox, The thesis research consisted of an experimental study of the fluctuations arising during magnetic reconnection in plasmas on the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) at MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC). The thesis was submitted and accepted by the MIT physics Department,. Fox, Experimental Study of Current-Driven Turbulence During Magnetic Reconnection, Ph.D. Thesis, MIT (2009). In the VTF experiment reconnection and current-sheet formation is driven by quickly changing currents in a specially arranged set of internal conductors. Previous work on this device [Egedal, et al, PRL 98, 015003, (2007)] identified a spontaneous reconnection regime. In this work fluctuations were studied using impedance-matched, high-bandwidth Langmuir probes. Strong, broadband fluctuations, with frequencies extending from near the lower-hybrid frequency [fLH = (fcefci)1/2] to the electron cyclotron frequency fce were found to arise during the reconnection events. Based on frequency and wavelength measurements, lower-hybrid waves and Trivelpiece-Gould waves were identified. The lower-hybrid waves are easiest to drive with strong perpendicular drifts or gradients which arise due to the reconnection events; an appealing possibility is strong temperature gradients. The Trivelpiece-Gould modes can result from kinetic, bump-on-tail instability of a runaway electron population energized by the reconnection events. We also observed that the turbulence is often spiky, consisting of discrete positive-potential spikes, which were identified as electron phase-space holes, a class of

  1. Human hybrid hybridoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  2. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  3. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  4. Overview of nonlinear theory of kinetically driven instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1998-09-01

    An overview is presented of the theory for the nonlinear behavior of instabilities driven by the resonant wave particle interaction. The approach should be applicable to a wide variety of kinetic systems in magnetic fusion devices and accelerators. Here the authors emphasize application to Alfven were driven instability, and the principles of the theory are used to interpret experimental data.

  5. Driven-current tokamak (DCT) scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The present Department of Energy (DOE) plan calls for the construction of an Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) that is to be the last major experimental fusion device prior to the commercialization of fusion power. The plasma driver of the ETR is to be either a long-pulse tokamak or a tandem mirror machine. The possibility of using the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) facility to consolidate the physics and technology database for the tokamak version of the ETR has been considered. This paper addresses two of the options being considered: (1) a superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil-hydrogen plasma alternative, and (2) a superconducting or hybrid TF coil-high Q alternative. Both options assume essentially steady-state operation through the application of rf current drive. The options are evaluated on the basis of performance and cost determined by application of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) Tokamak System Code.

  6. On the economic prospects of nuclear fusion with tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Schmitter, K. H.

    1987-12-01

    A method of cost and construction energy estimation for tokamak fusion power stations conforming to the present stage of fusion development is described. The method is based on first-wall heat load constraints rather than Beta limitations, which, however, might eventually be the more critical of the two. It is used to discuss the economic efficiency of pure fusion, with particular reference to the European study entitled Environmental Impact and Economic Prospects of Nuclear Fusion (1986). It is shown that the claims made therein for the economic prospects of pure fusion with tokamaks, when discussed on the basis of the present-day technology, do not stand up to critical examination. A fusion-fission hybrid, however, could afford more positive prospects. Support for the stated method is derived when it is properly applied for cost estimation of advanced gas-cooled and Magnox reactors, the two examples presented by the European study to disprove it.

  7. Fusion Process Model Implementation Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rupinder; Sengupta, Jyotsna

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we have discussed, three case studies. The first one is applied at Web Shrub Solutions, a software development organization, second is applied at web based job portal (stepintojob.com) for leading Indian firm and the third is web design and development for SCL limited, to observe the results of Fusion Process Model. Fusion Process Model follows component driven approach; it applies 3C Model to generalize the process of solving the problem in each phase, which provides firm control over the software development process.

  8. Cavitation and Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringham, Roger S.

    2005-12-01

    Natural cavitation phenomena in D2O using piezo devices, is now amplified initiating DD fusion events that produce heat and helium. The transient cavitation bubble produces micro accelerators in the form of jets containing high densities of deuterons, 1024-25/cc from the cavitating D2O. An electrically driven piezo device in a reactor filled with D2O produces jets that implant deuterons into a target foil producing 4He and T plus heat. There is no long range radiation associated with this process. We are moving in the direction of utilizing smaller systems by gaining faster and less expensive technology growth moving from successes at 0.2 and 0.4 MHz to 1.7 MHz. One of the results of our low frequency studies is a 1 to 3 MHz induced standing wave in our target foils. We are using sonoluminescence intensity as a tool to guide us in finding highest plasma density in the adiabatic bubble collapse process in the jet plasma formation. The generation of these sonoluminescence photons relates to conditions for the target implantation process. These experiments and the analytical methods have concentrated on the mass spectroscopy of reactor gases, calorimetry of the reactor and power supply, and the scanning electron microscope photographs of target foils. This work provides a path for an ecological and hydrocarbon-free energy source for all energy applications.

  9. Heavy ion fusion science research for high energy density physics and fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    LOGAN, B.G.; Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Greenway, W.G.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kwan, J.W.; LaFortune, K.N.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.; Startsev, E.A.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Wurtele, J.S.; Welch, D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    During the past two years, the U.S. heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target designs for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2007, these results will enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year at LBNL. We are assessing how these new techniques apply to low-cost modular fusion drivers and higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  10. Identification of a novel, recurrent MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Dewaele, Barbara; Przybyl, Joanna; Quattrone, Anna; Finalet Ferreiro, Julio; Vanspauwen, Vanessa; Geerdens, Ellen; Gianfelici, Valentina; Kalender, Zeynep; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Moerman, Philippe; Sciot, Raf; Croce, Sabrina; Amant, Frederic; Vandenberghe, Peter; Cools, Jan; Debiec-Rychter, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of rare uterine neoplasms that are commonly driven by recurrent gene rearrangements. In conventional low-grade ESS, JAZF1-SUZ12, PHF1-JAZF1, EPC1-PHF1 and MEAF6-PHF1, and recently described ZC3H7-BCOR chimeric fusions have been reported in > 50% of cases. Conversely, oncogenic t(10;17)(q22;p13) translocation yields YWHAE-FAM22A/B chimeric proteins that are associated with histologically high-grade and clinically more aggressive ESS. Integrating whole-transcriptome paired-end RNA sequencing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and banding cytogenetics, we identified MBTD1 (malignant brain tumor domain-containing 1) and CXorf67 (chromosome X open reading frame 67) as the genes involved in the novel reciprocal t(X;17)(p11.2;q21.33) translocation in two independent low-grade ESS of classical histology. The presence of the MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion transcript was validated in both cases using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by Sanger sequencing. A specific FISH assay was developed to detect the novel t(X;17) translocation in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material, and resulted in identification of an additional low-grade ESS case positive for the MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion among 25 uterine stromal tumors [14 ESS and 11 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UESs)] that were negative for JAZF1 and YWHAE rearrangements. Gene expression profiles of seven ESS (including three with YWHAE and two with JAZF1 rearrangements) and four UES without specific chromosomal aberrations indicated clustering of tumors with MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion together with low-grade JAZF1-associated ESS. The chimeric MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion identifies yet another cytogenetically distinct subgroup of low-grade ESS and offers the opportunity to shed light on the functions of two poorly characterized genes. PMID:23959973

  11. Viral membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a "fusion loop" or "fusion peptide") engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics.

  12. Fusion of Sendai virus with vesicles of oligomerizable lipids: a microcalorimetric analysis of membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Ravoo, B J; Weringa, W D; Engberts, J B

    2000-01-01

    Sendai virus fuses efficiently with small and large unilamellar vesicles of the lipid 1,2-di-n-hexadecyloxypropyl-4- (beta-nitrostyryl) phosphate (DHPBNS) at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, as shown by lipid mixing assays and electron microscopy. However, fusion is strongly inhibited by oligomerization of the head groups of DHPBNS in the bilayer vesicles. The enthalpy associated with fusion of Sendai virus with DHPBNS vesicles was measured by isothermal titration microcalorimetry, comparing titrations of Sendai virus into (i) solutions of DHPBNS vesicles (which fuse with the virus) and (ii) oligomerized DHPBNS vesicles (which do not fuse with the virus), respectively. The observed heat effect of fusion of Sendai virus with DHPBNS vesicles is strongly dependent on the buffer medium, reflecting a partial charge neutralization of the Sendai F and HN proteins upon insertion into the negatively-charged vesicle membrane. No buffer effect was observed for the titration of Sendai virus into oligomerized DHPBNS vesicles, indicating that inhibition of fusion is a result of inhibition of insertion of the fusion protein into the target membrane. Fusion of Sendai virus with DHPBNS vesicles is endothermic and entropy-driven. The positive enthalpy term is dominated by heat effects resulting from merging of the protein-rich viral envelope with the lipid vesicle bilayers rather than by the fusion of the viral with the vesicle bilayers per se.

  13. Trapped gyro-Landau-fluid transport modeling of DIII-D hybrid discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, J. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Petty, C. C.

    2010-12-15

    Previous work has summarized the physics and first results of benchmarking the trapped gyro-Landau-fluid (TGLF) model for turbulent transport driven by trapped ion and electron modes, ion and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, and electromagnetic kinetic ballooning modes including the effects of shaped geometry. Recently, an improved collision model was implemented which provides a more accurate fit to a transport database of nonlinear collisional GYRO[J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] simulations of long wavelength driftwave turbulence. The impact of the new collision model on TGLF modeling results was unknown. Using the improved TGLF model we obtain excellent agreement with the ion and electron temperature profiles from 30 DIII-D [A. Mahdavi and J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] hybrid discharges. The transport results show that the electron energy transport tends to be dominated by short wavelength ETG modes in cases where the ion energy transport approaches neoclassical levels. The hybrid regime has significant energy confinement improvement from ExB velocity shear which is well predicted by TGLF. Weak magnetic shear and low safety factor are also shown to enhance the hybrid regime energy confinement. In high normalized {beta} hybrids, we find that finite {beta} effects noticably reduce the predicted electron energy transport and improve agreement with the measured electron temperature profiles.

  14. Trapped gyro-Landau-fluid transport modeling of DIII-D hybrid discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, J. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Petty, C. C.

    2010-12-01

    Previous work has summarized the physics and first results of benchmarking the trapped gyro-Landau-fluid (TGLF) model for turbulent transport driven by trapped ion and electron modes, ion and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, and electromagnetic kinetic ballooning modes including the effects of shaped geometry. Recently, an improved collision model was implemented which provides a more accurate fit to a transport database of nonlinear collisional GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] simulations of long wavelength driftwave turbulence. The impact of the new collision model on TGLF modeling results was unknown. Using the improved TGLF model we obtain excellent agreement with the ion and electron temperature profiles from 30 DIII-D [A. Mahdavi and J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] hybrid discharges. The transport results show that the electron energy transport tends to be dominated by short wavelength ETG modes in cases where the ion energy transport approaches neoclassical levels. The hybrid regime has significant energy confinement improvement from E ×B velocity shear which is well predicted by TGLF. Weak magnetic shear and low safety factor are also shown to enhance the hybrid regime energy confinement. In high normalized β hybrids, we find that finite β effects noticably reduce the predicted electron energy transport and improve agreement with the measured electron temperature profiles.

