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Sample records for fusion energy pleasanton

  1. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  2. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  3. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2016-07-12

    ITER (in Latin “the way”) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium – fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project – China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States – represent more than half the world’s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  4. Future of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J H; Wood, L L

    2002-09-04

    In the past 50 years, fusion R&D programs have made enormous technical progress. Projected billion-dollar scale research facilities are designed to approach net energy production. In this century, scientific and engineering progress must continue until the economics of fusion power plants improves sufficiently to win large scale private funding in competition with fission and non-nuclear energy systems. This economic advantage must be sustained: trillion dollar investments will be required to build enough fusion power plants to generate ten percent of the world's energy. For Inertial Fusion Energy, multi-billion dollar driver costs must be reduced by up to an order of magnitude, to a small fraction of the total cost of the power plant. Major cost reductions could be achieved via substantial improvements in target performance-both higher gain and reduced ignition energy. Large target performance improvements may be feasible through a combination of design innovations, e.g., ''fast ignition,'' propagation down density gradients, and compression of fusion fuel with a combination of driver and chemical energy. The assumptions that limit projected performance of fusion targets should be carefully examined. The National Ignition Facility will enable development and testing of revolutionary targets designed to make possible economically competitive fusion power plants.

  5. Magnetic fusion energy and computers

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups.

  6. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  7. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  8. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vejvoda, E.J.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations.

  9. The Path to Magnetic Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, Stewart

    2011-05-04

    When the possibility of fusion as an energy source for electricity generation was realized in the 1950s, understanding of the plasma state was primitive. The fusion goal has been paced by, and has stimulated, the development of plasma physics. Our understanding of complex, nonlinear processes in plasmas is now mature. We can routinely produce and manipulate 100 million degree plasmas with remarkable finesse, and we can identify a path to commercial fusion power. The international experiment, ITER, will create a burning (self-sustained) plasma and produce 500 MW of thermal fusion power. This talk will summarize the progress in fusion research to date, and the remaining steps to fusion power.

  10. Role of Fusion Energy in a Sustainable Global Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-03-07

    Fusion can play an important role in sustainable global energy because it has an available and unlimited fuel supply and location not restricted by climate or geography. Further, it emits no greenhouse gases. It has no potential for large energy releases in an accident, and no need for more than about 100 years retention for radioactive waste disposal. Substantial progress in the realization of fusion energy has been made during the past 20 years of research. It is now possible to produce significant amounts of energy from controlled deuterium and tritium (DT) reactions in the laboratory. This has led to a growing confidence in our ability to produce burning plasmas with significant energy gain in the next generation of fusion experiments. As success in fusion facilities has underpinned the scientific feasibility of fusion, the high cost of next-step fusion facilities has led to a shift in the focus of international fusion research towards a lower cost development path and an attractive end product. The increasing data base from fusion research allows conceptual fusion power plant studies, of both magnetic and inertial confinement approaches to fusion, to translate commercial requirements into the design features that must be met if fusion is to play a role in the world's energy mix; and identify key R and D items; and benchmark progress in fusion energy development. This paper addresses the question, ''Is mankind closer or farther away from controlled fusion than a few decades ago?'' We review the tremendous scientific progress during the last 10 years. We use the detailed engineering design activities of burning plasma experiments as well as conceptual fusion power plant studies to describe our visions of attractive fusion power plants. We use these studies to compare technical requirements of an attractive fusion system with present achievements and to identify remaining technical challenges for fusion. We discuss scenarios for fusion energy deployment in the

  11. Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2010-06-09

    Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of

  12. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  13. Magnetic-fusion energy and computers

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups.

  14. Magnetized Target Fusion: Prospects for Low-Cost Fusion Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter J.; Barnes, Daniel C.; Degnan, James; Parks, Paul; Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) has attracted renewed interest in recent years because it has the potential to resolve one of the major problems with conventional fusion energy research - the high cost of facilities to do experiments and in general develop practical fusion energy. The requirement for costly facilities can be traced to fundamental constraints. The Lawson condition implies large system size in the case of conventional magnetic confinement, or large heating power in the case of conventional inertial confinement. The MTF approach is to use much higher fuel density than with conventional magnetic confinement (corresponding to megabar pressures), which results in a much-reduced system size to achieve Lawson conditions. Intrinsically the system must be pulsed because the pressures exceed the strength of any known material. To facilitate heating the fuel (or "target") to thermonuclear conditions with a high-power high-intensity source of energy, magnetic fields are used to insulate the high-pressure fuel from material surroundings (thus "magnetized target"). Because of magnetic insulation, the required heating power intensity is reduced by many orders of magnitude compared to conventional inertial fusion, even with relatively poor energy confinement in the magnetic field, such as that characterized by Bohm diffusion. In this paper we show semi-quantitatively why MTF-should allow fusion energy production without costly facilities within the same generally accepted physical constraints used for conventional magnetic and inertial fusion. We also briefly discuss potential applications of this technology ranging from nuclear rockets for space propulsion to a practical commercial energy system. Finally, we report on the exploratory research underway, and the interesting physics issues that arise in the MTF regime of parameters. Experiments at Los Alamos are focused on formation of a suitable plasma target for compression, utilizing the knowledge base for compact

  15. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  16. HEDP and new directions for fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for fusion energy has a long history and the demonstration of thermonuclear energy release in 1951 represented a record achievement for high energy density. While this first demonstration was in response to the extreme fears of mankind, it also marked the beginning of a great hope that it would usher in an era of boundless cheap energy. In fact, fusion still promises to be an enabling technology that can be compared to the prehistoric utilization of fire. Why has the quest for fusion energy been so long on promises and so short in fulfillment? This paper briefly reviews past approaches to fusion energy and suggests new directions. By putting aside the old thinking and vigorously applying our experimental, computational and theoretical tools developed over the past decades we should be able to make rapid progress toward satisfying an urgent need. Fusion not only holds the key to abundant green energy, but also promises to enable deep space missions and the creation of rare elements and isotopes for wide-ranging industrial applications and medical diagnostics.

  17. Fusion energy calorimeter for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Imel, G.R.

    1981-04-01

    One and two-dimensional neutronic analyses treating the transport and scattering of neutrons and the production and transport of gamma rays in the TFTR demonstrate that the fusion energy production in a D-T pulse in the TFTR can be determined with an uncertainty of +- 15% or less, simply by integrating the measured profile of temperature increase along the central radial axis of a large hydrocarbon moderator that fills the bay between adjacent toroidal-field coils, just outside the vacuum vessel. Limitations in thermopile temperature measurements dictate a minimum fusion-neutron fluence at the vacuum vessel of the order of 10/sup 12/ n/cm/sup 2/ per pulse (a source strength of 10/sup 18/ n/pulse in TFTR), in order that this simple calorimeter can provide useful accuracy.

  18. Energy Balance of Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, M.; Staudenmaier, G.

    It is shown that a discrepancy and incompatibility persist between basic physics and fusion-literature regarding the radiation losses from a thermonuclear plasma. Whereas the fusion-literature neglects the excitation or line radiation completely, according to basic physics it depends upon the prevailing conditions and cannot be neglected in general. Moreover, for a magnetized plasma, while the fusion-literature assumes a self-absorption or reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation emitted by the electrons spiraling along the magnetic field, the basic physics does not allow any effective reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation. As is demonstrated, fallacious assumptions and notions, which somehow or other crept into the fusion-literature, are responsible for this discrepancy. In the present work, the theory is corrected. On the grounds of basic physics, a complete energy balance of magnetized and non-magnetized plasmas is presented for pulsed, stationary and self-sustaining operations by taking into account the energy release by reactions of light nuclei as well as different kinds of diffusive (conduction) and radiative (bremsstrahlung, cyclotron or synchrotron radiation and excitation radiation) energy losses. Already the energy losses by radiation make the energy balance negative. Hence, a fusion reactor - an energy producing device - seems to be beyond the realms of realization.

  19. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  20. Role of Fusion Energy in a Sustainable Global Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Najmabadi, F; Schmidt, J; Sheffield, J

    2001-03-07

    Fusion energy is one of only a few truly long-term energy options. Since its inception in the 1950s, the vision of the fusion energy research program has been to develop a viable means of harnessing the virtually unlimited energy stored in the nuclei of light atoms--the primary fuel deuterium is present as one part in 6,500 of all hydrogen. This vision grew out of the recognition that the immense power radiated by the sun is fueled by nuclear fusion in its hot core. Such high temperatures are a prerequisite for driving significant fusion reactions. The fascinating fourth state of matter at high temperatures is known as plasma. It is only in this fourth state of matter that the nuclei of two light atoms can fuse, releasing the excess energy that was needed to separately bind each of the original two nuclei. Because the nuclei of atoms carry a net positive electric charge, they repel each other. Hydrogenic nuclei, such as deuterium and tritium, must be heated to approximately 100 million degrees Celsius to overcome this electric repulsion and fuse. There have been dramatic recent advances in both the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. For this reason, the general thrust of fusion research has focused on configuration improvements leading to an economically competitive product. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities [1]. In this paper we review the tremendous scientific progress in fusion during the last 10 years. We utilize the detailed engineering design activities of burning plasma experiments as well as conceptual fusion power plant studies to describe our visions of attractive fusion power plants. We use these studies to compare technical requirements

  1. On the path to fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabak, M.

    2016-10-01

    There is a need to develop alternate energy sources in the coming century because fossil fuels will become depleted and their use may lead to global climate change. Inertial fusion can become such an energy source, but significant progress must be made before its promise is realized. The high-density approach to inertial fusion suggested by Nuckolls et al. leads reaction chambers compatible with civilian power production. Methods to achieve the good control of hydrodynamic stability and implosion symmetry required to achieve these high fuel densities will be discussed. Fast Ignition, a technique that achieves fusion ignition by igniting fusion fuel after it is assembled, will be described along with its gain curves. Fusion costs of energy for conventional hotspot ignition will be compared with those of Fast Ignition and their capital costs compared with advanced fission plants. Finally, techniques that may improve possible Fast Ignition gains by an order of magnitude and reduce driver scales by an order of magnitude below conventional ignition requirements are described.

  2. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag. The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag-2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed-power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NTF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  3. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag . The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag -2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed- power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NIF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  4. 76 FR 40714 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory... CONTACT: Albert L. Opdenaker, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences;...

  5. 77 FR 485 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee.... Synakowski, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy;...

  6. 78 FR 15937 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee..., Designated Federal Officer, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; 1000...

  7. Minimum energy information fusion in sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G

    1999-05-11

    In this paper we consider how to organize the sharing of information in a distributed network of sensors and data processors so as to provide explanations for sensor readings with minimal expenditure of energy. We point out that the Minimum Description Length principle provides an approach to information fusion that is more naturally suited to energy minimization than traditional Bayesian approaches. In addition we show that for networks consisting of a large number of identical sensors Kohonen self-organization provides an exact solution to the problem of combing the sensor outputs into minimal description length explanations.

  8. Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Edwards, O; Lagin, L; Van Arsdall, P

    2011-03-18

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) facility point design is being developed at LLNL to support an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based energy concept. This will build upon the technical foundation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system. NIF is designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. The LIFE control systems will have an architecture partitioned by sub-systems and distributed among over 1000's of front-end processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. LIFE's automated control subsystems will require interoperation between different languages and target architectures. Much of the control system will be embedded into the subsystem with well defined interface and performance requirements to the supervisory control layer. An automation framework will be used to orchestrate and automate start-up and shut-down as well as steady state operation. The LIFE control system will be a high parallel segmented architecture. For example, the laser system consists of 384 identical laser beamlines in a 'box'. The control system will mirror this architectural replication for each beamline with straightforward high-level interface for control and status monitoring. Key technical challenges will be discussed such as the injected target tracking and laser pointing feedback. This talk discusses the the plan for controls and information systems to support LIFE.

  9. Innovative energy production in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-10-01

    Concepts of innovative energy production in neutron-lean fusion reactors without having the conventional turbine-type generator are proposed for improving the plant efficiency. These concepts are: (1) traveling wave direct energy conversion of 14.7 MeV protons; (2) cusp type direct energy conversion of charged particles; (3) efficient use of radiation with semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas; and (4) direct energy conversion from deposited heat to electric power with semiconductor utilizing Nernst effect. The candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system are also studied for application of the new concepts. The study shows the above concepts for a commercial reactor are promising.

  10. 78 FR 2259 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory...

  11. 76 FR 49757 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... that the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee will be renewed for a two-year period beginning on...-range plans, priorities, and strategies for advancing plasma science, fusion science, and...

  12. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  13. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  14. Review of the Fusion Theory and Computing Program. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, Thomas M.; Berry, Lee A.; Brown, Michael R.; Dahlburg, Jill P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Greenwald, Martin; Hegna, Chris C.; McCurdy, William; Newman, David E.; Pellegrini, Claudio; Phillips, Cynthia K.; Post, Douglass E.; Rosenbluth, Marshall N.; Sheffield, John; Simonen, Thomas C.; Van Dam, James

    2001-08-01

    At the November 14-15, 2000, meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, a Panel was set up to address questions about the Theory and Computing program, posed in a charge from the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (see Appendix A). This area was of theory and computing/simulations had been considered in the FESAC Knoxville meeting of 1999 and in the deliberations of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) in 2000. A National Research Council committee provided a detailed review of the scientific quality of the fusion energy sciences program, including theory and computing, in 2000.

  15. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  16. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE PAGES

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  17. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  18. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  19. Stalk model of membrane fusion: solution of energy crisis.

    PubMed Central

    Kozlovsky, Yonathan; Kozlov, Michael M

    2002-01-01

    Membrane fusion proceeds via formation of intermediate nonbilayer structures. The stalk model of fusion intermediate is commonly recognized to account for the major phenomenology of the fusion process. However, in its current form, the stalk model poses a challenge. On one hand, it is able to describe qualitatively the modulation of the fusion reaction by the lipid composition of the membranes. On the other, it predicts very large values of the stalk energy, so that the related energy barrier for fusion cannot be overcome by membranes within a biologically reasonable span of time. We suggest a new structure for the fusion stalk, which resolves the energy crisis of the model. Our approach is based on a combined deformation of the stalk membrane including bending of the membrane surface and tilt of the hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules. We demonstrate that the energy of the fusion stalk is a few times smaller than those predicted previously and the stalks are feasible in real systems. We account quantitatively for the experimental results on dependence of the fusion reaction on the lipid composition of different membrane monolayers. We analyze the dependence of the stalk energy on the distance between the fusing membranes and provide the experimentally testable predictions for the structural features of the stalk intermediates. PMID:11806930

  20. Systematics for low energy incomplete fusion: Still a puzzle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Abhishek; Shuaib, Mohd; Aggarwal, Abhay V.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Bala, Indu; Singh, D. P.; Singh, P. P.; Unnati; Sharma, M. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2016-05-01

    In order to have a better and clear picture of incomplete fusion reactions at energies ≈4-7MeV/nucleon, the excitation function measurements have been performed for 18O+159Tb system. The experimental data have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay. The cross-section for xn/pxn-channels are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, which suggest their production via complete fusion process. However, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. The incomplete fusion fractions have been deduced at each studied energy and compared with other nearby systems for better insight into the underlying dynamics. The incomplete fusion fraction has been found to be sensitive to the projectile's energy and α-Q-value.

  1. Economic potential of magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1981-03-10

    Scientific feasibility of magnetic fusion is no longer seriously in doubt. Rapid advances have been made in both tokamak and mirror research, leading to a demonstration in the TFTR tokamak at Princeton in 1982 and the tandem mirror MFTF-B at Livermore in 1985. Accordingly, the basis is established for an aggressive engineering thrust to develop a reactor within this century. However, care must be taken to guide the fusion program towards an economically and environmentally viable goal. While the fusion fuels are essentially free, capital costs of reactors appear to be at least as large as current power plants. Accordingly, the price of electricity will not decline, and capital availability for reactor constructions will be important. Details of reactor cost projections are discussed and mechanisms suggested for fusion power implementation. Also discussed are some environmental and safety aspects of magnetic fusion.

  2. Magnetized Plasma Compression for Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, James; Grabowski, Christopher; Domonkos, Matthew; Amdahl, David

    2013-10-01

    Magnetized Plasma Compression (MPC) uses magnetic inhibition of thermal conduction and enhancement of charge particle product capture to greatly reduce the temporal and spatial compression required relative to un-magnetized inertial fusion (IFE)--to microseconds, centimeters vs nanoseconds, sub-millimeter. MPC greatly reduces the required confinement time relative to MFE--to microseconds vs minutes. Proof of principle can be demonstrated or refuted using high current pulsed power driven compression of magnetized plasmas using magnetic pressure driven implosions of metal shells, known as imploding liners. This can be done at a cost of a few tens of millions of dollars. If demonstrated, it becomes worthwhile to develop repetitive implosion drivers. One approach is to use arrays of heavy ion beams for energy production, though with much less temporal and spatial compression than that envisioned for un-magnetized IFE, with larger compression targets, and with much less ambitious compression ratios. A less expensive, repetitive pulsed power driver, if feasible, would require engineering development for transient, rapidly replaceable transmission lines such as envisioned by Sandia National Laboratories. Supported by DOE-OFES.

  3. Prospects for lasers for fusion energy assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basov, N. G.; Rozanov, V.

    1985-06-01

    The authors assess the status of laser thermonuclear fusion research in the USSR and abroad, reviewing some of its major advances as well as current objectives of scientists working in this field. The possible development of an experimental laser thermonuclear reactor is discussed. Such a laser must operate with a pulse repetition frequency of 1 to 10 pulses per second, and it must have a service life of about 100 million pulses. It will be made up of individual modules (10 to 20 modules) with an overall energy of 2 to 3 megajoules, and it will ensure stable focusing of radiation on a target about 1 centimeter in size from a distance of about 50 meters. Its efficiency will be adequate and its cost low enough. Lasers of several types (including carbon-dioxide lasers and chemical and excimer lasers based on a mixture of noble gases with halogen) can meet these requirements, but incorporating them in a single unit is quite difficult from the engineering standpoint. The development of modules of such lasers is also an important task.

  4. 76 FR 4645 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Fusion Nuclear Sciences Pathways Assessment Activities Public Comments Public Participation: The meeting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Fusion... Science. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee....

  5. Applications of fusion thermal energy to industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R. M.; Jody, B. J.; Lu, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of applying fusion thermal energy as process heat in the iron-steel industry, petrochemical industry, cement industry, and in the production of acetylene fom coal via calcium carbide are discussed. These four industries were selected for analysis because they require massive amounts of energy. This preliminary study concludes that the production of synthetic fuels using fusion heat appears to be the most promising method of storing and transporting this heat. Of the four industries studied, the iron-steel and the petrochemical industries appear to be the most promising because they consume substantial amounts of hydrogen and oxygen as feedstocks. These can be produced from water using the high-temperature fusion heat. The production of hydrogen and oxygen using fusion heat will also reduce the capital investment required for these industries. These two industries also consume tremendous amounts of heat at temperatures which can be delivered from a fusion blanket via chemical heat pipes.

  6. 75 FR 8685 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee... Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; 1000 Independence Avenue, SW.; Washington, DC 20585-1290;...

  7. Presentation at FTP: A review. [ORNL Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-01

    This series of vugraphs presents some information concerning ORNL's involvement in the fusion energy research program. Recent and future experiments are named, and a rough estimate of funding is given. (JDH)

  8. Heavy ion fusion science research for high energy density physics and fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    LOGAN, B.G.; Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Greenway, W.G.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kwan, J.W.; LaFortune, K.N.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.; Startsev, E.A.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Wurtele, J.S.; Welch, D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    During the past two years, the U.S. heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target designs for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2007, these results will enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year at LBNL. We are assessing how these new techniques apply to low-cost modular fusion drivers and higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  9. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Fusion energy science: Clean, safe, and abundant energy through innovative science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    Fusion energy science combines the study of the behavior of plasmas--the state of matter that forms 99% of the visible universe--with a vision of using fusion--the energy source of the stars--to create an affordable, plentiful, and environmentally benign energy source for humankind. The dual nature of fusion energy science provides an unfolding panorama of exciting intellectual challenge and a promise of an attractive energy source for generations to come. The goal of this report is a comprehensive understanding of plasma behavior leading to an affordable and attractive fusion energy source.

  11. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Amy; Callis, Richard; Efthimion, Philip; Foster, John; Keane, Christopher; Onsager, Terry; O'Shea, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  12. Spinning ATOMS Draws Energy from FUSION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Raymond E.

    2004-09-01

    Project FUSION (Facilitating Urban Science Initiatives by Organizational Networking) links scientifically sound, culturally relevant community-based research initiatives to a network of higher education institutions and community-based organizations. Project participants recognize chemistry as the central science and learn of its importance to science exploration at all academic levels. Roxbury Community College, a bridge for economically disadvantaged students aspiring to attend four-year colleges and universities, serves as the research hub for Project FUSION. Expanding on the model of the previous NIGMS-funded ATOMS program, the efforts of Project FUSION increased student participation while also making it a more stable and transferrable program. Results from this project show that culturally relevant community-based research programs supported by organizational networking can have a profound effect on student participation in undergraduate research.

  13. 78 FR 48863 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... that the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee will be renewed for a two-year period beginning on August 2, 2013. The Committee will provide advice to the Office of Science (DOE), on long-range...

  14. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy: The Fusion Driven Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Pihl, Christopher; Pfaff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a dramatically more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. A very persuasive reason for investigating the applicability of nuclear power in rockets is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion energy. Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem for space application.

  15. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1992-10-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  16. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1992-01-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  17. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  18. A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Commercial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Considerable effort has been dedicated to determining the possible properties of a magneticconfinement fusion power plant, particularly in the U.S.1, Europe2 and Japan3. There has also been some effort to detail the development path to fusion energy, particularly in the U.S.4 Only limited attention has been given, in Japan5 and in China6, to the options for a specific device to form the bridge from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, to commercial fusion energy. Nor has much attention been paid, since 2003, to the synergies between magnetic and inertial fusion energy development. Here we consider, at a very high level, the possibility of a Qeng ≥ 1 Pilot Plant, with linear dimensions ~ 2/3 the linear dimensions of a commercial fusion power plant, as the needed bridge. As we examine the R&D needs for such a system we find significant synergies between the needs for the development of magnetic and inertial fusion energy.

  19. Research and development toward heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Barnard, John J.; Faltens, Andris; Friedman, Alex

    2013-02-01

    We describe near-term heavy ion fusion (HIF) research objectives associated with developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power plant. The goal of this near-term research is to lay the essential groundwork for an intermediate research experiment (IRE), designed to demonstrate all the key driver beam manipulations at a meaningful scale, and to enable HIF relevant target physics experiments. This is a very large step in size and complexity compared to HIF experiments to date, and if successful, it would justify proceeding to a demonstration fusion power plant. With an emphasis on accelerator research, this paper is focused on the most important near-term research objectives to justify and to reduce the risks associated with the IRE. The chosen time scale for this research is 5-10 years, to answer key questions associated with the HIF accelerator drivers, in turn enabling a key decision on whether to pursue a much more ambitious and focused inertial fusion energy research and development program. This is consistent with the National Academies of Sciences Review of Inertial Fusion Energy Systems Interim Report, which concludes that “it would be premature at the present time to choose a particular driver approach…” and encouraged the continued development of community consensus on critical issues, and to develop “options for a community-based roadmap for the development of inertial fusion as a practical energy source.”

  20. Neutronics issues and inertial fusion energy: a summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J. F., LLNL

    1998-05-29

    We have analyzed and compared five major inertial fusion energy (IFE) and two representative magnetic fusion energy (MFE) power plant designs for their environment, safety, and health (ES&H) characteristics. Our work has focussed upon the neutronics of each of the designs and the resulting radiological hazard indices. The calculation of a consistent set of hazard indices allows comparisons to be made between the designs. Such comparisons enable identification of trends in fusion ES&H characteristics and may be used to increase the likelihood of fusion achieving its full potential with respect to ES&H characteristics. The present work summarizes our findings and conclusions. This work emphasizes the need for more research in low-activation materials and for the experimental measurement of radionuclide release fractions under accident conditions.

  1. Developing inertial fusion energy - Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, G.

    1996-06-11

    Development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) will require continued R&D in target physics, driver technology, target production and delivery systems, and chamber technologies. It will also require the integration of these technologies in tests and engineering demonstrations of increasing capability and complexity. Development needs in each of these areas are discussed. It is shown how IFE development will leverage off the DOE Defense Programs funded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) work.

  2. Impact of Fast Ignition on Laser Fusion Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirna, Kunioki

    2016-10-01

    Reviewed are the early history of Japanese laser fusion research and the recent achievement of fast ignition research at Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University. After the achievement of high density compression at Osaka University, LLE of University Rochester, and LLNL, the critical issue of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) research became the formation of hot spark in a compressed plasma. In this lecture, the history of the fast ignition research will be reviewed and future prospects are presented.

  3. Application of small-signal fusion energy gain

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The measured burnup fraction of the 1-MeV tritons produced in a deuterium tokamak plasma, multiplied by 17.5, is essentially the small-signal fusion energy gain g/sub T/ for an ideal 1-MeV triton beam injected into the deuterium plasma. The measured g/sub T/ can be converted directly into the two-component fusion energy gain that would be realized if a lower energy tritium beam were injected into the plasma, or if a deuterium beam were injected into a tritium target plasma having the same parameters as the acutal deuterium plasma. Under certain conditions, g/sub T/ greater than or equal to 1 can be obtained by injection of a low-current 225-keV tritium beam into a hot deuterium plasma, thereby verifying that the plasma has the essential characteristics needed for achieving macroscopic fusion energy ''break-even.''

  4. Applications and Progress of Dust Injection to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhehui; Wurden, Glen A.; Mansfield, Dennis K.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Ticos, Catalin M.

    2008-09-07

    Three regimes of dust injection are proposed for different applications to fusion energy. In the 'low-speed' regime (<5 km/s), basic dust transport study, edge plasma diagnostics, edge-localized-mode (ELM) pacing in magnetic fusion devices can be realized by injecting dust of known properties into today's fusion experiments. ELM pacing, as an alternative to mini-pellet injection, is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion devices. Different schemes are available to inject dust. In the 'intermediate-speed' regime (10-200 km/s), possible applications of dust injection include fueling of the next-step fusion devices, core-diagnostics of the next-step fusion devices, and compression of plasma and solid targets to aid fusion energy production. Promising laboratory results of dust moving at 10-50 km/s do exist. Significant advance in this regime may be expected in the near term to achieve higher dust speeds. In the 'high-speed' regime (>500 km/s), dust injection can potentially be used to directly produce fusion energy through impact. Ideas on how to achieve these extremely high speeds are mostly on paper. No plan exists today to realize them in laboratory. Some experimental results, including electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration, are summarized and compared. Some features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. A necessary component of all dust injectors is the dust dropper (also known as dust dispenser). A computer-controlled piezoelectric crystals has been developed to dropped dust in a systematic and reproducible manner. Particle fluxes ranges from a few tens of particles per second up to thousands of particles per second by this simple device.

  5. A New Vision for Fusion Energy Research: Fusion Rocket Engines for Planetary Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.; Turchi, P. J.; Parks, P. B.; Evans, T. E.; Cohen, S. A.; Cassibry, J. T.; Campbell, E. M.

    2015-11-16

    Here, we argue that it is essential for the fusion energy program to identify an imagination-capturing critical mission by developing a unique product which could command the marketplace. We also lay out the logic that this product is a fusion rocket engine, to enable a rapid response capable of deflecting an incoming comet, to prevent its impact on the planet Earth, in defense of our population, infrastructure, and civilization. Deep space solar system exploration, with greater speed and orders-of-magnitude greater payload mass is also be possible.

  6. The National Ignition Facility and the Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2011-07-26

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is operational and conducting experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental facility with 192 beams capable of delivering 1.8 megajoules of 500-terawatt ultraviolet laser energy, over 60 times more energy than any previous laser system. The NIF can create temperatures of more than 100 million degrees and pressures more than 100 billion times Earth's atmospheric pressure. These conditions, similar to those at the center of the sun, have never been created in the laboratory and will allow scientists to probe the physics of planetary interiors, supernovae, black holes, and other phenomena. The NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to the conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. Experiments on the NIF are focusing on demonstrating fusion ignition and burn via inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ignition program is conducted via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) - a partnership among LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and General Atomics. The NIC program has also established collaborations with the Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom, Commissariat a Energie Atomique in France, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and many others. Ignition experiments have begun that form the basis of the overall NIF strategy for achieving ignition. Accomplishing this goal will demonstrate the feasibility of fusion as a source of limitless, clean energy for the future. This paper discusses the current status of the NIC, the experimental steps needed toward achieving ignition and the steps required to demonstrate and enable the delivery of fusion energy as a viable carbon-free energy source.

  7. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1991-08-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  8. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  9. Calculating fusion neutron energy spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, J.; Conroy, S.; Andersson Sundén, E.; Hellesen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Directional Relativistic Spectrum Simulator (DRESS) code can perform Monte-Carlo calculations of reaction product spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions, using fully relativistic kinematics. The code is set up to calculate energy spectra from neutrons and alpha particles produced in the D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He fusion reactions, but any two-body reaction can be simulated by including the corresponding cross section. The code has been thoroughly tested. The kinematics calculations have been benchmarked against the kinematics module of the ROOT Data Analysis Framework. Calculated neutron energy spectra have been validated against tabulated fusion reactivities and against an exact analytical expression for the thermonuclear fusion neutron spectrum, with good agreement. The DRESS code will be used as the core of a detailed synthetic diagnostic framework for neutron measurements at the JET and MAST tokamaks.

  10. Concept evaluation of nuclear fusion driven symbiotic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renier, J. P.; Hoffman, T. J.

    An analysis of systems based on D-T and semi-catalyzed D-D fusion-powered U233 breeders is presented. Metallic thorium pebble-bed blankets with a batch reprocessing mode and a molten salt blanket with on-line continuous or batch reprocessing were used. Neutronics depletion calculations are coupled with a scenario optimization and a cost analysis code. The fusion-driven symbiotes are compared with LMFBR-driven energy systems. The analyses of the symbiotic energy systems were performed at equilibrium, at the maximum rate of grid expansion and for a given nuclear power demand. Attractive schemes are identified based on D-T driven fusion-drivers operated with low plasma performance parameters.

  11. The challenge of fusion energy - to realize the promise

    SciTech Connect

    Overskei, D.O.

    1995-12-31

    Fusion energy has the promise of providing mankind a long-term, environmentally acceptable, large-scale energy production technology. The demonstration of the technical realization of this technology, and its application to electricity production throughout the world, offers one of the best opportunities for the third world to attain the standard of living associated with the present economically-developed countries without generating environmental pollutants and causing adverse long-term climate changes. However, this research effort is different from anything that has been conducted in the past. Firstly, fusion research requires the development of new science drawing upon various physics fields; secondly, the scientific efforts are paralleled by the development of new technologies that will be necessary to realize fusion as an energy system of the future. The degree of integration and parallel development between science and technology is not unique. However, marrying science and technology over multiple generations of researchers and funding organizations is unique. This is further complicated by the world embracing international collaboration as a fundamental tenant for continuing to make progress in fusion energy research while reducing the cost of ever increasingly larger and more expensive research facilities. I will discuss the challenge of sustaining political and financial support for the continued development of fusion as a science and as an applied research program. For us to successfully reach our goals, we will need to maintain this national and international political support over several scientific and technical generations of skilled workers and over a number of generations of governments and political ideologies. Without addressing the reality of the latter, we cannot realize the promise of fusion.

  12. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  13. Complexity versus availability for fusion: The potential advantages of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.,

    1996-09-05

    Probably the single largest advantage of the inertial route to fusion energy (IFE) is the perception that its power plant embodiments could achieve acceptable capacity factors. This is a result of its relative simplicity, the decoupling of the driver and reactor chamber, and the potential to employ thick liquid walls. We examine these issues in terms of the complexity, reliability, maintainability and, therefore, availability of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants and compare these factors with corresponding scheduled and unscheduled outage data from present day fission experience. We stress that, given the simple nature of a fission core, the vast majority of unplanned outages in fission plants are due to failures outside the reactor vessel itself Given we must be prepared for similar outages in the analogous plant external to a fusion power core, this puts severe demands on the reliability required of the fusion core itself. We indicate that such requirements can probably be met for IFE plants. We recommend that this advantage be promoted by performing a quantitative reliability and availability study for a representative IFE power plant and suggest that databases are probably adequate for this task.

  14. Plasmonic energy nanofocusing for high-efficiency laser fusion ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose an efficient laser fusion ignition system consisting of metal nanoparticles or nanoshells embedded in conventional deuterated polystyrene fuel targets. The incident optical energy of the heating laser is highly concentrated around the metallic particulates randomly dispersed inside imploded targets due to the electromagnetic-field-enhancement effect by surface plasmon resonance, and thus effectively triggers nuclear-fusion chain reactions. Our preliminary calculations exhibit field enhancement factors of around 50 and 1100 for spherical Ag nanoparticles and Ag/SiO2 nanoshells, respectively, in the 1-µm band.

  15. Critical Science Issues for Direct Drive Inertial Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlburg, Jill P.; Gardner, John H.; Schmitt, Andrew J.; Obenschain, S. P.

    1998-09-01

    There are several topics that require resolution prior to the construction of an Inertial Fusion Energy [IFE] laboratory Engineering Test Facility [ETF]: a pellet that produces high gain; a pellet fabrication system that cost-effectively and rapidly manufactures these pellets; a sufficiently uniform and durable high repetition-rate laser pellet driver; a practical target injection system that provides accurate pellet aiming; and, a target chamber that will survive the debris and radiation of repeated high-gain pellet implosions. In this summary we describe the science issues and opportunities that are involved in the design of a successful high gain direct drive Inertial Confinement Fusion [ICF] pellet.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Fusion: The Energy of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, J.

    2006-05-01

    This book outlines the quest for fusion energy. It is presented in a form which is accessible to the interested layman, but which is precise and detailed for the specialist as well. The book contains 12 detailed chapters which cover the whole of the intended subject matter with copious illustrations and a balance between science and the scientific and political context. In addition, the book presents a useful glossary and a brief set of references for further non-specialist reading. Chapters 1 to 3 treat the underlying physics of nuclear energy and of the reactions in the sun and in the stars in considerable detail, including the creation of the matter in the universe. Chapter 4 presents the fusion reactions which can be harnessed on earth, and poses the fundamental problems of realising fusion energy as a source for our use, explaining the background to the Lawson criterion on the required quality of energy confinement, which 50 years later remains our fundamental milestone. Chapter 5 presents the basis for magnetic confinement, introducing some early attempts as well as some straightforward difficulties and treating linear and circular devices. The origins of the stellarator and of the tokamak are described. Chapter 6 is not essential to the mission of usefully harnessing fusion energy, but nonetheless explains to the layman the difference between fusion and fission in weapons, which should help the readers understand the differences as sources of peaceful energy as well, since this popular confusion remains a problem when proposing fusion with the `nuclear' label. Chapter 7 returns to energy sources with laser fusion, or inertial confinement fusion, which constitutes both military and civil research, depending on the country. The chapter provides a broad overview of the progress right up to today's hopes for fast ignition. The difficulty of harnessing fusion energy by magnetic or inertial confinement has created a breeding ground for what the authors call `false

  17. Liquid first walls for magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1996-03-28

    Liquids ({approximately}7 neutron mean free paths thick) with certain restrictions can probably be used in magnetic fusion designs between the burning plasma and the structural materials of the plant. If this works there are a number of profound advantages: lower the cost of electricity by more than 35%; remove the need to develop first wall materials saving over 4B$ in development costs; reduce the amount and kind of wastes generated in the plant; and permit a wider choice of materials. Evaporated liquid must be efficiently ionized in an edge plasma to prevent penetrating into the burning plasma and diminishing the burn rate. The fraction of evaporated material ionized is estimated to be 0.993 for Li, 0.98 for Flibe and 0.9999 for Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}. This ionized vapor would be swept along open field lines into a remote burial chamber. The most practical systems would be those with topological open field lines on the outer surface as is the case of a field reversed configuration (FRC), a Spheromak, a Z-pinch, or a mirror machine. In a Tokamak, including the Spherical Tokamak, the field lines outside the separatrix are restricted to a small volume inside the toroidal coil making for difficulties in introducing the liquid and removing the ionized vapor.

  18. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications.

  19. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications. PMID:26560597

  20. Materials research and development for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.

    1998-11-01

    Some of the critical issues associated with materials selection for proposed magnetic fusion reactors are reviewed, with a brief overview of refractory alloys (vanadium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten) and primary emphasis on ceramic materials. SiC/SiC composites are under consideration for the first wall and blanket structure, and dielectric insulators will be used for the heating, control and diagnostic measurement of the fusion plasma. Key issues for SiC/SiC composites include radiation-induced degradation in the strength and thermal conductivity. Recent work has focused on the development of radiation-resistant fibers and fiber/matrix interfaces (porous SiC, SiC multilayers) which would also produce improved SiC/SiC performance for applications such as heat engines and aerospace components. The key physical parameters for dielectrics include electrical conductivity, dielectric loss tangent and thermal conductivity. Ionizing radiation can increase the electrical conductivity of insulators by many orders of magnitude, and surface leakage currents can compromise the performance of some fusion energy components. Irradiation can cause a pronounced degradation in the loss tangent and thermal conductivity. Fundamental physical parameter measurements on ceramics which are of interest for both fusion and non-fusion applications are discussed.

  1. A cost-effective target supply for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodin, D. T.; Alexander, N. B.; Brown, L. C.; Frey, D. T.; Gallix, R.; Gibson, C. R.; Maxwell, J. L.; Nobile, A.; Olson, C.; Petzoldt, R. W.; Raffray, R.; Rochau, G.; Schroen, D. G.; Tillack, M.; Rickman, W. S.; Vermillion, B.

    2004-12-01

    A central feature of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. This is true whether the driver is a laser system, heavy ion beams or Z-pinch system. The IFE target fabrication, injection and tracking programmes are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production. We are working closely with target designers, and power plant systems specialists, to make specifications and material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable target characteristics. One-of-a-kind capsules produced for today's inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about US2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have suggested a cost goal of about 0.25-0.30 for each injected target (corresponding to ~10% of the 'electricity value' in a target). While a four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the design, specifications, requirements and proposed manufacturing processes for the future for laser fusion, heavy ion fusion and Z-pinch driven targets. These target manufacturing processes have been developed—and are proposed—based on the unique materials science and technology programmes that are ongoing for each of the target concepts. We describe the paradigm shifts in target manufacturing methodologies that will be needed to achieve orders of magnitude reductions in target costs, and summarize the results of 'nth-of-a-kind' plant layouts and cost estimates for future IFE power plant fuelling. These engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for electricity production.

  2. Electron cyclotron emission imaging and applications in magnetic fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, Benjamin John

    Energy production through the burning of fossil fuels is an unsustainable practice. Exponentially increasing energy consumption and dwindling natural resources ensure that coal and gas fueled power plants will someday be a thing of the past. However, even before fuel reserves are depleted, our planet may well succumb to disastrous side effects, namely the build up of carbon emissions in the environment triggering world-wide climate change and the countless industrial spills of pollutants that continue to this day. Many alternatives are currently being developed, but none has so much promise as fusion nuclear energy, the energy of the sun. The confinement of hot plasma at temperatures in excess of 100 million Kelvin by a carefully arranged magnetic field for the realization of a self-sustaining fusion power plant requires new technologies and improved understanding of fundamental physical phenomena. Imaging of electron cyclotron radiation lends insight into the spatial and temporal behavior of electron temperature fluctuations and instabilities, providing a powerful diagnostic for investigations into basic plasma physics and nuclear fusion reactor operation. This dissertation presents the design and implementation of a new generation of Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostics on toroidal magnetic fusion confinement devices, or tokamaks, around the world. The underlying physics of cyclotron radiation in fusion plasmas is reviewed, and a thorough discussion of millimeter wave imaging techniques and heterodyne radiometry in ECEI follows. The imaging of turbulence and fluid flows has evolved over half a millennium since Leonardo da Vinci's first sketches of cascading water, and applications for ECEI in fusion research are broad ranging. Two areas of physical investigation are discussed in this dissertation: the identification of poloidal shearing in Alfven eigenmode structures predicted by hybrid gyrofluid-magnetohydrodynamic (gyrofluid-MHD) modeling, and

  3. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Landrum, B.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual study is made to explore the feasibility of applying magnetized target fusion (MTF) to space propulsion for omniplanetary travel. Plasma-jet driven MTF not only is highly amenable to space propulsion, but also has a number of very attractive features for this application: 1) The pulsed fusion scheme provides in situ a very dense hydrogenous liner capable of moderating the neutrons, converting more than 97% of the neutron energy into charged particle energy of the fusion plasma available for propulsion. 2) The fusion yield per pulse can be maintained at an attractively low level (< 1 GJ) despite a respectable gain in excess of 70. A compact, low-weight engine is the result. An engine with a jet power of 25 GW, a thrust of 66 kN, and a specific impulse of 77,000 s, can be achieved with an overall engine mass of about 41 metric tons, with a specific power density of 605 kW/kg, and a specific thrust density of 1.6 N/kg. The engine is rep-rated at 40 Hz to provide this power and thrust level. At a practical rep-rate limit of 200 Hz, the engine can deliver 128 GW jet power and 340 kN of thrust, at specific power and thrust density of 1,141 kW/kg and 3 N/kg respectively. 3) It is possible to operate the magnetic nozzle as a magnetic flux compression generator in this scheme, while attaining a high nozzle efficiency of 80% in converting the spherically radial momentum of the fusion plasma to an axial impulse. 4) A small fraction of the electrical energy generated from the flux compression is used directly to recharge the capacitor bank and other energy storage equipment, without the use of a highvoltage DC power supply. A separate electrical generator is not necessary. 5) Due to the simplicity of the electrical circuit and the components, involving mainly inductors, capacitors, and plasma guns, which are connected directly to each other without any intermediate equipment, a high rep-rate (with a maximum of 200 Hz) appears practicable. 6) All fusion related

  4. Chamber technology concepts for inertial fusion energy: Three recent examples

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W.; Abdou, M.A.

    1997-02-27

    The most serious challenges in the design of chambers for inertial fusion energy (IFE) are 1) protecting the first wall from fusion energy pulses on the order of several hundred megajoules released in the form of x rays, target debris, and high energy neutrons, and 2) operating the chamber at a pulse repetition rate of 5-10 Hz (i.e., re-establishing, the wall protection and chamber conditions needed for beam propagation to the target between pulses). In meeting these challenges, designers have capitalized on the ability to separate the fusion burn physics from the geometry and environment of the fusion chamber. Most recent conceptual designs use gases or flowing liquids inside the chamber. Thin liquid layers of molten salt or metal and low pressure, high-Z gases can protect the first wall from x rays and target debris, while thick liquid layers have the added benefit of protecting structures from fusion neutrons thereby significantly reducing the radiation damage and activation. The use of thick liquid walls is predicted to 1) reduce the cost of electricity by avoiding the cost and down time of changing damaged structures, and 2) reduce the cost of development by avoiding the cost of developing a new, low-activation material. Various schemes have been proposed to assure chamber clearing and renewal of the protective features at the required pulse rate. Representative chamber concepts are described, and key technical feasibility issues are identified for each class of chamber. Experimental activities (past, current, and proposed) to address these issues and technology research and development needs are discussed.

