Science.gov

Sample records for fusion reaction products

  1. Transfer-type products accompanying cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.

    2005-12-15

    Production of nuclei heavier than the target is treated for projectile-target combinations used in cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy nuclei. These products are related to transfer-type or to asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions. The production of isotopes in the transfer-type reactions emitting of {alpha} particles with large energies is discussed.

  2. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  3. Near threshold two meson production in hardonic fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Rainer

    1991-04-01

    An approved and funded exclusive COSY experiment is presented, which focuses on near threshold two meson production via the reactions p+d→3 He+π+π- and p+d→3 He+K+K-. It takes advantage of the high quality of the cooled external COSY beam and the existing spectrometer BIG KARL. The setup consists of a vertex wall and a scintillator cylinder and endcap covering a 4π solid angle. The large efficiency and high resolution of this detection method will yield precision data on the low energy (T<50 MeV) meson-meson interaction and probe into questions like the ABC-effect and KḲ molecule. The detector further allows a measurement of possible radiative φ (1020) decay, which will directly probe the strange quark content of the f0(975). Existing inclusive data as well as first results of a very recent `semi-exclusive' experiment performed at SATURNE will be also be presented.

  4. Role of angular momentum in the production of complex fragments in fusion and quasifission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2011-05-15

    The influence of angular momentum on the competition between complete fusion followed by the decay of compound nucleus and quasifission channels is treated within the dinuclear system model. The charge distributions of the products in the reactions {sup 28}Si+{sup 96}Zr, {sup 4}He+{sup 130}Te, and {sup 40}Ca+{sup 82}Kr are predicted at bombarding energies above the Coulomb barrier. The results of calculations for the reactions {sup 93}Nb+{sup 9}Be,{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; {sup 84}Kr+{sup 27}Al; {sup 86}Kr+{sup 63}Cu; {sup 139}La+{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; and {sup 45}Sc+{sup 65}Cu are compared with the available experimental data.

  5. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOEpatents

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  6. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOEpatents

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice

    1988-03-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  7. Product PCNPsurv or the "reduced" evaporation residue cross section σER/σfusion for "hot" fusion reactions studied with the dynamical cluster-decay model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Sahila; Kaur, Arshdeep; Hemdeep, Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-04-01

    The product PCNPsurv of compound nucleus (CN) fusion probability PCN and survival probability Psurv is calculated to determine the reduced evaporation residue cross section σER/σfusion , denoted σERreduced, with (total) fusion cross section σfusion given as a sum of CN-formation cross section σCN and non-CN cross section σnCN for each reaction, where σCN is the sum of evaporation residue cross section σER and fusion-fission cross section σff and σnCN, if not measured, is estimated empirically as the difference between measured and calculated σfusion. Our calculations of PCN and Psurv, based on the dynamical cluster-decay model, were successfully made for some 17 "hot" fusion reactions, forming different CN of mass numbers ACN˜100 -300 , with deformations of nuclei up to hexadecapole deformations and "compact" orientations for both coplanar (Φc=0∘ ) and noncoplanar (Φc≠0∘ ) configurations, using various different nuclear interaction potentials. Interesting variations of σERreduced with CN excitation energy E*, fissility parameter χ , CN mass ACN, and Coulomb parameter Z1Z2 show that, independent of entrance channel, different isotopes of CN, and nuclear interaction potentials used, the dominant quantity in the product is Psurv, which classifies all the studied CN into three groups of weakly fissioning, radioactive, and strongly fissioning superheavy nuclei, with relative magnitudes of σERreduced˜1 , ˜10-6 , and ˜10-11 , which, like for PCN, get further grouped in two dependencies of (i) weakly fissioning and strongly fissioning superheavy nuclei decreasing with increasing E* and (ii) radioactive nuclei increasing with increasing E*.

  8. Possibilities of production of neutron-deficient isotopes of U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Cf in complete fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.; Scheid, W.

    2008-10-15

    Within the dinuclear system model we analyze the production of yet unknown neutron-deficient isotopes of U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Cf in various complete fusion reactions. Different deexcitation channels of the excited compound nucleus are treated. The results are obtained without special adjustment to the selected evaporation channel. The fusion probability is an important ingredient of the excitation function. The results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The alpha decay half-life times in the neutron-deficient actinides are discussed.

  9. Characterization of Discontinuous Coarsening Reaction Products in INCONEL® Alloy 740H® Fusion Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H.; Dupont, John N.; Watanabe, Masashi; de Barbadillo, John J.

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of γ' coarsened zones (CZs) in alloy 740H fusion welds via a variety of electron microscopy techniques was conducted. The effects of solute partitioning during nonequilibrium solidification on the amount of strengthening precipitates along the grain boundaries were evaluated via electron-probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to present evidence for the preferential growth of CZs toward regions of lower γ' content, even if growth in that direction increases grain boundary area. Scanning electron microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify the propensity for CZs to develop along certain segments of the grain boundaries, as governed by the local variations in γ' content. Scanning transmission electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (XEDS) was used to assess the compositions of the matrix and precipitate phases within the CZs and to quantify the segregation of alloying components to the reaction front. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling were used to compare calculated and experimental compositions. The work presented here provides new insight into the progression of the discontinuous coarsening (DC) reaction in a complex engineering alloy.

  10. Characterization of Discontinuous Coarsening Reaction Products in INCONEL® Alloy 740H® Fusion Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H.; Dupont, John N.; Watanabe, Masashi; de Barbadillo, John J.

    2017-02-01

    Characterization of γ' coarsened zones (CZs) in alloy 740H fusion welds via a variety of electron microscopy techniques was conducted. The effects of solute partitioning during nonequilibrium solidification on the amount of strengthening precipitates along the grain boundaries were evaluated via electron-probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to present evidence for the preferential growth of CZs toward regions of lower γ' content, even if growth in that direction increases grain boundary area. Scanning electron microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify the propensity for CZs to develop along certain segments of the grain boundaries, as governed by the local variations in γ' content. Scanning transmission electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (XEDS) was used to assess the compositions of the matrix and precipitate phases within the CZs and to quantify the segregation of alloying components to the reaction front. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling were used to compare calculated and experimental compositions. The work presented here provides new insight into the progression of the discontinuous coarsening (DC) reaction in a complex engineering alloy.

  11. PRODUCTION OF {sup 9}Be THROUGH THE {alpha}-FUSION REACTION OF METAL-POOR COSMIC RAYS AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-04-10

    Spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars have indicated possible {sup 6}Li abundances that are much larger than the primordial abundance predicted in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. Possible mechanisms of {sup 6}Li production in metal-poor stars include pregalactic and cosmological cosmic-ray (CR) nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis by flare-accelerated nuclides. We study {sup 9}Be production via two-step {alpha}-fusion reactions of CR or flare-accelerated {sup 3,4}He through {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li, in pregalactic structure, intergalactic medium, and stellar surfaces. We solve transfer equations of CR or flare particles and calculate nuclear yields of {sup 6}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9}Be taking account of probabilities of processing {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li into {sup 9}Be via fusions with {alpha} particles. Yield ratios, i.e., {sup 9}Be/{sup 6}Li, are then calculated for the CR and flare nucleosynthesis models. We suggest that the future observations of {sup 9}Be in metal-poor stars may find enhanced abundances originating from metal-poor CR or flare activities.

  12. Fusion reactions at low energy

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Fusion measurement methods at low energies are briefly described, and experimental and theoretical fusion cross sections for /sup 58/Ni + /sup 58/Ni, /sup 58/Ni + /sup 64/Ni and /sup 64/Ni + /sup 64/Ni reactions are discussed. It is shown that quantal tunneling calculations do not describe the near- and sub-barrier behavior of the fusion data. Instead, the WKB predictions fall progressively further blow the experimental results as the energy is lowered. At far subbarrier energies the measured cross sections exceed the WKB predictions by more than three orders of magnitude. The unexpectedly strong dependence of the fusion probability upon the nuclear valence structure is illustrated and discussed. The relationship of channel coupling and quantal tunneling is discussed. In conclusion, it was established that atomic nuclei fuse far more readily at low energies that would be expected from quantal tunneling considerations alone. It was found that the behavior of the cross sections for fusion depends strongly upon the valence structure of the collision partners. This structural dependence extends from light 1p-shell systems to systems involving nearly 200 nucleons. These new phenomena may be viewed as characterizing the tunneling of a quantal system with many degrees of freedom. The failure of standard tunneling models may be understood as resulting from the ability of the dinuclear system to tunnel into the classically forbidden region by means of couplings to intrinsic degrees of freedom. 38 refs. (WHK)

  13. Constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter from fusion hindrance in reactions leading to the production of superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselsky, M.; Klimo, J.; Ma, Yu-Gang; Souliotis, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of fusion hindrance, an effect preventing the synthesis of superheavy elements in the reactions of cold and hot fusion, is investigated using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, where Coulomb interaction is introduced. A strong sensitivity is observed both to the modulus of incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, controlling the competition of surface tension and Coulomb repulsion, and to the stiffness of the density-dependence of symmetry energy, influencing the formation of the neck prior to scission. The experimental fusion probabilities were for the first time used to derive constraints on the nuclear equation of state. A strict constraint on the modulus of incompressibility of nuclear matter K0=240 -260 MeV is obtained while the stiff density-dependences of the symmetry energy (γ >1 ) are rejected.

  14. Radiation reaction in fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Hazeltine, R D; Mahajan, S M

    2004-10-01

    The effects of a radiation reaction on thermal electrons in a magnetically confined plasma, with parameters typical of planned burning plasma experiments, are studied. A fully relativistic kinetic equation that includes the radiation reaction is derived. The associated rate of phase-space contraction is computed and the relative importance of the radiation reaction in phase space is estimated. A consideration of the moments of the radiation reaction force show that its effects are typically small in reactor-grade confined plasmas, but not necessarily insignificant.

  15. Analysis of quasifission competition in fusion reactions forming heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerton, Kalee; Kohley, Zachary; Morrissey, Dave; Wakhle, Aditya; Stiefel, Krystin; Hinde, David; Dasgupta, Mahananda; Williams, Elizabeth; Simenel, Cedric; Carter, Ian; Cook, Kaitlin; Jeung, Dongyun; Luong, Duc Huy; McNeil, Steven; Palshetkar, Chandani; Rafferty, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Heavy-ion fusion reactions have provided a mechanism for the production of superheavy elements allowing for the extension of both the periodic table and chart of the nuclides. However, fusion of the projectile and target, forming a compound nucleus, is hindered by orders of magnitude by the quasifission process in heavy systems. In order to fully understand this mechanism, and make accurate predictions for superheavy element production cross sections, a clear description of the interplay between the fusion-fission and quasifission reaction channels is necessary. The mass-angle distributions of fragments formed in 8 different Cr + W reactions were measured at the Australia National University in order to explore the N/Z dependence of the quasifission process. Two sets of data were measured: one at a constant energy relative to the fusion barrier and one at a constant compound nucleus excitation energy. The results of this analysis will provide insight into the effect of using more neutron-rich beams in superheavy element production reactions.

  16. From nucleons to nuclei to fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglioni, S.; Navrátil, P.; Roth, R.; Horiuchi, W.

    2012-12-01

    Nuclei are prototypes of many-body open quantum systems. Complex aggregates of protons and neutrons that interact through forces arising from quantum chromo-dynamics, nuclei exhibit both bound and unbound states, which can be strongly coupled. In this respect, one of the major challenges for computational nuclear physics, is to provide a unified description of structural and reaction properties of nuclei that is based on the fundamental underlying physics: the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them. This requires a combination of innovative theoretical approaches and high-performance computing. In this contribution, we present one of such promising techniques, the ab initio no-core shell model/resonating-group method, and discuss applications to light nuclei scattering and fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-base fusion facilities.

  17. From Nucleons To Nuclei To Fusion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R; Horiuchi, W

    2012-02-15

    Nuclei are prototypes of many-body open quantum systems. Complex aggregates of protons and neutrons that interact through forces arising from quantum chromo-dynamics, nuclei exhibit both bound and unbound states, which can be strongly coupled. In this respect, one of the major challenges for computational nuclear physics, is to provide a unified description of structural and reaction properties of nuclei that is based on the fundamental underlying physics: the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them. This requires a combination of innovative theoretical approaches and high-performance computing. In this contribution, we present one of such promising techniques, the ab initio no-core shell model/resonating-group method, and discuss applications to light nuclei scattering and fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-base fusion facilities.

  18. Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.

    2011-05-15

    We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sigma}{sub cap}(l), the fusion probability P{sub fus}(l), and the survival probability P{sub surv}(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of P{sub fus}(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of P{sub fus}(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

  19. Synthesis of the heaviest nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenberg, G.; Morita, K.

    2015-12-01

    Cold fusion of heavy ions paved the way to superheavy elements. It was proposed by Yu.Ts. Oganessian more than forty years ago in 1974 [1,2]. First experiments were carried out at JINR Dubna, starting with the reaction 40Ar + 208Pb → 248Fm* where several hundreds to thousand atoms were produced on one day. The large production rate indicating an enhancement of the fusion cross section, especially for the evaporation of two or three neutrons, proved the concept of cold-fusion with the use of the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb as a target. The Dubna experiments were extended to the transactinide region beyond rutherfordium. The breakthrough came with the separation in-flight. Two different approaches were used: kinematic separation with the velocity filter SHIP [3] at GSI Darmstadt, and with the gasfilled separator GARIS [4,5] at RIKEN. With SHIP the concept of cold fusion of massive nuclear systems was convincingly confirmed by the observation of the one-neutron evaporation channel in the production of 247Rf in an irradiation of 208Pb with 50Ti [6] in 1981 which opened the way to the transactinide region. At SHIP the elements bohrium (107) to copernicium (112) were discovered [7]. A new closed shell region around hassium was found. The RIKEN experiments started in 2002. They confirmed the GSI results and in addition improved the data on structure and production of elements hassium to copernicium significantly. The heaviest element ever created in a cold fusion reaction, Z = 113, was observed at GARIS [8,9].

  20. Secondary Nuclear Reactions in Magneto-Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The goal of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is to relax the extreme pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion by magnetizing the fuel. Understanding the level of magnetization at stagnation is critical for charting the performance of any MIF concept. We show here that the secondary nuclear reactions in magnetized deuterium plasma can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product (BR), the critical confinement parameter for MIF. The secondary neutron yields and spectra are examined and shown to be extremely sensitive to BR. In particular, embedded magnetic fields are shown to affect profoundly the isotropy of the secondary neutron spectra. Detailed modeling of these spectra along with the ratio of overall secondary to primary neutron yields is used to form the basis of a diagnostic technique used to infer BR at stagnation. Effects of gradients in density, temperature and magnetic field strength are examined, as well as other possible non-uniform fuel configurations. Computational results employing a fully kinetic treatment of charged reaction product transport and Monte Carlo treatment of secondary reactions are compared to results from recent experiments at Sandia National Laboratories' Z machine testing the MAGnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. The technique reveals that the charged reaction products were highly magnetized in these experiments. Implications for eventual ignition-relevant experiments with deuterium-tritium fuel are discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Fusion reactions of Ni,6458+124Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. L.; Stefanini, A. M.; Esbensen, H.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Avila, M. L.; Back, B. B.; Bourgin, D.; Corradi, L.; Courtin, S.; Fioretto, E.; Galtarossa, F.; Goasduff, A.; Haas, F.; Mazzocco, M. M.; Montanari, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Mijatovic, T.; Sagaidak, R.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Scarlassara, F.; Strano, E. E.; Szilner, S.

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of fusion excitation functions of 58Ni+124Sn and 64Ni+124Sn are extended towards lower energy to cross sections of 1 μ b and are compared to detailed coupled-channels calculations. The calculations clearly show the importance of including transfer reactions in a coupled-channels treatment for such heavy systems. This result is different from the conclusion made in a previous article which claimed that the influence of transfer on fusion is not important for fusion reactions of Ni +Sn . In the energy region studied in this experiment no indication of fusion hindrance has been observed, which is consistent with a systematic study of this behavior.

  2. Fusion product studies via fast ion D-D and D-3He fusion on JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Hellsten, T.; Kiptily, V. G.; Craciunescu, T.; Eriksson, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Girardo, J.-B.; Goloborod'ko, V.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Johnson, T.; Kazakov, Y.; Koskela, T.; Mantsinen, M.; Monakhov, I.; Nabais, F.; Nocente, M.; Perez von Thun, C.; Rimini, F.; Santala, M.; Schneider, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Tsalas, M.; Yavorskij, V.; Zoita, V.; Contributors, JET

    2016-11-01

    Dedicated fast ion D-D and D-3He fusion experiments were performed on JET with carbon wall (2008) and ITER-like wall (2014) for testing the upgraded neutron and energetic ion diagnostics of fusion products. Energy spectrum of D-D neutrons was the focus of the studies in pure deuterium plasmas. A significant broadening of the energy spectrum of neutrons born in D-D fast fusion was observed, and dependence of the maximum D and D-D neutron energies on plasma density was established. Diagnostics of charged products of aneutronic D-3He fusion reactions, 3.7 MeV alpha-particles similar to those in D-T fusion, and 14.6 MeV protons, were the focus of the studies in D-3He plasmas. Measurements of 16.4 MeV gamma-rays born in the weak secondary branch of D(3He, γ)5Li reaction were used for assessing D-3He fusion power. For achieving high yield of D-D and D-3He reactions at relatively low levels of input heating power, an acceleration of D beam up to the MeV energy range was used employing 3rd harmonic (f=3{{f}CD} ) ICRH technique. These results were compared to the techniques of D beam injection into D-3He mixture, and 3He-minority ICRH in D plasmas.

  3. Evaluation of charged-particle reactions for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Resler, D.A.; Warshaw, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    New evaluations of the total reaction cross sections for {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He, {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, {sup 3}H(t,2n){sup 4}He,{sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He, and {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He have been completed. These evaluations are based on all known published data from 1946 to 1990 and include over 1150 measured data points from 67 references. The purpose of this work is to provide a consistent and well-documented set of cross sections for use in calculations relating to fusion energy research. A new thermonuclear data file, TDF, and a library of FORTRAN subprograms to read the file have been developed. Calculated from the new evaluations, the TDF file contains information on the Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates as a function of reaction and plasma temperature and the Maxwellian-averaged average energy of the interacting particles and reaction products. Routines are included that provide thermally-broadened spectral information for the secondary reaction products. 67 refs., 18 figs.

  4. Penetration Factor for Nuclear Fusion Reaction in Nonthermal Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Dai-Han; Jung, Young-Dae

    2011-02-01

    The nonthermal effects on the nuclear fusion reaction process are investigated in Lorentzian astrophysical plasmas. The closed expression of the classical turning point in Lorentzian plasmas is obtained by the Lambert W-function. Using the WKB analysis with the effective screening length, the closed expressions of the fusion penetration factor and the cross section for the nuclear fusion reaction in Lorentzian plasmas are obtained as functions of the spectral index, relative kinetic energy, and plasma parameters. It is shown that the nonthermal character of the Lorentzian plasma enhances the fusion penetration factor. In addition, the nonthermal effect on the penetration factor is found to be more significant in plasmas with higher densities. It would be expected that the fusion reaction rates of the p-p chain and the CNO cycle in nonthermal plasmas are always greater than those in thermal Maxwellian plasmas.

  5. The effect of proton halo on fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, J. A.; Kumar, Raj; Vitturi, A.

    2015-04-01

    In a recent brief report [Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. C 89, 027601 (2014)] we proposed a method to include the effect of a large break up in fusion reactions with neutron and proton halo nuclei. A stronger enhancement on the total fusion cross section was found for the proton case. However, neither complete nor incomplete fusion was studied and only one target was considered. Here, we revisit the problem in order to address the importance of complete and incomplete fusion. The sensitivity of the cross section to the target is also explored.

  6. Bibliography of fusion product physics in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L. M.; Sigmar, D. J.

    1989-09-01

    Almost 700 citations have been compiled as the first step in reviewing the recent research on tokamak fusion product effects in tokamaks. The publications are listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author and by subject category.

  7. /sup 18/O + /sup 12/C fusion-evaporation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Heusch, B; Beck, C; Coffin, J P; Freeman, R M; Gallmann, A; Haas, F; Rami, F; Wagner, P; Alburger, D E

    1980-01-01

    A study of the /sup 18/O + /sup 12/C fusion evaporation reaction has been undertaken for 2 reasons: to make a systematic study of the formation cross section for each individual evaporation residue over a broad excitation energy region in the compound nucleus /sup 30/Si:30 to 62 MeV; and to compare all results to fusion-evaporation calculations done in the framework of the Hauser-Feschbach statistical model.

  8. Cherenkov neutron detector for fusion reaction and runaway electron diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Junghee

    2015-08-01

    A Cherenkov-type neutron detector was newly developed and neutron measurement experiments were performed at Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. It was shown that the Cherenkov neutron detector can monitor the time-resolved neutron flux from deuterium-fueled fusion plasmas. Owing to the high temporal resolution of the detector, fast behaviors of runaway electrons, such as the neutron spikes, could be observed clearly. It is expected that the Cherenkov neutron detector could be utilized to provide useful information on runaway electrons as well as fusion reaction rate in fusion plasmas.

  9. Cherenkov neutron detector for fusion reaction and runaway electron diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Junghee

    2015-08-01

    A Cherenkov-type neutron detector was newly developed and neutron measurement experiments were performed at Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. It was shown that the Cherenkov neutron detector can monitor the time-resolved neutron flux from deuterium-fueled fusion plasmas. Owing to the high temporal resolution of the detector, fast behaviors of runaway electrons, such as the neutron spikes, could be observed clearly. It is expected that the Cherenkov neutron detector could be utilized to provide useful information on runaway electrons as well as fusion reaction rate in fusion plasmas.

  10. Cherenkov neutron detector for fusion reaction and runaway electron diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, MunSeong Kim, Junghee

    2015-08-15

    A Cherenkov-type neutron detector was newly developed and neutron measurement experiments were performed at Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. It was shown that the Cherenkov neutron detector can monitor the time-resolved neutron flux from deuterium-fueled fusion plasmas. Owing to the high temporal resolution of the detector, fast behaviors of runaway electrons, such as the neutron spikes, could be observed clearly. It is expected that the Cherenkov neutron detector could be utilized to provide useful information on runaway electrons as well as fusion reaction rate in fusion plasmas.

  11. Fusion reactors for hydrogen production via electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J. R.; Steinberg, M.

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

  12. Calculation of evaporation residue cross sections for the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in hot fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinjuan; Wang, Chengbin; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2013-07-01

    A systematic calculation of the production cross sections of superheavy elements (SHEs) in hot fusion reactions is performed. First, we analyze the reactions of 48Ca + 238U, 244Pu, and 248Cm, from which the parameter values in the model for each process are determined by comparing the calculated capture, fusion, and evaporation residue (ER) cross sections, respectively, with the measured data. Then, we calculate the ER cross sections of other hot fusion reactions with the derived parameter values. The calculated results are in good agreement with the available data. Furthermore, the possible isotope production cross sections of elements 118 and 117 in the reactions of 48Ca + ACf and ABk are computed. We find that with the increase of the neutron number of the target, the production cross sections of the SHEs increase, primarily caused by the smaller neutron separation energies of the corresponding neutron-rich compound nucleus (CN). Finally, the production cross sections of elements 120 and 119 are evaluated in fusion-evaporation reactions with 50Ti as a projectile.

  13. Accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangerter, R. O.; Faltens, A.; Seidl, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    Since the 1970s, high energy heavy ion accelerators have been one of the leading options for imploding and igniting targets for inertial fusion energy production. Following the energy crisis of the early 1970s, a number of people in the international accelerator community enthusiastically began working on accelerators for this application. In the last decade, there has also been significant interest in using accelerators to study high energy density physics (HEDP). Nevertheless, research on heavy ion accelerators for fusion has proceeded slowly pending demonstration of target ignition using the National Ignition Facility (NIF), a laser-based facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A recent report of the National Research Council recommends expansion of accelerator research in the US if and when the NIF achieves ignition. Fusion target physics and the economics of commercial energy production place constraints on the design of accelerators for fusion applications. From a scientific standpoint, phase space and space charge considerations lead to the most stringent constraints. Meeting these constraints almost certainly requires the use of multiple beams of heavy ions with kinetic energies > 1 GeV. These constraints also favor the use of singly charged ions. This article discusses the constraints for both fusion and HEDP, and explains how they lead to the requirements on beam parameters. RF and induction linacs are currently the leading contenders for fusion applications. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both options. We also discuss the principal issues that must yet be resolved.

  14. Effects of entrance channel on fusion probability in hot fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Long; Su, Jun; Huang, Ching-Yuan; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of the dinuclear system (DNS) model, the fusion reactions leading to the compound nuclei 274Hs* and 286Cn* are investigated. The fusion probability as a function of DNS excitation energy is studied. The calculated results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The obtained results show that the fusion probabilities are obviously enhanced for the reactions located at high place in potential energy surface, although these reactions may have small values of mass asymmetry. It is found that the enhancement is due to the large potential energy of the initial DNS. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province China (2016A030310208). National Natural Science Foundation of China (11605296, 11405278, 11505150, 11635003), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (15 lgpy 30) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M582730)

  15. Microdroplet fusion mass spectrometry for fast reaction kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Kyoo; Kim, Samuel; Nam, Hong Gil; Zare, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the fusion of high-speed liquid droplets as a way to record the kinetics of liquid-phase chemical reactions on the order of microseconds. Two streams of micrometer-size droplets collide with one another. The droplets that fused (13 μm in diameter) at the intersection of the two streams entered the heated capillary inlet of a mass spectrometer. The mass spectrum was recorded as a function of the distance x between the mass spectrometer inlet and the droplet fusion center. Fused droplet trajectories were imaged with a high-speed camera, revealing that the droplet fusion occurred approximately within a 500-μm radius from the droplet fusion center and both the size and the speed of the fused droplets remained relatively constant as they traveled from the droplet fusion center to the mass spectrometer inlet. Evidence is presented that the reaction effectively stops upon entering the heated inlet of the mass spectrometer. Thus, the reaction time was proportional to x and could be measured and manipulated by controlling the distance x. Kinetic studies were carried out in fused water droplets for acid-induced unfolding of cytochrome c and hydrogen–deuterium exchange in bradykinin. The kinetics of the former revealed the slowing of the unfolding rates at the early stage of the reaction within 50 μs. The hydrogen–deuterium exchange revealed the existence of two distinct populations with fast and slow exchange rates. These studies demonstrated the power of this technique to detect reaction intermediates in fused liquid droplets with microsecond temporal resolution. PMID:25775573

  16. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.G.; Meier, W.

    1995-03-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of {approximately}16{cents} per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GW{sub e} IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level.

  17. Thermochemical hydrogen production based on magnetic fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikorian, O. H.; Brown, L. C.

    1982-06-01

    Conceptual design studies were carried out on an integrated fusion/chemical plant system using a Tandem Mirror Reactor fusion energy source to drive the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Water-Splitting Cycle and produce hydrogen as a future feedstock for synthetic fuels. Blanket design studies for the Tandem Mirror Reactor show that several design alternatives are available for providing heat at sufficiently high temperatures to drive the General Atomic Cycle. The concept of a Joule-boosted decomposer is introduced in one of the systems investigated to provide heat electrically for the highest temperature step in the cycle (the SO3 decomposition step), and thus lower blanket design requirements and costs. Flowsheeting and conceptual process designs have been developed for a complete fusion-driven hydrogen plant, and the information has been used to develop a plot plan for the plant and to estimate hydrogen production costs.

  18. Understanding Fuel Magnetization and Mix Using Secondary Nuclear Reactions in Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, P. F.; Knapp, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hess, M. H.; Johns, O.; Lamppa, D. C.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Porter, J. L.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Rovang, D. C.; Ruiz, C. L.; Savage, M. E.; Smith, I. C.; Stygar, W. A.; Vesey, R. A.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetizing the fuel in inertial confinement fusion relaxes ignition requirements by reducing thermal conductivity and changing the physics of burn product confinement. Diagnosing the level of fuel magnetization during burn is critical to understanding target performance in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) implosions. In pure deuterium fusion plasma, 1.01 MeV tritons are emitted during deuterium-deuterium fusion and can undergo secondary deuterium-tritium reactions before exiting the fuel. Increasing the fuel magnetization elongates the path lengths through the fuel of some of the tritons, enhancing their probability of reaction. Based on this feature, a method to diagnose fuel magnetization using the ratio of overall deuterium-tritium to deuterium-deuterium neutron yields is developed. Analysis of anisotropies in the secondary neutron energy spectra further constrain the measurement. Secondary reactions also are shown to provide an upper bound for the volumetric fuel-pusher mix in MIF. The analysis is applied to recent MIF experiments [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.155003] on the Z Pulsed Power Facility, indicating that significant magnetic confinement of charged burn products was achieved and suggesting a relatively low-mix environment. Both of these are essential features of future ignition-scale MIF designs.

  19. Understanding fuel magnetization and mix using secondary nuclear reactions in magneto-inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Schmit, P F; Knapp, P F; Hansen, S B; Gomez, M R; Hahn, K D; Sinars, D B; Peterson, K J; Slutz, S A; Sefkow, A B; Awe, T J; Harding, E; Jennings, C A; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G W; Cuneo, M E; Geissel, M; Harvey-Thompson, A J; Herrmann, M C; Hess, M H; Johns, O; Lamppa, D C; Martin, M R; McBride, R D; Porter, J L; Robertson, G K; Rochau, G A; Rovang, D C; Ruiz, C L; Savage, M E; Smith, I C; Stygar, W A; Vesey, R A

    2014-10-10

    Magnetizing the fuel in inertial confinement fusion relaxes ignition requirements by reducing thermal conductivity and changing the physics of burn product confinement. Diagnosing the level of fuel magnetization during burn is critical to understanding target performance in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) implosions. In pure deuterium fusion plasma, 1.01 MeV tritons are emitted during deuterium-deuterium fusion and can undergo secondary deuterium-tritium reactions before exiting the fuel. Increasing the fuel magnetization elongates the path lengths through the fuel of some of the tritons, enhancing their probability of reaction. Based on this feature, a method to diagnose fuel magnetization using the ratio of overall deuterium-tritium to deuterium-deuterium neutron yields is developed. Analysis of anisotropies in the secondary neutron energy spectra further constrain the measurement. Secondary reactions also are shown to provide an upper bound for the volumetric fuel-pusher mix in MIF. The analysis is applied to recent MIF experiments [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] on the Z Pulsed Power Facility, indicating that significant magnetic confinement of charged burn products was achieved and suggesting a relatively low-mix environment. Both of these are essential features of future ignition-scale MIF designs.

  20. Formation of superheavy elements in cold fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolańczuk, Robert

    2001-04-01

    We calculate the formation cross sections of transactinides (superheavy elements), as well as heavy actinides (No and Lr), which have been or might be obtained in fusion reactions with the evaporation of only one neutron. We use both more realistic fusion barrier and survival probability of the compound nucleus in comparison with the original phenomenological model [Phys. Rev. C 59, 2634 (1999)] that prompted the Berkeley experiment on the synthesis of a new superheavy element 118 [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1104 (1999)]. Calculations are performed for asymmetric and symmetric target-projectile combinations and for reactions with stable and radioactive-ion beams. The formation cross sections measured at GSI-Darmstadt for transactinides and heavy actinides, as well as that for superheavy element 118 reported by the LBNL-Berkeley group, are reproduced within a factor of 2.4, on average. Based on the obtained relatively large cross sections, we predict that optimal reactions with stable beams for the synthesis of so far unobserved superheavy elements 119, 120, and 121 are 209Bi(86Kr, 1n)294119, 208Pb(88Sr, 1n)295120, and 209Bi(88Sr, 1n)296121, respectively. This is because of the magic of both the target and the projectile that leads to larger Q value and, consequently, lower effective fusion barrier with larger transmission probability. The same effect is responsible for relatively large cross sections predicted for the symmetric reactions 136Xe(124Sn, 1n)259Rf, 136Xe(136Xe, 1n)271Hs,138Ba(136Xe, 1n)273110, and 140Ce(136Xe, 1n)275112. Although shell effects in the magic nuclei 124Sn, 136Xe, 138Ba, and 140Ce are not as strong as in 208Pb and 209Bi, they act on both the target and the projectile and lead to the prediction of measurable cross sections.

  1. Reaction product imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  2. Sparking fusion: A step toward laser-initiated nuclear fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, I.

    1996-10-19

    The fusion furnace at the sun`s core burns hydrogen to make helium. Each time two hydrogen nuclei, or protons, merge to create a deuterium nucleus, the process releases energy. A chain of additional energy-producing nuclear reactions then converts deuterium into helium. Because protons, with their like electric charges, naturally repel each other, high temperatures and tremendous pressures are needed to force them together closely enough to initiate and sustain the reactions. These mergers cost energy initially, but the return on that investment proves prodigious. On Earth, such an energy payoff has been achieved only in the uncontrolled fury of a detonated hydrogen bomb. The vision of harnessing and controlling nuclear fusion as a terrestrial energy source has yet to be fulfilled. The proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) represents an ambitious effort to use powerful lasers to deposit sufficient energy in a small capsule of nuclear fuel to trigger fusion. The main justification for the project is to ensure that a core group of physicists and engineers maintains its expertise in the physics of nuclear weapons. This article presents both the scientific and political sides of the NIF facility.

  3. Impact of Reaction Cross Section on the Unified Description of Fusion Excitation Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basrak, Z.; Eudes, P.; de la Mota, V.; Sébille, F.; Royer, G.

    A systematics of over 300 complete and incomplete fusion cross section data points covering energies beyond the barrier for fusion is presented. Owing to a usual reduction of the fusion cross sections by the total reaction cross sections and an original scaling of energy, a fusion excitation function common to all the data points is established. A universal description of the fusion exci- tation function relying on basic nuclear concepts is proposed and its dependence on the reaction cross section used for the cross section normalization is discussed. The pioneering empirical model proposed by Bass in 1974 to describe the complete fusion cross sections is rather successful for the incomplete fusion too and provides cross section predictions in satisfactory agreement with the observed universality of the fusion excitation function. The sophisticated microscopic transport DYWAN model not only reproduces the data but also predicts that fusion reaction mechanism disappears due to weakened nuclear stopping power around the Fermi energy.

  4. Possibilities of synthesis of unknown isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z > 108 in asymmetric actinide-based complete fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Juhee; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2016-10-01

    The possibilities of production of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z = 109-114 in various asymmetric hot fusion reactions are studied for the first time. The excitation functions of the formation of these isotopes in the xn evaporation channels are predicted and the optimal conditions for the synthesis are proposed. The products of the suggested reactions can fill a gap of unknown isotopes between the isotopes of the heaviest nuclei obtained in cold and hot complete fusion reactions.

  5. A classical approach in simple nuclear fusion reaction {sub 1}H{sup 2}+{sub 1}H{sup 3} using two-dimension granular molecular dynamics model

    SciTech Connect

    Viridi, S.; Kurniadi, R.; Waris, A.; Perkasa, Y. S.

    2012-06-06

    Molecular dynamics in 2-D accompanied by granular model provides an opportunity to investigate binding between nuclei particles and its properties that arises during collision in a fusion reaction. A fully classical approach is used to observe the influence of initial angle of nucleus orientation to the product yielded by the reaction. As an example, a simplest fusion reaction between {sub 1}H{sup 2} and {sub 1}H{sup 3} is observed. Several products of the fusion reaction have been obtained, even the unreported ones, including temporary {sub 2}He{sup 4} nucleus.

  6. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1999-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  7. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1999-01-05

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 34 figs.

  8. Neutron detector for fusion reaction-rate measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.; Phillion, D.W.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1993-09-03

    We have developed a fast, sensitive neutron detector for recording the fusion reaction-rate history of inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The detector is based on the fast rise-time of a commercial plastic scintillator (BC-422) and has a response < 25-ps FWHM. A thin piece of scintillator material acts as a neutron-to- light converter. A zoom lens images light from the scintillator surface to a high-speed (15 ps) optical streak camera for recording. The zoom lens allows the scintillator to be positioned between 1 and 50 cm from a target. The camera simulaneously records an optical fiducial pulse which allows the camera time base to be calibrated relative to the incident laser power. Bursts of x rays formed by focusing 20-ps, 2.5-TW laser pulses onto gold disk targets demonstrate the detector resolution to be < 25 ps. We have recorded burn histories for deuterium/tritium-filled targets producing as few as 3 {times} 10{sup 7} neutrons.

  9. The fusion-fission process in the reaction 34S +186W near the interaction barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harca, I. M.; Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, J.; Kozulin, E. M.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Novikov, K.; Azaiez, F.; Gottardo, A.; Matea, I.; Verney, D.; Chubarian, G.; Hanappe, F.; Piot, J.; Schmitt, C.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vardaci, E.

    2015-02-01

    The reaction 34S +186W at Elab=160 MeV was investigated with the aim of diving into the features of the fusion-fission process. Gamma rays in coincidence with binary reaction fragments were measured using the high efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer ORGAM at the TANDEM Accelerator facility of I.P.N., Orsay, and the time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments (FF) registration CORSET of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Dubna. The coupling of the ORGAM and CORSET setups offers the unique opportunity of extracting details for characterizing the fusion-fission process and gives information regarding production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. The FF-γ coincidence method is of better use then the γ - γ coincidence method when dealing with low statistic measurements and also offers the opportunity to precisely correct the Dopler shift for in-flight emitted gamma rays. Evidence of symmetric and asymmetric fission modes were observed in the mass and TKE distributions, occurring due to shell effects in the fragments. Coincident measurements allow for discrimination between the gamma rays by accepting a specific range within the mass distribution of the reaction products. Details regarding the experimental setup, methods of processing the acquisitioned data and preliminary results are presented.

  10. Measurements of fusion product emission profiles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Murphy, T.J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tait, G.D.; Zweben, S.J.