  15. Hot and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This article presents an overview of research in cold fusion research and development in cold fusion at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, and at the inertial containment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. is described.

  16. Progress toward fusion with light ions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    New results in target design, beam generation and transport, and pulse power technology have led to a program shift stressing light ion-driven inertial confinement fusion. According to present estimates, a gain ten fusion pellet will require at least one megajoule and approx. 100 TW power input. Progress in ion sources has resulted in beam power density of approx. 1 TW/cm/sup 2/, a factor of ten increase over the last year, and cylindrical implosion experiments have been performed. Other experiments have demonstrated the ability to transport ion and electron beams with high efficiency and have confirmed numerical predictions on the properties of beam transport channels converging at a target. These developments together with improvements in pulse power technology allow us to project that the 72 beam, 100 TW Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator, PBFA-II will attain target output energy equal to stored energy in the accelerator.

  17. Low-Convergence Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutz, Stephen; Vesey, Roger; Sinars, Daniel; Sefkow, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations indicate that pulsed-power driven liner-implosions could produce substantial fusion yields if the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel is first magnetized and preheated [S.A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. As with all inertial fusion, the implosions could be degraded by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Since highly convergent implosions are more susceptible to this instability, we have explored the necessary conditions to obtain significant fusion yield with low-convergence liner-implosions. Such low-convergence implosions can be obtained if the fuel is sufficiently preheated and magnetized. We present analytic and numerical studies of laser plasma heating, which indicate that low convergence implosions should be possible with sufficient laser energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contra.

  18. Generic Stellarator-like Magnetic Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald

    2015-11-01

    The Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper, published in 1985, has been updated, reflecting the improved science and technology base in the magnetic fusion program. Key changes beyond inflation are driven by important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs from ITER construction, and the use of a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence in modern fusion reactor designs. In this paper the generic approach is applied to a catalyzed D-D stellarator-like reactor. It is shown that an interesting power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved for a reference reactor: R/ < a > ~ 4 , confinement factor, fren = 0.9-1.15, < β > ~ 8 . 0 -11.5 %, Zeff ~ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ~ 0.07, Bm ~ 14-16 T, and R ~ 18-24 m. J. Sheffield was supported under ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  19. Simultaneous Fusion and Denoising of Panchromatic and Multispectral Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragheb, Amr M.; Osman, Heba; Abbas, Alaa M.; Elkaffas, Saleh M.; El-Tobely, Tarek A.; Khamis, S.; Elhalawany, Mohamed E.; Nasr, Mohamed E.; Dessouky, Moawad I.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

    2012-12-01

    To identify objects in satellite images, multispectral (MS) images with high spectral resolution and low spatial resolution, and panchromatic (Pan) images with high spatial resolution and low spectral resolution need to be fused. Several fusion methods such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS), the discrete wavelet transform, the discrete wavelet frame transform (DWFT), and the principal component analysis have been proposed in recent years to obtain images with both high spectral and spatial resolutions. In this paper, a hybrid fusion method for satellite images comprising both the IHS transform and the DWFT is proposed. This method tries to achieve the highest possible spectral and spatial resolutions with as small distortion in the fused image as possible. A comparison study between the proposed hybrid method and the traditional methods is presented in this paper. Different MS and Pan images from Landsat-5, Spot, Landsat-7, and IKONOS satellites are used in this comparison. The effect of noise on the proposed hybrid fusion method as well as the traditional fusion methods is studied. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed hybrid method to the traditional methods. The results show also that a wavelet denoising step is required when fusion is performed at low signal-to-noise ratios.

  20. Activation of Developmentally Mutated Human Globin Genes by Cell Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Enver, Tariq; Takegawa, Susumu; Anagnou, Nicholas P.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    1988-11-01

    Human fetal globin genes are not expressed in hybrid cells produced by the fusion of normal human lymphocytes with mouse erythroleukemia cells. In contrast, when lymphocytes from persons with globin gene developmental mutations (hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin) are used for these fusions, fetal globin is expressed in the hybrid cells. Thus, mutations of developmental origin can be reconstituted in vitro by fusing mutant lymphoid cells with differentiated cell lines of the proper lineage. This system can readily be used for analyses, such as globin gene methylation, that normally require large numbers of pure nucleated erythroid cells, which are difficult to obtain.

  1. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  2. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  3. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, Edward I.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    2015-10-27

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  4. The fusion breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1982-10-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the U.S. fusion program and the U.S. nuclear energy program. There is wide agreement that many approaches will work and will produce fuel for five equal-sized LWRs, and some approach as many as 20 LWRs at electricity costs within 20% of those at today's price of uranium (30/lb of U3O8). The blankets designed to suppress fissioning, called symbiotes, fusion fuel factories, or just fusion breeders, will have safety characteristics more like pure fusion reactors and will support as many as 15 equal power LWRs. The blankets designed to maximize fast fission of fertile material will have safety characteristics more like fission reactors and will support 5 LWRs. This author strongly recommends development of the fission suppressed blanket type, a point of view not agreed upon by everyone. There is, however, wide agreement that, to meet the market price for uranium which would result in LWR electricity within 20% of today's cost with either blanket type, fusion components can cost severalfold more than would be allowed for pure fusion to meet the goal of making electricity alone at 20% over today's fission costs. Also widely agreed is that the critical-path-item for the fusion breeder is fusion development itself; however, development of fusion breeder specific items (blankets, fuel cycle) should be started now in order to have the fusion breeder by the time the rise in uranium prices forces other more costly choices.

  5. Heavy ion fusion--Using heavy ions to make electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-03-15

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring {approx}100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris.

  6. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  7. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  8. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  9. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S

  10. Lithium ion beam driven hohlraums for PBFA II

    SciTech Connect

    Dukart, R.J.

    1994-05-06

    In our light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program, fusion capsules are driven with an intense x-ray radiation field produced when an intense beam of ions penetrates a radiation case and deposits energy in a foam x-ray conversion region. A first step in the program is to generate and measure these intense fields on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). Our goal is to generate a 100-eV radiation temperature in lithium ion beam driven hohlraums, the radiation environment which will provide the initial drive temperature for ion beam driven implosion systems designed to achieve high gain. In this paper, we describe the design of such hohlraum targets and their predicted performance on PBFA II as we provide increasing ion beam intensities.

  11. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  12. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  13. Undead Science: Making Sense of Cold Fusion After the (Arti)fact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Bart

    1999-01-01

    Examines the problem of how to account for the observation of research on cold fusion after the apparent closure of the controversy in 1990. Despite the controversy, scientists continue to work with cold fusion. Examines whether the controversy is in fact closed, creating a hybrid category, "undead." (Author/CCM)

  14. ConnesFusionTensorProduct/Photon GluonFusion in Mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wh-Maksoed, Prodi Of Physics Ui, Depok 16415-Indonesia; Ssi, Wh-Maksoed

    2016-05-01

    As in AJ Wassermann distinguished of classical invariant theory & quantum invariant theory subfactor, in S. Palcoux:``From Neveu-Schwarz Subfactors & Connes Fusion'' described the subfactor theory & Witt-algebra whereas Andreas Thom's explanation about ConnesFusionTensorProduct/CFTP related Connes fusion to composition of homomorphism (i). classical tensor product O-X adds the changes,(ii). Relative tensor product H-X preserve the changes. For photonGluonFusion/PGF defined:''photon is the gauge boson of QED, the simplest of all boson'' devotes to CFT as ``quantum field theory which are invariant under conformal transformation & in 2D there are infinite dimensional algebra. Alain Connes states theirselves Connes fusion as ``associative tensor operation'' to be in coincidences with ``their dynamic behavior driven by the balance in mitochondrial fusion & fission (Carveney, 2007) from Peter Alexander Williams: ``Retinal neuronal remodeling in a model of Optic Atrophy'', Dec, 2011. Great acknowledged to the VicePresident of the R.I, HE.Mr. Drs. M. JUSUF KALLA.

  15. Kaehler-driven tribrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David E-mail: david.nolde@unibas.ch

    2012-11-01

    We discuss a new class of tribrid inflation models in supergravity, where the shape of the inflaton potential is dominated by effects from the Kaehler potential. Tribrid inflation is a variant of hybrid inflation which is particularly suited for connecting inflation with particle physics, since the inflaton can be a D-flat combination of charged fields from the matter sector. In models of tribrid inflation studied so far, the inflaton potential was dominated by either loop corrections or by mixing effects with the waterfall field (as in 'pseudosmooth' tribrid inflation). Here we investigate the third possibility, namely that tribrid inflation is dominantly driven by effects from higher-dimensional operators of the Kaehler potential. We specify for which superpotential parameters the new regime is realized and show how it can be experimentally distinguished from the other two (loop-driven and {sup p}seudosmooth{sup )} regimes.

  16. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  17. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rana Pratap; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  18. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rana Pratap; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S V

    2016-01-01

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  19. Fusion facility siting considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussell, G. T.

    1985-02-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. An important consideration in this regard is site selection. Major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion are examined.

  20. Status of fusion maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission.

  1. Fusion: The controversy continues

    SciTech Connect

    1989-07-01

    Nuclear fusion-the power of the stars that promises mankind an inexhaustible supply of energy-seems concurrently much closer and still distant this month. The recent flurry of announcements concerning the achievement of a cold fusion reaction has-if nothing else-underscored the historic importance of the basic fusion reaction which uses hydrogen ions to fuel an energy-producing reaction.

  2. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  3. Meteorite fusion crust variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaisen, Kevin G.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2009-06-01

    Two assumptions commonly employed in meteorite interpretation are that fusion crust compositions represent the bulk-rock chemistry of the interior meteorite and that the vesicles within the fusion crust result from the release of implanted solar wind volatiles. Electron microprobe analyses of thin sections from lunar meteorite Miller Range (MIL) 05035 and eucrite Bates Nunataks (BTN) 00300 were performed to determine if the chemical compositions of the fusion crust varied and/or represented the published bulk rock composition. It was determined that fusion crust compositions are significantly influenced by the incorporation of fragments from the substrate, and by the composition and grain size of those minerals. Because of compositional heterogeneities throughout the meteorite, one cannot assume that fusion crust composition represents the bulk rock composition. If the compositional variability within the fusion crust and mineralogical differences among thin sections goes unnoticed, then the perceived composition and petrogenetic models of formation will be incorrect. The formation of vesicles within these fusion crusts were also compared to current theories attributing vesicles to a solar wind origin. Previous work from the STONE-5 experiment, where terrestrial rocks were exposed on the exterior of a spacecraft heatshield, produced a vesicular fusion crust without prolonged exposure to solar wind suggesting that the high temperatures experienced by a meteorite during passage through the Earth's atmosphere are sufficient to cause boiling of the melt. Therefore, the assumption that all vesicles found within a fusion crust are due to the release of implanted volatiles of solar wind may not be justified.