  5. Low-energy fusion caused by an interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivlev, B.

    2013-03-01

    Fusion of two deuterons at room-temperature energy is studied. The nuclei are in vacuum with no connection to any external source (electric or magnetic field, illumination, surrounding matter, traps, etc.) which may accelerate them. The energy of the two nuclei is conserved and remains small during the motion through the Coulomb barrier. The penetration through this barrier, which is the main obstacle for low-energy fusion, strongly depends on a form of the incident flux on the Coulomb center at large distances from it. In contrast to the usual scattering, the incident wave is not a single plane wave but the certain superposition of plane waves of the same energy and various directions; for example, a convergent conical wave. As a result of interference, the wave function close to the Coulomb center is determined by a cusp caustic which is probed by de Broglie waves. The particle flux gets away from the cusp and moves to the Coulomb center providing a not negligible probability of fusion (cusp driven tunneling). Getting away from a caustic cusp also occurs in optics and acoustics.

  6. Fusion at deep subbarrier energies: potential inversion revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.

    2009-03-01

    For a single potential barrier, the barrier penetrability can be inverted based on the WKB approximation to yield the barrier thickness. We apply this method to heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies well below the Coulomb barrier and directly determine the inter-nucleus potential between the colliding nuclei. To this end, we assume that fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies are governed by the lowest barrier in the barrier distribution. The inverted inter-nucleus potentials for the 16O+144Sm and 16O+208Pb reactions show that they are much thicker than phenomenological potentials. We discuss a consequence of such thick potential by fitting the inverted potentials with the Bass function.

  7. Lead (Pb) Hohlraum: Target for Inertial Fusion Energy

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Atherton, L. J.; Dunne, M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Lindl, J. D.; Meeker, D.; Moses, E. I.; Nikroo, A.; Wallace, R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress towards demonstrating inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has sparked wide interest in Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) for carbon-free large-scale power generation. A LIFE-based fleet of power plants promises clean energy generation with no greenhouse gas emissions and a virtually limitless, widely available thermonuclear fuel source. For the LIFE concept to be viable, target costs must be minimized while the target material efficiency or x-ray albedo is optimized. Current ICF targets on the NIF utilize a gold or depleted uranium cylindrical radiation cavity (hohlraum) with a plastic capsule at the center that contains the deuterium and tritium fuel. Here we show a direct comparison of gold and lead hohlraums in efficiently ablating deuterium-filled plastic capsules with soft x rays. We report on lead hohlraum performance that is indistinguishable from gold, yet costing only a small fraction. PMID:23486285

  8. Fusion at deep subbarrier energies: potential inversion revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.

    2009-03-04

    For a single potential barrier, the barrier penetrability can be inverted based on the WKB approximation to yield the barrier thickness. We apply this method to heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies well below the Coulomb barrier and directly determine the inter-nucleus potential between the colliding nuclei. To this end, we assume that fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies are governed by the lowest barrier in the barrier distribution. The inverted inter-nucleus potentials for the {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm and {sup 16}O+{sup 208}Pb reactions show that they are much thicker than phenomenological potentials. We discuss a consequence of such thick potential by fitting the inverted potentials with the Bass function.

  9. Rep-Rated Target Injection for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, D.T.; Goodin, D.T.; Stemke, R.W.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Drake, T.J.; Egli, W.; Vermillion, B.A.; Klasen, R.; Cleary, M.M

    2005-05-15

    Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) with laser drivers is a pulsed power generation system that relies on repetitive, high-speed injection of targets into a fusion reactor. To produce an economically viable IFE power plant the targets must be injected into the reactor at a rate between 5 and 10 Hz.To survive the injection process, direct drive (laser fusion) targets (spherical capsules) are placed into protective sabots. The sabots separate from the target and are stripped off before entering the reactor chamber. Indirect drive (heavy ion fusion) utilizes a hohlraum surrounding the spherical capsule and enters the chamber as one piece.In our target injection demonstration system, the sabots or hohlraums are injected into a vacuum system with a light gas gun using helium as a propellant. To achieve pulsed operation a rep-rated injection system has been developed. For a viable power plant we must be able to fire continuously at 6 Hz. This demonstration system is currently set up to allow bursts of up to 12 targets at 6 Hz. Using the current system, tests have been successfully run with direct drive targets to show sabot separation under vacuum and at barrel exit velocities of {approx}400 m/s.The existing revolver system along with operational data will be presented.

  10. The FIREX program on the way to inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azechi, H.; Project, FIREX

    2008-05-01

    Thermonuclear ignition and subsequent burn are key physics for achieving laser fusion. Laboratory ignition with very large laser systems is now anticipated with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the US and Laser Mega Joule (LMJ) in France. Fast ignition has a potential to achieve ignition and burn with about one tenth of laser energy required for these programs. With the fast ignition, the fuel compression and heating are separated, with ignition initiated by a short very high power laser pulse incident on the already compressed fuel. The fast heating of a compressed core, together with high-density compression, has provided the scientific basis for the start of the Fast Ignition Realization EXperiment (FIREX) project. The goal of the first phase (FIREX-I) is to demonstrate ignition temperature of 5-10 keV, followed by the second phase to demonstrate ignition and burn. Coupled with the achievement of central ignition on NIF and LMJ, the research focus would then move to the demonstrations of high gain and of the inertial fusion energy technology. These programs would converge onto a laser fusion test reactor that can deliver net electric power by 2030. We would expect the test reactor program as a truly international activity.

  11. Realizing steady-state tokamak operation for fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, T. C.

    2011-03-01

    Continuous operation of a tokamak for fusion energy has clear engineering advantages but requires conditions beyond those sufficient for a burning plasma. The fusion reactions and external sources must support both the pressure and the current equilibrium without inductive current drive, leading to demands on stability, confinement, current drive, and plasma-wall interactions that exceed those for pulsed tokamaks. These conditions have been met individually, and significant progress has been made in the past decade to realize scenarios where the required conditions are obtained simultaneously. Tokamaks are operated routinely without disruptions near pressure limits, as needed for steady-state operation. Fully noninductive sustainment with more than half of the current from intrinsic currents has been obtained for a resistive time with normalized pressure and confinement approaching those needed for steady-state conditions. One remaining challenge is handling the heat and particle fluxes expected in a steady-state tokamak without compromising the core plasma performance.

  12. Radiation Hydrodynamic Simulations of an Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, Ryan Foster

    Inertial fusion energy reactors present great promise for the future as they are capable of providing baseline power with no carbon footprint. Simulation work regarding the chamber response and first wall insult is carried out using the 1-D BUCKY radiation hydrodynamics code for a variety of differing chamber fills, radii, chamber obstructions and first wall materials. Discussion of the first wall temperature rise, x-ray spectrum incident on the wall, shock timing and maximum overpressure are presented. An additional discussion of the impact of different gas opacities and their effect on overall chamber dynamics, including the formation of two shock fronts, is also presented. This work is performed under collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Fusion Technology Institute.

  13. Simulating Intense Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2001-02-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program's goal is the development of the body of knowledge needed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) to realize its promise. The intense ion beams that will drive HIF targets are nonneutral plasmas and exhibit collective, nonlinear dynamics which must be understood using the kinetic models of plasma physics. This beam physics is both rich and subtle: a wide range in spatial and temporal scales is involved, and effects associated with both instabilities and non-ideal processes must be understood. Ion beams have a ''long memory'', and initialization of a beam at mid-system with an idealized particle distribution introduces uncertainties; thus, it will be crucial to develop, and to extensively use, an integrated and detailed ''source-to-target'' HIF beam simulation capability. We begin with an overview of major issues.

  14. Simulating Intense Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    2001-02-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program's goal is the development of the body of knowledge needed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) to realize its promise. The intense ion beams that will drive HIF targets are rzonneutral plasmas and exhibit collective, nonlinear dynamics which must be understood using the kinetic models of plasma physics. This beam physics is both rich and subtle: a wide range in spatial and temporal scales is involved, and effects associated with both instabilities and non-ideal processes must be understood. Ion beams have a ''long memory,'' and initialization of a beam at mid-system with an idealized particle distribution introduces uncertainties; thus, it will be crucial to develop, and to extensively use, an integrated and detailed ''source-to-target'' HIF beam simulation capability. We begin with an overview of major issues.

  15. Designing Radiation Resistance in Materials for Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Snead, L. L.

    2014-07-01

    Proposed fusion and advanced (Generation IV) fission energy systems require high-performance materials capable of satisfactory operation up to neutron damage levels approaching 200 atomic displacements per atom with large amounts of transmutant hydrogen and helium isotopes. After a brief overview of fusion reactor concepts and radiation effects phenomena in structural and functional (nonstructural) materials, three fundamental options for designing radiation resistance are outlined: Utilize matrix phases with inherent radiation tolerance, select materials in which vacancies are immobile at the design operating temperatures, or engineer materials with high sink densities for point defect recombination. Environmental and safety considerations impose several additional restrictions on potential materials systems, but reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels (including thermomechanically treated and oxide dispersion-strengthened options) and silicon carbide ceramic composites emerge as robust structural materials options. Materials modeling (including computational thermodynamics) and advanced manufacturing methods are poised to exert a major impact in the next ten years.

  16. Rugged Packaging for Damage Resistant Inertial Fusion Energy Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Stelmack, Larry

    2003-11-17

    The development of practical fusion energy plants based on inertial confinement with ultraviolet laser beams requires durable, stable final optics that will withstand the harsh fusion environment. Aluminum-coated reflective surfaces are fragile, and require hard overcoatings resistant to contamination, with low optical losses at 248.4 nanometers for use with high-power KrF excimer lasers. This program addresses the definition of requirements for IFE optics protective coatings, the conceptual design of the required deposition equipment according to accepted contamination control principles, and the deposition and evaluation of diamondlike carbon (DLC) test coatings. DLC coatings deposited by Plasma Immersion Ion Processing were adherent and abrasion-resistant, but their UV optical losses must be further reduced to allow their use as protective coatings for IFE final optics. Deposition equipment for coating high-performance IFE final optics must be designed, constructed, and operated with contamination control as a high priority.

  17. Chamber and target technology development for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M; Besenbruch, G; Duke, J; Forman, L; Goodin, D; Gulec, K; Hoffer, J; Khater, H; Kulcinsky, G; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Margevicious, B; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Morley, N; Nobile, A; Payne, S; Peterson, P F; Peterson, R; Petzoldt, R; Schultz, K; Steckle, W; Sviatoslavsky, L; Tillack, M; Ying, A

    1999-04-07

    Fusion chambers and high pulse-rate target systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) must: regenerate chamber conditions suitable for target injection, laser propagation, and ignition at rates of 5 to 10 Hz; extract fusion energy at temperatures high enough for efficient conversion to electricity; breed tritium and fuel targets with minimum tritium inventory; manufacture targets at low cost; inject those targets with sufficient accuracy for high energy gain; assure adequate lifetime of the chamber and beam interface (final optics); minimize radioactive waste levels and annual volumes; and minimize radiation releases under normal operating and accident conditions. The primary goal of the US IFE program over the next four years (Phase I) is to develop the basis for a Proof-of-Performance-level driver and target chamber called the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE will explore beam transport and focusing through prototypical chamber environment and will intercept surrogate targets at high pulse rep-rate. The IRE will not have enough driver energy to ignite targets, and it will be a non-nuclear facility. IRE options are being developed for both heavy ion and laser driven IFE. Fig. 1 shows that Phase I is prerequisite to an IRE, and the IRE plus NIF (Phase II) is prerequisite to a high-pulse rate. Engineering Test Facility and DEMO for IFE, leading to an attractive fusion power plant. This report deals with the Phase-I R&D needs for the chamber, driver/chamber interface (i.e., magnets for accelerators and optics for lasers), target fabrication, and target injection; it is meant to be part of a more comprehensive IFE development plan which will include driver technology and target design R&D. Because of limited R&D funds, especially in Phase I, it is not possible to address the critical issues for all possible chamber and target technology options for heavy ion or laser fusion. On the other hand, there is risk in addressing only one approach to each technology

  18. Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. Panel on Integrated Simulation and Optimization of Magnetic Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlburg, Jill; Corones, James; Batchelor, Donald; Bramley, Randall; Greenwald, Martin; Jardin, Stephen; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Laub, Alan; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel; Lindl, John; Lokke, William; Rosenbluth, Marshall; Ross, David; Schnack, Dalton

    2002-11-01

    Fusion is potentially an inexhaustible energy source whose exploitation requires a basic understanding of high-temperature plasmas. The development of a science-based predictive capability for fusion-relevant plasmas is a challenge central to fusion energy science, in which numerical modeling has played a vital role for more than four decades. A combination of the very wide range in temporal and spatial scales, extreme anisotropy, the importance of geometric detail, and the requirement of causality which makes it impossible to parallelize over time, makes this problem one of the most challenging in computational physics. Sophisticated computational models are under development for many individual features of magnetically confined plasmas and increases in the scope and reliability of feasible simulations have been enabled by increased scientific understanding and improvements in computer technology. However, full predictive modeling of fusion plasmas will require qualitative improvements and innovations to enable cross coupling of a wider variety of physical processes and to allow solution over a larger range of space and time scales. The exponential growth of computer speed, coupled with the high cost of large-scale experimental facilities, makes an integrated fusion simulation initiative a timely and cost-effective opportunity. Worldwide progress in laboratory fusion experiments provides the basis for a recent FESAC recommendation to proceed with a burning plasma experiment (see FESAC Review of Burning Plasma Physics Report, September 2001). Such an experiment, at the frontier of the physics of complex systems, would be a huge step in establishing the potential of magnetic fusion energy to contribute to the world’s energy security. An integrated simulation capability would dramatically enhance the utilization of such a facility and lead to optimization of toroidal fusion plasmas in general. This science-based predictive capability, which was cited in the FESAC

  19. A burning plasma program strategy to advance fusion energy. Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Burning Plasma Strategy Panel

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-09-01

    Fusion energy shows great promise to contribute to securing the energy future of humanity. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are strong reasons to pursue fusion energy now. The world effort to develop fusion energy is at the threshold of a new stage in its research: the investigation of burning plasmas. This investigation, at the frontier of the physics of complex systems, would be a huge step in establishing the potential of magnetic fusion energy to contribute to the world’s energy security. The defining feature of a burning plasma is that it is self-heated: the 100 million degree temperature of the plasma is maintained mainly by the heat generated by the fusion reactions themselves, as occurs in burning stars. The fusion-generated alpha particles produce new physical phenomena that are strongly coupled together as a nonlinear complex system. Understanding all elements of this system poses a major challenge to fundamental plasma physics. The technology needed to produce and control a burning plasma presents challenges in engineering science similarly essential to the development of fusion energy.

  20. Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Neef, W.S.

    1990-07-20

    Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available.

  1. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Landrum, D. B.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an approach in which a magnetized target plasma is compressed inertially by an imploding material wall. A high energy plasma liner may be used to produce the required implosion. The plasma liner is formed by the merging of a number of high momentum plasma jets converging towards the center of a sphere where two compact toroids have been introduced. Preliminary 3-D hydrodynamics modeling results using the SPHINX code of Los Alamos National Laboratory have been very encouraging and confirm earlier theoretical expectations. The concept appears ready for experimental exploration and plans for doing so are being pursued. In this talk, we explore conceptually how this innovative fusion approach could be packaged for space propulsion for interplanetary travel. We discuss the generally generic components of a baseline propulsion concept including the fusion engine, high velocity plasma accelerators, generators of compact toroids using conical theta pinches, magnetic nozzle, neutron absorption blanket, tritium reprocessing system, shock absorber, magnetohydrodynamic generator, capacitor pulsed power system, thermal management system, and micrometeorite shields.

  2. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  3. Data management in a fusion energy research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Glad, A.; Drobnis, D.; McHarg, B.

    1981-07-01

    Present-day fusion research requires extensive support for the large amount of scientific data generated, bringing about three distinct problems computer systems must solve: (1) the processing of large amounts of data in very small time frames; (2) the archiving, analyzing and managing of the entire data output for the project's lifetime; (3) the standardization of data for the exchange of information between laboratories. The computer system supporting General Atomic's Doublet III tokamak, a project funded by the United States Department of Energy, is the first to encounter and address these problems through a system-wide data base structure.

  4. Response to FESAC survey, non-fusion connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Applications of the FES-supported beam and plasma simulation code, Warp

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Vay, J. L.

    2015-05-29

    The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.

  5. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  6. Heavy-ion fusion hindrance at extreme sub-barrier energies.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. L.; Back, B. B.; Esbensen, H.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Misicu, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Collon, P.; Davids, C. N.; Greene, J.; Henderson, D. J.; Jisonna, L.; Kurtz, S.; Lister, C. J.; Notani, M.; Paul, M.; Pardo, R.; Peterson, D.; Seweryniak, D.; Shumard, B.; Tang, X. D.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.; Physics; National Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Univ. of Notre Dame; Hebrew Univ.; Northwestern Univ.; Michigan State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    There are many new results in the study of the heavy-ion fusion hindrance phenomenon at extreme sub-barrier energies since Fusion03. Some of them have been published. Presented are some new results, including the first evidence in fusion hindrance for a system with small negative Q-value, {sup 28}Si + {sup 64}Ni, and the impact of fusion hindrance on reactions of interest to astrophysics.

  7. Fusion materials high energy-neutron studies. A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, D.G.; Guinan, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to provide background information on the US Magnetic Fusion Reactor Materials Program, (2) to provide a framework for evaluating nuclear data needs associated with high energy neutron irradiations, and (3) to show the current status of relevant high energy neutron studies. Since the last symposium, the greatest strides in cross section development have been taken in those areas providing FMIT design data, e.g., source description, shielding, and activation. In addition, many dosimetry cross sections have been tentatively extrapolated to 40 MeV and integral testing begun. Extensive total helium measurements have been made in a variety of neutron spectra. Additional calculations are needed to assist in determining energy dependent cross sections.

  8. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

  10. Decoding the nuclear genome using nuclear binding and fusion energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2015-04-01

    In several publications the author has presented the theory that protons and neutrons and other baryons are the chromo-magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory and used that to deduce the up and down current quark masses from the tightly-known Q = 0 empirical electron mass and the neutron minus proton mass difference with commensurately high precision. This is then used as a springboard to closely fit a wide range of empirical nuclear binding and fusion energy data and to obtain the proton and neutron masses themselves within all experimental errors. This presentation will systematically pull all of this together and a) establishes that this way of defining current quark masses constitutes a valid measurement scheme, b) lays out the empirical support for this theory via observed nuclear binding and fusion energies as well as the proton and neutron masses themselves, c) solidifies the interface used to connect the theory to these empirical results and uncovers a mixing between the up and down current quark masses, and d) presents clearly how and why the underlying theory is very conservative, being no more and no less than a deductive mathematical synthesis of Maxwell's classical theory with both the electric and magnetic field equations merged into one, Yang-Mills gauge theory, Dirac fermion theory, the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle, and to get from classical chromodynamics to QCD, Feynman path integration.

  11. Additive effects on the energy barrier for synaptic vesicle fusion cause supralinear effects on the vesicle fusion rate

    PubMed Central

    Schotten, Sebastiaan; Meijer, Marieke; Walter, Alexander Matthias; Huson, Vincent; Mamer, Lauren; Kalogreades, Lawrence; ter Veer, Mirelle; Ruiter, Marvin; Brose, Nils; Rosenmund, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The energy required to fuse synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane (‘activation energy’) is considered a major determinant in synaptic efficacy. From reaction rate theory, we predict that a class of modulations exists, which utilize linear modulation of the energy barrier for fusion to achieve supralinear effects on the fusion rate. To test this prediction experimentally, we developed a method to assess the number of releasable vesicles, rate constants for vesicle priming, unpriming, and fusion, and the activation energy for fusion by fitting a vesicle state model to synaptic responses induced by hypertonic solutions. We show that complexinI/II deficiency or phorbol ester stimulation indeed affects responses to hypertonic solution in a supralinear manner. An additive vs multiplicative relationship between activation energy and fusion rate provides a novel explanation for previously observed non-linear effects of genetic/pharmacological perturbations on synaptic transmission and a novel interpretation of the cooperative nature of Ca2+-dependent release. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05531.001 PMID:25871846

  12. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  13. Investigation of contribution of incomplete fusion in the total fusion process induced by 9Be on 181Ta target at near barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharab, Rajesh; Chahal, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-02-01

    We have studied the relative contribution of incomplete fusion (ICF) and complete fusion (CF) in total fusion (TF) induced by 9Be on 181Ta target at energies in the vicinity of Coulomb barrier using classical dynamical model and Wong's formula in conjugation with energy dependent Woods-Saxon formula. It is found that at above barrier energies ICF contributes almost 30% in TF while at energies below the barrier qualitatively its contribution is much more than thirty percent.

  14. The National Ignition Facility - Applications for Inertial Fusion Energy and High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1999-08-12

    Over the past several decades, significant and steady progress has been made in the development of fusion energy and its associated technology and in the understanding of the physics of high-temperature plasmas. While the demonstration of net fusion energy (fusion energy production exceeding that required to heat and confine the plasma) remains a task for the next millennia and while challenges remain, this progress has significantly increased confidence that the ultimate goal of societally acceptable (e.g. cost, safety, environmental considerations including waste disposal) central power production can be achieved. This progress has been shared by the two principal approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion--magnetic confinement (MFE) and inertial confinement (ICF). ICF, the focus of this article, is complementary and symbiotic to MFE. As shown, ICF invokes spherical implosion of the fuel to achieve high density, pressures, and temperatures, inertially confining the plasma for times sufficient long (t {approx} 10{sup -10} sec) that {approx} 30% of the fuel undergoes thermonuclear fusion.

  15. A Prospect on the Demonstration of Electric Power Production from Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Ogawa, Yuichi; Tobita, Kenji

    This paper describes a prospect toward electric power production by the Fusion energy. In the first part of the paper, a principle of TOKAMAK system which is the successful magnetic-confinement-systems for fusion reactors are shown, and then the ITER project based on TOKAMAK and the present status of ITER is reviewed. In the remainder of the paper, a roadmap for fusion energy and conceptual designs of Demonstration reactors are briefly described.

  16. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, Pawan; Sahoo, Rudra N.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Prasad, R.

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF) in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs) measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb)+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF) increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ≈ 7 %) has been accounted even at energy as low as ≈ 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity νrel ≈0.027) in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ≈ 10 % at νrel ≈0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern's systematics.

  17. Terascale simulations for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Sharp, W M; Celata, C M; Lee, E P; Vay, J-L; Davidson, R C; Kaganovich, I; Lee, W W; Qin, H; Welch, D R; Haber, I; Kishek, R A

    2000-06-08

    The intense ion beams in a heavy ion Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver and fusion chamber are non-neutral plasmas whose dynamics are largely dominated by space charge. We propose to develop a ''source-to-target'' Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) beam simulation capability: a description of the kinetic behavior of this complex, nonlinear system which is both integrated and detailed. We will apply this new capability to further our understanding of key scientific issues in the physics of ion beams for IFE. The simulations will entail self-consistent field descriptions that require interprocessor communication, but are scalable and will run efficiently on terascale architectures. This new capability will be based on the integration of three types of simulations, each requiring terascale computing: (1) simulations of acceleration and confinement of the space-charge-dominated ion beams through the driver (accelerator, pulse compression line, and final focusing system) which accurately describe their dynamics, including emittance growth (phase-space dilution) effects; these are particle-in-cell (PIC) models; (2) electromagnetic (EM) and magnetoinductive (Darwin) simulations which describe the beam and the fusion chamber environment, including multibeam, neutralization, stripping, beam and plasma ionization processes, and return current effects; and (3) highly detailed simulations (6f, multispecies PIC, continuum Vlasov), which can examine electron effects and collective modes in the driver and chamber, and can study halo generation with excellent statistics, to ensure that these effects do not disrupt the focusability of the beams. The code development will involve: (i) adaptation of existing codes to run efficiently on multi-SMP computers that use a hybrid of shared and distributed memory; (ii) development of new and improved numerical algorithms, e.g., averaging techniques that will afford larger timesteps; and (iii) incorporation of improved physics models (e.g., for self

  18. Progress in Z-pinch inertial fusion energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, John Woodruff

    2010-03-01

    The goal of z-pinch inertial fusion energy (IFE) is to extend the single-shot z-pinch inertial confinement fusion (ICF) results on Z to a repetitive-shot z-pinch power plant concept for the economical production of electricity. Z produces up to 1.8 MJ of x-rays at powers as high as 230 TW. Recent target experiments on Z have demonstrated capsule implosion convergence ratios of 14-21 with a double-pinch driven target, and DD neutron yields up to 8x10exp10 with a dynamic hohlraum target. For z-pinch IFE, a power plant concept is discussed that uses high-yield IFE targets (3 GJ) with a low rep-rate per chamber (0.1 Hz). The concept includes a repetitive driver at 0.1 Hz, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the driver to the target, high-yield targets, and a thick-liquid wall chamber. Recent funding by a U.S. Congressional initiative for $4M for FY04 is supporting research on RTLs, repetitive pulsed power drivers, shock mitigation, full RTL cycle planned experiments, high-yield IFE targets, and z-pinch power plant technologies. Recent results of research in all of these areas are discussed, and a Road Map for Z-Pinch IFE is presented.

  19. Optimizing High-Z Coatings for Inertial Fusion Energy Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Nikroo, Abbas; Goodin, Daniel T.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.

    2003-05-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors require shells with a high-Z coating that is both permeable, for timely filling with deuterium-tritium, and reflective, for survival in the chamber. Previously, gold was deposited on shells while they were agitated to obtain uniform, reproducible coatings. However, these coatings were rather impermeable, resulting in unacceptably long fill times. We report here on an initial study on Pd coatings on shells in the same manner. We have found that these palladium-coated shells are substantially more permeable than gold. Pd coatings on shells remained stable on exposure to deuterium. Pd coatings had lower reflectivity compared to gold that leads to a lower working temperature, and efficiency, of the proposed fusion reactor. Seeking to combine the permeability of Pd coatings and high reflectivity of gold, AuPd-alloy coatings were produced using a cosputtering technique. These alloys demonstrated higher permeability than Au and higher reflectivity than Pd. However, these coatings were still less reflective than the gold coatings. To improve the permeability of gold's coatings, permeation experiments were performed at higher temperatures. With the parameters of composition, thickness, and temperature, we have the ability to comply with a large target design window.

  20. Background: Energy's holy grail. [The quest for controlled fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-22

    This article presents a brief history of the pursuit and development of fusion as a power source. Starting with the 1950s through the present, the research efforts of the US and other countries is highlighted, including a chronology of hey developments. Other topics discussed include cold fusion and magnetic versus inertial fusion issues.

  1. Status of Safety& Environmental Activities for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Sharpe, J P; Marshall, T D; Merrill, B J; Moore, R L; Petti, D A; Falquina, R; Rodriguez, A; Sanz, J; Cabellos, O

    2002-11-25

    Over the past several years, significant progress has been made in the analysis of safety and environmental (S&E) issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Detailed safety assessments have been performed for the baseline power plant concepts, as well as for a conceptual target fabrication facility. Safety analysis results are helping to drive the agenda for experiments. A survey of the S&E characteristics--both radiological and chemical--of candidate target materials has been completed. Accident initiating events have been identified and incorporated into master logic diagrams, which will be essential to the detailed safety analyses that will be needed in the future. Studies of aerosol generation and transport will have important safety implications. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analysis procedure has been developed for use in neutron activation calculations. Finally, waste management issues are receiving increased attention and are deserving of further discussion.

  2. Inertial fusion target development for ignition and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, K.R.; Norimatsu, T.

    1994-12-01

    The target needs of the next ICF experiments that will lead toward ignition and energy are different from those of today`s experiments. The future experiments on OMEGA Upgrade, GEKKO XII Upgrade, the National Ignition Facility and Megajoule will need large, precise, cryogenic targets. Development is needed on a number of aspects of these targets, including shell fabrication, characterization, cryogenic layering and target handling. However, coordinated R and D programs are in place and work is in process to carry out the needed development. It is vital to the success of inertial fusion that this work be sustained. Coordinated effort, like the National Cryogenic Target Program in the USA, will help make the development activities as efficient and effective as possible, and should be encouraged.

  3. Radiation Hydrodynamic Parameter Study of Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, Ryan; Moses, Gregory

    2014-10-01

    Inertial fusion energy reactors present great promise for the future as they are capable of providing baseline power with no carbon footprint. Simulation work regarding the chamber response and first wall insult is performed with the 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code BUCKY. Simulation with differing chamber parameters are implemented to study the effect of gas fill, gas mixtures and chamber radii. Xenon and argon gases are of particular interest as shielding for the first wall due to their high opacity values and ready availability. Mixing of the two gases is an attempt to engineer a gas cocktail to provide the maximum amount of shielding with the least amount of cost. A parameter study of different chamber radii shows a consistent relationship with that of first wall temperature (~1/r2) and overpressure (~1/r3). This work is performed under collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 mum of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb 83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by

  5. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-30

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  6. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  7. Low-energy fusion dynamics of weakly bound nuclei: A time dependent perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Torres, A.; Boselli, M.

    2016-05-01

    Recent dynamical fusion models for weakly bound nuclei at low incident energies, based on a time-dependent perspective, are briefly presented. The main features of both the PLATYPUS model and a new quantum approach are highlighted. In contrast to existing timedependent quantum models, the present quantum approach separates the complete and incomplete fusion from the total fusion. Calculations performed within a toy model for 6Li + 209Bi at near-barrier energies show that converged excitation functions for total, complete and incomplete fusion can be determined with the time-dependent wavepacket dynamics.

  8. Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

    1995-09-01

    The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

  9. Review of the Strategic Plan for International Collaboration on Fusion Science and Technology Research. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-01-23

    The United States Government has employed international collaborations in magnetic fusion energy research since the program was declassified in 1958. These collaborations have been successful not only in producing high quality scientific results that have contributed to the advancement of fusion science and technology, they have also allowed us to highly leverage our funding. Thus, in the 1980s, when the funding situation made it necessary to reduce the technical breadth of the U.S. domestic program, these highly leveraged collaborations became key strategic elements of the U.S. program, allowing us to maintain some degree of technical breadth. With the recent, nearly complete declassification of inertial confinement fusion, the use of some international collaboration is expected to be introduced in the related inertial fusion energy research activities as well. The United States has been a leader in establishing and fostering collaborations that have involved scientific and technological exchanges, joint planning, and joint work at fusion facilities in the U.S. and worldwide. These collaborative efforts have proven mutually beneficial to the United States and our partners. International collaborations are a tool that allows us to meet fusion program goals in the most effective way possible. Working with highly qualified people from other countries and other cultures provides the collaborators with an opportunity to see problems from new and different perspectives, allows solutions to arise from the diversity of the participants, and promotes both collaboration and friendly competition. In short, it provides an exciting and stimulating environment resulting in a synergistic effect that is good for science and good for the people of the world.

  10. Safety and environmental constraints on space applications of fusion energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. Reece

    1990-01-01

    Some of the constraints are examined on fusion reactions, plasma confinement systems, and fusion reactors that are intended for such space related missions as manned or unmanned operations in near earth orbit, interplanetary missions, or requirements of the SDI program. Of the many constraints on space power and propulsion systems, those arising from safety and environmental considerations are emphasized since these considerations place severe constraints on some fusion systems and have not been adequately treated in previous studies.

  11. Thermonuclear Fusion: An Energy Source for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, William E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research in thermonuclear fusion with particular emphasis on the problem of confining hot plasma. Recent experiments indicate that magnetic bottles called tokamaks may achieve the necessary confinement times, and this break-through has given renewed optimism to the feasibility of commercial fusion power by the turn of the…

  12. 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R J

    2011-01-05

    An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

  13. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-10-01

    This annual report on fusion energy discusses the progress on work in the following main topics: toroidal confinement experiments; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; plasma theory and computing; plasma-materials interactions; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; fusion engineering design center; materials research and development; and neutron transport. (LSP)

  14. Fusion measurements of 12C+12C at energies of astrophysical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Alcorta, M.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Avila, M. L.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Back, B. B.; Bourgin, D.; Bucher, B.; Carpenter, M. P.; Courtin, S.; David, H. M.; Deibel, C. M.; Dickerson, C.; DiGiovine, B.; Fang, X.; Greene, J. P.; Haas, F.; Henderson, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jenkins, D.; Lai, J.; Lauritsen, T.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Montanari, D.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Seweryniak, D.; Tang, X. D.; Ugalde, C.; Zhu, S.

    2016-05-01

    The cross section of the 12C+12C fusion reaction at low energies is of paramount importance for models of stellar nucleosynthesis in different astrophysical scenarios, such as Type Ia supernovae and Xray superbursts, where this reaction is a primary route for the production of heavier elements. In a series of experiments performed at Argonne National Laboratory, using Gammasphere and an array of Silicon detectors, measurements of the fusion cross section of 12C+12C were successfully carried out with the γ and charged-particle coincidence technique in the center-of-mass energy range of 3-5 MeV. These were the first background-free fusion cross section measurements for 12C+12C at energies of astrophysical interest. Our results are consistent with previous measurements in the high-energy region; however, our lowest energy measurement indicates a fusion cross section slightly lower than those obtained with other techniques.

  15. A pathway to laser fusion energy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    High-density compression of DT to one thousand times its liquid density is the critical path of inertial fusion and was demonstrated in Japan and US in late 1980's. The Osaka group has achieved high-density compression that meets one of the critical requirements for thermonuclear ignition and bum. Although the compression densities were well reproduced by computer simulations, the neutron yields were much lower than the simulation predictions by three orders of magnitudes, suggesting catastrophic collapse of a hot spark, from which thermonuclear reactions are triggered. In order to overcome this difficulty the international ICF community has adopted two approaches: one is to generate a larger hot spark than the mixed layer with MJ-Class lasers, such as NIF and LMJ. The other approach is to externally heat the compressed fuel. The second approach is the fast ignition. After the proof-of-concept experiment in 2002, we started the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FlREX) project to complete the world most powerful high-energy peta-watt laser "LFEX" as a heating laser.

  16. A pathway to laser fusion energy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    High-density compression of DT to one thousand times its liquid density is the critical path of inertial fusion and was demonstrated in Japan and US in late 1980's. The Osaka group has achieved high-density compression that meets one of the critical requirements for thermonuclear ignition and burn. Although the compression densities were well reproduced by computer simulations, the neutron yields were much lower than the simulation predictions by three orders of magnitudes, suggesting catastrophic collapse of a hot spark, from which thermonuclear reactions are triggered. In order to overcome this difficulty the international ICF community has adopted two approaches: one is to generate a larger hot spark than the mixed layer with MJ-Class lasers, such as NIF and LMJ. The other approach is to externally heat the compressed fuel. The second approach is the fast ignition. After the proof-of-concept experiment in 2002, we started the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) project to complete the world most powerful high-energy peta-watt laser “LFEX” as a heating laser.

  17. Options for integrated beam experiments for inertial fusion energy and high-energy density physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, M. A.; Celata, C. M.; Lee, E. P.; Logan, B. G.; Waldron, W. L.; Yu, S. S.; Barnard, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL), a collaboration among LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, is presently focused on separate smaller-scale scientific experiments addressing key issues of future Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and High-Energy-Density-Physics (HEDP) drivers: the injection, transport, and focusing of intense heavy ion beams at currents from 25 to 600 mA. As a next major step in the HIF-VNL program, we aim for a fully integrated beam physics experiment, which allows integrated source-to-target physics research with a high-current heavy ion beam of IFE-relevant brightness with the goal of optimizing target focusing. This paper describes two rather different options for such an integrated experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Both proposals put emphasis on the unique capability for integrated injection, acceleration, compression, and focusing of a high-current, space-charge-dominated heavy ion beam.

  18. The role of the National Ignition Facility in the development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1996-06-01

    The authors have completed a conceptual design for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{mu}m solid-state laser system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security, energy, and science applications. The technical goal of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program as stated in the current ICF Five-Year Program Plan is {open_quotes}to produce pure fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, with fusion yields of 200 to 1000 MJ, in support of three missions: (1) to play an essential role in accessing physics regimes of interest in nuclear weapon design...; (2) to provide an above-ground simulation capability for nuclear weapon effects...; and (3) to develop inertial fusion energy for civilian power production.{close_quotes} This article addresses the third goal-- the development of inertial fusion energy (IFE). This article reports a variety of potential contributions the NIF could make to the development of IFE, drawn from a nationally attended workshop held at the University of California at Berkeley in Feb, 1994. In addition to demonstrating fusion ignition as a fundamental basis for IFE, the findings of the workshop, are that the NIF could also provide important data for target physics and fabrication technology, for IFE target chamber phenomena such as materials responses to target emissions, and for fusion power technology-relevant tests.

  19. Environmental and economic assessments of magnetic and inertial fusion energy reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Oishi, T.; Mori, K.

    2011-10-01

    Global warming due to rapid greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the present-day crucial problems, and fusion reactors are expected to be abundant electric power generation systems to reduce human GHG emission amounts. To search for an environmental-friendly and economical fusion reactor system, comparative system studies have been done for several magnetic fusion energy reactors, and have been extended to include inertial fusion energy reactors. We clarify new scaling formulae for the cost of electricity and GHG emission rate with respect to key design parameters, which might be helpful in making a strategy for fusion research development. Comparisons with other conventional electric power generation systems are carried out taking into account the introduction of GHG taxes and the application of the carbon dioxide capture and storage system to fossil power generators.

  20. FY-2013 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Joint Research Target Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermacher, M. E.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Hubbard, A.; Maingi, R.; Whyte, D.

    2013-09-30

    The H-mode confinement regime is characterized by a region of good thermal and particle confinement at the edge of the confined plasma, and has generally been envisioned as the operating regime for ITER and other next step devices. This good confinement is often interrupted, however, by edge-localized instabilities, known as ELMs. On the one hand, these ELMs provide particle and impurity flushing from the plasma core, a beneficial effect facilitating density control and stationary operation. On the other hand, the ELMs result in a substantial fraction of the edge stored energy flowing in bursts to the divertor and first wall; this impulsive thermal loading would result in unacceptable erosion of these material surfaces if it is not arrested. Hence, developing and understanding operating regimes that have the energy confinement of standard H-mode and the stationarity that is provided by ELMs, while at the same time eliminating the impulsive thermal loading of large ELMs, is the focus of the 2013 FES Joint Research Target (JRT): Annual Target: Conduct experiments and analysis on major fusion facilities, to evaluate stationary enhanced confinement regimes without large Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), and to improve understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that allow acceptable edge particle transport while maintaining a strong thermal transport barrier. Mechanisms to be investigated can include intrinsic continuous edge plasma modes and externally applied 3D fields. Candidate regimes and techniques have been pioneered by each of the three major US facilities (C-Mod, D3D and NSTX). Coordinated experiments, measurements, and analysis will be carried out to assess and understand the operational space for the regimes. Exploiting the complementary parameters and tools of the devices, joint teams will aim to more closely approach key dimensionless parameters of ITER, and to identify correlations between edge fluctuations and transport. The role of rotation will be

  1. Views on Inertial Fusion Energy Development (lirpp Vol. 11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, S.

    2016-10-01

    It is my great honor to receive the Edward Teller Award. Representing the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, I would like to appreciate your favorite recognition on our achievements in laser fusion research...

  2. Z-inertial fusion energy: power plant final report FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Kulcinski, Gerald; Zhao, Haihua; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Sierra, Dannelle P.; Meier, Wayne; McConnell, Paul E.; Ghiaasiaan, M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kern, Brian (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tajima, Yu (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Campen, Chistopher (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Sketchley, Tomas (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Moir, R (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); Bardet, Philippe M. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Durbin, Samuel; Morrow, Charles W.; Vigil, Virginia L (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Modesto-Beato, Marcos A.; Franklin, James Kenneth; Smith, James Dean; Ying, Alice; Cook, Jason T.; Schmitz, Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Abdel-Khalik, S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Sridharan, Kumar (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Gudmundson, Jesse; Peterson, Per F.; Marriott, Ed; Oakley, Jason

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Z-inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) late start Laboratory Directed Research Project. A major area of focus was on creating a roadmap to a z-pinch driven fusion power plant. The roadmap ties ZIFE into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative through the use of high energy fusion neutrons to burn the actinides of spent fuel waste. Transmutation presents a near term use for Z-IFE technology and will aid in paving the path to fusion energy. The work this year continued to develop the science and engineering needed to support the Z-IFE roadmap. This included plant system and driver cost estimates, recyclable transmission line studies, flibe characterization, reaction chamber design, and shock mitigation techniques.

  3. Role of surface energy coefficients and nuclear surface diffuseness in the fusion of heavy-ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Ishwar; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2010-04-01

    We discuss the effect of surface energy coefficients as well as nuclear surface diffuseness in the proximity potential and ultimately in the fusion of heavy-ions. Here we employ different versions of surface energy coefficients. Our analysis reveals that these technical parameters can influence the fusion barriers by a significant amount. A best set of these parameters is also given that explains the experimental data nicely.

  4. Analytic expressions for the proximity energy, the fusion process and the α emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustabchir, R.; Royer, G.

    2001-02-01

    The entrance and exit channels through quasimolecular shapes are compatible with the experimental data on fusion, light nucleus and α emissions when the proximity energy is taken into account. Analytic expressions allowing to determine rapidly this proximity energy are presented as well as formulas for the fusion barrier heights and radii and for the α emission barriers. Predictions for half-lives of exotic α emissions are proposed.

  5. Thermal Studies of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Target during Injection into the Fusion Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R. R.; Havstad, M.; LeBlanc, M.; Chang, A.; Golosker, I.; Rosso, P.

    2014-09-09

    The tests of the external heat transfer coefficient suggests that the values used in the numerical analysis for the temperature distribution within the fusion fuel target following flight into the target chamber are probably valid. The tests of the heat transfer phenomena occurring within the target due the rapid heating of the LEH window for the hot gasses within the fusion chamber show that the heat does indeed convect via the internal helium environment of the target towards the capsule and that the pressure in the front compartment of the target adjacent to the LEH window increases such that t bypass venting of the internal helium into the second chamber adjacent to the capsule is needed to prevent rupture of the membranes. The bypass flow is cooled by the hohlraum during this venting. However, the experiments suggest that our internal heat flow calculations may be low by about a factor of 2. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the differences between the experiment and the numerical analysis. Future studies could also possibly bring the test conditions closer to those expected in the fusion chamber to better validate the results. A sacrificial layer will probably be required on the LEH window of the target and this can be used to mitigate any unexpected target heating.