    1986-11-01

    The techniques and results of fusion product emission profile measurements are reviewed. While neutron source strength profile measurements have been attempted by several methods, neutron scattering is a limitation to the results. Profile measurements using charged fusion products have recently provided an alternative since collimation is much easier for the charged particles.

  11. RF heating for fusion product studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hellsten, T. Johnson, T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V.; Rimini, F.; Eriksson, J.; Mantsinen, M.; Schneider, M.; Tsalas, M.

    2015-12-10

    Third harmonic cyclotron heating is an effective tool for accelerating deuterium (D) beams to the MeV energy range, suitable for studying ITER relevant fast particle physics in plasmas without significant tritium content. Such experiments were recently conducted in JET with an ITER like wall in D plasmas with {sup 3}He concentrations up to 30% in order to boost the fusion reactivity by D-{sup 3}He reactions. The harmonic cyclotron heating produces high-energy tails in the MeV range of D ions by on-axis heating and of {sup 3}He ions by tangential off-axis heating. The discharges are characterized by long sawtooth free periods and a rich spectrum of MHD modes excited by the fast D and {sup 3}He ions. The partitions of the power, which depend on the distribution function of D, vary strongly over several slowing down times. Self-consistent modelling of the distribution function with the SELFO-light code are presented and compared with experimental data from fast particle diagnostics.

  12. Evidence of complete fusion in the subbarrier {sup 16}O+{sup 238}U reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, K. Ikezoe, H.; Asai, M.; Tsukada, K.; Mitsuoka, S.; Tsuruta, K.; Satou, K.; Lin, C. J.; Ohsawa, T.

    2006-08-15

    Evaporation residue cross sections in the {sup 16}O+{sup 238}U reaction were measured for the energy range from above-to extreme subbarrier. We used a He-gas-jet system to transport the fusion products, and the {alpha} decay of the evaporation residues was measured by using a rotating wheel system. The measured cross sections for {sup 248,249,250}Fm are reproduced by a statistical model calculation, for which partial cross sections are calculated by a coupled-channel model taking into account the prolate deformation of {sup 238}U. We conclude that complete fusion is the main process in the subbarrier energy region, and quasifission is not an important channel.

  13. Refined Calculations of Secondary Nuclear Reactions in Magneto-Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, Paul; Knapp, Patrick; Hansen, Stephanie; Gomez, Matthew; Hahn, Kelly; Sinars, Daniel; Peterson, Kyle; Slutz, Stephen; Sefkow, Adam; Awe, Thomas; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    Diagnosing the degree of magnetic flux compression at stagnation in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is critical for charting the performance of any MIF concept. In pure deuterium plasma, the transport of high-energy tritons produced by the aneutronic DD fusion reaction depends strongly on the magnetic field. The tritons probe and occasionally react with the fuel, emitting secondary DT neutrons. We show that the DT/DD neutron yield ratio and the secondary DT neutron spectra can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product (BR), the critical confinement parameter for MIF. The amount of fuel-pusher mix also can be constrained by secondary reactions. We discuss the sensitivity to plasma inhomogeneities of the calculations and outline methods to relate secondary yields to alpha particle energy deposition in ignition-relevant experiments employing DT fuel. We compare our calculations to recent tests of the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept on the Z Pulsed Power Facility. Supported in part by the SNL Truman Fellowship, which is part of the LDRD Program, and sponsored by Sandia Corporation (a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation) as Operator of SNL under its U.S. DoE Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Peterson, Kyle J.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Awe, Thomas James; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Porter, John L.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Rovang, Dean C.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Savage, Mark E.; Smith, Ian C.; Stygar, William A.; Herrmann, Mark

    2015-05-14

    In magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, we found that the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner InertialFusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, we show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG · cm, a ~ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. Lastly, this is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  15. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.; and others

    2015-05-15

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/−0.06) MG · cm, a ∼ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  16. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; ...

    2015-05-14

    In magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, we found that the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used tomore » infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner InertialFusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, we show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG · cm, a ~ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. Lastly, this is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.« less

  17. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectraa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.; Rovang, D. C.; Ruiz, C. L.; Savage, M. E.; Smith, I. C.; Stygar, W. A.; Herrmann, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG . cm, a ˜ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  18. The cytoplasmic domain of the gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 targets the protein to the fusion site in Chlamydomonas and regulates the fusion reaction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick; Snell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-cell fusion between gametes is a defining step during development of eukaryotes, yet we know little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the gamete membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 is the sole gamete-specific protein in any system that is broadly conserved and shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete fusion. The wide evolutionary distribution of HAP2 (also known as GCS1) indicates it was present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and, therefore, dissecting its molecular properties should provide new insights into fundamental features of fertilization. HAP2 acts at a step after membrane adhesion, presumably directly in the merger of the lipid bilayers. Here, we use the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas to characterize contributions of key regions of HAP2 to protein location and function. We report that mutation of three strongly conserved residues in the ectodomain has no effect on targeting or fusion, although short deletions that include those residues block surface expression and fusion. Furthermore, HAP2 lacking a 237-residue segment of the cytoplasmic region is expressed at the cell surface, but fails to localize at the apical membrane patch specialized for fusion and fails to rescue fusion. Finally, we provide evidence that the ancient HAP2 contained a juxta-membrane, multi-cysteine motif in its cytoplasmic region, and that mutation of a cysteine dyad in this motif preserves protein localization, but substantially impairs HAP2 fusion activity. Thus, the ectodomain of HAP2 is essential for its surface expression, and the cytoplasmic region targets HAP2 to the site of fusion and regulates the fusion reaction. PMID:25655701

  19. The cytoplasmic domain of the gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 targets the protein to the fusion site in Chlamydomonas and regulates the fusion reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick; Snell, William J

    2015-03-01

    Cell-cell fusion between gametes is a defining step during development of eukaryotes, yet we know little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the gamete membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 is the sole gamete-specific protein in any system that is broadly conserved and shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete fusion. The wide evolutionary distribution of HAP2 (also known as GCS1) indicates it was present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and, therefore, dissecting its molecular properties should provide new insights into fundamental features of fertilization. HAP2 acts at a step after membrane adhesion, presumably directly in the merger of the lipid bilayers. Here, we use the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas to characterize contributions of key regions of HAP2 to protein location and function. We report that mutation of three strongly conserved residues in the ectodomain has no effect on targeting or fusion, although short deletions that include those residues block surface expression and fusion. Furthermore, HAP2 lacking a 237-residue segment of the cytoplasmic region is expressed at the cell surface, but fails to localize at the apical membrane patch specialized for fusion and fails to rescue fusion. Finally, we provide evidence that the ancient HAP2 contained a juxta-membrane, multi-cysteine motif in its cytoplasmic region, and that mutation of a cysteine dyad in this motif preserves protein localization, but substantially impairs HAP2 fusion activity. Thus, the ectodomain of HAP2 is essential for its surface expression, and the cytoplasmic region targets HAP2 to the site of fusion and regulates the fusion reaction.

  20. Ion transport of Fr nuclear reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, J.A.; Cahn, S.B.; Dutta, S.B.

    1993-04-01

    Experiments planned for fundamental studies of radioactive atoms in magneto-optic traps require efficient deceleration and transport of nuclear reaction products to energies and locations where they can be trapped. The authors have built a low-energy ion transport system for Francium and other alkalis. A thick Au target is held on a W rod at 45{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The heavy-ion fusion reaction 115 MeV {sup 18}O + {sup 197}Au produces {sup 211,210,209}Fr recoil products which are stopped in the target. The target is heated to close to the melting point of Au to allow the Fr to diffuse to the surface, where it is ionized due to Au`s high work function, and is directly extracted by an electrode at 90{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The Fr is transported by electrostatic optics {approximately}1 m to a catcher viewed by an {alpha} detector: {ge}15% of the Fr produced in the target reaches the catcher. 2{times}10{sup 5} Fr/sec have been produced at the catcher, yielding at equilibrium a sample of 3x10{sup 7}Fr nuclei. This scheme physically decouples the target diffusion from the surface neutralization process, which can occur at a lower temperature more compatible with the neutral-atom trap.

  1. Applications of Skyrme energy-density functional to fusion reactions for synthesis of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ning; Scheid, Werner; Wu Xizhen; Liu Min; Li Zhuxia

    2006-10-15

    The Skyrme energy-density functional approach has been extended to study massive heavy-ion fusion reactions. Based on the potential barrier obtained and the parametrized barrier distribution the fusion (capture) excitation functions of a lot of heavy-ion fusion reactions are studied systematically. The average deviations of fusion cross sections at energies near and above the barriers from experimental data are less than 0.05 for 92% of 76 fusion reactions with Z{sub 1}Z{sub 2}<1200. For the massive fusion reactions, for example, the {sup 238}U-induced reactions and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 208}Pb, the capture excitation functions have been reproduced remarkably well. The influence of structure effects in the reaction partners on the capture cross sections is studied with our parametrized barrier distribution. By comparing the reactions induced by double-magic nucleus {sup 48}Ca and by {sup 32}S and {sup 35}Cl, the ''threshold-like'' behavior in the capture excitation function for {sup 48}Ca-induced reactions is explored and an optimal balance between the capture cross section and the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is studied. Finally, the fusion reactions with {sup 36}S, {sup 37}Cl, {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 50}Ti bombarding {sup 248}Cm, {sup 247,249}Bk, {sup 250,252,254}Cf, and {sup 252,254}Es, as well as the reactions leading to the same compound nucleus with Z=120 and N=182, are studied further. The calculation results for these reactions are useful for searching for the optimal fusion configuration and suitable incident energy in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei.

  2. Possibilities for synthesis of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X. J.; Gao, Y.; Li, J. Q.; Zhang, H. F.

    2016-04-01

    In order to find a way to produce superheavy nuclei (SHN), which appear in the gap between the SHN synthesized by cold fusion and those by hot fusion, or those so far not yet been produced in the laboratory, we tried to make use of a set of projectile isotopic chains, to use a radioactive beam projectile, and to test symmetric fusion reactions for gaining more neutrons to synthesize neutron-richer SHN based on the dinuclear system (DNS) model via cold fusion reactions. It is found that the nuclei 265Mt,Ds,272268,273Rg, and 274,275,276Cn may be produced with the detectable evaporation residual cross sections. The intensities of radioactive beams are significantly less than those of the stable beams, therefore using a stable beam is predicted to be the most favorable method for producing SHN. From the symmetric reaction system 136Xe+136Xe , no fusion event was found.

  3. Charge-exchange and fusion reaction measurements during compression experiments with neutral beam heating in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hammett, G.W.; Chan, A.A.; England, A.C.; Hendel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; Nieschmidt, E.; Roquemore, A.L.; Scott, S.D.

    1986-04-01

    Adiabatic toroidal compression experiments were performed in conjunction with high power neutral beam injection in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Acceleration of beam ions to energies nearly twice the injection energy was measured with a charge-exchange neutral particle analyzer. Measurements were also made of 2.5 MeV neutrons and 15 MeV protons produced in fusion reactions between the deuterium beam ions and the thermal deuterium and /sup 3/He ions, respectively. When the plasma was compressed, the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction rate increased a factor of five, and the /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He rate by a factor of twenty. These data were simulated with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck program, which assumed conservation of angular momentum and magnetic moment during compression. The results indicate that the beam ion acceleration was consistent with adiabatic scaling.

  4. Fusion and quasifission studies in reactions forming Rn via evaporation residue measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamlath, A.; Prasad, E.; Madhavan, N.; Laveen, P. V.; Gehlot, J.; Nasirov, A. K.; Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Nath, S.; Banerjee, Tathagata; Vinodkumar, A. M.; Shareef, M.; Jhingan, A.; Varughese, T.; Kumar, Dvgrks; Devi, P. Sandya; Khushboo, Jisha, P.; Kumar, Neeraj; Hosamani, M. M.; Kailas, S.

    2017-03-01

    Background: Formation of the compound nucleus (CN) is highly suppressed by quasifission in heavy-ion collisions involving massive nuclei. Though considerable progress has been made in the understanding of fusion-fission and quasifission, the exact dependence of fusion probability on various entrance channel variables is not completely clear, which is very important for the synthesis of new heavy and superheavy elements. Purpose: To study the interplay between fusion and quasifission in reactions forming CN in the boundary region where the fusion probability starts to deviate from unity. Methods: Fusion evaporation residue cross sections were measured for the Si,3028+180Hf reactions using the Hybrid Recoil Mass Analyser at IUAC, New Delhi. Experimental data were compared with data from other reactions forming the same CN or isotopes of the CN. Theoretical calculations were performed using the dinuclear system and statistical models. Results: Reduced evaporation residue cross sections were observed for the reactions studied compared with the asymmetric reaction forming the same CN, indicating fusion suppression in more symmetric systems. The observations are consistent with fission fragment measurements performed in the same or similar systems. Larger ER cross sections are observed with increase in mass in the isotopic chain of the CN. Conclusions: Fusion probability varies significantly with the entrance channels in reactions forming the same CN. While complete fusion occurs for the 16O+194Pt reaction, the fusion probability drops to approximately 60 -70 % for the 30Si+180Hf and less than 20 % for the 50Ti+160Gd reactions, respectively, forming the same CN at similar excitation energies.

  5. ConnesFusionTensorProduct/Photon GluonFusion in Mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wh-Maksoed, Prodi Of Physics Ui, Depok 16415-Indonesia; Ssi, Wh-Maksoed

    2016-05-01

    As in AJ Wassermann distinguished of classical invariant theory & quantum invariant theory subfactor, in S. Palcoux:``From Neveu-Schwarz Subfactors & Connes Fusion'' described the subfactor theory & Witt-algebra whereas Andreas Thom's explanation about ConnesFusionTensorProduct/CFTP related Connes fusion to composition of homomorphism (i). classical tensor product O-X adds the changes,(ii). Relative tensor product H-X preserve the changes. For photonGluonFusion/PGF defined:''photon is the gauge boson of QED, the simplest of all boson'' devotes to CFT as ``quantum field theory which are invariant under conformal transformation & in 2D there are infinite dimensional algebra. Alain Connes states theirselves Connes fusion as ``associative tensor operation'' to be in coincidences with ``their dynamic behavior driven by the balance in mitochondrial fusion & fission (Carveney, 2007) from Peter Alexander Williams: ``Retinal neuronal remodeling in a model of Optic Atrophy'', Dec, 2011. Great acknowledged to the VicePresident of the R.I, HE.Mr. Drs. M. JUSUF KALLA.

  6. Microscopic dynamics simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun; Li, Zhuxia

    2014-06-01

    The heavy-ion fusion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei are investigated with the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model. With a subtle consideration of the neutron skin thickness of nuclei and the symmetry potential, the stability of nuclei and the fusion excitation functions of heavy-ion fusion reactions O16 + Ge76, O16 + Sm154, Ca40 + Zr96, and Sn132 + Ca40 are systematically studied. The fusion cross sections of these reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier can be well reproduced by using the ImQMD model. The corresponding slope parameter of the symmetry energy adopted in the calculations is L ≈78 MeV and the surface energy coefficient is gsur=18±1.5 MeV fm2. In addition, it is found that the surface-symmetry term significantly influences the fusion cross sections of neutron-rich fusion systems. For sub-barrier fusion, the dynamical fluctuations in the densities of the reaction partners and the enhanced surface diffuseness at neck side result in the lowering of the fusion barrier.

  7. Fusion, reaction, and breakup cross sections of {sup 9}Be on a light mass target

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, G.V.; Capurro, O.A.; Pacheco, A.J.; Testoni, J.E.; Ramirez, M.; Arazi, A.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Padron, I.; Anjos, R.M.; Lubian, J.; Crema, E.

    2005-02-01

    The total fusion cross section for the {sup 9}Be+{sup 27}Al system has been measured at energies close and above the Coulomb barrier. Reaction cross sections for this system were derived from elastic scattering data, and the breakup-plus-transfer-channel cross sections were estimated from the difference between these data and measured cross-section fusion.

  8. Production of specific antibodies against protein A fusion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Löwenadler, B; Nilsson, B; Abrahmsén, L; Moks, T; Ljungqvist, L; Holmgren, E; Paleus, S; Josephson, S; Philipson, L; Uhlén, M

    1986-01-01

    The gene for Staphylococcal protein A was fused to the coding sequence of bacterial beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). The fusion proteins, expressed in bacteria, were purified by affinity chromatography on IgG-Sepharose and antibodies were raised in rabbits. All three fusion proteins elicited specific antibodies against both the inserted protein sequences and the protein A moiety. In the case of IGF-I, the protein A moiety in the fusion protein may act as an adjuvant since native IGF-I alone is a poor immunogen. The results suggest that the protein A fusion system can be used for efficient antibody production against peptides or proteins expressed from cloned or synthetic genes. To facilitate such gene fusions a set of optimized vectors have been constructed. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:3096719

  9. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown. PMID:7151750

  10. Fusion-fission and quasifission in the reactions with heavy ions leading to the formation of Hs

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.

    2012-10-20

    Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions {sup 22}Ne+{sup 249}Cf,{sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm,{sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb leading to Hs isotopes have been measured. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs*, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed. In the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U the considerable part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier the symmetric fragments originate mainly from fusion-fission process for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies. The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities as a function of the fragment mass have been obtained for the reactions studied.

  11. Fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams in a laser-produced plasma.

    PubMed

    Labaune, C; Baccou, C; Depierreux, S; Goyon, C; Loisel, G; Yahia, V; Rafelski, J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high-intensity-pulsed laser technology enables the generation of extreme states of matter under conditions that are far from thermal equilibrium. This in turn could enable different approaches to generating energy from nuclear fusion. Relaxing the equilibrium requirement could widen the range of isotopes used in fusion fuels permitting cleaner and less hazardous reactions that do not produce high-energy neutrons. Here we propose and implement a means to drive fusion reactions between protons and boron-11 nuclei by colliding a laser-accelerated proton beam with a laser-generated boron plasma. We report proton-boron reaction rates that are orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously. Beyond fusion, our approach demonstrates a new means for exploring low-energy nuclear reactions such as those that occur in astrophysical plasmas and related environments.

  12. Upgrade of the IGN-14 neutron generator for research on detection of fusion-plasma products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igielski, Andrzej; Kurowski, Arkadiusz; Janik, Władysław; Gabańska, Barbara; Woźnicka, Urszula

    2015-10-01

    The fast neutron generator (IGN-14) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Kraków (Poland) is a laboratory multi-purpose experimental device. Neutrons are produced in a beam-target D-D or D-T reactions. A new vacuum chamber installed directly to the end of the ion guide of IGN-14 makes it possible to measure not only neutrons but also alpha particles in the presence of a mixed radiation field of other accompanying reaction products. The new experimental setup allows test detectors dedicated to spectrometric measurements of thermonuclear fusion reaction products.

  13. Immediate reactions to rubber products.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, T; Wahl, R

    1992-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of contact urticaria (CU) and systemic reactions to rubber products. Thirty-one patients are presented: most were atopic (20/31) and women (26/31); 71% worked in the medical field; 32.2% (10/31) showed signs of hand dermatitis. In 28 patients (90.3%), rub and/or prick tests with liquid latex in different dilutions and with latex gloves led to an immediate type of positive reaction. The allergen(s) appear in part to be water soluble: 20 of 28 patients (71.4%) revealed positive test reactions to an aqueous glove extract. In two patients, urticarial test reactions to tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD), mercapto mix, and p-phenylenediamine (PPD mix) were considered as possible contributing factors of CU. Cornstarch was negative in all patients (scratch). Sixteen of 27 sera (59.2%) showed radioallergosorbent (RAST) class 0 using latex allergen disks. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacoyl-amide (SDS-PAGE) determined protein bands of less than or equal to 14 kD (not allergen specific) and approx 28 kD. The Western blot detected the 28 kD protein as allergen in the sera of three patients. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) proved no protein bands. Immunoprinting performed with sera of five patients presented allergen bands in a pH range between 3.8 and 4.55. This shows the radio staining (immunoprint) is more sensitive than is the Coomassie blue staining. Although three sera showed RAST class 0, immunoblotting detected allergen bands. In this case the immunoblot appears to be more sensitive than the RAST. A cross reactivity between latex and banana could not be established. Alternative gloves are Neolon (neoprene) or Elastyren (styrene-butadiene polymer).

  14. Development of an inertial confinement fusion platform to study charged-particle-producing nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics

    DOE PAGES

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bacher, A.; ...

    2017-03-28

    Here, this paper describes the development of a platform to study astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions using inertial-confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA and National Ignition Facility laser facilities, with a particular focus on optimizing the implosions to study charged-particle- producing reactions. Primary requirements on the platform are high yield, for high statistics in the fusion product measurements, combined with low areal density, to allow the charged fusion products to escape. This is optimally achieved with direct-drive exploding pusher implosions using thin-glass-shell capsules. Mitigation strategies to eliminate a possible target sheath potential which would accelerate the emitted ions are discussed. Themore » potential impact of kinetic effects on the implosions is also considered. The platform is initially employed to study the complementary T(t,2n)α, T(3He,np)α and 3He(3He,2p)α reactions. Proof-of-principle results from the first experiments demonstrating the ability to accurately measure the energy and yields of charged particles are presented. Lessons learned from these experiments will be used in studies of other reactions. Ultimately, the goals are to explore thermonuclear reaction rates and fundamental nuclear physics in stellarlike plasma environments, and to push this new frontier of nuclear astrophysics into unique regimes not reachable through existing platforms, with thermal ion velocity distributions, plasma screening, and low reactant energies.« less

  15. Attempt to produce the isotopes of element 108 in the fusion reaction {sup 136}Xe+{sup 136}Xe

    SciTech Connect

    Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Yeremin, A. V.; Aksenov, N. V.; Bozhikov, G. A.; Chepigin, V. I.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Lebedev, V. Ya.; Malyshev, O. N.; Petrushkin, O. V.; Shishkin, S. V.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Tereshatov, E. E.; Vostokin, G. K.

    2009-02-15

    A setup of the experiment on the production of the isotopes with Z=108 in the fusion reaction {sup 136}Xe+{sup 136}Xe and the obtained results are presented. At the excitation energy 0{<=}E{sub x}{<=}30 MeV of the {sup 272}Hs* compound nucleus the upper limit of the cross section for evaporation residues {sigma}{sub (1-3)n}{<=}4 pb has been measured. The experimental results together with the data from asymmetric reactions point to a strong limitation of the Hs compound nucleus formation with increasing Coulomb forces in the entrance channel of the reaction.

  16. Measurements of fusion reactions of low-intensity radioactive carbon beams on 12C and their implications for the understanding of X-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Carnelli, P F F; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Rehm, K E; Albers, M; Alcorta, M; Bertone, P F; Digiovine, B; Esbensen, H; Niello, J O Fernández; Henderson, D; Jiang, C L; Lai, J; Marley, S T; Nusair, O; Palchan-Hazan, T; Pardo, R C; Paul, M; Ugalde, C

    2014-05-16

    The interaction between neutron-rich nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion process as well as for the energy production through pycnonuclear reactions in the crust of neutron stars. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems (10,14,15)C+(12)C using a new active target-detector system. In the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams, a good agreement between the experimental and theoretical cross sections is observed. This gives confidence in our ability to calculate fusion cross sections for systems which are outside the range of today's radioactive beam facilities.

  17. Measurements of Fusion Reactions of Low-Intensity Radioactive Carbon Beams on C12 and their Implications for the Understanding of X-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Niello, J. O. Fernández; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between neutron-rich nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion process as well as for the energy production through pycnonuclear reactions in the crust of neutron stars. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems C10,14,15+C12 using a new active target-detector system. In the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams, a good agreement between the experimental and theoretical cross sections is observed. This gives confidence in our ability to calculate fusion cross sections for systems which are outside the range of today's radioactive beam facilities.

  18. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.; Eriksson, J.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Giacomelli, L.; Girardo, J.-B.; Hellsten, T.; Khilkevitch, E.; Kiptily, V. G.; Koskela, T.; Mantsinen, M.; Nocente, M.; Salewski, M.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shevelev, A. E.; Contributors, JET

    2016-11-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail enhancing DD and D3He fusion reactions. Modelling and measuring the fast deuterium tail accurately is essential for quantifying the fusion products. This paper presents the modelling of the D distribution function resulting from the NBI+ICRF heating scheme, reinforced by a comparison with dedicated JET fast ion diagnostics, showing an overall good agreement. Finally, a sawtooth activity for these experiments has been observed and interpreted using SPOT/RFOF simulations in the framework of Porcelli’s theoretical model, where NBI+ICRH accelerated ions are found to have a strong stabilizing effect, leading to monster sawteeth.

  19. Capture and Fusion-Fission Processes in Heavy Ion Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. G.; Beghini, S.; Behera, B. R.; Bogatchev, A. A.; Bouchat, V.; Corradi, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Hanappe, F.; Itkis, I. M.; Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Latina, A.; Lyapin, V. G.; Materna, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Prokhorova, E. V.; Rowley, N.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Scarlassara, F.; Schmitt, C.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stuttge, L.; Szilner, S.; Trotta, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Voskresenski, V. M.

    2005-11-01

    Results of the experiments aimed at the study of fission and quasi-fission processes in the reactions 12C+204Pb, 48Ca+144,154Sm, 168Er, 208Pb, 238U, 244Pu, 248Cm; 58Fe+208Pb, 244Pu, 248Cm, and 64Ni+186W, 242Pu are presented. The choice of the above-mentioned reactions was inspired by the experiments on the production of the isotopes 283112, 289114 and 283116 at Dubna using the same reactions. The 58Fe and 64Ni projectiles were chosen since the corresponding projectile-target combinations lead to the synthesis of even heavier elements. The experiments were carried out at the U-400 accelerator of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR, Russia), the XTU Tandem accelerator of the National Laboratory of Legnaro (LNL, Italy) and the Accelerator of the Laboratory of University of Jyvaskyla (JYFL, Finland) using the time-of-flight spectrometer of fission fragments CORSET and the neutron multi-detector DEMON. The role of shell effects and the influence of the entrance channel asymmetry and the deformations of colliding nucleus on the mechanism of the fusion-fission and the competitive process of quasi-fission are discussed.

  20. Proliferation Risks of Fusion Energy: Clandestine Production, Covert Production, and Breakout

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Goldston, A. Glaser, A.F. Ross

    2009-08-13

    Nuclear proliferation risks from fusion associated with access to weapon-usable material can be divided into three main categories: 1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, 2) covert production of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and 3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper we address each of these categories of risk from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if commercial fusion systems are designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards.

  1. Recent developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions around the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.; Yao, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear fusion is a reaction to form a compound nucleus. It plays an important role in several circumstances in nuclear physics as well as in nuclear astrophysics, such as synthesis of superheavy elements and nucleosynthesis in stars. Here we discuss two recent theoretical developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The first topic is a generalization of the Wong formula for fusion cross sections in a single-channel problem. By introducing an energy dependence to the barrier parameters, we show that the generalized formula leads to results practically indistinguishable from a full quantal calculation, even for light symmetric systems such as 12C+12C, for which fusion cross sections show an oscillatory behavior. We then discuss a semi-microscopic modeling of heavy-ion fusion reactions, which combine the coupled-channels approach to the state-of-the-art nuclear structure calculations for low-lying collective motions. We apply this method to subbarrier fusion reactions of 58Ni+58Ni and 40Ca+58Ni systems, and discuss the role of anharmonicity of the low-lying vibrational motions.

  2. Fusion-product transport in axisymmetric tokamaks: losses and thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    High-energy fusion-product losses from an axisymmetric tokamak plasma are studied. Prompt-escape loss fluxes (i.e. prior to slowing down) are calculated including the non-separable dependence of flux as a function of poloidal angle and local angle-of-incidence at the first wall. Fusion-product (fp) thermalization and heating are calculated assuming classical slowing down. The present analytical model describes fast ion orbits and their distribution function in realistic, high-..beta.., non-circular tokamak equilibria. First-orbit losses, trapping effects, and slowing-down drifts are also treated.

  3. Demazure Modules, Chari-Venkatesh Modules and Fusion Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravinder, Bhimarthi

    2014-12-01

    Let g be a finite-dimensional complex simple Lie algebra with highest root θ. Given two non-negative integers m, n, we prove that the fusion product of m copies of the level one Demazure module D(1,θ) with n copies of the adjoint representation ev_0 V(θ) is independent of the parameters and we give explicit defining relations. As a consequence, for g simply laced, we show that the fusion product of a special family of Chari-Venkatesh modules is again a Chari-Venkatesh module. We also get a description of the truncated Weyl module associated to a multiple of θ.

  4. Quasifission and fusion-fission in reactions with massive nuclei: Comparison of reactions leading to the Z=120 element

    SciTech Connect

    Nasirov, A. K.; Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Manganaro, M.; Hanappe, F.; Heinz, S.; Hofmann, S.; Muminov, A. I.; Scheid, W.

    2009-02-15

    The yields of evaporation residues, fusion-fission, and quasifission fragments in the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 144,154}Sm and {sup 16}O+{sup 186}W reactions are analyzed in the framework of the combined theoretical method based on the dinuclear system concept and advanced statistical model. The measured yields of evaporation residues for the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 154}Sm reaction can be well reproduced. The measured yields of fission fragments are decomposed into contributions coming from fusion-fission, quasifission, and fast-fission. The decrease in the measured yield of quasifission fragments in {sup 48}Ca+{sup 154}Sm at the large collision energies and the lack of quasifission fragments in the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 144}Sm reaction are explained by the overlap in mass angle distributions of the quasifission and fusion-fission fragments. The investigation of the optimal conditions for the synthesis of the new element Z=120 (A=302) show that the {sup 54}Cr+{sup 248}Cm reaction is preferable in comparison with the {sup 58}Fe+{sup 244}Pu and {sup 64}Ni+{sup 238}U reactions because the excitation function of the evaporation residues of the former reaction is some orders of magnitude larger than that for the last two reactions.

  5. Does the sun shine by pp or CNO fusion reactions?

    PubMed

    Bahcall, John N; Gonzalez-Garcia, M C; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2003-04-04

    We show that solar neutrino experiments set an upper limit of 7.8% (7.3% including the recent KamLAND measurements) to the fraction of energy that the Sun produces via the CNO fusion cycle, which is an order of magnitude improvement upon the previous limit. New experiments are required to detect CNO neutrinos corresponding to the 1.5% of the solar luminosity that the standard solar model predicts is generated by the CNO cycle.

  6. Role of the neck degree of freedom in cold fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lenske, H.

    2015-05-01

    Mass parameters for collective variables of dinuclear systems formed in cold fusion reactions are microscopically calculated with the linear response theory making use of the width of single-particle states and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The single-particle spectrum and potential energy surface of the adiabatic two-center shell model are used. The microscopical mass parameter in the neck is found to be much larger than one obtained with the hydrodynamical model. Therefore, the dinuclear system lives a rather long time, comparable to the characteristic time of fusion and, correspondingly, the fusion can be considered at fixed neck parameter. With an adiabatic melting of the dinuclear system along the internuclear distance into a compound system one cannot explain the experimental trends in cold fusion reactions.

  7. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+11B process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+11B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from 11B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+11B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+11B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+11B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  8. Application of immobilized bovine enterokinase in repetitive fusion protein cleavage for the production of mucin 1.

    PubMed

    Kubitzki, Tina; Minör, Daniel; Mackfeld, Ursula; Oldiges, Marco; Noll, Thomas; Lütz, Stephan

    2009-11-01

    Bovine enterokinase is a serine protease that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds and plays a key role in mammalian metabolism. Because of its high specificity towards the amino acid sequence (Asp)(4)-Lys, enterokinase is a potential tool for the cleavage of fusion proteins, which are gaining more importance in biopharmaceutical production. A candidate for adaptive cancer immunotherapy is mucin 1, which is produced recombinantly as a fusion protein in CHO cells. Here, we present the first repetitive application of immobilized enterokinase for the cleavage of the mucin fusion protein. The immobilization enables a facile biocatalytic process due to simplified separation of the biocatalyst and the target protein. Immobilized enterokinase was applied in a maximum of 18 repetitive reactions. The enzyme utilization (total turnover number) was increased significantly 419-fold compared to unbound enzyme by both immobilization and optimization of process conditions. Slight enzyme inactivation throughout the reaction cycles was observed, but was compensated by adjusting the process time accordingly. Thus, complete fusion protein cleavage was achieved. Furthermore, we obtained isolated mucin 1 with a purity of more than 90% by applying a simple and efficient purification process. The presented results demonstrate enterokinase to be an attractive tool for fusion protein cleavage.

  9. Antibody-independent Targeted Quantification of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Protein Products in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jintang; Sun, Xuefei; Shi, Tujin; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Xie, Fang; Zhao, Rui; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Yang, Feng; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Chae, Sung Suk; Rubin, Mark; Siddiqui, Javed; Wei, John; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.

    2014-10-01

    Fusions between the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and ETS related gene (ERG) represent one of the most specific biomarkers that define a distinct molecular subtype of prostate cancer. The studies on TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions have seldom been performed at the protein level, primarily due to the lack of high-quality antibodies or an antibody-independent method that is sufficiently sensitive for detecting the truncated ERG protein products resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions and alternative splicing. Herein, we applied a recently developed PRISM (high-pressure high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing)-SRM (selected reaction monitoring) strategy for quantifying ERG protein in prostate cancer cell lines and tumors. The highly sensitive PRISM-SRM assays led to confident detection of 6 unique ERG peptides in either the TMPRSS2-ERG positive cell lines or tissues but not in the negative controls, indicating that ERG protein expression is highly correlated with TMPRSS2-ERG gene rearrangements. Significantly, our results demonstrated for the first time that at least two groups of ERG protein isoforms were simultaneously expressed at variable levels in TMPRSS2-ERG positive samples as evidenced by concomitant detection of two mutually exclusive peptides. Three peptides shared across almost all fusion protein products were determined to be the most abundant peptides, and hence can be used as “signature” peptides for detecting ERG overexpression resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. These PRISM-SRM assays provide valuable tools for studying TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion protein products, thus improving our understanding of the role of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in the biology of prostate cancer.

  10. Probing systematic model dependence of complete fusion for reactions with the weakly bound projectiles Li,76

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, A.; Santra, S.; Pal, A.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Kailas, S.

    2016-07-01

    Background: Complete fusion cross section measurements involving weakly bound projectiles show suppression at above-barrier energies compared to coupled-channels (CC) calculations, but no definite conclusion could be drawn for sub-barrier energies. Different CC models often lead to contrasting results. Purpose: We aim to investigate the differences in the fusion cross sections predicted by commonly used CC calculations, using codes such as fresco and ccfull, when compared to experimental data. Methods: The fusion cross sections are normalized to a dimensionless form by isolating the effect of only dynamic channel couplings calculated by both fresco and ccfull, by the method of fusion functions, and compared to a universal fusion function. This acts as a probe for obtaining the model dependence of fusion. Results: A difference is observed between the predictions of fresco and ccfull for all the reactions involving Li,76 as projectiles, and it is noticeably more for systems involving 7Li. Conclusions: With the theoretical foundations of the two CC models being different, their calculation of fusion is different even for the same system. The conclusion about the enhancement or suppression of fusion cross sections is model dependent.

  11. Fusion and quasi-fission dynamics in nearly-symmetric reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Zhao, Kai; Li, ZhuXia

    2015-11-01

    Some nearly-symmetric fusion reactions are systematically investigated with the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model. By introducing two-body inelastic scattering in the Fermi constraint procedure, the stability of an individual nucleus and the description of fusion cross sections at energies near the Coulomb barrier can be further improved. Simultaneously, the quasifission process in 154Sm+160Gd is also investigated with the microscopic dynamics model for the first time. We find that at energies above the Bass barrier, the fusion probability is smaller than 10-5 for this reaction, and the nuclear contact time is generally smaller than 1500 fm/ c. From the central collisions of Sm+Gd, the neutron-rich fragments such as 164,165Gd, 192W can be produced in the ImQMD simulations, which implies that the quasi-fission reaction could be an alternative way to synthesize new neutron-rich heavy nuclei.

  12. An evolved Mxe GyrA intein for enhanced production of fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Carrie J; Grosskopf, Vanessa A; Moehling, Taylor J; Tillotson, Benjamin J; Wiepz, Gregory J; Abbott, Nicholas L; Raines, Ronald T; Shusta, Eric V

    2015-02-20

    Expressing antibodies as fusions to the non-self-cleaving Mxe GyrA intein enables site-specific, carboxy-terminal chemical modification of the antibodies by expressed protein ligation (EPL). Bacterial antibody-intein fusion protein expression platforms typically yield insoluble inclusion bodies that require refolding to obtain active antibody-intein fusion proteins. Previously, we demonstrated that it was possible to employ yeast surface display to express properly folded single-chain antibody (scFv)-intein fusions, therefore permitting the direct small-scale chemical functionalization of scFvs. Here, directed evolution of the Mxe GyrA intein was performed to improve both the display and secretion levels of scFv-intein fusion proteins from yeast. The engineered intein was shown to increase the yeast display levels of eight different scFvs by up to 3-fold. Additionally, scFv- and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-intein fusion proteins can be secreted from yeast, and while fusion of the scFvs to the wild-type intein resulted in low expression levels, the engineered intein increased scFv-intein production levels by up to 30-fold. The secreted scFv- and GFP-intein fusion proteins retained their respective binding and fluorescent activities, and upon intein release, EPL resulted in carboxy-terminal azide functionalization of the target proteins. The azide-functionalized scFvs and GFP were subsequently employed in a copper-free, strain-promoted click reaction to site-specifically immobilize the proteins on surfaces, and it was demonstrated that the functionalized, immobilized scFvs retained their antigen binding specificity. Taken together, the evolved yeast intein platform provides a robust alternative to bacterial intein expression systems.