  4. Hybrid Solar GHP Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuzturk, Cy; Chiasson, Andrew; Shonder, John

    2012-12-11

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primary benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems is

  5. Hybrid Solar GHP Simulator

    2012-12-11

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primarymore » benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems

  6. Exposure fusion using boosting Laplacian pyramid.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianbing; Zhao, Ying; Yan, Shuicheng; Li, Xuelong

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a new exposure fusion approach for producing a high quality image result from multiple exposure images. Based on the local weight and global weight by considering the exposure quality measurement between different exposure images, and the just noticeable distortion-based saliency weight, a novel hybrid exposure weight measurement is developed. This new hybrid weight is guided not only by a single image's exposure level but also by the relative exposure level between different exposure images. The core of the approach is our novel boosting Laplacian pyramid, which is based on the structure of boosting the detail and base signal, respectively, and the boosting process is guided by the proposed exposure weight. Our approach can effectively blend the multiple exposure images for static scenes while preserving both color appearance and texture structure. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully produces visually pleasing exposure fusion images with better color appearance and more texture details than the existing exposure fusion techniques and tone mapping operators. PMID:25137687

  7. On the fusion triple product and fusion power gain of tokamak pilot plants and reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costley, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    The energy confinement time of tokamak plasmas scales positively with plasma size and so it is generally expected that the fusion triple product, nTτ E, will also increase with size, and this has been part of the motivation for building devices of increasing size including ITER. Here n, T, and τ E are the ion density, ion temperature and energy confinement time respectively. However, tokamak plasmas are subject to operational limits and two important limits are a density limit and a beta limit. We show that when these limits are taken into account, nTτ E becomes almost independent of size; rather it depends mainly on the fusion power, P fus. In consequence, the fusion power gain, Q fus, a parameter closely linked to nTτ E is also independent of size. Hence, P fus and Q fus, two parameters of critical importance in reactor design, are actually tightly coupled. Further, we find that nTτ E is inversely dependent on the normalised beta, β N; an unexpected result that tends to favour lower power reactors. Our findings imply that the minimum power to achieve fusion reactor conditions is driven mainly by physics considerations, especially energy confinement, while the minimum device size is driven by technology and engineering considerations. Through dedicated R&D and parallel developments in other fields, the technology and engineering aspects are evolving in a direction to make smaller devices feasible.

  8. Coatings for laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-12-18

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors.

  9. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  10. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  11. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  12. Flare Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.; Dubieniecki, P.

    2015-12-01

    On the basis of the Solar Maximum Mission observations, Švestka ( Solar Phys. 121, 399, 1989) introduced a new class of flares, the so-called flare hybrids. When they start, they look like typical compact flares (phase 1), but later on, they look like flares with arcades of magnetic loops (phase 2). We summarize the characteristic features of flare hybrids in soft and hard X-rays as well as in the extreme ultraviolet; these features allow us to distinguish flare hybrids from other flares. In this article, additional energy release or long plasma cooling timescales are suggested as possible causes of phase 2. We estimate the frequency of flare hybrids, and study the magnetic configurations favorable for flare hybrid occurrence. Flare hybrids appear to be quite frequent, and the difference between the lengths of magnetic loops in the two interacting loop systems seem to be a crucial parameter for determining their characteristics.

  13. Lower Hybrid Solitary Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuck, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    Lower hybrid solitary structures (LHSS) have been observed by sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere for over a decade and a half. LHSS are spatial structures embedded in space plasmas containing ambient whistler mode hiss. They are characterized by a density depletion of a few percent to several tens of percent in which electric fields near, both above and below, the lower hybrid resonance are more intense than the background fields by a factor of three to five. LHSS have dimensions across the magnetic field of a few to many thermal ion gyroradii, usually 10-100 meters and a density profile that is Gaussian and consistent with cylindrical symmetry. Along the magnetic field the dimensions are estimated to be several kilometers to several hundred kilometers. Electric field interferometry reveals that the phase fronts of LHSS electric fields rotate azimuthally within the density depletions; right-hand above the lower hybrid resonance and left-hand below the lower hybrid resonance [Pincon et al., 1997; Schuck et al., 1998; Bonnell et al., 1998; Tjulin et al., 2003; Schuck et al., 2003]. The description of this phenomena was driven by the observations the Cornell University sounding rocket program headed by the late Paul Kintner.

  14. Investigation of Lead Target Nuclei Used on Accelerator-Driven Systems for Tritium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Aydin, A.

    2012-02-01

    High-current proton accelerators are being researched at Los Alamos National Laboratory and other laboratories for accelerator production of tritium, transmuting long-lived radioactive waste into shorter-lived products, converting excess plutonium, and producing energy. These technologies make use of spallation neutrons produced in ( p,xn) and ( n,xn) nuclear reactions on high-Z targets. Through ( p,xn) and ( n,xn) nuclear reactions, neutrons are produced and are moderated by heavy water. These moderated neutrons are subsequently captured on 3He to produce tritium via the ( n,p) reaction. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial fusion power plant. Rubbia succeeded in a proposal of a full scale demonstration plant of the Energy Amplifier. This plant is to be known the accelerator-driven system (ADS). The ADS can be used for production of neutrons in spallation neutron source and they can act as an intense neutron source in accelerator-driven subcritical reactors, capable of incinerating nuclear waste and of producing energy. Thorium and Uranium are nuclear fuels and Lead, Bismuth, Tungsten are the target nuclei in these reactor systems. The spallation targets can be Pb, Bi, W, etc. isotopes and these target material can be liquid or solid. Naturally Lead includes the 204Pb (%1.42), 206Pb (%24.1), 207Pb (%22.1) and 208Pb (%52.3) isotopes. The design of ADS systems and also a fusion-fission hybrid reactor systems require the knowledge of a wide range of better data. In this study, by using Hartree-Fock method with an effective nucleon-nucleon Skyrme interactions rms nuclear charge radii, rms nuclear mass radii, rms nuclear proton, neutron radii and neutron skin thickness were calculated for the 204, 206, 208Pb isotopes . The calculated results have been compared with those of the compiled experimental and theoretical values of other studies.

  15. Chromosome doubling in vine cacti hybrids.

    PubMed

    Tel-Zur, N; Abbo, S; Bar-Zvi, D; Mizrahi, Y

    2003-01-01

    We performed reciprocal crosses between the tetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus and the diploid Hylocereus species, H. undatus and H. polyrhizus. S. megalanthus x H. undatus gave rise to viable hexaploids and 6x-aneuploid hybrids rather than to the expected triploids. No genuine hybrids were obtained in the reciprocal cross. The pollen diameter of the tetraploid S. megalanthus varied widely, indicating the occurrence of unreduced gametes, while that of H. undatus pollen was very uniform, indicating an extremely low frequency of unreduced gametes. This finding suggests that the hexaploids were formed by chromosome doubling after the formation of the hybrid triploid zygote rather than by fusion of unreduced gametes of the two species.

  16. Tokamak Diagnostics Using Fusion Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbrink, William Walter

    Measurements of neutrons and protons produced by the d(d,n)('3)He, d(t,n)(alpha), d(d,p)t, and d(('3)He,p)(alpha) fusion reactions are used to diagnose plasmas in the PLT and PDX tokamaks. An expression for the efficiency of proton detection is derived and confirmed experimentally. The time evolution of the ('3)He density indicates that a scoop limiter may pump ('3)He from the plasma faster than conventional limiters. The confinement of 1.0 MeV tritons and of 0.8 MeV ('3)He ions is studied by measuring the fraction of these fusion-produced ions that burn up in subsequent fusion reactions. In discharges with sawtooth activity and with B(,(phi)) > 2 T, the triton and ('3)He 'burnup' is consistent (within a factor of three) with predictions based on classical theories of ion confinement and slowing down. In discharges with large m = 2 or fishbone instabilities, the ('3)He burnup is less than classically predicted and, in PLT discharges at B(,(phi)) = 1.8 T, the triton burnup is over an order of magnitude smaller than predicted. Expressions for the energy spectrum of ions produced in beam-target fusion reactions are derived. Collimated measurements of the spectrum of 15 MeV protons produced by reactions between energetic ('3)He ions and relatively cold deuterons during fast wave minority heating indicate that the velocity distribution of fast ('3)He ions is peaked perpendicular to the tokamak magnetic field. The ion temperature profile and density of fast deuterons are measured with an array of collimated 3 MeV proton detectors. The fast ions produced by neutral beam injection and by launching lower hybrid waves are concentrated near the magnetic axis. Poloidal field measurements using 3 MeV protons also appear possible. In discharges in which the line radiation from central impurities does not decay, the plasma current profile is broader than in more typical discharges.

  17. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, P; Chaland, F; Masse, L

    2004-11-01

    By means of highly resolved one-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations, we provide an understanding of the burn process in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets. The cornerstone of the phenomenology of propagating burn in such laser-driven capsules is shown to be the transition from a slow unsteady reaction-diffusion regime of thermonuclear combustion (some sort of deflagration) to a fast detonative one. Remarkably, detonation initiation follows the slowing down of a shockless supersonic reaction wave driven by energy redeposition from the fusion products themselves. Such a route to detonation is specific to fusion plasmas. PMID:15600681

  18. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, P; Chaland, F; Masse, L

    2004-11-01

    By means of highly resolved one-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations, we provide an understanding of the burn process in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets. The cornerstone of the phenomenology of propagating burn in such laser-driven capsules is shown to be the transition from a slow unsteady reaction-diffusion regime of thermonuclear combustion (some sort of deflagration) to a fast detonative one. Remarkably, detonation initiation follows the slowing down of a shockless supersonic reaction wave driven by energy redeposition from the fusion products themselves. Such a route to detonation is specific to fusion plasmas.

  19. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, P.; Chaland, F.; Masse, L.

    2004-11-01

    By means of highly resolved one-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations, we provide an understanding of the burn process in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets. The cornerstone of the phenomenology of propagating burn in such laser-driven capsules is shown to be the transition from a slow unsteady reaction-diffusion regime of thermonuclear combustion (some sort of deflagration) to a fast detonative one. Remarkably, detonation initiation follows the slowing down of a shockless supersonic reaction wave driven by energy redeposition from the fusion products themselves. Such a route to detonation is specific to fusion plasmas.