  6. YLIFE-2 inertial fusion energy power plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, R. W.

    1992-03-01

    The HYLIFE-2 inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets, to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-1 used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-2 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li2BeF4) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-1. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. In addition, although not adequately considered for HYLIFE-1, there is liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, at higher repetition rates than 1 Hz. Splash removal is accomplished in the central region by oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kWh in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost, that is, a zero cost driver would give a calculated cost of electricity of 0.045 $/kWh.

  7. Big fusion, little fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Frank; ddtuttle

    2016-08-01

    In reply to correspondence from George Scott and Adam Costley about the Physics World focus issue on nuclear energy, and to news of construction delays at ITER, the fusion reactor being built in France.

  8. Will fusion be ready to meet the energy challenge for the 21st century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréchet, Yves; Massard, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Finite amount of fossil fuel, global warming, increasing demand of energies in emerging countries tend to promote new sources of energies to meet the needs of the coming centuries. Despite their attractiveness, renewable energies will not be sufficient both because of intermittency but also because of the pressure they would put on conventional materials. Thus nuclear energy with both fission and fusion reactors remain the main potential source of clean energy for the coming centuries. France has made a strong commitment to fusion reactor through ITER program. But following and sharing Euratom vision on fusion, France supports the academic program on Inertial Fusion Confinement with direct drive and especially the shock ignition scheme which is heavily studied among the French academic community. LMJ a defense facility for nuclear deterrence is also open to academic community along with a unique PW class laser PETAL. Research on fusion at LMJ-PETAL is one of the designated topics for experiments on the facility. Pairing with other smaller European facilities such as Orion, PALS or LULI2000, LMJ-PETAL will bring new and exciting results and contribution in fusion science in the coming years.

  9. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Deri, R J

    2011-01-03

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a {approx} 200 {micro}s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  10. Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, G.

    This chapter is devoted to the fundamental concepts of nuclear fusion. To be more precise, it is devoted to the theoretical basics of fusion reactions between light nuclei such as hydrogen, helium, boron, and lithium. The discussion is limited because our purpose is to focus on laboratory-scale fusion experiments that aim at gaining energy from the fusion process. After discussing the methods of calculating the fusion cross section, it will be shown that sustained fusion reactions with energy gain must happen in a thermal medium because, in beam-target experiments, the energy of the beam is randomized faster than the fusion rate. Following a brief introduction to the elements of plasma physics, the chapter is concluded with the introduction of the most prominent fusion reactions ongoing in the Sun.

  11. The Long way Towards Inertial Fusion Energy (lirpp Vol. 13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    In 1955 the first Geneva Conference was held in which two important events took place. Firstly, the announcement by President Eisenhower of the Program Atoms for Peace declassifying the information concerning nuclear fission reactors. Secondly, it was forecast that due to the research made on stellerators and magnetic mirrors, the first demo fusion facility would be in operation within ten years. This forecasting, as all of us know today, was a mistake. Forty years afterwards, we can say that probably the first Demo Reactor will be operative in some years more and I sincerely hope that it will be based on the inertial fusion concept...

  12. Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. A ten-year perspective (2015-2025)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    The vision described here builds on the present U.S. activities in fusion plasma and materials science relevant to the energy goal and extends plasma science at the frontier of discovery. The plan is founded on recommendations made by the National Academies, a number of recent studies by the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), and the Administration’s views on the greatest opportunities for U.S. scientific leadership.This report highlights five areas of critical importance for the U.S. fusion energy sciences enterprise over the next decade: 1) Massively parallel computing with the goal of validated whole-fusion-device modeling will enable a transformation in predictive power, which is required to minimize risk in future fusion energy development steps; 2) Materials science as it relates to plasma and fusion sciences will provide the scientific foundations for greatly improved plasma confinement and heat exhaust; 3) Research in the prediction and control of transient events that can be deleterious to toroidal fusion plasma confinement will provide greater confidence in machine designs and operation with stable plasmas; 4) Continued stewardship of discovery in plasma science that is not expressly driven by the energy goal will address frontier science issues underpinning great mysteries of the visible universe and help attract and retain a new generation of plasma/fusion science leaders; 5) FES user facilities will be kept world-leading through robust operations support and regular upgrades. Finally, we will continue leveraging resources among agencies and institutions and strengthening our partnerships with international research facilities.

  13. Interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress during development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Kayo; Hartman, Philip S.; Ishii, Takamasa; Suda, Hitoshi; Akatsuka, Akira; Shoyama, Tetsuji; Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Naoaki

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth and development of a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process of mitochondria was delayed relative to the wild type of Caenorhabditis elegans. {yields} Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. {yields} fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1 overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II. {yields} Mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development. -- Abstract: Mitochondria are known to be dynamic structures with the energetically and enzymatically mediated processes of fusion and fission responsible for maintaining a constant flux. Mitochondria also play a role of reactive oxygen species production as a byproduct of energy metabolism. In the current study, interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress on development were explored using a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process and a mev-1 mutant overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II of Caenorhabditis elegans. While growth and development of both single mutants was slightly delayed relative to the wild type, the fzo-1;mev-1 double mutant experienced considerable delay. Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1. These data indicate that mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development.

  14. Role of Surface Energy Coefficients and Temperature in the Fusion Reactions Induced by Weakly Bound Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaei, R.; O. N., Ghodsi

    2015-08-01

    A systematic study is provided to analyze the behaviors of the interaction potential and complete fusion cross section which are influenced by the effects of the surface energy coefficients γ and temperature T. Our framework is restricted to the proximity formalism for fusion reactions induced by weakly bound projectiles 6Li, 7Li and 9Be. The different surface energy coefficients (γ-MN76, γ-MN95, γ-MS00 and γ-PD03) are used to study the role of the parameter γ in the proximity potentials AW 95 and BW 91. Comparison of the theoretical and the experimental values of the barrier characteristics (barrier heights and its positions) indicates that the modified versions AW 95 (γ-MS00) and BW 91 (γ-MS00) give the least deviations for fusion barrier heights. Moreover, it is shown that the temperature-dependence improves the calculated barrier heights based on the potentials AW 95 and BW 91. In the present study, the analysis of the mentioned effects on the complete fusion cross sections has been also discussed for the systems of interest. The obtained results reveal that the above-modified versions provide a more accurate description for behavior of the complete fusion cross sections than the original potentials at above-barrier energies. It is demonstrated that the increase of the temperature T enhances the complete fusion suppression at this energy range.

  15. Multimodal options for materials research to advance the basis for fusion energy in the ITER era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Möslang, A.; Muroga, T.; Tanigawa, H.

    2013-10-01

    Well-coordinated international fusion materials research on multiple fundamental feasibility issues can serve an important role during the next ten years. Due to differences in national timelines and fusion device concepts, a parallel-track (multimodal) approach is currently being used for developing fusion energy. An overview is given of the current state-of-the-art of major candidate materials systems for next-step fusion reactors, including a summary of existing knowledge regarding operating temperature and neutron irradiation fluence limits due to high-temperature strength and radiation damage considerations, coolant compatibility information, and current industrial manufacturing capabilities. There are two inter-related overarching objectives of fusion materials research to be performed in the next decade: (1) understanding materials science phenomena in the demanding DT fusion energy environment, and (2) application of this knowledge to develop and qualify materials to provide the basis for next-step facility construction authorization by funding agencies and public safety licensing authorities. The critical issues and prospects for development of high-performance fusion materials are discussed along with recent research results and planned activities of the international materials research community.

  16. Energy storage as heat-of-fusion in containerized salts. Report on energy storage boiler tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, T. A.; Nemecek, J. J.; Simmons, D. E.

    1980-06-01

    This report is concerned with energy storage based on heat-of-fusion in containerized salt. The 'energy storage boiler tank' uses evaporation and condensation of a heat transfer fluid to provide heat transfer into and out of stacked cans of salt. The 'energy storage superheater tank' uses a network of alkali metal heat pipes to distribute heat throughout a building filled with salt cans. It uses a radiation to transfer energy to and from stacked cans of salt. The paper summarizes the rationale for energy storage in containerized salt, it discusses salt availability, salt processing, container requirements, can technology and heat transfer fluid degradation problems. These discussions lead to estimates of energy storage system costs. The Naval Research Laboratory is building a 2 MWht proof-of-concept energy storage boiler tank. Laboratory investigations studying the compatibility of the heat transfer fluid with the molten storage salt are described, along with measurements of temperature drops associated with the energy input process. An assessment of the current status of the energy storage boiler tank is presented.

  17. Applications of Skyrme energy-density functional to fusion reactions for synthesis of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ning; Scheid, Werner; Wu Xizhen; Liu Min; Li Zhuxia

    2006-10-15

    The Skyrme energy-density functional approach has been extended to study massive heavy-ion fusion reactions. Based on the potential barrier obtained and the parametrized barrier distribution the fusion (capture) excitation functions of a lot of heavy-ion fusion reactions are studied systematically. The average deviations of fusion cross sections at energies near and above the barriers from experimental data are less than 0.05 for 92% of 76 fusion reactions with Z{sub 1}Z{sub 2}<1200. For the massive fusion reactions, for example, the {sup 238}U-induced reactions and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 208}Pb, the capture excitation functions have been reproduced remarkably well. The influence of structure effects in the reaction partners on the capture cross sections is studied with our parametrized barrier distribution. By comparing the reactions induced by double-magic nucleus {sup 48}Ca and by {sup 32}S and {sup 35}Cl, the ''threshold-like'' behavior in the capture excitation function for {sup 48}Ca-induced reactions is explored and an optimal balance between the capture cross section and the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is studied. Finally, the fusion reactions with {sup 36}S, {sup 37}Cl, {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 50}Ti bombarding {sup 248}Cm, {sup 247,249}Bk, {sup 250,252,254}Cf, and {sup 252,254}Es, as well as the reactions leading to the same compound nucleus with Z=120 and N=182, are studied further. The calculation results for these reactions are useful for searching for the optimal fusion configuration and suitable incident energy in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei.

  18. Frontiers in propulsion research: Laser, matter-antimatter, excited helium, energy exchange thermonuclear fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papailiou, D. D. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Concepts are described that presently appear to have the potential for propulsion applications in the post-1990 era of space technology. The studies are still in progress, and only the current status of investigation is presented. The topics for possible propulsion application are lasers, nuclear fusion, matter-antimatter annihilation, electronically excited helium, energy exchange through the interaction of various fields, laser propagation, and thermonuclear fusion technology.

  19. Analysing the role of fusion power in the future global energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Ciorba, U.; Gracceva, F.; Eder, T.; Hamacher, T.; Lehtila, A.; Biberacher, M.; Grohnheit, P. E.; Ward, D.; Han, W.; Eherer, C.; Pina, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work presents the EFDA Times model (ETM), developed within the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). ETM is an optimization global energy model which aims at providing the optimum energy system composition in terms of social wealth and sustainability including fusion as an alternative technology in the long term. Two framework scenarios are defined: a Base case scenario with no limits to CO2 emissions, and a 450ppm scenario with a limit of 450ppm in CO2-eq concentrations set by 2100. Previous results showed that in the Base case scenario, with no measures for CO2 emission reductions, fusion does not enter the energy system. However, when CO2 emission restrictions are imposed, the global energy system composition changes completely. In a 450ppm scenario, coal technologies disappear in a few decades, being mainly replaced by nuclear fission technologies which experience a great increase when constrained only by Uranium resources exhaustion. Fission technologies are then replaced by the fusion power plants that start in 2070, with a significant contribution to the global electricity production by 2100. To conclude the work, a sensitivity analysis will be presented on some parameters that may affect the possible role of fusion in the future global energy system. Note to the reader: The article number has been corrected on web pages on November 22, 2013.

  20. Analysing the role of fusion power in the future global energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Ciorba, U.; Gracceva, F.; Eder, T.; Hamacher, T.; Lehtila, A.; Biberacher, M.; Grohnheit, P. E.; Ward, D.; Han, W.; Eherer, C.; Pina, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work presents the EFDA Times model (ETM), developed within the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). ETM is an optimization global energy model which aims at providing the optimum energy system composition in terms of social wealth and sustainability including fusion as an alternative technology in the long term. Two framework scenarios are defined: a Base case scenario with no limits to CO2 emissions, and a 450ppm scenario with a limit of 450ppm in CO2-eq concentrations set by 2100. Previous results showed that in the Base case scenario, with no measures for CO2 emission reductions, fusion does not enter the energy system. However, when CO2 emission restrictions are imposed, the global energy system composition changes completely. In a 450ppm scenario, coal technologies disappear in a few decades, being mainly replaced by nuclear fission technologies which experience a great increase when constrained only by Uranium resources exhaustion. Fission technologies are then replaced by the fusion power plants that start in 2070, with a significant contribution to the global electricity production by 2100. To conclude the work, a sensitivity analysis will be presented on some parameters that may affect the possible role of fusion in the future global energy system.

  1. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The Fusion Program carries out work in a number of areas: (1) experimental and theoretical research on two magnetic confinement concepts - the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) and the tokamak, (2) theoretical and engineering studies on a third concept - the stellarator, (3) engineering and physics of present-generation fusion devices, (4) development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques, (5) development and testing of materials for fusion devices, (6) development and testing of the essential technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, (7) development and testing of the superconducting magnets that will be needed to confine these plasmas, (8) design of future devices, (9) assessment of the environmental impact of fusion energy, and (10) assembly and distribution to the fusion community of data bases on atomic physics and radiation effects. The interactions between these activities and their integration into a unified program are major factors in the success of the individual activities, and the ORNL Fusion Program strives to maintain a balance among these activities that will lead to continued growth.

  2. Calculating Transition Energy Barriers and Characterizing Activation States for Steps of Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ryham, Rolf J; Klotz, Thomas S; Yao, Lihan; Cohen, Fredric S

    2016-03-01

    We use continuum mechanics to calculate an entire least energy pathway of membrane fusion, from stalk formation, to pore creation, and through fusion pore enlargement. The model assumes that each structure in the pathway is axially symmetric. The static continuum stalk structure agrees quantitatively with experimental stalk architecture. Calculations show that in a stalk, the distal monolayer is stretched and the stored stretching energy is significantly less than the tilt energy of an unstretched distal monolayer. The string method is used to determine the energy of the transition barriers that separate intermediate states and the dynamics of two bilayers as they pass through them. Hemifusion requires a small amount of energy independently of lipid composition, while direct transition from a stalk to a fusion pore without a hemifusion intermediate is highly improbable. Hemifusion diaphragm expansion is spontaneous for distal monolayers containing at least two lipid components, given sufficiently negative diaphragm spontaneous curvature. Conversely, diaphragms formed from single-component distal monolayers do not expand without the continual injection of energy. We identify a diaphragm radius, below which central pore expansion is spontaneous. For larger diaphragms, prior studies have shown that pore expansion is not axisymmetric, and here our calculations supply an upper bound for the energy of the barrier against pore formation. The major energy-requiring deformations in the steps of fusion are: widening of a hydrophobic fissure in bilayers for stalk formation, splay within the expanding hemifusion diaphragm, and fissure widening initiating pore formation in a hemifusion diaphragm.

  3. Calculating Transition Energy Barriers and Characterizing Activation States for Steps of Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ryham, Rolf J; Klotz, Thomas S; Yao, Lihan; Cohen, Fredric S

    2016-03-01

    We use continuum mechanics to calculate an entire least energy pathway of membrane fusion, from stalk formation, to pore creation, and through fusion pore enlargement. The model assumes that each structure in the pathway is axially symmetric. The static continuum stalk structure agrees quantitatively with experimental stalk architecture. Calculations show that in a stalk, the distal monolayer is stretched and the stored stretching energy is significantly less than the tilt energy of an unstretched distal monolayer. The string method is used to determine the energy of the transition barriers that separate intermediate states and the dynamics of two bilayers as they pass through them. Hemifusion requires a small amount of energy independently of lipid composition, while direct transition from a stalk to a fusion pore without a hemifusion intermediate is highly improbable. Hemifusion diaphragm expansion is spontaneous for distal monolayers containing at least two lipid components, given sufficiently negative diaphragm spontaneous curvature. Conversely, diaphragms formed from single-component distal monolayers do not expand without the continual injection of energy. We identify a diaphragm radius, below which central pore expansion is spontaneous. For larger diaphragms, prior studies have shown that pore expansion is not axisymmetric, and here our calculations supply an upper bound for the energy of the barrier against pore formation. The major energy-requiring deformations in the steps of fusion are: widening of a hydrophobic fissure in bilayers for stalk formation, splay within the expanding hemifusion diaphragm, and fissure widening initiating pore formation in a hemifusion diaphragm. PMID:26958888

  4. Incomplete fusion reactions at low energies in 13C+169Tm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Sharma, M. K.; Gupta, S.; Murlithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2014-03-01

    Aiming to investigate the incomplete fusion processes at low projectile energies, experiments have been carried out for the 13C + 169Tm system at ≈ 4-7 MeV/A. Excitation functions for several heavy residues likely to be populated via complete and incomplete fusion processes have been measured using heavy recoil residue catcher technique followed by γ- ray spectroscopy. The measured cross-sections for the complete fusion (xn and pxn) channels are compared with the statistical model code PACE4, consistently using the same set of parameters. The complete fusion channels are found to be consistent with the model calculations. However, the cross-sections for all the measured α-emitting channels are found to be significantly enhanced over the calculations. Analysis of data indicate a significant fraction of incomplete fusion even at energies as low as 17% above barrier. The present results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern's systematics. Incomplete fusion strength function is found to be relatively large for alpha cluster projectile i.e. for 12C as compared to one neutron excess 13C projectile.

  5. Fusion energy division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The ORNL Program encompasses most aspects of magnetic fusion research including research on two magnetic confinement programs (tokamaks and ELMO bumpy tori); the development of the essential technologies for plasma heating, fueling, superconducting magnets, and materials; the development of diagnostics; the development of atomic physics and radiation effect data bases; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; the physics and engineering of present-generation devices; and the design of future devices. The integration of all of these activities into one program is a major factor in the success of each activity. An excellent example of this integration is the extremely successful application of neutral injection heating systems developed at ORNL to tokamaks both in the Fusion Energy Division and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The goal of the ORNL Fusion Program is to maintain this balance between plasma confinement, technology, and engineering activities.

  6. Proliferation Risks of Magneetic Fusion Energy: Clandestine Production, Covert Production and Breakout

    SciTech Connect

    A. Glaser and R.J. Goldston

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to weapon-usable materials can be divided into three main categories: (1) clandestine production of weapon-usable material in an undeclared facility, (2) covert production of such material inn a declared facility, and (3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper we address each of these categories of risks from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if the fusion system is designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards.

  7. Magnetized target fusion: An ultra high energy approach in an unexplored parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1994-12-31

    Magnetized target fusion is a concept that may lead to practical fusion applications in a variety of settings. However, the crucial first step is to demonstrate that it works as advertised. Among the possibilities for doing this is an ultrahigh energy approach to magnetized target fusion, one powered by explosive pulsed power generators that have become available for application to thermonuclear fusion research. In a collaborative effort between Los Alamos and the All-Russian Scientific Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) a very powerful helical generator with explosive power switching has been used to produce an energetic magnetized plasma. Several diagnostics have been fielded to ascertain the properties of this plasma. We are intensively studying the results of the experiments and calculationally analyzing the performance of this experiment.

  8. Proliferation risks of magnetic fusion energy: clandestine production, covert production and breakout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, A.; Goldston, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to weapon-usable materials can be divided into three main categories: (1) clandestine production of weapon-usable material in an undeclared facility, (2) covert production of such material in a declared facility and (3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper, we address each of these categories of risks from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if the fusion system is designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards.

  9. Geomorphic and Structural Analysis of the Verona-Williams-Pleasanton fault zone and implications for seismic hazard, eastern San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, T. L.; Unruh, J. R.; Hoirup, D. F.; Barry, G.; Pearce, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    . This newly recognized uplift has lateral dimensions comparable to those of the Verona homocline, but generally is centered on or near the inferred trace of the Pleasanton fault. The paleochannels record tectonic uplift of the newly recognized "Pleasanton" anticline (or homocline) and reveal approximately 5 km of north-northwest fold propagation during the late Quaternary. The geomorphic and structural relations in the southwestern Livermore Valley area suggest two end-member earthquake scenarios for the Verona and Williams faults: (1) the structures rupture separately as independent seismic sources; or (2) the faults merge downdip into a common fault plane, which is the primary seismic source and capable of generating larger earthquakes. We favor the second scenario for evaluating deterministic earthquake magnitude because independent rupture of the Verona or Williams fault would require an anomalous L:W rupture aspect ratio to break the entire seismogenic crust and produce the observed evidence for late Quaternary surface deformation.

  10. Evolution of fusion hindrance for asymmetric systems at deep sub-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.; Pandit, S. K.; Nanal, V.; Ichikawa, T.; Hagino, K.; Navin, A.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Parkar, V. V.; Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P. C.; Kumar, Abhinav; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of fusion cross-sections of 7Li and 12C with 198Pt at deep sub-barrier energies are reported to unravel the role of the entrance channel in the occurrence of fusion hindrance. The onset of fusion hindrance has been clearly observed in 12C +198Pt system but not in 7Li +198Pt system, within the measured energy range. Emergence of the hindrance, moving from lighter (6,7Li) to heavier (12C, 16O) projectiles is explained employing a model that considers a gradual transition from a sudden to adiabatic regime at low energies. The model calculation reveals a weak effect of the damping of coupling to collective motion for the present systems as compared to that obtained for systems with heavier projectiles.

  11. Calculation of free energy barriers to the fusion of small vesicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Schick, M

    2008-03-01

    The fusion of small vesicles, either with a planar bilayer or with one another, is studied using a microscopic model in which the bilayers are composed of hexagonal- and lamellar-forming amphiphiles. The free energy of the system is obtained within the self-consistent field approximation. We find that the free energy barrier to form the initial stalk is hardly affected by the radius of the vesicle, but that the barrier to expand the hemifusion diaphragm and form a fusion pore decreases rapidly as the radius decreases. As a consequence, once the initial barrier to stalk formation is overcome, one which we estimate at 13 k(B)T for biological membranes, fusion involving small vesicles should proceed with little or no further input of energy.

  12. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Reupke, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    The role of nuclear fission reactors in becoming an important power source in the world is discussed. The supply of fissile nuclear fuel will be severely depleted by the year 2000. With breeder reactors the world supply of uranium could last thousands of years. However, breeder reactors have problems of a large radioactive inventory and an accident potential which could present an unacceptable hazard. Although breeder reactors afford a possible solution to the energy shortage, their ultimate role will depend on demonstrated safety and acceptable risks and environmental effects. Fusion power would also be a long range, essentially permanent, solution to the world's energy problem. Fusion appears to compare favorably with breeders in safety and environmental effects. Research comparing a controlled fusion reactor with the breeder reactor in solving our long range energy needs is discussed.

  13. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-12-23

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs.

  14. Inertial fusion energy: A clearer view of the environmental and safety perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J.F.

    1996-11-01

    If fusion energy is to achieve its full potential for safety and environmental (S&E) advantages, the S&E characteristics of fusion power plant designs must be quantified and understood, and the resulting insights must be embodied in the ongoing process of development of fusion energy. As part of this task, the present work compares S&E characteristics of five inertial and two magnetic fusion power plant designs. For each design, a set of radiological hazard indices has been calculated with a system of computer codes and data libraries assembled for this purpose. These indices quantify the radiological hazards associated with the operation of fusion power plants with respect to three classes of hazard: accidents, occupational exposure, and waste disposal. The three classes of hazard have been qualitatively integrated to rank the best and worst fusion power plant designs with respect to S&E characteristics. From these rankings, the specific designs, and other S&E trends, design features that result in S&E advantages have been identified. Additionally, key areas for future fusion research have been identified. Specific experiments needed include the investigation of elemental release rates (expanded to include many more materials) and the verification of sequential charged-particle reactions. Improvements to the calculational methodology are recommended to enable future comparative analyses to represent more accurately the radiological hazards presented by fusion power plants. Finally, future work must consider economic effects. Trade-offs among design features will be decided not by S&E characteristics alone, but also by cost-benefit analyses. 118 refs., 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  15. Report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity for the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) has been prepared in response to a recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board that, ''Given the complex nature of the fusion effort, an integrated program planning process is an absolute necessity.'' We, therefore, undertook this activity in order to integrate the various elements of the program, to improve communication and performance accountability across the program, and to show the inter-connectedness and inter-dependency of the diverse parts of the national fusion energy sciences program. This report is based on the September 1999 Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (FESAC) report ''Priorities and Balance within the Fusion Energy Sciences Program''. In its December 5,2000, letter to the Director of the Office of Science, the FESAC has reaffirmed the validity of the September 1999 report and stated that the IPPA presents a framework and process to guide the achievement of the 5-year goals listed in the 1999 report. The National Research Council's (NRC) Fusion Assessment Committee draft final report ''An Assessment of the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Program'', reviewing the quality of the science in the program, was made available after the IPPA report had been completed. The IPPA report is, nevertheless, consistent with the recommendations in the NRC report. In addition to program goals and the related 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year objectives, this report elaborates on the scientific issues associated with each of these objectives. The report also makes clear the relationships among the various program elements, and cites these relationships as the reason why integrated program planning is essential. In particular, while focusing on the science conducted by the program, the report addresses the important balances between the science and energy goals of the program, between the MFE and IFE approaches, and between the domestic and international aspects

  16. Comparative study of fusion barriers using Skyrme interactions and the energy density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Torabi, F.

    2015-12-01

    Using different Skyrme interactions, we have carried out a comparative analysis of fusion barriers for a wide range of interacting nuclei in the framework of semiclassical Skyrme energy density formalism. The results of our calculations reveal that SVI, SII, and SIII Skyrme forces are able to reproduce the empirical values of barrier heights with higher accuracy than the other considered forces in this formalism. It is also shown that the calculated nucleus-nucleus potentials derived from such Skyrme interactions are able to explain the fusion cross sections at energies near and above the barrier.

  17. Study on the Feasibility of Direct Fusion Energy Conversion for Deep-Space Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G.; Miley, George H.; Scott, John H.

    2012-10-01

    A significant change in the current space mission capabilities can be achieved with a highly efficient integration of a fusion energy source with an advanced space propulsion thruster, both with low specific mass. With aneutronic nuclear fusion as the high-density primary energy source, this study considers first electric energy extraction from the fusion reaction products via direct energy conversion to recirculate power as required for the operation of the fusion core. Then the beam of remaining reaction products is conditioned to achieve the optimal thrust and specific impulse for the mission. The research is specifically focused on two key issues: (i) Efficiency improvement of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC, [1]) by achieving a higher ion beam density and optimization of the electrode coupling and of the neutralizing electron flow. (ii) A fast-particle kinetic energy-to-thrust conversion process based on collective interaction between ion bunches well separated in space [2]. Computer simulation results and a design for a basic physics experiment currently under development are reported. [4pt] [1] H. Momota et al., Fus. Tech., 35, 60(1999)[0pt] [2] A. G. Tarditi et al. Proc. NETS 2012 Conf., Woodlands, TX (2012)

  18. Sub-barrier fusion excitation function data and energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Manjeet Singh

    2016-07-01

    This paper analyzed the role of intrinsic degrees of freedom of colliding nuclei in the enhancement of sub-barrier fusion cross-section data of various heavy ion fusion reactions. The influences of inelastic surface vibrations of colliding pairs are found to be dominant and their couplings result in the significantly larger fusion enhancement over the predictions of the one dimensional barrier penetration model at sub-barrier energies. The theoretical calculations are performed by using energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model) in conjunction with the one dimensional Wong formula. The effects of dominant intrinsic channels are entertained within framework of the coupled channel calculations obtained by using the code CCFULL. It is quite interesting to note that the energy dependence in Woods-Saxon potential simulates the effects of inelastic surface vibrational states of reactants wherein significantly larger value of diffuseness parameter ranging from a = 0.85 fm to a = 0.95 fm is required to address the observed fusion excitation function data of the various heavy ion fusion reactions.

  19. Log-Gabor Energy Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion in NSCT Domain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Tong, Song; Huang, Shuying; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal medical image fusion is a powerful tool in clinical applications such as noninvasive diagnosis, image-guided radiotherapy, and treatment planning. In this paper, a novel nonsubsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT) based method for multimodal medical image fusion is presented, which is approximately shift invariant and can effectively suppress the pseudo-Gibbs phenomena. The source medical images are initially transformed by NSCT followed by fusing low- and high-frequency components. The phase congruency that can provide a contrast and brightness-invariant representation is applied to fuse low-frequency coefficients, whereas the Log-Gabor energy that can efficiently determine the frequency coefficients from the clear and detail parts is employed to fuse the high-frequency coefficients. The proposed fusion method has been compared with the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT), and the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) based image fusion methods and other NSCT-based methods. Visually and quantitatively experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion method can obtain more effective and accurate fusion results of multimodal medical images than other algorithms. Further, the applicability of the proposed method has been testified by carrying out a clinical example on a woman affected with recurrent tumor images. PMID:25214889

  20. Log-Gabor energy based multimodal medical image fusion in NSCT domain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Tong, Song; Huang, Shuying; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal medical image fusion is a powerful tool in clinical applications such as noninvasive diagnosis, image-guided radiotherapy, and treatment planning. In this paper, a novel nonsubsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT) based method for multimodal medical image fusion is presented, which is approximately shift invariant and can effectively suppress the pseudo-Gibbs phenomena. The source medical images are initially transformed by NSCT followed by fusing low- and high-frequency components. The phase congruency that can provide a contrast and brightness-invariant representation is applied to fuse low-frequency coefficients, whereas the Log-Gabor energy that can efficiently determine the frequency coefficients from the clear and detail parts is employed to fuse the high-frequency coefficients. The proposed fusion method has been compared with the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT), and the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) based image fusion methods and other NSCT-based methods. Visually and quantitatively experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion method can obtain more effective and accurate fusion results of multimodal medical images than other algorithms. Further, the applicability of the proposed method has been testified by carrying out a clinical example on a woman affected with recurrent tumor images. PMID:25214889

  1. Complete Fusion and Break-up Fusion Reactions in Light Ion Interactions at Low Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Foertsch, S. V.; Buthelezi, E. Z.; Fujita, H.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Dlamini, J.; Cowley, A. A.; Connell, S. H.

    2007-10-26

    Experimental spectra of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) produced in the interaction of two {sup 12}C ions at incident energy of 200 MeV and their reproduction by a binary fragmentation model and the Boltzmann Master Equation theory as implemented into the Monte Carlo transport and interaction code FLUKA are shown.

  2. Free Energy Landscape of Rim-Pore Expansion in Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Risselada, Herre Jelger; Smirnova, Yuliya; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The productive fusion pore in membrane fusion is generally thought to be toroidally shaped. Theoretical studies and recent experiments suggest that its formation, in some scenarios, may be preceded by an initial pore formed near the rim of the extended hemifusion diaphragm (HD), a rim-pore. This rim-pore is characterized by a nontoroidal shape that changes with size. To determine this shape as well as the free energy along the pathway of rim-pore expansion, we derived a simple analytical free energy model. We argue that dilation of HD material via expansion of a rim-pore is favored over a regular, circular pore. Further, the expanding rim-pore faces a free energy barrier that linearly increases with HD size. In contrast, the tension required to expand the rim-pore decreases with HD size. Pore flickering, followed by sudden opening, occurs when the tension in the HD competes with the line energy of the rim-pore, and the rim-pore reaches its equilibrium size before reaching the critical pore size. The experimental observation of flickering and closing fusion pores (kiss-and-run) is very well explained by the observed behavior of rim-pores. Finally, the free energy landscape of rim-pore expansion/HD dilation may very well explain why some cellular fusion reactions, in their attempt to minimize energetic costs, progress via alternative formation and dilation of microscopic hemifusion intermediates. PMID:25418297

  3. Impact of Energy Gain and Subsystem Characteristics on Fusion Propulsion Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Schmidt, G. R.

    2001-01-01

    Rapid transport of large payloads and human crews throughout the solar system requires propulsion systems having very high specific impulse (I(sub sp) > 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 5) s). It also calls for systems with extremely low mass-power ratios (alpha < 10(exp -1) kg/kW). Such low alpha are beyond the reach of conventional power-limited propulsion, but may be attainable with fusion and other nuclear concepts that produce energy within the propellant. The magnitude of energy gain must be large enough to sustain the nuclear process while still providing a high jet power relative to the massive energy-intensive subsystems associated with these concepts. This paper evaluates the impact of energy gain and subsystem characteristics on alpha. Central to the analysis are general parameters that embody the essential features of any 'gain-limited' propulsion power balance. Results show that the gains required to achieve alpha = 10(exp -1) kg/kW with foreseeable technology range from approximately 100 to over 2000, which is three to five orders of magnitude greater than current fusion state of the arL Sensitivity analyses point to the parameters exerting the most influence for either: (1) lowering a and improving mission performance or (2) relaxing gain requirements and reducing demands on the fusion process. The greatest impact comes from reducing mass and increasing efficiency of the thruster and subsystems downstream of the fusion process. High relative gain, through enhanced fusion processes or more efficient drivers and processors, is also desirable. There is a benefit in improving driver and subsystem characteristics upstream of the fusion process, but it diminishes at relative gains > 100.

  4. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  5. Comparison of mainline and alternate approaches to fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, Paul W.; Roth, J. Reece

    1985-02-01

    The tokamak and tandem mirror concepts are compared with alternate confinement concepts using the criteria established in DOE/ET-0047, “An Evaluation of Alternate Magnetic Fusion Concepts 1977.” The concepts are evaluated and rated in each of three broad categories: confidence in physics and technology, and reactor desirability. The STARFIRE and MARS reactors are used as a basis for comparing the mainline tokamak and tandem mirror concepts with the alternate concepts evaluated in DOE/ET-0047. Two recent alternate concepts, the ohmically heated toroidal experiment (OHTE) and the compact reversed field pinch reactor (CRFPR), are also evaluated. Results indicate that the physics of the mainline tokamaks and tandem mirrors is better understood than that of most alternate concepts. Both mainline concepts rank near the middle for technology requirements, and both rank near or at the bottom when compared with the reactor desirability of alternate concepts.

  6. Target Designs for an Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Driven by Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D A; Tabak, M

    2001-08-23

    We present two indirect drive inertial fusion targets driven by heavy ions beams for fusion energy production. Because there are uncertainties in the ion beam focal spot size and uncertainties in the accelerator cost, we have tried to design targets that cover a large parameter space. One of the designs requires small ion beam focal spots but produces more than adequate gain at low driver energy (gain 130 from 3.3 MJ of beam energy). The other design allows a large beam spot, but requires more driver energy (gain 55 from 6.7 MJ of beam energy). Target physics issues as well as the implications for the accelerator from each design are discussed.

  7. Application of Magnetized Target Fusion to High-Energy Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Schmidt, G. R.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most fusion propulsion concepts that have been investigated in the past employ some form of inertial or magnetic confinement. Although the prospective performance of these concepts is excellent, the fusion processes on which these concepts are based still require considerable development before they can be seriously considered for actual applications. Furthermore, these processes are encumbered by the need for sophisticated plasma and power handling systems that are generally quite inefficient and have historically resulted in large, massive spacecraft designs. Here we present a comparatively new approach, Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), which offers a nearer-term avenue for realizing the tremendous performance benefits of fusion propulsion'. The key advantage of MTF is its less demanding requirements for driver energy and power processing. Additional features include: 1) very low system masses and volumes, 2) high gain and relatively low waste heat, 3) substantial utilization of energy from product neutrons, 4) efficient, low peak-power drivers based on existing pulsed power technology, and 5) very high Isp, specific power and thrust. MTF overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional fusion techniques, thus making it particularly attractive for space applications. Isp greater than 50,000 seconds and specific powers greater than 50 kilowatts/kilogram appear feasible using relatively near-term pulse power and plasma gun technology.

  8. Fusion cross sections for {sup 6,7}Li + {sup 24}Mg reactions at energies below and above the barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Pradhan, M. K.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, M. Saha; Dasmahapatra, B.

    2008-12-15

    Measurement of fusion cross sections for the {sup 6,7}Li + {sup 24}Mg reactions by the characteristic {gamma}-ray method has been done at energies from below to well above the respective Coulomb barriers. The fusion cross sections obtained from these {gamma}-ray cross sections for the two systems are found to agree well with the total reaction cross sections at low energies. The relatively large difference between total cross sections and measured fusion cross sections at higher energies is consistent with the fact that other channels, in particular breakup, open up with an increase of bombarding energy. The breakup channel, however, appears not to have any influence on fusion cross sections. The critical angular momenta (l{sub cr}) deduced from the fusion cross sections are found to have an energy dependence similar to other Li-induced reactions.

  9. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  10. Magnetized Target Fusion and Prospects for Truly Low-Cost Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Richard E.

    1998-04-01

    As the world population grows, and standards of living improve, the demand for energy will increase considerably. At the same time, the importance of shifting away from burning fossil fuel and reducing emissions of CO2 is becoming widely recognized. Many technologies are possible in principle, but nuclear fission or nuclear fusion are among the more promising. Fission is technically well established, continues to be improved in its economics, reliability and safety, and in this speaker's opinion is bound to play a major role. Fusion is generally viewed as a long shot that remains to be proven technically. Not everyone realizes that fusion tokamak devices studied around the world have demonstrated impressive scientific advances. In recent years, tokamaks TFTR at Princeton and JET at Culham have come close to demonstrating energy break even. Some recent tokamak data will be described. The main problem with the tokamak is that it must operate with a very large unit size (many Gigawatts) for well-understood fundamental reasons. Consequently, tokamak cost of development is high, even invoking international collaborations to build future facilities such as the proposed 10-billion dollar International Thermonuclear Tokamak Reactor. An exciting alternative approach to fusion being examined at Los Alamos in collaboration with LLNL, SNL, AFRL, GA, PPPL, and other institutions is called Magnetized Target Fusion. The basic idea is to burn a small amount of DT fuel in a short very-high-pressure pulse. The 14-MeV neutrons produced by the fusion reactions could then be used to flash heat a blanket of lithium or lithium-containing material to a temperature of 10,000 to 20,000 degrees Kelvin. The vaporized neutron-absorbing blanket thus becomes a hot working fluid, which can be used to create electricity by passing it through a magnetohydrodynamic generator. Estimates of the capital cost for such a system are even lower than for fission reactors, suggesting 2-cent

  11. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility

  12. Structure and energy of fusion stalks: the role of membrane edges.

    PubMed Central

    May, Sylvio

    2002-01-01

    Fusion of lipid bilayers proceeds via a sequence of distinct structural transformations. Its early stage involves a localized, hemifused intermediate in which the proximal but not yet the distal monolayers are connected. Whereas the so-called stalk model most successfully accounts for the properties of the hemifused intermediate, there is still uncertainty about its microscopic structure and energy. We reanalyze fusion stalks using the theory of membrane elasticity. In our calculations, a short (cylindrical micelle-like) tether connects the two proximal monolayers of the hemifused membranes. The shape of the stalk and the length of the tether are calculated such as to minimize the overall free energy and to avoid the formation of voids within the hydrocarbon core. Our free energy expression is based on three internal degrees of freedom of a perturbed lipid layer: thickness, splay, and tilt deformations. Based on exactly the same model, we compare fusion stalks with and without the ability included to form sharp edges at the interfacial region between the hydrocarbon core and the polar environment. Requiring the interface to be smooth everywhere, our detailed calculations recover previous results: the stalk energies are far too high to account for the experimental observation of fusion intermediates. However, if we allow the interface to be nonsmooth, we find a remarkable reduction of the stalk free energy down to more realistic values. The corresponding structure of a nonsmooth stalk exhibits sharp edges at the transition regions between the bilayer and tether parts. In addition to that, a corner is formed at each of the two distal monolayers. We discuss the mechanism how membrane edges reduce the energy of fusion stalks. PMID:12496070

  13. Theory and modeling of radiation effects in materials for fusion energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1996-04-01

    The U.S./Japan Workshop on Theory and Modeling of Radiation Effects in Materials for Fusion Energy Systems, under Phase III of the DOE/Monbusho collaboration, convened on July 17-18, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A brief summary of the workshop is followed by the workshop program.

  14. Fusion burn equilibria sensitive to the ratio between energy and helium transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobs, Merlijn; Lopes Cardozo, Niek; Jaspers, Roger

    2014-12-01

    An analysis of the burn equilibria of fusion reactors of the tokamak family is presented. The global (zero-dimensional) analysis is self-consistent in that it takes into account the dependence of the energy confinement on the variables of the burning plasma, such as temperature and density. Universal burn contours are presented for a selection of commonly used scaling laws for energy confinement. It is shown that the output power of a fusion reactor is to good approximation inversely proportional to the particle confinement time, due to the choking effect of the accumulation of helium, the ash of the fusion reaction. It is further shown that, whereas a fusion reactor requires a minimum energy confinement time to ignite, the output power reaches a maximum for an energy confinement that lies about 30% above this minimum. Further improvement of confinement will lower the output, although in some cases the β limit will be the limiting factor. Given that for maximum performance density the confinement and fuel mix are best chosen to be optimal, the particle confinement is proposed as an attractive parameter for burn control.

  15. TIMELY DELIVERY OF LASER INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, A M

    2010-11-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A key goal of the NIF is to demonstrate fusion ignition for the first time in the laboratory. Its flexibility allows multiple target designs (both indirect and direct drive) to be fielded, offering substantial scope for optimization of a robust target design. In this paper we discuss an approach to generating gigawatt levels of electrical power from a laser-driven source of fusion neutrons based on these demonstration experiments. This 'LIFE' concept enables rapid time-to-market for a commercial power plant, assuming success with ignition and a technology demonstration program that links directly to a facility design and construction project. The LIFE design makes use of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology. It adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units utilized on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. A demonstration LIFE plant based on these design principles is described, along with the areas of technology development required prior to plant construction. A goal-oriented, evidence-based approach has been proposed to allow LIFE power plant rollout on a time scale that meets policy imperatives and is consistent with utility planning horizons. The system-level delivery builds from our prior national investment over many decades and makes full use of the distributed capability in laser technology, the ubiquity of semiconductor diodes, high volume manufacturing markets, and U.S. capability in fusion science and nuclear engineering. The LIFE approach is based on the ignition evidence emerging from NIF and adopts a line-replaceable unit approach to ensure high plant availability and to allow evolution from available technologies and materials. Utilization of a proven physics platform for the ignition

  16. Analysis of the role of neutron transfer in asymmetric fusion reactions at subbarrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogloblin, A. A.; Zhang, H. Q.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Kuzmin, E. A.; Danilov, A. N.; Demyanova, A. S.; Trzaska, W. H.; Xu, X. X.; Yang, F.; Sargsyan, V. V. Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2015-12-15

    The excitation functions were measured for the {sup 28}Si + {sup 208}Pb complete-fusion (capture) reaction at deep subbarrier energies. The results were compared with the cross sections predicted within the quantum diffusion approach. The role of neutron transfer in the case of positive Q values in the {sup 28}Si + {sup 124}Sn, {sup 208}Pb; {sup 30}Si + {sup 124}Sn, {sup 208}Pb; {sup 20}Ne + {sup 208}Pb; {sup 40}Ca + {sup 96}Zr; and {sup 134}Te + {sup 40}Ca complete-fusion (capture) reactions is discussed.