  13. An Evolved Mxe GyrA Intein for Enhanced Production of Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Expressing antibodies as fusions to the non-self-cleaving Mxe GyrA intein enables site-specific, carboxy-terminal chemical modification of the antibodies by expressed protein ligation (EPL). Bacterial antibody-intein fusion protein expression platforms typically yield insoluble inclusion bodies that require refolding to obtain active antibody-intein fusion proteins. Previously, we demonstrated that it was possible to employ yeast surface display to express properly folded single-chain antibody (scFv)-intein fusions, therefore permitting the direct small-scale chemical functionalization of scFvs. Here, directed evolution of the Mxe GyrA intein was performed to improve both the display and secretion levels of scFv-intein fusion proteins from yeast. The engineered intein was shown to increase the yeast display levels of eight different scFvs by up to 3-fold. Additionally, scFv- and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-intein fusion proteins can be secreted from yeast, and while fusion of the scFvs to the wild-type intein resulted in low expression levels, the engineered intein increased scFv-intein production levels by up to 30-fold. The secreted scFv- and GFP-intein fusion proteins retained their respective binding and fluorescent activities, and upon intein release, EPL resulted in carboxy-terminal azide functionalization of the target proteins. The azide-functionalized scFvs and GFP were subsequently employed in a copper-free, strain-promoted click reaction to site-specifically immobilize the proteins on surfaces, and it was demonstrated that the functionalized, immobilized scFvs retained their antigen binding specificity. Taken together, the evolved yeast intein platform provides a robust alternative to bacterial intein expression systems. PMID:25384269

  14. Analysis of the role of neutron transfer in asymmetric fusion reactions at subbarrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogloblin, A. A.; Zhang, H. Q.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Kuzmin, E. A.; Danilov, A. N.; Demyanova, A. S.; Trzaska, W. H.; Xu, X. X.; Yang, F.; Sargsyan, V. V. Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2015-12-15

    The excitation functions were measured for the {sup 28}Si + {sup 208}Pb complete-fusion (capture) reaction at deep subbarrier energies. The results were compared with the cross sections predicted within the quantum diffusion approach. The role of neutron transfer in the case of positive Q values in the {sup 28}Si + {sup 124}Sn, {sup 208}Pb; {sup 30}Si + {sup 124}Sn, {sup 208}Pb; {sup 20}Ne + {sup 208}Pb; {sup 40}Ca + {sup 96}Zr; and {sup 134}Te + {sup 40}Ca complete-fusion (capture) reactions is discussed.

  15. Fusion reactions and experimental approaches to the synthesis of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremin, A. V.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.

    1998-02-15

    The question whether the asymmetric actinide based heavy ion reactions could be used for the synthesis of heavy (Z{>=}106) nuclides is essential from the point of view of the study of limitation on fusion, it is also important in such reactions new nuclides close to the magic number N=162 can be produced. Thus as the problem of a hindrance to fusion still remains unsolved the high excitation energy of the compound nucleus looks to be an obvious obstacle to using these reactions. Using the gas-filled recoil separator and electrostatic recoil separator VAS-SILISSA installed at the beam lines of the U-400 heavy ion cyclotron of the FLNR JINR we investigated the fusion reactions leading to 102, 103, 104, 105 and heaviest isotopes of the 106, 108 and 110 elements. The analysis of the measured cross-sections did not reveal any evidence of a hindrance to fusion at the ion bombarding energy close to the Coulomb barrier. {sup 48}Ca+{sup 232}Th{yields}{sup 280}110*, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U{yields}{sup 286}112*, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu{yields}{sup 292}114* appear to be the best reactions from the point of view of their cross-sections.

  16. The fusion-fission process in the reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W near the interaction barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Harca, I. M.; Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, J.; Kozulin, E. M.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Novikov, K.; Azaiez, F.; Gottardo, A.; Matea, I.; Verney, D.; Hanappe, F.; Piot, J.; Schmitt, C.; Vardaci, E.

    2015-02-24

    The reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W at E{sub lab}=160 MeV was investigated with the aim of diving into the features of the fusion-fission process. Gamma rays in coincidence with binary reaction fragments were measured using the high efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer ORGAM at the TANDEM Accelerator facility of I.P.N., Orsay, and the time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments (FF) registration CORSET of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Dubna. The coupling of the ORGAM and CORSET setups offers the unique opportunity of extracting details for characterizing the fusion-fission process and gives information regarding production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. The FF–γ coincidence method is of better use then the γ – γ coincidence method when dealing with low statistic measurements and also offers the opportunity to precisely correct the Dopler shift for in-flight emitted gamma rays. Evidence of symmetric and asymmetric fission modes were observed in the mass and TKE distributions, occurring due to shell effects in the fragments. Coincident measurements allow for discrimination between the gamma rays by accepting a specific range within the mass distribution of the reaction products. Details regarding the experimental setup, methods of processing the acquisitioned data and preliminary results are presented.

  17. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    SciTech Connect

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  18. Dynamical Dipole mode in heavy-ion fusion reactions in the 192Pb mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alba, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Agodi, C.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Emanuele, U.; Farinon, F.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Martin, B.; Mazzocchi, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Trifiró, A.; Trimarchi, M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamical dipole mode was investigated in the mass region of the 192Pb compound nucleus, by using the 40Ca + 152Sm and 48Ca + 144Sm reactions at Elab=11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. Both fusion-evaporation and fission events were studied simultaneously for the first time. Our results for evaporation and fission events (preliminary) show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in reactions involving heavier nuclei than those studied previously.

  19. Nuclear fusion reaction rates for strongly coupled ionic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Chugunov, A. I.; DeWitt, H. E.

    2009-07-15

    We analyze the effect of plasma screening on nuclear reaction rates in dense matter composed of atomic nuclei of one or two types. We perform semiclassical calculations of the Coulomb barrier penetrability taking into account a radial mean-field potential of plasma ions. The mean-field potential is extracted from the results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of radial pair distribution functions of ions in binary ionic mixtures. We calculate the reaction rates in a wide range of plasma parameters and approximate these rates by an analytical expression that is expected to be applicable to multicomponent ion mixtures. Also, we analyze Gamow-peak energies of reacting ions in various nuclear burning regimes. For illustration, we study nuclear burning in {sup 12}C-{sup 16}O mixtures.

  20. Charged fusion product loss measurements using nuclear activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Wieslander, E.; Arnold, D.; Dombrowski, H.; Laubenstein, M.; Murari, A.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    In ITER, {alpha} particle loss measurements will be required in order to understand the alpha particle physics. Techniques capable of operating in a fusion reactor environment need further development. Recent experimental studies on JET demonstrated the potential of nuclear activation to measure the flux of escaping MeV ions. New results from MeV ion induced activation of metallic, ceramic, and crystal samples placed near the plasma edge are reported. Activation products were measured as function of orientation with respect to the magnetic field as well as function of the distance to the plasma. Sample activity was measured using ultralow-level gamma-ray spectrometry. Distribution of 14.68 MeV fusion proton induced activation products is strongly anisotropic in agreement with simulations and falls off sharply with increasing distance to the plasma. Prospects for using the technique in ITER are discussed.

  1. Fusion of artificial membranes with mammalian spermatozoa. Specific involvement of the equatorial segment after acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Arts, E G; Kuiken, J; Jager, S; Hoekstra, D

    1993-11-01

    The fusogenic properties of bovine and human spermatozoa membranes were investigated, using phospholipid bilayers (liposomes) as target membranes. Fusion was monitored by following lipid mixing, as revealed by an assay based on resonance-energy transfer. In addition, fusion was visualized by fluorescence microscopy, using fluorescent lipid vesicles. Cryopreserved bovine sperm fused with liposomes before induction of the acrosome reaction, fluorescence being located in essentially all spermatozoa membrane domains. Fresh bovine and human spermatozoa fused with liposomes only after the induction of the acrosome reaction, as triggered by calcium ionophore A23187 or zonae pellucidae (proteins), while the fluorescence distribution was mainly restricted to the equatorial segment (ES). However, with spermatozoa that had undergone a freeze/thawing cycle, domains other than ES also became labeled. Hence, the redistribution of the lipid probes over the entire membrane occurring during lipid mixing with cryopreserved bovine sperm is probably related to membrane perturbations caused by long-term cryopreservation. Fusion with liposomes was governed by spermatozoa factors and required the presence of acidic phospholipids like cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine in the liposomal bilayer. Incorporation of the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine in the vesicles inhibited the fusion reaction. Fusion was pH dependent. The results indicate that the ES is the primary domain of spermatozoa membranes that harbours the fusogenic capacity of sperm. Liposomes appear a valuable tool in further characterizing the properties of this domain, which has been claimed [Yanagimachi, R. (1988) in The physiology of reproduction (Knobil, E. & Neill, J., eds) pp. 135-185, Raven Press, New York] to represent the putative, initial fusion site for the oocyte.

  2. SU-D-304-07: Application of Proton Boron Fusion Reaction to Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J; Yoon, D; Shin, H; Kim, M; Suh, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: we present the introduction of a therapy method using the proton boron fusion reaction. The purpose of this study is to verify the theoretical validity of proton boron fusion therapy using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: After boron is accumulated in the tumor region, the emitted from outside the body proton can react with the boron in the tumor region. An increase of the proton’s maximum dose level is caused by the boron and only the tumor cell is damaged more critically. In addition, a prompt gamma ray is emitted from the proton boron reaction point. Here we show that the effectiveness of the proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) was verified using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: We found that a dramatic increase by more than half of the proton’s maximum dose level was induced by the boron in the tumor region. This increase occurred only when the proton’s maximum dose point was located within the boron uptake region (BUR). In addition, the 719 keV prompt gamma ray peak produced by the proton boron fusion reaction was positively detected. Conclusion: This therapy method features the advantages such as the application of Bragg-peak to the therapy, the accurate targeting of tumor, improved therapy effects, and the monitoring of the therapy region during treatment.

  3. Study of the mechanism of muon-catalyzed t + t fusion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanova, L. N.; Demin, D. L.; Filchenkov, V. V.

    2015-01-15

    The mechanism for the muon catalyzed fusion reaction t + t → {sup 4}He + 2n + 11.33 MeV is investigated. The model of the cascade reaction with {sup 5}He as an intermediate state is considered, both the ground and the first exited states being taken into account. The neutron energy spectrum measured in the recent experiment is compared with the Monte-Carlo-simulated one. Varying reaction parameters, we obtain optimum values for the relative weights of the {sup 5}He ground and excited states and for the excitation energy and width of the excited state.

  4. Proliferation Risks of Magneetic Fusion Energy: Clandestine Production, Covert Production and Breakout

    SciTech Connect

    A. Glaser and R.J. Goldston

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to weapon-usable materials can be divided into three main categories: (1) clandestine production of weapon-usable material in an undeclared facility, (2) covert production of such material inn a declared facility, and (3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper we address each of these categories of risks from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if the fusion system is designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards.

  5. Energy distribution among reaction products. IV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maylotte, D. H.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Use of an infrared chemiluminescence technique, called 'Method II,' or the 'method of arrested relaxation' to measure the distribution of energy among products of the Cl + HI and Cl + DI reactions. Preliminary results are also given for the Br + HI and Cl + HBr reactions. Instead of measuring vibrational relaxation, Method II attempts to arrest vibrational and rotational relaxation by the rapid removal of excited products at a cold surface.

  6. Deep Sub-Barrier Fusion Enhancement in the {sup 6}He+{sup 206}Pb Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Zagrebaev, V.I.; Lukyanov, S.M.; Kalpakchieva, R.

    2006-04-28

    The fusion of {sup 6}He with {sup 206}Pb has been studied at energies close to and below the Coulomb barrier. The experiment was carried out at the Dubna Radioactive Ion Beams complex of FLNR, JINR. The {sup 6}He beam intensity was about 5x10{sup 6} pps, the maximum energy being 60.3{+-}0.4 MeV. The yield of the {sup 210}Po isotope, produced in the 2n-evaporation channel, demonstrates an extremely large enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross section as compared with the {sup 4}He+{sup 208}Pb reaction. This enhancement is most likely due to the mechanism of 'sequential fusion' with an intermediate neutron transfer from {sup 6}He to the Pb nucleus with positive Q values.

  7. Universal damping mechanism of quantum vibrations in deep sub-barrier fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate the damping of quantum octupole vibrations near the touching point when two colliding nuclei approach each other in the mass-asymmetric 16 O + 208 Pb system, for which the strong fusion hindrance was clearly observed. We, for the first time, apply the random-phase approximation method to the heavy-mass asymmetric dinuclear system to calculate the transition strength B (E 3 ) as a function of the center-of-mass distance. The obtained B (E 3 ) strengths are substantially damped near the touching point, because the single-particle wave functions of the two nuclei strongly mix with each other and a neck is formed. The energy-weighted sums of B (E 3 ) are also strongly correlated with the damping factor, which is phenomenologically introduced in the standard coupled-channel calculations to reproduce the fusion hindrance. This strongly indicates that the damping of the quantum vibrations universally occurs in the deep sub-barrier fusion reactions.

  8. Spin polarization effects in the /sup 3/H(d,n)/sup 4/He fusion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Conzett, H.E.; Rioux, C.

    1985-06-01

    A recent investigation has shown that the /sup 3/H(d,n)/sup 4/He fusion reaction rate could be enhanced by a factor of 3/2 if the fusion plasma consisted of both polarized deuterons and tritons, forming exclusively the channel-spin S = 3/2, J = 3/2/sup +/ state. This result follows simply from the statistical weights of the quartet S = 3/2 and doublet S = 1/2 initial states, with the assumption of the single J = 3/2/sup +/ reaction amplitude. Since, with a small but nonzero J = 1/2/sup +/ amplitude, the maximum enhancement of the reaction occurs at the peak of the J = 3/2/sup +/ resonance, corresponding to a deuteron lab energy of 107 keV, it is of obvious interest to know what the enhancement would be at the lower energies that are typical of fusion plasmas. We are able to address this question by extending earlier calculations which gave the values of all of the spin-polarization observables at this J = 3/2/sup +/ resonance in both the /sup 3/H(d,n)/sup 4/He and the /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He reactions.

  9. Analysis of the radial potential structure and neutron production rate in the spherical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzanpour, M. A.; Pahlavani, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    The radial dependent potential and neutron production rate in spherical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) devices is investigated. The electrostatic potential is determined by solving the Poisson equation for various deuteron and electron distribution functions. The fusion reaction rates are determined using energy distribution function. Also, dependence of potential structure and neutron production rate on some important parameters as the ion and electron convergence, working pressure, kinetic energy of the secondary electrons emitted from the cathode and the fraction of secondary electrons drawn inside the cathode are studied. Total produced neutrons as a function of input power at different working conditions are also obtained.

  10. Heterologous production of peptides in plants: fusion proteins and beyond.

    PubMed

    Viana, Juliane Flávia Cançado; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Lacorte, Cristiano

    2013-11-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the ectopic production of proteins and peptides of different organisms leading to biopharmaceutical production in large cultures of bacterial, yeasts and mammalian cells. Otherwise, the expression of recombinant proteins and peptides in plants is an attractive alternative presenting several advantages over the commonly used expression systems including reduced production costs, easy scale-up and reduced risks of pathogen contamination. Different types of proteins and peptides have been expressed in plants, including antibodies, antigens, and proteins and peptides of medical, veterinary and industrial applications. However, apart from providing a proof of concept, the use of plants as platforms for heterologous protein and peptide production still depends on key steps towards optimization including the enhancement of expression levels, manipulation of post-transcriptional modifications and improvements in purification methods. In this review, strategies to increase heterologous protein and peptide stability and accumulation are discussed, focusing on the expression of peptides through the use of gene fusions.

  11. Contribution of activation products to fusion accident risk. I - A preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdren, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The health hazards of activation products from fusion-reactor accidents are dealt with in a study on an early conceptual tokamak reactor, using a simple consequence model based on that of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Safety Study (the Rasmussen Report) in order to determine conceivable radiation doses near the plant boundary. Though tritium releases appear to result in fewer casualties than those predicted for the most severe accidents in fission reactors of similar electrical-generating capacity, the boundary doses of stainless-steel and molybdenum structures subject to massive lithium fires are comparable to the doses similarly calculated for 'worst case' light water reactor accidents. Calculations and tables are given for major activation products, their stored energy and their boundary doses in severe fusion and fission accidents. Remedies are suggested for greatly reducing the potential for activation product release from fusion reactors, such as the use of low activation materials, the reduction of stored energy by putting lithium in relatively non-reactive form and the use of deuterium-deuterium instead of D-T reactions.

  12. Heavy-ion inertial fusion: influence of target gain on accelerator parameters for vacuum-propagation regimes in reaction chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1982-03-04

    Target physics imposes requirements on the design of inertial fusion drivers. The influence of beam propagation in near vacuum fusion reaction chambers is evaluated for the relation between target gain and the phase-space requirements of heavy-ion accelerators. Initial results suggest that neutralization of the ion beam has a much greater positive effect than the deleterious one of beam stripping provided that the fusion chamber pressure is < 10/sup -3/ torr (of Li vapor or equivalent).

  13. Results of an attempt to measure increased rates of the reaction D-2 + D-2 yields He-3 + n in a nonelectrochemical cold fusion experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Decker, Arthur J.; Blue, James W.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment was performed to look for evidence of deuterium fusion in palladium. The experiment, which involved introducing deuterium into the palladium filter of a hydrogen purifier, was designed to detect neutrons produced in the reaction D-2 + D-2 yields He-3 + n as well as heat production. The neutron counts for deuterium did not differ significantly from background or from the counts for a hydrogen control. Heat production was detected when deuterium, but not hydrogen, was pumped from the purifier.

  14. Parameterization of fusion barriers for light-projectiles-induced reactions using the proximity approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaei, R.; Sheibani, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this article we propose a pocket formula for fusion barriers calculated by three versions of the proximity formalism, namely AW 95, Bass 80 and Prox. 2010 potentials, for fusion reactions involving the collisions of the proton and helium projectiles with different targets in mass ranges 51≤ AT ≤ 130 and 40≤ AT ≤ 233 , respectively. For the first type of the colliding systems, it is shown that the proposed pocket formulas are able to predict the actual values of RB and VB within accuracies of ±0.4% and ±0.45% , respectively. Moreover, for the second type of the selected reactions, these accuracies are obtained ±0.24% and ±0.36% , respectively. In this study, the ability of the present pocket formulas is also demonstrated to predict the exact values of the fusion cross sections for our selected mass ranges. A comparison with the results of the previous pocket formulas reveals that our parameterized forms are more successful to reproduce the empirical data of the barrier height and position in the proton- and helium-induced reactions.

  15. Threshold region for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion.

    PubMed

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2012-09-07

    We provide a quantitative determination of the effective partonic kinematics for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion in terms of the collider energy at the LHC. We use the result to assess, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, whether the large m(t) approximation is adequate and Sudakov resummation advantageous. We argue that our results hold to all perturbative orders. Based on our results, we conclude that the full inclusion of finite top mass corrections is likely to be important for accurate phenomenology for a light Higgs boson with m(H)~125 GeV at the LHC with √s=14 TeV.

  16. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  17. Astrophysical S factors for fusion reactions involving C, O, Ne, and Mg isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, M.; Afanasjev, A.V.; Chamon, L.C.; Gasques, L.R.; Wiescher, M.; Yakovlev, D.G.

    2010-09-15

    Using the Sao Paulo potential and the barrier penetration formalism we have calculated the astrophysical factor S(E) for 946 fusion reactions involving stable and neutron-rich isotopes of C, O, Ne, and Mg for center-of-mass energies E varying from 2 to {approx}18-30 MeV (covering the range below and above the Coulomb barrier). We have parameterized the energy dependence, S(E), by an accurate universal 9-parameter analytic expression and present tables of fit parameters for all the reactions. We also discuss the reduced 3-parameter version of our fit which is highly accurate at energies below the Coulomb barrier, and outline the procedure for calculating the reaction rates. The results can be easily converted to thermonuclear or pycnonuclear reaction rates to simulate various nuclear burning phenomena, in particular, stellar burning at high temperatures and nucleosynthesis in high density environments.

  18. Photo-fusion reactions in a new compact device for ELI

    SciTech Connect

    Moustaizis, S. D.; Auvray, P.; Hora, H.; Lalousis, P.; Larour, J.; Mourou, G.

    2012-07-09

    In the last few years significant progress on technological, experimental and numerical studies on fusion process in high density and high temperature plasmas produced by a high intensity laser pulse interaction with clusters in a high external applied magnetic field, enable us to propose a compact photo-fusion magnetic device for high neutron production. For the purpose of the project a pulsed magnetic field driver with values up to 110 Tesla has been developed which allows increasing the trapping time of the high density plasma in the device and improving the neutron yield. Numerical simulations show that the proposed device is capable of producing up to 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons per laser shot with an external magnetic field of 150 Tesla. The proposed device can be used for experiments and numerical code validation concerning different conventional and (or) exotic fusion fuels.

  19. Cross Section Measurements of 12C+16O Fusion Reaction at Stellar Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wanpeng; Fang, X.; Beard, M.; Gilardy, G.; Jung, H.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Robertson, D.; Setoodehnia, K.; Seymour, C.; Stech, E.; Vande Kolk, B.; Wiescher, M.; de Souza, R.; Hudan, S.; Singh, V.; Tang, X.; Uberseder, E.

    2016-09-01

    12C+16O is one of the three fusion reactions (12C+12C, 12C+16O, and 16O+16O) that play an important role at the late stage of stellar evolution in massive stars. The previous meassurements of its cross section at low energies rely on the singles measurements of either gamma rays or charged particles. New measurement was conducted for the 12C+16O reaction at Ecm = 3.64 - 4.93 MeV with the detection of both gammas and charged particles using the high intensity St ANA accelerator at the University of Notre Dame. The protons and alphas from the fusion evaporation were measured by a large area silicon strip detector array (SAND) while the gamma rays were detected by one large volume HPGe detector right after the target. Statistical model calculation were employed to interpret the experimental results. This provided a more reliable extrapolation for the 12C+16O fusion cross section, reducing substantially the uncertainty for stellar model simulations. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant Numbers PHY-1068192 and PHY-1419765 and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics under Grant No. PHY-0822648.

  20. Trotter products and reaction-diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Emil

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a class of generalized diffusion-reaction equations of the form , where A is a pseudodifferential operator which generates a Feller semigroup. Using the Trotter product formula we give a corresponding discrete time integro-difference equation for numerical solutions.

  1. 3D Fokker-Planck modeling of axisymmetric collisional losses of fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Goloborod`ko, V.Ya.; Reznik, S.N.; Yavorskij, V.A.; Zweben, S.J.

    1995-10-01

    Results of a 3D (in constants of motion space) Fokker-Planck simulation of collisional losses of fusion products in axisymmetric DT and DD discharges on TFTR are presented. The distributions of escaped ions over poloidal angle, pitch angle, and their energy spectra are obtained. Axisymmetric collisional losses of fusion products are found to be less than (2--5)%. The distribution of confined fusion products is shown to be strongly anisotropic and nonuniform in the radial coordinate mainly for slowed-down fusion products with small longitudinal energy. Comparison of these results of modeling and experimental data is done.

  2. Application of proton boron fusion reaction to radiation therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk

    2014-12-01

    Three alpha particles are emitted from the point of reaction between a proton and boron. The alpha particles are effective in inducing the death of a tumor cell. After boron is accumulated in the tumor region, the emitted from outside the body proton can react with the boron in the tumor region. An increase of the proton's maximum dose level is caused by the boron and only the tumor cell is damaged more critically. In addition, a prompt gamma ray is emitted from the proton boron reaction point. Here, we show that the effectiveness of the proton boron fusion therapy was verified using Monte Carlo simulations. We found that a dramatic increase by more than half of the proton's maximum dose level was induced by the boron in the tumor region. This increase occurred only when the proton's maximum dose point was located within the boron uptake region. In addition, the 719 keV prompt gamma ray peak produced by the proton boron fusion reaction was positively detected. This therapy method features the advantages such as the application of Bragg-peak to the therapy, the accurate targeting of tumor, improved therapy effects, and the monitoring of the therapy region during treatment.

  3. Application of proton boron fusion reaction to radiation therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk

    2014-12-01

    Three alpha particles are emitted from the point of reaction between a proton and boron. The alpha particles are effective in inducing the death of a tumor cell. After boron is accumulated in the tumor region, the emitted from outside the body proton can react with the boron in the tumor region. An increase of the proton's maximum dose level is caused by the boron and only the tumor cell is damaged more critically. In addition, a prompt gamma ray is emitted from the proton boron reaction point. Here, we show that the effectiveness of the proton boron fusion therapy was verified using Monte Carlo simulations. We found that a dramatic increase by more than half of the proton's maximum dose level was induced by the boron in the tumor region. This increase occurred only when the proton's maximum dose point was located within the boron uptake region. In addition, the 719 keV prompt gamma ray peak produced by the proton boron fusion reaction was positively detected. This therapy method features the advantages such as the application of Bragg-peak to the therapy, the accurate targeting of tumor, improved therapy effects, and the monitoring of the therapy region during treatment.

  4. Fission barriers for Po nuclei produced in complete fusion reactions with heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sagaidak, R. N.; Andreyev, A. N.

    2009-05-15

    Evaporation residues and fission excitation functions obtained in complete fusion reactions leading to Po compound nuclei have been analyzed in the framework of the standard statistical model. Macroscopic fission barriers deduced from the cross-section data analysis are compared with the predictions of various theoretical models and available data. A drop in the Po barriers with the decrease in a neutron number was found, which is stronger than predicted by any theory. The presence of entrance channel effects and collective excitations in the compound nucleus decay is considered as a possible reason for the barrier reduction.

  5. Cross section systematics for the lightest Bi and Po nuclei produced in complete fusion reactions with heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A.N.; Ackermann, D.; Muenzenberg, G.; Antalic, S.; Saro, S.; Streicher, B.; Darby, I.G.; Page, R.D.; Wiseman, D.R.; Franchoo, S.; Hessberger, F.P.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lommel, B.; Kindler, B.; Mann, R.; Sulignano, B.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Vel, K. van de; Duppen, P. van

    2005-07-01

    The production of the very neutron-deficient nuclides {sup 184-192}Bi and {sup 186-192}Po in the vicinity of the neutron midshell at N = 104 has been studied by using heavy-ion-induced complete fusion reactions in a series of experiments at the velocity filter SHIP. The cross sections for the xn and pxn evaporation channels of the {sup 46}Ti+{sup 144}Sm{yields}{sup 190}Po*,{sup 98}Mo+{sup 92}Mo{yields}{sup 190}Po*,{sup 50,52}Cr+{sup 142}Nd{yields}{sup 192,194}Po*, and {sup 94,95}Mo+{sup 93}Nb{yields}{sup 187,188}Bi* reactions were measured. The results obtained, together with the previously known cross section data for the heavier Bi and Po nuclides, are compared with the results of statistical model calculations carried out with the HIVAP code. It is shown that a satisfactory description of the experimental data requires a significant (up to 35%) reduction of the theoretical fission barriers. The optimal reactions for production of the lightest Bi and Po isotopes are discussed.

  6. Effective donor cell fusion conditions for production of cloned dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Park, JungEun; Oh, HyunJu; Hong, SoGun; Kim, MinJung; Kim, GeonA; Koo, OkJae; Kang, SungKeun; Jang, Goo; Lee, ByeongChun

    2011-03-01

    As shown by the birth of the first cloned dog 'Snuppy', a protocol to produce viable cloned dogs has been reported. In order to evaluate optimum fusion conditions for improving dog cloning efficiency, in vivo matured oocytes were reconstructed with adult somatic cells from a female Pekingese using different fusion conditions. Fusion with needle vs chamber methods, and with low vs high pulse strength was compared by evaluating fusion rate and in vivo development of canine cloned embryos. The fusion rates in the high voltage groups were significantly higher than in the low voltage groups regardless of fusion method (83.5 vs 66.1% for the needle fusion method, 67.4 vs 37.9% for the fusion chamber method). After embryo transfer, one each pregnancy was detected after using the needle fusion method with high and low voltage and in the chamber fusion method with high voltage, whereas no pregnancy was detected using the chamber method with low voltage. However, only the pregnancy from the needle fusion method with high voltage was maintained to term and one healthy puppy was delivered. The results of the present study demonstrated that two DC pulses of 3.8 to 4.0 kV/cm for 15 μsec using the needle fusion method were the most effective method for the production of cloned dogs under the conditions of this experiment.

  7. An overview on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at energy range ∼ 3-8 MeV/A

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Rahbar; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Kumar, Rakesh; Muralithar, S.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K.

    2014-08-14

    The information of ICF reaction has been obtained from the measurement of excitation function (EF) of ERs populated in the interaction of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 16}O on {sup 55}Mn, {sup 159}Tb and {sup 156}Gd targets. Sizable enhancement in the measured cross-sections has been observed in α-emitting channels over theoretical predictions, which has been attributed to ICF of the projectile. In order to confirm the findings of the measurements and analysis of EFs, the forward recoil range distributions of ERs populated in {sup 20}Ne+{sup 159}Tb (E ∼165MeV) and {sup 16}O+{sup 156}Gd (E ∼ 72, 82 and 93MeV) systems, have been measured. It has been observed that peaks appearing at different cumulative thicknesses in the stopping medium are related with different degree of linear momentum transfer from projectile to target nucleus by adopting the break-up fusion model consideration. In order to deduce the angular momentum involved in various CF and / or ICF reaction products, spin distribution and side-feeding intensity profiles of radio-nuclides populated via CF and ICF channels in {sup 16}O+{sup 160}Gd system at energy, E ∼ 5.6 MeV/A, have been studied. Spin distribution of ICF products are found to be distinctly different than that observed from CF products.

  8. Advanced scheme for high-yield laser driven proton-boron fusion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarone, D.; Picciotto, A.; Velyhan, A.; Krasa, J.; Kucharik, M.; Morrissey, M.; Mangione, A.; Szydlowsky, A.; Malinowska, A.; Bertuccio, G.; Shi, Y.; Crivellari, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Bellutti, P.; Korn, G.

    2015-02-01

    A low contrast nanosecond laser pulse with relatively low intensity (3 × 1016 W cm-2) was used to enhance the yield of induced nuclear reactions in advanced solid targets. In particular the "ultraclean" proton-boron fusion reaction, producing energetic alpha-particles without neutron generation, was chosen. A spatially well-defined layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen-enriched silicon substrate was used as target. The combination of the specific target geometry and the laser pulse temporal shape allowed enhancing the yield of alpha-particles up to 109 per steradian, i.e 100 times higher than previous experimental achievements. Moreover the alpha particle stream presented a clearly peaked angular and energy distribution, which make this secondary source attractive for potential applications. This result can be ascribed to the interaction of the long laser pre-pulse with the target and to the optimal target geometry and composition.

  9. Thermal-to-fusion neutron convertor and Monte Carlo coupled simulation of deuteron/triton transport and secondary products generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guan-bo; Liu, Han-gang; Wang, Kan; Yang, Xin; Feng, Qi-jie

    2012-09-01

    Thermal-to-fusion neutron convertor has being studied in China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). Current Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNP and GEANT, are inadequate when applied in this multi-step reactions problems. A Monte Carlo tool RSMC (Reaction Sequence Monte Carlo) has been developed to simulate such coupled problem, from neutron absorption, to charged particle ionization and secondary neutron generation. "Forced particle production" variance reduction technique has been implemented to improve the calculation speed distinctly by making deuteron/triton induced secondary product plays a major role. Nuclear data is handled from ENDF or TENDL, and stopping power from SRIM, which described better for low energy deuteron/triton interactions. As a validation, accelerator driven mono-energy 14 MeV fusion neutron source is employed, which has been deeply studied and includes deuteron transport and secondary neutron generation. Various parameters, including fusion neutron angle distribution, average neutron energy at different emission directions, differential and integral energy distributions, are calculated with our tool and traditional deterministic method as references. As a result, we present the calculation results of convertor with RSMC, including conversion ratio of 1 mm 6LiD with a typical thermal neutron (Maxwell spectrum) incidence, and fusion neutron spectrum, which will be used for our experiment.

  10. Comment on ‘On the fusion triple product and fusion power gain of tokamak pilot plants and reactors’, by A. Costley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, W.; Lackner, K.; Sauter, O.; Wenninger, R.; Zohm, H.

    2017-03-01

    In this comment, we discuss the arguments raised in two recent papers (Costley 2016 Nucl. Fusion 56 066003, Costley et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 033001) on the claimed size independence of fusion power, triple product and fusion gain in tokamak reactors, and we show that all these three quantities actually do depend on the size of the tokamak, when distinguishing between independent input parameters (design parameters) and output quantities, and when taking into account technological limitations.

  11. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B process

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-15

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from {sup 11}B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+{sup 11}B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+{sup 11}B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+{sup 11}B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  12. Complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of 6,7Li + 159Tb reactions near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Manjeet Singh; Grover, Neha; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2017-01-01

    The complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) cross-sections are estimated for 6, 7Li + 159Tb reactions using the energy-dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model) and dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The CF data of the 6Li + 159Tb(7Li + 159Tb) reaction at above barrier energies is suppressed with reference to expectations of the EDWSP model by 25% (20%) which is smaller than the reported data by ˜ 9% (6%). This suppression is correlated with the projectile breakup effect. The projectiles 6,7Li are loosely bound systems, which may break up into charged fragments prior to reaching the fusion barrier and subsequently one of the fragment is captured by the target leading to the suppression of fusion data at above barrier energies. The sum of CF and ICF, which is termed as total fusion cross-section (TF), removes the discrepancies between theoretical predictions and the above barrier complete fusion data and hence is adequately explained via the EDWSP model over a wide range of energy spread across the Coulomb barrier. In addition to fusion, the decay mechanism of 6Li + 159Tb reaction is studied within the framework of the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The breakup of the projectile (6Li) in the entrance channel indicates the presence of ICF, which is investigated further using the collective clusterization approach of DCM. The present theoretical analysis suggests that a larger barrier modification is needed to address the fusion data of chosen reactions in the below barrier energy region.

  13. Analysis of complete, incomplete and total fusion data of 9Be +169Tm, 187Re, 209Bi reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharab, Rajesh; Chahal, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-11-01

    We have analyzed the incomplete fusion (ICF), complete fusion (CF) and total fusion (TF) excitation functions for reactions induced by 9Be on 169Tm, 187Re and 209Bi targets at near barrier energies using Wong’s formula in conjunction with the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential. A phenomenological selection function is proposed to separate out the contribution of ICF and CF cross-sections in TF cross-section. The variation of relative contribution of ICF and CF in TF with respect to incident beam energy is very well reproduced through this approach.

  14. Confinement of fusion reaction products during the fishbone instability

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Hay, R.; Strachan, J.D.

    1984-11-12

    The presence of fishbone events in the PDX tokamak is correlated with a reduction in the burnup of 0.8-MeV /sup 3/He ions. This reduction is probably caused by distortion of the /sup 3/He drift orbitals in the helical magnetic fields associated with the instability, resulting in the loss of about 70% of the confined /sup 3/He ions in a moderately strong fishbone. Such a nonresonant loss of particles with large orbits indicates that fishbone events may influence 3.5-MeV alphas in ignition experiments.

  15. Confinement of fusion reaction products during the fishbone instability

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Hay, R.; Strachan, J.D.

    1984-09-01

    The presence of fishbone events in the PDX tokamak is correlated with a reduction in the burnup of 0.8 MeV /sup 3/He ions. This reduction is probably caused by distortion of the /sup 3/He drift orbits in the helical magnetic fields associated with the instability, resulting in the loss of about 70% of the confined /sup 3/He ions in a moderately strong fishbone. Such a nonresonant loss of particles with large orbits indicates that fishbone events may influence 3.5 MeV alphas in ignition experiments.

  16. Charge-exchange reaction by Reggeon exchange and W{sup +}W{sup −}-fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Schicker, R.

    2015-04-10

    Charge-exchange reactions at high energies are examined. The existing cross section data on the Reggeon induced reaction pp → n + Δ{sup ++} taken at the ZGS and ISR accelerators are extrapolated to the energies of the RHIC and LHC colliders. The interest in the charge-exchange reaction induced by W{sup ±}-fusion is presented, and the corresponding QCD-background is examined.

  17. Inertial fusion: an energy-production option for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Hovingh, J.; Pitts, J.H.; Monsler, M.J.; Grow, G.R.

    1982-05-01

    The authors discuss the inertial-confinement approach to fusion energy. After explaining the fundamentals of fusion, they describe the state of the art of fusion experiments, emphasizing the results achieved through the use of neodymium-doped glass lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at other laboratories. They highlight recent experimental results confirming theoretical predictions that short-wavelength lasers have excellent energy absorption on fuel pellets. Compressions of deuterium-tritium fuel of over 100 times liquid density have been measured, only a factor of 10 away from the compression required for a commercial reactor. Finally, it is shown how to exploit the unique characteristics of inertial fusion to design reactor chambers that have a very high power density and a long life, features that the authors believe will eventually lead to fusion power at a competitive cost.

  18. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-04-02

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented.

  19. Study of fusion product effects in field-reversed mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Driemeyer, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of fusion products (fps) on Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) reactor concepts has been evaluated through the development of two new computer models. The first code (MCFRM) treats fps as test particles in a fixed background plasma, which is represented as a fluid. MCFRM includes a Monte Carlo treatment of Coulomb scattering and thus provides an accurate treatment of fp behavior even at lower energies where pitch-angle scattering becomes important. The second code (FRMOD) is a steady-state, globally averaged, two-fluid (ion and electron), point model of the FRM plasma that incorporates fp heating and ash buildup values which are consistent with the MCFRM calculations. These codes have been used extensively in the development of an advanced-fuel FRM reactor design (SAFFIRE). A Catalyzed-D version of the plant is also discussed along with an investigation of the steady-state energy distribution of fps in the FRM. User guides for the two computer codes are also included.

  20. Utility of spectral measurements of secondary reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.E.

    1986-02-01

    The spectra of 15 MeV protons and 14 MeV neutrons produced in the burnup of 0.8 MeV THe ions and 1 MeV tritons through the d(THe,p) and d(t,n) fusion reactions contain information on the velocity distributions of the energetic THe ions and tritons. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Transport and deposition of activation products in a helium cooled fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, W.E.