  20. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  1. Parametric systems analysis for tandem mirror hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.; Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1980-09-01

    Fusion fission systems, consisting of fissile producing fusion hybrids combining a tandem mirror fusion driver with various blanket types and net fissile consuming LWR's, have been modeled and analyzed parametrically. Analysis to date indicates that hybrids can be competitive with mined uranium when U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ cost is about 100 $/lb., adding less than 25% to present day cost of power from LWR's. Of the three blanket types considered, uranium fast fission (UFF), thorium fast fission (ThFF), and thorium fission supressed (ThFS), the ThFS blanket has a modest economic advantage under most conditions but has higher support ratios and potential safety advantages under all conditions.

  2. Fusion FISH Imaging: Single-Molecule Detection of Gene Fusion Transcripts In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Markey, Fatu Badiane; Ruezinsky, William; Tyagi, Sanjay; Batish, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Double-stranded DNA breaks occur on a regular basis in the human genome as a consequence of genotoxic stress and errors during replication. Usually these breaks are rapidly and faithfully repaired, but occasionally different chromosomes, or different regions of the same chromosome, are fused to each other. Some of these aberrant chromosomal translocations yield functional recombinant genes, which have been implicated as the cause of a number of lymphomas, leukemias, sarcomas, and solid tumors. Reliable methods are needed for the in situ detection of the transcripts encoded by these recombinant genes. We have developed just such a method, utilizing single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (sm-FISH), in which approximately 50 short fluorescent probes bind to adjacent sites on the same mRNA molecule, rendering each target mRNA molecule visible as a diffraction-limited spot in a fluorescence microscope. Utilizing this method, gene fusion transcripts are detected with two differently colored probe sets, each specific for one of the two recombinant segments of a target mRNA; enabling the fusion transcripts to be seen in the microscope as distinct spots that fluoresce in both colors. We demonstrate this method by detecting the BCR-ABL fusion transcripts that occur in chronic myeloid leukemia cells, and by detecting the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion transcripts that occur in Ewing's sarcoma cells. This technology should pave the way for accurate in situ typing of many cancers that are associated with, or caused by, fusion transcripts. PMID:24675777

  3. Fusion yield: Guderley model and Tsallis statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H. J.; Kumar, D.

    2011-02-01

    The reaction rate probability integral is extended from Maxwell-Boltzmann approach to a more general approach by using the pathway model introduced by Mathai in 2005 (A pathway to matrix-variate gamma and normal densities. Linear Algebr. Appl. 396, 317-328). The extended thermonuclear reaction rate is obtained in the closed form via a Meijer's G-function and the so-obtained G-function is represented as a solution of a homogeneous linear differential equation. A physical model for the hydrodynamical process in a fusion plasma-compressed and laser-driven spherical shock wave is used for evaluating the fusion energy integral by integrating the extended thermonuclear reaction rate integral over the temperature. The result obtained is compared with the standard fusion yield obtained by Haubold and John in 1981 (Analytical representation of the thermonuclear reaction rate and fusion energy production in a spherical plasma shock wave. Plasma Phys. 23, 399-411). An interpretation for the pathway parameter is also given.

  4. Linker Flexibility Facilitates Module Exchange in Fungal Hybrid PKS-NRPS Engineering.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Isbrandt, Thomas; Petersen, Lene Maj; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. We sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining modules of PKS-NRPS hybrids from different hosts, hereby producing novel synthetic natural products. We succeeded in the construction of a functional cross-species chimeric PKS-NRPS expressed in Aspergillus nidulans. Module swapping of the two PKS-NRPS natural hybrids CcsA from Aspergillus clavatus involved in the biosynthesis of cytochalasin E and related Syn2 from rice plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae lead to production of novel hybrid products, demonstrating that the rational re-design of these fungal natural product enzymes is feasible. We also report the structure of four novel pseudo pre-cytochalasin intermediates, niduclavin and niduporthin along with the chimeric compounds niduchimaeralin A and B, all indicating that PKS-NRPS activity alone is insufficient for proper assembly of the cytochalasin core structure. Future success in the field of biocombinatorial synthesis of hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides relies on the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of inter-modular polyketide chain transfer. Therefore, we expressed several PKS-NRPS linker-modified variants. Intriguingly, the linker anatomy is less complex than expected, as these variants displayed great tolerance with regards to content and length, showing a hitherto unreported flexibility in PKS-NRPS hybrids, with great potential for synthetic biology-driven biocombinatorial chemistry. PMID:27551732

  5. Linker Flexibility Facilitates Module Exchange in Fungal Hybrid PKS-NRPS Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Isbrandt, Thomas; Petersen, Lene Maj; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. We sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining modules of PKS-NRPS hybrids from different hosts, hereby producing novel synthetic natural products. We succeeded in the construction of a functional cross-species chimeric PKS-NRPS expressed in Aspergillus nidulans. Module swapping of the two PKS-NRPS natural hybrids CcsA from Aspergillus clavatus involved in the biosynthesis of cytochalasin E and related Syn2 from rice plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae lead to production of novel hybrid products, demonstrating that the rational re-design of these fungal natural product enzymes is feasible. We also report the structure of four novel pseudo pre-cytochalasin intermediates, niduclavin and niduporthin along with the chimeric compounds niduchimaeralin A and B, all indicating that PKS-NRPS activity alone is insufficient for proper assembly of the cytochalasin core structure. Future success in the field of biocombinatorial synthesis of hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides relies on the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of inter-modular polyketide chain transfer. Therefore, we expressed several PKS-NRPS linker-modified variants. Intriguingly, the linker anatomy is less complex than expected, as these variants displayed great tolerance with regards to content and length, showing a hitherto unreported flexibility in PKS-NRPS hybrids, with great potential for synthetic biology-driven biocombinatorial chemistry. PMID:27551732

  6. Reprogramming of Somatic Cells Towards Pluripotency by Cell Fusion.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Andrzej R; Fisher, Amanda G

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent reprogramming can be dominantly induced in a somatic nucleus upon fusion with a pluripotent cell such as embryonic stem (ES) cell. Cell fusion between ES cells and somatic cells results in the formation of heterokaryons, in which the somatic nuclei begin to acquire features of the pluripotent partner. The generation of interspecies heterokaryons between mouse ES- and human somatic cells allows an experimenter to distinguish the nuclear events occurring specifically within the reprogrammed nucleus. Therefore, cell fusion provides a simple and rapid approach to look at the early nuclear events underlying pluripotent reprogramming. Here, we describe a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated cell fusion protocol to generate interspecies heterokaryons and intraspecies hybrids between ES cells and B lymphocytes or fibroblasts. PMID:27659994

  7. Reprogramming of Somatic Cells Towards Pluripotency by Cell Fusion.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Andrzej R; Fisher, Amanda G

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent reprogramming can be dominantly induced in a somatic nucleus upon fusion with a pluripotent cell such as embryonic stem (ES) cell. Cell fusion between ES cells and somatic cells results in the formation of heterokaryons, in which the somatic nuclei begin to acquire features of the pluripotent partner. The generation of interspecies heterokaryons between mouse ES- and human somatic cells allows an experimenter to distinguish the nuclear events occurring specifically within the reprogrammed nucleus. Therefore, cell fusion provides a simple and rapid approach to look at the early nuclear events underlying pluripotent reprogramming. Here, we describe a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated cell fusion protocol to generate interspecies heterokaryons and intraspecies hybrids between ES cells and B lymphocytes or fibroblasts.

  8. Methods and apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John R.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

  9. Apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John R.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel contained within the microballoon. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

  10. Fusion Physics Toward ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, R. D.

    2006-04-01

    Stars are powered by fusion, the energy released by fusing together light nuclei, using gravitational confinement of plasma. Fusion on earth will be done in a 100 million degree plasma made of deuterium and tritium and confined by magnetic fields or inertia. The worldwide fusion research community will construct ITER, the first experiment that will burn a DT plasma by copious fusion reactions. ITER's nominal goal is to create 500 MW of fusion power. An energy gain of 10 will mean the plasma is dominantly self-heated by the fusion-produced alpha particles. ITER's all superconducting magnet technology and steady-state heat removal technology will enable nominal 400 s pulses to allow the study of burning plasmas on the longest intrinsic timescale of the confined plasma - diffusive redistribution of the electrical currents in the plasma. The advances in magnetic confinement physics that have led to this opportunity will be described, as well as the research opportunities afforded by ITER. The physics of confining stable plasmas and heating them will produce the high gain state in ITER. Sustained burn will come from the physics of controlling currents in plasmas and how the hot plasma is interfaced to its room temperature surroundings. ITER will provide our first experience with how fusion plasma self-heating will profoundly affect the complex, interlinked physical processes that occur in confined plasmas.

  11. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  12. Computerized device for critical flicker fusion frequency determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racene, Diana

    2003-08-01

    The critical fusion flicker frequency of the human visual system is the threshold sensitivity for a sine wave-modulated patch of monochromatic flickering light measured as a function of its temporal frequency and average luminance level. The critical flicker fusion frequency changes in different ocular and non-ocular conditions, for example: high-myopia, AMR, glaucoma, schizophrenia, after alcohol intake, fatigue. A computerized test for critical flicker fusion frequency determination was developed. Visual stimuli are two monochromatic LED light sources that are connected to a microcircuit driven by a computer program. The control of the device is realized through the parallel port of the PC. During the test a patient has to choose which one of two light sources is flickering. The critical cliker fusion frequency is determined by a psychophysical procedure, where the stimulus frequency that showed detection probability 75% is considered as threshold.

  13. Characterization of a ubiquitin-fusion gene from the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed Central

    Bishoff, S T; Schwartz, L M

    1990-01-01

    A gene encoding a ubiquitin-fusion protein was isolated from a cDNA library made from the intersegmental muscles (ISM) of the moth, Manduca sexta. The predicted amino acid sequence of this fusion protein is highly conserved when compared to the sequence of homologous proteins from diverse species. The Manduca clone encoding this ubiquitin fusion gene hybridized with a single, abundantly expressed transcript in all tissues examined. In the ISM, the transcript was present at high levels, independent of the developmental stage or hormonal treatment of these muscles. Data from other species indicate that ubiquitin-fusion genes participate in ribosome biogenesis. Images PMID:1700368

  14. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.; Gromada, R.J.; McCarville, T.J.; Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Bandini, B.R.; Fulton, F.J.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Westman, R.A.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Orient, G.; Wolfer, M.; DeVan, J.H.; Torterelli, P.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future.

  15. Fission thrust sail as booster for high Δv fusion based propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyssens, Frederik; Wouters, Kristof; Driesen, Maarten

    2015-12-01

    The fission thrust sail as booster for nuclear fusion-based rocket propulsion for future starships is introduced and studied. First order calculations are used together with Monte Carlo simulations to assess system performance. If a D-D fusion rocket such as e.g. considered in Project Icarus has relatively low efficiency (~30%) in converting fusion fuel to a directed exhaust, adding a fission sail is shown to be beneficial for the obtainable delta-v. In addition, this type of fission-fusion hybrid propulsion has the potential to improve acceleration and act as a micrometeorite shield.