  17. Fusion energy in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using a magnetically shielded grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hedditch, John Bowden-Reid, Richard Khachan, Joe

    2015-10-15

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented, which shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations.

  18. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  19. The attitudes of science policy, environmental, and utility leaders on US energy issues and fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1986-11-01

    One example of basic and applied research at LLNL that has produced major, highly visible scientific and engineering advances has been the research related to controlled fusion energy. Continuing experimentation at LLNL and elsewhere is likely to demonstrate that fusion is a viable, inexhaustible alternative source of energy. Having conducted major fusion energy experiments for over 30 years at LLNL, it scientists and engineers recognized the enormous challenges that lay ahead in this important endeavor. To be successful, it was clear that collaborative efforts with universities, private industry, and other national laboratories would need to be greatly expanded. Along with invention and scientific discovery would come the challenge of transferring the myriad of new technologies from the laboratories to the private sector for commercialization of the fusion energy process and the application of related technologies to yet unimagined new industries and products. Therefore, using fusion energy research as the focus, the Laboratory's Technology Transfer Initiatives Program contracted with the Public Opinion Laboratory to conduct a survey designed to promote a better understanding of effective technology transfer. As one of the recognized authorities on scientific surveys, Dr. Jon Miller of the POL worked with Laboratory scientists to understand the objectives of the survey. He then formulated the questions, designed the survey, and derived his survey sample from a qualified list developed at the POL, which has formed the basis for other survey panels. This report, prepared by Dr. Miller, describes the basis and methodology of this survey process and then presents the survey findings and some conclusions. 12 refs., 28 tabs.

  20. Some Simple Arguments about Cost Externalization and its Relevance to the Price of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.; Winfree, R.

    1999-09-27

    The primary goal of fusion energy research is to develop a source of energy that is less harmful to the environment than are the present sources. A concern often expressed by critics of fusion research is that fusion energy will never be economically competitive with fossil fuels, which in 1997 provided 75% of the world's energy. And in fact, studies of projected fusion electricity generation generally project fusion costs to be higher than those of conventional methods. Yet it is widely agreed that the environmental costs of fossil fuel use are high. Because these costs aren't included in the market price, and furthermore because many governments subsidize fossil fuel production, fossil fuels seem less expensive than they really are. Here we review some simple arguments about cost externalization which provide a useful background for discussion of energy prices. The collectively self-destructive behavior that is the root of many environmental problems, including fossil fuel use, was termed ''the tragedy of the commons'' by the biologist G. Hardin. Hardin's metaphor is that of a grazing commons that is open to all. Each herdsman, in deciding whether to add a cow to his herd, compares the benefit of doing so, which accrues to him alone, to the cost, which is shared by all the herdsmen using the commons, and therefore adds his cow. In this way individually rational behavior leads to the collective destruction of the shared resource. As Hardin pointed out, pollution is one kind of tragedy of the commons. CO{sub 2} emissions and global warming are in this sense classic tragedies.

  1. The Path to Fusion Energy for Concepts Currently at the Concept Exploration Level

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E B

    2003-01-09

    Concept Exploration (CE) experiments within the Innovative Confinement Concept Program have a unique role which impacts their contributions to the development of fusion energy. As stated in the FESAC ''Report on Alternate Concepts:'' These [CE] programs are aimed at innovation and basic understanding of relevant scientific phenomena. The emphasis on innovation motivates their application to the search for a better fusion reactor configuration. In addition, because of their unique character the CE experiments offer excellent opportunities to couple fusion-plasma physics to other sciences. A recent example of coupling is the fusion self-organized plasmas to reconnection physics and extra-terrestrial plasmas. Perhaps of even greater importance is the education of the future scientists needed for developing fusion energy. The CE experiments, both at universities and national labs, are of a size students can ''get their hands around;'' young scientists and engineers will be attracted by this intellectual challenge combined with the vision of low-pollution energy for mankind represented by a burning-plasma experiment. A CE concept showing promise for fusion energy is expected to advance to the Proof-of-Principal stage. Experience has shown that this progression may occur in several ways: NSTX followed from success in START, a CE-level experiment in England; NCSX built on a broad base of theory and a strong international stellarator data base, without a CE experiment to test quasi-axisymmetry; and MST is following an upgrade path from the CE experiment of the same name. The lesson to be learned is a highly positive one, namely that the portfolio approach--with its five stages of development--is being applied in a flexible and pragmatic manner without artificial constraints from strategic planning. This lesson also makes it clear that as we move towards the development of fusion energy we need to determine the best way forward for each promising configuration, taking

  2. Sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the density dependence of the symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Umar, A. S.; Stevenson, P. D.; Piekarewicz, J.; Oberacker, V. E.; Maruhn, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    Background: The study of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) and the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions is crucial to our understanding of many nuclear and astrophysical phenomena. Nuclear reactions serve as one of the means for studying the EOS. Purpose: It is the aim of this paper to discuss the impact of nuclear fusion on the EOS. This is a timely subject given the expected availability of increasingly exotic beams at rare isotope facilities [A. B. Balantekin et al., Mod. Phys. Lett. A 29, 1430010 (2014), 10.1142/S0217732314300109]. In practice, we focus on 48Ca+48Ca fusion. Method: We employ three different approaches to calculate fusion cross sections for a set of energy density functionals with systematically varying nuclear matter properties. Fusion calculations are performed using frozen densities, using a dynamic microscopic method based on density-constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) approach, as well as direct TDHF study of above barrier cross sections. For these studies, we employ a family of Skyrme parametrizations with systematically varied nuclear matter properties. Results: The folding-potential model provides a reasonable first estimate of cross sections. DC-TDHF, which includes dynamical polarization, reduces the fusion barriers and delivers much better cross sections. Full TDHF near the barrier agrees nicely with DC-TDHF. Most of the Skyrme forces which we used deliver, on the average, fusion cross sections in good agreement with the data. Trying to read off a trend in the results, we find a slight preference for forces which deliver a slope of symmetry energy of L ≈50 MeV that corresponds to a neutron-skin thickness of 48Ca of Rskin=(0.180 -0.210 ) fm. Conclusions: Fusion reactions in the barrier and sub-barrier region can be a tool to study the EOS and the neutron skin of nuclei. The success of the approach will depend on reduced experimental uncertainties of fusion data as well as the development of fusion

  3. Understanding of Edge Plasmas in Magnetic Fusion Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rognlien, T

    2004-11-01

    A limited overview is given of the theoretical understanding of edge plasmas in fusion devices. This plasma occupies the thin region between the hot core plasma and material walls in magnetically confinement configurations. The region is often formed by a change in magnetic topology from close magnetic field lines (i.e., the core region) and open field lines that contact material surfaces (i.e., the scrape-off layer [SOL]), with the most common example being magnetically diverted tokamaks. The physics of this region is determined by the interaction of plasma with neutral gas in the presence of plasma turbulence, with impurity radiation being an important component. Recent advances in modeling strong, intermittent micro-turbulent edge-plasma transport is given, and the closely coupled self-consistent evolution of the edge-plasma profiles in tokamaks. In addition, selected new results are given for the characterization of edge-plasmas behavior in the areas of edge-pedestal relaxation and SOL transport via Edge-Localize Modes (ELMs), impurity formation including dust, and magnetic field-line stochasticity in tokamaks.

  4. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

  5. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st century: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1991-08-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed, and the energy source of their accomplishment investigated. The missions included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous missions with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing missions where delta v requirements range from 90 km/sec to 30,000 km/sec (High Energy Space Mission) were investigated. The need to develop a power space of this magnitude is a key issue to address if the U.S. civil space program is to continue to advance as mandated by the National Space Policy. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electrical power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Additionally, fusion energy can offer significant safety, environmental, economic, and operational advantages. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified. A strategy that will produce fusion powered vehicles as part of the space transportation infrastructure was developed. Space program resources must be directed toward this issue as a matter of the top policy priority.

  6. Progress Towards the Development of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter for Aneutronic Fusion Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarditi, A. G.; Chap, A.; Wolinsky, J.; Scott, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and theory/simulation effort has been carried out to investigate the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), a scheme that has been proposed in the past for the direct conversion into electricity of the kinetic energy of an ion beam generated from fusion reactions. This effort has been focused in particular on the TWDEC process in the high density beam regime, thus accounting for the ion beam expansion due to its space charge.

  7. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 5: Conclusions and recomendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Air pollution resulting from the use of fossil fuels is discussed. Phenomena relating to the emission of CO2 such as the greenhouse effect and multiplier effect are explored. Particulate release is also discussed. The following recommendations are made for the elimination of fossil fuel combustion products in the United States: development of nuclear breeder reactors, use of solar energy systems, exploration of energy alternatives such as geothermal and fusion, and the substitution of coal for gas and oil use.

  8. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st century: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed, and the energy source of their accomplishment investigated. The missions included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous missions with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing missions where delta v requirements range from 90 km/sec to 30,000 km/sec (High Energy Space Mission) were investigated. The need to develop a power space of this magnitude is a key issue to address if the U.S. civil space program is to continue to advance as mandated by the National Space Policy. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electrical power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Additionally, fusion energy can offer significant safety, environmental, economic, and operational advantages. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified. A strategy that will produce fusion powered vehicles as part of the space transportation infrastructure was developed. Space program resources must be directed toward this issue as a matter of the top policy priority.

  9. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

  10. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.; Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H.

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or ``drive`` inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology.

  11. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S. ); Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H. (Lawrence Liver

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive'' inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology.

  12. Laser glass: a key material in the search for fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J H

    1999-06-02

    Nuclear fusion is the energy source that powers the sun. For more than four decades man has sought to develop this essentially inexhaustible, clean power source for use on earth. Unfortunately the conditions needed to initiate fusion are daunting; the nuclear fuel, consisting of isotopes of hydrogen, must be heated to temperatures in excess of 100,000,000 C and maintained at that temperature long enough for the nuclear fuel to ignite and burn. Lasers are being used as one of the tools to achieve these conditions. The best lasers for this work are those that derive their energy from a unique set of optical glasses called laser glasses. The work to develop, manufacture and test these glasses has involved a partnership between university and industry that has spanned more than 25 years. During this time lasers used in fusion development have grown from small systems that could fit on the top of a table to systems currently under construction that are approximately the size of a municipal sports stadium. A brief historical and anecdotal account of the development of laser glasses for fusion energy research applications is the subject of the presentation.

  13. Measurement of the fusion excitation function for 19O + 12C at near barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Varinderjit; Steinbach, T. K.; Vadas, J.; Wiggins, B. B.; Hudan, S.; Desouza, R. T.; Baby, L. T.; Tripathi, V.; Kuvin, S. A.; Wiedenhover, I.

    2015-10-01

    Fusion of neutron-rich light nuclei in the outer crust of an accreting neutron star has been proposed as responsible for triggering X-ray super-bursts. The underlying hypothesis in this proposition is that the fusion of neutron-rich nuclei is enhanced as compared to stable nuclei. To investigate this hypothesis, an experiment has been performed to measure the fusion excitation function for 18O and 19O nuclei incident on a 12C target. A beam of 19O was produced by the 18O(d,p) reaction at Florida State University and separated using the RESOLUT mass spectrometer. The resulting 19O beam bombarded a 100 μg/cm2 12C target at an intensity of 2-4 × 103 p/s. Evaporation residues resulting from the de-excitation of the fusion product were distinguished by measuring their energy and time-of-flight. Using silicon detectors, micro-channel plate detectors, and an ionization chamber, evaporation residues were detected in the angular range θlab <= 23° with high efficiency. Initial experimental results including measurement of the fusion cross-section to approximately the 100 mb level will be presented. The measured excitation function will be compared to theoretical predictions. Supported by the US DOE under Grand No. DEFG02-88ER-40404.

  14. Energy Logic (EL): a novel fusion engine of multi-modality multi-agent data/information fusion for intelligent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2009-04-01

    The rapidly advancing hardware technology, smart sensors and sensor networks are advancing environment sensing. One major potential of this technology is Large-Scale Surveillance Systems (LS3) especially for, homeland security, battlefield intelligence, facility guarding and other civilian applications. The efficient and effective deployment of LS3 requires addressing number of aspects impacting the scalability of such systems. The scalability factors are related to: computation and memory utilization efficiency, communication bandwidth utilization, network topology (e.g., centralized, ad-hoc, hierarchical or hybrid), network communication protocol and data routing schemes; and local and global data/information fusion scheme for situational awareness. Although, many models have been proposed to address one aspect or another of these issues but, few have addressed the need for a multi-modality multi-agent data/information fusion that has characteristics satisfying the requirements of current and future intelligent sensors and sensor networks. In this paper, we have presented a novel scalable fusion engine for multi-modality multi-agent information fusion for LS3. The new fusion engine is based on a concept we call: Energy Logic. Experimental results of this work as compared to a Fuzzy logic model strongly supported the validity of the new model and inspired future directions for different levels of fusion and different applications.

  15. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for Energy Density Physics Applicationsand Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan D.A.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Celata, C.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Debonnel, C.S.; Grote, D.P.; Efthimiom, P.C.; Eylon, S.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich,I.D.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, W.W.; Leitner, M.; Lund, S.M.; Meier,W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.L.; Penn, G.E.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Rose,D.V.; Sefkow, A.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Startsev, E.A.; Tabak, M.; Thoma, C.; Vay, J-L; Wadron, W.L.; Wurtele, J.S.; Welch, D.R.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    2005-09-01

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  16. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  17. Bearing fault identification by higher order energy operator fusion: A non-resonance based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghidi, H.; Liang, M.

    2016-10-01

    We report a non-resonance based approach to bearing fault detection. This is achieved by a higher order energy operator fusion (HOEO_F) method. In this method, multiple higher order energy operators are fused to form a single simple transform to process the bearing signal obscured by noise and vibration interferences. The fusion is guided by entropy minimization. Unlike the popular high frequency resonance technique, this method does not require the information of resonance excited by the bearing fault. The effects of the HOEO_F method on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) are illustrated in this paper. The performance of the proposed method in handling noise and interferences has been examined using both simulated and experimental data. The results indicate that the HOEO_F method outperforms both the envelope method and the original energy operator method.

  18. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  19. Recent advances and challenges for diode-pumped solid-state lasers as an inertial fusion energy driver candidate

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.A.; Beach, R.J.; Bibeau, C.

    1997-12-23

    We discuss how solid-state laser technology can serve in the interests of fusion energy beyond the goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is now being constructed to ignite a deuterium-tritium target to fusion conditions in the laboratory for the first time. We think that advanced solid-state laser technology can offer the repetition-rate and efficiency needed to drive a fusion power plant, in contrast to the single-shot character of NIF. As discuss below, we propose that a gas-cooled, diode-pumped Yb:S-FAP laser can provide a new paradigm for fusion laser technology leading into the next century.

  20. Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the sup 28 Si+ sup 28 Si reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Gosdin, C.H.; Trotter, R.S. ); Kovar, D.G.; Beck, C.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Wilkins, B.D.; Rosner, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Ikezoe, H.; Kuhn, W. ); Kolata, J.J.; Hinnefeld, J.D. ); Maguire, C.F. ); Mateja, J.F. ); Prosser, F.W. ); Stephans, G.S.F. )

    1990-03-01

    Velocity distributions of mass-identified evaporation residues produced in the {sup 28}Si+{sup 28}Si reaction have been measured at bombarding energies of 174, 215, 240, 309, 397, and 452 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. These distributions were used to identify evaporation residues and to separate the complete-fusion and incomplete-fusion components. Angular distributions and total cross sections were extracted at all six bombarding energies. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with lower energy data and the predictions of existing models.

  1. Fusion Energy: How to realize it sooner. And with less risk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethian, John; Obenschain, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    We submit the following prescription to successfully develop fusion energy:1) Encourage competition and innovation. These are the seeds for breakthroughs. Selecting one approach at this stage is too risky.2) Pursue coherent ``complete'' programs to develop the science and technology in concert with one another.3) Make the ``end product'' of an attractive energy plant a criteria to evaluate merit.4) Set clear goals so the criteria for redirecting/ stopping the program are unambiguous.5) Reward approaches that minimize the investment needed to test the science and technology.Against this background, we offer Fusion Energy with lasers and direct drive targets. Recent pellet designs suggest meaningful gains (20-60) with KrF laser energies of 500 kJ. Based on this we proposed a staged program to build the Fusion Test Facility [1]. The FTF will demonstrate the target physics and key technologies, and be flexible to accommodate advances in chambers, optics, and target physics. It would also lay the groundwork for a power plant.[1] S.P. Obenschain, et al, ``Pathway to a lower cost high repetition rate ignition facility'' Accepted in Physics of Plasmas

  2. Effective Parameters on Energy Losses of Fast Electron in Fusion Mediums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, M.; S. F., Ghazizadeh

    2013-10-01

    The stopping and scattering of fast electrons in a dense plasma relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) are investigated numerically with the latest improved cross section equations. Binary and collective effects are considered to determine beam transport parameters such as range, penetration depth, spreading processes as straggling and blooming versus electron energy and plasma parameters. Blooming and straggling effects, which act as consequences of scattering with statistical assumption in collisions, lead to a non-uniform, extended region of energy deposition. Finally the mean angle of deflections is calculated for different plasma energies.

  3. The Mercury Project: A High Average Power, Gas-Cooled Laser For Inertial Fusion Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A; Armstrong, P; Ault, E; Beach, R; Bibeau, C; Caird, J; Campbell, R; Chai, B; Dawson, J; Ebbers, C; Erlandson, A; Fei, Y; Freitas, B; Kent, R; Liao, Z; Ladran, T; Menapace, J; Molander, B; Payne, S; Peterson, N; Randles, M; Schaffers, K; Sutton, S; Tassano, J; Telford, S; Utterback, E

    2006-11-03

    Hundred-joule, kilowatt-class lasers based on diode-pumped solid-state technologies, are being developed worldwide for laser-plasma interactions and as prototypes for fusion energy drivers. The goal of the Mercury Laser Project is to develop key technologies within an architectural framework that demonstrates basic building blocks for scaling to larger multi-kilojoule systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications. Mercury has requirements that include: scalability to IFE beamlines, 10 Hz repetition rate, high efficiency, and 10{sup 9} shot reliability. The Mercury laser has operated continuously for several hours at 55 J and 10 Hz with fourteen 4 x 6 cm{sup 2} ytterbium doped strontium fluoroapatite (Yb:S-FAP) amplifier slabs pumped by eight 100 kW diode arrays. The 1047 nm fundamental wavelength was converted to 523 nm at 160 W average power with 73% conversion efficiency using yttrium calcium oxy-borate (YCOB).

  4. Estimated heats of fusion of fluoride salt mixtures suitable for thermal energy storage applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 973 K were estimated from a coupled analysis of the available thermodynamic data and phase diagrams. Simple binary eutectic systems with and without terminal solid solutions, binary eutectics with congruent melting intermediate phases, and ternary eutectic systems were considered. Several combinations of salts were identified, most notable the eutectics LiF-22CaF2 and NaF-60MgF2 which melt at 1039 and 1273 K respectively which posses relatively high heats of fusion/gm (greater than 0.7 kJ/g). Such systems would seemingly be ideal candidates for the light weight, high energy storage media required by the thermal energy storage unit in advanced solar dynamic power systems envisioned for the future space missions.

  5. Inertial fusion energy development approaches for direct and indirect-drive

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Lindl, J.D.; Meier, W.R.

    1996-08-20

    Consideration of different driver and target requirements for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants together with the potential energy gains of direct and indirect-drive targets leads to different optimal combinations of driver and target options for each type of target. In addition, different fusion chamber concepts are likely to be most compatible with these different driver and target combinations. For example, heavy-ion drivers appear to be well matched to indirect=drive targets with all-liquid-protected-wall chambers requiring two-sided illuminations, while diode-pumped, solid- state laser drivers are better matched to direct-drive targets with chambers using solid walls or flow-guiding structures to allow spherically symmetric illuminations. R&D on the critical issues of drivers, targets, and chambers for both direct and indirect-drive options should be pursued until the ultimate gain of either type of target for IFE is better understood.

  6. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Abbott, R; Beach, R; Blink, J; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; MacIntyre, A; Miles, R; Storm, E

    2008-10-02

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R&D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost.

  7. Systems modeling and analysis of heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.

    1998-06-03

    A computer model for systems analysis of heavy ion drivers based on induction linac technology has been used to evaluate driver designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Design parameters and estimated costs have been determined for drivers with various ions, different charge states, different front-end designs, with and without beam merging, and various pulse compression and acceleration schedules. We have examined the sensitivity of the results to variations in component cost assumptions, design constraints, and selected design parameters

  8. Inertial Fusion and High-Energy-Density Science in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tarter, C B

    2001-09-06

    Inertial fusion and high-energy density science worldwide is poised to take a great leap forward. In the US, programs at the University of Rochester, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Naval Research Laboratory, and many smaller laboratories have laid the groundwork for building a facility in which fusion ignition can be studied in the laboratory for the first time. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is being built by the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Agency to provide an experimental test bed for the US Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) to ensure the dependability of the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. NIF and other large laser systems being planned such as the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) in France will also make important contributions to basic science, the development of inertial fusion energy, and other scientific and technological endeavors. NIF will be able to produce extreme temperatures and pressures in matter. This will allow simulating astrophysical phenomena (on a tiny scale) and measuring the equation of state of material under conditions that exist in planetary cores.

  9. Ignition on the National Ignition Facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Edward I.

    2009-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF, a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility, will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of light at the third-harmonic, ultraviolet light of 351 nm. The NIF project is scheduled for completion in March 2009. Currently, all 192 beams have been operationally qualified and have produced over 4.0 MJ of light at the fundamental wavelength of 1053 nm, making NIF the world's first megajoule laser. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and for broader scientific applications. The plan is to begin 96-beam symmetric indirect-drive ICF experiments early in FY2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). This national effort to achieve fusion ignition is coordinated through a detailed plan that includes the science, technology and equipment such as diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator and user optics required for ignition experiments. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational and integrated into the facility soon after project completion and to conduct a credible ignition campaign in 2010. When the NIF is complete, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustaining nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory will be much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of inertial fusion energy (IFE) and will likely focus

  10. A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Storm, E; Latkowski, J; Farmer, J; Abbott, R; Kramer, K; Peterson, P; Shaw, H; Lehman II, R

    2009-05-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, will soon be completed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in 2010, using laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 35 MJ are expected soon thereafter. They propose that a laser system capable of generating fusion yields of 35 to 75 MJ at 10 to 15 Hz (i.e., {approx} 350- to 1000-MW fusion and {approx} 1.3 to 3.6 x 10{sup 20} n/s), coupled to a compact subdritical fission blanket, could be used to generate several GW of thermal power (GWth) while avoiding carbon dioxide emissions, mitigating nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizing the concerns associated with nuclear safety and long-term nuclear waste disposition. this Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) based system is a logical extension of the NIF laser and the yields expec ted from the early ignition experiments on NIF. The LIFE concept is a once-through,s elf-contained closed fuel cycle and would have the following characteristics: (1) eliminate the need for spent fuel chemical separation facilities; (4) maintain the fission blanket subcritical at all times (k{sub eff} < 0.90); and (5) minimize future requirements for deep underground geological waste repositories and minimize actinide content in the end-of-life nuclear waste below the Department of Energy's (DOE's) attractiveness Level E (the lowest). Options to burn natural or depleted U, Th, U/Th mixtures, Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) without chemical separations of weapons-attractive actinide streams, and excess weapons Pu or highly enriched U (HEU) are possible and under consideration. Because the fission blanket is always subcritical and decay heat removal is possible via passive mechanisms, the technology is inherently safe. Many technical challenges must be met, but a LIFE solution

  11. Fusion of Si28+Si28,30: Different trends at sub-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnoli, G.; Stefanini, A. M.; Esbensen, H.; Jiang, C. L.; Corradi, L.; Courtin, S.; Fioretto, E.; Grebosz, J.; Haas, F.; Jia, H. M.; Mazzocco, M.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mijatović, T.; Montanari, D.; Parascandolo, C.; Scarlassara, F.; Strano, E.; Szilner, S.; Torresi, D.

    2014-10-01

    Background: The fusion excitation function of the system Si28+Si28 at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier is known only down to ≃15 mb. This precludes any information on both coupling effects on sub-barrier cross sections and the possible appearance of hindrance. For Si28+Si30 even if the fusion cross section is measured down to ≃50 μb, the evidence of hindrance is marginal. Both systems have positive fusion Q values. While Si28 has a deformed oblate shape, Si30 is spherical. Purpose: We investigate 1. the possible influence of the different structure of the two Si isotopes on the fusion excitation functions in the deep sub-barrier region and 2. whether hindrance exists in the Si+Si systems and whether it is strong enough to generate an S-factor maximum, thus allowing a comparison with lighter heavy-ion systems of astrophysical interest. Methods: Si28 beams from the XTU Tandem accelerator of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro were used. The setup was based on an electrostatic beam separator, and fusion evaporation residues (ER) were detected at very forward angles. Angular distributions of ER were measured. Results: Fusion cross sections of Si28+Si28 have been obtained down to ≃600 nb. The slope of the excitation function has a clear irregularity below the barrier, but no indication of a S-factor maximum is found. For Si28+Si30 the previous data have been confirmed and two smaller cross sections have been measured down to ≃4 μb. The trend of the S-factor reinforces the previous weak evidence of hindrance. Conclusions: The sub-barrier cross sections for Si28+Si28 are overestimated by coupled-channels calculations based on a standard Woods-Saxon potential, except for the lowest energies. Calculations using the M3Y+repulsion potential are adjusted to fit the Si28+Si28 and the existing Si30+Si30 data. An additional weak imaginary potential (probably simulating the effect of the oblate Si28 deformation) is required to fit the low-energy trend of

  12. Fusion Simulation Project. Workshop Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Rockville, MD, May 16-18, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Kritz, A.; Keyes, D.

    2007-05-18

    The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved forty-six physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from twenty-one institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a three-day workshop in May 2007.

  13. Fusion Simulation Project. Workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Rockville, MD, May 16-18, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2007-05-16

    The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved forty-six physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from twenty-one institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a three-day workshop in May 2007.

  14. The National Ignition Facility and the Promise of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I

    2010-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational. The NIF is the world's most energetic laser system capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in planetary interiors and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, the first integrated ignition experiment was conducted, demonstrating the successful coordination of the laser, cryogenic target system, array of diagnostics and infrastructure required for ignition demonstration. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and international communities are examining the implication of NIF ignition for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a laser with 10% electrical-optical efficiency, as well as further development and advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in the 10- to 15-year time frame. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) concept and examining in detail various technology choices, as well as the advantages of both pure fusion and fusion-fission schemes. This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF and the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition. The paper will conclude with a discussion about the need to build on the progress on NIF to develop an implementable and effective plan to achieve the promise of LIFE as a source of carbon-free energy.

  15. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-02-23

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  16. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  17. Novel, spherically-convergent ion systems for neutron source and fusion energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. C.; Nebel, R. A.; Ribe, F. L.; Schauer, M. M.; Schranck, L. S.; Umstadter, K. R.

    1999-06-01

    Combining spherical convergence with electrostatic or electro-magnetostatic confinement of a nonneutral plasma offers the possibility of high fusion gain in a centimeter-sized system. The physics principles, scaling laws, and experimental embodiments of this approach are presented. Steps to development of this approach from its present proof-of-principle experiments to a useful fusion power reactor are outlined. This development path is much less expensive and simpler, compared to that for conventional magnetic confinement and leads to different and useful products at each stage. Reactor projections show both high mass power density and low to moderate wall loading. This approach is being tested experimentally in PFX-I (Penning Fusion eXperiment-Ions), which is based on the following recent advances: 1) Demonstration, in PFX (our former experiment), that it is possible to combine nonneutral electron plasma confinement with nonthermal, spherical focussing; 2) Theoretical development of the POPS (Periodically Oscillating Plasma Sphere) concept, which allows spherical compression of thermal-equilibrium ions; 3) The concept of a massively-modular approach to fusion power, and associated elimination of the critical problem of extremely high first wall loading. PFX-I is described. PFX-I is being designed as a small (<1.5 cm) spherical system into which moderate-energy electrons (up to 100 kV) are injected. These electrons are magnetically insulated from passing to the sphere and their space charge field is then used to spherically focus ions. Results of initial operation with electrons only are presented. Deuterium operation can produce significant neutron output with unprecedented efficiency (fusion gain Q).

  18. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  19. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of membrane fusion: Curvature effects on free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Shuhei; Klein, Michael L; Shinoda, Wataru

    2015-12-28

    The effects of membrane curvature on the free energy barrier for membrane fusion have been investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations, assuming that fusion takes place through a stalk intermediate. Free energy barriers were estimated for stalk formation as well as for fusion pore formation using the guiding potential method. Specifically, the three different geometries of two apposed membranes were considered: vesicle-vesicle, vesicle-planar, and planar-planar membranes. The free energy barriers for the resulting fusion were found to depend importantly on the fusing membrane geometries; the lowest barrier was obtained for vesicular membranes. Further, lipid sorting was observed in fusion of the mixed membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Specifically, DOPE molecules were found to assemble around the stalk to support the highly negative curved membrane surface. A consistent result for lipid sorting was observed when a simple continuum model (CM) was used, where the Helfrich energy and mixing entropy of the lipids were taken into account. However, the CM predicts a much higher free energy barrier than found using CG-MD. This discrepancy originates from the conformational changes of lipids, which were not considered in the CM. The results of the CG-MD simulations reveal that a large conformational change in the lipid takes place around the stalk region, which results in a reduction of free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism of membrane fusion.

  20. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of membrane fusion: Curvature effects on free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, Shuhei; Shinoda, Wataru; Klein, Michael L.

    2015-12-28

    The effects of membrane curvature on the free energy barrier for membrane fusion have been investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations, assuming that fusion takes place through a stalk intermediate. Free energy barriers were estimated for stalk formation as well as for fusion pore formation using the guiding potential method. Specifically, the three different geometries of two apposed membranes were considered: vesicle–vesicle, vesicle–planar, and planar–planar membranes. The free energy barriers for the resulting fusion were found to depend importantly on the fusing membrane geometries; the lowest barrier was obtained for vesicular membranes. Further, lipid sorting was observed in fusion of the mixed membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Specifically, DOPE molecules were found to assemble around the stalk to support the highly negative curved membrane surface. A consistent result for lipid sorting was observed when a simple continuum model (CM) was used, where the Helfrich energy and mixing entropy of the lipids were taken into account. However, the CM predicts a much higher free energy barrier than found using CG-MD. This discrepancy originates from the conformational changes of lipids, which were not considered in the CM. The results of the CG-MD simulations reveal that a large conformational change in the lipid takes place around the stalk region, which results in a reduction of free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism of membrane fusion.

  1. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  2. Pixel level image fusion for medical imaging: an energy minimizing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Brandon; Law, Max W. K.; Ben-Ayed, Ismail; Garvin, Greg; Fenster, Aaron; Li, Shuo

    2012-03-01

    In an attempt to improve the visualisation techniques for diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries, we present a novel image fusion method for a pixel-wise fusion of CT and MR images. We focus on the spine and it's related diseases including osteophyte growth, degenerate disc disease and spinal stenosis. This will have benefit to the 50-75% of people who suffer from back pain, which is the reason for 1.8% of all hospital stays in the United States.1 Pre-registered CT and MR image pairs were used. Rigid registration was performed based on soft tissue correspondence. A pixel-wise image fusion algorithm has been designed to combine CT and MR images into a single image. This is accomplished by minimizing an energy functional using a Graph Cut approach. The functional is formulated to balance the similarity between the resultant image and the CT image as well as between the resultant image and the MR image. Furthermore the variational smoothness of the resultant image is considered in the energy functional (to enforce natural transitions between pixels). The results have been validated based on the amount of significant detail preserved in the final fused image. Based on bone cortex and disc / spinal cord areas, 95% of the relevant MR detail and 85% of the relevant CT detail was preserved. This work has the potential to aid in patient diagnosis, surgery planning and execution along with post operative follow up.

  3. Progress in accident analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-10-11

    The present work continues our effort to perform an integrated safety analysis for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. Recently we developed a base case for a severe accident scenario in order to calculate accident doses for HYLIFE-II. It consisted of a total loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in which all the liquid flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) was lost at the beginning of the accident. Results showed that the off-site dose was below the limit given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for public protection in case of accident, and that his dose was dominated by the tritium released during the accident.

  4. High energy x-ray imager for inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, Riccardo; Koch, Jeffrey A.; Young, Bruce; Ng, Ed; Phillips, Tom; Dauffy, Lucile

    2006-10-01

    X-ray imaging is a fundamental diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and provides data on the size and the shape of the core in implosions. We report on the feasibility and performance analyses of an ignition x-ray imager to be used on cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility. The system is intended to provide time-integrated, broadband, moderate-energy x-ray core images of imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules. It is optimized with respect to spatial-resolution, signal-to-background, and signal-to-noise ratios, taking into account the extreme operating conditions expected at NIF due to high expected neutrons yields, gamma rays, and x rays from laser-plasma interactions.

  5. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2003-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a partial energy conversion system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  6. The role of the NIF in the development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1995-03-16

    Recent decisions by DOE to proceed with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the first half of the Induction Systems Linac Experiments (ILSE) can provide the scientific basis for inertial fusion ignition and high-repetition heavy-ion driver physics, respectively. Both are critical to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). A conceptual design has been completed for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{micro}m-solid-state laser system, the NIF. The NIF will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security applications, and for IFE development. It will support science applications using high-power lasers. The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain, along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF) identified in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The ETF would provide an integrated testbed for the development and demonstration of the technologies needed for IFE power plants. In addition to target physics of ignition, the NIF will contribute important data on IFE target chamber issues, including neutron damage, activation, target debris clearing, operational experience in many areas prototypical to future IFE power plants, and an opportunity to provide tests of candidate low-cost IFE targets and injection systems. An overview of the NIF design and the target area environments relevant to conducting IFE experiments are described in Section 2. In providing this basic data for IFE, the NIF will provide confidence that an ETF can be successful in the integration of drivers, target chambers, and targets for IFE.

  7. Hindrance of complete fusion in the {sup 8}Li+{sup 208}Pb system at above-barrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera, E. F.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Rosales, P.; Kolata, J. J.; DeYoung, P. A.; Peaslee, G. F.; Mears, P.; Guess, C.; Becchetti, F. D.; Lupton, J. H.; Chen, Yu

    2009-10-15

    The {sup 211,212}At yields resulting from the interaction of the radioactive projectile {sup 8}Li with a {sup 208}Pb target have been measured at energies between 3 and 8.5 MeV above the Coulomb barrier. They are signatures for fusion of the whole charge but not necessarily the whole mass of the projectile, so they are included in a corresponding operational definition of complete fusion. Within this definition, a fusion suppression factor of 0.70{+-}0.02 (stat.) {+-}0.04 (syst.) is deduced from a comparison to a one-dimensional barrier-penetration-model calculation using parameters extrapolated from values for {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 209}Bi and {sup 9}Be+{sup 208}Pb taken from the literature. Possible incomplete fusion processes are discussed and the results are fitted with a phenomenological model assuming breakup prior to fusion followed by capture of a {sup 7}Li fragment.

  8. Soft Fusion Energy Path: Isotope Production in Energy Subcritical/Economy Hypercritical D +D Colliding-Beam Mini Fusion Reactor `Exyder'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Tim; Maglich, Bogdan; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Bethe1 and Sakharov2 argued for soft fusion energy path via isotope production, substantiated by Manheimer3. - Copious T and 3He production4 , 5 from D(d, p) T and D(d, n) 3He reactions in 725 KeV D +D colliding beams was measured in weak-focusing Self-Collider6 , 7 radius 0.15 m, in B = 3.12 T, non-linearly stabilized by electron cloud oscillations8 to confinement time = 24 s. Simulations6 predict that by switching to strong focusing9, 10 deuterons 0.75 MeV each, generate 1 3He +1T +1p + 1n at total input energy cost 10.72 MeV. Economic value of T and 3He is 65 and 120 MeV/atom, respectively. We obtain economic gain 205MeV/10.72 MeV ~ 2,000% i.e. 3He production funds cost of T. If first wall is made of Thorium n's will breed 233U releasing 200 MeV/fission, at neutron cost 5.36 MeV versus 160 MeV in beam on target, resulting in no cost 3He production, valued 75K/g. 1. Physics Today, May 1979, p.44; 2. Memoirs, Vintage Books, (1992); 3. Phys. Today, May 2012 p. 12; 4. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 796 (1985); 5. Bull. APS, 57, No. 3 (2012); 6. Part. Acc.1, (1970); 7. ANEUTRONIC FUSION NIM A 271 1-167 (1988); 8. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1818 (1993); 9. Part. Acc. 34, 13 (1990).

  9. Proceedings of the Office of Fusion Energy/DOE workshop on ceramic matrix composites for structural applications in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H. ); Lucas, G.E. )

    1990-11-01

    A workshop to assess the potential application of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for structural applications in fusion reactors was held on May 21--22, 1990, at University of California, Santa Barbara. Participants included individuals familiar with materials and design requirements in fusion reactors, ceramic composite processing and properties and radiation effects. The primary focus was to list the feasibility issues that might limit the application of these materials in fusion reactors. Clear advantages for the use of CMCs are high-temperature operation, which would allow a high-efficiency Rankine cycle, and low activation. Limitations to their use are material costs, fabrication complexity and costs, lack of familiarity with these materials in design, and the lack of data on radiation stability at relevant temperatures and fluences. Fusion-relevant feasibility issues identified at this workshop include: hermetic and vacuum properties related to effects of matrix porosity and matrix microcracking; chemical compatibility with coolant, tritium, and breeder and multiplier materials, radiation effects on compatibility; radiation stability and integrity; and ability to join CMCs in the shop and at the reactor site, radiation stability and integrity of joints. A summary of ongoing CMC radiation programs is also given. It was suggested that a true feasibility assessment of CMCs for fusion structural applications could not be completed without evaluation of a material tailored'' to fusion conditions or at least to radiation stability. It was suggested that a follow-up workshop be held to design a tailored composite after the results of CMC radiation studies are available and the critical feasibility issues are addressed.

  10. An Overview of High Energy Short Pulse Technology for Advanced Radiography of Laser Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J; Key, M; Britten, J; Beach, R; Beer, G; Brown, C; Bryan, S; Caird, J; Carlson, T; Crane, J; Dawson, J; Erlandson, A C; Fittinghoff, D; Hermann, M; Hoaglan, C; Iyer, A; Jones, L; Jovanovic, I; Komashko, A; Landen, O; Liao, Z; Molander, W; Mitchell, A; Moses, E; Nielsen, N; Nguyen, H; Nissen, J; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Risinger, L; Rushford, M; Skulina, K; Spaeth, M; Stuart, B; Tietbohl, G; Wattellier, B

    2004-06-18

    The technical challenges and motivations for high-energy, short-pulse generation with NIF-class, Nd:glass laser systems are reviewed. High energy short pulse generation (multi-kilojoule, picosecond pulses) will be possible via the adaptation of chirped pulse amplification laser techniques on the NIF. Development of meter-scale, high efficiency, high-damage-threshold final optics is a key technical challenge. In addition, deployment of HEPW pulses on NIF is constrained by existing laser infrastructure and requires new, compact compressor designs and short-pulse, fiber-based, seed-laser systems. The key motivations for high energy petawatt pulses on NIF is briefly outlined and includes high-energy, x-ray radiography, proton beam radiography, proton isochoric heating and tests of the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion.

  11. Generating High-Brightness Light Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Cuneno, M.E.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Filuk, A.B.; Hanson, D.L.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlohorn, T.A.; Menge, P.R.; Olson, C.L.; Pointon, T.D. Slutz, S.A.; Vesey, R.A.; Welch, D.R.; Wenger, D.F.

    1998-10-22

    Light ion beams may be the best option for an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver from the standpoint of ei%ciency, standoff, rep-rate operation and cost. This approach uses high-energy-density pulsed power to efficiently accelerate ions in one or two stages at fields of 0.5 to 1.0 GV/m to produce a medium energy (30 MeV), high-current (1 MA) beam of light ions, such as lithium. Ion beams provide the ability for medium distance transport (4 m) of the ions to the target, and standofl of the driver from high- yield implosions. Rep-rate operation of' high current ion sources has ako been demonstrated for industrial applications and couId be applied to IFE. Although (hese factors make light ions the best Iong-teml pulsed- power approach to IFE, light-ion research is being suspended this year in favor of a Z-pinch-driven approach which has the best opport lnity to most-rapidly achieve the U.S. Department of Energy sponsor's goal of high-yield fusion. This paper will summarize the status and most recent results of the light-ion beam program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and document the prospects of light ions for future IFE driver development.

  12. Studies on heavy ion fusion and high energy density physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Horioka, K.; Murakami, M.; Oguri, Y.; Hasegawa, J.; Takayama, K.; Yoneda, H.; Miyazawa, K.; Someya, T.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Seino, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Kawamura, T.; Ogawa, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, significant progresses of Japanese research activities are presented in heavy ion fusion (HIF) and high energy density physics (HEDP). Heavy ion beam (HIB) is a prominent tool to study HEDP and HIF, and HIBs may be a promising inertial fusion driver. HIB accelerators have been studied intensively for a long time; HIB pulse profile, a particle energy and a HIB quality are controllable. A HIB energy deposition profile is also well defined, and HIB energy is deposited inside a material. By focusing and using the HIB excellent properties, Japanese HIF and HEDP activities have covered a wide variety of subjects ranging from new accelerators to future HIF studies: ion source, new inductive accelerator, beam physics, beam bunching, beam instabilities, HIB interactions with gas or materials, laser ion acceleration, HIB transport, HIB-based warm dense (WD) state generation, new measurement of HED or WD matters, HIB stopping power, atomic physics, multi-HIBs illumination on a target, HIF target implosion, impact ignition scheme, HIB-radiation conversion, radiation confinement and transport in HED matter or in HIF, and so on.