    1980-09-01

    The transport and deposition of neutron activation products in a helium cooled tokamak fusion power plant are investigated. Stainless steel is used as coolant channel material for a helium/steam system. The important gamma emitting nuclides /sup 56/Mn, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 57/Co, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 51/Cr, and /sup 99/Mo are considered. The dominant release mechanism identified is direct daughter recoil emission from (n,x) type reactions. Corrosion and evaporation are discussed. The radionuclide inventory released by these mechanisms is predicted to exceed 1 x 10/sup 4/ Ci for a reference reactor design after only several days of operation, and approach 3.5 x 10/sup 4/ Ci in equilibrium. A mass transport model is then used to predict the deposition pattern of this inventory in the reactor cooling system.

  2. Reaction-Based SiC Materials for Joining Silicon Carbide Composites for Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lewinsohn, Charles A.; Jones, Russell H.; Singh, M.; Serizawa, H.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.

    2000-09-01

    The fabrication of large or complex silicon carbide-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) components for fusion energy systems requires a method to assemble smaller components that are limited in size by manufacturing constraints. Previous analysis indicates that silicon carbide should be considered as candidate joint materials. Two methods to obtain SiC joints rely on a reaction between silicon and carbon to produce silicon carbide. This report summarizes preliminary mechanical properties of joints formed by these two methods. The methods appear to provide similar mechanical properties. Both the test methods and materials are preliminary in design and require further optimization. In an effort to determine how the mechanical test data is influenced by the test methodology and specimen size, plans for detailed finite element modeling (FEM) are presented.

  3. Measurement of long-lived isotopes and helium production in fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    Results are summarized for measurements of the production rates for long-lived radioisotopes and helium in fusion reactor materials. Measurements have been performed at T(d,n) generators, near 14 MeV; at broad-spectrum Be(d,n) accelerator-based neutron fields; and in various fission reactors. These activation data are used to predict the production of these isotopes in fusion reactor materials for the simulation of fusion materials damage in fission reactor irradiations and as a stable product dosimeter. Nuclear data needs and future plans are discussed. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Linear induction accelerators for fusion and neutron production

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, W.A. |

    1993-08-01

    Linear induction accelerators (LIA) with pulsed power drives can produce high energy, intense beams or electrons, protons, or heavy ions with megawatts of average power. The continuing development of highly reliable LIA components permits the use such accelerators as cost-effective beam sources to drive fusion pellets with heavy ions, to produce intense neutron fluxes using proton beams, and to generate with electrons microwave power to drive magnetic fusion reactors and high gradient, rf-linacs.

  5. An investigation of alpha-like particles in the DIII-D tokamak using fusion-product diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Duong, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Two important issues associated with alpha physics, the single-particle behavior and the effect of collective fast-ion-driven instabilities on fast-ion confinement, have been studied in the DIII-D tokamak using fusion product diagnostics. The single-particle behavior of alpha-like tritons and [sup 3]He ions produced in deuterium-deuterium fusion reactions is studied using the d(t,n)[alpha] and d([sup 3]he,p)[alpha] fusion reactions. Fusion-produced MeV ions exhibit classical behavior in high field (B[sub T] [ge] 1.0 T) DIII-D discharges, including the new class of [open quotes]very high[close quotes] confinement plasmas. However, discharges with strong sawtooth, fishbone, or TAE activity exhibit anomalous fusion product losses. For the high field discharges without strong MHD activity, the data imply an effective diffusion coefficient smaller than [approximately]0.1 m[sup 2]/s, but in the presence of strong MHD activity, the effective diffusion of the MeV ions exceeds 1.0 m[sup 2]/s. Collective alpha particle processes are simulated by means of neutral beam injected energetic ion minorities. Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) are observed in DIII-D when energetic beam ions ([approximately]75 keV) are used to destabilize the mode. Measurements of the neutron emission indicate that up to 70% of the injected power is lost during strong TAE activity. Measurements of the poloidal distribution of fast-ion losses suggest that the losses are greatest near the vessel midplane. Fast-ion losses in discharges with combined fishbones and TAE bursts are 1.5 to 2 times greater than losses in fishbone discharges without TAE activity. The scaling of fast ion losses with MHD mode amplitude exhibits no threshold in the mode amplitude, suggesting that mode-particle pumping is the dominant loss mechanism.

  6. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes.

  7. Particle emission in the light heavy-ion fusion reactions: 14N, 16,18O+ 12C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin Filho, N.; Coimbra, M. M.; Acquadro, J. C.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto, E. M.; Farrelly-Pessoa, E.; Szanto de Toledo, A.

    1985-01-01

    From the energy spectra of light particles produced in light-heavy-ion-induced reactions, level densities of the final nuclei as well as the critical angular momenta for fusion may be obtained. The 14N, 16,18O+ 12C reactions were investigated in the energy range 30 MeVfusion critical angular momentum (Jcr), offering an alternative method for the total fusion cross-section determination.

  8. Indirect Study of the 16O+16O Fusion Reaction Toward Stellar Energies by the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Burtebayev, N.; Aimaganbetov, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Guardo, G. L.; Igamov, S.; Indelicato, I.; Kiss, G.; Kliczewski, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Lattuada, M.; Piasecki, E.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sakuta, S. B.; Siudak, R.; Trzcińska, A.; Tumino, A.; Urkinbayev, A.

    2016-05-01

    The 16O+16O fusion reaction is important in terms of the explosive oxygen burning process during late evolution stage of massive stars as well as understanding of the mechanism of low-energy heavy-ion fusion reactions. We aim to determine the excitation function for the most major exit channels, α+28Si and p+31P, toward stellar energies indirectly by the Trojan Horse Method via the 16O(20Ne, α28Si)α and 16O(20Ne, p31P)α three-body reactions. We report preliminary results involving reaction identification, and determination of the momentum distribution of α-16O intercluster motion in the projectile 20Ne nucleus.

  9. Advanced fusion welding processes, solid state joining and a successful marriage. [production of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    Joining processes for aerospace systems combine fusion welding and solid state joining during production of metal structures. Detailed characteristics of electron beam welding, plasma arc welding, diffusion welding, inertia welding and weldbond processes are discussed.

  10. Fusion hindrance and quasi-fission in heavy-ion induced reactions: disentangling the effect of different parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fioretto, E.; Stefanini, A. M.; Behera, B. R.; Corradi, L.; Gadea, A.; Latina, A.; Trotta, M.; Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Chizhov, A. Yu.; Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Kniajeva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Voskressensky, V. M.; Courtin, S.

    2006-04-26

    Experimental results on the fusion inhibition effect near the Coulomb barrier due to the onset of the quasi-fission mechanism are presented. The investigation was focused on reactions induced by 48Ca projectiles on different heavy targets and comparing them to reactions induced by light ions such as 12C and 16O leading to the same compound nuclei. Cross sections and angular distributions of evaporation residues and fission fragments have been measured.

  11. Importance of lifetime effects in breakup and suppression of complete fusion in reactions of weakly bound nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. J.; Simpson, E. C.; Luong, D. H.; Kalkal, Sunil; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.

    2016-06-01

    Background: Complete fusion cross sections in collisions of light weakly bound nuclei and high-Z targets show suppression of complete fusion at above-barrier energies. This has been interpreted as resulting from the breakup of the weakly bound nucleus prior to reaching the fusion barrier, reducing the probability of complete charge capture. Below-barrier studies of reactions of 9Be have found that the breakup of 8Be formed by neutron stripping dominates over direct breakup and that transfer-triggered breakup may account for the observed suppression of complete fusion. Purpose: This paper investigates how the above conclusions are affected by lifetimes of the resonant states that are populated prior to breakup. If the mean life of a populated resonance (above the breakup threshold) is much longer than the fusion time scale, then its breakup (decay) cannot suppress complete fusion. For short-lived resonances, the situation is more complex. This work explicitly includes the mean life of the short-lived 2+ resonance in 8Be in classical dynamical model calculations to determine its effect on energy and angular correlations of the breakup fragments and on model predictions of suppression of cross sections for complete fusion at above-barrier energies. Method: Previously performed coincidence measurements of breakup fragments produced in reactions of 9Be with 144Sm, 168Er, 186W, 196Pt, 208Pb, and 209Bi at energies below the barrier have been reanalyzed using an improved efficiency determination of the BALiN detector array. Predictions of breakup observables and of complete and incomplete fusion at energies above the fusion barrier are then made using the classical dynamical simulation code platypus, modified to include the effect of lifetimes of resonant states. Results: The agreement of the breakup observables is much improved when lifetime effects are included explicitly. Sensitivity to subzeptosecond lifetime is observed. The predicted suppression of complete fusion

  12. Calculations of Excitation Functions of Some Structural Fusion Materials for ( n, t) Reactions up to 50 MeV Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Aktı, N. N.; Okuducu, Ş.

    2010-06-01

    Fusion serves an inexhaustible energy for humankind. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So, the working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. In this study, ( n, t) reactions for some structural fusion materials such as 27Al, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, and 56Fe have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 27Al( n, t)25Mg, 51V( n, t)49Ti, 52Cr( n, t)50V, 55Mn( n, t)53Cr and 56Fe( n, t)54Mn reactions have been carried out up to 50 MeV incident neutron energy. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the geometry dependent hybrid model, hybrid model and the cascade exciton model. Equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, we have calculated ( n, t) reaction cross-sections by using new evaluated semi-empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.

  13. Synthesis of superheavy element 120 via {sup 50}Ti+{sup A}Cf hot fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. H.; Bao Jingdong

    2009-11-15

    Synthesis of superheavy element 120 in terms of the {sup 50}Ti+{sup 249-252}Cf fusion-evaporation reactions is evaluated and discussed. It is found that the reactions of {sup 250,251}Cf({sup 50}Ti,3n){sup 297,298}120 and {sup 251,252}Cf({sup 50}Ti,4n){sup 297,298}120 are relatively favorable with the maximum evaporation-residue cross sections of 0.12, 0.09, 0.11, and 0.25 pb, respectively. However, {sup 252}Cf may be difficult to be target because its spontaneous fission will bring about serious background in the experiment. Fusion probabilities for different target-projectile combinations leading to the formation of surperheavy nucleus {sup 302}120 are estimated with the ''fusion-by-diffusion'' model and presented as a function of the Coulomb parameter Z{sub 1}Z{sub 2}/(A{sub 1}{sup 1/3}+A{sub 2}{sup 1/3}). Among the reactions {sup 50}Ti+{sup 252}Cf, {sup 54}Cr+{sup 248}Cm, {sup 58}Fe+{sup 244}Pu, and {sup 64}Ni+{sup 238}U, the reaction {sup 50}Ti+{sup 252}Cf has the largest fusion probability. Synthesis of superheavy element 120 is of essential importance for determining whether the magic proton shell should be at Z=114 or at higher proton numbers Z=120-126. Therefore, the experiment to produce isotopes with Z=120 in the fusion reactions {sup 50}Ti+{sup 250,251}Cf is of great interest.

  14. Influence of laser induced hot electrons on the threshold for shock ignition of fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaïtis, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Le Bel, E.; Duchateau, G.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of Hot Electrons (HEs) generated by the nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction (LPI) on the dynamics of Shock Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion targets are investigated. The coupling between the laser beam, plasma dynamics and hot electron generation and propagation is described with a radiative hydrodynamics code using an inline model based on Paraxial Complex Geometrical Optics [Colaïtis et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 041101 (2015)]. Two targets are considered: the pure-DT HiPER target and a CH-DT design with baseline spike powers of the order of 200-300 TW. In both cases, accounting for the LPI-generated HEs leads to non-igniting targets when using the baseline spike powers. While HEs are found to increase the ignitor shock pressure, they also preheat the bulk of the imploding shell, notably causing its expansion and contamination of the hotspot with the dense shell material before the time of shock convergence. The associated increase in hotspot mass (i) increases the ignitor shock pressure required to ignite the fusion reactions and (ii) significantly increases the power losses through Bremsstrahlung X-ray radiation, thus rapidly cooling the hotspot. These effects are less prominent for the CH-DT target where the plastic ablator shields the lower energy LPI-HE spectrum. Simulations using higher laser spike powers of 500 TW suggest that the CH-DT capsule marginally ignites, with an ignition window width significantly smaller than without LPI-HEs, and with three quarters of the baseline target yield. The latter effect arises from the relation between the shock launching time and the shell areal density, which becomes relevant in presence of a LPI-HE preheating.

  15. Electroweak meson production reaction in the nucleon resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Toru

    2015-10-15

    We report on our recent study of the the neutrino-nucleon reaction in the nucleon resonance region. The dynamical reaction model of meson production reaction on the nucleon for the pion and photon induced reaction has been developed in order to investigate the spectrum of nucleon excited state. We have extended this model in order to describe the weak meson production reactions with the πN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ and ππN final states. We also studied the role of the final state interaction in the photon and the neutrino induced pion production reaction on the deuteron around the Δ(1232) resonance region.

  16. A protein disulfide isomerase gene fusion expression system that increases the extracellular productivity of Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Kajino, T; Ohto, C; Muramatsu, M; Obata, S; Udaka, S; Yamada, Y; Takahashi, H

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system.

  17. Petawatt laser pulses for proton-boron high gain fusion with avalanche reactions excluding problems of nuclear radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Heinrich; Lalousis, Paraskevas; Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Margarone, Daniele; Korn, Georg; Eliezer, Shalom; Miley, George H.; Moustaizis, Stavros; Mourou, Gérard

    2015-05-01

    An alternative way may be possible for igniting solid density hydrogen-11B (HB11) fuel. The use of >petawatt-ps laser pulses from the non-thermal ignition based on ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks by the nonlinear (ponderomotive) force, has to be combined with the measured ultrahigh magnetic fields in the 10 kilotesla range for cylindrical trapping. The evaluation of measured alpha particles from HB11 reactions arrives at the conclusion that apart from the usual binary nuclear reactions, secondary reactions by an avalanche multiplication may cause the high gains, even much higher than from deuterium tritium fusion. This may be leading to a concept of clean economic power generation.

  18. Reply to ‘Comment “On the fusion triple product and fusion power gain of tokamak pilot plants and reactors”’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costley, A. E.; Buxton, P. F.; Hugill, J.

    2017-03-01

    In reply to the Comment by Biel et al (2016 Nucl. Fusion 57 038001) on our recent papers Costley et al (2015 Nucl Fusion 55 033001) and Costley (2016 Nucl. Fusion 56 066003), we point out that the fusion triple product, nTτ E, and fusion power gain, Q fus, cannot be expressed solely in terms of independent engineering design variables such as major radius, R, and toroidal field, B; output performance variables such as normalised beta, β N, safety factor, q, and fusion power P fus, have to be invoked. Further, we show that the density limit has the effect of largely cancelling the size dependence in nTτ E and Q fus, which would otherwise be present, when these parameters are expressed in terms of P fus. Considerations of engineering aspects are also briefly discussed.

  19. Energy distribution among reaction products. V.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anlauf, K. G.; Horne, D. S.; Macdonald, R. G.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of three reactions, one point of theoretical interest being the predicted correlation between barrier height and barrier location. The H + Br 2 reaction having a lower activation barrier than H + Cl 2, should have an earlier barrier, and hence a greater percentage attractive energy release and higher efficiency of vibrational excitation. Information is developed concerning the effect of isotopic substitution in the pair of reactions H + Cl 2 and D + Cl 2. The 'arrested relaxation' method was used. Essentially, the method involves reacting two diffuse reagent beams in a reaction vessel with background pressure less than 0.001 torr, and with walls cooled by liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

  20. Effects of nuclear orientation on fusion and fission process for reactions using actinide target nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nishinaka, I.; Makii, H.; Nagame, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohtsuki, T.; Hirose, K.; Hofmann, S.

    2010-04-30

    Fission fragment mass distributions in the reaction of {sup 30}Si+{sup 238}U were measured at the energies around the Coulomb barrier. At the above-barrier energies, the mass distribution showed Gaussian shape. At the sub-barrier energies, triple-humped distribution was observed, which consists of symmetric fission and asymmetric fission peaked at A{sub L}/A{sub H}approx =90/178. The asymmetric fission should be attributed to quasifission from the results of the measured evaporation residue (ER) cross-sections produced by {sup 30}Si+{sup 238}U. The cross-section for {sup 263}Sg at the above-barrier energy agree with the statistical model calculation which assumes that the measured fission cross-sections are equal to the fusion cross-sections, whereas the one for {sup 264}Sg measured at the sub-barrier energy is smaller than the calculation, indicating the presence for quasifission. We also report the results on the fragment mass distributions for {sup 36,34}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 40}Ar+{sup 238}U.

  1. Tumor Growth Prediction with Reaction-Diffusion and Hyperelastic Biomechanical Model by Physiological Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ken C. L.; Summers, Ronald M.; Kebebew, Electron; Yao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The goal of tumor growth prediction is to model the tumor growth process, which can be achieved by physiological modeling and model personalization from clinical measurements. Although image-driven frameworks have been proposed with promising results, several issues such as infinitesimal strain assumptions, complicated personalization procedures, and the lack of functional information, may limit their prediction accuracy. In view of these issues, we propose a framework for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor growth prediction, which comprises a FEM-based tumor growth model with coupled reaction-diffusion equation and nonlinear biomechanics. Physiological data fusion of structural and functional images is used to improve the subject-specificity of model personalization, and a derivative-free global optimization algorithm is adopted to facilitate the complicated model and accommodate flexible choices of objective functions. With this flexibility, we propose an objective function accounting for both the tumor volume difference and the root-mean-squared error of intracellular volume fractions. Experiments were performed on synthetic and clinical data to verify the parameter estimation capability and the prediction performance. Comparisons of using different biomechanical models and objective functions were also performed. From the experimental results of eight patient data sets, the average recall, precision, Dice coefficient, and relative volume difference between predicted and measured tumor volumes were 84.5±6.9%, 85.8±8.2%, 84.6±1.7%, and 14.2±8.4%, respectively. PMID:25962846

  2. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  3. Compound nucleus formation probability PCN determined within the dynamical cluster-decay model for various "hot" fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Arshdeep; Chopra, Sahila; Gupta, Raj K.

    2014-08-01

    The compound nucleus (CN) fusion/formation probability PCN is defined and its detailed variations with the CN excitation energy E*, center-of-mass energy Ec .m., fissility parameter χ, CN mass number ACN, and Coulomb interaction parameter Z1Z2 are studied for the first time within the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The model is a nonstatistical description of the decay of a CN to all possible processes. The (total) fusion cross section σfusion is the sum of the CN and noncompound nucleus (nCN) decay cross sections, each calculated as the dynamical fragmentation process. The CN cross section σCN is constituted of evaporation residues and fusion-fission, including intermediate-mass fragments, each calculated for all contributing decay fragments (A1, A2) in terms of their formation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P. The nCN cross section σnCN is determined as the quasi-fission (qf) process, where P0=1 and P is calculated for the entrance-channel nuclei. The DCM, with effects of deformations and orientations of nuclei included in it, is used to study the PCN for about a dozen "hot" fusion reactions forming a CN of mass number A ˜100 to superheavy nuclei and for various different nuclear interaction potentials. Interesting results are that PCN=1 for complete fusion, but PCN<1 or PCN≪1 due to the nCN contribution, depending strongly on different parameters of the entrance-channel reaction but found to be independent of the nuclear interaction potentials used.

  4. Double Higgs Boson Production via WW Fusion in TeV e+e- Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, V.; Han, T.

    The production of two standard model Higgs bosons via the WW fusion process e+e- → bar ve ve HH would test the predicted HHH, HWW and HHWW couplings. At TeV energies this fusion cross section dominates over that from e+e- →ZHH and would give significant event rates for mH ≲ 1/2 MZ at high luminosity e+e- colliders. We evaluate the rates and present the dynamical distributions.

  5. Making genes green: creating green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions with blunt-end PCR products.

    PubMed

    Lo, W; Rodgers, W; Hughes, T

    1998-07-01

    The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) has proven to be a useful tool in protein localization and trafficking studies. Fused to GFP, a protein of interest can be visualized and tracked in vivo through fluorescence microscopy. However, the process of making these fusion proteins is often tedious and painstaking. Here, we describe a simple and quick method for creating GFP fusion proteins using blunt-end PCR product ligation.

  6. Soft Fusion Energy Path: Isotope Production in Energy Subcritical/Economy Hypercritical D +D Colliding-Beam Mini Fusion Reactor `Exyder'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Tim; Maglich, Bogdan; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Bethe1 and Sakharov2 argued for soft fusion energy path via isotope production, substantiated by Manheimer3. - Copious T and 3He production4 , 5 from D(d, p) T and D(d, n) 3He reactions in 725 KeV D +D colliding beams was measured in weak-focusing Self-Collider6 , 7 radius 0.15 m, in B = 3.12 T, non-linearly stabilized by electron cloud oscillations8 to confinement time = 24 s. Simulations6 predict that by switching to strong focusing9, 10 deuterons 0.75 MeV each, generate 1 3He +1T +1p + 1n at total input energy cost 10.72 MeV. Economic value of T and 3He is 65 and 120 MeV/atom, respectively. We obtain economic gain 205MeV/10.72 MeV ~ 2,000% i.e. 3He production funds cost of T. If first wall is made of Thorium n's will breed 233U releasing 200 MeV/fission, at neutron cost 5.36 MeV versus 160 MeV in beam on target, resulting in no cost 3He production, valued 75K/g. 1. Physics Today, May 1979, p.44; 2. Memoirs, Vintage Books, (1992); 3. Phys. Today, May 2012 p. 12; 4. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 796 (1985); 5. Bull. APS, 57, No. 3 (2012); 6. Part. Acc.1, (1970); 7. ANEUTRONIC FUSION NIM A 271 1-167 (1988); 8. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1818 (1993); 9. Part. Acc. 34, 13 (1990).

  7. Simulation and Experimental Study on the Efficiency of Traveling Wave Direct Energy Conversion for Application to Aneutronic Fusion Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarditi, Alfonso; Chap, Andrew; Miley, George; Scott, John

    2013-10-01

    A study based on both Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and experiments is being developed to study the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC,) with the perspective of application to aneutronic fusion reaction products and space propulsion. The PIC model is investigating in detail the key TWDEC physics process by simulating the time-dependent transfer of energy from the ion beam to an electric load connected to ring-type electrodes in cylindrical symmetry. An experimental effort is in progress on a TWDEC test article at NASA, Johnson Space Center with the purpose of studying the conditions for improving the efficiency of the direct energy conversion process. Using a scaled-down ion energy source, the experiment is primarily focused on the effect of the (bunched) beam density on the efficiency and on the optimization of the electrode design. The simulation model is guiding the development of the experimental configuration and will provide details of the beam dynamics for direct comparison with experimental diagnostics. Work supported by NASA, Johnson Space Center.

  8. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in the critical reactors

  9. Excitation functions for {sup 208-211}Fr produced in the {sup 18}O+{sup 197}Au fusion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Corradi, L.; Behera, B.R.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Latina, A.; Stefanini, A.M.; Szilner, S.; Trotta, M.; Wu, Y.; Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Sagaidak, R.N.; Atutov, S.N.; Mai, B.; Stancari, G.; Tomassetti, L.; Mariotti, E.; Khanbekyan, A.; Veronesi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 208-211}Fr isotopes produced in the {sup 18}O+{sup 197}Au fusion-evaporation reaction have been measured at E{sub lab}=75-130 MeV via characteristic {alpha} decays by means of an electrostatic deflector and a semiconductor detector. Data have been compared with calculations giving barrier-passing (capture) cross sections and probabilities of the compound nucleus decay into different channels according to the standard statistical model.

  10. Traveling-Wave Direct Energy Converter for Fusion Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kunihiro; Katayama, Hideaki

    1999-11-01

    A Traveling-Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), which is designed to recover kinetic energy of fusion protons escaped from a FRC/ D^3He fusion reactor, is studied by numerical calculation and computer simulation. To develop a simulation code, a transmission line loop for an electrostatic traveling wave is designed using lumped constant elements L, C, R. Electrostatic coupling between proton beam and circuits is treated by directly solving Poisson's equation. Circuit equations are transformed to temporal finite-difference equations, which are solved following the leap-flog scheme. Simulation results display desirable performance characteristics of the TWDEC. Traveling wave with a fixed frequency is excited spontaneously without any external electric power supply. High energy conversion rate of the TWDEC up to 0.8 is obtained both from orbit calculation and from computer simulation as a result of improvement of proton beam bunching. The wave keeps its equilibrium state under loading, and the wave responds to variation of the electric load stably.

  11. Performance requirements of an inertial-fusion-energy source for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Hovingh, J.

    1983-01-01

    Performance of an inertial fusion system for the production of hydrogen is compared to a tandem-mirror-system hydrogen producer. Both systems use the General Atomic sulfur-iodine hydrogen-production cycle and produce no net electric power to the grid. An ICF-driven hydrogen producer will have higher system gains and lower electrical-consumption ratios than the design point for the tandem-mirror system if the inertial-fusion-energy gain eta Q > 8.8. For the ICF system to have a higher hydrogen production rate per unit fusion power than the tandem-mirror system requires that eta Q > 17. These can be achieved utilizing realistic laser and pellet performances.

  12. Anomalous delayed loss of trapped D-D fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mynick, H.E.

    1993-02-01

    A new anomalous delayed loss of D-D fusion products has been measured at the bottom of the TFRR vessel. This loss is delayed by [approximately] 0.2 sec with respect to the usual prompt first-orbit loss, and has a correspondingly lower energy, i.e. about half the fusion product birth energy. This loss process dominates the total fusion product loss measured 90[degrees] below the midplane for plasma currents. I[ge] 1.8 MA and major radii near R=2.45 m, e.g. for recent TFTR supershots. This delayed feature can occur without large coherent MED activity, although it can be strongly modulated by such activity. Several possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed, but no clear explanation for this delayed loss has yet been found.

  13. Anomalous delayed loss of trapped D-D fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mynick, H.E.

    1993-02-01

    A new anomalous delayed loss of D-D fusion products has been measured at the bottom of the TFRR vessel. This loss is delayed by {approximately} 0.2 sec with respect to the usual prompt first-orbit loss, and has a correspondingly lower energy, i.e. about half the fusion product birth energy. This loss process dominates the total fusion product loss measured 90{degrees} below the midplane for plasma currents. I{ge} 1.8 MA and major radii near R=2.45 m, e.g. for recent TFTR supershots. This delayed feature can occur without large coherent MED activity, although it can be strongly modulated by such activity. Several possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed, but no clear explanation for this delayed loss has yet been found.

  14. Unexpected heterogeneity of BCR-ABL fusion mRNA detected by polymerase chain reaction in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hooberman, A.L.; Carrino, J.J.; Leibowitz, D.; Rowley, J.D.; Le Beau, M.M.; Arlin, Z.A.; Westbrook, C.A. )

    1989-06-01

    The Philadelphia (Ph{sup 1}) chromosome results in a fusion of portions of the BCR gene from chromosome 22 and the ABL gene from chromosome 9, producing a chimeric BCR-ABL mRNA and protein. In lymphoblastic leukemias, there are two molecular subtypes of the Ph{sup 1} chromosome, one with a rearrangement of the breakpoint cluster region (bcr) of the BCR gene, producing the same 8.5-kilobase BCR-ABL fusion mRNA seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and the other, without a bcr rearrangement, producing a 7.0-kilobase BCR-ABL fusion mRNA that is seen only in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The authors studied the molecular subtype of the Ph{sup 1} chromosome in 11 cases of Ph{sup 1}-positive ALL, including 2 with a previous diagnosis of CML, using a sensitive method to analyze the mRNA species based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). They observed unexpected heterogeneity in BCR-ABL mRNA in this population. They conclude that the PCR gives additional information about the Ph{sup 1} chromosome gene products that cannot be obtained by genomic analysis, but that it cannot be used as the sole means of detection of this chromosomal abnormality in ALL because of the high incidence of false negative results.

  15. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Vivi; Lokman, Christien; van den Hondel, Cees AMJJ; Punt, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications of these proteins. Also the coupling of fragments to relevant enzymes or other components will be discussed. As an example of the fusion protein strategy, the 'magic bullet' approach for industrial applications, will be highlighted. PMID:12605725

  16. Exploring contributions from incomplete fusion in Li,76+209Bi and Li,76+198Pt reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkar, V. V.; Jha, V.; Kailas, S.

    2016-08-01

    We use the breakup absorption model to simultaneously describe the measured cross sections of complete fusion (CF), incomplete fusion (ICF), and total fusion (TF) in nuclear reactions induced by weakly bound nuclei Li,76 on 209Bi and 198Pt targets. The absorption cross sections are calculated using the continuum discretized coupled channels (CDCC) method with different choices of short-range imaginary potentials to get the ICF, CF, and TF cross sections. It is observed that the cross sections for deuteron ICF / deuteron capture and α ICF / α capture are of similar magnitude, in the case of the 6Li projectile, while the cross sections for the triton ICF / triton capture is more dominant than that of α ICF / α capture in the case of the 7Li projectile. Both these observations are also corroborated by the experimental data. The ratio of ICF to TF cross sections, which defines the value of fusion suppression factor, is found to be in agreement with the data available from the literature. The cross-section ratios of CF/TF and ICF/TF show opposite behavior at below-barrier energies the former decreases while the latter increases as the energy is lowered, which shows the dominance of ICF at below-barrier energies. We have also studied the correlation of the ICF cross sections with the noncapture breakup (NCBU) cross sections as a function of energy, which shows that the NCBU is more significant than ICF at below-barrier energies.

  17. Population of isomeric states in fusion and transfer reactions in beams of loosely bound nuclei near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, N. K.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of the mechanisms of nuclear reactions on the population of 195 m Hg and 197 m Hg(7/2-), 198 m Tl and 196 m Tl(7+), and 196 m Au and 198 m Au(12-) isomeric nuclear states obtained in reactions induced by beams of 3He, 6Li, and 6He weakly bound nuclei is studied. The behavior of excitation functions and high values of isomeric ratios ( δ m/ δ g) for products of nuclear reactions proceeding through a compound nucleus and involving neutron evaporation are explained within statistical models. Reactions in which the emission of charged particles occurs have various isomeric ratios depending on the reaction type. The isomeric ratio is lower in direct transfer reactions involving charged-particle emission than in reactions where the evaporation of charged particles occurs. Reactions accompanied by neutron transfer usually have a lower isomeric ratio, which behaves differently for different direct-reaction types (stripping versus pickup reactions).

  18. Ion cyclotron emission due to the newly-born fusion products induced fast Alfven wave radiative instabilities in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.

    1995-08-01

    The velocity distribution functions of the newly born (t = 0) charged fusion products of tokamak discharges can be approximated by a monoenergetic ring distribution with a finite v{sub {parallel}} such that v{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} v{sub {parallel}} {approx} v{sub j} where (M{sub j}V{sub j}{sup 2}/2) = E{sub j}, the directed birth energy of the charged fusion product species j of mass M{sub j}. As the time t progresses these distribution functions will evolve into a Gaussian in velocity with thermal spreadings given by the perpendicular and parallel temperatures T{sub {perpendicular}j}(t) = T{sub {parallel}j}(t) with T{sub j}(t) increasing as t increases and finally reaches an isotropic saturation value of T{sub {perpendicular}j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) = T{sub {parallel}j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) = T{sub j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) {approx} [M{sub j}T{sub d}E{sub j}/(M{sub j} + M)]{sup 1/2}, where T{sub d} is the temperature of the background deuterium plasma ions, M is the mass of a triton or a neutron for j = protons and alpha particles, respectively, and {tau}{sub j} {approx} {tau}{sub sj}/4 is the thermalization time of the fusion product species j in the background deuterium plasma and {tau}{sub sj} is the slowing-down time. For times t of the order of {tau}{sub j} their distributions can be approximated by a Gaussian in their total energy. Then for times t {ge} {tau}{sub sj} the velocity distributions of these fusion products will relax towards their appropriate slowing-down distributions. Here the authors will examine the radiative stability of all these distributions. The ion cyclotron emission from energetic ion produced by fusion reactions or neutral beam injection promises to be a useful diagnostic tool.

  19. Meson Production in p+d Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimala, W.; Betigeri, M.; Bojowald, J.; Budzanowski, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Ernst, J.; Freindl, L.; Frekers, D.; Garske, W.; Grewer, K.; Hamacher, A.; Ilieva, J.; Jarczyk, L.; Kilian, K.; Kliczewski, S.; Kolev, D.; Kutsarova, T.; Lieb, J.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Nann, H.; Pentchev, L.; Plendl, H. S.; Protic, D.; Razen, B.; von Rossen, P.; Roy, B.; Siudak, R.; Smyrski, J.; Strzalkowski, A.; Tsenov, R.; Zwoll, K.

    2000-10-01

    Differential cross sections of the pd→ 3H π +/ 3He π 0 reactions were measured simultaneously at three beam momenta: 750 MeV/c, 800 MeV/c and 850 MeV/c. The differential cross section of the pd→ 3He η was measured at 1675 MeV/c beam momentum. All measurements cover a wide angular range in the CM system. The experiments were performed at the COSY accelerator in Juelich, Germany, by means of high purity Germanium Wall detector together with the magnetic spectrometer BIG KARL. Estimated cross sections were compared with the predictions of simple theoretical models. In case of isospin symmetric pd→ 3H π +/ 3He π 0 reactions, the average cross section ratio was estimated.

  20. Production of radioactive nuclides in inverse reaction kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traykov, E.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Bosswell, M.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O. C.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.; Young, A. R.

    2007-03-01

    Efficient production of short-lived radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for various applications. It is particularly relevant when the isotope of interest is only a few nucleons away from a stable isotope. In this article production via charge exchange and stripping reactions in combination with a magnetic separator is explored. The relation between the separator transmission efficiency, the production yield, and the choice of beam energy is discussed. The results of some exploratory experiments will be presented.

  1. Phenomenological analysis of Higgs boson production through gluon fusion in association with jets

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Nicolas; Hoeche, Stefan; Luisoni, Gionata; Schonherr, Marek; Winter, Jan -Christopher; Yundin, Valery

    2016-01-27

    We present a detailed phenomenological analysis of the production of a Standard Model Higgs boson in association with up to three jets. We consider the gluon fusion channel using an effective theory in the large top-quark mass limit. Higgs boson production in gluon fusion constitutes an irreducible background to the vector boson fusion (VBF) process; hence the precise knowledge of its characteristics is a prerequisite for any measurement in the VBF channel. The calculation is carried out at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD in a fully automated way by combining the two programs GoSAM and SHERPA. We present numerical results for a large variety of observables for both standard cuts and VBF selection cuts.

  2. Phenomenological analysis of Higgs boson production through gluon fusion in association with jets

    DOE PAGES

    Greiner, Nicolas; Hoeche, Stefan; Luisoni, Gionata; ...

    2016-01-27

    We present a detailed phenomenological analysis of the production of a Standard Model Higgs boson in association with up to three jets. We consider the gluon fusion channel using an effective theory in the large top-quark mass limit. Higgs boson production in gluon fusion constitutes an irreducible background to the vector boson fusion (VBF) process; hence the precise knowledge of its characteristics is a prerequisite for any measurement in the VBF channel. The calculation is carried out at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD in a fully automated way by combining the two programs GoSAM and SHERPA. We present numerical resultsmore » for a large variety of observables for both standard cuts and VBF selection cuts.« less

  3. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A. Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A. Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-15

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  4. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  5. Massive production of nanoparticles via mist reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ran; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2009-06-01

    A novel conceptual nanoparticle fabrication method is proposed in this paper. It can be easily implemented for the preparation of micro or nanoparticles through a reaction between mists with different specific chemical compounds produced by ultrasonic atomization technology. Ultrasonic atomization is an established technology that easily atomizes liquid to produce very small droplets-in the orders of tens to hundreds of micrometers. The results reveal that metal oxide nanoparticles, such as iron oxide can be massively produced via reactions between metal chlorides and sodium carbonate in an experimental set-up based on physical and chemical principles. The density of the nanoparticle distribution is also investigated and determined to be dependent on the amount of mist reacted and the collection time. Moreover, since the vibrational frequency of ultrasound can be adjusted, we can control the size of micro-droplets of reactants, hence producing particles of different dimensions. Given that the double mist reaction method is easily controllable, environmentally friendly and extremely low in cost, it can potentially become a significant method for making micro/nano particles in the newly emerging field of nanofabrication and integration.