  16. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

  17. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  18. Converting 2D inorganic-organic ZnSe-DETA hybrid nanosheets into 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuan; Xu, Rui; Zhu, Rongjiao; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Engineering two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures is one of the great challenges in nanochemistry and materials science. We report a facile and simple chemical conversion route to fabricate 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres by using 2D inorganic-organic hybrid ZnSe-DETA (DETA = diethylenetriamine) nanosheets as the starting precursors. The conversion mechanism involves the controlled depletion of the organic-component (DETA) from the hybrid precursors and the subsequent self-assembly of the remnant inorganic-component (ZnSe). The transformation reaction of ZnSe-DETA nanosheets is mainly influenced by the concentration of DETA in the reaction solution. We demonstrated that this organic-component depletion method could be extended to the synthesis of other hierarchical structures of metal sulfides. In addition, the obtained hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres exhibited outstanding performance in visible light photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and were highly active for photocatalytic H2 production.Engineering two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures is one of the great challenges in nanochemistry and materials science. We report a facile and simple chemical conversion route to fabricate 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres by using 2D inorganic-organic hybrid ZnSe-DETA (DETA = diethylenetriamine) nanosheets as the starting precursors. The conversion mechanism involves the controlled depletion of the organic-component (DETA) from the hybrid precursors and the subsequent self-assembly of the remnant inorganic-component (ZnSe). The transformation reaction of ZnSe-DETA nanosheets is mainly influenced by the concentration of DETA in the reaction solution. We demonstrated that this organic-component depletion method could be extended to the synthesis of other hierarchical structures of metal sulfides. In addition, the obtained

  19. Generation and use of site-directed chromosomal cyaA' translational fusions in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Morales, Francisco; Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena; Cordero-Alba, Mar; Baisón-Olmo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    CyaA from Bordetella pertussis is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Fusions to the catalytic domain of CyaA (CyaA') are useful tools to detect translocation of type III secretion system effectors from gram-negative pathogens like Salmonella enterica. These fusions are usually generated using plasmids with strong promoters. Here, we describe a protocol to insert the CyaA'-encoding sequence in a specific site in the bacterial chromosome in order to get a monocopy fusion whose expression is driven by the native promoter. We also describe the procedure to detect translocation of a CyaA' fusion into mammalian cells.

  20. Some new inequalities for continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Yun-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs which are extensions of discrete fusion frames and continuous frames. The study of equalities and inequalities for various frames has seen great achievements. In this paper, using operator methods we establish some new inequalities for continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs. Our results extend and improve ones obtained by Balan, Casazza and Găvruţa. PMID:27652173

  1. An Efficient Method for Identifying Gene Fusions by Targeted RNA Sequencing from Fresh Frozen and FFPE Samples.

    PubMed

    Scolnick, Jonathan A; Dimon, Michelle; Wang, I-Ching; Huelga, Stephanie C; Amorese, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Fusion genes are known to be key drivers of tumor growth in several types of cancer. Traditionally, detecting fusion genes has been a difficult task based on fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal abnormalities. More recently, RNA sequencing has enabled an increased pace of fusion gene identification. However, RNA-Seq is inefficient for the identification of fusion genes due to the high number of sequencing reads needed to detect the small number of fusion transcripts present in cells of interest. Here we describe a method, Single Primer Enrichment Technology (SPET), for targeted RNA sequencing that is customizable to any target genes, is simple to use, and efficiently detects gene fusions. Using SPET to target 5701 exons of 401 known cancer fusion genes for sequencing, we were able to identify known and previously unreported gene fusions from both fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue RNA in both normal tissue and cancer cells. PMID:26132974

  2. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. Grant

    1994-09-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an exmaple of an IEE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity.

  3. Strongly Coupled Ternary Hybrid Aerogels of N-deficient Porous Graphitic-C3N4 Nanosheets/N-Doped Graphene/NiFe-Layered Double Hydroxide for Solar-Driven Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Feng, Xinliang; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-13

    Developing photoanodes with efficient sunlight harvesting, excellent charge separation and transfer, and fast surface reaction kinetics remains a key challenge in photoelectrochemical water splitting devices. Here we report a new strongly coupled ternary hybrid aerogel that is designed and constructed by in situ assembly of N-deficient porous carbon nitride nanosheets and NiFe-layered double hydroxide into a 3D N-doped graphene framework architecture using a facile hydrothermal method. Such a 3D hierarchical structure combines several advantageous features, including effective light-trapping, multidimensional electron transport pathways, short charge transport time and distance, strong coupling effect, and improved surface reaction kinetics. Benefiting from the desirable nanostructure, the ternary hybrid aerogels exhibited remarkable photoelectrochemical performance for water oxidation. Results included a record-high photocurrent density that reached 162.3 μA cm(-2) at 1.4 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode with a maximum incident photon-to-current efficiency of 2.5% at 350 nm under AM 1.5G irradiation, and remarkable photostability. The work represents a significant step toward the development of novel 3D aerogel-based photoanodes for solar water splitting. PMID:26963768

  4. Converting 2D inorganic-organic ZnSe-DETA hybrid nanosheets into 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuan; Xu, Rui; Zhu, Rongjiao; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Engineering two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures is one of the great challenges in nanochemistry and materials science. We report a facile and simple chemical conversion route to fabricate 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres by using 2D inorganic-organic hybrid ZnSe-DETA (DETA = diethylenetriamine) nanosheets as the starting precursors. The conversion mechanism involves the controlled depletion of the organic-component (DETA) from the hybrid precursors and the subsequent self-assembly of the remnant inorganic-component (ZnSe). The transformation reaction of ZnSe-DETA nanosheets is mainly influenced by the concentration of DETA in the reaction solution. We demonstrated that this organic-component depletion method could be extended to the synthesis of other hierarchical structures of metal sulfides. In addition, the obtained hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres exhibited outstanding performance in visible light photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and were highly active for photocatalytic H2 production.

  5. Fusion-power demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, C. D.; Logan, B. G.; Carlson, G. A.; Neef, W. S.; Moir, R. W.; Campbell, R. B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I. R.; Carpenter, T. J.

    1983-03-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment.

  6. Spinal fusion - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscles hold the graft in place until it fuses with the vertebrae. A fusion will setup within ... hollow threaded titanium or carbon fiber cylinder to fuse two vertebrae together. The diseased disk is removed ...

  7. Magnetized Target Fusion collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, Thomas

    2004-11-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) may be a low cost path to fusion, in a regime that is intermediate between magnetic and inertial fusion energy. It requires compression of a magnetized target plasma and consequent heating to fusion relevant conditions inside a converging flux conserver. We hope to demonstrate the physics basis for MTF, with a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma to be translated axially to a compression region. We show recent and improved FRC formation data, example deformable liner implosions, and a conceptual design for the upcoming translation experiments, and describe a multi institution collaboration. The FRC is an elongated, compact toroid equilibrium that is extreme among magnetic configurations, and relaxed to a non force free state. There is high plasma beta, small toroidal field, cross-field diamagnetic current and flows, vanishing rotational transform, magnetic shear, helicity and anomalously large resistivity. Scientific issues include MTF with and without FRC's, and fundamental plasma physics beyond MHD, relevant to geophysical and astrophysical phenomena.

  8. Pulse detonation assembly and hybrid engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasheed, Adam (Inventor); Dean, Anthony John (Inventor); Vandervort, Christian Lee (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A pulse detonation (PD) assembly includes a number of PD chambers adapted to expel respective detonation product streams and a number of barriers disposed between respective pairs of PD chambers. The barriers define, at least in part, a number of sectors that contain at least one PD chamber. A hybrid engine includes a number of PD chambers and barriers. The hybrid engine further includes a turbine assembly having at least one turbine stage, being in flow communication with the PD chambers and being configured to be at least partially driven by the detonation product streams. A segmented hybrid engine includes a number of PD chambers and segments configured to receive and direct the detonation product streams from respective PD chambers. The segmented hybrid engine further includes a turbine assembly configured to be at least partially driven by the detonation product streams.

  9. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable than

  11. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2016-07-12

    ITER (in Latin “the way”) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium – fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project – China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States – represent more than half the world’s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  12. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  13. Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Following the suggestion of Earl Marmar in 1995, I installed a compact von Hamos type x-ray spectrometer (originally built with Elisabeth Rachlew and Jan Kallne) on a tangentially viewing port on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The spectrometer views the plasma through a 2 cm diameter hole, and is tuned to H-like argon, suitable for passive measurement of the core toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler shift. It soon became evident that the rotation in Ohmic L-mode discharges, while for the most part directed counter-current, depends in a very complicated fashion on plasma parameters, notably the electron density, current and magnetic configuration. The rotation can even flip sign for almost no apparent reason! In Ohmic and ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heated H-mode plasmas the rotation is in the co-current direction and has a relatively simple dependence on plasma parameters, proportional to the stored energy normalized to the current. Rotation velocities as high as 130 km s-1 have been observed without external momentum input. In dimensionless terms this intrinsic (or spontaneous rotation) depends on the normalized plasma pressure. The association of toroidal rotation with plasma pressure in ICRF H-modes was first observed by Lars-Goran Eriksson in JET discharges. Similar results were subsequently reported for Tore Supra enhanced confinement plasmas. In the early 2000s concerns began to surface about the lack of substantial neutral beam driven rotation in ITER, and intrinsic rotation became a topic of interest in the ITPA Transport Group. Through that connection, similar observations from DIII-D, TCV and JT-60U were added to the growing list. A database of intrinsic rotation observations was assembled with the goal of extrapolating to the expected values for ITER. Both dimensional and dimensionless scalings were developed and formed the backbone of the 2007 Nuclear Fusion paper. I gratefully acknowledge the important contributions to this paper from

  14. Ion cyclotron emission from fusion-born ions in large tokamak plasmas: a brief review from JET and TFTR to ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, R. O.; McClements, K. G.

    2015-04-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) was the first collective radiative instability, driven by confined fusion-born ions, observed from deuterium-tritium plasmas in JET and TFTR. ICE comprises strongly suprathermal emission, which has spectral peaks at multiple ion cyclotron harmonic frequencies as evaluated at the outer mid-plane edge of tokamak plasmas. The measured intensity of ICE spectral peaks scaled linearly with measured fusion reactivity in JET. In other large tokamak plasmas, ICE is currently used as an indicator of fast ions physics. The excitation mechanism for ICE is the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI); in the case of JET and TFTR, the MCI is driven by a set of centrally born trapped fusion products, lying just inside the trapped-passing boundary in velocity space, whose drift orbits make large radial excursions to the outer mid-plane edge. Diagnostic exploitation of ICE in future experiments therefore rests in part on deep understanding of the MCI, and recent advances in computational plasma physics have led to substantial recent progress, reviewed here. Particle-in-cell simulations of the MCI, with fully kinetic ions and electrons, were reported in 2013, using plasma parameters for JET ICE observations. The hybrid approximation for plasma simulations, where ions are treated as particles and electrons as a neutralising massless fluid, was then applied and reported in 2014. These simulations extend previous studies deep into the nonlinear regime of the MCI, and corroborate predictions by linear analytical theory, thereby strengthening further the link to ICE measurements. ICE is a potential diagnostic for confined alpha-particles in ITER, where measurements of ICE could yield information on energetic ion behaviour supplementing that obtainable from other diagnostics. In addition, it may be possible to use ICE to study fast ion redistribution and loss due to MHD activity in ITER.