  13. The Science and Technology Challenges of the Plasma-Material Interface for Magnetic Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2013-09-01

    The boundary plasma and plasma-material interactions of magnetic fusion devices are reviewed. The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the high-temperature, collisionless pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces and the nearby cold high-density collisional plasmas, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. Due to fundamental limits of material response the boundary will largely define the viability of future large MFE experiments (ITER) and reactors (e.g. ARIES designs). The fusion community faces an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices, and even ITER, towards fusion devices typical of that required for efficient energy production. This deficit will be bridged by improving our fundamental science understanding of this complex interface region. The research activities and gaps are reviewed and organized to three major axes of challenges: power density, plasma duration, and material temperature. The boundary can also be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on establishing the use dimensionless parameters to understand this complex system. Proposed technology and science innovations towards solving the PMI/boundary challenges will be examined. Supported by US DOE award DE-SC00-02060 and cooperative agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  14. Next-Step Spherical Torus Experiment and Spherical Torus Strategy in the Fusion Energy Development Path

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono; M. Peng; C. Kessel; C. Neumeyer; J. Schmidt; J. Chrzanowski; D. Darrow; L. Grisham; P. Heitzenroeder; T. Jarboe; C. Jun; S. Kaye; J. Menard; R. Raman; T. Stevenson; M. Viola; J. Wilson; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2003-10-27

    A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive DEMO and Power Plant scale reactors. To provide the physics basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken which we refer to as the ''Next Step Spherical Torus'' (NSST) device and examine in some detail herein. NSST is a ''performance extension'' (PE) stage ST with the plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, and Beta(sub)T less than or equal to 2.7 T with flexible physics capability. The mission of NSST is to: (1) provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of CTF, (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, and (3) contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high beta toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (or similar) site to minimize the cost and time required for the design and construction.

  15. Novel Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Technique for Shutdown Dose Rate Analyses of Fusion Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L; Grove, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    The rigorous 2-step (R2S) method uses three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport simulations to calculate the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in fusion reactors. Accurate full-scale R2S calculations are impractical in fusion reactors because they require calculating space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes everywhere inside the reactor. The use of global Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques was suggested for accelerating the neutron transport calculation of the R2S method. The prohibitive computational costs of these approaches, which increase with the problem size and amount of shielding materials, inhibit their use in the accurate full-scale neutronics analyses of fusion reactors. This paper describes a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic technique that uses the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) methodology but focuses on multi-step shielding calculations. The Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) method speeds up the Monte Carlo neutron calculation of the R2S method using an importance function that represents the importance of the neutrons to the final SDDR. Using a simplified example, preliminarily results showed that the use of MS-CADIS enhanced the efficiency of the neutron Monte Carlo simulation of an SDDR calculation by a factor of 550 compared to standard global variance reduction techniques, and that the increase over analog Monte Carlo is higher than 10,000.

  16. Recent U.S. advances in ion-beam-driven high energy densityphysics and heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy,P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, Qin H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev,E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2006-07-05

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport; and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by > 50 X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. They are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy.

  17. Analysis of the energy transport and deposition within the reaction chamber of the prometheus inertial fusion energy reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, J.E.; Abdou, M.A.; Tillack, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    One of the parameters affecting the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) devices is the number of shots per unit time, i.e. the repetition rate. The repetition rate limits the achievable power that can be obtained from the reactor. To obtain an estimate of the allowable time between shots, a code named RECON was developed to model the response of the reaction chamber to the pellet explosion. This paper discusses how the code treats the thermodynamic response of the cavity gas and models the condensation/evaporation of this vapor to and from the first wall. A large amount of energy from the pellet microexplosion is carried by the pellet debris and the x-rays generated in the fusion reaction. Models of x-ray attenuation and ion slowing down are used to estimate the fraction of the pellet energy that is absorbed in the vapor. A large amount of energy is absorbed into the cavity gas, which causes it to become partially ionized. The ionization complicates the calculation of the temperature, pressure, and the radiative heat transfer from the gas to the first wall. To treat this problem, methods developed by Zel`dovich and Raizer are used in modeling the internal energy and the radiative heat flux. RECON was developed to run with a relatively short computational time, yet accurate enough for conceptual reactor design calculations.

  18. Review of Burning Plasma Physics. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Herb; Betti, Riccardo; Dahlburg, Jill; Freidberg, Jeff; Hopper, Bick; Meade, Dale; Navritil, Jerry; Nevins, Bill; Ono, Masa; Perkins, Rip; Prager, Stewart; Schoenburg, Kurt; Taylor, Tony; Uckan, Nermin

    2001-09-01

    The next frontier in the quest for magnetic fusion energy is the development of a basic understanding of plasma behavior in the regime of strong self-heating, the so called “burning plasma” regime. The general consensus in the fusion community is that the exploration of this frontier requires a new, relatively large experimental facility - a burning plasma experiment. The motivation, justification, and steps required to build such a facility are the primary focus of our report. The specific goals of the report are as follows. First, the report describes the critical scientific and engineering phenomena that are expected to arise for the first time, or else in a strongly modified form, in a burning plasma. Second, the report shows that the capabilities of existing experiments are inadequate to investigate these phenomena, thereby providing a major justification for a new facility. Third, the report compares the features and predicted performance of the three major next generation burning plasma experiments under current consideration (ITER-FEAT, FIRE, and IGNITOR), which are aimed at addressing these problems. Deliberately, no selection of the best option is made or attempted since such a decision involves complex scientific and cost issues that are beyond the scope of the present panel report. Fourth, the report makes specific recommendations regarding a process to move the burning plasma program forward, including a procedure for choosing the best option and the future activities of the Next Step Option (NSO) program. Fifth, the report attempts to provide a proper perspective for the role of burning plasmas with respect to the overall U.S. fusion program. The introduction provides the basic background information required for understanding the context in which the U.S. fusion community thinks about burning plasma issues. It “sets the stage” for the remainder of the report.

  19. Progress in heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy: From scaledexperiments to the integrated research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Baca, D.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek,F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Franks, R.M.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; deHoon, M.J.L.; Kaganovich, I.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G-L.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.; Vay, J.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Yu, S.S.

    2001-06-22

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents ({approx}100s Amperesheam) and ion energies ({approx}1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions. and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial Fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned.

  20. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.

    2014-08-01

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  1. Silicon Carbide- Based Materials for Joining Silicon Carbide Composites for Fusion Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lewinsohn, Charles A. ); Jones, Russell H. ); Colombo, Paolo; Riccardi, B

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes issues related to using silicon carbide derived from inorganic polymer precursors for joining silicon carbide composites for fusion energy applications. Evolution of gases and shrinkage during processing are identified as critical processes that may control the presence of strength limiting flaws and residual stresses. Precursor composition and structure effect the amount of gaseous species evolved during processing, chemical compatibility with substrates, and processing environments. Results from the literature and from the authors' investigations are used to illustrate the use of polymer derived material for joining.

  2. Probing the fusion of 7Li with 64Ni at near-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Md. Moin; Roy, Subinit; Rajbanshi, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Pradhan, M. K.; Basu, P.; Nanal, V.; Pal, S.; Shrivastava, A.; Saha, S.; Pillay, R. G.

    2016-04-01

    Background: The stable isotopes of Li, 6Li6 and 7Li, have two-body cluster structures of α +d and α +t with α -separation energies or breakup thresholds at 1.47 and 2.47 MeV, respectively. The weak binding of these projectiles introduces several new reaction channels not usually observed in the case of strongly bound projectiles. The impact of these breakup or breakup-like reaction channels on fusion, the dominant reaction process at near-barrier energies, with different target masses is of current interest. Purpose: Our purpose is to explore the fusion, at above and below the Coulmb barrier, of 7Li with 64Ni target in order to understand the effect of breakup or breakup-like processes with medium-mass target in comparison with 6Li, which has a lower breakup threshold. Measurement: The total fusion (TF) excitation of the weakly bound projectile 7Li with the medium-mass target 64Ni has been measured at the near-barrier energies (0.8 to 2 VB). The measurement was performed using the online characteristic γ -ray detection method. The complete fusion (CF) excitation function for the system was obtained using the x n -evaporation channels with the help of statistical model predictions. Results: At the above barrier energies CF cross sections exhibit an average suppression of about 6.5% compared to the one-dimensional barrier penetration model (1DBPM) predictions, while the model describes the measured TF cross section well. But below the barrier, both TF and CF show enhancements compared to 1DBPM predictions. Unlike 6Li, enhancement of CF for 7Li could not be explained by inelastic coupling alone. Conclusion: Whereas the σTF cross sections are almost the same for both the systems in the above barrier region, the suppression of σCF at above the barrier is less for the 7Li+64Ni system than for the 6+64Ni system. Also direct cluster transfer has been identified as the probable source for producing large enhancement in TF cross sections.

  3. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Reports on Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program, Review of the Proposed Proof-of-Principle Programs, Review of the Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics, and Comments on the ER Facilities Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee was asked to conduct a review of Fusion Materials Research Program (the Structural Materials portion of the Fusion Program) by Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of Energy Research for the Department of Energy. This request was motivated by the fact that significant changes have been made in the overall direction of the Fusion Program from one primarily focused on the milestones necessary to the construction of successively larger machines to one where the necessary scientific basis for an attractive fusion energy system is. better understood. It was in this context that the review of current scientific excellence and recommendations for future goals and balance within the Program was requested.

  4. Lenr and "cold Fusion" Excess Heat:. Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2005-12-01

    During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplar of this has been the "hydrino" physics work of Dr. Randall Mills and his colleagues at Black-Light Power Corporation, which was a radical outgrowth from the cold fusion field that emerged publicly in May 1991.2 Even more far-reaching is the work in vacuum energy extraction pioneered by Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa, which first became public in 1996.3 This vacuum energy experimentation began in the early 1980s and has been reduced to prototype technological devices, such as the patented PAGDTM (pulsed abnormal glow discharge) electric power generator, as well as many published experiments that can be performed in table-top fashion to verify the Correa Aetherometry (non-luminiferous or non-electromagnetic aether measurement science).4 In an era when mainstream science and its media is all agog about dark matter and dark energy composing the vast bulk of the universe, there is a great need to reconcile, if possible, the significant bodies of evidence from these three major experimental and theoretical streams: cold fusion/LENR, hydrino physics, and

  5. Analysis of heavy-ion fusion reactions at extreme sub-barrier energies using the proximity formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Gharaei, R.

    2013-11-01

    The recent measured values of the fusion excitation functions of the heavy-ion colliding systems 28Si+100Mo, 58Ni+54Fe, and 64Ni+64Ni are investigated using the original version of the proximity formalism. The fusion cross sections are calculated based on the coupled-channels approach, including couplings to the low-lying 2+ and 3- states in both target and projectile nuclei. The comparison between the calculated and the measured values of the fusion excitation functions indicates that the potential Prox.77 needs to be modified considerably at sub-barrier energies. In the present study, the role of the surface energy coefficient γ and also the temperature T of the compound nucleus in nuclear potential and fusion cross section has been explored for our colliding systems. Moreover, the mutual and the multiphonon excitations of the lowest 2+ and 3- states are considered in the coupled-channels calculations. It is demonstrated that the potential Prox.77 with these corrective effects can reproduce the experimental data of the fusion cross section, the S factor and the logarithmic derivative for fusion reactions 28Si+100Mo, 58Ni+54Fe, and 64Ni+64Ni with good accuracy especially at below-barrier energies.

  6. Calculation of neutron and gamma ray energy spectra for fusion reactor shield design: comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Chapman, G.T.

    1980-08-01

    Integral experiments that measure the transport of approx. 14 MeV D-T neutrons through laminated slabs of proposed fusion reactor shield materials have been carried out. Measured and calculated neutron and gamma ray energy spectra are compared as a function of the thickness and composition of stainless steel type 304, borated polyethylene, and Hevimet (a tungsten alloy), and as a function of detector position behind these materials. The measured data were obtained using a NE-213 liquid scintillator using pulse-shape discrimination methods to resolve neutron and gamma ray pulse height data and spectral unfolding methods to convert these data to energy spectra. The calculated data were obtained using two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport methods in a complex calculational network that takes into account the energy-angle dependence of the D-T neutrons and the nonphysical anomalies of the S/sub n/ method.

  7. Experimental study of the 13C+12C fusion reaction at deep sub-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, D.; Chilug, A. I.; Straticiuc, M.; Trache, L.; Chesneanu, D.; Toma, S.; Ghita, D. G.; Burducea, I.; Margineanu, R.; Pantelica, A.; Gomoiu, C.; Zhang, N. T.; Tang, X.; Li, Y. J.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy-ion fusion reactions between light nuclei such as carbon and oxygen isotopes have been studied because of their significance for a wide variety of stellar burning scenarios. One important stellar reaction is 12C+12C, but it is difficult to measure it in the Gamow window because of very low cross sections and several resonances occurring. Hints can be obtained from the study of 13C+12C reaction. We have measured this process by an activation method for energies down to Ecm=2.5 MeV using 13C beams from the Bucharest 3 MV tandetron and gamma-ray deactivation measurements in our low and ultralow background laboratories, the latter located in a salt mine about 100 km north of Bucharest. Results obtained so far are shown and discussed in connection with the possibility to go even further down in energy and with the interpretation of the reaction mechanism at such deep sub-barrier energies.

  8. Energy transfer between fusion biliproteins co-expressed with phycobiliprotein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiong; Zhou, Nan; Zhou, Ming

    2016-10-01

    In cyanobacteria, phycobiliproteins (PBS) show excellent energy transfer among the chromophores absorbing over most of the visible. The energy transfers are used to study phycobilisome assembly and bioimaging. Using All4261GAF2(C81L) as energy donor, ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130) as energy acceptor, we co-expressed fusion protein ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::All4261GAF2(C81L) with phycobiliprotein in Escherichia Coli and studied the energy transfer between two protein domains. With N-terminal His6 tag, ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::All4261GAF2(C81L) cannot be purified by nickel-affinity column. We added six histidines in the C-terminal of ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::All4261GAF2(C81L) and co-expressed it with phycobiliprotein. ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::PCB-All4261GAF2(C81L)His6 was purified successfully and only singly chromophorylated at All4261GAF2(C81L)His6 domain. The singly chromophorylate ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::PCB-All4261GAF2(C81L)His6 was incubated with fresh PCB and the doubly chromophorylated PCB-ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::PCB-All4261GAF2(C81L)His6 was obtained. The double chromophored fusion protein absorbed light in the range of 615-660 nm, and fluoresced only at 668 nm. Photochemistry analysis showed that excitation energy transfer from the short-wavelength absorbing at All4261GAF2(C81L) domain was achieved successfully to the long-wavelength absorbing at the ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130) domain.

  9. Energy transfer between fusion biliproteins co-expressed with phycobiliprotein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiong; Zhou, Nan; Zhou, Ming

    2016-10-01

    In cyanobacteria, phycobiliproteins (PBS) show excellent energy transfer among the chromophores absorbing over most of the visible. The energy transfers are used to study phycobilisome assembly and bioimaging. Using All4261GAF2(C81L) as energy donor, ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130) as energy acceptor, we co-expressed fusion protein ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::All4261GAF2(C81L) with phycobiliprotein in Escherichia Coli and studied the energy transfer between two protein domains. With N-terminal His6 tag, ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::All4261GAF2(C81L) cannot be purified by nickel-affinity column. We added six histidines in the C-terminal of ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::All4261GAF2(C81L) and co-expressed it with phycobiliprotein. ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::PCB-All4261GAF2(C81L)His6 was purified successfully and only singly chromophorylated at All4261GAF2(C81L)His6 domain. The singly chromophorylate ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::PCB-All4261GAF2(C81L)His6 was incubated with fresh PCB and the doubly chromophorylated PCB-ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130)::PCB-All4261GAF2(C81L)His6 was obtained. The double chromophored fusion protein absorbed light in the range of 615-660 nm, and fluoresced only at 668 nm. Photochemistry analysis showed that excitation energy transfer from the short-wavelength absorbing at All4261GAF2(C81L) domain was achieved successfully to the long-wavelength absorbing at the ApcE(1-240/Δ87-130) domain. PMID:27260968

  10. Space fusion energy conversion using a field reversed configuration reactor: A new technical approach for space propulsion and power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Miley, George H.; Santarius, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The fusion energy conversion design approach, the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) - when burning deuterium and helium-3, offers a new method and concept for space transportation with high energy demanding programs, like the Manned Mars Mission and planetary science outpost missions require. FRC's will increase safety, reduce costs, and enable new missions by providing a high specific power propulsion system from a high performance fusion engine system that can be optimally designed. By using spacecraft powered by FRC's the space program can fulfill High Energy Space Missions (HESM) in a manner not otherwise possible. FRC's can potentially enable the attainment of high payload mass fractions while doing so within shorter flight times.

  11. Progress in heavy ion drivers inertial fusion energy: From scaled experiments to the integrated research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Baca, D.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Franks, R.M.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; de Hoon, M.J.L.; Kaganovich, I.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Yu, S.S.

    2001-03-01

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents ({approx}100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies ({approx}1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will

  12. Progress in Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion Energy: From Scaled Experiments to the Integrated Research Experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Ahle, L E; Baca, D; Bangerter, R O; Bieniosek, F M; Celata, C M; Chacon-Golcher, E; Davidson, R C; Faltens, A; Friedman, A; Franks, R M; Grote, D P; Haber, I; Henestroza, E; de Hoon, M J; Kaganovich, I; Karpenko, V P; Kishek, R A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Meier, W R; Molvik, W; Olson, C; Prost, L R; Qin, H; Rose, D; Sabbi, G L; Sangster, T C; Seidl, P A; Sharp, W M; Shuman, D; Vay, J L; Waldron, W L; Welch, D; Yu, S S

    2001-07-10

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (approx 100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies ({approx} 1 - 10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tun depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now beginning at LBNL. The mission of the HCX is to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will provide an

  13. A carbon-carbon composite materials development program for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Eatherly, W.P. ); Engle, G.B. ); Hollenberg, G.W. )

    1992-10-01

    Carbon-carbon composites increasingly are being used for plasma-facing component (PFC) applications in magnetic-confinement plasma-fusion devices. They offer substantial advantages such as enhanced physical and mechanical properties and superior thermal shock resistance compared to the previously favored bulk graphite. Next-generation plasma-fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), will require advanced carbon-carbon composites possessing extremely high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated extreme thermal heat loads. This report outlines a program that will facilitate the development of advanced carbon-carbon composites specifically tailored to meet the requirements of ITER and BPX. A strategy for developing the necessary associated design data base is described. Materials property needs, i.e., high thermal conductivity, radiation stability, tritium retention, etc., are assessed and prioritized through a systems analysis of the functional, operational, and component requirements for plasma-facing applications. The current Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Program on carbon-carbon composites is summarized. Realistic property goals are set based upon our current understanding. The architectures of candidate PFC carbon-carbon composite materials are outlined, and architectural features considered desirable for maximum irradiation stability are described. The European and Japanese carbon-carbon composite development and irradiation programs are described. The Working Group conclusions and recommendations are listed. It is recommended that developmental carbon-carbon composite materials from the commercial sector be procured via request for proposal/request for quotation (RFP/RFQ) as soon as possible.

  14. Teardrop Shapes Minimize Bending Energy of Fusion Pores Connecting Planar Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ryham, Rolf J.; Ward, Mark A.; Cohen, Fredric S.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical gradient flow procedure was devised to characterize minimal energy shapes of fusion pores connecting two parallel planar bilayer membranes. Pore energy, composed of splay, tilt, and stretching, was obtained by modeling each bilayer as two monolayers and treating each monolayer of a bilayer membrane as a freely deformable surface described with a mean lipid orientation field. Voids between the two monolayers were prevented by a steric penalty formulation. Pore shapes were assumed to possess both axial and reflectional symmetry. For fixed pore radius and bilayer separation, the gradient flow procedure was applied to initially toroidal pore shapes. Using initially elliptical pore shapes yielded the same final shape. The resulting minimal pore shapes and energies were analyzed as a function of pore dimension and lipid composition. Previous studies either assumed or confined pore shapes, thereby tacitly supplying an unspecified amount of energy to maintain shape. The shapes derived in the present study were outputs of calculations and an externally provided energy was not supplied. Our procedure therefore yielded energy minima significantly lower than those reported in prior studies. The membrane of minimal energy pores bowed outward near the pore lumen, yielding a pore length that exceeded the distance between the two fusing membranes. PMID:24483480

  15. Teardrop shapes minimize bending energy of fusion pores connecting planar bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryham, Rolf J.; Ward, Mark A.; Cohen, Fredric S.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical gradient flow procedure was devised to characterize minimal energy shapes of fusion pores connecting two parallel planar bilayer membranes. Pore energy, composed of splay, tilt, and stretching, was obtained by modeling each bilayer as two monolayers and treating each monolayer of a bilayer membrane as a freely deformable surface described with a mean lipid orientation field. Voids between the two monolayers were prevented by a steric penalty formulation. Pore shapes were assumed to possess both axial and reflectional symmetry. For fixed pore radius and bilayer separation, the gradient flow procedure was applied to initially toroidal pore shapes. Using initially elliptical pore shapes yielded the same final shape. The resulting minimal pore shapes and energies were analyzed as a function of pore dimension and lipid composition. Previous studies either assumed or confined pore shapes, thereby tacitly supplying an unspecified amount of energy to maintain shape. The shapes derived in the present study were outputs of calculations and an externally provided energy was not supplied. Our procedure therefore yielded energy minima significantly lower than those reported in prior studies. The membrane of minimal energy pores bowed outward near the pore lumen, yielding a pore length that exceeded the distance between the two fusing membranes.

  16. Symmetric inertial confinement fusion implosions at ultra-high laser energies

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Meezan, N B; Suter, L J; Dixit, S N; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Divol, L; Dzenitis, E; Edwards, J; Hamza, A V; Haynam, C A; Hinkel, D E; Kalantar, D H; Kilkenny, J D; Landen, O L; Lindle, J D; LePape, S; Moody, J D; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Schneider, M B; Town, R J; Wegner, P; Widmann, K; Whitman, P; Young, B F; Van Wonterghem, B; Atherton, J E; Moses, E I

    2009-12-03

    The first indirect-drive hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated symmetric capsule implosions at unprecedented laser drive energies of 0.7 MJ. 192 simultaneously fired laser beams heat ignition hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 3.3 million Kelvin compressing 1.8-millimeter capsules by the soft x rays produced by the hohlraum. Self-generated plasma-optics gratings on either end of the hohlraum tune the laser power distribution in the hohlraum producing symmetric x-ray drive as inferred from capsule self-emission measurements. These experiments indicate conditions suitable for compressing deuterium-tritium filled capsules with the goal to achieve burning fusion plasmas and energy gain in the laboratory.

  17. Ion Beam Heated Target Simulations for Warm Dense Matter Physics and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Armijo, J; Bailey, D S; Friedman, A; Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I; Leung, P T; Logan, B G; Marinak, M M; More, R M; Ng, S F; Penn, G E; Perkins, L J; Veitzer, S; Wurtele, J S; Yu, S S; Zylstra, A B

    2008-08-12

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  18. ION BEAM HEATED TARGET SIMULATIONS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER PHYSICS AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Armijo, J.; Bailey, D.S.; Friedman, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leung, P.T.; Logan, B.G.; Marinak, M.M.; More, R.M.; Ng, S.F.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Veitzer, S.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yu, S.S.; Zylstra, A.B.

    2008-08-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  19. Incomplete fusion studies in the 19F+159Tb system at low energies and its correlation with various systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaib, Mohd.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Devendra P.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2016-07-01

    The excitation functions of reaction residues populated via the complete fusion and incomplete fusion process in the interaction of the 19F+159Tb system have been measured at energies ≈4 -6 MeV/nucleon, using off-line γ -ray spectroscopy. The analysis of data was done within the framework of statistical model code pace4 (a compound nucleus model). A significant fraction of incomplete fusion was observed in the production of reaction residues involving α particle(s) in the exit channels, even at energies as low as near the Coulomb barrier. The incomplete fusion strength function was deduced from the experimental excitation functions and the dependence of this strength function on various entrance channel parameters was studied. The present results show a strong dependence on the projectile α -Q value that agrees well with the existing data. To probe the dependence of incomplete fusion on entrance channel mass asymmetry, the present work was compared with the results obtained in the interaction of 12C, 16O, and 19F with nearby targets available in the literature. It was observed that the mass asymmetry linearly increases for each projectile separately and turns out to be a projectile-dependent mass-asymmetry systematics. The deduced incomplete fusion strength functions in the present work are also plotted as a function of ZPZT (Coulomb effect) and compared with the existing literature. A strong dependence of the Coulomb effect on the incomplete fusion fraction was observed. It was found that the fraction of incomplete fusion linearly increases with ZPZT and was found to be more for larger ZPZT values indicating significantly important linear systematics.

  20. Fusion Energy and Stopping Power in a Degenerate DT Pellet Driven by a Laser-Accelerated Proton Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrangiz, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Jafari, S.; Khanbabaei, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have improved the fast ignition scheme in order to have more authority needed for high-energy-gain. Due to the more penetrability and energy deposition of the particle beams in fusion targets, we employ a laser-to-ion converter foil as a scheme for generating energetic ion beams to ignite the fusion fuel. We find the favorable intensity and wavelength of incident laser by evaluating the laser-proton conversion gain. By calculating the source-target distance, proton beam power and energy are estimated. Our analysis is generalized to the plasma degeneracy effects which can increase the fusion gain several orders of magnitude by decreasing the ion-electron collisions in the plasma. It is found that the wavelength of 0.53 μm and the intensity of about 1020 W/cm2, by saving about 10% conversion coefficient, are the suitable measured values for converting a laser into protons. Besides, stopping power and fusion burn calculations have been done in degenerate and non-degenerate plasma mediums. The results indicate that in the presence of degeneracy, the rate of fusion enhances. Supported by the Research Council of University of Guilan

  1. Energy gain of a thin DT shell target in inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshbinfar, Soheil

    2014-11-01

    Estimation of maximum possible energy gain for a given energy of driver has always become a key point in inertial confinement fusion. It has direct impact on the cost of produced electricity. Here, we employ a hydrodynamics model to assess energy gain in the case of a symmetrical hydrodynamics implosion where a narrow fuel shell consisting of deuterium-tritium (DT), can experience an isentropic compression in a self-similar regime. Introducing a set of six state parameters {Hhs, Ths, Uimp, αc, ξhs and μhs}, the final fuel state close to ignition is fully described. It enables us to calculate energy gain curves for specific set of these state variables. The envelope of the energy gain family curves provide a limiting gain curve Gfuel fuel* ∝ Ef0.36. Next, we took into account the inertial of cold surrounding fuel on the ignition process. It changes the limiting gain curve slope to 0.41. Finally, the analytical model results assessed and validated using numerical simulation code.

  2. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE) generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W. R.; Anklam, T. M.; Erlandson, A. C.; Miles, R. R.; Simon, A. J.; Sawicki, R.; Storm, E.

    2010-08-01

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to "burn" spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  3. Sensing for directed energy deposition and powder bed fusion additive manufacturing at Penn State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Abdalla R.; Reutzel, Edward W.; Brown, Stephen W.; Morgan, John P.; Morgan, Jacob P.; Natale, Donald J.; Tutwiler, Rick L.; Feck, David P.; Banks, Jeffery C.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing of metal components through directed energy deposition or powder bed fusion is a complex undertaking, often involving hundreds or thousands of individual laser deposits. During processing, conditions may fluctuate, e.g. material feed rate, beam power, surrounding gas composition, local and global temperature, build geometry, etc., leading to unintended variations in final part geometry, microstructure and properties. To assess or control as-deposited quality, researchers have used a variety of methods, including those based on sensing of melt pool and plume emission characteristics, characteristics of powder application, and layer-wise imaging. Here, a summary of ongoing process monitoring activities at Penn State is provided, along with a discussion of recent advancements in the area of layer-wise image acquisition and analysis during powder bed fusion processing. Specifically, methods that enable direct comparisons of CAD model, build images, and 3D micro-tomographic scan data will be covered, along with thoughts on how such analyses can be related to overall process quality.

  4. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE) generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Anklam, T M; Erlandson, A C; Miles, R R; Simon, A J; Sawicki, R; Storm, E

    2009-10-22

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to 'burn' spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  5. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  6. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  7. Pulsed-Power-Driven High Energy Density Physics and Inertial Confinement Fusion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzen, M. Keith

    2004-11-01

    There continues to be dramatic progress in applying pulsed-power drivers to research in High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories delivers 20-MA load currents to create high magnetic fields (> 1000 T) and pressures (Mbar to Gbar). In a z-pinch configuration, the magnetic pressure (Lorentz Force) supersonically implodes a plasma created from a cylindrical wire array, which at stagnation generates a plasma with energy densities of 10 MJ/cm^3 and temperatures exceeding 1 keV at 0.1% of solid density. These HED plasmas produce x-ray energies approaching 2 MJ at powers greater than 200 TW for ICF, radiation hydrodynamics, radiation-material interactions, Inertial Fusion Energy, astrophysics, and opacity experiments. In an alternate configuration, the large magnetic pressure is used to directly drive Isentropic Compression Experiments (ICE) to pressures greater than 3 Mbar and accelerate flyer plates to 27 km/s for equation of state (EOS) experiments at pressures up to 10 Mbar in Al. The challenge to model these complex geometric configurations over multiple orders of magnitude in spatial scale, temperatures, densities, and radiation fluxes is daunting. Nevertheless, development of multi-dimensional radiation-MHD codes (e.g. ALEGRA) coupled with more accurate material models (e.g. quantum molecular dynamics calculations within density functional theory) has resulted in a productive synergy between validating the simulations and guiding the experiments. The Z facility is now routinely used to drive ICF capsules (focusing on implosion symmetry and neutron production) and several different HEDP experiments (including radiation-driven hydrodynamic jets; material EOS, phase transitions, and strength; and the detailed behavior of z-pinch wire array initiation and implosion). This research is performed in collaboration with many other groups from around the world. A $60M, five-year project to enhance

  8. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Berry, L.A.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1990-02-01

    This report discusses the following topics on fusion research: toroidal confinement activities; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; fusion theory and computation; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; advanced systems program; fusion materials research; neutron transport; and management services, quality assurance, and safety.

  9. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  10. High energy resummation of transverse momentum distributions: Higgs in gluon fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Stefano; Muselli, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We derive a general resummation formula for transverse-momentum distributions of hard processes at the leading logarithmic level in the high-energy limit, to all orders in the strong coupling. Our result is based on a suitable generalization of high-energy factorization theorems, whereby all-order resummation is reduced to the determination of the Born-level process but with incoming off-shell gluons. We validate our formula by applying it to Higgs production in gluon fusion in the infinite top mass limit. We check our result up to next-to-leading order by comparison to the high energy limit of the exact expression and to next-to-next-to leading order by comparison to NNLL transverse momentum (Sudakov) resummation, and we predict the high-energy behaviour at next3-to-leading order. We also show that the structure of the result in the small transverse momentum limit agrees to all orders with general constraints from Sudakov resummation.

  11. Reaction-Based SiC Materials for Joining Silicon Carbide Composites for Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lewinsohn, Charles A.; Jones, Russell H.; Singh, M.; Serizawa, H.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.

    2000-09-01

    The fabrication of large or complex silicon carbide-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) components for fusion energy systems requires a method to assemble smaller components that are limited in size by manufacturing constraints. Previous analysis indicates that silicon carbide should be considered as candidate joint materials. Two methods to obtain SiC joints rely on a reaction between silicon and carbon to produce silicon carbide. This report summarizes preliminary mechanical properties of joints formed by these two methods. The methods appear to provide similar mechanical properties. Both the test methods and materials are preliminary in design and require further optimization. In an effort to determine how the mechanical test data is influenced by the test methodology and specimen size, plans for detailed finite element modeling (FEM) are presented.

  12. Development of high field superconductors for fusion energy applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-26

    The purpose of this project was to develop a conductor design and a manufacturing procedure for a composite multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor suitable for winding a magnet for use in a fusion energy power plant. Effort was concentrated on the design of a conductor with tubular niobium filaments in a copper matrix. Bronze in the bores of the filaments would react with the niobium to form Nb/sub 3/Sn on the inside diameter of the niobium tubular filaments during a heat treatment at final size. Four filament geometries were evaluated. The addition of titanium to the bronze was found to increase the current density. The use of a hydrogen atmosphre did not appear to cause any increase in current density. Primary billets were assembled and extruded with five tubular filament designs and for comparison, five rod type filament designs. Billet designs are described.

  13. The status of Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) and prospects for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azechi, H.; FIREX Project Team

    2016-05-01

    Here we report recent progress for the fast ignition inertial confinement fusion demonstration. The fraction of low energy (< 1 MeV) component of the relativistic electron beam (REB), which efficiently heats the fuel core, increases by a factor of 4 by enhancing pulse contrast of heating laser and removing preformed plasma sources. Kilo-tesla magnetic field is studied to guide the diverging REB to the fuel core. The transport simulation of the REB accelerated by the heating laser in the externally applied and compressed magnetic field indicates that the REB can be guided efficiently to the fuel core. The integrated simulation shows > 4% of the heating efficiency and > 4 keV of ion temperature are achievable by using GEKKO-XII and LFEX, properly designed cone-fuel and an external magnetic field.

  14. A High Energy X-ray Imager for Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Koch, J A; Young, B; Ng, E; Phillips, T; Dauffy, L

    2006-05-03

    X-ray imaging is a fundamental diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research, and provides data on the size and the shape of the core in implosions. We report on the feasibility and performance analysis of an ignition x-ray imager to be used on cryogenic DT implosions at the National Ignition Facility. The system is intended to provide time-integrated, broadband, moderate-energy x-ray core images of imploding ICF capsules. It is optimized with respect to spatial-resolution, signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios, taking into account the extreme operating conditions expected at NIF due to high expected neutrons yields, gamma-rays, and x-rays from laser-plasma interactions.

  15. Development of position measurement unit for flying inertial fusion energy target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, R.; Endo, T.; Yoshida, H.; Norimatsu, T.

    2016-03-01

    We have reported the present status in the development of a position measurement unit (PMU) for a flying inertial fusion energy (IFE) target. The PMU, which uses Arago spot phenomena, is designed to have a measurement accuracy smaller than 1 μm. By employing divergent, pulsed orthogonal laser beam illumination, we can measure the time and the target position at the pulsed illumination. The two-dimensional Arago spot image is compressed into one-dimensional image by a cylindrical lens for real-time processing. The PMU are set along the injection path of the flying target. The local positions of the target in each PMU are transferred to the controller and analysed to calculate the target trajectory. Two methods are presented to calculate the arrival time and the arrival position of the target at the reactor centre.

  16. MULTI-IFE-A one-dimensional computer code for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2016-06-01

    The code MULTI-IFE is a numerical tool devoted to the study of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) microcapsules. It includes the relevant physics for the implosion and thermonuclear ignition and burning: hydrodynamics of two component plasmas (ions and electrons), three-dimensional laser light ray-tracing, thermal diffusion, multigroup radiation transport, deuterium-tritium burning, and alpha particle diffusion. The corresponding differential equations are discretized in spherical one-dimensional Lagrangian coordinates. Two typical application examples, a high gain laser driven capsule and a low gain radiation driven marginally igniting capsule are discussed. In addition to phenomena relevant for IFE, the code includes also components (planar and cylindrical geometries, transport coefficients at low temperature, explicit treatment of Maxwell's equations) that extend its range of applicability to laser-matter interaction at moderate intensities (<1016 W cm-2). The source code design has been kept simple and structured with the aim to encourage user's modifications for specialized purposes.

  17. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  18. High-power-density approaches to magnetic fusion energy: Problems and promise of compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenson, Randy L.; Krakowski, Robert A.; Dreicer, Harry

    1983-03-01

    If the costing assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves overly optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization will be required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique magnetic topology associated with the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment for this approach is particularly attractive from the viewpoint of low-field resistive coils operating with ohmic losses that can be made small relative to the fusion power. The RFP, therefore, is used as one example of a high-power-density (HPD) approach to magnetic fusion energy. A comprehensive system model is described and applied to select a unique, cost-optimized design point that will be used for a subsequent conceptual engineering design of the compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR). This cost-optimized CRFPR design serves as an example of a HPD fusion reactor that would operate with system power densities and mass utilizations that are comparable to fission power plants, these measures of system performance being an order of magnitude more favorable than the conventional approaches to magnetic fusion energy (MFE).

  19. Second Review of the Department of Energy's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    This report of the second review by the National Research Council of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) contains the appointed committee's final conclusions and recommendations. An interim report was issued in January 1990. The charge to the committee was as follows: determine whether the recommendations of the 1985 NAS review are still appropriate to advance the technology efficaciously. Provide an assessment of the most promising technologies for continuation of the program. Assess the potential contributions of the program under the following scenarios: a comprehensive test ban on underground nuclear testing and prohibition of underground nuclear testing to levels of 1 kiloton, 5 kilotons, and 10 kilotons. Assess the civilian energy potential of ICF. Assess the adequacy of the ICF target performance data base for supporting program plans and decision milestones. Identify major technical and programmatic issues facing the program. Determine the status of each major candidate inertial fusion driver, and specify the critical issues involved in the development of each. Recommend program priorities, particularly with regard to the Centurion/halite program, driver development, and laboratory experiments and theory. Recommend relative priorities of individual support laboratory activities. Examine the strategies and plans of the ICF Program, comment on their soundness, cohesiveness, and programmatic effectiveness, and recommend management initiatives that could improve the progress of the program toward achieving of its goals. The major difference between the 1985 and 1989 reviews is the request for greater attention to the energy potential of the ICF Program and the heavy-ion work being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory at the University of California.

  20. Considerations of the high magnetic field tokamak path on the approach to fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmar, Earl

    2015-11-01

    This tutorial will review the physics basis, and its applications, for high magnetic field, compact visions of steady-state pilot plants and fusion reactors. This includes: energy and particle confinement; transport barriers; heating and current drive; scrape-off layer and divertor physics including implications for power handling, and ash/impurity control. The development of new technologies, particularly high-temperature, high critical magnetic field superconducting materials opens a new opportunity to consider the leverage of on-axis magnetic fields of 10T or more, enabling the feasibility of smaller sized devices on the path to fusion energy, including a pilot plant which could produce hundreds of megawatts of net electricity in a 10T tokamak with major radius of order 3 meter. Incorporating jointed magnetic coils, also made feasible by the high temperature superconductors, can dramatically improve flexibility of experimental superconducting facilities, and ultimately maintainability for reactor systems. Steady-state requires high bootstrap fraction, combined with efficient off-axis current drive, and existing and new approaches for RF sustainment will be covered, including Lower Hybrid Current Drive (both from the low- and high-field side), ECCD, and fast-wave techniques. External torque drive from neutral beams, routinely used in most present-day experiments to enhance confinement and suppress instabilities, will be weak or absent in reactors. Alternative, RF-based flow drive, using mode-converted ICRF waves will be discussed. All reactor concepts have extraordinary power handling requirements, combined with stringent limits on PFC erosion and impurity sources; the current state of the art in divertor configurations will be compared with emerging and new concepts, including snowflake, x-point, x-divertor and liquid metals, to meet these challenges. Supported by USDOE.

  1. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the ˜4MW/cm2 saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of ˜1ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of ˜120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428kJ, a peak spike power of 385TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios IASE/I<3×10-7 in intensity and FASE/F<1.5×10-5 in fluence. Finally, the paper proposes a front-end pulse shaping technique that combines an optical Kerr gate with cw 248nm light and a 1μm control beam shaped by advanced fiber optic technology, such as the one used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser.

  2. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-15

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500 kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the approx4 MW/cm{sup 2} saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of approx1 ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of approx120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428 kJ, a peak spike power of 385 TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios I{sub ASE}/I<3x10{sup -7} in intensity and F{sub ASE}/F<1.5x10{sup -5} in fluence. Finally, the paper proposes a front-end pulse shaping technique that combines an optical Kerr gate with cw 248 nm light and a 1 mum control beam shaped by advanced fiber optic technology, such as the one used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser.

  3. Economics and Environmental Compatibility of Fusion Reactors —Its Analysis and Coming Issues— 4.Economic Effect of Fusion in Energy Market 4.2Various Externalities of Energy Systems and the Integrated Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Keishiro

    The primacy of a nuclear fusion reactor in a competitive energy market remarkably depends on to what extent the reactor contributes to reduce the externalities of energy. The reduction effects are classified into two effects, which have quite dissimilar characteristics. One is an effect of environmental dimensions. The other is related to energy security. In this study I took up the results of EC's Extern Eproject studies as are presentative example of the former effect. Concerning the latter effect, I clarified the fundamental characteristics of externalities related to energy security and the conceptual framework for the purpose of evaluation. In the socio-economical evaluation of research into and development investments in nuclear fusions reactors, the public will require the development of integrated evaluation systems to support the cost-effect analysis of how well the reduction effects of externalities have been integrated with the effects of technological innovation, learning, spillover, etc.

  4. Proceedings of the third symposium on the physics and technology of compact toroids in the magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, R.E.

    1981-03-01

    This document contains papers contributed by the participants of the Third Symposium on Physics and Technology of Compact Toroids in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Subjects include reactor aspects of compact toroids, energetic particle rings, spheromak configurations (a mixture of toroidal and poloidal fields), and field-reversed configurations (FRC's that contain purely poloidal field).

  5. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interior, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Mancini, R. C.; Iglesias, C. A.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.

    2009-05-15

    Theoretical opacities are required for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and Z pinches depends on the opacities of mid-atomic-number elements over a wide range of temperatures. The 150-300 eV temperature range is particularly interesting. The opacity models are complex and experimental validation is crucial. For example, solar models presently disagree with helioseismology and one possible explanation is inadequate theoretical opacities. Testing these opacities requires well-characterized plasmas at temperatures high enough to produce the ion charge states that exist in the sun. Typical opacity experiments heat a sample using x rays and measure the spectrally resolved transmission with a backlight. The difficulty grows as the temperature increases because the heating x-ray source must supply more energy and the backlight must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self-emission. These problems can be overcome with the new generation of high energy density (HED) facilities. For example, recent experiments at Sandia's Z facility [M. K. Matzen et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 055503 (2005)] measured the transmission of a mixed Mg and Fe plasma heated to 156{+-}6 eV. This capability will also advance opacity science for other HED plasmas. This tutorial reviews experimental methods for testing opacity models, including experiment design, transmission measurement methods, accuracy evaluation, and plasma diagnostics. The solar interior serves as a focal problem and Z facility experiments illustrate the techniques.

  6. Automatic Mesh Adaptivity for Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Neutronics Modeling of Fusion Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Wilson, P.; Sawan, M.; Mosher, Scott W; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to facilitate and expedite the use of the CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques in accurate full-scale neutronics simulations of fusion energy systems with immense sizes and complicated geometries. First, a macromaterial approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm decouples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility and resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation. Additionally, because of the significant increase in the efficiency of FW-CADIS simulations, the three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved on a regular computer cluster, eliminating the need for a world-class super computer.

  7. Energy confinement time and electron density profile shape in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.; Bell, M.G.; Goldston, R.J.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Scott, S.D.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Bitter, M.; Bretz, N.; Budny, R.; Dylla, H.F.; Grek, B.; Howell, R.B.; Hsuan , H.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schivell, J.; Taylor, G.; Ulrickson, M.