  6. Effect of soluble P55 tumour-necrosis factor binding fusion protein on the local Shwartzman and Arthus reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, K. E.; Williams, T. J.; Feldmann, M.; Rossi, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    1. In this study, the effects of a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, and a soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) binding/IgG fusion protein, p55-sf2, on the priming and challenge stages of the local Shwartzman reaction (LSR) were assessed and compared with their effects on the acute inflammatory response induced by recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (rhTNF), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a reversed passive Arthus (RPA) reaction in rabbit skin. 2. The LSR was induced in skin by giving an intradermal (i.d.) priming injection of LPS followed by two i.v. challenge injections 20 h and 22 h later. Accumulation of 51-Cr-labelled red blood cells and [125I]-albumin were measured at 24 h as markers of haemorrhage and oedema formation, respectively. 3. The RPA reaction was induced in the rabbit by giving i.d. injections of Arthus anti-serum (anti-bovine-gamma-globulin, BGG) followed 5 min later by an i.v. injection of the antigen (BGG). Oedema formation and the accumulation of 111In-labelled neutrophils produced in the RPA reaction and in response to i.d. injection of rhTNF and LPS were measured over the 4 h period after inducing the responses. 4. A single local injection of cycloheximide (10 micrograms/site) did not inhibit neutrophil accumulation or oedema formation produced by 100% Arthus anti-sera. Although LPS injected i.d. induced a marked dose-dependent neutrophil accumulation, there was little associated plasma leakage. Cycloheximide (10 micrograms/site) did not significantly inhibit the neutrophil accumulation induced by LPS (0.1 microgram/site). In the LSR, priming i.d. injections of LPS caused a dose-dependent increase in haemorrhage and plasma leakage at skin sites after challenge with LPS (two injections of 100 micrograms, i.v.). Co-injection of a single dose of cycloheximide (10 micrograms/site) with LPS (30 micrograms/site) caused a marked reduction in the amount of haemorrhage. Local cycloheximide (10 micrograms/site) administered

  7. Angular momentum effects and barrier modification in sub-barrier fusion reactions using the proximity potential in the Wong formula

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Raj; Bansal, Manie; Arun, Sham K.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2009-09-15

    Using the capture cross-section data from {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu, and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 248}Cm reactions in the superheavy mass region, and fusion-evaporation cross sections from {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni, {sup 64}Ni+{sup 64}Ni, and {sup 64}Ni+{sup 100}Mo reactions known for fusion hindrance phenomenon in coupled-channels calculations, the Wong formula is assessed for its angular momentum and barrier-modification effects at sub-barrier energies. The simple, l=0 barrier-based Wong formula is shown to ignore the modifications of the barrier due to its inbuilt l dependence via l summation, which is found to be adequate enough to explain the capture cross sections for all the three above-mentioned {sup 48}Ca-based reactions forming superheavy systems. For the capture (equivalently, quasifission) reactions, the complete l-summed Wong formula is shown to be the same as the dynamical cluster-decay model expression, of one of us (R.K.G.) and collaborators, with the condition of fragment preformation probability P{sub 0}{sup l}=1 for all the angular momentum l values. In the case of fusion-evaporation cross sections, however, a further modification of barriers is required for below-barrier energies, affected in terms of either the barrier 'lowering' or barrier 'narrowing' via the curvature constant. Calculations are made for use of nuclear proximity potential, with effects of multipole deformations included up to hexadecapole, and orientation degrees of freedom integrated for both the coplanar and noncoplanar configurations.

  8. Moderator design studies for a new neutron reference source based on the D-T fusion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Piper, Roman K.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The radioactive isotope Californium-252 (252Cf) is relied upon internationally as a neutron calibration source for ionizing radiation dosimetry because of its high specific activity. The source may be placed within a heavy-water (D2O) moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum representative of neutron fields common to commercial nuclear power plant environments, among others. Due to termination of the U.S. Department of Energy loan/lease program in 2012, the expense of obtaining 252Cf sources has undergone a significant increase, rendering high output sources largely unattainable. On the other hand, the use of neutron generators in research and industry applications has increased dramatically in recent years. Neutron generators based on deuteriumtritium (D-T) fusion reaction provide high neutron fluence rates and, therefore, could possibly be used as a replacement for 252Cf. To be viable, the 14 MeV D-T output spectrum must be significantly moderated to approximate common workplace environments. This paper presents the results of an effort to select appropriate moderating materials and design a configuration to reshape the primary neutron field toward a spectrum approaching that from a nuclear power plant workplace. A series of Monte-Carlo (MCNP) simulations of single layer high- and low-Z materials are used to identify initial candidate moderators. Candidates are refined through a similar series of simulations involving combinations of 2-5 different materials. The simulated energy distribution using these candidate moderators are rated in comparison to a target spectrum. Other properties, such as fluence preservation and/or enhancement, prompt gamma production and other characteristics are also considered.

  9. Moderator design studies for a new neutron reference source based on the D–T fusion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Piper, Roman K.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The radioactive isotope Californium-252 (252Cf) is relied upon internationally as a neutron calibration source for ionizing radiation dosimetry because of its high specific activity. The source may be placed within a heavy-water (D2O) moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum representative of neutron fields common to commercial nuclear power plant environments, among others. Due to termination of the U.S. Department of Energy loan/lease program in 2012, the expense of obtaining 252Cf sources has undergone a significant increase, rendering high output sources largely unattainable. On the other hand, the use of neutron generators in research and industry applications has increased dramatically in recent years. Neutron generators based on deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction provide high neutron fluence rates and, therefore, could possibly be used as a replacement for 252Cf. To be viable, the 14.6 MeV D-T output spectrum must be significantly moderated to approximate common workplace environments. This paper presents the results of an effort to select appropriate moderating materials and design a configuration to reshape the primary neutron field toward a spectrum approaching that from a nuclear power plant workplace. A series of Monte-Carlo (MCNP) simulations of single layer high- and low-Z materials are used to identify initial candidate moderators. Candidates are refined through a similar series of simulations involving combinations of 2 to 5 different materials. The simulated energy distribution using these candidate moderators are rated in comparison to a target spectrum. Other properties, such as fluence preservation and/or enhancement, prompt gamma production and other characteristics are also considered.

  10. How the projectile neutron number influences the evaporation cross section in complete fusion reactions with heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chengbin; Zhang Jinjuan; Ren, Z. Z.; Shen, C. W.

    2010-11-15

    The influence of the projectile neutron number on the evaporation residue cross sections for the reactions {sup 208}Pb({sup 52,54}Cr,n,2n){sup 258-261}Sg and {sup 208}Pb({sup 48,50}Ti,n,2n){sup 254-257}Rf has been studied within the framework of a fusion-fission statistical model. The results obtained with the kewpie2 code are compared with recent experimental data. The excitation functions represent the experimental results well both in the maximum value and the lactation of the peak. The calculations show that the projectile neutron number greatly influences both the capture cross section and the fusion probability.

  11. Thermal properties of light nuclei from 12C + 12C fusion-evaporation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; D'Agostino, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Bruno, M.; Abbondanno, U.; Appannababu, S.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Fabris, D.; Gelli, N.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Valdré, S.; Raduta, Ad R.

    2014-07-01

    The 12C + 12C reaction at 95 MeV has been studied through the complete charge identification of its products by means of the GARFIELD+RCo experimental set-up at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL). In this paper, the first of a series of two, a comparison to a dedicated Hauser-Feshbach calculation allows selecting a set of dissipative events which corresponds, to a large extent, to the statistical evaporation of highly excited 24Mg. Information on the isotopic distribution of the evaporation residues in coincidence with their complete evaporation chain is also extracted. The set of data puts strong constraints on the behaviour of the level density (LD) of light nuclei above the threshold for particle emission. In particular, a fast increase of the LD parameter with excitation energy is supported by the data. Residual deviations from a statistical behaviour are seen in two specific channels, and tentatively associated with a contamination from direct reactions and/or α-clustering effects. These channels are studied in further details in the second paper of the series.

  12. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  13. Fusion power production from TFTR plasmas fueled with deuterium and tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. D.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J. L.; Ashcroft, D.; Barnes, Cris W.; Barnes, G.; Batha, S.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Bretz, N. L.; Budny, R.; Bush, C. E.; Camp, R.; Caorlin, M.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, Z.; Cheng, C. Z.; Collins, J.; Coward, G.; Darrow, D. S.; DeLooper, J.; Duong, H.; Dudek, L.; Durst, R.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ernst, D.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredrickson, E.; Fromm, N.; Fu, G. Y.; Furth, H. P.; Gentile, C.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G.; Hanson, G. R.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Heidbrink, W.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hill, K. W.; Hosea, J.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D. L.; Jobes, F. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Johnson, L. C.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kugel, H.; Lam, N. T.; LaMarche, P. H.; Loughlin, M. J.; LeBlanc, B.; Leonard, M.; Levinton, F. M.; Machuzak, J.; Mansfield, D. K.; Martin, A.; Mazzucato, E.; Majeski, R.; Marmar, E.; McChesney, J.; McCormack, B.; McCune, D. C.; McGuire, K. M.; McKee, G.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Murakami, M.; Nagy, A.; Nazikian, R.; Newman, R.; Nishitani, T.; Norris, M.; O’Connor, T.; Oldaker, M.; Osakabe, M.; Owens, D. K.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Pearson, G.; Perry, E.; Petrov, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Pitcher, S.; Ramsey, A. T.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Redi, M. H.; Roberts, D.; Rogers, J.; Rossmassler, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sasao, M.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G. L.; Scott, S. D.; Sissingh, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Snipes, J. A.; Stevens, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stratton, B. C.; Synakowski, E.; Tang, W.; Taylor, G.; Terry, J. L.; Thompson, M. E.; Tuszewski, M.; Vannoy, C.; von Halle, A.; von Goeler, S.; Voorhees, D.; Walters, R. T.; Wieland, R.; Wilgen, J. B.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Wong, K. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Yamada, M.; Young, K. M.; Zarnstorff, M. C.; Zweben, S. J.

    1994-05-01

    Peak fusion power production of 6.2 ± 0.4 MW has been achieved in TFTR plasmas heated by deuterium and tritium neutral beams at a total power of 29.5 MW. These plasmas have an inferred central fusion alpha particle density of 1.2 x 1017 m ₋3 without the appearance of either disruptive magnetohydrodynamics events or detectable changes in Alfvén wave activity. The measured loss rate of energetic alpha particles agreed with the approximately 5% losses expected from alpha particles which are born on unconfined orbits.

  14. Fusion power production from TFTR plasmas fueled with deuterium and tritium*

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. D.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Synakowski, E.

    1994-03-01

    Peak fusion power production of 6.2 ± 0.4 MW has been achieved in TFTR plasmas heated by deuterium and tritium neutral beams at a total power of 29.5 MW. These plasmas have an inferred central fusion alpha particle density of 1.2 x 1017 m₋3 without the appearance of either disruptive MHD events or detectable changes in Alfvén wave activity. The measured loss rate of energetic alpha particles agreed with the approximately 5% losses expected from alpha particles which are born on unconfined orbits.

  15. Fusion reactions in collisions induced by Li isotopes on Sn targets

    SciTech Connect

    Fisichella, M.; Shotter, A. C.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Lattuada, M.; Marchetta, C.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Ruiz, C.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Zadro, M.

    2012-10-20

    Fusion cross sections for the {sup 6}Li+{sup 120}Sn and {sup 7}Li+{sup 119}Sn systems have been measured. We aim to search for possible effects due to the different neutron transfer Q-values, by comparing the fusion cross sections for the two systems below the barrier. This experiment is the first step of a wider systematic aiming to study the above problems in collisions induced by stable and unstable Li isotopes on tin all forming the same compound nucleus.

  16. Products of the Benzene + O(3P) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Meloni, Giovanni; Trevitt, Adam J.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.; Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai

    2009-12-21

    The gas-phase reaction of benzene with O(3P) is of considerable interest for modeling of aromatic oxidation, and also because there exist fundamental questions concerning the prominence of intersystem crossing in the reaction. While its overall rate constant has been studied extensively, there are still significant uncertainties in the product distribution. The reaction proceeds mainly through the addition of the O atom to benzene, forming an initial triplet diradical adduct, which can either dissociate to form the phenoxy radical and H atom, or undergo intersystem crossing onto a singlet surface, followed by a multiplicity of internal isomerizations, leading to several possible reaction products. In this work, we examined the product branching ratios of the reaction between benzene and O(3P) over the temperature range of 300 to 1000 K and pressure range of 1 to 10 Torr. The reactions were initiated by pulsed-laser photolysis of NO2 in the presence of benzene and helium buffer in a slow-flow reactor, and reaction products were identified by using the multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer operating at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Phenol and phenoxy radical were detected and quantified. Cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radical were directly identified for the first time. Finally, ab initio calculations and master equation/RRKM modeling were used to reproduce the experimental branching ratios, yielding pressure-dependent rate expressions for the reaction channels, including phenoxy + H, phenol, cyclopentadiene + CO, which are proposed for kinetic modeling of benzene oxidation.

  17. Description of nucleon-transfer and fusion reactions within time-dependent approaches and coupled-channel method

    SciTech Connect

    Samarin, V. V.

    2015-01-15

    The time-dependent Schrödinger equation and the method of perturbed stationary states that is based on the expansion of the total wave function for the system of two nuclear cores and a nucleon in a set of nucleon two-center functions are used to describe nucleon transfers and fusion in low-energy nuclear reactions. A set of multichannel equations that couple the relative motion of nuclei to the motion of the nucleon is obtained. The kinetic-energy coupling matrix is similar to the coupling matrix for collective excitations of nuclei.

  18. Hydrogen generation arising from the {sup 59}Ni(n,p) reaction and its impact on fission-fusion correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Garner, A.F.

    1996-04-01

    Whilte the influence of transmutant helium on radiation-induced microstructural evolution has often been studied, there is a tendency to overlook the influence of concurrently-generated hydrogen. There have been some recent speculation and studies, however, that suggest that the influence of hydrogen may be enhanced in the presence of large amounts of helium, especially at lower irradiation temperatures typical of projected ITER operation. The impact of the (n,p) reaction on both hydrogen generation rates and displacement rates are evaluated in this paper for a variety of neutron spectra employed in fission-fusion correlation.

  19. Production and measurement of engineered surfaces for inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Hatch, Douglas J; Rivera, Gerald

    2011-01-19

    Inertial Confinement Fusion uses the optical energy from a very high power laser to implode spherical capsules that contain a fuel mixture of deuterium and tritium. The capsules are made of either Beryllium, plastic, or glass and range from 0.1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. As a capsule implodes, thereby compressing the fuel to reach nuclear fusion conditions, it achieves temperatures of millions of degrees Centigrade and very high pressures. In this state, the capsule materials act like fluids and often a low density fluidic material will push on a higher density material which can be a very unstable condition depending upon the smoothness of the interface between the two materials. This unstable condition is called a hydrodynamic instabillity which results in the mixing of the two materials. If the mixing occurs between the fuel and a non-fuel material, it can stop the fusion reaction just like adding significant amounts of water to gasoline can stop the operation of an automobile. Another region in the capsule where surface roughness can cause capsule performance degradation is at a joint. For instance, many capsules are made of hemispheres that are joined together. If the joint surfaces are too rough, then there will an effective reduction in density at the joint. This density reduction can cause a non-uniform implosion which will reduce the fusion energy coming out of the capsule.

  20. Intraspecific protoplast fusion of Brettanomyces anomalus for improved production of an extracellular β-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng; Zhao, Xihong; Pan, Siyi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of production of an extracellular β-glucosidase with high activity by Brettanomyces anomalus PSY-001 was performed by using recursive protoplast fusion in a genome-shuffling format. The initial population was generated by ultraviolet irradiation, ultrasonic mutagenesis and, then, subjected to recursive protoplast fusion. Mutant strains exhibiting significantly higher β-glucosidase activities in liquid media were isolated. The best mutant strain showed increased cell growth in a flask culture, as well as increased β-glucosidase production. A recombinant strain, F3-25, was obtained after three rounds of genome shuffling and its production of β-glucosidase activity reached 4790 U L−1, which was a nearly eightfold increase compared to the original strain B. anomalus PSY-001. The subculture experiments indicated that F3-25 was genetically stable. PMID:26019572

  1. Reaction and fusion cross sections for the near-symmetric system 129Xe+natSn from 8 A to 35 A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduci, L.; Lopez, O.; Chbihi, A.; Rivet, M. F.; Bougault, R.; Frankland, J. D.; Borderie, B.; Galichet, E.; La Commara, M.; Le Neindre, N.; Lombardo, I.; Pârlog, M.; Rosato, E.; Roy, R.; Verde, G.; Vient, E.; Indra Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Background: We study heavy-ion reactions from barrier up to Fermi energy. The data were acquired with the INDRA detector at the GANIL (Caen, France) facility. Purpose: We aim to determine the reaction and fusion cross sections for the reactions induced by 129Xe projectiles on natSn targets for incident energies ranging from 8 A to 35 A MeV. In particular, the evaluation of the fusion and incomplete fusion cross sections is the main purpose, altogether with the comparison with the systematics of Eudes et al. [Europhys. Lett. 104, 22001 (2013), 10.1209/0295-5075/104/22001]. Method: The reaction cross sections are evaluated at each beam energy with data acquired thanks to the INDRA 4 π array. The events are sorted with the help of the observable Eiso,max. We focus therefore our study on a selected sample of events, in such a way that the fusion and incomplete fusion cross sections can be estimated. Results: We present the excitation function of reaction and fusion cross sections for the heavy and nearly symmetric system 129Xe+natSn from 8 A to 35 A MeV. For the fusion excitation function the comparison with the systematics of Eudes et al. seems to be in a fair agreement starting from the beam energy 20 A MeV. For the lower beam energies (8 A and 12 A MeV) discrepancies are observed. Conclusions: The evaluated fusionlike cross sections show a good agrement with a recent systematics for beam energies greater than 20 A MeV. For low beam energies the cross-sectional values are lower than the expected ones. A probable reason for these low values is in the fusion hindrance at energies above or close to the barrier.

  2. Development of a Gas Stopper for Fusion-Evaporation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefcik, Jordan; Folden, Charles, III; Alfonso, Marisa

    2010-10-01

    New plans are needed in order to chemically study superheavy elements. According to a design from Michigan State University, implementing a gas stopper is the best way to do this. After being transferred through a Momentum Achromat Recoil Separator (MARS), produced ions of ^158Hf eventually reach a variable angle mylar degrader, Reaction Transfer Chamber (RTC) window, which is followed by a gas stopper of helium. Inside the gas cell is a series of electrodes, followed by a funneled ``flower petal'' design. Using the simulating program SIMION, the electrodes have electric potentials applied to each of them in order to funnel the ions into a small opening at the end of the gas stopper. Here the ions will undergo certain chemistry experiments in order to learn more about them. The hafnium ions enter the gas stopper with an energy of ˜3 MeV. However, when they reach the end of the cell, they must have an energy on the order of 0.1 eV in order perform certain chemistry experiments on them. Using an optimized set of potentials, the survival rate for the simulated ions was 96%. These results are agreeable in the sense that within error bars, there is no room for improvement in extraction efficiency. This set-up also gives desirable results for ^257Rf, which is considered a superheavy element and is thought to have the same periodicity as hafnium.

  3. T4-lysozyme fusion for the production of human formyl peptide receptors for structural determination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; Cui, Ying; Wang, Jiqian

    2014-03-01

    T4-lysozyme (T4L) fusion was introduced in the intracellular loop of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of human formyl peptide receptor 3 (FPR3), and the ability of T4L fusion to be used in the production of human FPR3 for structural determination was evaluated in this work. The T4L variant of human FPR3 termed FPR3-T4L was expressed in stable tetracycline-inducible HEK293 cells. A systematic detergent screening showed that fos-choline-14 was the optimal detergent to solubilize and subsequently purify FPR3-T4L from HEK293 cells. Immunoaffinity purification in combination with gel filtration was employed to purify the T4L-fused receptor to high homogeneity. The final yield of the human FPR3-T4L monomer from 2 g of cells was 0.2 mg. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the receptor adopted a correct secondary structure after purification, while ligand binding measurement indicated that the receptor was functional. Thus, the presence of T4L fusion did not evidently disturb the expression in HEK293 cells, proper folding, and functionality of human FPR3. Our study of evaluating T4L fusion for the recombinant production of human formyl peptide receptor would facilitate ongoing efforts in the structural characterization of GPCRs.

  4. First measurements of deuterium-tritium and deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction yields in ignition-scalable direct-drive implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Knauer, J. P.; ...

    2017-03-03

    In this study, the deuterium-tritium (D-T) and deuterium-deuterium neutron yield ratio in cryogenic inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is used to examine multifluid effects, traditionally not included in ICF modeling. This ratio has been measured for ignition-scalable direct-drive cryogenic DT implosions at the Omega Laser Facility using a high-dynamic-range neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The experimentally inferred yield ratio is consistent with both the calculated values of the nuclear reaction rates and the measured preshot target-fuel composition. These observations indicate that the physical mechanisms that have been proposed to alter the fuel composition, such as species separation of the hydrogen isotopes, aremore » not significant during the period of peak neutron production in ignition-scalable cryogenic direct-drive DT implosions.« less

  5. Toxicity of aerosols of sodium reaction products.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, G M; Allen, M D; Stevens, D L

    1979-01-01

    Sodium is used as the heat transfer medium in several new energy technologies such as liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors and solar-thermal collection systems. Because sodium burns in air and reacts violently with water, the potential exists for an airborne release of sodium combustion products and subsequent human exposure. To help evaluate the potential short-term hazard from an accidental sodium fire, male juvenile or adult Wistar rats were exposed to sodium aerosols for 2 hours to determine the dose at which 50 percent of the animals were affected (ED50) for each age group. The estimated ED50 of 510 microgram/l for adults was not significantly different from the estimated ED50 of 489 microgram/l for juveniles. The incidence of acute laryngitis, attributed to exposure, was three times higher for juvenile rats than for adults, and the degree of severity of this lesion was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher for juveniles.

  6. Multinucleon transfer in O,1816,19F+208Pb reactions at energies near the fusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafferty, D. C.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Simenel, C.; Simpson, E. C.; Williams, E.; Carter, I. P.; Cook, K. J.; Luong, D. H.; McNeil, S. D.; Ramachandran, K.; Vo-Phuoc, K.; Wakhle, A.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Nuclear reactions are complex, involving collisions between composite systems where many-body dynamics determines outcomes. Successful models have been developed to explain particular reaction outcomes in distinct energy and mass regimes, but a unifying picture remains elusive. The irreversible transfer of kinetic energy from the relative motion of the collision partners to their internal states, as is known to occur in deep inelastic collisions, has yet to be successfully incorporated explicitly into fully quantal reaction models. The influence of these processes on fusion is not yet quantitatively understood. Purpose: To investigate the population of high excitation energies in transfer reactions at sub-barrier energies, which are precursors to deep inelastic processes, and their dependence on the internuclear separation. Methods: Transfer probabilities and excitation energy spectra have been measured in collisions of O,1816,19F+208Pb , at various energies below and around the fusion barrier, by detecting the backscattered projectile-like fragments in a Δ E -E telescope. Results: The relative yields of different transfer outcomes are strongly driven by Q values, but change with the internuclear separation. In 16O+208Pb , single nucleon transfer dominates, with a strong contribution from -2 p transfer close to the Coulomb barrier, though this channel becomes less significant in relation to the -2 p 2 n transfer channel at larger separations. For 18O+208Pb , the -2 p 2 n channel is the dominant charge transfer mode at all separations. In the reactions with 19F,-3 p 2 n transfer is significant close to the barrier, but falls off rapidly with energy. Multinucleon transfer processes are shown to lead to high excitation energies (up to ˜15 MeV), which is distinct from single nucleon transfer modes which predominantly populate states at low excitation energy. Conclusions: Kinetic energy is transferred into internal excitations following transfer, with this

  7. Analysis of the energy transport and deposition within the reaction chamber of the prometheus inertial fusion energy reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, J.E.; Abdou, M.A.; Tillack, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    One of the parameters affecting the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) devices is the number of shots per unit time, i.e. the repetition rate. The repetition rate limits the achievable power that can be obtained from the reactor. To obtain an estimate of the allowable time between shots, a code named RECON was developed to model the response of the reaction chamber to the pellet explosion. This paper discusses how the code treats the thermodynamic response of the cavity gas and models the condensation/evaporation of this vapor to and from the first wall. A large amount of energy from the pellet microexplosion is carried by the pellet debris and the x-rays generated in the fusion reaction. Models of x-ray attenuation and ion slowing down are used to estimate the fraction of the pellet energy that is absorbed in the vapor. A large amount of energy is absorbed into the cavity gas, which causes it to become partially ionized. The ionization complicates the calculation of the temperature, pressure, and the radiative heat transfer from the gas to the first wall. To treat this problem, methods developed by Zel`dovich and Raizer are used in modeling the internal energy and the radiative heat flux. RECON was developed to run with a relatively short computational time, yet accurate enough for conceptual reactor design calculations.

  8. Discourse, Power, and Knowledge in the Management of "Big Science": The Production of Consensus in a Nuclear Fusion Research Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Extends a Foucauldian view of power/knowledge to the archetypical knowledge-intensive organization, the scientific research laboratory. Describes the discursive production of power/knowledge at the "big science" laboratory conducting nuclear fusion research and illuminates a critical incident in which the fusion research…

  9. Kinetics, mechanisms and products of reactions of Criegee intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr-Ewing, Andrew

    The atmospheric ozonolysis of alkenes such as isoprene produces Criegee intermediates which are increasingly recognized as important contributors to oxidation chemistry in the Earth's troposphere. Stabilized Criegee intermediates are conveniently produced in the laboratory by ultraviolet photolysis of diiodoalkanes in the presence of O2, and can be detected by absorption spectroscopy using their strong electronic bands in the near ultraviolet region. We have used these techniques to study a wide range of reactions of Criegee intermediates, including their self-reactions, and reactions with carboxylic acids and various other trace atmospheric constituents. In collaboration with the Sandia National Laboratory group led by Drs C.A. Taatjes and D.L. Osborn, we have used photoionization and mass spectrometry methods, combined with electronic structure calculations, to characterize the products of several of these reactions. Our laboratory studies determine rate coefficients for the Criegee intermediate reactions, many of which prove to be fast. In the case of reactions with carboxylic acids, a correlation between the dipole moments of the reactants and the reaction rate coefficients suggests a dipole-capture controlled reaction and allows us to propose a structure-activity relationship to predict the rates of related processes. The contributions of these various Criegee intermediate reactions to the chemistry of the troposphere have been assessed using the STOCHEM-CRI global atmospheric chemistry model. This work was supported by NERC grant NE/K004905/1.

  10. Ion cyclotron emission due to collective instability of fusion products and beam ions in TFTR and JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, R. O.; McClements, K. G.; Lashmore-Davies, C. N.; Cottrell, G. A.; Majeski, R.; Cauffman, S.

    1995-12-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) has been observed from neutral beam heated TFTR, and JET tritium experiments at sequential cyclotron harmonics of both fusion products and beam ions. The emission originates from the outer midplane plasma, where fusion products and beam ions are likely to have a drifting ring-type velocity-space distribution that is anisotropic and sharply peaked. Fusion product driven ICE in both TFTR and JET can be attributed to the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, which involves the excitation of obliquely propagating waves on the fast Alfven/ion Bernstein branch at cyclotron harmonics of the fusion products. Differences between ICE observations in JET and TFTR appear to reflect the sensitivity of the instability growth rate to the ratio vbirth/cA where vbirth is the fusion product birth speed and cA is the local Alfven speed for fusion products in the outer midplane edge of TFTR supershots, vbirth < cA for alpha particles in the outer midplane edge of JET, the opposite inequality applies. If sub-Alfvenic fusion products are isotropic or have undergone even a moderate degree of thermalization, the magnetoacoustic instability cannot occur. In contrast, the super-Alfvenic alpha particles that are present in the outer midplane of JET can drive the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability even if they are isotropic or have a relatively broad distribution of speeds. These conclusions may account for the observation that fusion product driven ICE in JET persists for longer than fusion product driven ICE in TFTR. Moreover, the time evolution of the maximum growth rate, obtained using the Sigmar model for the alpha particle distribution and TFTR data for the fusion product source rate, closely follows the observed time evolution of the ICE amplitude in TFTR supershot discharges. Other observed features of fusion product driven ICE that match the linear instability include the scaling with fusion product density, doublet splitting of spectral peaks, the

  11. Fusion of product and process data: Batch-mode and real-time streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent De Sapio; Spike Leonard

    1999-12-01

    In today's DP product realization enterprise it is imperative to reduce the design-to-fabrication cycle time and cost while improving the quality of DP parts (reducing defects). Much of this challenge resides in the inherent gap between the product and process worlds. The lack of seamless, bi-directional flow of information prevents true concurrency in the product realization world. This report addresses a framework for product-process data fusion to help achieve next generation product realization. A fundamental objective is to create an open environment for multichannel observation of process date, and subsequent mapping of that data onto product geometry. In addition to the sensor-based observation of manufacturing processes, model-based process data provides an important complement to empirically acquired data. Two basic groups of manufacturing models are process physics, and machine kinematics and dynamics. Process physics addresses analytical models that describe the physical phenomena of the process itself. Machine kinematic and dynamic models address the mechanical behavior of the processing equipment. As a secondary objective, an attempt has been made in this report to address part of the model-based realm through the development of an open object-oriented library and toolkit for machine kinematics and dynamics. Ultimately, it is desirable to integrate design definition, with all types of process data; both sensor-based and model-based. Collectively, the goal is to allow all disciplines within the product realization enterprise to have a centralized medium for the fusion of product and process data.

  12. Production of a KK-graviton and a vector boson in ADD model via gluon fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaji, Ambresh; Ravindran, V.; Agrawal, Pankaj

    2012-02-01

    In the models with large extra-dimensions, we examine the production of a vector boson (γ/ Z) in association with the Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of the graviton via gluon fusion. At the leading order, the process takes place through quark-loop box and triangle diagrams and it is ultraviolate finite. We report the results for the LHC. We also discuss the issues of anomaly and decoupling of heavy quarks in the amplitude.

  13. Design of a new in-flight separator for heavy and superheavy fusion and transfer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, S.; Barth, W.; Franczak, B.; Geissel, H.; Gupta, M.; Hofmann, S.; Mickat, S.; Münzenberg, G.; Plaß, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Weick, H.; Winkler, M.

    2013-12-01

    We are developing a new velocity filter which is foreseen for separation of fusion and deep inelastic transfer products in the region of heavy and superheavy nuclei. The device is developed in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt, the University of Giessen and the Manipal University, India. In parallel to the separator design we are developing new techniques for particle detection and identification, especially for heavy nuclei which are not accessible with the presently available techniques.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  7. Ion cyclotron and spin-flip emissions from fusion products in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.; Greene, G.J.; Young, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    Power emission by fusion products of tokamak plasmas in their ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and at their spin-flip resonance frequency is calculated for some specific model fusion product velocity-space distribution functions. The background plasma of say deuterium (D) is assumed to be in equilibrium with a Maxwellian distribution both for the electrons and ions. The fusion product velocity distributions analyzed here are: (1) A monoenergetic velocity space ring distribution. (2) A monoenergetic velocity space spherical shell distribution. (3) An anisotropic Maxwellian distribution with T {perpendicular} {ne} T{parallel}and with appreciable drift velocity along the confining magnetic field. Single ``dressed`` test particle spontaneous emission calculations are presented first and the radiation temperature for ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is analyzed both for black-body emission and nonequilibrium conditions. Thresholds for instability and overstability conditions are then examined and quasilinear and nonlinear theories of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes are discussed. Distinctions between ``kinetic or causal instabilities`` and ``hydrodynamic instabilities`` are drawn and some numerical estimates are presented for typical tokamak parameters. Semiquantitative remarks are offered on wave accessibility, mode conversion, and parametric decay instabilities as possible for spatially localized ICE. Calculations are carried out both for k{parallel} = 0 for k{parallel} {ne} 0. The effects of the temperature anisotropy and large drift velocities in the parallel direction are also examined. Finally, proton spin-flip resonance emission and absorption calculations are also presented both for thermal equilibrium conditions and for an ``inverted`` population of states.

  8. Ion cyclotron and spin-flip emissions from fusion products in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.; Greene, G.J.; Young, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    Power emission by fusion products of tokamak plasmas in their ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and at their spin-flip resonance frequency is calculated for some specific model fusion product velocity-space distribution functions. The background plasma of say deuterium (D) is assumed to be in equilibrium with a Maxwellian distribution both for the electrons and ions. The fusion product velocity distributions analyzed here are: (1) A monoenergetic velocity space ring distribution. (2) A monoenergetic velocity space spherical shell distribution. (3) An anisotropic Maxwellian distribution with T [perpendicular] [ne] T[parallel]and with appreciable drift velocity along the confining magnetic field. Single dressed'' test particle spontaneous emission calculations are presented first and the radiation temperature for ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is analyzed both for black-body emission and nonequilibrium conditions. Thresholds for instability and overstability conditions are then examined and quasilinear and nonlinear theories of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes are discussed. Distinctions between kinetic or causal instabilities'' and hydrodynamic instabilities'' are drawn and some numerical estimates are presented for typical tokamak parameters. Semiquantitative remarks are offered on wave accessibility, mode conversion, and parametric decay instabilities as possible for spatially localized ICE. Calculations are carried out both for k[parallel] = 0 for k[parallel] [ne] 0. The effects of the temperature anisotropy and large drift velocities in the parallel direction are also examined. Finally, proton spin-flip resonance emission and absorption calculations are also presented both for thermal equilibrium conditions and for an inverted'' population of states.

  9. Adjoint Monte Carlo simulation of fusion product activation probe experiment in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Äkäslompolo, S.; Bonheure, G.; Tardini, G.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-10-01

    The activation probe is a robust tool to measure flux of fusion products from a magnetically confined plasma. A carefully chosen solid sample is exposed to the flux, and the impinging ions transmute the material making it radioactive. Ultra-low level gamma-ray spectroscopy is used post mortem to measure the activity and, thus, the number of fusion products. This contribution presents the numerical analysis of the first measurement in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, which was also the first experiment to measure a single discharge. The ASCOT suite of codes was used to perform adjoint/reverse Monte Carlo calculations of the fusion products. The analysis facilitates, for the first time, a comparison of numerical and experimental values for absolutely calibrated flux. The results agree to within a factor of about two, which can be considered a quite good result considering the fact that all features of the plasma cannot be accounted in the simulations.Also an alternative to the present probe orientation was studied. The results suggest that a better optimized orientation could measure the flux from a significantly larger part of the plasma. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  10. Electroweak and QCD corrections to Higgs production via vector-boson fusion at the CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccolini, M.; Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.

    2008-01-01

    The radiative corrections of the strong and electroweak interactions are calculated at next-to-leading order for Higgs-boson production in the weak-boson-fusion channel at hadron colliders. Specifically, the calculation includes all weak-boson fusion and quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams to Higgs-boson production in association with two hard jets, including all corresponding interferences. The results on the QCD corrections confirm that previously made approximations of neglecting s-channel diagrams and interferences are well suited for predictions of Higgs production with dedicated vector-boson fusion cuts at the LHC. The electroweak corrections, which also include real corrections from incoming photons and leading heavy Higgs-boson effects at two-loop order, are of the same size as the QCD corrections, viz. typically at the level of 5%-10% for a Higgs-boson mass up to {approx}700 GeV. In general, both types of corrections do not simply rescale differential distributions, but induce distortions at the level of 10%. The discussed corrections have been implemented in a flexible Monte Carlo event generator.

  11. Alternate applications of fusion power: development of a high-temperature blanket for synthetic-fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, P.A.; Mattas, R.F.; Krajcinovic, D.; DePaz, J.; Gohar, Y.

    1981-11-01

    This study has shown that utilization of the unique features of a fusion reactor can result in a novel and potentially economical method of decomposing steam into hydrogen and oxygen. Most of the power of fusion reactors is in the form of energetic neutrons. If this power could be used to produce high temperature uncontaminated steam, a large fraction of the energy needed to decomposee the steam could be supplied as thermal energy by the fusion reaction. Proposed high temperature electrolysis processes require steam temperature in excess of 1000/sup 0/C for high efficiency. The design put forth in this study details a system that can accomplish that end.

  12. Population of isomeric states in fusion and transfer reactions in beams of loosely bound nuclei near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Skobelev, N. K.

    2015-07-15

    The influence of the mechanisms of nuclear reactions on the population of {sup 195m}Hg and {sup 197m}Hg(7/2{sup −}), {sup 198m}Tl and {sup 196m}Tl(7{sup +}), and {sup 196m}Au and {sub 198m}Au(12{sup −}) isomeric nuclear states obtained in reactions induced by beams of {sup 3}He, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 6}He weakly bound nuclei is studied. The behavior of excitation functions and high values of isomeric ratios (δ{sub m}/δ{sub g}) for products of nuclear reactions proceeding through a compound nucleus and involving neutron evaporation are explained within statistical models. Reactions in which the emission of charged particles occurs have various isomeric ratios depending on the reaction type. The isomeric ratio is lower in direct transfer reactions involving charged-particle emission than in reactions where the evaporation of charged particles occurs. Reactions accompanied by neutron transfer usually have a lower isomeric ratio, which behaves differently for different direct-reaction types (stripping versus pickup reactions)

  13. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  14. Doc2b promotes GLUT4 exocytosis by activating the SNARE-mediated fusion reaction in a calcium- and membrane bending-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijia; Rathore, Shailendra S; Davis, Eric M; Ouyang, Yan; Shen, Jingshi

    2013-04-01

    The glucose transporter GLUT4 plays a central role in maintaining body glucose homeostasis. On insulin stimulation, GLUT4-containing vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, relocating GLUT4 from intracellular reservoirs to the cell surface to uptake excess blood glucose. The GLUT4 vesicle fusion reaction requires soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) as the core fusion engine and a group of regulatory proteins. In particular, the soluble C2-domain factor Doc2b plays a key role in GLUT4 vesicle fusion, but its molecular mechanism has been unclear. Here we reconstituted the SNARE-dependent GLUT4 vesicle fusion in a defined proteoliposome fusion system. We observed that Doc2b binds to GLUT4 exocytic SNAREs and potently accelerates the fusion kinetics in the presence of Ca(2+). The stimulatory activity of Doc2b requires intact Ca(2+)-binding sites on both the C2A and C2B domains. Using electron microscopy, we observed that Doc2b strongly bends the membrane bilayer, and this membrane-bending activity is essential to the stimulatory function of Doc2b in fusion. These results demonstrate that Doc2b promotes GLUT4 exocytosis by accelerating the SNARE-dependent fusion reaction by a Ca(2+)- and membrane bending-dependent mechanism. Of importance, certain features of Doc2b function appear to be distinct from how synaptotagmin-1 promotes synaptic neurotransmitter release, suggesting that exocytic Ca(2+) sensors may possess divergent mechanisms in regulating vesicle fusion.