  15. US/Russian Magnetized Target Fusion Plasma Formation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, John F., Jr.; Mtf Team; Broste, W.; Westley, D.; Mago Team

    1998-11-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a potentially very low cost route to producing a fusion energy source. Many of MTF's plasma properties are intermediate between magnetically confined fusion (MFE) and inertially confined fusion (ICF). MTF consists of first producing a magnetically thermally insulated target plasma with a temperature of 100 eV or more with a lifetime of 5-10 microseconds. The target plasma is then compressed to fusion conditions by a magnetically driven imploding liner. One target plasma candidate is VNIIEF's MAGO, in which a cylindrical chamber with two cavities is filled with DT gas at a pressure of 10 Torr and driven by a current of 2-8 MA. A series of experiments under different plasma conditions have been performed to evaluate MAGO as an MTF target plasma. Diagnostics used to characterize the MAGO plasma include B dot probes to measure the current distribution, filtered silicon diodes to measure the spectrum and duration of the plasma radiation and a UV spectrometer to measure impurity line radiation.

  16. Hybrid mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C. A.; Swanson, E. S.

    2015-05-01

    A review of the theoretical and experimental status of hybrid hadrons is presented. The states π1(1400) , π1(1600) , and π1(2015) are thoroughly reviewed, along with experimental results from GAMS, VES, Obelix, COMPASS, KEK, CLEO, Crystal Barrel, CLAS, and BNL. Theoretical lattice results on the gluelump spectrum, adiabatic potentials, heavy and light hybrids, and transition matrix elements are discussed. These are compared with bag, string, flux tube, and constituent gluon models. Strong and electromagnetic decay models are described and compared to lattice gauge theory results. We conclude that while good evidence for the existence of a light isovector exotic meson exists, its confirmation as a hybrid meson awaits discovery of its iso-partners. We also conclude that lattice gauge theory rules out a number of hybrid models and provides a reference to judge the success of others.

  17. Evaluation of posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep using mineral scaffolds seeded with cultured bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-López, María D; Andrades, José A; Gómez, Santiago; Zamora-Navas, Plácido; Guerado, Enrique; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jerónimo; Becerra, José

    2014-12-16

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft) for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group), hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct). During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP) were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4-L5). Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70%) than for mineral scaffold alone (22%) and hybrid constructs (35%). The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft). Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored by

  18. Evaluation of posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep using mineral scaffolds seeded with cultured bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-López, María D; Andrades, José A; Gómez, Santiago; Zamora-Navas, Plácido; Guerado, Enrique; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jerónimo; Becerra, José

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft) for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group), hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct). During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP) were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4-L5). Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70%) than for mineral scaffold alone (22%) and hybrid constructs (35%). The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft). Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored by

  19. Evaluation of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Sheep Using Mineral Scaffolds Seeded with Cultured Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-López, María D.; Andrades, José A.; Gómez, Santiago; Zamora-Navas, Plácido; Guerado, Enrique; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jerónimo; Becerra, José

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft) for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group), hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct). During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP) were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4–L5). Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70%) than for mineral scaffold alone (22%) and hybrid constructs (35%). The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft). Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored by

  20. Preconceptual design and assessment of a Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Aase, D.T.

    1980-09-01

    The preconceptual design of a commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (THR) power plant has been performed. The tokamak fusion driver for this hybrid is operated in the ignition mode. The D-T fusion plasma, which produces 1140 MW of power, has a major radius of 5.4 m and a minor radius of 1.0 m with an elongation of 2.0. Double null poloidal divertors are assumed for impurity control. The confining toroidal field is maintained by D-shaped Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting magnets with a maximum field of 12T at the coil. Three blankets with four associated fuel cycle alternatives have been combined with the ignited tokamak fusion driver. The engineering, material, and balance of plant design requirements for the THR are briefly described. Estimates of the capital, operating and maintenance, and fuel cycle costs have been made for the various driver/blanket combinations and an assessment of the market penetrability of hybrid systems is presented. An analysis has been made of the nonproliferation aspects of the hybrid and its associated fuel cycles relative to fission reactors. The current and required level of technology for both the fusion and fission components of the hybrid system has been reviewed. Licensing hybrid systems is also considered.

  1. Hybrid SCR

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, T.; Zammit, K.

    1996-01-01

    Hybrid selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems consist of either a combination of SCR techniques (i.e. in-dust SCR combined with air heater SCR) or selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) in combination with SCR. These Hybrid SCR systems can offer substantial benefits in reduced cost and enhanced performance; however, their applicability is very unit specific. This paper presents the results of a study to document the current experience and develop a tool by which utilities can determine the applicability of Hybrid SCR to meet their NO{sub x} reduction goals, a guideline for selecting the best configuration, and a reference for developing the design parameters necessary to implement the technology. Hybrid SCR systems have been installed and demonstrated on utility boilers. The systems have included in-duct SCR combined with air heater SCR and SNCR combined with SCR as includes a review of the results of these demonstrations as well as comments on the applicability of those results for other utility systems. Finally this document provides a reference for the development of design parameters for the implementation of Hybrid SCR. There are a number of technical and commercial considerations which must be resolved prior to designing or procuring a Hybrid SCR system. The boiler operating, temperature and emissions data necessary for the final design are presented along with the process design variables which must be specified. Procurement suggestions are included to assist the user in addressing some of the more pertinent commercial issues.

  2. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  3. Improvements of image fusion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Shoshan, Yotam; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-03-01

    Fusion of images from different imaging modalities, obtained by conventional fusion methods, may cause artifacts, including destructive superposition and brightness irregularities, in certain cases. This paper proposes two methods for improving image multimodal fusion quality. Based on the finding that a better fusion can be achieved when the images have a more positive correlation, the first method is a decision algorithm that runs at the preprocessing fusion stage and determines whether a complementary gray level of one of the input images should be used instead of the original one. The second method is suitable for multiresolution fusion, and it suggests choosing only one image from the lowest-frequency sub-bands in the pyramids, instead of combining values from both sub-bands. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion enhancement can reduce fusion artifacts. Quantitative fusion quality measures that support this conclusion are shown.

  4. Laser-plasma interactions relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, K.B.

    1998-11-02

    Research into laser-driven inertial confinement fusion is now entering a critical juncture with the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Many of the remaining unanswered questions concerning NIF involve interactions between lasers and plasmas. With the eventual goal of fusion power in mind, laser-plasma interactions relevant to laser fusion schemes is an important topic in need of further research. This work experimentally addresses some potential shortcuts and pitfalls on the road to laser-driven fusion power. Current plans on NIF have 192 laser beams directed into a small cylindrical cavity which will contain the fusion fuel; to accomplish this the beams must cross in the entrance holes, and this intersection will be in the presence of outward-flowing plasma. To investigate the physics involved, interactions of crossing laser beams in flowing plasmas are investigated with experiments on the Nova laser facility at LLNL. It was found that in a flowing plasma, energy is transferred between two crossing laser beams, and this may have deleterious consequences for energy balance and ignition in NIF. Possible solutions to this problem are presented. A recently-proposed alternative to standard laser-driven fusion, the ''fast ignitor'' concept, is also experimentally addressed in this dissertation. Many of the laser-plasma interactions necessary for the success of the fast ignitor have not previously been explored at the relevant laser intensities. Specifically, the transfer of high-intensity laser energy to electrons at solid-target interfaces is addressed. 20-30% conversion efficiencies into forward-propagated electrons were measured, along with an average electron energy that varied with the type of target material. The directionality of the electrons was also measured, revealing an apparent beaming of the highest energy electrons. This work was extended to various intensities and pulse lengths and a

  5. Role of Hybrid Brain Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Burhan, Amer M; Marlatt, Nicole M; Palaniyappan, Lena; Anazodo, Udunna C; Prato, Frank S

    2015-01-01

    This is a focused review of imaging literature to scope the utility of hybrid brain imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders. The review focuses on brain imaging modalities that utilize hybrid (fusion) techniques to characterize abnormal brain molecular signals in combination with structural and functional changes that have been observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. An overview of clinical hybrid brain imaging technologies for human use is followed by a selective review of the literature that conceptualizes the use of these technologies in understanding basic mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric disorders and their therapeutics. Neuronal network abnormalities are highlighted throughout this review to scope the utility of hybrid imaging as a potential biomarker for each disorder. PMID:26854172

  6. Role of Hybrid Brain Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Burhan, Amer M.; Marlatt, Nicole M.; Palaniyappan, Lena; Anazodo, Udunna C.; Prato, Frank S.

    2015-01-01

    This is a focused review of imaging literature to scope the utility of hybrid brain imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders. The review focuses on brain imaging modalities that utilize hybrid (fusion) techniques to characterize abnormal brain molecular signals in combination with structural and functional changes that have been observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. An overview of clinical hybrid brain imaging technologies for human use is followed by a selective review of the literature that conceptualizes the use of these technologies in understanding basic mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric disorders and their therapeutics. Neuronal network abnormalities are highlighted throughout this review to scope the utility of hybrid imaging as a potential biomarker for each disorder. PMID:26854172

  7. Photogated humidity-driven motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lidong; Liang, Haoran; Jacob, Jolly; Naumov, Panče

    2015-06-01

    Hygroinduced motion is a fundamental process of energy conversion that is essential for applications that require contactless actuation in response to the day-night rhythm of atmospheric humidity. Here we demonstrate that mechanical bistability caused by rapid and anisotropic adsorption and desorption of water vapour by a flexible dynamic element that harnesses the chemical potential across very small humidity gradients for perpetual motion can be effectively modulated with light. A mechanically robust material capable of rapid exchange of water with the surroundings is prepared that undergoes swift locomotion in effect to periodic shape reconfiguration with turnover frequency of <150 min-1. The element can lift objects ~85 times heavier and can transport cargos ~20 times heavier than itself. Having an azobenzene-containing conjugate as a photoactive dopant, this entirely humidity-driven self-actuation can be controlled remotely with ultraviolet light, thus setting a platform for next-generation smart biomimetic hybrids.