    1989-11-01

    The electron density profiles of intense deuterium neutral-beam- heated plasmas (P{sub tot}/P{sub ohm} {gt} 10) are characterized as a peakedness parameter (F{sub ne} = n{sub eo}/{l angle}n{sub e}{r angle}) in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The gross energy confinement time ({tau}{sub E} = E{sub tot}/P{sub tot}) at the time of maximum stored energy is found to be a weak function of the plasma current and total heating power but depends strongly on the peakedness parameter. A regression study showed {tau}{sub E} = 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}F{sub ne}{sup 0.76}I{sub P}{sup 0.18}P{sub tot}{sup {minus}0.12} for a data set of 561 discharges in the TFTR. Also {tau}{sub E} can be represented as {tau}{sub E} = {tau}{sub E}{sup L}f(F{sub ne}), where {tau}{sub E}{sup L} is the empirical L-mode scaling result. A similar scaling applies to an appropriately defined incremental energy confinement time ({tau}{sub inc} = dE{sub tot}/dP{sub tot}{vert bar}{sub F{sub ne} = constant}). 14 refs., 4 figs.

  8. 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: summary of sessions EX/S, EX/W and ICC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a summary overview, based on papers presented at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC), in the area of magnetic confinement experiments related to stability (EX/S), wave-plasma interactions, current drive, heating, energetic particles (EX/W) and innovative confinement concepts (ICCs). A selection of results that represent progress made since the last FEC in a few important thematic areas that are relevant for the successful and safe operation of future fusion devices like ITER, is highlighted.

  9. Diode-pumped solid-state laser driver experiments for inertial fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C.D.; Payne, S.A.; Emanuel, M.E.; Smith, L.K.; Powell, H.T.; Krupke, W.F.

    1995-07-11

    Although solid-state lasers have been the primary means by which the physics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) have been investigated, it was previously thought that solid-state laser technology could not offer adequate efficiencies for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Orth and co-workers have recently designed a conceptual IFE power plant, however, with a high efficiency diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) driver that utilized several recent innovations in laser technology. It was concluded that DPSSLs could offer adequate performance for IFE with reasonable assumptions. This system was based on a novel diode pumped Yb-doped Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F (Yb:S-FAP) amplifier. Because this is a relatively new gain medium, a project was established to experimentally validate the diode-pumping and extraction dynamics of this system at the smallest reasonable scale. This paper reports on the initial experimental results of this study. We found the pumping dynamics and extraction cross-sections of Yb:S-FAP crystals to be similar to those previously inferred by purely spectroscopic techniques. The saturation fluence for pumping was measured to be 2.2 J/cm{sup 2} using three different methods based on either the spatial, temporal, or energy transmission properties of a Yb:S-FAP rod. The small signal gain implies an emission cross section of 6.0{times}10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2}. Up to 1.7 J/cm{sup 3} of stored energy density was achieved in a 6{times}6{times}44 mm{sup 3} Yb:S-FAP amplifier rod. In a free running configuration diode-pumped slope efficiencies up to 43% were observed with output energies up to {approximately}0.5 J per 1 ms pulse from a 3{times}3{times}30 mm{sup 3} rod. When the rod was mounted in a copper block for cooling, 13 W of average power was produced with power supply limited operation at 70 Hz with 500 {mu}s pulses.

  10. Calculations of Excitation Functions of Some Structural Fusion Materials for ( n, t) Reactions up to 50 MeV Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Aktı, N. N.; Okuducu, Ş.

    2010-06-01

    Fusion serves an inexhaustible energy for humankind. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So, the working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. In this study, ( n, t) reactions for some structural fusion materials such as 27Al, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, and 56Fe have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 27Al( n, t)25Mg, 51V( n, t)49Ti, 52Cr( n, t)50V, 55Mn( n, t)53Cr and 56Fe( n, t)54Mn reactions have been carried out up to 50 MeV incident neutron energy. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the geometry dependent hybrid model, hybrid model and the cascade exciton model. Equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, we have calculated ( n, t) reaction cross-sections by using new evaluated semi-empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.

  11. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of {sup 20}Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.

    2014-08-14

    Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho system at projectile energies ranges ≈ 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some α-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile {sup 20}Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus {sup 165}Ho.

  12. High-power-density approaches to magnetic fusion energy: Problems and promise of compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenson, R. L.; Krakowski, R. A.; Dreicer, H.

    If the cost assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization are required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique magnetic topology associated with the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment of this approach is particularly attractive from the view point of low field resistive coils operating with Ohmic losses that are small relative to the fusion power. The RFP, one example of a high power density (HPD) approach to magnetic fusion energy. A comprehensive system model is described and applied to select a unique, cost optimized design point that is used for a subsequent conceptual engineering design of the Compact RFP Reactor.

  13. EDITORIAL: Special issue: overview reports from the Fusion Energy Conference (FEC) (Daejeon, South Korea, 2010) Special issue: overview reports from the Fusion Energy Conference (FEC) (Daejeon, South Korea, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2011-09-01

    The group of 27 papers published in this special issue of Nuclear Fusion aims to monitor the worldwide progress made in the period 2008-2010 in the field of thermonuclear fusion. Of these papers, 22 are based on overview reports presented at the 23rd Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) and five are summary reports. The conference was hosted by the Republic of Korea and organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the National Fusion Research Institute and the Daejeon Metropolitan City. It took place in Daejeon on 11-16 October 2010. The overviews presented at the conference have been rewritten and extended for the purpose of this special issue and submitted to the standard double-referee peer-review of Nuclear Fusion. The articles are placed in the following sequence: Conference summaries of the sessions devoted to: Tokamak and stellarator experiments, experimental divertor physics and plasma wall interaction experiments, stability experiments and waves and fast particles; ITER activities, fusion technology, safety and economics; Magnetic confinement theory and modelling; Inertial confinement fusion; Innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement. Overview articles, presented in programme order, are as follows: Tokamaks Overview of KSTAR initial experiments; Recent progress in RF heating and long-pulse experiments on EAST; Overview of JET results; DIII-D contributions toward the scientific basis for sustained burning plasmas; Overview of JT-60U results toward the resolution of key physics and engineering issues in ITER and JT-60SA; Overview of physics results from NSTX; Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results; Overview of physics results from MAST; Contribution of Tore Supra in preparation of ITER; Overview of FTU results; Overview of experimental results on the HL-2A tokamak; Progress and scientific results in the TCV tokamak; Overview of the JT-60SA project; Recent results of the T-10 tokamak; The reconstruction and research progress of the TEXT

  14. Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Boyd, J K; Powers, J J; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently developing a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system, called LIFE, to generate power and burn nuclear waste. We utilize inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical fission blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. It is composed of TRISO-based fuel cooled by the molten salt flibe. Low-yield (37.5 MJ) targets and a repetition rate of 13.3 Hz produce a 500 MW fusion source that is coupled to the subcritical blanket, which provides an additional gain of 4-8, depending on the fuel. In the present work, we describe the neutron transport and nuclear burnup analysis. We utilize standard analysis tools including, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, ORIGEN2 and Monteburns to perform the nuclear design. These analyses focus primarily on a fuel composed of depleted uranium not requiring chemical reprocessing or enrichment. However, other fuels such as weapons grade plutonium and highly-enriched uranium are also under consideration. In addition, we have developed a methodology using {sup 6}Li as a burnable poison to replace the tritium burned in the fusion targets and to maintain constant power over the lifetime of the engine. The results from depleted uranium analyses suggest up to 99% burnup of actinides is attainable while maintaining full power at 2GW for more than five decades.

  15. Negligible suppression of the complete fusion of Li,76 on light targets, at energies above the barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, M. F.; Zhang, G. L.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Ferioli, E.

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by a recent work performed at Australian National University by S. Kalkal et al. [Phys. Rev. C 93, 044605 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.044605] on breakup and its time scale, where it was shown that the prompt (or near-target) breakup of Li,76 is almost negligible and consequently the near-barrier complete fusion cross section induced by these weakly bound Li isotopes on light targets should not be suppressed by the breakup, as it is for heavier targets, we estimated the contributions of complete and incomplete fusion in the measured total fusions for several light systems available in the literature. The chosen systems were those for which the fusion cross sections had been measured using the γ -ray spectroscopy method and all evaporation channel cross sections were reported. For the estimation, we used, apart from the data, the predictions of the evaporation code cascade. The results show that, indeed, the complete fusion suppression is negligible for such systems at energies slightly above the barrier, in agreement with the above-mentioned recent measurements of breakup time scales.

  16. Research Needs for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Bethesda, Maryland, June 8-12, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-08

    Nuclear fusion - the process that powers the sun - offers an environmentally benign, intrinsically safe energy source with an abundant supply of low-cost fuel. It is the focus of an international research program, including the ITE R fusion collaboration, which involves seven parties representing half the world's population. The realization of fusion power would change the economics and ecology of energy production as profoundly as petroleum exploitation did two centuries ago. The 21st century finds fusion research in a transformed landscape. The worldwide fusion community broadly agrees that the science has advanced to the point where an aggressive action plan, aimed at the remaining barriers to practical fusion energy, is warranted. At the same time, and largely because of its scientific advance, the program faces new challenges; above all it is challenged to demonstrate the timeliness of its promised benefits. In response to this changed landscape, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES ) in the US Department of Energy commissioned a number of community-based studies of the key scientific and technical foci of magnetic fusion research. The Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences is a capstone to these studies. In the context of magnetic fusion energy, ReNeW surveyed the issues identified in previous studies, and used them as a starting point to define and characterize the research activities that the advance of fusion as a practical energy source will require. Thus, ReNeW's task was to identify (1) the scientific and technological research frontiers of the fusion program, and, especially, (2) a set of activities that will most effectively advance those frontiers. (Note that ReNeW was not charged with developing a strategic plan or timeline for the implementation of fusion power.) This Report presents a portfolio of research activities for US research in magnetic fusion for the next two decades. It is intended to provide a

  17. Proliferation Risks of Fusion Energy: Clandestine Production, Covert Production, and Breakout

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Goldston, A. Glaser, A.F. Ross

    2009-08-13

    Nuclear proliferation risks from fusion associated with access to weapon-usable material can be divided into three main categories: 1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, 2) covert production of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and 3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper we address each of these categories of risk from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if commercial fusion systems are designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards.

  18. FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M

    2006-11-03

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

  19. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, James

    2008-11-01

    Theoretical opacities are required for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and Z-pinches depends on the opacities of mid-atomic-number elements in the 150-300 eV temperature range. These models are complex and experimental validation is crucial. For example, solar models presently disagree with helioseismology and one possible explanation is inadequate opacities. Testing these opacities requires a uniform plasma at temperatures high enough to produce the ion charge states that exist in the sun. Typical opacity experiments heat a sample using x-rays and measure the spectrally resolved transmission with a backlight. The difficulty grows as the temperature increases because the heating x-ray source must supply more energy and the backlighter source must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self emission. These problems were overcome using the dynamic hohlraum x-ray source at Sandia's Z facility to measure the transmission of a mixed Mg-Fe plasma heated above 150 eV. This capability will also advance opacity science for other high energy density plasmas. This tutorial describes opacity experiment challenges including accurate transmission measurements, plasma diagnostics, and quantitative model comparisons. The solar interior serves as a focal problem and Z facility experiments are used to illustrate the techniques. **In collaboration with C. Iglesias (LLNL), R. Mancini (U. Nevada), J.MacFarlane, I. Golovkin and P. Wang (Prism), C. Blancard, Ph. Cosse, G. Faussurier, F. Gilleron, and J.C. Pain (CEA), J. Abdallah Jr. (LANL), and G.A. Rochau and P.W. Lake (Sandia). ++Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    PubMed

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment. PMID:9203740

  1. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    PubMed

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment.

  2. Physical and technological issues of KrF laser drivers for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Arlantsev, S. V.; Bakaev, V. G.; Gaynutdinov, R. V.; Levchenko, A. O.; Molchanov, A. G.; Sagitov, S. I.; Sergeev, A. P.; Sergeev, P. B.; Stavrovskii, D. B.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Zayarnyi, D. A.

    2006-06-01

    Physics and technology of Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser have been studied experimentally and theoretically to improve its efficiency and to increase a lifetime, and thus to verify the challenge of KrF laser for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). Experiments were performed with e-beam-pumped multistage 100-J output energy GARPUN KrF laser facility and 200-A/cm2 current density EL-1 electron gun, both operating at P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute. They formed the database for verification of numerical codes capable to predict IFE-scale KrF drivers. Monte Carlo code was developed to calculate e-beam energy deposition inside GARPUN laser chamber while a quasistationary numerical KrF laser code based on generalized “forward back” multi-direction approximation for radiation transfer equation was used to describe amplification of nanosecond pulses and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). Long-lived absorption in UV optical materials induced by fast electrons and bremsstrahlung X-ray radiation was measured at EL-1 electron gun with total fluence of ionizing radiation up to 20.6 kJ/cm2. Using these data together with measurements and scaling of bremsstrahlung X-ray yield, we can predict that the most stable windows of IFE-scale KrF laser driver would be able to withstand no less than 2× 106 shots. Fluorine-resistant coatings onto fused silica windows of KrF laser were developed and demonstrated damage thresholds as high as 29 J/cm2 in test experiments with large 13× 13-mm uniformly irradiated spot.

  3. Impact of Energy Gain and Subsystem Characteristics on Fusion Propulsion Performance Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Suman; Schmidt, George R.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid transportation of large payloads and human crews to destinations throughout the solar system will require propulsion systems having not only very high exhaust velocities (I (sub sp) greater than or equal to 10 (exp 4) to 10 (exp 5) sec) but also extremely low mass-power ratios (alpha less than or equal to 10 (exp -1) kg/kW). Such low a are difficult to achieve with power-limited propulsion systems. but may be attainable with fusion and other high I (sub SP) nuclear concepts that produce energy within the propellant. The magnitude of this energy gain is of fundamental importance. It must be large enough to sustain the nuclear process while still providing a high jet power relative to the massive power-intensive subsystems associated with these types of concepts. This paper evaluates the energy gain and mass-power characteristics required for a consistent with 1-year roundtrip planetary missions ranging up to 100 AU. Central to this analysis is an equation for overall system a, which is derived from the power balance of a generalized "gain-limited" propulsion system. Results show that the gain required to achieve alpha approximately 10 (exp -1) kg/kW with foreseeable subsystem technology can vary from 50 to as high as 10,000, which is 2 to 5 orders of magnitude greater than current state-of-the art. However, order of magnitude improvements in propulsion subsystem mass and efficiency could reduce gain requirements to 10 to 1,000 - still a very challenging goal.

  4. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1993-03-01

    Local thermal particle and energy transport studies of balanced-injection L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power have been performed on TFTR. The particle transport of He{sup 2+} and electrons following a small helium gas puff and Fe{sup 24+} induced by laser ablation has been examined and compared to the local energy transport characteristics inferred from power balance analysis. All particle perturbation diffusivities are radially hollow and are similar in magnitude and shape to the effective thermal conductivities found by power balance analysis. All particle diffusivities are 1--2 orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical values, except near the magnetic axis. A reduction in the helium diffusivity D{sub He} in the Supershot as compared to the L-mode is accompanied by a similar reduction in the effective single fluid thermal conductivity {chi}fluid. Also, the helium core convective velocity V{sub He} is found to increase in the Supershot over the L-Mode for r/a < 0.5. A quasilinear model of electrostatic drift waves has been used to calculate ratios between particle and energy fluxes in the Supershot. The measured ratios of the helium and iron particle diffusivities are in good accord with predictions, as are predicted ratios of V{sub He}/D{sub He}. Modelling indicates that the similarity in magnitude and profile shape of D{sub He} and {chi}fluid has generally favorable implications for helium ash content in a future fusion reactor. The core convection found in the Supershot increases the helium concentration on axis but does not reduce the plasma reactivity significantly.

  5. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1993-03-01

    Local thermal particle and energy transport studies of balanced-injection L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power have been performed on TFTR. The particle transport of He[sup 2+] and electrons following a small helium gas puff and Fe[sup 24+] induced by laser ablation has been examined and compared to the local energy transport characteristics inferred from power balance analysis. All particle perturbation diffusivities are radially hollow and are similar in magnitude and shape to the effective thermal conductivities found by power balance analysis. All particle diffusivities are 1--2 orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical values, except near the magnetic axis. A reduction in the helium diffusivity D[sub He] in the Supershot as compared to the L-mode is accompanied by a similar reduction in the effective single fluid thermal conductivity [chi]fluid. Also, the helium core convective velocity V[sub He] is found to increase in the Supershot over the L-Mode for r/a < 0.5. A quasilinear model of electrostatic drift waves has been used to calculate ratios between particle and energy fluxes in the Supershot. The measured ratios of the helium and iron particle diffusivities are in good accord with predictions, as are predicted ratios of V[sub He]/D[sub He]. Modelling indicates that the similarity in magnitude and profile shape of D[sub He] and [chi]fluid has generally favorable implications for helium ash content in a future fusion reactor. The core convection found in the Supershot increases the helium concentration on axis but does not reduce the plasma reactivity significantly.

  6. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. Grant

    1994-09-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an exmaple of an IEE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity.

  7. Office of Basic Energy Sciences program to meet high priority nuclear data needs of the Office of Fusion Energy 1983 review

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; Larson, D.C.

    1983-11-01

    This review was prepared during a coordination meeting held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on September 28-29, 1983. Participants included research scientists working for this program, a representative from the OFE's Coordination of Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Nuclear Data Needs Activities, and invited specialists.

  8. Development of ODS FeCrAl for compatibility in fusion and fission energy applications

    DOE PAGES

    Pint, Bruce A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12–15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is amore » general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.« less

  9. U.S. Heavy Ion Beam Science towards inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Baca, D.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Burkhart, C.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Cohen, R.H.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion P.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, W.W.; Leitner, M.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; O'Shea, P.G.; Olson, C.; Olson, R.E.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Reiser, M.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.B.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    2002-10-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress in the U.S heavy-ion fusion (HIF) program is reported in modeling and measurements of intense space-charge-dominated heavy ion and electron beams. Measurements of the transport of a well-matched and aligned high current (0.2A) 1.0 MeV potassium ion beam through 10 electric quadrupoles, with a fill factor of 60%, shows no emittance growth within experimental measurement uncertainty, as expected from the simulations. Another experiment shows that passing a beam through an aperture can reduce emittance to near the theoretical limits, and that plasma neutralization of the beam's space-charge can greatly reduce the focal spot radius. Measurements of intense beamlet current density, emittance, charge-state purity, and energy spread from a new, high-brightness, Argon plasma source for HIF experiments are described. New theory and simulations of neutralization of intense beam space charge with plasma in various focusing chamber configurations indicate that near-emittance-limited beam focal spot sizes can be obtained even with beam perveance an order of magnitude higher than in earlier HIF focusing experiments.

  10. Development of ODS FeCrAl for Compatibility in Fusion and Fission Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, B. A.; Dryepondt, S.; Unocic, K. A.; Hoelzer, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12-15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is a general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.

  11. A novel microfluidic system for the mass production of Inertial Fusion Energy shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N. T.

    2016-04-01

    A system which can mass produce millimetre sized spherical polymer shells economically and with high precision will be a great step towards the Inertial Fusion Energy goal. Microfluidics has shown itself to be a disruptive technology, where a rapid and continuous production of compound emulsions can be processed into such shells. Planar emulsion generators co-flow-focus in one step (COFON) and cascaded co-flow- focus (COFUS) enable millimetre compound emulsions to be produced using a one or two step formation process respectively. The co-flow-focus geometry uses symmetric and curved carrier fluid entrance walls to create a focusing orifice-minima and a carrier flow which aids movement and shaping of the dispersed fluid(s) towards the outlet, whilst maintaining operation in the dripping regime. Precision concentric alignment of these compound emulsions remains one of the greatest challenges. However steps to solve this passively using curved channel modulation to perturbate the emulsion have shown that rapid alignment can be achieved. Issues with satellite droplet formation, repeatability of the emulsion generation and cost are also addressed.

  12. Low-Energy Fusion-Fission Dynamics of Heavy Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, Valery; Greiner, Walter

    2006-08-14

    A new approach is proposed for a unified description of strongly coupled deep-inelastic (DI) scattering, fusion, fission, and quasi-fission (QF) processes of heavy ion collisions. A unified driving-potential and a unified set of dynamic Langevin-type equations of motion are used in this approach. This makes it possible to perform a full (continuous) time analysis of the evolution of heavy nuclear systems, starting from the approaching stage, moving up to the formation of the compound nucleus or emerging into two final fragments. The calculated mass, charge, energy and angular distributions of the reaction products agree well with the corresponding experimental data for heavy and superheavy nuclear systems. Collisions of very heavy nuclei (such as 238U+248Cm) are investigated as an alternative way for production of superheavy elements. Large charge and mass transfer was found in these reactions due to the inverse (anti-symmetrizing) quasi-fission process leading to formation of surviving superheavy long-lived neutron-rich nuclei.

  13. Development of ODS FeCrAl for compatibility in fusion and fission energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12–15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is a general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.

  14. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  15. Using inertial fusion implosions to measure the T+He3 fusion cross section at nucleosynthesis-relevant energies

    DOE PAGES

    Zylstra, A. B.; Herrmann, H. W.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Kim, Y. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Hale, G.; Li, C. K.; Rubery, M.; Paris, M.; Bacher, A.; et al

    2016-07-11

    Light nuclei were created during big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Standard BBN theory, using rates inferred from accelerator-beam data, cannot explain high levels of 6Li in low-metallicity stars. Using high energy-density plasmas we measure the T(3He,γ)6Li reaction rate, a candidate for anomalously high 6Li production; we find that the rate is too low to explain the observations, and different than values used in common BBN models. In conclusion, this is the first data directly relevant to BBN, and also the first use of laboratory plasmas, at comparable conditions to astrophysical systems, to address a problem in nuclear astrophysics.

  16. Using Inertial Fusion Implosions to Measure the T+^{3}He Fusion Cross Section at Nucleosynthesis-Relevant Energies.

    PubMed

    Zylstra, A B; Herrmann, H W; Johnson, M Gatu; Kim, Y H; Frenje, J A; Hale, G; Li, C K; Rubery, M; Paris, M; Bacher, A; Brune, C R; Forrest, C; Glebov, V Yu; Janezic, R; McNabb, D; Nikroo, A; Pino, J; Sangster, T C; Séguin, F H; Seka, W; Sio, H; Stoeckl, C; Petrasso, R D

    2016-07-15

    Light nuclei were created during big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Standard BBN theory, using rates inferred from accelerator-beam data, cannot explain high levels of ^{6}Li in low-metallicity stars. Using high-energy-density plasmas we measure the T(^{3}He,γ)^{6}Li reaction rate, a candidate for anomalously high ^{6}Li production; we find that the rate is too low to explain the observations, and different than values used in common BBN models. This is the first data directly relevant to BBN, and also the first use of laboratory plasmas, at comparable conditions to astrophysical systems, to address a problem in nuclear astrophysics.

  17. Using Inertial Fusion Implosions to Measure the T + 3He Fusion Cross Section at Nucleosynthesis-Relevant Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Herrmann, H. W.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Kim, Y. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Hale, G.; Li, C. K.; Rubery, M.; Paris, M.; Bacher, A.; Brune, C. R.; Forrest, C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Janezic, R.; McNabb, D.; Nikroo, A.; Pino, J.; Sangster, T. C.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Sio, H.; Stoeckl, C.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2016-07-01

    Light nuclei were created during big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Standard BBN theory, using rates inferred from accelerator-beam data, cannot explain high levels of 6Li in in low-metallicity stars. Using high-energy-density plasmas we measure the T (3He, ,γ )6Li reaction rate, a candidate for anomalously high 6Li production; we find that the rate is too low to explain the observations, and different than values used in common BBN models. This is the first data directly relevant to BBN, and also the first use of laboratory plasmas, at comparable conditions to astrophysical systems, to address a problem in nuclear astrophysics.

  18. Using Inertial Fusion Implosions to Measure the T+^{3}He Fusion Cross Section at Nucleosynthesis-Relevant Energies.

    PubMed

    Zylstra, A B; Herrmann, H W; Johnson, M Gatu; Kim, Y H; Frenje, J A; Hale, G; Li, C K; Rubery, M; Paris, M; Bacher, A; Brune, C R; Forrest, C; Glebov, V Yu; Janezic, R; McNabb, D; Nikroo, A; Pino, J; Sangster, T C; Séguin, F H; Seka, W; Sio, H; Stoeckl, C; Petrasso, R D

    2016-07-15

    Light nuclei were created during big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Standard BBN theory, using rates inferred from accelerator-beam data, cannot explain high levels of ^{6}Li in low-metallicity stars. Using high-energy-density plasmas we measure the T(^{3}He,γ)^{6}Li reaction rate, a candidate for anomalously high ^{6}Li production; we find that the rate is too low to explain the observations, and different than values used in common BBN models. This is the first data directly relevant to BBN, and also the first use of laboratory plasmas, at comparable conditions to astrophysical systems, to address a problem in nuclear astrophysics. PMID:27472118

  19. Update on diode-pumped solid-state laser experiments for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C.; Smith, L.; Payne, S.

    1994-08-15

    The authors have completed the initial phase of the diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) experimental program to validate the expected pumping dynamics and extraction cross-sections of Yb{sup 3+}-doped Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F (Yb:S-FAP) crystals. Yb:S-FAP crystals up to 25 x 25 x 175 mm in size have been grown for this purpose which have acceptable loss characteristics (<1 %/cm) and laser damage thresholds ({approximately}20 J/cm{sup 2}). The saturation fluence for pumping has been measured to be 2.2 J/cm{sup 2} using three different methods based on either the spatial, temporal, or energy transmission properties of a Yb:S-FAP rod. The small signal gain under saturated pumping conditions was measured. These measurements imply an emission cross section of 6.0 x 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2} that falls within error bars of the previously reported value of 7.3 x 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2}, obtained from purely spectroscopic techniques. The effects of radiation trapping on the emission lifetime have been quantified. The long lifetime of Yb:S-FAP has beneficial effects for diode-pumped amplifier designs, relative to materials with equivalent cross sections but shorter lifetimes, in that less peak pump intensity is required (thus lower diode costs) and that lower spontaneous emission rates lead to a reduction in amplified spontaneous emission. Consequently, up to 1.7 J/cm{sup 3} of stored energy density was achieved in a 6x6x44 mm Yb:S-FAP amplifier rod; this stored energy density is large relative to typical flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass values of 0.3 to 0.5 J/cm{sup 3}. A 2.4 kW peak power InGaAs diode array has been fabricated by Beach, Emanuel, and co-workers which meets the central wavelength, bandwidth, and energy specifications for the author`s immediate experiments. These results further increase their optimism of being able to produce a {approximately} 10% efficient diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy.

  20. Indirect Study of the 16O+16O Fusion Reaction Toward Stellar Energies by the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Burtebayev, N.; Aimaganbetov, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Guardo, G. L.; Igamov, S.; Indelicato, I.; Kiss, G.; Kliczewski, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Lattuada, M.; Piasecki, E.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sakuta, S. B.; Siudak, R.; Trzcińska, A.; Tumino, A.; Urkinbayev, A.

    2016-05-01

    The 16O+16O fusion reaction is important in terms of the explosive oxygen burning process during late evolution stage of massive stars as well as understanding of the mechanism of low-energy heavy-ion fusion reactions. We aim to determine the excitation function for the most major exit channels, α+28Si and p+31P, toward stellar energies indirectly by the Trojan Horse Method via the 16O(20Ne, α28Si)α and 16O(20Ne, p31P)α three-body reactions. We report preliminary results involving reaction identification, and determination of the momentum distribution of α-16O intercluster motion in the projectile 20Ne nucleus.

  1. Ion Fast Ignition-Establishing a Scientific Basis for Inertial Fusion Energy --- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; Foord, Mark N.; Wei, Mingsheng; Beg, Farhat N.; Schumacher, Douglass W.

    2013-10-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional ?central hot spot? (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10?s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The compressed fuel is opaque to laser light. The ignition laser energy must be converted to a jet of energetic charged particles to deposit energy in the dense fuel. The original concept called for a spray of laser-generated hot electrons to deliver the energy; lack of ability to focus the electrons put great weight on minimizing the electron path. An alternative concept, proton-ignited FI, used those electrons as intermediaries to create a jet of protons that could be focused to the ignition spot from a more convenient distance. Our program focused on the generation and directing of the proton jet, and its transport toward the fuel, none of which were well understood at the onset of our program. We have developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to create a self-consistent understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our strategy was to examine the new physics emerging as we added the complexity necessary to use proton beams in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) application. From the starting point of a proton beam accelerated from a flat, isolated foil, we 1) curved it to focus the beam, 2) attached the foil to a superstructure, 3) added a side sheath to protect it from the surrounding plasma, and finally 4) studied the proton beam behavior as it passed through a protective end cap into plasma. We built up, as we proceeded

  2. Flibe Coolant Cleanup and Processing in the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W

    2001-03-23

    In the HYLIFE-II chamber design, a thick flowing blanket of molten-salt (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) called flibe is used to protect structures from radiation damage. Since it is directly exposed to the fusion target, the flibe will absorb the target debris. Removing the materials left over from target explosions at the rate of {approx}6/s and then recycling some of these materials poses a challenge for the inertial fusion energy power plant. The choice of target materials derives from multi-disciplinary criteria such as target performance, fabricability, safety and environment, corrosion, and cost of recycle. Indirect-drive targets require high-2 materials for the hohlraum. Gold and gadolinium are favorite target materials for laboratory experiments but cost considerations may preclude their use in power plants or at least requires cost effective recycle because a year's supply of gold and gadolinium is estimated at 520 M$ and 40 M$. Environmental and waste considerations alone require recycle of this material. Separation by volatility appears to be the most attractive (e.g., Hg and Xe); centrifugation (e.g., Pb) is acceptable with some problems (e.g., materials compatibility) and chemical separation is the least attractive (e.g. Gd and Hf). Mercury, hafnium and xenon might be substituted with equal target performance and have advantages in removal and recycle due to their high volatility, except for hafnium. Alternatively, lead, tungsten and xenon might be used due to the ability to use centrifugation and gaseous separation. Hafnium or tantalum form fluorides, which will complicate materials compatibility, corrosion and require sufficient volatility of the fluoride for separation. Further complicating the coolant cleanup and processing is the formation of free fluorine due to nuclear transformation of lithium and beryllium in the flibe, which requires chemical control of the fluoride level to minimize corrosion. The study of the choice of target materials and the

  3. Developing target injection and tracking for inertial fusion energy power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodin, D. T.; Alexander, N. B.; Gibson, C. R.; Nobile, A.; Petzoldt, R. W.; Siegel, N. P.; Thompson, L.

    2001-05-01

    Fuelling of a commercial inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant consists of supplying about 500 000 fusion targets each day. The most challenging type of target in this regard is that for laser driven direct drive IFE power plants. Spherical capsules with cryogenic DT fuel must be injected into the centre of a reaction chamber operating at temperatures as high as 1500° C and possibly containing as much as 0.5 torr of xenon fill gas. The DT layer must remain highly symmetric, have a smooth inner ice surface finish and reach the chamber centre (CC) at a temperature of about 18.5 K. This target must be positioned at the centre of the chamber with a placement accuracy of +/-5 mm. The accuracy of alignment of the laser driver beams and the target in its final position must be within +/-20 μm. All this must be repeated six times per second. The method proposed to meet these requirements is to inject the targets into the reaction chamber at high speed ( approx 400 m/s), track them, and hit them in flight with steerable driver beams. The challenging scientific and technological issues associated with this task are being addressed through a combination of analyses, modelling, materials property measurements and demonstration tests with representative injection equipment. Measurements of relevant DT properties are planned at Los Alamos National Laboratory. An experimental target injection and tracking system is now being designed to support the development of survivable targets and demonstrate successful injection scenarios. Analyses of target heating are under way. Calculations have shown that a direct drive target must have a highly reflective outer surface to prevent excess heating by thermal radiation. In addition, heating by hot chamber fill gas during injection far outweighs that by the thermal radiation. It is concluded that the dry wall, gas filled reaction chambers must have gas pressures and wall temperatures less than previously assumed in order to prevent

  4. Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W; Shaw, H F; Caro, A; Kaufman, L; Latkowski, J F; Powers, J; Turchi, P A

    2008-10-24

    Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of {sup 238}U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF{sub 4}, whose melting point is 490 C. The use of {sup 232}Th as a fuel is also being studied. ({sup 232}Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be {approx}550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and {approx}650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount ({approx}1 mol%) of UF{sub 3}. The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu{sup 3+} in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus {sup 233}U production rate is {approx}0

  5. Fusion: The controversy continues

    SciTech Connect

    1989-07-01

    Nuclear fusion-the power of the stars that promises mankind an inexhaustible supply of energy-seems concurrently much closer and still distant this month. The recent flurry of announcements concerning the achievement of a cold fusion reaction has-if nothing else-underscored the historic importance of the basic fusion reaction which uses hydrogen ions to fuel an energy-producing reaction.

  6. Progress in safety and environmental aspects of inertial fusion energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Meier, W R

    2000-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is making significant progress in several areas related to the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of inertial fusion energy (IFE). A detailed accident analysis has been completed for the HYLIFE-II power plant design. Additional accident analyses are underway for both the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero designs. Other S and E work at LLNL has addressed the issue of the driver-chamber interface and its importance for both heavy-ion and laser-driven IFE. Radiation doses and fluences have been calculated for final focusing mirrors and magnets and shielding optimization is underway to extend the anticipated lifetimes for key components. Target designers/fabrication specialists have been provided with ranking information related to the S and E characteristics of candidate target materials (e.g., ability to recycle, accident consequences, and waste management). Ongoing work in this area will help guide research directions and the selection of target materials. Published and continuing work on fast ignition has demonstrated some of the potentially attractive S and E features of such designs. In addition to reducing total driver energies, fast ignition may ease target fabrication requirements, reduce radiation damage rates, and enable the practical use of advanced (e.g., tritium-lean) labels with significantly reduced neutron production rates, the possibility of self-breeding targets, and dramatically increased flexibility in blanket design. Domestic and international collaborations are key to success in the above areas. A brief summary of each area is given and plans for future work are outlined.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Inertial confinement fusion: The quest for ignition and energy gain using indirect drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1999-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative way to control fusion which is based on scaling down a thermonuclear explosion to a small size, applicable for power production, a kind of thermonuclear internal combustion engine. This book extends many interesting topics concerning the research and development on ICF of the last 25 years. It provides a systematic development of the physics basis and also various experimental data on radiation driven implosion. This is a landmark treatise presented at the right time. It is based on the article ``Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain'' by J.D. Lindl, published in Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, November 1995, pp. 3933-4024. As is well known, in the United States of America research on the target physics basis for indirect drive remained largely classified until 1994. The indirect drive approaches were closely related to nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories. In Japan and other countries, inertial confinement fusion research for civil energy has been successfully performed to achieve DT fuel pellet compression up to 1000 times normal density, and indirect drive concepts, such as the `Cannon Ball' scheme, also prevailed at several international conferences. In these circumstances the international fusion community proposed the Madrid Manifesto in 1988, which urged openness of ICF information to promote international collaboration on civil energy research for the future resources of the human race. This proposal was also supported by some of the US scientists. The United States Department of Energy revised its classification guidelines for ICF six years after the Madrid Manifesto. This first book from the USA treating target physics issues, covering topics from implosion dynamics to hydrodynamic stability, ignition physics, high-gain target design and the scope for energy applications is

  8. Fire-protection research for energy technology: FY 80 year-end report. [For fusion energy experiments and other energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-05-26

    This continuing research program was initiated in 1977 in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program has since been expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-tree analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate moel and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes.

  9. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  10. Developing a commercial production process for 500,000 targets per day: A key challenge for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodin, D.T.; Alexander, N.B.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Bozek, A.S.; Brown, L.C.; Flint, G.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; McQuillan, B.W.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R.R.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Schroen, D.G.; Sheliak, J.D.; Vermillion, B.A.; Carlson, L.C.; Goodman, P.; Maksaereekul, W.; Raffray, R.; Spalding, J.; Tillack, M.S.

    2006-05-15

    As is true for current-day commercial power plants, a reliable and economic fuel supply is essential for the viability of future Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) [Energy From Inertial Fusion, edited by W. J. Hogan (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1995)] power plants. While IFE power plants will utilize deuterium-tritium (DT) bred in-house as the fusion fuel, the 'target' is the vehicle by which the fuel is delivered to the reaction chamber. Thus the cost of the target becomes a critical issue in regard to fuel cost. Typically six targets per second, or about 500 000/day are required for a nominal 1000 MW(e) power plant. The electricity value within a typical target is about $3, allocating 10% for fuel cost gives only 30 cents per target as-delivered to the chamber center. Complicating this economic goal, the target supply has many significant technical challenge - fabricating the precision fuel-containing capsule, filling it with DT, cooling it to cryogenic temperatures, layering the DT into a uniform layer, characterizing the finished product, accelerating it to high velocity for injection into the chamber, and tracking the target to steer the driver beams to meet it with micron-precision at the chamber center.

  11. Mini Fission-Fusion-Fission Explosions (Mini-Nukes). A Third Way Towards the Controlled Release of Nuclear Energy by Fission and Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2004-06-01

    Chemically ignited nuclear microexplosions with a fissile core, a DT reflector and U238 (Th232) pusher, offer a promising alternative to magnetic and inertial confinement fusion, not only burning DT, but in addition U238 (or Th232), and not depending on a large expensive laser of electric pulse power supply. The prize to be paid is a gram size amount of fissile material for each microexplosion, but which can be recovered by breeding in U238. In such a "mini-nuke" the chemical high explosive implodes a spherical metallic shell onto a smaller shell, with the smaller shell upon impact becoming the source of intense black body radiation which vaporizes the ablator of a spherical U238 (Th232) pusher, with the pusher accelerated to a velocity of ˜200 km/s, sufficient to ignite the DT gas placed in between the pusher and fissile core, resulting in a fast fusion neutron supported fission reaction in the core and pusher. Estimates indicate that a few kg of high explosives are sufficient to ignite such a "mini-nuke", with a gain of ˜103, releasing an energy equivalent to a few tons of TNT, still manageable for the microexplosion to be confined in a reactor vessel. A further reduction in the critical mass is possible by replacing the high explosive with fast moving solid projectiles. For light gas gun driven projectiles with a velocity of ˜ 10 km/s, the critical mass is estimated to be 0.25 g, and for magnetically accelerated 25 km/s projectiles it is as small as ˜ 0.05 g. With the much larger implosion velocities, reached by laser- or particle beam bombardment of the outer shell, the critical mass can still be much smaller with the fissile core serving as a fast ignitor. Increasing the implosion velocity decreases the overall radius of the fission-fusion assembly in inverse proportion to this velocity, for the 10 km/s light gas gun driven projectiles from 10 cm to 5 cm, for the 25 km/s magnetically projectiles down to 2 cm, and still more for higher implosion velocities.

  12. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  13. Neutronics Design of a Thorium-Fueled Fission Blanket for LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy)

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, J; Abbott, R; Fratoni, M; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Seifried, J; Taylor, J

    2010-03-08

    The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) project at LLNL includes development of hybrid fusion-fission systems for energy generation. These hybrid LIFE engines use high-energy neutrons from laser-based inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical blanket of fission fuel that surrounds the fusion chamber. The fission blanket contains TRISO fuel particles packed into pebbles in a flowing bed geometry cooled by a molten salt (flibe). LIFE engines using a thorium fuel cycle provide potential improvements in overall fuel cycle performance and resource utilization compared to using depleted uranium (DU) and may minimize waste repository and proliferation concerns. A preliminary engine design with an initial loading of 40 metric tons of thorium can maintain a power level of 2000 MW{sub th} for about 55 years, at which point the fuel reaches an average burnup level of about 75% FIMA. Acceptable performance was achieved without using any zero-flux environment 'cooling periods' to allow {sup 233}Pa to decay to {sup 233}U; thorium undergoes constant irradiation in this LIFE engine design to minimize proliferation risks and fuel inventory. Vast reductions in end-of-life (EOL) transuranic (TRU) inventories compared to those produced by a similar uranium system suggest reduced proliferation risks. Decay heat generation in discharge fuel appears lower for a thorium LIFE engine than a DU engine but differences in radioactive ingestion hazard are less conclusive. Future efforts on development of thorium-fueled LIFE fission blankets engine development will include design optimization, fuel performance analysis work, and further waste disposal and nonproliferation analyses.

  14. DOE's Magnetic Fusion Program. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, June 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Numerous witnesses present testimony and documents in the review of the Department of Energy's funding request for Magnetic Fusion energy. Statements and information are provided by scientific and technical experts, federal officials, and industrial and academic organizations.

  15. Activities on heavy ion inertial fusion and beam-driven high energy density science in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horioka, K.; Kawamura, T.; Nakajima, M.; Kondo, K.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Hasegawa, J.; Kawata, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sasaki, T.; Murakami, M.; Takayama, K.

    2009-07-01

    Recent research activities in Japan relevant to heavy ion fusion (HIF) are presented. During the past two years, significant progress in HIF and high energy density (HED) physics research has been made by a number of research groups in universities and accelerator facilities. Evolutions in phase space during the longitudinal compression of intense beams were investigated at UU-NUT-TIT. Beam-plasma interaction experiments and related theoretical studies are in progress at RLNR-TIT. In the study, shock-heated hydrogen was used for the interaction experiments as a well-defined non-ideal-plasma target. In the beam-plasma interaction experiments, a special emphasis is placed on an evaluation of non-linear effects on the stopping power in a beam-heated plasma target. A direct-indirect hybrid scheme of a beam-driven ICF target has been proposed and discussed at UU. In the same group, a method for controlling the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in imploding fuel target has been proposed using oscillating heavy ion beams (HIBs). Core dynamics of the impact ignition has been investigated both experimentally and numerically at ILE—Osaka. Dense plasmas driven by intense ion beams and/or a pulse powered device, were evaluated by a group of DES-TIT, concerning the researches on HED and warm dense matter (WDM) physics. A quasi-statically tamped target was proposed to make a well-defined, warm dense state for equation-of-state (EOS) studies based on ion accelerators. The potentiality of the new facility planned at KEK was evaluated by a collaborating group of TIT-UU-KEK, which can extend the parameter regime for laboratory experiments to study the properties of matter under extreme conditions. A possible method to make a high-pressure condition for study of the planetary science was discussed as a short-term subject of intense HIBs.

  16. Summary of the US Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM)

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Holdren, J.P.; Berwald, D.H.; Budnitz, R.J.; Crocker, J.G.; Delene, J.G.; Endicott, R.D.; Kazimi, M.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schultz, K.R.