  15. Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel ρR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, H. G. Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lahmann, B.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Caggiano, J. A.; Divol, L.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Meezan, N. B.; Moran, M. J.; and others

    2015-08-15

    In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, the secondary fusion processes D({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He and D(T,n){sup 4}He occur, as the primary fusion products {sup 3}He and T react in flight with thermal deuterons. In implosions with moderate fuel areal density (∼5–100 mg/cm{sup 2}), the secondary D-{sup 3}He reaction saturates, while the D-T reaction does not, and the combined information from these secondary products is used to constrain both the areal density and either the plasma electron temperature or changes in the composition due to mix of shell material into the fuel. The underlying theory of this technique is developed and applied to three classes of implosions on the National Ignition Facility: direct-drive exploding pushers, indirect-drive 1-shock and 2-shock implosions, and polar direct-drive implosions. In the 1- and 2-shock implosions, the electron temperature is inferred to be 0.65 times and 0.33 times the burn-averaged ion temperature, respectively. The inferred mixed mass in the polar direct-drive implosions is in agreement with measurements using alternative techniques.

  16. Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel ρR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lahmann, B.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Caggiano, J. A.; Divol, L.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Meezan, N. B.; Moran, M. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Kline, J. L.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Tregillis, I. L.; Batha, S. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, the secondary fusion processes D(3He,p)4He and D(T,n)4He occur, as the primary fusion products 3He and T react in flight with thermal deuterons. In implosions with moderate fuel areal density (˜5-100 mg/cm2), the secondary D-3He reaction saturates, while the D-T reaction does not, and the combined information from these secondary products is used to constrain both the areal density and either the plasma electron temperature or changes in the composition due to mix of shell material into the fuel. The underlying theory of this technique is developed and applied to three classes of implosions on the National Ignition Facility: direct-drive exploding pushers, indirect-drive 1-shock and 2-shock implosions, and polar direct-drive implosions. In the 1- and 2-shock implosions, the electron temperature is inferred to be 0.65 times and 0.33 times the burn-averaged ion temperature, respectively. The inferred mixed mass in the polar direct-drive implosions is in agreement with measurements using alternative techniques.

  17. Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel ρR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF

    DOE PAGES

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; ...

    2015-08-25

    In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, the secondary fusion processes D(3He,p)4He and D(T,n)4He occur, as the primary fusion products 3He and T react in flight with thermal deuterons. In implosions with moderate fuel areal density (~ 5–100 mg/cm2), the secondary D-3He reaction saturates, while the D-T reaction does not, and the combined information from these secondary products is used to constrain both the areal density and either the plasma electron temperature or changes in the composition due to mix of shell material into the fuel. The underlying theory of this technique is developed and applied to three classes of implosionsmore » on the National Ignition Facility: direct-drive exploding pushers, indirect-drive 1-shock and 2-shock implosions,and polar direct-drive implosions. In the 1- and 2-shock implosions, the electron temperature is inferred to be 0.65 x and 0.33 x the burn-averaged ion temperature, respectively. The inferred mixed mass in the polar direct-drive implosions is in agreement with measurements using alternative techniques.« less

  18. Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel ρR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lahmann, B.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Caggiano, J. A.; Divol, L.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Meezan, N. B.; Moran, M. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Kline, J. L.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Tregillis, I. L.; Batha, S. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-08-25

    In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, the secondary fusion processes D(3He,p)4He and D(T,n)4He occur, as the primary fusion products 3He and T react in flight with thermal deuterons. In implosions with moderate fuel areal density (~ 5–100 mg/cm2), the secondary D-3He reaction saturates, while the D-T reaction does not, and the combined information from these secondary products is used to constrain both the areal density and either the plasma electron temperature or changes in the composition due to mix of shell material into the fuel. The underlying theory of this technique is developed and applied to three classes of implosions on the National Ignition Facility: direct-drive exploding pushers, indirect-drive 1-shock and 2-shock implosions,and polar direct-drive implosions. In the 1- and 2-shock implosions, the electron temperature is inferred to be 0.65 x and 0.33 x the burn-averaged ion temperature, respectively. The inferred mixed mass in the polar direct-drive implosions is in agreement with measurements using alternative techniques.

  19. Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 MeV/Nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Amorini, F.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Anzalone, A.; Coniglione, R.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Cardella, G.; Papa, M.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Pirrone, S.; Verde, G.; Giuliani, G.; Berceanu, I.; Pop, A.; Cavallaro, S.

    2009-03-20

    {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40,48}Ca,{sup 46}Ti reactions at 25 MeV/nucleon have been studied using the 4{pi} CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between fusionlike and binarylike reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a heavy residue is lower in the case of N{approx_equal}Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the neutron rich {sup 48}Ca target. Predictions based on constrained molecular dynamics II calculations show that the competition between fusionlike and binary reactions in the selected centrality bins can constrain the parametrization of the symmetry energy and its density dependence in the nuclear equation of state.

  20. Dynamical Dipole mode in the 40,48 Ca +152,144Sm fusion reactions at 11 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alba, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Agodi, C.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Emanuele, U.; Farinon, F.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Martin, B.; Mazzocchi, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The excitation of the dynamical dipole mode along the fusion path was investigated in the formation of a heavy compound nucleus in the A=190 mass region. To form the compound nucleus, the 40Ca + 152Sm and 48Ca + 144Sm reactions were employed at Elab=11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. Both fusion-evaporation and fission events were studied simultaneously for the first time. Our results for evaporation and fission events (preliminary) show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in reactions involving heavier nuclei than those studied previously.

  1. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; DiGiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-05-01

    A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n)20Ne, 23Ne(α, p)26Mg and 23Ne(α, n)26Al reactions will be discussed.

  2. Increased D-D Fusion Reaction Boosted by Electron Screening at the Inner Shell of Metal Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Nie; Miley, George

    2004-10-01

    Recent experiments indicate an abnormally high electron screening effect on the D-D fusion cross-section during low energy (< 10 keV) bombardment of select deuterated metals [1]. The authors attribute this effect to a contribution from core electrons ignored in normal screening calculations [2]. This research studies the contribution of the atomic potential distribution on the classical dynamics of keV deuterons in a host metal, taken here as Pd. A standard atomic code is used to obtain the atomic electron charge density and the potential profile in the metal atom. Using these results, the deuterons are found to spend most of their penetration time near the Pd M shell. This effect drastically increases the probability of a rendezvous between two deuterons in a rather confined area roughly 0.1 angstrom from the Pd nucleus. This mechanism, combined with the increased tunneling rate due to screening from the high electron density at M-shell, enhances the low energy D-D fusion cross-section for metal hydrides. Results from these calculations and comparisons with experimental data will be presented. [1] F. Strieder, C. Rolfs, C. Spitaleri, and P.Corvisiero, Naturwissenschaften, 88 (2001) 461. [2] G. H. Miley, H. Hora, N. Luo, ¡°Screening in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions of Importance to Nuclear Astrophysics¡±, APS April Mtg. (2004), Denver, CO.

  3. Functional expression and purification of recombinant Hepcidin25 production in Escherichia coli using SUMO fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Vahideh; Saffar, Behnaz; Emamzadeh, Rahman

    2017-04-30

    Hepcidin25 is a small cysteine-rich peptide hormone known as a new class of antimicrobial peptides. The purpose of the present study was to express, purify and investigate the antibacterial properties of recombinant human hepcidin25 protein production in Escherichia coli. Human hepcidin25 gene was optimized and fused to a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) gene for higher expression. Then SUMO-hepcidin25 was cloned into the pET-32a (+) vector and expressed in E. coli Origami. The fusion protein with a molecular weight of approximately 35kDa was analyzed on SDS-PAGE gel. The highest expression was observed after 6h induction and the fusion protein consisted approximately 47% of the total cellular protein. The purified SUMO-hepcidin25 purity was determined to be higher than 95%, with a final yield of 3.9mgl(-)(1) of media. The recombinant hepcidin25 showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Klebsiella pneumonia) and Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 150μgml(-1), 18.7μg/ml(-1) and 37.5μg/ml(-1), respectively. These results indicated that thioredoxin and SUMO dual fusion system is an efficient production system for synthesis functional human hepcidin25.

  4. Comparison of complementary reactions for the production of {sup 261,262}Bh

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Folden III, C. M.; Dragojevic, I.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Sudowe, R.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Eichler, R.

    2008-08-15

    Two heavy-ion induced fusion reactions producing {sup 261,262}Bh were studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. An excitation function for the production of {sup 262}Bh via the reaction {sup 209}Bi({sup 54}Cr,n){sup 262}Bh was measured with a maximum cross section from a fit to the data of 430 {+-} 110 pb observed at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 15.7 MeV. New data have been measured for the 1n exit channel of the {sup 208}Pb({sup 55}Mn, n){sup 262}Bh reaction. We present an updated excitation function with an observed maximum cross section of 530{+-}100 pb at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.1 MeV. Events corresponding to the 2n exit channel for the {sup 209}Bi({sup 54}Cr,2n){sup 261}Bh and {sup 208}Pb({sup 55}Mn,2n){sup 261}Bh reactions were also observed and are presented as partial excitation functions. The measured decay properties correspond well with existing experimental data. We compare these experimental results to cross section predictions from a model by Swiatecki et al. and discuss entrance channel effects on the magnitude of 1n cross sections.

  5. Ozone-cyclohexene reaction in air: quantitative analysis of particulate products and the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, S.; Tanonaka, T.; Weng, J.; Bandow, H.; Takagi, H.; Akimot, H.

    1985-10-01

    Both gaseous and particulate products of the cyclohexene-ozone reaction were analyzed. Major gaseous products were aldehydes that consist of adipaldehyde (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/CHO), glutaraldehyde (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CHO), and pentanal (CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CHO). The sum of the primary yields of aldehydes reaches as high as 50%. In addition to aldehydes, formic acid, CO, and CO/sub 2/ were produced, but formaldehyde was not detected. Main particulate products were adipaldehyde, 6-oxohexanoic acid (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/COOH), adipic acid (HOOC(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/COOH), glutaraldehyde, 5-oxopentanoic acid (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/COOH), and glutaric acid (HOOC(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/COOH). All these compounds were analyzed quantitatively, and the fraction of initial cyclohexene converted to aerosol organic carbon was estimated to be 13 +/- 3% as the value extrapolated to a ppm concentration range of reactants. Although the reaction mechanism is in general explainable in terms of the Criegee mechanism, the reaction pathway to form formic acid is quite unique in this reaction system. The entire mechanism was discussed on the basis of the quantitative product analysis data.

  6. Detection of an unknown fusion protein in confiscated black market products.

    PubMed

    Walpurgis, Katja; Krug, Oliver; Thomas, Andreas; Laussmann, Tim; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Even without clinical approval, many performance-enhancing drugs are available on the black market and can therefore be easily obtained by cheating athletes. The misuse of these preparations can be associated with unforeseeable health risks - either due to a poor quality of the drugs or as a result of an insufficient clinical assessment. Moreover, confiscated black market products have frequently been shown to contain ingredients other than those declared on the label as well as additional by-products or compounds with a modified molecular structure. This communication describes the identification of an unknown fusion protein observed in several unlabelled black market products obtained from independent sources. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the confiscated preparations indicated the presence of an 18-kDa fusion protein consisting of the bacterial redox protein thioredoxin-1 (Trx, 12 kDa) and a 6-kDa peptide of unassigned composition. Trx has no relevance as performance enhancing agent but is routinely used as solubility tag for recombinant protein production. Further evaluation of the acquired MS/MS data revealed both an additional His tag and a thrombin cleavage site between the tags and the presumed bioactive peptide. However, thrombin cleavage of the fusion protein and LC-MS/MS analysis of the resulting peptide fragment finally suggested that the unknown protein is only the product of an empty expression vector without the DNA insert of interest. These findings are a further alarming example for the high level of risk that athletes take when misusing drugs obtained from the black market.

  7. Energy distribution among reaction products. VII - H + F2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.; Sloan, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The 'arrested relaxation' variant of the IR chemiluminescence technique is used in a study of the distribution of vibrational, rotational and translational energies between the products of the reaction by which H + F2 yields HF + F. Diagrams are plotted and numerical values are obtained for the energy distribution rate constants.

  8. Challenges on the road towards fusion electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donné, Tony

    2016-11-01

    The ultimate aim of fusion research is to generate electricity by fusing light atoms into heavier ones, thereby converting mass into energy. The most efficient fusion reaction is based on merging the hydrogenic isotopes: Deuterium (2D) and Tritium (3T) into Helium (4He) and a neutron, which releases 17.6 MeV in the form of kinetic energy of the reaction products.

  9. Pion production in high-energy neutrino reactions with nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosel, U.

    2015-06-01

    Background: A quantitative understanding of neutrino interactions with nuclei is needed for precision era neutrino long baseline experiments (MINOS, NOvA, DUNE) which all use nuclear targets. Pion production is the dominant reaction channel at the energies of these experiments. Purpose: Investigate the influence of nuclear effects on neutrino-induced pion production cross sections and compare predictions for pion-production with available data. Method: The Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) model is used for the description of all incoherent channels in neutrino-nucleus reactions. Results: Differential cross sections for charged and neutral pion production for the MINER ν A neutrino and antineutrino flux are calculated. An estimate for the coherent cross section is obtained from a comparison of data with theoretical results for incoherent cross sections. The invariant mass (W ) distribution of the Δ resonances produced is analyzed. Conclusions: Final state interactions affect the pion kinetic energy spectra significantly. The data for charged pion production at MINER ν A are compatible with the results of calculations using elementary data taken from an old Argonne National Laboratory experiment. Remaining differences for charged pion production can be attributed to coherent production; the data for antineutrino induced neutral pion production, where no coherent contribution is present, are reproduced quite well. The analysis of W distributions shows that sharp cuts on experimentally reconstructed invariant masses lead to shape distortions of the true W distributions for nuclear targets.

  10. Hydrogen production from methane through catalytic partial oxidation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freni, S.; Calogero, G.; Cavallaro, S.

    This paper reviews recent developments in syn-gas production processes used for partial methane oxidation with and/or without steam. In particular, we examined different process charts (fixed bed, fluidised bed, membrane, etc.), kinds of catalysts (powders, foams, monoliths, etc.) and catalytically active phases (Ni, Pt, Rh, etc.). The explanation of the various suggested technical solutions accounted for the reaction mechanism that may selectively lead to calibrated mixtures of CO and H 2 or to the unwanted formation of products of total oxidation (CO 2 and H 2O) and pyrolysis (coke). Moreover, the new classes of catalysts allow the use of small reactors to treat large amounts of methane (monoliths) or separate hydrogen in situ from the other reaction products (membrane). This leads to higher conversions and selectivity than could have been expected thermodynamically. Although catalysts based on Rh are extremely expensive, they can be used to minimise H 2O formation by maximising H 2 yield.

  11. The Trojan Horse Method as a tool for investigating astrophysically relevant fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2016-05-01

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) has been largely adopted for investigating astrophysically relevant charged-particle induced reactions at Gamow energies. Indeed, THM allows one to by pass extrapolation procedures, thus overcoming this source of uncertainty. Here, the recent THM results and their impact in astrophysics are going to be discussed.

  12. Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawan, M. E.; Ghoniem, N. M.; Snead, L.; Katoh, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation damage parameters in SiC/SiC composite structures are determined in both magnetic (MFE) and inertial (IFE) confinement fusion systems. Variations in the geometry, neutron energy spectrum, and pulsed nature of neutron production result in significant differences in damage parameters between the two systems. With the same neutron wall loading, the displacement damage rate in the first wall in an IFE system is ˜10% lower than in an MFE system, while gas production and burnup rates are a factor of 2 lower. Self-cooled LiPb and Flibe blankets were analyzed. While using LiPb results in higher displacement damage, Flibe yields higher gas production and burnup rates. The effects of displacement damage and helium production on defect accumulation in SiC/SiC composites are also discussed.

  13. Productive infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in dendritic cells requires fusion-mediated viral entry

    SciTech Connect

    Janas, Alicia M.; Dong, Chunsheng; Wang Jianhua; Wu Li

    2008-06-05

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters dendritic cells (DCs) through endocytosis and viral receptor-mediated fusion. Although endocytosis-mediated HIV-1 entry can generate productive infection in certain cell types, including human monocyte-derived macrophages, productive HIV-1 infection in DCs appears to be dependent on fusion-mediated viral entry. It remains to be defined whether endocytosed HIV-1 in DCs can initiate productive infection. Using HIV-1 infection and cellular fractionation assays to measure productive viral infection and entry, here we show that HIV-1 enters monocyte-derived DCs predominately through endocytosis; however, endocytosed HIV-1 cannot initiate productive HIV-1 infection in DCs. In contrast, productive HIV-1 infection in DCs requires fusion-mediated viral entry. Together, these results provide functional evidence in understanding HIV-1 cis-infection of DCs, suggesting that different pathways of HIV-1 entry into DCs determine the outcome of viral infection.

  14. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Anand, M.; Carvill, B.

    1995-09-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction (SER) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process, the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The consequences of SER are: (1) reformation reaction at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than conventional SMR (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (2) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 99+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (3) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The early focus of the program will be on the identification of an adsorbent/chemisorbent for CO{sub 2} and on the demonstration of the SER concept for SMR in our state-of-the-art bench scale process. In the latter stages, a pilot plant will be built to scale-up the technology and to develop engineering data. The program has just been initiated and no significant results for SMR will be reported. However, results demonstrating the basic principles and process schemes of SER technology will be presented for reverse water gas shift reaction as the model reaction. If successful, this technology will be commercialized by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) and used in its existing hydrogen business. APCI is the world leader in merchant hydrogen production for a wide range of industrial applications.

  15. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi; Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki; Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268-luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF-luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF-luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0×10 to 1.0×10(6) copies.

  16. Higgs production in bottom-quark fusion: Matching beyond leading order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Stefano; Napoletano, Davide; Ubiali, Maria

    2016-12-01

    We compute the total cross-section for Higgs boson production in bottom-quark fusion using the so-called FONLL method for the matching of a scheme in which the b-quark is treated as a massless parton to that in which it is treated as a massive final-state particle, and extend our previous results to the case in which the next-to-next-to-leading-log five-flavour scheme result is combined with the next-to-leading-order O (αs3) four-flavour scheme computation.

  17. Higgs characterisation via vector-boson fusion and associated production: NLO and parton-shower effects.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, Fabio; Mawatari, Kentarou; Zaro, Marco

    Vector-boson fusion and associated production at the LHC can provide key information on the strength and structure of the Higgs couplings to the Standard Model particles. Using an effective field theory approach, we study the effects of next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections matched to a parton shower on selected observables for various spin-0 hypotheses. We find that inclusion of NLO corrections is needed to reduce the theoretical uncertainties on the total rates as well as to reliably predict the shapes of the distributions. Our results are obtained in a fully automatic way via FeynRules and MadGraph5_aMC@NLO.

  18. Recombinant production of a peroxidase-protein G fusion protein in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Krainer, Florian Wolfgang; Darnhofer, Barbara; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Glieder, Anton

    2016-02-10

    Streptococcal protein G (SpG) binds immunoglobulin G from a broad range of mammalian species with high affinity. Chemical conjugations of SpG to the reporter enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) are commonly used in immunohistochemical applications. However, commercial HRP preparations are typically isolated from horseradish roots as varying mixtures of HRP isoenzymes with different biochemical properties, and chemical conjugation procedures lead to heterogeneous HRP-SpG preparations, partially including inactivated enzyme. A recombinant process allows the production of a well-defined HRP isoenzyme fused to SpG at constant 1:1 stoichiometry in a single step without the need for laborious chemical conjugation. By using state-of-the-art biotechnological tools, we produced a recombinant HRP-SpG fusion protein in Pichia pastoris in bioreactor cultivations. Purified HRP-SpG was tested successfully for functional binding of antibodies from different mammalian serums. Recombinant production of this novel well-defined fusion protein follows quality-by-design principles and facilitates the production of more reliable and cost-effective diagnostic kits.

  19. N(pro) fusion technology: On-column complementation to improve efficiency in biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Schindler, S; Missbichler, B; Walther, C; Sponring, M; Cserjan-Puschmann, M; Auer, B; Schneider, R; Dürauer, A

    2016-04-01

    N(pro) fusion technology, a highly efficient system for overexpression of proteins and peptides in Escherichia coli, was further developed by splitting the autoprotease N(pro) into two fragments to generate a functional complementation system. The size of the expression tag is thus reduced from 168 to 58 amino acids, so by 66%. Upon complementation of the fragments auto-proteolytic activity is restored. This process has been shown for three model proteins of different size, a short 16 aa-peptide, MCP-1, and lysozyme. Moreover, the complementation was still functional after immobilization of the N-terminal fragment to a solid support which enables recycling of the immobilized fragment. This strategy enhances overall productivity of N(pro) Fusion Technology and thus allows more efficient production of recombinant proteins with reduced costs and in higher yields. Overall, the N(pro) complementation system has, depending on the size of the target molecule, potential to increase the productivity up to 4 fold for batch refolding and even more for on-column refolding strategies by the proven possibility of regeneration of the immobilized fragment.

  20. Taste-active maillard reaction products: the "tasty" world of nonvolatile maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    This study was done to obtain greater insight into the structures and sensory activities of those tastants that are not present in foods per se, but are generated during food processing by Maillard-type reactions from carbohydrates and amino acids and thus remain unknown. In order to rank the tastants according to their relative taste impact and to identify the key tastants generated during thermal food processing, the so-called taste dilution analysis (TDA), which uses the human tongue as a biosensor for tastants, was applied to heated, intensely bitter tasting binary mixtures of glucose or xylose and proline or alanine, respectively. This screening technique led to the identification of previously unknown taste compounds, among which intensely bitter tastants such as quinizolate and homoquinizolate, a pungent-tasting pyranopyranone, cyclopentenone derivatives exhibiting a physiological cooling effect, as well as a taste-enhancing pyridinium betaine named alapyridaine will be presented.

  1. Dual Position Sensitive MWPC for tracking reaction products at VAMOS++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandebrouck, M.; Lemasson, A.; Rejmund, M.; Fremont, G.; Pancin, J.; Navin, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Goupil, J.; Spitaels, C.; Jacquot, B.

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics and performance of a Dual Position Sensitive Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (DPS-MWPC) used to measure the scattering angle, the interaction position on the target and the velocity of reaction products detected in the VAMOS++ magnetic spectrometer, are reported. The detector consists of a pair of position sensitive low pressure MWPCs and provides both fast timing signals, along with the two-dimensional position coordinates required to define the trajectory of the reaction products. A time-of-flight resolution of 305(11) ps (FWHM) was measured. The measured resolutions (FWHM) were 2.5(3) mrad and 560(70) μm for the scattering angle and the interaction point at the target respectively. The subsequent improvement of the Doppler correction of the energy of the γ-rays, detected in the γ-ray tracking array AGATA in coincidence with isotopically identified ions in VAMOS++, is also discussed.

  2. 48Ca+249Bk fusion reaction leading to element Z = 117: long-lived α-decaying 270Db and discovery of 266Lr.

    PubMed

    Khuyagbaatar, J; Yakushev, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Ackermann, D; Andersson, L-L; Asai, M; Block, M; Boll, R A; Brand, H; Cox, D M; Dasgupta, M; Derkx, X; Di Nitto, A; Eberhardt, K; Even, J; Evers, M; Fahlander, C; Forsberg, U; Gates, J M; Gharibyan, N; Golubev, P; Gregorich, K E; Hamilton, J H; Hartmann, W; Herzberg, R-D; Heßberger, F P; Hinde, D J; Hoffmann, J; Hollinger, R; Hübner, A; Jäger, E; Kindler, B; Kratz, J V; Krier, J; Kurz, N; Laatiaoui, M; Lahiri, S; Lang, R; Lommel, B; Maiti, M; Miernik, K; Minami, S; Mistry, A; Mokry, C; Nitsche, H; Omtvedt, J P; Pang, G K; Papadakis, P; Renisch, D; Roberto, J; Rudolph, D; Runke, J; Rykaczewski, K P; Sarmiento, L G; Schädel, M; Schausten, B; Semchenkov, A; Shaughnessy, D A; Steinegger, P; Steiner, J; Tereshatov, E E; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Tinschert, K; Torres De Heidenreich, T; Trautmann, N; Türler, A; Uusitalo, J; Ward, D E; Wegrzecki, M; Wiehl, N; Van Cleve, S M; Yakusheva, V

    2014-05-02

    The superheavy element with atomic number Z=117 was produced as an evaporation residue in the (48)Ca+(249)Bk fusion reaction at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA at GSI Darmstadt, Germany. The radioactive decay of evaporation residues and their α-decay products was studied using a detection setup that allowed measuring decays of single atomic nuclei with half-lives between sub-μs and a few days. Two decay chains comprising seven α decays and a spontaneous fission each were identified and are assigned to the isotope (294)117 and its decay products. A hitherto unknown α-decay branch in (270)Db (Z = 105) was observed, which populated the new isotope (266)Lr (Z = 103). The identification of the long-lived (T(1/2) = 1.0(-0.4)(+1.9) h) α-emitter (270)Db marks an important step towards the observation of even more long-lived nuclei of superheavy elements located on an "island of stability."

  3. Ca48+Bk249 Fusion Reaction Leading to Element Z =117: Long-Lived α-Decaying Db270 and Discovery of Lr266

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Yakushev, A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Asai, M.; Block, M.; Boll, R. A.; Brand, H.; Cox, D. M.; Dasgupta, M.; Derkx, X.; Di Nitto, A.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Evers, M.; Fahlander, C.; Forsberg, U.; Gates, J. M.; Gharibyan, N.; Golubev, P.; Gregorich, K. E.; Hamilton, J. H.; Hartmann, W.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hinde, D. J.; Hoffmann, J.; Hollinger, R.; Hübner, A.; Jäger, E.; Kindler, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kurz, N.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lahiri, S.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Maiti, M.; Miernik, K.; Minami, S.; Mistry, A.; Mokry, C.; Nitsche, H.; Omtvedt, J. P.; Pang, G. K.; Papadakis, P.; Renisch, D.; Roberto, J.; Rudolph, D.; Runke, J.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schädel, M.; Schausten, B.; Semchenkov, A.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Steinegger, P.; Steiner, J.; Tereshatov, E. E.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Tinschert, K.; Torres De Heidenreich, T.; Trautmann, N.; Türler, A.; Uusitalo, J.; Ward, D. E.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wiehl, N.; Van Cleve, S. M.; Yakusheva, V.

    2014-05-01

    The superheavy element with atomic number Z =117 was produced as an evaporation residue in the Ca48+Bk249 fusion reaction at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA at GSI Darmstadt, Germany. The radioactive decay of evaporation residues and their α-decay products was studied using a detection setup that allowed measuring decays of single atomic nuclei with half-lives between sub-μs and a few days. Two decay chains comprising seven α decays and a spontaneous fission each were identified and are assigned to the isotope 117294 and its decay products. A hitherto unknown α-decay branch in Db270 (Z =105) was observed, which populated the new isotope Lr266 (Z =103). The identification of the long-lived (T1/2=1.0-0.4+1.9 h) α-emitter Db270 marks an important step towards the observation of even more long-lived nuclei of superheavy elements located on an "island of stability."

  4. The Fusion Energy Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    2004-06-01

    Presentations from a Fusion Power Associates symposium, The Fusion Energy Option, are summarized. The topics include perspectives on fossil fuel reserves, fusion as a source for hydrogen production, status and plans for the development of inertial fusion, planning for the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, status and promise of alternate approaches to fusion and the need for R&D now on fusion technologies.

  5. Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T ..-->.. n(14.1 MeV) + ..cap alpha..(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device.

  6. Multi-strangeness production in hadron induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanos, T.; Moustakidis, Ch.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Lenske, H.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss in detail the formation and propagation of multi-strangeness particles in reactions induced by hadron beams relevant for the forthcoming experiments at FAIR. We focus the discussion on the production of the decuplet-particle Ω and study for the first time the production and propagation mechanism of this heavy hyperon inside hadronic environments. The transport calculations show the possibility of Ω-production in the forthcoming P ‾ANDA-experiment, which can be achieved with measurable probabilities using high-energy secondary Ξ-beams. We predict cross sections for Ω-production. The theoretical results are important in understanding the hyperon-nucleon and, in particular, the hyperon-hyperon interactions also in the high-strangeness sector. We emphasize the importance of our studies for the research plans at FAIR.

  7. Calculations of long-lived isomer production in neutron reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have carried out theoretical calculations for the production of the long-lived isomers {sup 93m}Nb({1/2}{sup {minus}}, 16y), {sup 121m}Sn(11/2{minus}, 55 yr), {sup 166m}Ho(7-, 1200 yr), {sup 184m}Re(8+, 165 d), {sup 186m}Re(8+, 2{times}10{sup 5} yr), {sup 178m}Hf(16+, 31 yr), {sup 179m}Hf(25/2-, 25 d), {sup 192m}Ir(9+, 241 yr), all of which pose potential radiation activation problems in nuclear fusion reactors. We consider (n, 2n), (n,n{prime}), and (n, {gamma}) production modes and compare our results both with experimental data (where available) and systematic. We also investigate the dependence of the isomeric cross section ratio on incident neutron energy for the isomers under consideration. The statistical Hauser-Feshbach plus preequilibrium code GNASH was used for the calculations. Where discrete state experimental information was lacking, rotational band members above the isomeric state, which can be justified theoretically but have not been experimentally resolved, were reconstructed. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Production of three-dimensional tissue-engineered cartilage through mutual fusion of chondrocyte pellets.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, K; Fujihara, Y; Mori, Y; Asawa, Y; Kanazawa, S; Nishizawa, S; Misawa, M; Numano, T; Inoue, H; Sakamoto, T; Watanabe, M; Komura, M; Takato, T

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the mutual fusion of chondrocyte pellets was promoted in order to produce large-sized tissue-engineered cartilage with a three-dimensional (3D) shape. Five pellets of human auricular chondrocytes were first prepared, which were then incubated in an agarose mold. After 3 weeks of culture in matrix production-promoting medium under 5.78g/cm(2) compression, the tissue-engineered cartilage showed a sufficient mechanical strength. To confirm the usefulness of these methods, a transplantation experiment was performed using beagles. Tissue-engineered cartilage prepared with 50 pellets of beagle chondrocytes was transplanted subcutaneously into the cell-donor dog for 2 months. The tissue-engineered cartilage of the beagles maintained a rod-like shape, even after harvest. Histology showed fair cartilage regeneration. Furthermore, 20 pellets were made and placed on a beta-tricalcium phosphate prism, and this was then incubated within the agarose mold for 3 weeks. The construct was transplanted into a bone/cartilage defect in the cell-donor beagle. After 2 months, bone and cartilage regeneration was identified on micro-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This approach involving the fusion of small pellets into a large structure enabled the production of 3D tissue-engineered cartilage that was close to physiological cartilage tissue in property, without conventional polyper scaffolds.

  9. Cold Fusion, A Journalistic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2005-03-01

    Author of the recent book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion, and founder of New Energy Times, Steven B. Krivit presents a summary of cold fusion's, past, present and possible future. This talk will briefly review five highlights of the recent New Energy Times investigation into cold fusion research:1. Analysis of early studies that supposedly disproved cold fusion.2. Key early corroborations that supported the claims of Fleischmann and Pons.3. The evolving understanding of cold fusion reaction paths and by-products.4. A look at volumetric power density.5. Brief comparison of the progress in hot fusion research as compared to cold fusion research.New Energy Times, founded in 2000, is an independent communications company which currently specializes in reporting on cold fusion researchootnotetextReferences and copies of the presentation are available at www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htmhttp://www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htm. It has no affiliations with any organization, entity or party which invests in these technologies, nor any individual researcher or research facility.

  10. The influence of transfer reactions on the sub-barrier fusion enhancement in the systems {sup 58.64}Ni +, {sup 92,100}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H.

    1995-08-01

    High resolution experiments performed during the past few years demonstrated that the various reaction modes occurring in heavy ion collisions can strongly influence each other. This interrelation of the different reaction modes brings a nuclear structure dependence to the fusion and deep-inelastic channels that were previously described in the framework of pure statistical models. In order to fully understand the interrelation between these reaction channels, a complete set of measurements including elastic and inelastic scattering, few-nucleon transfer and fusion is required. In continuation of our earlier measurements of the fusion cross sections in the system {sup 58,64}Ni + {sup 92,100}Mo we finished the studies of the quasielastic process in these systems. The experiments were done in inverse reaction kinematics using the split-pole spectrograph with its hybrid focal-plane detector for particle identification. The experiments with {sup 100}Mo beams were performed previously. First test runs with {sup 92}Mo showed the possible interference with {sup 98}Mo ions which could be eliminated by using the 13{sup +} charge state from the ECR source. The data from these experiments were completely analyzed. The smallest transfer cross sections are observed for the systems {sup 64}Ni + {sup 100}Mo and {sup 58}Ni + {sup 92}Mo, i.e., the most neutron-rich and neutron-deficient systems, respectively. For the other systems, {sup 64}Ni + {sup 92}Mo and {sup 58}Ni + {sup 100}Mo, the transfer cross sections at energies close to the barrier are about of equal magnitude. This observation does not correlate with the deviation of the experimental fusion cross sections from the coupled-channels predictions. While for {sup 58}Ni + {sup 100}Mo discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical fusion cross sections are observed, the system {sup 64}Ni + {sup 92}Mo which shows about the same transfer yields, is quite well described by the coupled-channels calculations.

  11. A study of switchgrass pyrolysis: Product variability and reaction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovee, Jonathan Matthew

    Samples of the same cultivar of cave-in-rock switchgrass were harvested from plots in Frankenmuth, Roger City, Cass County, and Grand Valley, Michigan. It was determined that variation exists, between locations, among the pyrolytic compounds which can lead to variability in bio-oil and increased processing costs at bio-refineries to make hydrocarbon fuels. Washed and extractives-free switchgrass samples, which contain a lower alkali and alkaline earth metals content than untreated samples, were shown to produce lower amounts of acids, esters, furans, ketones, phenolics, and saccharides and also larger amounts of aldehydes upon pyrolysis. Although the minerals catalyzed pyrolytic reactions, there was no evidence indicating their effect on reducing the production of anhydrosugars, specifically levoglucosan. To further link minerals present in the biomass to a catalytic pathway, mathematic models were employed to determine the kinetic parameters of the switchgrass. While the calculated activation energies of switchgrass, using the FWO and KAS methods, were 227.7 and 217.8 kJ/mol, correspondingly, it was concluded that the activation energies for the switchgrass hemicellulose and cellulose peaks were 115.5 and 158.2 kJ/mol, respectively, using a modified model-fitting method. The minerals that effect the production of small molecules and levoglucosan also have an observable catalytic effect on switchgrass reaction rate, which may be quantifiable through the use of reaction kinetics so as to determine activation energy.

  12. Production and decay of baryonic resonances in pion induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przygoda, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Pion induced reactions give unique opportunities for an unambiguous description of baryonic resonances and their coupling channels. A systematic energy scan and high precision data, in conjunction with a partial wave analysis, allow for the study of the excitation function of the various contributions. A review of available world data unravels strong need for modern facilities delivering measurements with a pion beam. Recently, HADES collaboration collected data in pion-induced reactions on light (12C) and heavy (74W) nuclei at a beam momentum of 1.7 GeV/c dedicated to strangeness production. It was followed by a systematic scan at four different pion beam momenta (0.656, 0.69, 0.748 and 0.8 GeV/c) in π- - p reaction in order to tackle the role of N(1520) resonance in conjunction with the intermediate ρ production. First results on exclusive channels with one pion (π- p) and two pions (nπ+π-, pπ-π0) in the final state are discussed.

  13. Production of Hev b5 as a fluorescent biotin-binding tripartite fusion protein in insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nordlund, Henri R. . E-mail: henri.nordlund@uta.fi; Laitinen, Olli H.; Uotila, Sanna T.H.; Kulmala, Minna; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Kulomaa, Markku S.

    2005-10-14

    The presented green fluorescent protein and streptavidin core-based tripartite fusion system provides a simple and efficient way for the production of proteins fused to it in insect cells. This fusion protein forms a unique tag, which serves as a multipurpose device enabling easy optimization of production, one-step purification via streptavidin-biotin interaction, and visualization of the fusion protein during downstream processing and in applications. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful production, purification, and detection of a natural rubber latex allergen Hev b5 with this system. We also describe the production of another NRL allergen with the system, Hev b1, which formed large aggregates and gave small yields in purification. The aggregates were detected at early steps by microscopical inspection of the infected insect cells producing this protein. Therefore, this fusion system can also be utilized as a fast indicator of the solubility of the expressed fusion proteins and may therefore be extremely useful in high-throughput expression approaches.

  14. Production of medical 99 m Tc isotope via photonuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, K.; Takahashi, N.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Fan, G. T.; Takemoto, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishimura, M.

    2017-01-01

    99 m Tc with a 6 hour half-life is one of the most important medical isotopes used for the Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) inspection in hospitals of US, Canada, Europe and Japan. 99 m Tc isotopes are extracted by the milking method from parent 99Mo isotopes with a 66 hour half-life. The supply of 99Mo isotopes now encounters a serious crisis. Hospitals may not suitably receive 99Mo medical isotopes in near future, due to difficulties in production by research nuclear reactors. Many countries are now looking for alternative ways to generate 99Mo isotopes other than those with research reactors. We discuss a sustained availability of 99 m Tc isotopes via the nat Mo(γ, n) photonuclear reaction, and discuss to solve technical problems for extracting pure 99 m Tc isotopes from other output materials of photonuclear reactions.

  15. Effects of nuclear orientation on fusion and fission process for reactions using {sup 238}U target nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nishinaka, I.; Makii, H.; Nagame, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohtsuki, T.; Hirose, K.; Hofmann, S.

    2010-06-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions in the reaction of {sup 30}Si+{sup 238}U were measured at the energies around the Coulomb barrier. At the above-barrier energies, the mass distribution showed Gaussian shape. At the sub-barrier energies, asymmetric fission mode peaked at A{sub L}/A{sub H}approx =90/178 was observed. The asymmetric fission should be attributed to quasifission from the results of the measured evaporation residue (ER) cross-sections produced by {sup 30}Si+{sup 238}U. The cross-section for {sup 263}Sg at the above-barrier energy agree with the statistical model calculation which assumes that the measured fission cross-sections are equal to the fusion cross-sections, whereas the one for {sup 264}Sg measured at the sub-barrier energy is smaller than the calculation, indicating the presence for quasifission. The fragment mass distributions are compared to those for {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 40}Ar+{sup 238}U.