  8. Photogated humidity-driven motility

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lidong; Liang, Haoran; Jacob, Jolly; Naumov, Panče

    2015-01-01

    Hygroinduced motion is a fundamental process of energy conversion that is essential for applications that require contactless actuation in response to the day–night rhythm of atmospheric humidity. Here we demonstrate that mechanical bistability caused by rapid and anisotropic adsorption and desorption of water vapour by a flexible dynamic element that harnesses the chemical potential across very small humidity gradients for perpetual motion can be effectively modulated with light. A mechanically robust material capable of rapid exchange of water with the surroundings is prepared that undergoes swift locomotion in effect to periodic shape reconfiguration with turnover frequency of <150 min−1. The element can lift objects ∼85 times heavier and can transport cargos ∼20 times heavier than itself. Having an azobenzene-containing conjugate as a photoactive dopant, this entirely humidity-driven self-actuation can be controlled remotely with ultraviolet light, thus setting a platform for next-generation smart biomimetic hybrids. PMID:26067649

  9. Photogated humidity-driven motility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lidong; Liang, Haoran; Jacob, Jolly; Naumov, Panče

    2015-06-11

    Hygroinduced motion is a fundamental process of energy conversion that is essential for applications that require contactless actuation in response to the day-night rhythm of atmospheric humidity. Here we demonstrate that mechanical bistability caused by rapid and anisotropic adsorption and desorption of water vapour by a flexible dynamic element that harnesses the chemical potential across very small humidity gradients for perpetual motion can be effectively modulated with light. A mechanically robust material capable of rapid exchange of water with the surroundings is prepared that undergoes swift locomotion in effect to periodic shape reconfiguration with turnover frequency of <150 min(-1). The element can lift objects ∼85 times heavier and can transport cargos ∼20 times heavier than itself. Having an azobenzene-containing conjugate as a photoactive dopant, this entirely humidity-driven self-actuation can be controlled remotely with ultraviolet light, thus setting a platform for next-generation smart biomimetic hybrids.

  10. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  11. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  12. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  13. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  14. Mirror-based hybrids of recent design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, R. W.; Martovetsky, N. N.; Molvik, A. W.; Ryutov, Dimitri; Simonen, T. C.

    2012-06-01

    Early application of the simple axisymmetric mirror, requiring intermediate performance between a neutron source for materials testing Q=Pfusion/Pinput ˜0.05 and pure fusion Q>10, are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, as well as the typical mirror features of inherently steady-state operation, and natural divertors in the form of end tanks. Operation at Q˜0.7 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 3 keV, for the DT injection energy ˜ 80 keV from existing positive ion neutral beams designed for steady state. This level of physics performance has the virtue of being low risk with only modest R&D needed; and its simplicity promises economy advantages. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror 2.5 T solenoid length of 40 m is discussed. Simple circular steady state superconducting coils at each end are based on 15 T technology development of the ITER central solenoid. Hybrids obtain important revenues from the sale of both electricity and fuel production or waste burning. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning transuranics in the hybrid will multiply fusion's neutron energy by a factor of ˜10 or more and diminish the Q needed to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics to less than 2 and for minor actinides with multiplication over 50 to Q˜0.2. Hybrids that produce fissile fuel with fissioning blankets might need Q<2 while suppressing fissioning might be the most economical application of fusion but will require Q>4.

  15. Coupling of α-channeling to |k∥| upshift in lower hybrid current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, I. E.; Bertelli, N.; Fisch, N. J.

    2014-08-26

    Although lower hybrid waves have been shown to be effective in driving plasma current in present-day tokamaks, they are predicted to strongly interact with the energetic α particles born from fusion reactions in eventual tokamak reactors.

  16. Compact Toroidal Hybrid Research Program: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, D. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Archmiller, M. C.; Traverso, P.; Pandya, M.; Ma, X.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the control and avoidance of major disruptions in current carrying toroidal plasmas is important in mitigating the effects of rapid loss of confinement in future devices. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment is investigating the passive avoidance of disruptions with the addition of a small amount of vacuum transform provided by external coils. In ohmically-driven stellarator plasmas no disruptions of any kind are observed if the vacuum transform exceeds ˜ 0.11. Recent progress on the suppression of low-qa (high a), density limit, and vertically unstable plasma disruptions is overviewed. Interpretation of these results makes use of 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code [1]. Several new diagnostic tools have recently been developed and implemented on CTH. These new research tools include multi-chord interferometry, bolometry, Hα emission detection, a two-color soft x-ray camera, and upgraded magnetic sensor arrays. In addition to these diagnostic improvements, a new 200 kW gyrotron system will provide additional heating power for stellarator target plasmas. Future research directions and plans will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] J. D. Hanson, S. P. Hirshman, S. F. Knowlton, L. L. Lao, E. A. Lazarus, J. M. Shields, Nucl. Fusion, 49 (2009) 075031

  17. Hybrid Texts: Fifth Graders, Rap Music, and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianakis, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Consistent with a sociocritical frame and the analytic tools of hybridity theory, this article explicates how urban fifth-grade children made language hybrids using rap and poetry to participate in classroom literacy. Ethnographic data from a yearlong study illustrate two key findings. First, standards-based and canon-driven writing models…

  18. Fusion-Fission Burner for Transuranic Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chan

    2013-10-01

    The 14-MeV DT fusion neutron spectrum from mirror confinement fusion can provide a unique capability to transmute the transuranic isotopes from light water reactors (LWR). The transuranic (TRU) actinides, high-level radioactive wastes, from spent LWR fuel pose serious worldwide problem with long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity. However, ``transmuted'' TRU actinides can not only reduce the inventory of the TRU in the spent fuel repository but also generate additional energy. Typical commercial LWR fuel assemblies for BWR (boiling water reactor) and PWR (pressurized water reactor) measure its assembly lengths with 4.470 m and 4.059 m, respectively, while its corresponding fuel rod lengths are 4.064 m and 3.851 m. Mirror-based fusion reactor has inherently simple geometry for transmutation blanket with steady-state reactor operation. Recent development of gas-dynamic mirror configuration has additional attractive feature with reduced size in central plasma chamber, thus providing a unique capability for incorporating the spent fuel assemblies into transmutation blanket designs. The system parameters for the gas-dynamic mirror-based hybrid burner will be discussed.

  19. Ceramics for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

  20. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  1. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the “burning plasma” regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  2. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  3. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  4. CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F.; Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C.

    2008-03-16

    Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

  5. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-11-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  6. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.

    2005-06-23

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  7. Fusion welding process

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  8. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  9. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  10. Affordable non-traditional source data mining for context assessment to improve distributed fusion system robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Christopher; Haith, Gary; Steinberg, Alan; Morefield, Charles; Morefield, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes methods to affordably improve the robustness of distributed fusion systems by opportunistically leveraging non-traditional data sources. Adaptive methods help find relevant data, create models, and characterize the model quality. These methods also can measure the conformity of this non-traditional data with fusion system products including situation modeling and mission impact prediction. Non-traditional data can improve the quantity, quality, availability, timeliness, and diversity of the baseline fusion system sources and therefore can improve prediction and estimation accuracy and robustness at all levels of fusion. Techniques are described that automatically learn to characterize and search non-traditional contextual data to enable operators integrate the data with the high-level fusion systems and ontologies. These techniques apply the extension of the Data Fusion & Resource Management Dual Node Network (DNN) technical architecture at Level 4. The DNN architecture supports effectively assessment and management of the expanded portfolio of data sources, entities of interest, models, and algorithms including data pattern discovery and context conformity. Affordable model-driven and data-driven data mining methods to discover unknown models from non-traditional and `big data' sources are used to automatically learn entity behaviors and correlations with fusion products, [14 and 15]. This paper describes our context assessment software development, and the demonstration of context assessment of non-traditional data to compare to an intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance fusion product based upon an IED POIs workflow.

  11. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  12. A genomic approach to myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Beatriz; Michelson, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We have developed an integrated genetic, genomic and computational approach to identify and characterize genes involved in myoblast fusion in Drosophila. We first used fluorescence activated cell sorting to purify mesodermal cells both from wild-type embryos and from twelve variant genotypes in which muscle development is perturbed in known ways. Then, we obtained gene expression profiles for the purified cells by hybridizing isolated mesodermal RNA to Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. These data were subsequently compounded into a statistical meta-analysis that predicts myoblast subtype-specific gene expression signatures that were later validated by in situ hybridization experiments. Finally, we analyzed the myogenic functions of a subset of these myoblast genes using a double-stranded RNA interference assay in living embryos expressing green fluorescent protein under control of a muscle-specific promoter. This experimental strategy led to the identification of several previously uncharacterized genes required for myoblast fusion in Drosophila. PMID:18979251

  13. Modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccine expressing monomer and dimer forms of foot-and-mouth disease capsid protein epitopes on surface of hybrid virus particles.

    PubMed

    Kit, S; Kit, M; DiMarchi, R D; Little, S P; Gale, C

    1991-01-01

    Modified-live, attenuated infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) hybrid virus vaccines have been constructed by inserting in the major IBRV glycoprotein gIII gene chemically synthesized deoxyribonucleotide sequences encoding the bovine growth hormone signal sequence and monomeric or dimeric forms of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP 1 epitope sequences. The foreign DNA sequences were inserted at the N-terminal end of the IBRV gIII coding sequence and were driven by the IBRV gIII promoter. The sequences encoding the first 38 and the first 21 amino acids of the IBRV gIII were deleted from the hybrid viruses containing inserts of the monomeric and dimeric FMDV epitope sequences, respectively, to avoid redundant signal sequences. Plaque immunoassay experiments with guinea pig and bovine anti-FMDV peptide antisera, and with anti-IBRV gIII monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that IBRV-FMDV fusion proteins were expressed in virus-infected MDBK cells. Immunoelectron microscopy analyses demonstrated that the IBRV-FMDV fusion proteins were expressed as repeated structures on the surface of virus particles. Experiments showed that the recombinant IBRV-FMDV viruses protected cattle from IBRV (Cooper) challenge and induced anti-FMDV peptide antibodies, thereby demonstrating that the FMDV epitopes were expressed in vivo. PMID:1718244

  14. Diversity of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcripts in the human prostate.

    PubMed

    Clark, J; Merson, S; Jhavar, S; Flohr, P; Edwards, S; Foster, C S; Eeles, R; Martin, F L; Phillips, D H; Crundwell, M; Christmas, T; Thompson, A; Fisher, C; Kovacs, G; Cooper, C S

    2007-04-19

    TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions have recently been reported to be present in a high proportion of human prostate cancers. In the current study, we show that great diversity exists in the precise structure of TMPRSS2-ERG hybrid transcripts found in human prostates. Fourteen distinct hybrid transcripts are characterized, each containing different combinations of sequences from the TMPRSS2 and ERG genes. The transcripts include two that are predicted to encode a normal full-length ERG protein, six that encode N-terminal truncated ERG proteins and one that encodes a TMPRSS2-ERG fusion protein. Interestingly, distinct patterns of hybrid transcripts were found in samples taken from separate regions of individual cancer-containing prostates, suggesting that TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions may be arising independently in different regions of a single prostate.