    1988-08-15

    ESECOM has completed a recent assessment of the competitive potential of magnetic fusion energy (MFE) compared to present and future fission energy sources giving particular emphasis to the interaction of environmental, safety, and economic characteristics. By consistently applying a set of economic and safety models to a set of MFE concepts using a wide range of possible material choices, power densities, power conversion methods, and fuel cycles, ESECOM finds that several different MFE concepts have the potential to achieve costs of electricity comparable to those of fission systems, coupled with significant safety and environmental advantages. 13 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I

    2002-01-11

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a $2.25B stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, 351-nm laser system. NIF is being built by the National Nuclear Security Agency and when completed will be the world's largest laser system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of extreme energy densities and pressures. In NIF up to 192 energetic laser beams will compress small fusion targets to conditions where they will ignite and burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF experiments will allow the study of physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million K and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapons explosions. In the course of designing the world's most energetic laser system, a number of significant technology breakthroughs have been achieved. Research is also underway to develop a shorter pulse capability on NIF for high power applications. We discuss here the technology challenges and solutions that have made NIF possible along with enhancements to NIF's design that could lead to exawatt power levels.

  18. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I; Wuest, C R

    2002-10-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, 351-nm laser system and a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF is being built by the National Nuclear Security Administration and when completed will be the world's largest laser experimental system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF will provide 192 energetic laser beams that will compress small fusion targets to conditions where they will ignite and burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF experiments will allow the study of physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million K and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapons explosions. In the course of designing the world's most energetic laser system, a number of significant technology breakthroughs have been achieved. Research is also underway to develop a shorter pulse capability on NIF for very high power and extreme electromagnetic field research and applications. We discuss here the technology challenges and solutions that have made NIF possible, along with enhancements to NIF's design that could lead to near-exawatt power levels.

  19. Multi-stage FEL amplifier with diaphragm focusing line as direct energy driver for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N.

    1995-12-31

    An FEL based energy driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is proposed. The key element of the scheme is free electron laser system. Novel technical solutions, namely, using of multichannel, multi-stage FEL amplifier with diaphragm focusing line, reveal a possibility to construct the FEL system operating at radiation wavelength {lambda} = 0.5 {mu}m and providing flush energy E = 1 MJ and brightness 4 x 10{sup 22} W cm{sup -2} sr{sup -1} within steering pulse duration {tau} {approximately} 0.1-2 ns. Total energy efficiency of the proposed ICF energy driver is about of 11% and repetition rate is 40 Hz. It is shown that the FEL based ICF energy driver may be constructed at the present level of accelerator technique R& D.

  20. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements as a tool to detect fusion and drug exchange in liposomal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfinker, Rolf; Willi, Annette; Isele, Ute; van Hoogevest, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Zinc-(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a drug that can potentially be used in photodynamic therapy. A promising formulation approach for the strongly hydrophobic ZnPc is to embed the molecule in liposomes. CGP 55847 is such a liposomal ZnPc formulation. From our data, we could conclude that approximately one quarter of the drug molecules were only loosely bound to the liposomes and exchanged between them with a relaxation time of about 15 min. Energy transfer measurements before and after the lyophilization process revealed that the liposomes were stable when suspended in a 10% lactose solution, i.e. no fusion of liposomes took place. In aqueous solution, however, lyophilization induced fusion of liposomes to a small extent with a concomitant increase in size.

  1. The fusion breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1982-10-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the U.S. fusion program and the U.S. nuclear energy program. There is wide agreement that many approaches will work and will produce fuel for five equal-sized LWRs, and some approach as many as 20 LWRs at electricity costs within 20% of those at today's price of uranium (30/lb of U3O8). The blankets designed to suppress fissioning, called symbiotes, fusion fuel factories, or just fusion breeders, will have safety characteristics more like pure fusion reactors and will support as many as 15 equal power LWRs. The blankets designed to maximize fast fission of fertile material will have safety characteristics more like fission reactors and will support 5 LWRs. This author strongly recommends development of the fission suppressed blanket type, a point of view not agreed upon by everyone. There is, however, wide agreement that, to meet the market price for uranium which would result in LWR electricity within 20% of today's cost with either blanket type, fusion components can cost severalfold more than would be allowed for pure fusion to meet the goal of making electricity alone at 20% over today's fission costs. Also widely agreed is that the critical-path-item for the fusion breeder is fusion development itself; however, development of fusion breeder specific items (blankets, fuel cycle) should be started now in order to have the fusion breeder by the time the rise in uranium prices forces other more costly choices.

  2. Multinucleon transfer in O,1816,19F+208Pb reactions at energies near the fusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafferty, D. C.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Simenel, C.; Simpson, E. C.; Williams, E.; Carter, I. P.; Cook, K. J.; Luong, D. H.; McNeil, S. D.; Ramachandran, K.; Vo-Phuoc, K.; Wakhle, A.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Nuclear reactions are complex, involving collisions between composite systems where many-body dynamics determines outcomes. Successful models have been developed to explain particular reaction outcomes in distinct energy and mass regimes, but a unifying picture remains elusive. The irreversible transfer of kinetic energy from the relative motion of the collision partners to their internal states, as is known to occur in deep inelastic collisions, has yet to be successfully incorporated explicitly into fully quantal reaction models. The influence of these processes on fusion is not yet quantitatively understood. Purpose: To investigate the population of high excitation energies in transfer reactions at sub-barrier energies, which are precursors to deep inelastic processes, and their dependence on the internuclear separation. Methods: Transfer probabilities and excitation energy spectra have been measured in collisions of O,1816,19F+208Pb , at various energies below and around the fusion barrier, by detecting the backscattered projectile-like fragments in a Δ E -E telescope. Results: The relative yields of different transfer outcomes are strongly driven by Q values, but change with the internuclear separation. In 16O+208Pb , single nucleon transfer dominates, with a strong contribution from -2 p transfer close to the Coulomb barrier, though this channel becomes less significant in relation to the -2 p 2 n transfer channel at larger separations. For 18O+208Pb , the -2 p 2 n channel is the dominant charge transfer mode at all separations. In the reactions with 19F,-3 p 2 n transfer is significant close to the barrier, but falls off rapidly with energy. Multinucleon transfer processes are shown to lead to high excitation energies (up to ˜15 MeV), which is distinct from single nucleon transfer modes which predominantly populate states at low excitation energy. Conclusions: Kinetic energy is transferred into internal excitations following transfer, with this

  3. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  4. A Particle-in-Cell Simulation for the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC) for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chap, Andrew; Tarditi, Alfonso G.; Scott, John H.

    2013-01-01

    A Particle-in-cell simulation model has been developed to study the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC) applied to the conversion of charged fusion products into electricity. In this model the availability of a beam of collimated fusion products is assumed; the simulation is focused on the conversion of the beam kinetic energy into alternating current (AC) electric power. The model is electrostatic, as the electro-dynamics of the relatively slow ions can be treated in the quasistatic approximation. A two-dimensional, axisymmetric (radial-axial coordinates) geometry is considered. Ion beam particles are injected on one end and travel along the axis through ring-shaped electrodes with externally applied time-varying voltages, thus modulating the beam by forming a sinusoidal pattern in the beam density. Further downstream, the modulated beam passes through another set of ring electrodes, now electrically oating. The modulated beam induces a time alternating potential di erence between adjacent electrodes. Power can be drawn from the electrodes by connecting a resistive load. As energy is dissipated in the load, a corresponding drop in beam energy is measured. The simulation encapsulates the TWDEC process by reproducing the time-dependent transfer of energy and the particle deceleration due to the electric eld phase time variations.

  5. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  6. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  7. Summary of the International Workshop on Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Roadmapping in the ITER Era; 7-10 September 2011, Princeton, NJ, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, G. H.; Federici, G.; Li, J.; Maisonnier, D.; Wolf, R.

    2012-04-01

    With the ITER project now well under way, the countries engaged in fusion research are planning, with renewed intensity, the research and major facilities needed to develop the science and technology for harnessing fusion energy. The Workshop on MFE Roadmapping in the ITER Era was organized to provide a timely forum for an international exchange of technical information and strategic perspectives on how best to tackle the remaining challenges leading to a magnetic fusion DEMO, a nuclear fusion device or devices with a level of physics and technology integration necessary to cover the essential elements of a commercial fusion power plant. Presentations addressed issues under four topics: (1) Perspectives on DEMO and the roadmap to DEMO; (2) Technology; (3) Physics-Technology integration and optimization; and (4) Major facilities on the path to DEMO. Participants identified a set of technical issues of high strategic importance, where the development strategy strongly influences the overall roadmap, and where there are divergent understandings in the world community, namely (1) the assumptions used in fusion design codes, (2) the strategy for fusion materials development, (3) the strategy for blanket development, (4) the strategy for plasma exhaust solution development and (5) the requirements and state of readiness for next-step facility options. It was concluded that there is a need to continue and to focus the international discussion concerning the scientific and technical issues that determine the fusion roadmap, and it was suggested that an international activity be organized under appropriate auspices to foster international cooperation on these issues.

  8. The fourth international energy agency international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R.

    2000-05-01

    The main objective of the workshop was to support the advancement of the international development of fusion power through communication and dissemination of information on progress made in beryllium technology. This has been accomplished through presentation of original research on issues of current interest to the fusion beryllium community. The workshop was divided into ten technical sessions that addressed the following general topics: production and characterization, health and safety, forming and joining, chemical compatibility, thermal-mechanical properties, pebble bed behavior, high-heat-flux performance, irradiation effects, plasma-tritium interaction, and molten beryllium-bearing salts.

  9. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee`s deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 1, 1992. During its sixth meeting, held in March 1993, FEAC provided a detailed response to the charge contained in the letter of September 1, 1992. In particular, it responded to the paragraph: ``I would like the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) to evaluate the Neutron Interactive Materials Program of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE). Materials are required that will satisfy the service requirements of components in both inertial and magnetic fusion reactors -- including the performance, safety, economic, environmental, and recycle/waste management requirements. Given budget constraints, is our program optimized to achieve these goals for DEMO, as well as to support the near-term ITER program?`` Before FEAC could generate its response to the charge in the form of a letter report, one member, Dr. Parker, expressed severe concerns over one of the conclusions that the committee had reached during the meeting. It proved necessary to resolve the issue in public debate, and the matter was reviewed by FEAC for a second time, during its seventh meeting, held in mid-April, 1993. In order to help it to respond to this charge in a timely manner, FEAC established a working group, designated Panel No. 6, which reviewed the depth and breadth of the US materials program, and its interactions and collaborations with international programs. The panel prepared background material, included in this report as Appendix I, to help FEAC in its deliberations.

  10. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  11. Evaluation of high strength, high conductivity CuNiBe alloys for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    candidate for certain fusion energy structural applications. Conversely, CuNiBe may not be preferred at intermediate temperatures of 250-500 C due to the poor ductility and fracture toughness of CuNiBe alloys at temperatures >250 C. The potential deformation mechanisms responsible for the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture are discussed. The possible implications for other precipitation hardened alloys such as nickel based superalloys are briefly discussed.

  12. A need for non-tokamak approaches to magnetic fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathke, C. G.; Krakowski, R. A.; Miller, R. L.

    Focusing exclusively on conventional tokamak physics in the quest for commercial fusion power is premature, and the options for both advanced-tokamak and non-tokamak concepts need continued investigation. The basis for this claim is developed, and promising advanced-tokamak and non-tokamak options are suggested.

  13. Space-time energy concentration and the design of DT fusion micro-explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlin, H.L.; Brandenburg, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    As part of the effort to employ a plasma focus as a driver for fusion micro-explosions, many target concepts were explored and extensive imposion calculations have been carried out. Some of the basic principles of micro-explosion design are presented.

  14. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-09-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  15. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  16. Dense Z-pinch (DZP) as a fusion power reactor: preliminary scaling calculations and sysems energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hagenson, R.L.; Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Moses, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual DT fusion reactor concept is described that is based upon the dense Z-pinch (DZP). This study emphasizes plasma modeling and the parametric assessment of the reactor energy balance. To this end simple analytic and numerical models have been developed and evaluated. The resulting optimal reactor operating point promises a high-Q, low-yield system of a scale that may allow the use of conventional high-voltage Marx/water-line technology to drive a potentially very small reactor system.

  17. Fusion energy workshop. Joint hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives and the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, September 8, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Representatives of fusion energy research laboratories, including spokesmen from Japan and Europe, and DOE spoke at a workshop on the status of fusion energy programs and their funding needs. John Clarke of DOE's Office of Fusion Energy gave an overview of the programs and efforts to comply with the administration's requirement that federal research funding be supplied only for long-term, high-risk research that has a high commercial potential. Fusion projects will be geared toward identifying feasible technologies. Arguments for proceeding with parallel engineering technology development were presented by Frank Graham of the Atomic Industrial Forum. (DCK)

  18. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C

    2001-10-29

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control room presents facility-wide status and orchestrates experiments using operating parameters predicted by physics models. A network of several hundred front-end processors (FEPs) implements device control. The object-oriented software system is implemented in the Ada and Java languages and emphasizes CORBA distribution of reusable software objects. NIF is currently scheduled to provide first light in 2004 and will be completed in 2008.

  19. Coatings for laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-12-18

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors.

  20. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion

  1. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  2. Simultaneous optical model analysis of elastic scattering, fusion, and breakup for the {sup 9}Be+{sup 144}Sm system at near-barrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Camacho, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Padron, I.

    2008-05-15

    A simultaneous optical model calculation of elastic scattering, complete fusion, and breakup cross sections for energies around the Coulomb barrier is presented for reactions involving the weakly bound projectile {sup 9}Be on the medium size target {sup 144}Sm. In the calculations, the nuclear polarization potential U is split into a volume part U{sub F}, which is responsible for fusion reactions, and a surface part U{sub DR}, which accounts for direct reactions. A simultaneous {chi}{sup 2} analysis of elastic and complete fusion data shows that the extracted optical potential parameters of the real V{sub F} and imaginary W{sub F} parts of U{sub F} and the corresponding parts V{sub DR} and W{sub DR} of U{sub DR} satisfy separately the dispersion relation. Energy-dependent forms for the fusion and direct reaction potentials indicate that, at the strong absorption radius, the direct reaction potentials dominate over the fusion potentials. Moreover, the imaginary direct reaction potential results in a rather smooth function of E around the barrier energy. These findings show that the threshold anomaly, usually present in reactions with tightly bound projectiles, is not exhibited for the system {sup 9}Be+{sup 144}Sm. Within this formalism, the effect of breakup reactions on complete fusion is studied by turning on and off the potentials responsible for breakup reactions.

  3. Thermodynamic free-energy minimization for unsupervised fusion of dual-color infrared breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Miao, Lidan; Qi, Hairong

    2006-04-01

    function [A] may vary from the point tumor to its neighborhood, we could not rely on neighborhood statistics as did in a popular unsupervised independent component analysis (ICA) mathematical statistical method, we instead impose the physics equilibrium condition of the minimum of Helmholtz free-energy, H = E - T °S. In case of the point breast cancer, we can assume the constant ground state energy E ° to be normalized by those benign neighborhood tissue, and then the excited state can be computed by means of Taylor series expansion in terms of the pixel I/O data. We can augment the X-ray mammogram technique with passive IR imaging to reduce the unwanted X-rays during the chemotherapy recovery. When the sequence is animated into a movie, and the recovery dynamics is played backward in time, the movie simulates the cameras' potential for early detection without suffering the PD=0.1 search uncertainty. In summary, we applied two satellite-grade dual-color IR imaging cameras and advanced military (automatic target recognition) ATR spectrum fusion algorithm at the middle wavelength IR (3 - 5μm) and long wavelength IR (8 - 12μm), which are capable to screen malignant tumors proved by the time-reverse fashion of the animated movie experiments. On the contrary, the traditional thermal breast scanning/imaging, known as thermograms over decades, was IR spectrum-blind, and limited to a single night-vision camera and the necessary waiting for the cool down period for taking a second look for change detection suffers too many environmental and personnel variabilities.

  4. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-07-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  5. The quest for a z-pinch based fusion energy source—a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethian, John

    1997-05-01

    Ever since 1958, when Oscar Anderson observed copious neutrons emanating from a "magnetically self-constricted column of deuterium plasma," scientists have attempted to develop the simple linear pinch into a fusion power source. After all, simple calculations show that if one can pass a current of slightly less than 2 million amperes through a stable D-T plasma, then one could achieve not just thermonuclear break-even, but thermonuclear gain. Moreover, several reactor studies have shown that a simple linear pinch could be the basis for a very attractive fusion system. The problem is, of course, that the seemingly simple act of passing 2 MA through a stable pinch has proven to be quite difficult to accomplish. The pinch tends to disrupt due to instabilities, either by the m=0 (sausage) or m=1 (kink) modes. Curtailing the growth of these instabilities has been the primary thrust of z-pinch fusion research, and over the years a wide variety of formation techniques have been tried. The early pinches were driven by relatively slow capacitive discharges and were formed by imploding a plasma column. The advent of fast pulsed power technology brought on a whole new repertoire of formation techniques, including: fast implosions, laser or field-enhanced breakdown in a uniform volume of gas, a discharge inside a small capillary, a frozen deuterium fiber isolated by vacuum, and staged concepts in which one pinch implodes upon another. And although none of these have yet to be successful, some have come tantalizingly close. This paper will review the history of this four-decade long quest for fusion power.

  6. Fusion of liposomones and chromatophores of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata: effect on photosynthetic energy transfer between B875 and reaction center complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, J.Y.; Schonhardt, T.; Golecki, J.R.; Drews, G.

    1985-06-01

    The photosynthetic chromatophore membranes of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata were fused with liposomes to investigate the effects of lipid dilution on energy transfer between the bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes of this membrane. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed that the fractions contained closed vesicles formed by the fusion of liposomes to chromatophores. Particles with 9-nm diameters on the P fracture faces did not appear to change in size with increasing lipid content, but the number of particles per membrane area decreased proportionally with increases in the lipid-to-protein ratio. The bacteriochlorophyll-to-protein ratios, electrophoretic polypeptide profiles on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, and light-induced absorbance changes at 595 nm caused by photosynthetic reaction centers were not altered by fusion. The relative fluorescence emission intensities due to the B875 light-harvesting complex increased significantly with increasing lipid content, but no increases in fluorescence due to the B800-B850 light-harvesting complex were observed. Electron transport rates, measured as succinate-cytochrome c reductase activities, decreased with increased lipid content. The results indicate an uncoupling of energy transfer between the B875 light-harvesting and reaction center complexes with lipid dilution of the chromatophore membrane.

  7. Search for critical point indications in long-range correlations by energy and system size scanning in string fusion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, V. N.; Vechernin, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The ultrarelativistic collisions of heavy and light ions in the center-of-mass energy range from a few up to a hundred GeV per nucleon have been considered in string fusion approach. A Monte Carlo model of proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions has been developed, which takes into account both the string fusion and the finite rapidity length of strings, implementing the hadronic scattering through the interaction of color dipoles. It well describes the proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the partonic level without using Glauber model of nuclear collisions. All parameters are fixed using experimental data on inelastic cross section and multiplicity. In the framework of the model, we performed a beam energy and system size scan and studied the behaviour of n-n, pt-n and pt-pt long-range correlation coefficients. The detailed modeling of the event by event charged particles production allowed to provide predictions in the conditions close to the experimental ones allowing a direct comparison to the data.

  8. Conceptual Design for a 2 GW Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Direct-Drive Power Reactor Employing Magnetic Intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresemer, K. R.; Gentile, C. A.

    2007-11-01

    Presented is a conceptual design for a 2 GW IFE direct drive fusion power reactor. This design employs a cusp field to deflect IFE-generated ions away from the dry first wall of the target chamber and into specifically designed ion dumps. The reactor operates at 5 Hz, consuming ˜450,000 tritium targets/day, injected at >100 m/s into the target chamber and uniformly illuminated by laser light, stimulating detonation. The resulting fusion energy is collected by equatorial ion dumps equipped with heat exchangers. The reactor will breed and recycle its own fuel through the use of breeder blankets and a fuel recovery system. To minimize target-particle interference, the chamber will be kept at <0.5 mTorr through the use of magnetically levitated turbomolecular pumps (TMPs) and corresponding backing pumps. Under investigation are the principles of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) which may be applied to attenuate and harness the energy residing in the post detonation ion fields.

  9. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  10. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  11. Fusion engineering device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  12. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  13. EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR INDUCED BREAKUP ON THE FUSION OF 6Li+12C AND 6He+12C SYSTEMS AROUND BARRIER ENERGIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhan, Sukhvinder S.; Singh, Manjeet; Kharab, Rajesh

    2012-06-01

    We have studied the effects of nuclear induced breakup channel coupling on the fusion cross-section for 6Li+12C and 6He+12C systems in the near barrier energy regime using the dynamic polarization potential (DPP) approach. It has been found that there is enhancement in the fusion cross-section with respect to standard one-dimensional barrier penetration model in the below barrier energy regime while at energies above the barrier there is suppression of fusion cross-section with respect to simple barrier penetration model is observed. The agreement between data and predictions for 6Li+12C system improves significantly as a result of the inclusion of nuclear induced DPP.

  14. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  15. Stability of shocks relating to the shock ignition inertial fusion energy scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Davie, C. J. Bush, I. A.; Evans, R. G.

    2014-08-15

    Motivated by the shock ignition approach to improve the performance of inertial fusion targets, we make a series of studies of the stability of shock waves in planar and converging geometries. We examine stability of shocks moving through distorted material and driving shocks with non-uniform pressure profiles. We then apply a fully 3D perturbation, following this spherically converging shock through collapse to a distorted plane, bounce and reflection into an outgoing perturbed, broadly spherical shock wave. We find broad shock stability even under quite extreme perturbation.

  16. Possible energy gain for a plasma-liner-driven magneto-inertial fusion concept

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C. E.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.

    2014-07-15

    A one-dimensional parameter study of a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) concept indicates that significant gain may be achievable. This concept uses a dynamically formed plasma shell with inwardly directed momentum to drive a magnetized fuel to ignition, which in turn partially burns an intermediate layer of unmagnetized fuel. The concept is referred to as Plasma Jet MIF or PJMIF. The results of an adaptive mesh refinement Eulerian code (Crestone) are compared to those of a Lagrangian code (LASNEX). These are the first published results using the Crestone and LASNEX codes on the PJMIF concept.

  17. Present Status and Future Prospects of Laser Fusion and Related High Energy Density Plasma Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki

    2004-12-01

    The present status and future prospects of the laser fusion research and related laser plasma physics are reviewed. In laser fusion research, giant lasers for ignition and burn by imploding DT fuel pellets are under construction at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and CEA, France. In Japan , the Gekko XII and the Peta Watt laser system have been operated to investigate the implosion hydrodynamics, fast ignition, and the relativistic laser plasma interactions and a new project; FIREX( Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) had started toward the ignition and burn at the Institute of laser Engineering of Osaka University. Recently, heating experiments with cone shell target have been carried out. The thermal neutron yield is found to increase by three orders of magnitude by the peta watt laser injection to the cone shell target. The FIREX-I is planned according to this experimental results, where multi 10kJ peta watt laser is used to heat compressed DT fuel to the ignition temperature. The FIREX-II will follow for demonstrating ignition and burn, in which the implosion laser and heating laser are up-graded.

  18. Compendium of computer codes for the researcher in magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, G.D.

    1989-03-10

    This is a compendium of computer codes, which are available to the fusion researcher. It is intended to be a document that permits a quick evaluation of the tools available to the experimenter who wants to both analyze his data, and compare the results of his analysis with the predictions of available theories. This document will be updated frequently to maintain its usefulness. I would appreciate receiving further information about codes not included here from anyone who has used them. The information required includes a brief description of the code (including any special features), a bibliography of the documentation available for the code and/or the underlying physics, a list of people to contact for help in running the code, instructions on how to access the code, and a description of the output from the code. Wherever possible, the code contacts should include people from each of the fusion facilities so that the novice can talk to someone ''down the hall'' when he first tries to use a code. I would also appreciate any comments about possible additions and improvements in the index. I encourage any additional criticism of this document. 137 refs.

  19. Joining techniques for a reduced activation 12Cr steel for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R. M.; El-Dasher, B.; Choi, B. W.; Torres, S. G.

    2014-10-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel that is based on the ferritic martensitic steel HT-9. As a part of the development of this steel, we tested a series of welding processes for characterization, including conventional welds (electron beam, tungsten inert gas, and laser) as well as solid-state welds (hot isostatic pressing). We also heat treated the joints at various temperatures between 750 °C and 1050 °C to find a suitable normalization scheme. The modified HT-9 reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel appears highly suitable to welding and diffusion bonding. All welds showed good quality fusion zones with insignificant cracking or porosity. Additionally, a heat treatment schedule of 950 °C for one hour caused minimal grain growth while still converging the hardness of the base metal with that of the fusion and heat-affected zones. Also, modified HT-9 diffusion bonds that were created at temperatures of at least 950 °C for two hours at 103 MPa had interface tensile strengths of greater than 600 MPa. The diffusion bonds showed no evidence of increased hardness nor void formation at the diffusion bonded interface.

  20. Enhanced thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutated by high-energy pulse electron beam and protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xiao, Yu; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Shi-Long

    2012-11-01

    To increase thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YZ1, the strategies of high-energy pulse electron beam (HEPE) and three rounds of protoplast fusion were explored. The YF31 strain had the characteristics of resistant to high-temperature, high-ethanol tolerance, rapid growth and high yield. The YF31 could grow on plate cultures up to 47 °C, containing 237.5 g L(-1) of ethanol. In particular, the mutant strain YF31 generated 94.2 ± 4.8 g L(-1) ethanol from 200 g glucose L(-1) at 42 °C, which was 2.48 times the production of the wild strain YZ1. Results demonstrated that the variant phenotypes from the strains screening by HEPE irradiation could be used as parent stock for yeast regeneration and the protoplast fusion technology is sufficiently powerful in combining suitable characteristics in a single strain for ethanol fermentation.

  1. Experimental Studies of High-Speed Liquid Films on Downward-Facing Surfaces for Inertial Fusion Energy Wet Wall Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jonathan K.; Durbin, Samuel G. II; Sadowski, Dennis L.; Yoda, Minami; Abdel-Khalik, Said I.

    2003-05-15

    The fusion event in inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors creates neutrons, photons, and charged particles that can damage the chamber first walls. The Prometheus design study used a high-speed thin film of molten lead injected tangential to the wall to protect the upper endcap of the reactor chamber from damaging X rays and target debris. To assure full chamber coverage, the film must remain attached. Film detachment under the influence of gravity is most likely to occur on the downward-facing surfaces over the upper endcap of the reactor chamber. Accurate numerical predictions of detachment length are effectively impossible in this turbulent flow because of difficulties in determining appropriate boundary conditions near the detachment point.As part of the ARIES-IFE study, experimental investigations of high-speed water films injected onto downward-facing planar surfaces at angles of inclination up to 45 deg below the horizontal were therefore performed. The initial growth and subsequent detachment of films with initial thickness up to 2 mm and injection speed up to 11 m/s were measured. To our knowledge, these experiments are the first to investigate the detachment of turbulent liquid films on downward-facing surfaces. The implications of these initial results on thin liquid protection and the 'wet wall' concept are discussed.

  2. Prospects for fusion: The winds of change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, R. C.

    This paper addresses the following topics: (1) national energy circumstances and policy, and the implications for fusion; (2) the intrinsic merit of fusion research and development as it contributes to the national science and technology base; (3) the research opportunities and priorities in inertial confinement fusion; and (4) the research opportunities and priorities in magnetic fusion.

  3. Vacuum insulation of the high energy negative ion source for fusion applicationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Hilmi, A.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2012-02-01

    Vacuum insulation on a large size negative ion accelerator with multiple extraction apertures and acceleration grids for fusion application was experimentally examined and designed. In the experiment, vacuum insulation characteristics were investigated in the JT-60 negative ion source with >1000 apertures on the grid with the surface area of ˜2 m2. The sustainable voltages varied with a square root of the gap lengths between the grids, and decreased with number of the apertures and with the surface area of the grids. Based on the obtained results, the JT-60SA (super advanced) negative ion source is designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D- ion beams for 100 s.

  4. Yb:YAG ceramic-based laser driver for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrovec, John; Copeland, Drew A.; Litt, Amardeep S.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a new class of laser amplifiers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers based on a Yb:YAG ceramic disk in an edge-pumped configuration and cooled by a high-velocity gas flow. The Yb lasant offers very high efficiency and low waste heat. The ceramic host material has a thermal conductivity nearly 15-times higher than the traditionally used glass and it is producible in sizes suitable for a typical 10- to 20-kJ driver beam line. The combination of high lasant efficiency, low waste heat, edge-pumping, and excellent thermal conductivity of the host, enable operation at 10 to 20 Hz at over 20% wall plug efficiency while being comparably smaller and less costly than recently considered face-pumped alternative drivers using Nd:glass, Yb:S-FAP, and cryogenic Yb:YAG. Scalability of the laser driver over a broad range of sizes is presented.

  5. Identification of future engineering-development needs of alternative concepts for magnetic-fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakowski, R. A.

    The future engineering needs of alternative fusion concepts (AFCs) are assessed relative to the similar needs of the Tokamak in order to emphasize differences in required technology with respect to the well documented mainline approach. Although nearly thirty AFCs can be identified as being associated with some level of reactor projection redirection, refocusing, and general similarities can be used to generate a reduced AFC list that includes only the bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids. Furthermore, each AFC has the potential of operating as a conventional (low power density, superconducting magnets) or a compact, high-power-density (HPD) system. Hence, in order to make tractable an otherwise difficult task, the future engineering needs for the AFCs are addressed for conventional versus compact approaches, with the latter being treated as a generic class and the former being composed of bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids.

  6. Vacuum insulation of the high energy negative ion source for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Hilmi, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum insulation on a large size negative ion accelerator with multiple extraction apertures and acceleration grids for fusion application was experimentally examined and designed. In the experiment, vacuum insulation characteristics were investigated in the JT-60 negative ion source with >1000 apertures on the grid with the surface area of {approx}2 m{sup 2}. The sustainable voltages varied with a square root of the gap lengths between the grids, and decreased with number of the apertures and with the surface area of the grids. Based on the obtained results, the JT-60SA (super advanced) negative ion source is designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D{sup -} ion beams for 100 s.

  7. Monochromatic x-ray radiography for areal-density measurement of inertial fusion energy fuel in fast ignition experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohira, Shinji; Inubushi, Yuichi; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Ultrafast, two-dimensional x-ray imaging is an important diagnostics for the inertial fusion energy research, especially in investigating implosion dynamics at the final stage of the fuel compression. Although x-ray radiography was applied to observing the implosion dynamics, intense x-rays emitted from the high temperature and dense fuel core itself are often superimposed on the radiograph. This problem can be solved by coupling the x-ray radiography with monochromatic x-ray imaging technique. In the experiment, 2.8 or 5.2 keV backlight x-rays emitted from laser-irradiated polyvinyl chloride or vanadium foils were selectively imaged by spherically bent quartz crystals with discriminating the out-of-band emission from the fuel core. This x-ray radiography system achieved 24 μm and 100 ps of spatial and temporal resolutions, respectively.

  8. Simulations for experimental study of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy applications on NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Armijo, J; Bieniosek, F M; Friedman, A; Hay, M J; Henestroza, E; Logan, B G; More, R M; Ni, P A; Perkins, L J; Ng, S; Wurtele, J S; Yu, S S; Zylstra, A B

    2010-03-19

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX II) is an induction accelerator planned for initial commissioning in 2012. The final design calls for a {approx}3 MeV, {approx}30 A Li{sup +} ion beam, delivered in a bunch with characteristic pulse duration of 1 ns, and transverse dimension of order 1 mm. The purpose of NDCX II is to carry out experimental studies of material in the warm dense matter regime, and ion beam/hydrodynamic coupling experiments relevant to heavy ion based inertial fusion energy. In preparation for this new machine, we have carried out hydrodynamic simulations of ion-beam-heated, metallic solid targets, connecting quantities related to observables, such as brightness temperature and expansion velocity at the critical frequency, with the simulated fluid density, temperature, and velocity. We examine how these quantities depend on two commonly used equations of state.

  9. Simulations for experimental study of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy applications on NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Armijo, J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Friedman, A.; Hay, M.; Henestroza, E.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Ni, P.A.; Perkins, L. J.; Ng, S-F.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yu, S.S.; Zylstra, A.B.

    2009-09-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX II) is an induction accelerator planned for initial commissioning in 2012. The final design calls for a {approx}3 MeV, {approx}30 A Li{sup +} ion beam, delivered in a bunch with characteristic pulse duration of 1 ns, and ransverse dimension of order 1 mm. The purpose of NDCX II is to carry out experimental studies of material in the warm dense matter regime, and ion beam/hydrodynamic coupling experiments relevant to heavy ion based inertial fusion energy. In preparation for this new machine, we have carried out hydrodynamic simulations of ion-beam-heated, metallic solid targets, connecting quantities related to observables, such as brightness temperature and expansion velocity at the critical frequency, with the simulated fluid density, temperature, and velocity. We examine how these quantities depend on two commonly used equations of state.

  10. Response to FESAC survey, Non-Fusion Connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Long Duration Directional Drives for Star Formation and Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J. O.; Martinez, D. A.; Pound, M. W.; Heeter, R. F.; Villette, B.; Casner, A.; Mancini, R. C.

    2015-06-19

    Due to the iconic status of the pillars of the Eagle Nebula, this research will bring popular attention to plasma physics, HED laboratory physics, and fundamental science at NIF and other experimental facilities. The result will be to both to bring new perspectives to the studies of hydrodynamics in inertial confinement fusion and HED scenarios in general, and to promote interest in the STEM disciplines.

  11. Lithium question for nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, P.S.S.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the lithium reserve (the economically recoverable lithium) for the tritium breeding in D-T fusion reactors and other uses. Similar development patterns for fusion energy and fission energy are assumed to estimate the future lithium requirements. These requirements are grouped into three categories; the commercial uses, the lithium batteries for electric cars, and the fusion reactor uses. 5 refs.

  12. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  13. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoming

    2012-09-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  14. Fusion Physics Toward ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, R. D.

    2006-04-01

    Stars are powered by fusion, the energy released by fusing together light nuclei, using gravitational confinement of plasma. Fusion on earth will be done in a 100 million degree plasma made of deuterium and tritium and confined by magnetic fields or inertia. The worldwide fusion research community will construct ITER, the first experiment that will burn a DT plasma by copious fusion reactions. ITER's nominal goal is to create 500 MW of fusion power. An energy gain of 10 will mean the plasma is dominantly self-heated by the fusion-produced alpha particles. ITER's all superconducting magnet technology and steady-state heat removal technology will enable nominal 400 s pulses to allow the study of burning plasmas on the longest intrinsic timescale of the confined plasma - diffusive redistribution of the electrical currents in the plasma. The advances in magnetic confinement physics that have led to this opportunity will be described, as well as the research opportunities afforded by ITER. The physics of confining stable plasmas and heating them will produce the high gain state in ITER. Sustained burn will come from the physics of controlling currents in plasmas and how the hot plasma is interfaced to its room temperature surroundings. ITER will provide our first experience with how fusion plasma self-heating will profoundly affect the complex, interlinked physical processes that occur in confined plasmas.

  15. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  16. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents.

  17. Neutron Time-of-Flight Measurements of Charged-Particle Energy Loss in Inertial Confinement Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Daniel; Cerjan, Charlie; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Caggiano, Joseph; Divol, Laurent; Eckart, Mark; Graziani, Frank; Grim, Gary; Hartouni, Ed; Hatarik, Robert; Le Pape, Sebastien; MacKinnon, Andrew; Schneider, Dieter; Sepke, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Neutron time-of-flight measurements of inflight T (d , n) α reactions created during an implosion of a deuterium gas target have been performed at the National Ignition Facility, with order of magnitude improvements in statistics and resolution over past experiments. In the implosion, energetic tritons emitted by thermonuclear fusion within the deuterium plasma produced over 1011 inflight T (d , n) α reactions. The yield and particle spectrum of inflight reactions are sensitive to the triton's energy loss in the plasma, which, in this implosion, consisted of multi-keV temperatures and number densities above 1024 cm-3. Radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the implosion were adjusted to match the yield and broadening of the D (d , n) 3 He neutron peak. These same simulations give reasonable agreement with the measured T (d , n) α yield and neutron spectrum, and this provides a strong consistency check of the simulated plasma conditions and energy loss model. This research was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Materials studies for magnetic fusion energy applications at low temperatures, 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. P.; Simon, N. J.

    1984-05-01

    Work leading toward development of strong, tough structural alloys for use in superconducting magnets of magnetic fusion power plants is reported. Low temperature studies were conducted to assess the quantitative dependence of the yield strength, density, and elastic constants of AISI 304 stainless steels upon carbon and nitrogen concentration. Tensile property measurements of developmental austenitic steels confirmed the dependence of yield strength upon temperature. Evidence is presented to show that the flow strength and austenite stability of stainless steels are not significantly affected by 8-T fields at 4 K. Instrumentation developed for low temperature testing included a computer assisted apparatus used to measure threshold fatigue. Low temperature welding research involved an investigation of the weld reinforcement effect on the weld joint strength and measurements of the 4 K fracture toughness of magnesium-chromium steel weldments and electroodes. In the area of non-metallics, a standardized test specimen was devised to aid in screening radiation-resistant composites for magnet insulation. Mechanical properties of concrete mortar and polyurethane foam at 4 K are reported.

  19. Energy-dependent finite-orbit treatment for plasma buildup in mirror fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation of hot plasma buildup in mirror fusion devices and results from this model are presented. In a small, hot magnetically confined plasma, the ion orbit radius (rho/sub i/) can be comparable to the plasma radius (R/sub p/). It a mirror-confined plasma were rho/sub i//R/sub p/ > 1/25 (such as 2XII-B), a point kinetic treatment of ion interactions becomes inaccurate and a finite gyro-radius (FGR) treatment must be used to adequately describe plasma buildup processes. This is particularly true for describing losses due to cold-gas charge exchange (c-x) near the plasma surface, since a particle lost near the vacuum interface may have contributed to the density as far as 2 rho/sub i/ radially inward from the c-x point. A similar FGR effect applies to beam-deposited ions whose large orbits influence the density up to 2 rho/sub i/ from the trapping point.

  20. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  1. Program plan for the DOE Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Technology Program. Volume I. Summary, objectives and management. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This document defines a plan for conducting selected aspects of the engineering testing required for magnetic fusion reactor FWBS components and systems. The ultimate product of this program is an established data base that contributes to a functional, reliable, maintainable, economically attractive, and environmentally acceptable commercial fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield system. This program plan updates the initial plan issued in November of 1980 by the DOE/Office of Fusion Energy (unnumbered report). The plan consists of two parts. Part I is a summary of activities, responsibilities and program management including reporting and interfaces with other programs. Part II is a compilation of the Detailed Technical Plans for Phase I (1982 to 1984) developed by the participants during Phase 0 of the program (July to December 1981).

  2. Competition between fusion and quasifission in a heavy fusing system: Diffusion of nuclear shapes through a dynamical collective potential energy landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2006-12-15

    A theory of the competition between fusion and quasifission in a heavy fusing system is proposed, which is based on a master equation and the two-center shell model. Fusion and quasifission arise from a diffusion process in an ensemble of nuclear shapes, each of which evolves toward the thermal equilibrium. The fusing system moves on a dynamical (time-dependent) collective potential energy surface that is initially diabatic and gradually becomes adiabatic. Calculations for several reactions leading to {sup 256}No are performed within a simplified two-dimensional model. Among other important conclusions, the results indicate that (i) the diabatic effects play a very important role in the onset of fusion hindrance for heavy systems and (ii) very asymmetric reactions induced by closed-shell nuclei seem to be the best suited to synthesize the heaviest compound nuclei.

  3. Dynamical Collective Potential Energy Landscape: Its Impact on the Competition Between Fusion and Quasi-fission in a Heavy Fusing System

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2006-08-14

    A realistic microscopically-based quantum approach to the competition between fusion and quasi-fission in a heavy fusing system is applied to several reactions leading to 256No. Fusion and quasi-fission are described in terms of a diffusion process of nuclear shapes through a dynamical collective potential energy landscape which is initially diabatic and gradually becomes adiabatic. The microscopic ingredients of the theory are obtained with a realistic two-center shell model based on Woods-Saxon potentials. The results indicate that (i) the diabatic effects play a very important role in the onset of fusion hindrance for heavy systems, and (ii) very asymmetric reactions induced by closed shell nuclei seem to be the best suited to synthesize the heaviest compound nuclei.

  4. Neutronic Model of a Mirror Based Fusion-Fission Hybrid for the Incineration of Spent Nuclear Fuel and with Potential for Energy Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Klaus; Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O.; Hagnestall, A.

    2010-11-01

    In the last decade the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) published several design concepts of tokamak based fusion-fission hybrids which use solid fuels consisting of transuranic elements of the spent nuclear fuel from Light-Water-Reactors. The objectives of the hybrids are the incineration of the transuranic elements and an additional net energy production under the condition of tritium self-sufficiency. The present paper presents a preliminary scientific design of the blanket of a mirror based hybrid which was derived from the results of Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. The main operation parameters of two hybrid options were specified. One is the analog to Georgia Techs first version of a ``fusion transmutation of waste reactor'' (FTWR) and the other is a possible near-term option which requires minimal fusion power. The latter version shows considerably better performance parameters.

  5. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  6. FY2014 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Theory & Simulation Performance Target, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Guoyong; Budny, Robert; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Poli, Francesca; Chen, Yang; McClenaghan, Joseph; Lin, Zhihong; Spong, Don; Bass, Eric; Waltz, Ron

    2014-10-14

    We report here the work done for the FY14 OFES Theory Performance Target as given below: "Understanding alpha particle confinement in ITER, the world's first burning plasma experiment, is a key priority for the fusion program. In FY 2014, determine linear instability trends and thresholds of energetic particle-driven shear Alfven eigenmodes in ITER for a range of parameters and profiles using a set of complementary simulation models (gyrokinetic, hybrid, and gyrofluid). Carry out initial nonlinear simulations to assess the effects of the unstable modes on energetic particle transport". In the past year (FY14), a systematic study of the alpha-driven Alfven modes in ITER has been carried out jointly by researchers from six institutions involving seven codes including the transport simulation code TRANSP (R. Budny and F. Poli, PPPL), three gyrokinetic codes: GEM (Y. Chen, Univ. of Colorado), GTC (J. McClenaghan, Z. Lin, UCI), and GYRO (E. Bass, R. Waltz, UCSD/GA), the hybrid code M3D-K (G.Y. Fu, PPPL), the gyro-fluid code TAEFL (D. Spong, ORNL), and the linear kinetic stability code NOVA-K (N. Gorelenkov, PPPL). A range of ITER parameters and profiles are specified by TRANSP simulation of a hybrid scenario case and a steady-state scenario case. Based on the specified ITER equilibria linear stability calculations are done to determine the stability boundary of alpha-driven high-n TAEs using the five initial value codes (GEM, GTC, GYRO, M3D-K, and TAEFL) and the kinetic stability code (NOVA-K). Both the effects of alpha particles and beam ions have been considered. Finally, the effects of the unstable modes on energetic particle transport have been explored using GEM and M3D-K.

  7. Grid Computing and Collaboration Technology in Support of Fusion Energy Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schissel, D. P.