  16. Enhancing the specificity of the enterokinase cleavage reaction to promote efficient cleavage of a fusion tag.

    PubMed

    Shahravan, S Hesam; Qu, Xuanlu; Chan, I-San; Shin, Jumi A

    2008-06-01

    In our work with designed minimalist proteins based on the bZIP motif, we have found our His-tagged proteins to be prone to inclusion body formation and aggregation; we suspect this problem is largely due to the His tag, known to promote aggregation. Using AhR6-C/EBP, a hybrid of the AhR basic region and C/EBP leucine zipper, as representative of our bZIP-like protein family, we attempted removal of the His tag with enterokinase (EK) but obtained the desired cleavage product in very small yield. EK is known for proteolysis at noncanonical sites, and most cleavage occurred at unintended sites. We manipulated experimental conditions to improve specificity of proteolysis and analyzed the cleavage products; no effect was observed after changing pH, temperature, or the amount of EK. We then suspected the accessibility of the EK site was impeded due to protein aggregation. We found that the easily implemented strategy of addition of urea (1-4 M) greatly improved EK cleavage specificity at the canonical site and reduced adventitious cleavage. We believe that this enhancement in specificity is due to a more "open" protein structure, in which the now accessible canonical target can compete effectively with adventitious cleavage sites of related sequence.

  17. Manifestation of macroscopic correlations in elementary reaction kinetics. I. Irreversible reaction A +A→product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doktorov, Alexander B.; Kipriyanov, Alexander A.; Kipriyanov, Alexey A.

    2010-05-01

    Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A +A→product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution.

  18. Manifestation of macroscopic correlations in elementary reaction kinetics. I. Irreversible reaction A+A-->product.

    PubMed

    Doktorov, Alexander B; Kipriyanov, Alexander A; Kipriyanov, Alexey A

    2010-05-28

    Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A+A-->product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution.

  19. Theoretical aspects of product formation from the NCO + NO reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.C.; He, Y. ); Melius, C.F. )

    1993-09-09

    The reaction of NCO with NO, an important elementary process involved in the reduction of NO[sub x] by HNCO, has been studied theoretically using the BAC-MP4 technique in conjunction with RRKM calculations. The computed molecular structures and thermochemical data for various intermediates and transition states suggest that the reaction takes place primarily via the singlet, ground electronic state OCNNO molecule according to the following mechanism; (step a) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] N[sub 2]O + CO; (step b) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] c-OCNNO[minus] N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2]. The formation of N[sub 2]O + CO occurs by the fragmentation of the singlet OCNNO intermediate step (a), whereas the production of N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2] by cyclization-fragmentation occurs via step b. The tight transition states leading to the formation of these products, coupled with the loose entrance channel, give rise to the experimentally observed strong negative temperature dependence which can be quantitatively accounted for by the results of RRKM calculations based on the BAC-MP4 data. The experimentally measured product branching ratio for channels a and b could be accounted for theoretically by lowering the calculated energy barrier for step a by 3.6 kcal/mol, corresponding to about 15% of the barrier height. 22 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. First Measurements of Deuterium-Tritium and Deuterium-Deuterium Fusion Reaction Yields in Ignition-Scalable Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Knauer, J. P.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Regan, S. P.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Shmayda, W. T.; Stoeckl, C.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2017-03-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) and deuterium-deuterium neutron yield ratio in cryogenic inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is used to examine multifluid effects, traditionally not included in ICF modeling. This ratio has been measured for ignition-scalable direct-drive cryogenic DT implosions at the Omega Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997), 10.1016/S0030-4018(96)00325-2] using a high-dynamic-range neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The experimentally inferred yield ratio is consistent with both the calculated values of the nuclear reaction rates and the measured preshot target-fuel composition. These observations indicate that the physical mechanisms that have been proposed to alter the fuel composition, such as species separation of the hydrogen isotopes [D. T. Casey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 075002 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.075002], are not significant during the period of peak neutron production in ignition-scalable cryogenic direct-drive DT implosions.

  1. Fusion and quasifission dynamics in the reactions 48Ca+249Bk and 50Ti+249Bk using a time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Simenel, C.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Synthesis of superheavy elements (SHEs) with fusion-evaporation reactions is strongly hindered by the quasifission (QF) mechanism which prevents the formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus and which depends on the structure of the reactants. New SHEs have been recently produced with doubly-magic 48Ca beams. However, SHE synthesis experiments with single-magic 50Ti beams have so far been unsuccessful. Purpose: In connection with experimental searches for Z =117 ,119 superheavy elements, we perform a theoretical study of fusion and quasifission mechanisms in 48Ca,50Ti+249Bk reactions in order to investigate possible differences in reaction mechanisms induced by these two projectiles. Methods: The collision dynamics and the outcome of the reactions are studied using unrestricted time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations as well as the density-constrained TDHF method to extract the nucleus-nucleus potentials and the excitation energy in each fragment. Results: Nucleus-nucleus potentials, nuclear contact times, masses and charges of the fragments, as well as their kinetic and excitation energies strongly depend on the orientation of the prolate 249Bk nucleus. Long contact times associated with fusion are observed in collisions of both projectiles with the side of the 249Bk nucleus, but not on collisions with its tip. The energy and impact parameter dependencies of the fragment properties, as well as their mass-angle and mass-total kinetic energy correlations are investigated. Conclusions: Entrance channel reaction dynamics are similar with both 48Ca and 50Ti projectiles. Both are expected to lead to the formation of a compound nucleus by fusion if they have enough energy to get in contact with the side of the 249Bk target.

  2. Production of FMDV virus-like particles by a SUMO fusion protein approach in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Der; Yan, Yao-Pei; Liang, Shu-Mei; Wang, Ting-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are formed by the self-assembly of envelope and/or capsid proteins from many viruses. Some VLPs have been proven successful as vaccines, and others have recently found applications as carriers for foreign antigens or as scaffolds in nanoparticle biotechnology. However, production of VLP was usually impeded due to low water-solubility of recombinant virus capsid proteins. Previous studies revealed that virus capsid and envelope proteins were often posttranslationally modified by SUMO in vivo, leading into a hypothesis that SUMO modification might be a common mechanism for virus proteins to retain water-solubility or prevent improper self-aggregation before virus assembly. We then propose a simple approach to produce VLPs of viruses, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). An improved SUMO fusion protein system we developed recently was applied to the simultaneous expression of three capsid proteins of FMDV in E. coli. The three SUMO fusion proteins formed a stable heterotrimeric complex. Proteolytic removal of SUMO moieties from the ternary complexes resulted in VLPs with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. The method described here can also apply to produce capsid/envelope protein complexes or VLPs of other disease-causing viruses. PMID:19671144

  3. Fusion measurements in light and medium mass heavy-ion reactions. Progress report, June 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    The data obtained for fusion residues from the /sup 16/ /sup 18/O + /sup 24/ /sup 26/Mg systems have been analyzed and are being compared to each other and to predictions from the fusion-evaporation code CASCADE. Analysis of data obtained for a small step excitation curve for the /sup 16/O + /sup 24/Mg system has been started to determine the possible presence of structure in the fusion cross section. Additional data for the fusion cross sections of these systems have been obtained at energies from 100 to 140 MeV at the ATLAS facility and are being analyzed. Initial measurements of the fusion-fission cross sections for /sup 58/Ni beams, at energies up to 320 MeV on targets from /sup 116/Sn to /sup 170/Yb have been made. Analysis is in progress and additional experiments are planned. A collaboration is planned at Notre Dame for experiments to determine the entry line for fusion in the /sup 12/C + /sup 16/O system, both for the interest in this system and for preparation for additional experiments at higher energies at Michigan State when the new facility there becomes available. These experiments should lead to information about the importance of incomplete fusion in this system. Experiments to test the limitation on fusion cross sections predicted by the rotating liquid drop model are planned as higher energies become available at ATLAS and MSU.

  4. DNA fusion product of phage P2 with plasmid pBR322 - A new phasmid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoletti, M.; Bertani, G.

    1983-01-01

    The chromosome of the temperate bacteriophage P2 and that of the plasmid pBR322 have been joined in vitro after treatment with restriction endonuclease EcoRI. The fusion product - a phasmid - can behave as a plasmid, as a phage and as a prophage. It can replicate its DNA under the control of either the specific replication mechanism of the parent phage in a polA mutant or that of the parent plasmid in a rep mutant. Several interesting interactions between the two replication modes are indicated. In particular, phage particles may be produced even when the phage mode of DNA replication is blocked, and this throws new light on the involvement of the early gene A in the regulation of late gene expression in phage P2.

  5. Higgs production via gluon fusion in k{sub T} factorisation

    SciTech Connect

    Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Pandis, V.

    2011-07-15

    Theoretical studies of Higgs production via gluon fusion are frequently carried out in the limit where the top quark mass is much larger than the Higgs mass, an approximation which reduces the top quark loop to an effective vertex. We present a numerical analysis of the error thus introduced by performing a Monte Carlo calculation for gg{yields}h in k{sub T}-factorisation, using the parton shower generator CASCADE. By examining both inclusive and exclusive quantities, we find that retaining the top-mass dependence results in only a small enhancement of the cross-section. We then proceed to compare CASCADE to the collinear Monte Carlos PYTHIA, MC-NLO and POWHEG.

  6. Fully Differential Vector-Boson-Fusion Higgs Production at Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order.

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Matteo; Dreyer, Frédéric A; Karlberg, Alexander; Salam, Gavin P; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2015-08-21

    We calculate the fully differential next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) corrections to vector-boson fusion (VBF) Higgs boson production at proton colliders, in the limit in which there is no cross talk between the hadronic systems associated with the two protons. We achieve this using a new "projection-to-Born" method that combines an inclusive NNLO calculation in the structure-function approach and a suitably factorized next-to-leading-order VBF Higgs plus three-jet calculation, using appropriate Higgs plus two-parton counterevents. An earlier calculation of the fully inclusive cross section had found small NNLO corrections, at the 1% level. In contrast, the cross section after typical experimental VBF cuts receives NNLO contributions of about (5-6)%, while differential distributions show corrections of up to (10-12)% for some standard observables. The corrections are often outside the next-to-leading-order scale-uncertainty band.

  7. Vector-Boson Fusion Higgs Production at Three Loops in QCD.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Frédéric A; Karlberg, Alexander

    2016-08-12

    We calculate the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N^{3}LO) QCD corrections to inclusive vector-boson fusion Higgs production at proton colliders, in the limit in which there is no color exchange between the hadronic systems associated with the two colliding protons. We also provide differential cross sections for the Higgs transverse momentum and rapidity distributions. We find that the corrections are at the 1‰-2‰ level, well within the scale uncertainty of the next-to-next-to-leading-order calculation. The associated scale uncertainty of the N^{3}LO calculation is typically found to be below the 2‰ level. We also consider theoretical uncertainties due to missing higher order parton distribution functions, and provide an estimate of their importance.

  8. FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M

    2006-11-03

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

  9. Removal of triclosan via peroxidases-mediated reactions in water: Reaction kinetics, products and detoxification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Peng, Jianbiao; Zhang, Ya; Ji, Yuefei; Shi, Huanhuan; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-06-05

    This study investigated and compared reaction kinetics, product characterization, and toxicity variation of triclosan (TCS) removal mediated by soybean peroxidase (SBP), a recognized potential peroxidase for removing phenolic pollutants, and the commonly used horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with the goal of assessing the technical feasibility of SBP-catalyzed removal of TCS. Reaction conditions such as pH, H2O2 concentration and enzyme dosage were found to have a strong influence on the removal efficiency of TCS. SBP can retain its catalytic ability to remove TCS over broad ranges of pH and H2O2 concentration, while the optimal pH and H2O2 concentration were 7.0 and 8μM, respectively. 98% TCS was removed with only 0.1UmL(-1) SBP in 30min reaction time, while an HRP dose of 0.3UmL(-1) was required to achieve the similar conversion. The catalytic performance of SBP towards TCS was more efficient than that of HRP, which can be explained by catalytic rate constant (KCAT) and catalytic efficiency (KCAT/KM) for the two enzymes. MS analysis in combination with quantum chemistry computation showed that the polymerization products were generated via CC and CO coupling pathways. The polymers were proved to be nontoxic through growth inhibition of green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus). Taking into consideration of the enzymatic treatment cost, SBP may be a better alternative to HRP upon the removal and detoxification of TCS in water/wastewater treatment.

  10. High-level production of human interleukin-10 fusions in tobacco cell suspension cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kaldis, Angelo; Ahmad, Adil; Reid, Alexandra; McGarvey, Brian; Brandle, Jim; Ma, Shengwu; Jevnikar, Anthony; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants has made much progress in recent years with the development of transient expression systems, transplastomic technology and humanizing glycosylation patterns in plants. However, the first therapeutic proteins approved for administration to humans and animals were made in plant cell suspensions for reasons of containment, rapid scale-up and lack of toxic contaminants. In this study, we have investigated the production of human interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension and evaluated the effect of an elastin-like polypeptide tag (ELP) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag on IL-10 accumulation. We report the highest accumulation levels of hIL-10 obtained with any stable plant expression system using the ELP fusion strategy. Although IL-10-ELP has cytokine activity, its activity is reduced compared to unfused IL-10, likely caused by interference of ELP with folding of IL-10. Green fluorescent protein has no effect on IL-10 accumulation, but examining the trafficking of IL-10-GFP over the cell culture cycle revealed fluorescence in the vacuole during the stationary phase of the culture growth cycle. Analysis of isolated vacuoles indicated that GFP alone is found in vacuoles, while the full-size fusion remains in the whole-cell extract. This indicates that GFP is cleaved off prior to its trafficking to the vacuole. On the other hand, IL-10-GFP-ELP remains mostly in the ER and accumulates to high levels. Protein bodies were observed at the end of the culture cycle and are thought to arise as a consequence of high levels of accumulation in the ER. PMID:23297698

  11. Actinide Production in the Reaction of Heavy Ions withCurium-248

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, K.J.

    1983-07-01

    Chemical experiments were performed to examine the usefulness of heavy ion transfer reactions in producing new, neutron-rich actinide nuclides. A general quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic mechanism is proposed, and the utility of this method as opposed to other methods (e.g. complete fusion) is discussed. The relative merits of various techniques of actinide target synthesis are discussed. A description is given of a target system designed to remove the large amounts of heat generated by the passage of a heavy ion beam through matter, thereby maximizing the beam intensity which can be safely used in an experiment. Also described is a general separation scheme for the actinide elements from protactinium (Z = 91) to mendelevium (Z = 101), and fast specific procedures for plutonium, americium and berkelium. The cross sections for the production of several nuclides from the bombardment of {sup 248}Cm with {sup 18}O, {sup 86}Kr and {sup 136}Xe projectiles at several energies near and below the Coulomb barrier were determined. The results are compared with yields from {sup 48}Ca and {sup 238}U bombardments of {sup 248}Cm. Simple extrapolation of the product yields into unknown regions of charge and mass indicates that the use of heavy ion transfer reactions to produce new, neutron-rich above-target species is limited. The substantial production of neutron-rich below-target species, however, indicates that with very heavy ions like {sup 136}Xe and {sup 238}U the new species {sup 248}Am, {sup 249}Am and {sup 247}Pu should be produced with large cross sections from a {sup 248}Cm target. A preliminary, unsuccessful attempt to isolate {sup 247}Pu is outlined. The failure is probably due to the half life of the decay, which is calculated to be less than 3 minutes. The absolute gamma ray intensities from {sup 251}Bk decay, necessary for calculating the {sup 251}Bk cross section, are also determined.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  17. Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

  18. Role of Barrier Modification and Inelastic Surface Excitations in Sub-Barrier Fusion of 16 32 S + 40 94 Zr Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Manjeet Singh; Rajni; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2016-04-01

    The fusion dynamics of 16 32 S + 40 94 Zr reaction at near and sub-barrier energies is investigated within the context of different theoretical approaches. The various theoretical models like one-dimensional Wong formula, ℓ-summed extended Wong formula, the energy-dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model), and coupled channel formulation have been used to address the impacts of nuclear structure degrees of freedom of the colliding pairs. The roles of different Skyrme forces along with Wong formalism are also tested in the analysis of the sub-barrier fusion dynamics of the 16 32 S + 40 94 Zr reaction. The influence of the low-lying surface vibrational states of the collision partners is investigated within the framework of coupled channel calculations performed by the code CCFULL. In the present work, it has been observed that the EDWSP model introduces barrier modification effects somewhat similar to those of the coupled channel approach, as well as those of using different Skyrme forces and hence it reasonably addresses the observed fusion data of 16 32 S + 40 94 Zr reaction in the close vicinity of the Coulomb barrier.

  19. Review of fusion synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  20. H + CD4 abstraction reaction dynamics: product energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenfang; Lendvay, György; Troya, Diego; Schatz, George C; Camden, Jon P; Bechtel, Hans A; Brown, Davida J A; Martin, Marion R; Zare, Richard N

    2006-03-09

    This paper presents experimental and theoretical studies of the product energy partitioning associated with the H + CD4 (nu = 0) --> HD + CD3 reaction for the collision energy range 0.5-3.0 eV. The theoretical results are based on quasiclassical trajectories from (1) first principles direct dynamics calculations (B3LYP/6-31G), (2) an empirical surface developed by Espinosa-García [J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 116, 10664] (EG), and (3) two semiempirical surfaces (MSINDO and reparametrized MSINDO). We find that most of the energy appears in product translation at energies just above the reactive threshold; however, HD vibration and rotation become quite important at energies above 1 eV, each accounting for over 20% of the available energy above 1.5 eV, according to the B3LYP calculations. The barrier on the B3LYP surface, though being later than that on EG, predicts significantly higher HD vibrational excitation than EG. This deviation is contradictory to what would be expected on the basis of the Polanyi rules and derives from modest differences in the potential energy surfaces. The CD3 internal energy is generally quite low, and we present detailed rotational state distributions which show that the CD3 rotational distribution is largely independent of collision energy in the 0.75-1.95 eV range. The most populated rotational levels are N = 5 and 6 on B3LYP, with most of that excitation being associated with motion about the C2 axes, rather than C3 axis, of the CD3 product, in good agreement with the experimental results. Through our extensive studies in this and previous work concerning the scattering dynamics, we conclude that B3LYP/6-31G provides the best available description of the overall dynamics for the title reaction at relatively high collision energies.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  4. Paramagnetic products of the reaction of hydrogen atoms with sodium azide

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, A.A.; Lisetskii, V.N.; Kulikov, N.F.; Savel'ev, G.G.

    1987-09-01

    The reaction of hydrogen atoms with sodium azide in high-frequency discharges has been postulated to lead to NaNH and molecular nitrogen as reaction products. This article investigates these products via electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Data are given on reaction and ionization kinetics as well as on the electronic structure and hyperfine interaction of the products.

  5. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10494 - Reaction product of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and alkylene imine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of trimethylolpropane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10494 Reaction product of trimethylolpropane.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction product of...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-03-461) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10428 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10428 Section 721.10428 Protection of Environment..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10494 - Reaction product of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and alkylene imine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of trimethylolpropane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10494 Reaction product of trimethylolpropane.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction product of...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (PMN P-09-48) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10428 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10428 Section 721.10428 Protection of Environment..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10484 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10484 Section 721.10484 Protection of... Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN P-04-432; CAS No....

  19. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10484 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10484 Section 721.10484 Protection of... Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN P-04-432; CAS No....

  2. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (PMN P-09-48) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-03-461) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  13. 78 FR 78748 - 2,5-Furandione, polymer With ethenylbenzene, Reaction Products With polyethylene-polypropylene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2,5-Furandione, polymer With ethenylbenzene, Reaction Products With polyethylene... for residues of 2,5-furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene, reaction products with polyethylene... permissible level for residues of 2,5-furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene, reaction products...

  14. A novel adjuvant-free H fusion system for the production of recombinant immunogens in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sofia J; Silva, Pedro; Almeida, André; Conceição, Antónia; Domingues, Lucília; Castro, António

    2013-01-01

    The production of recombinant antigens in Escherichia coli and specific polyclonal antibodies for diagnosis and therapy is still a challenge for world-wide researchers. Several different strategies have been explored to improve both antigen and antibody production, all of them depending on a successful expression and immunogenicity of the antigen. Gene fusion technology attempted to address these challenges: fusion partners have been applied to optimize recombinant antigen production in E. coli, and to increase protein immunogenicity. Taking a 12-kDa surface adhesion antigen from Cryptosporidium parvum (CP12) by example, the novel H fusion partner was presented in this work as an attractive option for the development of recombinant immunogens and its adjuvant-free immunization. The H tag (of only 1 kDa) efficiently triggered a CP12-specific immune response, and it also improved the immunization procedure without requiring co-administration of adjuvants. Moreover, polyclonal antibodies raised against the HCP12 fusion antigen detected native antigen structures displayed on the surface of C. parvum oocysts. The H tag proved to be an advanced strategy and promising technology for the diagnosis and therapy of C. parvum infections in animals and humans, allowing a rapid and simple recombinant production of the CP12 antigen. PMID:23941978

  15. Production of bioactive γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in Escherichia coli using SUMO fusion partner and application of the recombinant enzyme to L-theanine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Min, Cui; Zhu, Fenfen; Xin, Yinqiang; Zhang, Shuangquan; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-05-01

    The amino acid L-theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide) has potential important applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries and increased demand for this compound is expected. It is the major "umami" (good taste) component of tea and its favorable physiological effects on mammals have been reported. An enzymatic method for the synthesis of L-theanine involving recombinant Escherichia coli γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) has been developed. We report here the application of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion technology to the expression and purification of recombinant Escherichia coli γ-GGT. In order to obtain γ-GGT with high theanine-forming activity, safety, and low cost for food and pharmaceutics industry, M9 (consisting of glycerol and inorganic salts) and 0.1% (w/v) lactose were selected as culture medium and inducer, respectively. The fusion protein was expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and expression was verified by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. The fusion protein was purified to 90% purity by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) resin chromatography with a yield of 115 mg per liter fermentation culture. After the SUMO/γ-GGT fusion protein was cleaved by the SUMO protease, the cleaved sample was reapplied to a Ni-NTA column. Finally, about 62 mg recombinant γ-GGT was obtained from 1 l fermentation culture with no less than 95% purity. The recombinant γ-GGT showed great transpeptidase activity, with 1500 U of purified recombinant γ-GGT in a 1-l reaction system, a biosynthesis yield of 41 g of L-theanine was detected by paper chromatography or high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thus, the application of SUMO technology to the expression and purification of γ-GGT potentially could be employed for the industrial production of L-theanine.

  16. Pionic fusion near threshold using the /sup 208/Pb(/sup 3/He,. pi. /sup -/)/sup 211/At reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E.

    1987-12-01

    The coherent production of pions in the /sup 208/Pb(/sup 3/He,..pi../sup -/)/sup 211/At reaction was measured radiochemically using activation techniques near the physical pion threshold at energies of 158--270 MeV. Above threshold, the total cross sections were measured in the 1--10 nb range. A theoretical fit of the summed total cross section into all particle bound states was made using the two-nucleon model of Dillig with appropriate two-body scaling of the momentum transfer.

  17. Chlorination of parabens: reaction kinetics and transformation product identification.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qianhui; Ji, Feng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qiquan; Hu, Zhenhu; Yuan, Shoujun

    2016-11-01

    The reactivity and fate of parabens during chlorination were investigated in this work. Chlorination kinetics of methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), propylparaben (PrP), and butylparaben (BuP) were studied in the pH range of 4.0 to 11.0 at 25 ± 1 °C. Apparent rate constants (k app) of 9.65 × 10(-3) M(-0.614)·s(-1), 1.77 × 10(-2) M(-1.019)·s(-1), 2.98 × 10(-2) M(-0.851)·s(-1), and 1.76 × 10(-2) M(-0.860)·s(-1) for MeP, EtP, PrP, and BuP, respectively, were obtained at pH 7.0. The rate constants depended on the solution pH, temperature, and NH4(+) concentration. The maximum k app was obtained at pH 8.0, and the minimum value was obtained at pH 11.0. The reaction rate constants increased with increasing temperature. When NH4(+) was added to the solution, the reaction of parabens was inhibited due to the rapid formation of chloramines. Two main transformation products, 3-chloro-parabens and 3,5-dichloro-parabens, were identified by GC-MS and LCMS-IT-TOF, and a reaction pathway was proposed. Dichlorinated parabens accumulated in solution, which is a threat to human health and the aqueous environment.

  18. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials.

  19. Double Higgs boson production via WW fusion in TeV e sup + e sup minus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, V.; Han, T. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-04-10

    The production of two standard model Higgs bosons via the WW fusion process e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {r arrow} {bar v}{sub e}v{sub e}HH would test the predicted HHH, HWW and HHWW couplings. At TeV energies this fusion cross section dominates over that from e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {r arrow} ZHH and would give significant event rates for M{sub H}{approx lt} 1/2 M{sub z} at high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders. The authors evaluate the rates and present the dynamical distributions.

  20. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S.

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  1. Exploring the influence of transfer channels on fusion reactions: The case of 40 Ca + 58,64 Ni

    DOE PAGES

    Bourgin, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; ...

    2015-01-29

    Fusion cross sections have been measured in the 40Ca + 58Ni and 40Ca + 64Ni systems at beam energies ranging from Elab = 104.75 MeV to 153.5 MeV using the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro electrostatic deflector. Distributions of barriers have been extracted from the experimental data. Preliminary coupled channel calculations were performed and hints of effects of neutron transfers on the fusion below the barrier in the 40Ca + 64Ni are discussed.

  2. Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.

    1996-10-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The key consequences of SERP are: (i) reformation reaction is carried out at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than that in a conventional SMR reactor (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (ii) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 98+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (iii) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The first phase of the program has focused on the development of a sorbent for CO{sub 2} which has (a) reversible CO{sub 2} capacity >0.3 mmol/g at low partial pressures of CO{sub 2} (0.1 - 1.0 atm) in the presence of excess steam (pH{sub 2}O/pCO{sub 2}>20) at 400-500{degrees}C and (b) fast sorption-desorption kinetics for CO{sub 2}, at 400-500{degrees}C. Several families of supported sorbents have been identified that meet the target CO{sub 2} capacity. A few of these sorbents have been tested under repeated sorption/desorption cycles and extended exposure to high pressure steam at 400-500{degrees}C. One sorbent has been scaled up to larger quantities (2-3 kg) and tested in the laboratory process equipment for sorption and desorption kinetics of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2}, sorption and desorption kinetics are desirably fast. This was a critical path item for the first phase of the program and now has been successfully demonstrated. A reactor has been designed that will allow nearly isothermal operation for SERP-SMR. This reactor was integrated into an overall process flow diagram for the SERP-SMR process.

  3. Production of disulfide bond-rich peptides by fusion expression using small transmembrane proteins of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ziwei; Lu, Ming; Ma, Yunqi; Kwag, Dong-Geon; Kim, Seo-Hyun; Park, Ji-Min; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Young-Ok; An, Cheul-Min; Li, Huayue; Jung, Jee H; Park, Jang-Su

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli allows the simple, economical, and effective production of bioactive peptides. On the other hand, the production of native peptides, particularly those rich in disulfide bonds, is a major problem. Previous studies have reported that the use of carrier proteins for fusion expression can result in good peptide yields, but few are folded correctly. In this study, two transmembrane small proteins in E. coli, YoaJ and YkgR, which both orientate with their N-termini in cytoplasm and their C-termini in periplasm, were used for fusion expression. The recombinant production of two peptides, asteropsin A (ASPA) and β-defensin (BD), was induced in the periplasm of E. coli using a selected carrier protein. Both peptides were expressed at high levels, at yields of approximately 5-10 mg/L of culture. Mass spectrometry showed that the resulting peptide had the same molecular weight as their natural forms. After purification, single peaks were observed by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), demonstrating the absence of isoforms. Furthermore, cytoplasmically expressed fusion proteins with a carrier at their C-termini did not contain disulfide bonds. This study provides new carrier proteins for fusion expression of disulfide bond-rich peptides in E. coli.

  4. Heavy-ion accelerator research for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers a most attractive long-term solution to the problem of future energy supplies: The fuel is virtually inexhaustible and the fusion reaction is notably free of long-lived radioactive by-products. Also, because the fuel is in the form of a plasma, there is no solid fuel core that could melt down. The DOE supports two major fusion research programs to exploit these virtues, one based on magnetic confinement and a second on inertial confinement. One part of the program aimed at inertial fusion is known as Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, or HIFAR. In this booklet, the aim is to place this effort in the context of fusion research generally, to review the brief history of heavy-ion fusion, and to describe the current status of the HIFAR program.

  5. Monte Carlo modelling of distributions of the d-d and d-t reaction products in a dedicated measuring chamber at the fast neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiącek, U.; Dankowski, J.

    2015-04-01

    A fast neutron generator with a tritium target can be used to generate d-d and d-t reaction products corresponding to thermonuclear reactions in tokamaks or stellarators. In this way, convenient laboratory conditions for tests of spectrometric detectors - prior to their installation at the big fusion devices - can be achieved. Distributions of the alpha particles, protons, deuterons, and tritons generated by the fast neutron generator operating at the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN in Cracow, Poland, were calculated by means of the Monte Carlo (MC) codes. Results of this MC modelling are presented.

  6. Some thoughts on the muon-catalyzed fusion process for antimatter propulsion and for the production of high A mass numbers antinuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    The muon-catalyzed fusion process has a very valuable role for antiproton science and technology. Several schemes of propulsion energy enhancement of the antiproton-fueled propulsion using the muon-catalyzed fusion are discussed. Production of high A mass antinuclei by the muon-catalyzed fusion using the clustered antihydrogen molecule and quark-gluon plasma formation by annihilation of the produced high A antimatter with regular nuclei are discussed. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Quasielastic production of polarized hyperons in antineutrino-nucleon reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, F.; Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    We have studied the differential cross section as well as the longitudinal and perpendicular components of polarization of the final hyperon (Λ ,Σ ) produced in the antineutrino induced quasielastic charged current reactions on nucleon and nuclear targets. The nucleon-hyperon transition form factors are determined from the experimental data on quasielastic (Δ S =0 ) charged current (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering and the semileptonic decay of neutron and hyperons assuming G-invariance, T-invariance, and SU(3) symmetry. The vector transition form factors are obtained in terms of nucleon electromagnetic form factors for which various parametrizations available in the literature have been used. A dipole parametrization for the axial vector form factor and the pseudoscalar transition form factor derived in terms of the axial vector form factor assuming PCAC and GT relation extended to the strangeness sector has been used in numerical evaluations. The flux averaged cross section and polarization observables corresponding to the CERN Gargamelle experiment have been calculated for quasielastic hyperon production and found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations. The numerical results for the flux averaged differential cross section d/σ d Q2 and longitudinal (perpendicular) polarization PL(Q2)(PP(Q2)) relevant for the antineutrino fluxes of MINER ν A , MicroBooNE, and T2K experiments have been presented. This will be useful in interpreting future experimental results on production cross sections and polarization observables from the experiments on the quasielastic production of hyperons induced by antineutrinos and exploring the possibility of determining the axial vector and pseudoscalar form factors in the strangeness sector.

  8. Chemical Reaction and Flow Modeling in Fullerene and Nanotube Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Farhat, Samir; Greendyke, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of processes to produce fullerenes and carbon nanotubes has largely been empirical. Fullerenes were first discovered in the soot produced by laser ablation of graphite [1]and then in the soot of electric arc evaporated carbon. Techniques and conditions for producing larger and larger quantities of fullerenes depended mainly on trial and error empirical variations of these processes, with attempts to scale them up by using larger electrodes and targets and higher power. Various concepts of how fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were formed were put forth, but very little was done based on chemical kinetics of the reactions. This was mainly due to the complex mixture of species and complex nature of conditions in the reactors. Temperatures in the reactors varied from several thousand degrees Kelvin down to near room temperature. There are hundreds of species possible, ranging from atomic carbon to large clusters of carbonaceous soot, and metallic catalyst atoms to metal clusters, to complexes of metals and carbon. Most of the chemical kinetics of the reactions and the thermodynamic properties of clusters and complexes have only been approximated. In addition, flow conditions in the reactors are transient or unsteady, and three dimensional, with steep spatial gradients of temperature and species concentrations. All these factors make computational simulations of reactors very complex and challenging. This article addresses the development of the chemical reaction involved in fullerene production and extends this to production of carbon nanotubes by the laser ablation/oven process and by the electric arc evaporation process. In addition, the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process is discussed. The article is in several parts. The first one addresses the thermochemical aspects of modeling; and considers the development of chemical rate equations, estimates of reaction rates, and thermodynamic properties where they are available. The second part

  9. Improving high-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation via fusion of multiple radar-based precipitation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafieeinasab, Arezoo; Norouzi, Amir; Seo, Dong-Jun; Nelson, Brian

    2015-12-01

    For monitoring and prediction of water-related hazards in urban areas such as flash flooding, high-resolution hydrologic and hydraulic modeling is necessary. Because of large sensitivity and scale dependence of rainfall-runoff models to errors in quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE), it is very important that the accuracy of QPE be improved in high-resolution hydrologic modeling to the greatest extent possible. With the availability of multiple radar-based precipitation products in many areas, one may now consider fusing them to produce more accurate high-resolution QPE for a wide spectrum of applications. In this work, we formulate and comparatively evaluate four relatively simple procedures for such fusion based on Fisher estimation and its conditional bias-penalized variant: Direct Estimation (DE), Bias Correction (BC), Reduced-Dimension Bias Correction (RBC) and Simple Estimation (SE). They are applied to fuse the Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) and radar-only Next Generation QPE (Q2) products at the 15-min 1-km resolution (Experiment 1), and the MPE and Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) QPE products at the 15-min 500-m resolution (Experiment 2). The resulting fused estimates are evaluated using the 15-min rain gauge observations from the City of Grand Prairie in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW) in north Texas. The main criterion used for evaluation is that the fused QPE improves over the ingredient QPEs at their native spatial resolutions, and that, at the higher resolution, the fused QPE improves not only over the ingredient higher-resolution QPE but also over the ingredient lower-resolution QPE trivially disaggregated using the ingredient high-resolution QPE. All four procedures assume that the ingredient QPEs are unbiased, which is not likely to hold true in reality even if real-time bias correction is in operation. To test robustness under more realistic conditions, the fusion procedures were evaluated with and

  10. Actinide production in the reaction of heavy ions with curium-248

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical experiments were performed to examine the usefulness of heavy ion transfer reactions in producing new, neutron-rich actinide nuclides. A general quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic mechanism is proposed, and the utility of this method as opposed to other methods (e.g. complete fusion) is discussed. The relative merits of various techniques of actinide target synthesis are discussed. A description is given of a target system designed to remove the large amounts of heat generated by the passage of a heavy ion beam through matter, thereby maximizing the beam intensity which can be safely used in an experiment. Also described is a general separation scheme for the actinide elements from protactinium (Z = 91) to mendelevium (Z = 101), and fast specific procedures for plutonium, americium and berkelium. The cross sections for the production of several nuclides from the bombardment of /sup 248/Cm with /sup 18/Kr and /sup 86/O, /sup 136/Xe projectiles at several energies near and below the Coulomb barrier were determined. The results are compared with yields from /sup 48/Ca and /sup 238/U bombardments of /sup 248/Cm. A preliminary, unsuccessful attempt to isolate /sup 247/Pu is outlined. The absolute ..gamma.. ray intensities from /sup 251/Bk decay, necessary for calculating the /sup 251/Bk cross section, are also determined.

  11. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  12. Electron transfer properties and catalytic competence of cytochrome b5 in the fusion protein Hmwb5-EGFP in reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Yantsevich, A V; Gilep, A A; Usanov, S A

    2009-08-01

    In the present paper we describe studies on molecular mechanisms of protein-protein interactions between cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and cytochrome b(5), the latter being incorporated into the artificial recombinant protein Hmwb(5)-EGFP containing full-length cytochrome b(5) (functional module) and a mutant form of the green fluorescent protein EGFP (signal module) fused into a single polypeptide chain. It is shown that cytochrome b(5) within the fusion protein Hmwb(5)-EGFP can be reduced by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in the presence of NADPH, the rate of reduction being dependent on solution ionic strength, indicating that the signal module does not prevent the interaction of the flavo- and hemeproteins. Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A4 and Hmwb(5)-EGFP was estimated based on spin equilibrium shift of cytochrome P450 3A4 to high-spin state in the presence of Hmwb(5)-EGFP, as well as based on steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of the EGFP component of the fusion protein in the presence of CYP3A4. The engineering of chimeric protein Hmwb(5)-EGFP gives an independent method to determine dissociation constant for the complex of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b(5) that is less sensitive to environmental factors compared to spectrophotometric titration used before. Reconstitution of catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 in the reaction of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation in the presence of Hmwb(5)-EGFP indicates that cytochrome b(5) in the fusion protein is able to stimulate the hydroxylation reaction. Using other fusion proteins containing either cytochrome b(5) or its hydrophilic domain to reconstitute catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 showed that the hydrophobic domain of cytochrome b(5) participates not only in hemeprotein interaction, but also in electron transfer from cytochrome b(5) to cytochrome P450.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10570 - Cyclic amine reaction product with acetophenone and formaldehyde acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cyclic amine reaction product with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10570 Cyclic amine reaction product... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cyclic amine reaction...

  18. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  9. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  10. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10570 - Cyclic amine reaction product with acetophenone and formaldehyde acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cyclic amine reaction product with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10570 Cyclic amine reaction product... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cyclic amine reaction...

  12. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  13. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (PMN P-11-204) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of {sup 20}Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.