  15. Somatic hybrids Solanum nigrum (+) S. tuberosum: morphological assessment and verification of hybridity.

    PubMed

    Szczerbakowa, A; Maciejewska, U; Zimnoch-Guzowska, E; Wielgat, B

    2003-02-01

    Somatic hybrids between the cultivated potato diploid hybrid clone, ZEL-1136, and hexaploid non-tuber-bearing wild species Solanum nigrum L. exhibiting resistance to Phytophthora infestans were regenerated after PEG-mediated fusion of mesophyll protoplasts. The objective was to transfer the late-blight resistance genes from the wild species into plants of the cultivated potato clone. From a total of 59 regenerants, 40 clones survived and have been maintained in vitro on hormone-free MS/2 medium. Thirty-two somatic hybrids were identified by their intermediate morphology (leaves of nigrum type and flowers of tuberosum type) and verified by flow cytometry and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns. The RAPD analysis of nuclear DNA confirmed the hybrid nature of 29 clones. Flow cytometry revealed a wide range of ploidy in the generated hybrids, from nearly the tetra- to decaploid level. Most of the hybrid clones were stable in vitro, grew vigorously in soil, and set flowers and parthenocarpic berries. However, all of the flowering hybrids were male-sterile. Nine hybrid clones produced tuber-like structures in soil. The most vigorous flowering somatic hybrids were selected for assessment of the late-blight resistance.

  16. Fusion engineering device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  17. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  18. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananyev, S. S.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion-fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m3Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  19. Fission and activation of uranium by fusion-plasma neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Fusion-fission hybrid reactors are discussed in terms of two main purposes: to breed fissile materials (Pu 233 and Th 233 from U 238 or Th 232) for use in low-reactivity breeders, and to produce tritium from lithium to refuel fusion plasma cores. Neutron flux generation is critical for both processes. Various methods for generating the flux are described, with attention to new geometries for multiple plasma focus arrays, e.g., hypocycloidal pinch and staged plasma focus devices. These methods are evaluated with reference to their applicability to D-D fusion reactors, which will ensure a virtually unlimited energy supply. Accurate observations of the neutron flux from such schemes are obtained by using different target materials in the plasma focus.

  20. Italian hybrid and fission reactors scenario analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, M.; Manzano, J.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-06-01

    Italy is a country where a long tradition of studies both in the fission and fusion field is consolidated; nevertheless a strong public opinion concerned with the destination of the Spent Nuclear Fuel hinders the development of nuclear power. The possibility to a severe reduction of the NSF mass generated from a fleet of nuclear reactors employing an hypothetical fusionfission hybrid reactor has been investigated in the Italian framework. The possibility to produce nuclear fuel for the fission nuclear reactors with the hybrid reactor was analyzed too.

  1. Italian hybrid and fission reactors scenario analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ciotti, M.; Manzano, J.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-06-19

    Italy is a country where a long tradition of studies both in the fission and fusion field is consolidated; nevertheless a strong public opinion concerned with the destination of the Spent Nuclear Fuel hinders the development of nuclear power. The possibility to a severe reduction of the NSF mass generated from a fleet of nuclear reactors employing an hypothetical fusionfission hybrid reactor has been investigated in the Italian framework. The possibility to produce nuclear fuel for the fission nuclear reactors with the hybrid reactor was analyzed too.

  2. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  3. Inertial-fusion-reactor studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1982-08-01

    We present results of our reactor studies for inertial-fusion energy production. Design studies of liquid-metal wall chambers have led to reactors that are remarkably simple in design, and that promise long life and low cost. Variants of the same basic design, called HYLIFE, can be used for electricity production, as a fissile-fuel factory, a dedicated tritium breeder, or hybrids of each.

  4. A fusion of minds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Mystery still surrounds the visit of the astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell to the Soviet Union in 1963. But his collaboration - and that of other British scientists - eased geopolitical tensions at the height of the Cold War and paved the way for today's global ITER fusion project, as Richard Corfield explains.

  5. Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure {much_lt} external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ``sling shot`` that is ``loaded`` to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}6} are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

  6. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  7. Multilevel fusion exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Perry C.; Dasarathy, Belur V.; McCullough, Claire L.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a project that was sponsored by the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) to develop, test, and demonstrate sensor fusion algorithms for target recognition. The purpose of the project was to exploit the use of sensor fusion at all levels (signal, feature, and decision levels) and all combinations to improve target recognition capability against tactical ballistic missile (TBM) targets. These algorithms were trained with simulated radar signatures to accurately recognize selected TBM targets. The simulated signatures represent measurements made by two radars (S-band and X- band) with the targets at a variety of aspect and roll angles. Two tests were conducted: one with simulated signatures collected at angles different from those in the training database and one using actual test data. The test results demonstrate a high degree of recognition accuracy. This paper describes the training and testing techniques used; shows the fusion strategy employed; and illustrates the advantages of exploiting multi-level fusion.

  8. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  9. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  10. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory laser-fusion program

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-07-12

    The goals of the Laser-Fusion Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are to produce well-diagnosed, high-gain, laser-driven fusion explosions in the laboratory and to exploit this capability for both military applications and for civilian energy production. In the past year we have made significant progress both theoretically and experimentally in our understanding of the laser interaction with both directly coupled and radiation-driven implosion targets and their implosion dynamics. We have made significant developments in fabricating the target structures. Data from the target experiments are producing important near-term physics results. We have also continued to develop attractive reactor concepts which illustrate ICF's potential as an energy producer.

  11. Gene flow despite complex Robertsonian fusions among rock-wallaby (Petrogale) species.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sally; Moritz, Craig; Eldridge, Mark D B

    2015-10-01

    Complex Robertsonian rearrangements, with shared arms in different fusions, are expected to prevent gene flow between hybrids through missegregation during meiosis. Here, we estimate gene flow between recently diverged and chromosomally diverse rock-wallabies (Petrogale) to test for this form of chromosomal speciation. Contrary to expectations, we observe relatively high admixture among species with complex fusions. Our results reinforce the need to consider alternative roles of chromosome change, together with genic divergence, in driving speciation.

  12. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag. The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag-2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed-power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NTF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  13. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag . The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag -2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed- power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NIF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  14. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, JJ; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-03

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  15. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L. J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-01

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  16. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Barnard, John J.; Faltens, Andris; Friedman, Alex; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  17. Receptor-Mediated Liposome Fusion Kinetics at Aqueous/Liquid Crystal Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Macri, Katherine M; Noonan, Patrick S; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2015-09-16

    Membrane fusion events are essential to cell biology, and a number of reductionist systems have been developed to mimic the behavior of these biological motifs. One such system monitors the DNA hybridization-mediated fusion of liposomes with the liquid crystal (LC) interface by observing changes in LC orientation using a simple optical detection scheme. We have systematically explored key parameters of this system to determine their effects on individual elementary steps of the complex fusion mechanism. The liposome composition, specifically the degree of lipid unsaturation and PE content, decreased the bilayer rigidity, thereby increasing the rate of vesicle rupture under the stress applied by DNA hybridization. In contrast, the presence of cholesterol had the opposite effect on the mechanical properties of the bilayer, and hence of the membrane fusion rates. The accessibility of receptor moieties (i.e., complementary DNA oligonucleotides) affected the fusion kinetics by modulating the rate of hybridization events. DNA accessibility was controlled by systematic variation of the length of the DNA receptor molecules and the thickness of the steric barrier comprised of adsorbed PEGylated lipids. These results provide design rules for understanding the trade-offs between response kinetics and other important system properties, such as nonspecific adsorption. Moreover, these findings improve our understanding of the biophysical properties of membrane fusion, an important process in both natural and model systems used for bioassay and bioimaging applications. PMID:26317496

  18. Receptor-Mediated Liposome Fusion Kinetics at Aqueous/Liquid Crystal Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Macri, Katherine M; Noonan, Patrick S; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2015-09-16

    Membrane fusion events are essential to cell biology, and a number of reductionist systems have been developed to mimic the behavior of these biological motifs. One such system monitors the DNA hybridization-mediated fusion of liposomes with the liquid crystal (LC) interface by observing changes in LC orientation using a simple optical detection scheme. We have systematically explored key parameters of this system to determine their effects on individual elementary steps of the complex fusion mechanism. The liposome composition, specifically the degree of lipid unsaturation and PE content, decreased the bilayer rigidity, thereby increasing the rate of vesicle rupture under the stress applied by DNA hybridization. In contrast, the presence of cholesterol had the opposite effect on the mechanical properties of the bilayer, and hence of the membrane fusion rates. The accessibility of receptor moieties (i.e., complementary DNA oligonucleotides) affected the fusion kinetics by modulating the rate of hybridization events. DNA accessibility was controlled by systematic variation of the length of the DNA receptor molecules and the thickness of the steric barrier comprised of adsorbed PEGylated lipids. These results provide design rules for understanding the trade-offs between response kinetics and other important system properties, such as nonspecific adsorption. Moreover, these findings improve our understanding of the biophysical properties of membrane fusion, an important process in both natural and model systems used for bioassay and bioimaging applications.

  19. A cost-effective target supply for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodin, D. T.; Alexander, N. B.; Brown, L. C.; Frey, D. T.; Gallix, R.; Gibson, C. R.; Maxwell, J. L.; Nobile, A.; Olson, C.; Petzoldt, R. W.; Raffray, R.; Rochau, G.; Schroen, D. G.; Tillack, M.; Rickman, W. S.; Vermillion, B.

    2004-12-01

    A central feature of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. This is true whether the driver is a laser system, heavy ion beams or Z-pinch system. The IFE target fabrication, injection and tracking programmes are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production. We are working closely with target designers, and power plant systems specialists, to make specifications and material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable target characteristics. One-of-a-kind capsules produced for today's inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about US2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have suggested a cost goal of about 0.25-0.30 for each injected target (corresponding to ~10% of the 'electricity value' in a target). While a four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the design, specifications, requirements and proposed manufacturing processes for the future for laser fusion, heavy ion fusion and Z-pinch driven targets. These target manufacturing processes have been developed—and are proposed—based on the unique materials science and technology programmes that are ongoing for each of the target concepts. We describe the paradigm shifts in target manufacturing methodologies that will be needed to achieve orders of magnitude reductions in target costs, and summarize the results of 'nth-of-a-kind' plant layouts and cost estimates for future IFE power plant fuelling. These engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for electricity production.

  20. Enhanced image capture through fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Peter J.; Hanna, Keith; Kolczynski, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Image fusion may be used to combine images from different sensors, such as IR and visible cameras, to obtain a single composite with extended information content. Fusion may also be used to combine multiple images from a given sensor to form a composite image in which information of interest is enhanced. We present a general method for performing image fusion and show that this method is effective for diverse fusion applications. We suggest that fusion may provide a powerful tool for enhanced image capture with broad utility in image processing and computer vision.