    2004-11-01

    The SciDAC Initiative is creating a computational grid designed to advance scientific understanding in fusion research by facilitating collaborations, enabling more effective integration of experiments, theory and modeling, and allowing more efficient use of experimental facilities. The philosophy is that data, codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and communication tools should be thought of as easy to use network available services. Access to services is stressed rather than portability. Services share the same basic security infrastructure so that stakeholders can control their own resources and helps ensure fair use of resources. The collaborative control room is being developed using the open-source Access Grid software that enables secure group-to-group collaboration with capabilities beyond teleconferencing including application sharing and control. The ability to effectively integrate off-site scientists into a dynamic control room will be critical to the success of future international projects like ITER. Grid computing, the secure integration of computer systems over high-speed networks to provide on-demand access to data analysis capabilities and related functions, is being deployed as an alternative to traditional resource sharing among institutions. The first grid computational service deployed was the transport code TRANSP and included tools for run preparation, submission, monitoring and management. This approach saves user sites from the laborious effort of maintaining a complex code while at the same time reducing the burden on developers by avoiding the support of a large number of heterogeneous installations. This tutorial will present the philosophy behind an advanced collaborative environment, give specific examples, and discuss its usage beyond FES.

  8. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  9. The path to fusion power.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris; Ward, David

    2007-04-15

    Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in power station conditions the materials that would be used in their construction. Assuming no major adverse surprises, an orderly fusion development programme could lead to a prototype fusion power station putting electricity into the grid within 30 years, with commercial fusion power following some 10 or more years later. In the second half of the century, fusion could therefore be an important part of the portfolio of measures that are needed to cope with rising demand for energy in an environmentally responsible manner. In this paper, we describe the basics of fusion, its potential attractions, the status of fusion R&D, the remaining challenges and how they will be tackled at the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor and the proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, and the timetable for the subsequent commercialization of fusion power. PMID:17272246

  10. Magnetized Target Fusion collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, Thomas

    2004-11-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) may be a low cost path to fusion, in a regime that is intermediate between magnetic and inertial fusion energy. It requires compression of a magnetized target plasma and consequent heating to fusion relevant conditions inside a converging flux conserver. We hope to demonstrate the physics basis for MTF, with a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma to be translated axially to a compression region. We show recent and improved FRC formation data, example deformable liner implosions, and a conceptual design for the upcoming translation experiments, and describe a multi institution collaboration. The FRC is an elongated, compact toroid equilibrium that is extreme among magnetic configurations, and relaxed to a non force free state. There is high plasma beta, small toroidal field, cross-field diamagnetic current and flows, vanishing rotational transform, magnetic shear, helicity and anomalously large resistivity. Scientific issues include MTF with and without FRC's, and fundamental plasma physics beyond MHD, relevant to geophysical and astrophysical phenomena.

  11. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  12. CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F.; Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C.

    2008-03-16

    Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

  13. Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Design Studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 3, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactor. This third of three three volumes discusses the following topics: Driver system definition; vacuum system; fuel processing systems (FPS); cavity design and analysis; heat transport and thermal energy conversion; balance of plant systems; remote maintenance systems; safety and environment; economics; and comparison of IFE designs.

  14. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1]could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  15. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  16. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    L. Grisham and J.W. Kwan

    2008-08-12

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1] could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  17. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  18. The fusion fission and quasi-fission processes in the reaction 48Ca + 208Pb at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorova, E. V.; Bogachev, A. A.; Itkis, M. G.; Itkis, I. M.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Rusanov, A. Ya.

    2008-04-01

    Mass-energy distributions (MEDs) and capture-fission cross sections have been measured in the reaction 48Ca + 208Pb → 256No at the energies E=206-242 MeV using a double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer CORSET. It has been observed that MED of the fragments consists of two parts, namely, the classical fusion-fission process corresponding to the symmetric fission of 256No and quasi-fission "shoulders" corresponding to the light fragment masses ˜60-90 u and complimentary heavy fragment masses. The quasi-fission "shoulders" have a higher total kinetic energy (TKE) as compared with that expected for the classical fission. A mathematical formalism was employed for the MEDs fragment decomposition into fusion-fission and quasi-fission components. In the fusion-fission process a high-energy Super-Short mode has been discovered for the masses M=130-135 u and the TKE of ≈233 MeV.

  19. Advanced latent heat of fusion thermal energy storage for solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.; Stearns, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The use of solar thermal power systems coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) is being studied for both terrestrial and space applications. In the case of terrestrial applications, it was found that one or two hours of TES could shift the insolation peak (solar noon) to coincide with user peak loads. The use of a phase change material (PCM) is attractive because of the higher energy storage density which can be achieved. However, the use of PCM has also certain disadvantages which must be addressed. Proof of concept testing was undertaken to evaluate corrosive effects and thermal ratcheting effects in a slurry system. It is concluded that the considered alkali metal/alkali salt slurry approach to TES appears to be very viable, taking into account an elimination of thermal ratcheting in storage systems and the reduction of corrosive effects. The approach appears to be useful for an employment involving temperatures applicable to Brayton or Stirling cycles.

  20. An overview on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at energy range ∼ 3-8 MeV/A

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Rahbar; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Kumar, Rakesh; Muralithar, S.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K.

    2014-08-14

    The information of ICF reaction has been obtained from the measurement of excitation function (EF) of ERs populated in the interaction of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 16}O on {sup 55}Mn, {sup 159}Tb and {sup 156}Gd targets. Sizable enhancement in the measured cross-sections has been observed in α-emitting channels over theoretical predictions, which has been attributed to ICF of the projectile. In order to confirm the findings of the measurements and analysis of EFs, the forward recoil range distributions of ERs populated in {sup 20}Ne+{sup 159}Tb (E ∼165MeV) and {sup 16}O+{sup 156}Gd (E ∼ 72, 82 and 93MeV) systems, have been measured. It has been observed that peaks appearing at different cumulative thicknesses in the stopping medium are related with different degree of linear momentum transfer from projectile to target nucleus by adopting the break-up fusion model consideration. In order to deduce the angular momentum involved in various CF and / or ICF reaction products, spin distribution and side-feeding intensity profiles of radio-nuclides populated via CF and ICF channels in {sup 16}O+{sup 160}Gd system at energy, E ∼ 5.6 MeV/A, have been studied. Spin distribution of ICF products are found to be distinctly different than that observed from CF products.

  1. Multi-energy soft-x-ray technique for impurity transport measurements in the fusion plasma edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. J.; Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Kaye, S. M.; Kumar, D.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Paul, S.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    A new diagnostic technique was developed to produce high-resolution impurity transport measurements of the steep-gradient edge of fusion plasmas. Perturbative impurity transport measurements were performed for the first time in the NSTX plasma edge (r/a ˜ 0.6 to the SOL) with short neon gas puffs, and the resulting line and continuum emission was measured with the new edge multi-energy soft-x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic. Neon transport is modeled with the radial impurity transport code STRAHL and the resulting x-ray emission is computed using the ADAS atomic database. The radial transport coefficient profiles D(r) and v(r), and the particle flux from the gas puff Φ(t), are the free parameters in this model and are varied to find the best fit to experimental x-ray emissivity measurements, with bolometry used to constrain the impurity source. Initial experiments were successful and results were consistent with previous measurements of core impurity transport and neoclassical transport calculations. New diagnostic tools will be implemented on NSTX-U to further improve these transport measurements.

  2. Guide to making time-lapse graphics using the facilities of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.K. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The advent of large, fast computers has opened the way to modeling more complex physical processes and to handling very large quantities of experimental data. The amount of information that can be processed in a short period of time is so great that use of graphical displays assumes greater importance as a means of displaying this information. Information from dynamical processes can be displayed conveniently by use of animated graphics. This guide presents the basic techniques for generating black and white animated graphics, with consideration of aesthetic, mechanical, and computational problems. The guide is intended for use by someone who wants to make movies on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center (NMFECC) CDC-7600. Problems encountered by a geographically remote user are given particular attention. Detailed information is given that will allow a remote user to do some file checking and diagnosis before giving graphics files to the system for processing into film in order to spot problems without having to wait for film to be delivered. Source listings of some useful software are given in appendices along with descriptions of how to use it. 3 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  4. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  5. NaOH-based high temperature heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. M.; Rice, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A material called Thermkeep, developed as a low-cost method for the storage of thermal energy for solar electric power generating systems is discussed. The storage device consists of an insulated cylinder containing Thermkeep in which coiled tubular heat exchangers are immersed. A one-tenth scale model of the design contains 25 heat-exchanger tubes and 1500 kg of Thermkeep. Its instrumentation includes thermocouples to measure internal Thermkeep temperatures, vessel surface, heated shroud surface, and pressure gauges to indicate heat-exchanger pressure drops. The test-circuit design is presented and experimental results are discussed.

  6. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Neutronic Analysis of the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine Using Various Thorium Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acır, Adem

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a neutronic performance of the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) molten salt blanket is investigated. Neutronic calculations are performed by using XSDRNPM/SCALE5 codes in S8-P3 approximation. The thorium molten salt composition considered in this calculation is 75 % LiF—25 % ThF4, 75 % LiF—24 % ThF4—1 % 233UF4, 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4. Also, effects of the 6Li enrichment in molten salt are performed for all heavy metal salt. The radiation damage behaviors of SS-304 structural material with respect to higher fissionable fuel content and 6Li enrichment are computed. By higher fissionable fuel content in molten salt and with 6Li enrichment (20 and 50 %) in the coolant in form of 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4, an initial TBR >1.05 can be realized. On the other hand, the 75 % LiF—25 % ThF4 or 75 % LiF—24 % ThF4—1 % 233UF4 molten salt fuel as regards maintained tritium self-sufficiency is not suitable as regards improving neutronic performance of LIFE engine. A high quality fissile fuel with a rate of ~2,850 kg/year of 233U can be produced with 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4. The energy multiplication factor is increased with high rate fission reactions of 233U occurring in the molten salt zone. Major damage mechanisms in SS-304 first wall stell have been computed as DPA = 48 and He = 132 appm per year with 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4. This implies a replacement of the SS-304 first wall stell of every between 3 and 4 years.

  8. FN-DFE: Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine for Enhanced State-Awareness of Resilient Hybrid Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Craig Rieger

    2014-11-01

    Resiliency and improved state-awareness of modern critical infrastructures, such as energy production and industrial systems, is becoming increasingly important. As control systems become increasingly complex, the number of inputs and outputs increase. Therefore, in order to maintain sufficient levels of state-awareness, a robust system state monitoring must be implemented that correctly identifies system behavior even when one or more sensors are faulty. Furthermore, as intelligent cyber adversaries become more capable, incorrect values may be fed to the operators. To address these needs, this paper proposes a Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine (FN-DFE) for resilient state-awareness of control systems. The designed FN-DFE is composed of a three-layered system consisting of: 1) traditional threshold based alarms, 2) anomalous behavior detector using self-organizing fuzzy logic system, and 3) artificial neural network based system modeling and prediction. The improved control system state-awareness is achieved via fusing input data from multiple sources and combining them into robust anomaly indicators. In addition, the neural network based signal predictions are used to augment the resiliency of the system and provide coherent state-awareness despite temporary unavailability of sensory data. The proposed system was integrated and tested with a model of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) hybrid energy system facility know as HYTEST. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed FN-DFE provides timely plant performance monitoring and anomaly detection capabilities. It was shown that the system is capable of identifying intrusive behavior significantly earlier than conventional threshold based alarm systems.

  9. Is the enthalpy of fusion of tris(acetylacetonato)metal(III) complexes affected by their potential energy in the crystal state?

    PubMed

    Sabolović, Jasmina; Mrak, Zeljko; Kostrun, Sanja; Janeković, August

    2004-12-27

    In this Article we present enthalpies of fusion and melting points obtained from new thermochemical measurements of tris(acetylacetonato)metal(III), M(acac)(3), complexes (M = Fe, Al, Cr, Mn, Co) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and evaluate them in relation to their different values found in the literature. An enthalpy of fusion of 27.67 kJ mol(-)(1) was derived for Mn(acac)(3) from a symmetrical DSC thermogram captured for the first time. The enthalpy value was indirectly confirmed with the solubility measurements of Mn(acac)(3) in acetylacetone. A hypothesis has been stated that the enthalpy of fusion and the potential energy of M(acac)(3) in the crystal state may be related. To calculate molecular in-crystal potential energy, in this Article we proposed a molecular mechanics model for the M(acac)(3) class of compounds. Nine X-ray crystal structures of M(acac)(3) complexes (M = Fe, Al, V, Mn, Co, Cr, Sc) were included in the modeling. The conformational potential energy was minimized for a molecule surrounded by other molecules in the crystal lattice. The partial charges from two schemes, the electrostatic potential (ESP) fit and the natural population analysis (NPA), were used to construct two types of force fields to examine which force field type would yield a better fit with the experimental thermal properties. The final force fields were named FF-ESP and FF-NPA. Both force field sets reproduced well the experimental crystal data of nine M(acac)(3) complexes as well as of tris(3-methyl-2,4-pentanedionato-O,O')cobalt(III). Only in-crystal potential energies derived by FF-NPA yielded a significant correlation (correlation coefficient R = -0.71) with the measured enthalpies of fusion. The enthalpy of fusion for Co(acac)(3) could not be determined experimentally because of simultaneous decomposition and fusion, and it is predicted to be 33.2 kJ mol(-)(1) from the correlation regression line.

  10. E-Field Asymmetry and Energy Transfer in Cold Fusion Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2004-03-01

    A many-body Bloch-deuteron field in a metal is a quantized matter field which forms when deuterons occupy shallow potential wells exceeding of the order of 10^4 potential wells.(T. A. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10, in press; see http://www.lenr-canr.org) The deuterons are merged by coordinate exchange, which takes place when wave function overlap occurs. The matter field minimizes total energy. Singlet pairings are subject to the short range nuclear potential and can collapse to nuclear dimension. The transition becomes irreversible if energy is transferred from the many-body system. The change into Bloch ^4He^+^+ is accompanied by a change in quantum of mass and charge, steepening the gradient of ion charge beyond the classical tuning point of the bound system. If the E-field is higher on one boundary of the ion system than on the opposing boundary, there is a net momentum impulse applied to the metal's electron system, which scatters electrons. Conversion of nuclear fluctuations into reactions is facilitated if the many-body deuteron system occupies a surface region.

  11. Low-energy x-ray emission from magnetic-fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; Eames, D.; von Goeler, S.; Goldman, M.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Silver, E.

    1982-04-01

    Complex, transient, spatially inhomogeneous tokamak plasmas require careful diagnosis. As the reactor regime is approached, soft x rays become more important as a versatile diagnostic tool and an energy-loss mechanism. Continuum emission provides a measure of electron temperature and light impurity content. Impurity lines serve as a probe for ion and electron temperature, impurity behavior, and radiative cooling. The entire spectrum yields vital information on instabilities and disruptions. The importance of impurities is illustrated by the extensive efforts toward understanding impurity production, effects, and control. Minute heavy impurity concentrations can prevent reactor ignition. Si(Li) - detector arrays give a broad overview of continuum and line x-ray emission (.3 to 50 keV) with moderate energy (200 eV) and time (50 ms) resolution. Bragg crystal and grating spectrometers provide detailed information on impurity lines with moderate to excellent (E/..delta..E = 100 to 23,000) resolving power and 1 to 50 ms time resolution. Imaging detector arrays measure rapid (approx. 10 ..mu..s) fluctuations due to MHD instabilities and probe impurity behavior and radiative cooling. Future tokamaks require more diagnostic channels to avoid spatial scanning, higher throughput for fast, single-shot diagnosis, increased spectral information per sample period via fast scanning or use of multi-element detectors with dispersive elements, and radiation shielding and hardening of detectors.

  12. Experiments on screening effect in deuteron fusion reactions at extremely low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targosz-Ślȩczka, N.; Czerski, K.; Huke, A.; Ruprecht, G.; Weissbach, D.; Martin, L.; Kiliç, A. i.; Kaczmarski, M.; Winter, H.

    2013-10-01

    The enhanced electron screening effect in nuclear reactions taking place in dense astrophysical plasmas is extremely important for determination of stellar reaction rates in terrestrial laboratories as well as in prediction of cross sections enhancement in interiors of stars such as White and Brown Dwarfs or Giant Planets. This effect resulting in reduction of the nuclear Coulomb potential by the atomic electrons has been confirmed in many laboratory experiments. Unfortunately, experimental screening energies are much higher than the theoretical predictions and the reason for that remains unknown. Here, we present absorbing results of the experiment studying d + d nuclear reactions in different deuterized metallic targets under ultra high vacuum conditions. The total cross sections and angular distributions of the 2H( d, p)3H and 2H( d, n)3He reactions have been measured using a deuteron beam of energies between 8 and 30 keV provided by the electron cyclotron ion source. The atomic cleanness of the target surface has been secured by combining Ar sputtering of the target and Auger electrons spectroscopy. Due to application of an on-line analysis method, the homogeneity of the implanted deuteron densities could be continuously monitored. We will discuss probable causes of the large discrepancy between theoretical and experimental data.

  13. The quest for fusion power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Steven C.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion power is one of a very few sustainable options to replace fossil fuels as the world's primary energy source. Although the conditions for fusion have been reached, much remains to be done to turn scientific success into commercial electrical power.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Bimodal Nanoporous Cu Foams: Working Towards Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Hayes, J R; Hamza, A

    2007-09-28

    For the National Ignition Facility, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, nanoporous structures play a crucial role in the development of targets for high energy density experiments. Here we present a new bottom-up synthesis technique termed filter-casting for the creation of bimodal macro/nanoporous Cu structures. Homogeneous nanoporous monoliths can be synthesized using Cu nanoparticles and bimodal porosities can be achieved using sacrificial polystyrene spheres as a template. Control over the structure and composition is critical for target manufacturing. The measured densities of the Cu foam range between 1070-3390 mg/cm{sup 3}. Filter-casting is a powerful new method for directly synthesizing large nanoporous monoliths with predetermined composition, pore size, and pore structure.

  15. Design considerations for a steady state fusion reactor's thermal energy dump (TED) with emphasis on SAFFIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Werley, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    This work examines the use of a thermal dump to handle the severe particle and energy handling requirements of a diverted plasma. We outline a general approach for evaluating the design parameters and limitations of a thermal dump, considering such things as thermomechanical and erosion effects, compatibility, availability, machinability, coolant recirculation, vacuum pumping, economics, lifetime, etc. To demonstrate how the performance requirements are reflected in design decisions, we apply a solid-walled dump to a small-sized field reversed mirror (FRM). We also examine a liquid-lithium droplet thermal dump and point out some distinct advantages of this new concept over the solid-wall design in reducing stress, erosion, and vacuum pumping problems. The chief disadvantages of this scheme include liquid-metal safe-handling problems, vapor pressure-temperature limitations, and the need for differential pumping if T/sub Li/ > 310/sup 0/C is desired.

  16. Special issue: overview and summary reports from the 24th Fusion Energy Conference (San Diego, CA, 8-13 October 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2013-10-01

    The group of 27 papers published in this special issue of Nuclear Fusion aims to monitor the worldwide progress made in the period 2010-2012 in the field of thermonuclear fusion. Of these papers, 24 are based on overview reports presented at the 24th Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2012) and three are summary reports. The conference was hosted by the Government of the United States of America and organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy and General Atomics. It took place in San Diego on 8-13 October 2012. The overviews presented at the conference have been rewritten and extended for the purpose of this special issue and submitted to the standard double-referee peer-review of Nuclear Fusion . The articles are placed in the following sequence: Overview articles, presented in programme order, are as follows: • Tokamaks DIII-D research towards resolving key issues for ITER and steady-state tokamaks; Overview of the JET results with the ITER-like wall; Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results; Overview of experimental results and code validation activities at Alcator C-Mod; An overview of KSTAR results; Progress of long pulse and H-mode experiments in EAST; Overview of physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment; Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade; An overview of recent HL-2A experiments; Progress of the JT-60SA project; Overview of recent and current research on the TCV tokamak; An overview of FTU results; New developments, plasma physics regimes and issues for the Ignitor experiment; Recent research work on the J-TEXT tokamak. • Other MCF Extension of operation regimes and investigation of three-dimensional current-less plasmas in the Large Helical Device; Dynamics of flows and confinement in the TJ-II stellarator; Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment; Overview of the RFX Fusion Science Program; An overview of intrinsic torque and momentum

  17. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  18. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  19. 2002 Fusion Summer Study Executive Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangerter, Roger; Navratil, Gerald; Sauthoff, Ned

    2001-09-01

    The 2002 Fusion Summer Study was conducted July 8-19, 2002, in Snowmass, CO, and carried out a critical assessment of major next steps in the fusion energy sciences program in both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). The conclusions of this study were based on analysis led by over 60 conveners working with hundreds of members of the fusion energy sciences community extending over eight months. This effort culminated in two weeks of intense discussion by over 250 U.S. and 30 foreign fusion physicists and engineers present at the 2002 Fusion Summer Study. This is the Executive Summary of the study report. Details are posted at http://web.gat.com/snowmass

  20. Rethinking the future of magnetic fusion: pushing too hard for energy breakeven now could cripple the program 10 years from now

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1982-09-24

    Budget cuts in fusion programs could limit research on the tokomak and linear tandem-mirror designs and preclude new alternative designs. With no guarantee that either design will reach the energy-breakeven point, unfunded alternatives will not be able to save the program. The Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee (MFAC), formed in May 1982 to help DOE negotiate, heard arguments for throwing all efforts into proving the two mainline approaches and counterarguments for developing cheaper and safer alternatives. The history of the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) proof-of-principle program illustrates the dilemma. New features in the tandem-mirror program do the same. Among the alternatives seeking research funds are the stellarator, the reversed-field pinch, and the compact-toroids concepts. (DCK)

  1. Grazing incidence liquid metal mirrors (GILMM) for radiation hardened final optics for laser inertial fusion energy power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W

    1999-06-30

    A thin film of liquid metal is suggested as a grazing incident liquid metal mirror (GILMM) for robust final optics of a laser inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The amount of laser light the mirror can withstand, called the damage limit, of a sodium film 85{sup o} from normal is calculated to be 57 J/cm{sup 2} normal to the beam for a 20 ns pulse and 1.3 J/cm{sup 2} for a 10 ps pulse of 0.35 {micro}m light (2 m{sup 2} and 90 m{sup 2} of mirror area per 100 kJ of laser energy at 20 ns and 10 ps, respectively). Feasibility relies on keep the liquid surface flat to the required accuracy by a combination of polished substrate, adaptive (deformable) optics, surface tension and low Reynolds number, laminar flow in the film. The film's substrate must be polished to {+-} 0.015 pm. Then surface tension keeps the surface smooth over short distances (<10 mm) and low Reynolds number laminar flow keeps the surface smooth by keeping the film thickness constant to less than + 0.01 w over long distance >10 mm. Adaptive optics techniques keep. the substrate flat to within {+-} 0.06 pm over 100 mm distance and {+-}0.6 {micro}m over 1000 mm distances. The mirror can stand the x-ray pulse when located 30 m away from the microexplosions of nominal yield of 400 MJ (50 MJ of X rays) when Li is used but for higher atomic number liquids like Na there may be too high a temperature rise forcing use of other x-ray attenuation methods such as attenuation by xenon gas. The cumulative damage from neutrons causing warpage of the liquid film's substrate can be compensated by adaptive optics techniques giving the mirrors long life, perhaps 30 years. The GILMM should be applicable to both direct and indirect drive and pulse lengths appropriate to slow compression ({approx}20 ns) or fast ignition ({approx}10 ps). For direct drive laser beams near the poles (70{sup o}, where 90{sup o} is vertical), stable thin films become more challenging. Proof of concept experiments are needed to verify the

  2. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the “burning plasma” regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  3. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  4. Summary of the 19th International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Meeting on 'Research Using Small Fusion Devices'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Oost, G.; Mank, G.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent results reported on several topics on magnetic confinement, dense magnetized plasmas, innovative fusion technology and applications, diagnostic systems and control and data acquisition systems. The main topics covered on the magnetic confinement devices, diagnostics and data acquisition concern the tokamak KTM (Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing) for materials research and testing, and IAEA Joint Experiments on small tokamaks. For the dense magnetized plasmas results on development and commissioning of plasma focus devices were reported. The plasmatron VISION I for innovative plasma-wall interaction studies, a lithium divertor for KTM and compact fusion reactors as neutron sources were presented.

  5. Magneized target fusion: An overview of the concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) seeks to take advantage of the reduction of thermal conductivity through the application of a strong magneticfield and thereby ease the requirements for reaching fusion conditions in a thermonuclear (TN) fusion fuel. A potentially important benefit of the strong field in the partial trapping of energetic charged particles to enhance energy deposition by the TN fusion reaction products. The essential physics is described. MTF appears to lead to fusion targets that require orders of magnitude less power and intensity for fusion ignition than currently proposed (unmagnetized) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets do, making some very energetic pulsed power drivers attractive for realizing controlled fusion.

  6. Line tension at lipid phase boundaries as driving force for HIV fusion peptide-mediated fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Kiessling, Volker; Tamm, Lukas K.

    2016-04-01

    Lipids and proteins are organized in cellular membranes in clusters, often called `lipid rafts'. Although raft-constituent ordered lipid domains are thought to be energetically unfavourable for membrane fusion, rafts have long been implicated in many biological fusion processes. For the case of HIV gp41-mediated membrane fusion, this apparent contradiction can be resolved by recognizing that the interfaces between ordered and disordered lipid domains are the predominant sites of fusion. Here we show that line tension at lipid domain boundaries contributes significant energy to drive gp41-fusion peptide-mediated fusion. This energy, which depends on the hydrophobic mismatch between ordered and disordered lipid domains, may contribute tens of kBT to fusion, that is, it is comparable to the energy required to form a lipid stalk intermediate. Line-active compounds such as vitamin E lower line tension in inhomogeneous membranes, thereby inhibit membrane fusion, and thus may be useful natural viral entry inhibitors.

  7. Line tension at lipid phase boundaries as driving force for HIV fusion peptide-mediated fusion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Kiessling, Volker; Tamm, Lukas K

    2016-01-01

    Lipids and proteins are organized in cellular membranes in clusters, often called 'lipid rafts'. Although raft-constituent ordered lipid domains are thought to be energetically unfavourable for membrane fusion, rafts have long been implicated in many biological fusion processes. For the case of HIV gp41-mediated membrane fusion, this apparent contradiction can be resolved by recognizing that the interfaces between ordered and disordered lipid domains are the predominant sites of fusion. Here we show that line tension at lipid domain boundaries contributes significant energy to drive gp41-fusion peptide-mediated fusion. This energy, which depends on the hydrophobic mismatch between ordered and disordered lipid domains, may contribute tens of kBT to fusion, that is, it is comparable to the energy required to form a lipid stalk intermediate. Line-active compounds such as vitamin E lower line tension in inhomogeneous membranes, thereby inhibit membrane fusion, and thus may be useful natural viral entry inhibitors. PMID:27113279

  8. A novel technique for single-shot energy-resolved 2D x-ray imaging of plasmas relevant for the inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Labate, L.; Koester, P.; Levato, T.; Gizzi, L. A.

    2012-10-15

    A novel x-ray diagnostic of laser-fusion plasmas is described, allowing 2D monochromatic images of hot, dense plasmas to be obtained in any x-ray photon energy range, over a large domain, on a single-shot basis. The device (named energy-encoded pinhole camera) is based upon the use of an array of many pinholes coupled to a large area CCD camera operating in the single-photon mode. The available x-ray spectral domain is only limited by the quantum efficiency of scientific-grade x-ray CCD cameras, thus extending from a few keV up to a few tens of keV. Spectral 2D images of the emitting plasma can be obtained at any x-ray photon energy provided that a sufficient number of photons had been collected at the desired energy. Results from recent inertial confinement fusion related experiments will be reported in order to detail the new diagnostic.

  9. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  10. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  11. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  12. Grazing incidence liquid metal mirrors (GILMM) as the final optics for laser inertial fusion energy power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W

    1999-06-25

    A thin film of liquid metal serves as a grazing incident liquid metal mirror (GILMM) for robust final optics of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The amount of laser light the mirror can withstand, called the damage limit, of a sodium film 85{degree} from normal arbitrarily set by surface temperature rise of 200 C to limit liquid ablation is 57 J/cm{sup 2} normal to the beam for a 20 ns pulse and 1.3 J/cm{sup 2} for a 10 ps pulse of 0.35 pm light. Liquid aluminum can handle 106 J/cm{sup 2}. The damage limit actually should be set by avoiding liquid ablation due to the rapid surface heating which is expected to result in even higher temperatures rises than 200 C and even higher power densities. The liquid surface is kept flat to the required accuracy by a combination of polished substrate, adaptive optics, surface tension and low Reynolds number, laminar flow in the film. The film's substrate must be polished to {+-}0.015 m. Then surface tension keeps the surface smooth over short distances (<10 mm) and low Reynolds number laminar flow keeps the surface smooth by keeping the film thickness constant to less than {+-} 0.01 pm over long distance >10 mm. Adaptive (deformable) optics techniques keep the substrate flat to within {+-}0.06 {micro}m over 100 mm distance and {+-}0.6 {micro}m over 1,000 mm distances. The mirror can withstand the x-ray pulse when located 30 m away from the microexplosions of nominal yield of 400 MJ (50 MJ x rays) when Li is used but for higher atomic number liquids like Na and Al there may be too high a temperature rise forcing use of other x-ray attenuation methods such as xenon gas, which may be needed for first wall protecting anyway. The cumulative damage from neutrons causing warpage of the liquid film's substrate can be compensated by adaptive optics techniques giving the mirrors long life, perhaps 30 years. The GILMM should be applicable to both direct and indirect drive and pulse lengths appropriate to slow compression

  13. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed.

  14. The problems associated with the monitoring of complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities.

    PubMed

    Bilski, P; Blomgren, J; d'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission is funding within its Sixth Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organisational framework for this project is provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. One task within the CONRAD project, Work Package 6 (WP6), was to provide a report outlining research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterisation of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators, but also at the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities. The paper provides an overview of the report, which will be available as CERN Yellow Report.

  15. Deployment of membrane fusion protein domains during fusion.

    PubMed

    Bentz, J; Mittal, A

    2000-01-01

    It is clear that both viral and intracellular membrane fusion proteins contain a minimal set of domains which must be deployed at the appropriate time during the fusion process. An account of these domains and their functions is given here for the four best-described fusion systems: influenza HA, sendai virus F1, HIV gp120/41 and the neuronal SNARE core composed of synaptobrevin (syn), syntaxin (stx) and the N- and C-termini of SNAP25 (sn25), together with the Ca(2+)binding protein synaptotagmin (syt). Membrane fusion begins with the binding of the virion or vesicle to the target membrane via receptors. The committed step in influenza HA- mediated fusion begins with an aggregate of HAs (at least eight) with some of their HA2 N-termini, a.k.a. fusion peptides, embedded into the viral bilayer (Bentz, 2000 a). The hypothesis presented in Bentz (2000 b) is that the conformational change of HA to the extended coiled coil extracts the fusion peptides from the viral bilayer. When this extraction occurs from the center of the site of restricted lipid flow, it exposes acyl chains and parts of the HA transmembrane domains to the aqueous media, i.e. a hydrophobic defect is formed. This is the 'transition state' of the committed step of fusion. It is stabilized by a 'dam' of HAs, which are inhibited from diffusing away by the rest of the HAs in the aggregate and because that would initially expose more acyl chains to water. Recruitment of lipids from the apposed target membrane can heal this hydrophobic defect, initiating lipid mixing and fusion. The HA transmembrane domains are required to be part of the hydrophobic defect, because the HA aggregate must be closely packed enough to restrict lipid flow. This hypothesis provides a simple and direct coupling between the energy released by the formation of the coiled coil to the energy needed to create and stabilize the high energy intermediates of fusion. Several of these essential domains have been described for the viral fusion

  16. Investigating the degree of "stigma" associated with nuclear energy technologies: A cross-cultural examination of the case of fusion power.

    PubMed

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana; Espluga, Josep

    2012-07-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy technologies are, in some sense, "stigmatised" by historical environmental and military associations is of particular interest in contemporary debates about sustainable energy policy. Recent claims in the literature suggest that despite such stigmatisation, lay views on such technologies may be shifting towards a "reluctant acceptance," in the light of concerns about issues like anthropogenic climate change. In this paper, we report on research into learning and reasoning processes concerned with a largely unknown nuclear energy technology; namely fusion power. We focus on the role of the nuclear label, or "brand," in informing how lay citizens make sense of the nature of this technology. Our findings derive from a comparative analysis of data generated in Spain and Britain, using the same methodology.

  17. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  18. Introduction to Nuclear Fusion Power and the Design of Fusion Reactors. An Issue-Oriented Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillo, J. A.

    This three-part module focuses on the principles of nuclear fusion and on the likely nature and components of a controlled-fusion power reactor. The physical conditions for a net energy release from fusion and two approaches (magnetic and inertial confinement) which are being developed to achieve this goal are described. Safety issues associated…

  19. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  20. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of laser radiation. A tokamak fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The tokamak design provides a temperature and a magnetic field which is effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10.sup.15 neutrons/cm.sup.2.s. A conversion medium receives neutrons from the tokamak and converts the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and an energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. The energy source typically comprises fission fragments, alpha particles, and radiation from a fission event. A lasing medium is provided which is responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion which is effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation.

  1. Study of fusion Q-value rule in sub-barrier fusion of heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Gao-Long; Zhang, Huan-Qiao

    2015-07-01

    A vast body of fusion data has been analyzed for different projectiles and target nuclei. It is indicated that the sub-barrier fusion depends on the fusion Q-value. In terms of a recently introduced fusion Q-value rule and an energy scaling reduction procedure, the experimental fusion excitation functions are reduced and compared with each other. It is found that the reduced fusion excitations of selected fusion systems show a similar trend. The fusion data for massive nuclei are in agreement with the Q-value rule. In the fusion process, the Q contribution should be considered. Within this approach, the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of most fusion systems can be predicted without involving any structure effects of colliding nuclei. Instances of disagreement are presented in a few fusion systems. The use of the energy scaling as a criterion of possible experimental data inconsistency is discussed. More precise experimental fusion data need to be measured. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11475013, 11035007, 11175011), State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment (SKLSDE-2014ZX-08), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities and the Key Laboratory of High Precision Nuclear Spectroscopy, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

  2. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  3. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V.

    2010-11-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  4. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S.; Crocker, J. G.

    Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices; and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

  5. Experiments in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-03-28

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models.

  6. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices.

    PubMed

    Pilan, N; Antoni, V; De Lorenzi, A; Chitarin, G; Veltri, P; Sartori, E

    2016-02-01

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming. PMID:26932053

  7. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices.

    PubMed

    Pilan, N; Antoni, V; De Lorenzi, A; Chitarin, G; Veltri, P; Sartori, E

    2016-02-01

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  8. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilan, N.; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E.

    2016-02-01

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  9. Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure {much_lt} external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ``sling shot`` that is ``loaded`` to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}6} are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

  10. Fusion Power Program biannual progress report, April-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This biannual report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the April-September 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Separate abstracts were prepared for three sections. (MOW)

  11. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications in national security and basic sciences. The US is arguably the world leader in the inertial confinement approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it, with the objective of establishing the science related to the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion. Here, we review the current state of the art in inertial confinement fusion research and describe the underlying physical principles.

  12. A review of helium-hydrogen synergistic effects in radiation damage observed in fusion energy steels and an interaction model to guide future understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, Jaime; Hoang, Tuan; Fluss, Michael; Hsiung, Luke L.

    2015-07-01

    Under fusion reactor conditions, large quantities of irradiation defects and transmutation gases are produced per unit time by neutrons, resulting in accelerated degradation of structural candidate ferritic (F) and ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels. Due to the lack of a suitable fusion neutron testing facility, we must rely on high-dose-rate ion-beam experiments and present-day crude modeling estimates. Of particular interest is the possibility of synergistic (positive feedback) effects on materials properties due to the simultaneous action of He, H, and displacement damage (dpa) during operation. In this paper we discuss the state-of-the-art in terms of the experimental understanding of synergistic effects and carry out simulations of triple-species irradiation under ion-beam conditions using first-of-its-kind modeling techniques. Although, state-of-the-art modeling and simulation is not sufficiently well developed to shed light on the experimental uncertainties, we are able to conclude that it is not clear whether synergistic effects, the evidence of which is still not conclusive, will ultimately play a critical role in material performance under fusion energy conditions. We review here some of the evidence for the synergistic effects of hydrogen in the presence of helium and displacement damage, and also include some recent data from our research. While the experimental results to date suggest possible mechanisms for the observed synergistic effects, it is only with more advanced modeling that we can hope to understand the details underlying the experimental observations. By employing modeling and simulation we propose an interaction model that is qualitatively consistent with experimental observations of dpa/He/H irradiation behavior. Our modeling, the results of which should be helpful to researchers going forward, points to gaps and voids in the current understanding of triple ion-beam irradiation effects (displacement damage produced simultaneously with

  13. A review of helium–hydrogen synergistic effects in radiation damage observed in fusion energy steels and an interaction model to guide future understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Marian, Jaime; Hoang, Tuan; Fluss, Michael; Hsiung, Luke L.

    2014-12-29

    Here, under fusion reactor conditions, large quantities of irradiation defects and transmutation gases are produced per unit time by neutrons, resulting in accelerated degradation of structural candidate ferritic (F) and ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels. Due to the lack of a suitable fusion neutron testing facility, we must rely on high-dose-rate ion-beam experiments and present-day crude modeling estimates. Of particular interest is the possibility of synergistic (positive feedback) effects on materials properties due to the simultaneous action of He, H, and displacement damage (dpa) during operation. In this paper we discuss the state-of-the-art in terms of the experimental understanding of synergistic effects and carry out simulations of triple-species irradiation under ion-beam conditions using first-of-its-kind modeling techniques. Although, state-of-the-art modeling and simulation is not sufficiently well developed to shed light on the experimental uncertainties, we are able to conclude that it is not clear whether synergistic effects, the evidence of which is still not conclusive, will ultimately play a critical role in material performance under fusion energy conditions. We review here some of the evidence for the synergistic effects of hydrogen in the presence of helium and displacement damage, and also include some recent data from our research. While the experimental results to date suggest possible mechanisms for the observed synergistic effects, it is only with more advanced modeling that we can hope to understand the details underlying the experimental observations. By employing modeling and simulation we propose an interaction model that is qualitatively consistent with experimental observations of dpa/He/H irradiation behavior. Our modeling, the results of which should be helpful to researchers going forward, points to gaps and voids in the current understanding of triple ion-beam irradiation effects (displacement damage produced simultaneously

  14. A review of helium–hydrogen synergistic effects in radiation damage observed in fusion energy steels and an interaction model to guide future understanding

    DOE PAGES

    Marian, Jaime; Hoang, Tuan; Fluss, Michael; Hsiung, Luke L.

    2014-12-29

    Here, under fusion reactor conditions, large quantities of irradiation defects and transmutation gases are produced per unit time by neutrons, resulting in accelerated degradation of structural candidate ferritic (F) and ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels. Due to the lack of a suitable fusion neutron testing facility, we must rely on high-dose-rate ion-beam experiments and present-day crude modeling estimates. Of particular interest is the possibility of synergistic (positive feedback) effects on materials properties due to the simultaneous action of He, H, and displacement damage (dpa) during operation. In this paper we discuss the state-of-the-art in terms of the experimental understanding of synergistic effectsmore » and carry out simulations of triple-species irradiation under ion-beam conditions using first-of-its-kind modeling techniques. Although, state-of-the-art modeling and simulation is not sufficiently well developed to shed light on the experimental uncertainties, we are able to conclude that it is not clear whether synergistic effects, the evidence of which is still not conclusive, will ultimately play a critical role in material performance under fusion energy conditions. We review here some of the evidence for the synergistic effects of hydrogen in the presence of helium and displacement damage, and also include some recent data from our research. While the experimental results to date suggest possible mechanisms for the observed synergistic effects, it is only with more advanced modeling that we can hope to understand the details underlying the experimental observations. By employing modeling and simulation we propose an interaction model that is qualitatively consistent with experimental observations of dpa/He/H irradiation behavior. Our modeling, the results of which should be helpful to researchers going forward, points to gaps and voids in the current understanding of triple ion-beam irradiation effects (displacement damage produced

  15. Security on the US Fusion Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justin R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  16. Data security on the national fusion grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  17. Fission-fusion neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinnan; Yu, Gang

    2009-04-01

    In order to meet the requirements of fusion power reactors and nuclear waste treatment, a concept of fission-fusion neutron source is proposed, which consists of a LiD assembly located in the heavy water region of the China Advanced Research Reactor. This assembly of LiD fuel rods will be irradiated with slow neutrons and will produce fusion neutrons in the central hole via the reaction 6Li(n, α). More precisely, tritium ions with a high energy of 2.739 MeV will be produced in LiD by the impinging slow neutrons. The tritium ions will in turn bombard the deuterium ions present in the LiD assembly, which will induce fusion reaction and then the production of 14 MeV neutrons. The fusion reaction rate will increase with the accumulation of tritium in LiD by the reaction between tritium and deuteron recoils produced by the 14 MeV neutrons. When the concentration of tritium reaches 0.5 · 10 22 and the fraction of fusion reactions between tritium and deuteron recoils approaches 1, the 14 MeV neutron flux is doubled and redoubled, an so forth, approaching saturation in which the tritium produced at a time t is exhausted by the fusion reactions to keep constant the tritium concentration in LiD.

  18. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  19. Extended optical model analyses of elastic scattering and fusion cross section data for the {sup 7}Li+{sup 208}Pb system at near-Coulomb-barrier energies using a folding potential

    SciTech Connect

    So, W. Y.; Udagawa, T.; Kim, K. S.; Hong, S. W.; Kim, B. T.

    2007-08-15

    Simultaneous {chi}{sup 2} analyses previously made for elastic scattering and fusion cross section data for the {sup 6}Li+{sup 208}Pb system are extended to the {sup 7}Li+{sup 208}Pb system at near-Coulomb-barrier energies based on the extended optical model approach, in which the polarization potential is decomposed into direct reaction (DR) and fusion parts. Use is made of the double folding potential as a bare potential. It is found that the experimental elastic scattering and fusion data are well reproduced without introducing any normalization factor for the double folding potential and that both the DR and fusion parts of the polarization potential determined from the {chi}{sup 2} analyses satisfy separately the dispersion relation. Further, we find that the real part of the fusion portion of the polarization potential is attractive while that of the DR part is repulsive except at energies far below the Coulomb barrier energy. A comparison is made of the present results with those obtained from the coupled discretized continuum channels calculations and a previous study based on the conventional optical model with a double folding potential. We also compare the present results for the {sup 7}Li+{sup 208}Pb system with the analysis previously made for the {sup 6}Li+{sup 208}Pb system.

  20. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-29

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.