    2014-08-14

    Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho system at projectile energies ranges ≈ 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some α-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile {sup 20}Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus {sup 165}Ho.

  17. Measurement of loss of DT fusion products using scintillator detectors in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Marsala, R.J.; Palladino, R.W.; Zweben, S.J.; Tuszewski, M.

    1995-03-01

    A poloidal array of MeV ion loss probes previously used to measure DD fusion product loss has been upgraded to measure the loss of alpha particles from DT plasmas in TFTR. The following improvements to the system have been made in preparation for the use of tritium in TFTR: (1) relocation of detectors to a neutronshielded enclosure in the basement to reduce neutron-induced background signals; (2) replacement of ZnS:Cu (P31) scintillators in the probes with the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}0{sub 12}:Ce(P46) variety to minimize damage and assure linearity at the fluxes anticipated from DT plasmas; and (3) shielding of the fiber optic bundles which carry the fight from the probes to the detectors to reduce neutron- and gamma-induced light within them. In addition to the above preparations, the probes have been absolutely calibrated for alpha particles by using the Van de Graaf accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Alpha particle losses from DT plasmas have been observed, and losses at the detector 901 below the midplane are consistent with first orbit loss.

  18. Deuteron Acceleration and Fusion Neutron Production in Z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Ananeev, S. S.; Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Blinov, P. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Kazakov, E. D.; Korolev, V. D.; Ustroev, G. I.

    2009-01-21

    Fusion neutron measurements were carried out on the S-300 generator (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow). We tried deuterated fibers, various types of wire arrays imploding onto a deuterated fiber, and deuterium gas puffs as Z-pinch loads. On the current level of 2 MA, the peak neutron yield of 10{sup 10} was achieved with a deuterium gas-puff. The neutron and deuteron energy spectra were quite similar in various types of Z-pinch configurations. The broad width of radial neutron spectra implied a high radial component of deuteron velocity. On the basis of neutron measurements, we concluded that neutron production mechanism is connected with the study of plasma voltage. It means that the acceleration of fast deuterons is not a secondary process but it reflects the global dynamics of Z-pinch plasmas. For this reason it is useful to add deuterium as a 'tracer' in Z-pinch loads more often. For instance, it seems attractive to prepare wire-arrays from deuterated metal wires such as Pd.

  19. A novel microfluidic system for the mass production of Inertial Fusion Energy shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N. T.

    2016-04-01

    A system which can mass produce millimetre sized spherical polymer shells economically and with high precision will be a great step towards the Inertial Fusion Energy goal. Microfluidics has shown itself to be a disruptive technology, where a rapid and continuous production of compound emulsions can be processed into such shells. Planar emulsion generators co-flow-focus in one step (COFON) and cascaded co-flow- focus (COFUS) enable millimetre compound emulsions to be produced using a one or two step formation process respectively. The co-flow-focus geometry uses symmetric and curved carrier fluid entrance walls to create a focusing orifice-minima and a carrier flow which aids movement and shaping of the dispersed fluid(s) towards the outlet, whilst maintaining operation in the dripping regime. Precision concentric alignment of these compound emulsions remains one of the greatest challenges. However steps to solve this passively using curved channel modulation to perturbate the emulsion have shown that rapid alignment can be achieved. Issues with satellite droplet formation, repeatability of the emulsion generation and cost are also addressed.

  20. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R G; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites.

  1. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R. G.; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites. PMID:26042130

  2. Production of alkenes and novel secondary products by P450 OleTJE using novel H2 O2 -generating fusion protein systems.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Sarah; Tee, Kang Lan; Rattray, Nicholas J; McLean, Kirsty J; Leys, David; Parker, David A; Blankley, Richard T; Munro, Andrew W

    2017-03-01

    Jeotgalicoccus sp. 8456 OleTJE (CYP152L1) is a fatty acid decarboxylase cytochrome P450 that uses hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) to catalyse production of terminal alkenes, which are industrially important chemicals with biofuel applications. We report enzyme fusion systems in which Streptomyces coelicolor alditol oxidase (AldO) is linked to OleTJE . AldO oxidizes polyols (including glycerol), generating H2 O2 as a coproduct and facilitating its use for efficient OleTJE -dependent fatty acid decarboxylation. AldO activity is regulatable by polyol substrate titration, enabling control over H2 O2 supply to minimize oxidative inactivation of OleTJE and prolong activity for increased alkene production. We also use these fusion systems to generate novel products from secondary turnover of 2-OH and 3-OH myristic acid primary products, expanding the catalytic repertoire of OleTJE .

  3. Hypernuclear production by the (π+,K+) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoba, T.; Bandō, H.; Wünsch, R.; Žofka, J.

    1988-09-01

    The (π+,K+) strength functions (cross sections) are systematically calculated in the distorted-wave impulse approximation for the production of light-to-heavy hypernuclei: 12ΛC, 16ΛO, 28ΛSi, 40ΛCa, 56ΛFe, 90ΛZr (and 208ΛPb). The quasifree continuum effects are taken into account in the frameworks of the Kapur-Peierls method and also of the continuum shell model. The characteristic feature of the (π+,K+) reaction is to provide well-separated series of peaks with high spin corresponding to the bound and resonant Λ states, yielding information on deep-lying hyperon states in heavy nuclei as well. Reasons for this effectiveness are clarified and discussed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the recent experiments which further demonstrates that the average Λ nucleus well can be simulated by an appropriate Woods-Saxon type potential (V0~=-30 MeV) over a wide mass range of hypernuclei to a good approximation.

  4. Electrochemical device for converting carbon dioxide to a reaction product

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    An electrochemical device converts carbon dioxide to a reaction product. The device includes an anode and a cathode, each comprising a quantity of catalyst. The anode and cathode each has reactant introduced thereto. A polymer electrolyte membrane is interposed between the anode and the cathode. At least a portion of the cathode catalyst is directly exposed to gaseous carbon dioxide during electrolysis. The average current density at the membrane is at least 20 mA/cm.sup.2, measured as the area of the cathode gas diffusion layer that is covered by catalyst, and CO selectivity is at least 50% at a cell potential of 3.0 V. In some embodiments, the polymer electrolyte membrane comprises a polymer in which a constituent monomer is (p-vinylbenzyl)-R, where R is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums, pyridiniums and phosphoniums. In some embodiments, the polymer electrolyte membrane is a Helper Membrane comprising a polymer containing an imidazolium ligand, a pyridinium ligand, or a phosphonium ligand.

  5. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    PubMed

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment.

  6. The Benefits of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Hyperspectral Data Fusion Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, S. J.; Kurz, T. H.; Schneider, D.

    2012-10-01

    Close range hyperspectral imaging is a developing method for the analysis and identification of material composition in many applications, such as in within the earth sciences. Using compact imaging devices in the field allows near-vertical topography to be imaged, thus bypassing the key limitations of viewing angle and resolution that preclude the use of airborne and spaceborne platforms. Terrestrial laser scanning allows 3D topography to be captured with high precision and spatial resolution. The combination of 3D geometry from laser scanning, and material properties from hyperspectral imaging allows new fusion products to be created, adding new information for solving application problems. This paper highlights the advantages of terrestrial lidar and hyperspectral integration, focussing on the qualitative and quantitative aspects, with examples from a geological field application. Accurate co-registration of the two data types is required. This allows 2D pixels to be linked to the 3D lidar geometry, giving increased quantitative analysis as classified material vectors are projected to 3D space for calculation of areas and examination of spatial relationships. User interpretation of hyperspectral results in a spatially-meaningful manner is facilitated using visual methods that combine the geometric and mineralogical products in a 3D environment. Point cloud classification and the use of photorealistic modelling enhance qualitative validation and interpretation, and allow image registration accuracy to be checked. A method for texture mapping of lidar meshes with multiple image textures, both conventional digital photos and hyperspectral results, is described. The integration of terrestrial laser scanning and hyperspectral imaging is a valuable means of providing new analysis methods, suitable for many applications requiring linked geometric and chemical information.

  7. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  8. Secretory production of antimicrobial peptides in Escherichia coli using the catalytic domain of a cellulase as fusion partner.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huili; Li, Haoran; Gao, Dongfang; Gao, Cuijuan; Qi, Qingsheng

    2015-11-20

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small molecules which serve as essential components of the innate immune system in various organisms. AMPs possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. However, the scaled production of such peptides in Escherichia coli faces many difficulties because of their small size and toxicity to the host. Here, we described a new fusion strategy to extracellularly produce significant amounts of these antimicrobial peptides in recombinant E. coli at significant amount. Employing the catalytic domain of a cellulase (Cel-CD) from Bacillus subtilis KSM-64 as the fusion partner, five recombinant antimicrobial peptides were confirmed to accumulate in the culture medium at concentrations ranging from 184 mg/L to 297 mg/L. The radical diffusion experiment demonstrated that the released model antimicrobial peptide, bombinin, had antibacterial activities against both E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This strategy will be suitable for the production of antimicrobial peptides and other toxicity proteins.

  9. High level transient production of recombinant antibodies and antibody fusion proteins in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The demand of monospecific high affinity binding reagents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, has been steadily increasing over the last years. Enhanced throughput of antibody generation has been addressed by optimizing in vitro selection using phage display which moved the major bottleneck to the production and purification of recombinant antibodies in an end-user friendly format. Single chain (sc)Fv antibody fragments require additional tags for detection and are not as suitable as immunoglobulins (Ig)G in many immunoassays. In contrast, the bivalent scFv-Fc antibody format shares many properties with IgG and has a very high application compatibility. Results In this study transient expression of scFv-Fc antibodies in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells was optimized. Production levels of 10-20 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody were achieved in adherent HEK293T cells. Employment of HEK293-6E suspension cells expressing a truncated variant of the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 in combination with production under serum free conditions increased the volumetric yield up to 10-fold to more than 140 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody. After vector optimization and process optimization the yield of an scFv-Fc antibody and a cytotoxic antibody-RNase fusion protein further increased 3-4-fold to more than 450 mg/L. Finally, an entirely new mammalian expression vector was constructed for single step in frame cloning of scFv genes from antibody phage display libraries. Transient expression of more than 20 different scFv-Fc antibodies resulted in volumetric yields of up to 600 mg/L and 400 mg/L in average. Conclusion Transient production of recombinant scFv-Fc antibodies in HEK293-6E in combination with optimized vectors and fed batch shake flasks cultivation is efficient and robust, and integrates well into a high-throughput recombinant antibody generation pipeline. PMID:23802841

  10. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N.; Hullette, J.N.

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate

  11. In vivo production of scFv-displaying biopolymer beads using a self-assembly-promoting fusion partner.

    PubMed

    Grage, Katrin; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant production and, in particular, immobilization of antibody fragments onto carrier materials are of high interest with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this study, the recombinant production of scFv-displaying biopolymer beads intracellularly in Escherichia coli was investigated. An anti-beta-galactosidase scFv (single chain variable fragment of an antibody) was C-terminally tagged with the polymer-synthesizing enzyme PhaC from Cupriavidus necator by generating the respective hybrid gene. The functionality of the anti-beta-galactosidase scFv-PhaC fusion protein was assessed by producing the respective soluble fusion protein in an Escherichia coli AMEF mutant strain. AMEF (antibody-mediated enzyme formation) strains contain an inactive mutant beta-galactosidase, which can be activated by binding of an anti-beta-galactosidase antibody. In vivo activation of AMEF beta-galactosidase indicated that the scFv is functional with the C-terminal fusion partner PhaC. It was further demonstrated that polymer biosynthesis and bead formation were mediated by the scFv-PhaC fusion protein in the cytoplasm of recombinant E. coli when the polymer precursor was metabolically provided. This suggested that the C-terminal fusion partner PhaC acts as a functional insolubility partner, providing a natural cross-link to the bead and leading to in vivo immobilization of the scFv. Overproduction of the fusion protein at the polymer bead surface was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of purified beads. Antigen binding functionality and specificity of the beads was assessed by analyzing the binding of beta-galactosidase to scFv-displaying beads and subsequently eluting the bound protein at pH 2.7. A strong enrichment of beta-galactosidase suggested the functional display of scFv at the bead surface as well as the applicability of these beads for antigen purification. Binding of beta-galactosidase to the scFv-displaying beads was quantitatively

  12. Protein body-inducing fusions for high-level production and purification of recombinant proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Conley, Andrew J; Joensuu, Jussi J; Richman, Alex; Menassa, Rima

    2011-05-01

    For the past two decades, therapeutic and industrially important proteins have been expressed in plants with varying levels of success. The two major challenges hindering the economical production of plant-made recombinant proteins include inadequate accumulation levels and the lack of efficient purification methods. To address these limitations, several fusion protein strategies have been recently developed to significantly enhance the production yield of plant-made recombinant proteins, while simultaneously assisting in their subsequent purification. Elastin-like polypeptides are thermally responsive biopolymers composed of a repeating pentapeptide 'VPGXG' sequence that are valuable for the purification of recombinant proteins. Hydrophobins are small fungal proteins capable of altering the hydrophobicity of their respective fusion partner, thus enabling efficient purification by surfactant-based aqueous two-phase systems. Zera, a domain of the maize seed storage protein γ-zein, can induce the formation of protein storage bodies, thus facilitating the recovery of fused proteins using density-based separation methods. These three novel protein fusion systems have also been shown to enhance the accumulation of a range of different recombinant proteins, while concurrently inducing the formation of protein bodies. The packing of these fusion proteins into protein bodies may exclude the recombinant protein from normal physiological turnover. Furthermore, these systems allow for quick, simple and inexpensive nonchromatographic purification of the recombinant protein, which can be scaled up to industrial levels of protein production. This review will focus on the similarities and differences of these artificial storage organelles, their biogenesis and their implication for the production of recombinant proteins in plants and their subsequent purification.

  13. α and 3He production in the 7Be+28Si reaction at near-barrier energies: Direct versus compound-nucleus mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgouros, O.; Pakou, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Mazzocco, M.; Acosta, L.; Aslanoglou, X.; Betsou, Ch.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Grebosz, J.; Keeley, N.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Nicolis, N. G.; Parascandolo, C.; Rusek, K.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Soukeras, V.; Stefanini, C.; Stiliaris, E.; Strano, E.; Strojek, I.; Torresi, D.

    2016-10-01

    The production of α and 3He particles, the cluster constituents of 7Be, in the 7Be+28Si reaction was studied at three near-barrier energies, namely 13, 20, and 22 MeV. Angular distribution measurements were performed at each energy, and the data were analyzed in both statistical model and Distorted-Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) frameworks in order to disentangle the degree of competition between direct and compound channels. The energy evolution of the ratio of direct to total reaction cross section was mapped in comparison with similar data for 6Li and 7Li projectiles on a 28Si target. The results indicate larger transfer contributions for collisions involving the mirror nuclei 7Be and 7Li than in the 6Li case. Fusion cross sections were deduced, taking into account the α -particle cross sections due to compound-nucleus formation and particle multiplicities deduced from our statistical model framework. It was found that fusion is compatible with systematics and single-barrier penetration cross sections to within an uncertainty band of 10% to 20%. Indications of fusion hindrance for 7Li and 7Be compared to 6Li, starting from the barrier and below it, are given. This hindrance is attributed to the existence of large transfer channels. Furthermore, the experimental results, analyzed in the DWBA framework, suggest 3He and 4He transfer as the dominant direct reaction mechanism.

  14. Pionic fusion in light-ion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulaeizadeh, L.; Gašparić, I.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacelar, J.; Čaplar, R.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Löhner, H.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.; Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Shende, S. V.; Stephan, E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of pions in the nuclear interaction has been studied in pionic fusion experiments using the AGOR accelerator facility at KVI. Pionic fusion is a highly coherent process in which two nuclei fuse to a united nucleus and the available centre-of-mass (C.M.) energy is emitted through the pion channel. The examined reactions were 4He(3He, π0)7Be and 6Li(4He, π0)10B* and both reactions were performed at C.M. energies about 10 MeV above the coherent pion production threshold. Here, the experimental results for the 6Li(4He, π0)10B* reaction will be presented and discussed. In order to provide sensitivity to the full dynamics and relevant processes involved in the pionic fusion reaction, almost the full angular distribution of neutral pions has been determined. In a phenomenological analysis, the contributions of Legendre polynomials to reproduce the behaviour of the angular distribution have been studied. The results of this analysis confirm the importance of the clustering correlations for the 6Li(4He, π0)10B* reaction. The mass dependence of the pionic fusion reaction is in agreement with the results of the existing models extrapolated to this reaction.

  15. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  16. Gamma ray line production from cosmic ray spallation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma ray line intensities due to cosmic ray spallation reactions in clouds, the galactic disk and accreting binary pulsars are calculated. With the most favorable plausible assumptions, only a few lines may be detectable to the level of 0.0000001 per sq. cm per sec. The intensities are compared with those generated in nuclear excitation reactions.

  17. Membrane events in the acrosomal reaction of Limulus sperm. Membrane fusion, filament-membrane particle attachment, and the source and formation of new membrane surface

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The membranes of Limulus (horseshoe crab) sperm were examined before and during the acrosomal reaction by using the technique of freeze- fracturing and thin sectioning. We focused on three areas. First, we examined stages in the fusion of the acrosomal vacuole with the cell surface. Fusion takes place in a particle-free zone which is surrounded by a circlet of particles on the P face of the plasma membrane and an underlying circlet of particles on the P face of the acrosomal vauole membrane. These circlets of particles are present before induction. Up to nine focal points of fusion occur within the particle-free zone. Second, we describe a system of fine filaments, each 30 A in diameter, which lies between the acrosomal vacuole and the plasma membrane. These filaments change their orientation as the vacuole opens, a process that takes place in less than 50 ms. Membrane particles seen on the P face of the acrosomal vacuole membrane change their orientation at the same time and in the same way as do the filaments, thus indicating that the membrane particles and filaments are probably connected. Third, we examined the source and the point of fusion of new membrane needed to cover the acrosomal process. This new membrane is almost certainly derived from the outer nuclear envelope and appears to insert into the plasma membrane in a particle-free area adjacent to an area rich in particles. The latter is the region where the particles are probably connected to the cytoplasmic filaments. The relevance of these observations in relation to the process of fertilization of this fantastic sperm is discussed. PMID:582596

  18. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    Background: Fusion between two massive nuclei is a very complex process and is characterized by three stages: (a) capture inside the potential barrier, (b) formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus (CN), and (c) statistical decay of the CN leading to a cold evaporation residue (ER) or fission. The second stage is the least understood of the three and is the most crucial in predicting yield of superheavy elements (SHE) formed in complete fusion reactions. Purpose: A systematic study of average fusion probability, , is undertaken to obtain a better understanding of its dependence on various reaction parameters. The study may also help to clearly demarcate onset of non-CN fission (NCNF), which causes fusion probability, PCN, to deviate from unity. Method: ER excitation functions for 52 reactions leading to CN in the mass region 170-220, which are available in the literature, have been compared with statistical model (SM) calculations. Capture cross sections have been obtained from a coupled-channels code. In the SM, shell corrections in both the level density and the fission barrier have been included. for these reactions has been extracted by comparing experimental and theoretical ER excitation functions in the energy range ˜5 %-35% above the potential barrier, where known effects of nuclear structure are insignificant. Results: has been shown to vary with entrance channel mass asymmetry, η (or charge product, ZpZt ), as well as with fissility of the CN, χCN. No parameter has been found to be adequate as a single scaling variable to determine . Approximate boundaries have been obtained from where starts deviating from unity. Conclusions: This study quite clearly reveals the limits of applicability of the SM in interpreting experimental observables from fusion reactions involving two massive nuclei. Deviation of from unity marks the beginning of the domain of dynamical models of fusion. Availability of precise ER cross

  19. Study of 16O(12C,α20Ne)α for the investigation of carbon-carbon fusion reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapisarda, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Bordeanu, C.; Hons, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Nita, C.; Pantelica, D.; Petrascu, H.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Szücs, T.; Trache, L.; Tumino, A.; Velisa, G.

    2016-04-01

    Carbon-carbon fusion reaction represents a nuclear process of great interest in astrophysics, since the carbon burning is connected with the third phase of massive stars (M > 8 M⊙) evolution. In spite of several experimental works, carbon-carbon cross section has been measured at energy still above the Gamow window moreover data at low energy present big uncertainty. In this paper we report the results about the study of the 16O(12C,α 20Ne)α reaction as a possible three-body process to investigate 12C(12C,α)20Ne at astrophysical energy via Trojan Horse Method (THM). This study represents the first step of a program of experiments aimed to measure the 12C+12C cross section at astrophysical energy using the THM.

  20. Clustering effects in fusion evaporation reactions with light even-even N = Z nuclei. The {sup 24}Mg and {sup 28}Si cases

    SciTech Connect

    Morelli, L. D’Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Baiocco, G.; Gulminelli, F.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Degerlier, M.; Fabris, D.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Gelli, N.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.

    2015-10-15

    In the recent years, cluster structures have been evidenced in many ground and excited states of light nuclei [1, 2]. Within the currently ongoing experimental campaign by the NUCL-EX collaboration we have measured the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and {sup 14}N+{sup 10}B reactions at 95 MeV and 80 MeV respectively, and compared experimental data corresponding to complete fusion of target and projectile into an excited {sup 24}Mg nucleus to the results of a pure statistical model[3, 4]. We found clear deviations from the statstical model in the decay pattern: emission channels involving multiple α particles are more probable than expected from a purely statistical behavior. To continue the investigation on light systems, we have recentely measured the {sup 16}O+{sup 12}C reaction at three different beam energies, namely E{sub beam} = 90, 110 and 130 MeV.

  1. Calculation of the evaporation residue cross sections for the synthesis of the superheavy element Z=119 via the {sup 50}Ti+{sup 249}Bk hot fusion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zuhua; Bao, Jing-Dong

    2011-09-15

    The evaporation residue (ER) cross sections for 3n and 4n evaporation channels in the {sup 50}Ti + {sup 249}Bk reaction leading the formation of {sup 296}119 and {sup 295}119 isotopes are evaluated by means of a modified fusion-by-diffusion model. In the model, the dynamic evolution from dinucleus to mononucleus is taken into account with the two-dimensional coupled Langenvin equations. The calculated maximum ER cross sections in 3n and 4n evaporation channels of the {sup 50}Ti + {sup 249}Bk reaction are 0.17 and 0.57 pb, respectively. The cross section of 0.57 pb is close to the present experimental limit for the registration of the evaporation residual nuclei. Therefore, superheavy element 119 may be the most hopeful new element with Z>118 to be synthesized under somehow improved experimental conditions in the near future.

  2. Role of nuclear dissipation and entrance channel mass asymmetry in pre-scission neutron multiplicity enhancement in fusion-fission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Hardev; Sandal, Rohit; Behera, Bivash R.; Singh, Gulzar; Govil, I. M.; Golda, K. S.; Ranjeet,; Jhingan, Akhil; Singh, R. P.; Sugathan, P.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Datta, S. K.; Pal, Santanu; Viesti, G.

    2008-08-15

    Pre-scission neutron multiplicities are measured for {sup 12}C + {sup 204}Pb and {sup 19}F + {sup 197}Au reactions at laboratory energies of 75-95 MeV for the {sup 12}C beam and 98-118 MeV for the {sup 19}F beam. The chosen projectile-target combinations in the present study lie on either side of the Businaro-Gallone mass asymmetry ({alpha}{sub BG}) and populate the {sup 216}Ra compound nucleus. The dissipation strength is deduced after comparing the experimentally measured neutron yield with the statistical model predictions which contains the nuclear viscosity as a free parameter. Present results demonstrate the combined effects of entrance channel mass asymmetry and the dissipative property of nuclear matter on the pre-scission neutron multiplicity in fusion-fission reactions.

  3. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Polymerase of Rous Sarcoma Virus: Reaction Conditions and Analysis of the Reaction Product Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, D. H. L.; Ruprecht, Ruth; Simpson, R. W.; Spiegelman, S.

    1971-01-01

    Reaction conditions for Rous sarcoma virus ribonucleic acid (RNA)-instructed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase activity are described whereby the viral RNA is relatively protected from endogenous or added nuclease activity. Three analyses of reaction product nucleic acids (3H-RNA, 32P-DNA) were compared, namely, gel electrophoresis, Cs2SO4 gradient centrifugation, and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. It was found that hydroxyapatite analysis could be misleading unless the state of the template RNA was monitored concomitantly with the DNA analysis. Gel electrophoresis and Cs2SO4 gradient centrifugation gave comparable results. It was concluded that analyses of the product of reverse transcriptase reactions should not only refer to the template RNA and product DNA species, but also be performed with virus or viral RNA which do not have or obtain nicks in the 60S RNA. Otherwise, interpretation of the results would have the ambiguity of potential artifacts caused by those degraded RNA molecules. PMID:4332143

  4. Assessment of the Fusion Tags on Increasing Soluble Production of the Active TEV Protease Variant and Other Target Proteins in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuelian; Sun, Jiaqi; Wang, Weiyu; Jiang, Li; Cheng, Beijiu; Fan, Jun

    2016-12-17

    In this study, five fusion tags affecting soluble production and cleavage activity of the tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease (TEVp) variant in Escherichia coli strains BL21 (DE3) and Rosetta™ (DE3) are investigated. Combination of the augmenting rare transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and the fused expressivity tag (N-terminal seven amino acid residues of E. coli translation initiation factor II) promotes the soluble TEVp partner expressed at relatively high level. Attachment of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) tag increases soluble expression of the protease released from the fusion protein in E. coli cells, but the incorporated TEVp recognition sequence slightly decreases expressivity of the fusion construct. Except for the green fluorescent protein, the attached expressivity tag shows less efficiency than the MBP tag in enhancing expression levels of the selected five target proteins in the Rosetta™ (DE3) cells under different induction conditions. Our results identified that high-level production of the functional target protein as the fusion partner in E. coli is combined with the intrinsic property of fusion tag, fusion protein stability, inherent folding of target protein, rare tRNA abundance, and the incorporated linker. Purified TEVp fusion constructs with the N-terminal expressivity tag, as well as the MBP partner, are the ideal alternatives for removing fusion tag.

  5. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  6. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  11. Laser ion source for multi-nucleon transfer reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a laser ion source for the target-like fragments (TLFs) produced in multi-nucleon transfer (MNT) reactions. The operation principle of the source is based on the in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) approach. In the source TLFs are thermalized and neutralized in high pressure and high purity argon gas, and are extracted after being selectively re-ionized in a multi-step laser resonance ionization process. The laser ion source has been implemented at the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) for β-decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes with N = 126 of nuclear astrophysical interest. The simulations of gas flow and ion-beam optics have been performed to optimize the gas cell for efficient thermalization and fast transporting the TLFs, and the mass-separator for efficient transport with high mass-resolving power, respectively. To confirm the performances expected at the design stage, off-line experiments have been performed by using 56Fe atoms evaporated from a filament in the gas cell. The gas-transport time of 230 ms in the argon cell and the measured KISS mass-resolving power of 900 are consistent with the designed values. The high purity of the gas-cell system, which is extremely important for efficient and highly-selective production of laser ions, was achieved and confirmed from the mass distribution of the extracted ions. After the off-line tests, on-line experiments were conducted by directly injecting energetic 56Fe beam into the gas cell. After thermalization of the injected 56Fe beam, laser-produced singly-charged 56Fe+ ions were extracted. The extraction efficiency and selectivity of the gas cell in the presence of plasma induced by 56Fe beam injection as well as the time profile of the extracted ions were investigated; extraction efficiency of 0.25%, a beam purity of >99% and an extraction time of 270 ms. It has been confirmed that the performance of the KISS laser ion source is satisfactory to start the measurements of

  12. Evidence for Coincident Fusion Products Using Silicon Surface-barrier Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Steven; Scott, Mark; Keeney, Frank

    2002-10-01

    We report experimental results showing coincident proton and triton production from the reaction: d + d --> t (1.01 MeV) + p (3.02 MeV). Partially-deuterided thin titanium foils were positioned between two silicon surface-barrier detectors which were mounted in a small cylindrical vacuum chamber which also served as a Faraday cage. We performed Monte Carlo studies using the SRIM code to determine the expected energies of arriving particles after they exit the host foil. The dual-coincidence requirement reduces background to very low levels so that low yields from very thin TiD foils can be readily detected. In one sequence of experiments, we observed 74 foreground coincidences in the regions of interest compared with 24 background counts; the statistical significance is approximately ten standard deviations. A striking advance is that the repeatability from the dual-coincidence experiments is currently greater than 70%.

  13. Engineering Challenges in Antiproton Triggered Fusion Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, Brice; Kammash, Terry

    2008-01-21

    During the last decade antiproton triggered fusion propulsion has been investigated as a method for achieving high specific impulse, high thrust in a nuclear pulse propulsion system. In general the antiprotons are injected into a pellet containing fusion fuel with a small amount of fissionable material (i.e., an amount less than the critical mass) where the products from the fission are then used to trigger a fusion reaction. Initial calculations and simulations indicate that if magnetically insulated inertial confinement fusion is used that the pellets should result in a specific impulse of between 100,000 and 300,000 seconds at high thrust. The engineering challenges associated with this propulsion system are significant. For example, the antiprotons must be precisely focused. The pellet must be designed to contain the fission and initial fusion products and this will require strong magnetic fields. The fusion fuel must be contained for a sufficiently long time to effectively release the fusion energy, and the payload must be shielded from the radiation, especially the excess neutrons emitted, in addition to many other particles. We will review the recent progress, possible engineering solutions and the potential performance of these systems.

  14. Isomer ratio measurements as a probe of the dynamics of breakup and incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gasques, L. R.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Peatey, T.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Newton, J. O.

    2006-12-15

    The incomplete fusion mechanism following breakup of {sup 6,7}Li and {sup 9}Be projectiles incident on targets of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb is investigated through isomer ratio measurements for the {sup 212}At and {sup 211}Po products. The phenomenological analysis presented in this paper indicates that incomplete fusion brings relatively more angular momentum into the system than equivalent reactions with a direct beam of the fused fragment. This is attributed to the trajectories of breakup fragments. Calculations with a 3D classical trajectory model support this. Isomer ratio measurements for incomplete fusion reactions can provide a test of new theoretical models of breakup and fusion.

  15. Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the fusion protein CusF3H.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant protein expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli still is the number one choice for large-scale protein production. Nevertheless, many complications can arise using this microorganism, such as low yields, the formation of inclusion bodies, and the requirement for difficult purification steps. Most of these problems can be solved with the use of fusion proteins. Here, the use of the metal-binding protein CusF3H+ is described as a new fusion protein for recombinant protein expression and purification in E. coli. We have previously shown that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein, with low levels of formation of inclusion bodies, and that proteins can be purified using IMAC resins charged with Cu(II) ions. CusF3H+ is an enhanced variant of CusF, formed by the addition of three histidine residues at the N-terminus. These residues then can bind Ni(II) ions allowing improved purity after affinity chromatography. Expression and purification of Green Fluorescent Protein tagged with CusF3H+ showed that the mutation did not alter the capacity of the fusion protein to increase protein expression, and purity improved considerably after affinity chromatography with immobilized nickel ions; high yields are obtained after tag-removal since CusF3H+ is a small protein of just 10 kDa. Furthermore, the results of experiments involving expression of tagged proteins having medium to large molecular weights indicate that the presence of the CusF3H+ tag improves protein solubility, as compared to a His-tag. We therefore endorse CusF3H+ as a useful alternative fusion protein/affinity tag for production of recombinant proteins in E. coli.

  16. Product distribution for the reaction of HO2 with ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reports the direct measurement of the reaction product HOCl from the reaction of H2O with ClO, and sets an upper limit for the possible product O3, using a discharge flow/mass spectrometry/resonance fluorescence apparatus. The upper limits of the reaction channel producing HCl + O3 are 1.5% at 298 K and 3.0% at 248 K. It is seen that the HCl production rate from the HO2 + ClO reaction could be as large as that from the Cl + CH4 reaction in the lower and middle stratosphere. Thus, this reaction may possibly increase the HCl production rate appreciably and thereby reduce the calculated O3 destruction by chlorofluoromethanes.

  17. Singlet oxygen production in the reaction of superoxide with organic peroxides.

    PubMed

    MacManus-Spencer, Laura A; Edhlund, Betsy L; McNeill, Kristopher

    2006-01-20

    [reaction: see text] A selective chemiluminescent probe for singlet oxygen has been employed to detect and quantify singlet oxygen in the reactions of superoxide with organic peroxides. The production of singlet oxygen has been quantified in the reaction of superoxide with benzoyl peroxide (BP). No singlet oxygen was detected in the reactions of superoxide with cumyl peroxide, tert-butyl peroxide, or tert-butyl hydroperoxide. On the basis of these results and on the temperature dependence of the reaction, we proposed a mechanism for singlet oxygen formation in the reaction of superoxide with BP.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  13. Investigation of Shell Effects in the Fusion-Fission Process in the Reaction 34S + 186W Near the Interaction Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harca, I. M.; Kozulin, E. M.; Bogachev, A.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, J.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Novikov, K.; Vardaci, E.; Azaiez, F.; Gottardo, A.; Matea, I.; Verney, D.; Chubarian, G.; Hanappe, F.; Piot, J.; Schmitt, C.; Trzaska, W. H.

    2015-06-01

    The reaction 34S + 186W at Elab = 160 MeV was investigated with the aim of diving into the features of the fusion-fission process. Gamma rays coincident with binary reaction fragments were measured using the high efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer ORGAM at the TANDEM Accelerator facility of I.P.N., Orsay, and the time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments registration CORSET of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Dubna. Evidence of symmetric and asymmetric fission modes were observed in the mass and TKE distributions, occurring due to shell effects in the fragments. The coupling of the ORGAM and CORSET setups enables the FF-γ coincident measurement which offers the opportunity to extract the isotopic distribution of the fragments of different masses formed in the aforementioned reaction and to find the exact neutron multiplicity, the average spin and average angular momenta. Details regarding the experimental setup, methods of processing the acquisitioned data and preliminary results are presented.

  14. Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jin; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Chen, Meng-Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Formose reaction converts formaldehyde to carbohydrates. We found that formose reaction can be used linking the biomass gasification with the aqueous-phase processing (APP) to produce liquid transportation fuel in three steps. First, formaldehyde from syn-gas was converted to triose. This was followed by aldol condensation and dehydration to 4-hydroxymethylfurfural (4-HMF). Finally, 4-HMF was hydrogenated to produce 2,4-dimethylfuran (2,4-DMF) or C9-C15 branched-chain alkanes as liquid transportation fuels. In the linked strategy, high energy-consuming pretreatment as well as expensive and polluting hydrolysis of biomass were omitted, but the high energy recovery of APP was inherited. In addition, the hexoketoses via formose reaction could be converted to HMFs directly without isomerization. A potential platform molecule 4-HMF was formed simultaneously in APP. PMID:23393625

  15. X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S. P.; Lowry, M. E.; Baker, K. L.; Bennett, C. V.; Celeste, J. R.; Cerjan, C.; Haynes, S.; Hernandez, V. J.; Hsing, W. W.; LaCaille, G. A.; London, R. A.; Moran, B.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Steele, P. T.; Stewart, R. E.

    2012-10-15

    We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF). This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.

  16. X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at ~ps resolution using RadOptic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E; Baker, K L; Bennett, C V; Celeste, J R; Cerjan, C; Haynes, S; Hernandez, V J; Hsing, W W; London, R A; Moran, B; von Wittenau, A S; Steele, P T; Stewart, R E

    2012-05-01

    We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility. This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.

  17. Comparison of Complementary Reactions in the Production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Sarah; Gregorich, Kenneth; Dragojevic, Irena; Ellison, Paul; Garcia, Mitch Andre; Gates, Jacklyn; Stavsetra, Liv; Ali, Mazhar; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-01-21

    The new reaction 208Pb(59Co,n)266Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7+5.2-3.3 pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of 266Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied 209Bi(58Fe,n)266Mt reaction.

  18. Comparison of complementary reactions in the production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Dragojevic, I.; Ellison, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Dvorak, J.; Stavsetra, L.; Ali, M. N.

    2009-02-15

    The new reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 59}Co,n){sup 266}Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7{sub -3.3}{sup +5.2} pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of {sup 266}Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied {sup 209}Bi({sup 58}Fe,n){sup 266}Mt reaction.

  19. On the helical instability and efficient stagnation pressure production in thermonuclear magnetized inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefkow, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    Magneto-inertial fusion experiments produce thermonuclear neutrons from plasma compressed to high convergence via z-pinch. Fusion fuel contained within a cylindrical metal liner is premagnetized with an axial field and laser-preheated prior to the liner's implosion by the JxB force. Convergence greater than 40 is inferred from x-ray self-emission spectroscopy and backlit x-ray radiography. The unprecedented stability is enabled by helical modes induced in the magnetized liner, the cause of which will be discussed, because of the suppression of the ubiquitous m=0 modes of the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability found in many z-pinch implosions. The plasma temperature and flux are compressed to several keV and 100 MG at stagnation, enough to magnetically trap alpha particles and provide ``bootstrap'' self-heating when scaled to larger fusion yields with DT fuel. We present quantitative comparison between experimental observables and 3D modeling in support of the interpretation that this approach to laboratory fusion can scale to larger thermonuclear yields. Namely, the implosions efficiently convert liner kinetic energy to stagnated fuel internal energy with the expected pressures of 1 Gbar and burn durations of 2 ns, in agreement with both 2D and 3D modeling. Therefore, the analysis indicates the magnetized hot-spot dynamics are not dominated by implosion instability or residual kinetic energy in our best-performing experiments, wherein laser-induced non-fuel mix into the forming hot spot is low.

  20. Heavy-Ion Fusion Mechanism and Predictions of Super-Heavy Elements Production

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Yasuhisa; Shen Caiwan; Boilley, David

    2009-08-26

    Fusion process is shown to firstly form largely deformed mono-nucleus and then to undergo diffusion in two-dimensions with the radial and mass-asymmetry degrees of freedom. Examples of prediction of residue cross sections are given for the elements with Z = 117 and 118.