Science.gov

Sample records for fusion system assessment

  1. Affordable non-traditional source data mining for context assessment to improve distributed fusion system robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Christopher; Haith, Gary; Steinberg, Alan; Morefield, Charles; Morefield, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes methods to affordably improve the robustness of distributed fusion systems by opportunistically leveraging non-traditional data sources. Adaptive methods help find relevant data, create models, and characterize the model quality. These methods also can measure the conformity of this non-traditional data with fusion system products including situation modeling and mission impact prediction. Non-traditional data can improve the quantity, quality, availability, timeliness, and diversity of the baseline fusion system sources and therefore can improve prediction and estimation accuracy and robustness at all levels of fusion. Techniques are described that automatically learn to characterize and search non-traditional contextual data to enable operators integrate the data with the high-level fusion systems and ontologies. These techniques apply the extension of the Data Fusion & Resource Management Dual Node Network (DNN) technical architecture at Level 4. The DNN architecture supports effectively assessment and management of the expanded portfolio of data sources, entities of interest, models, and algorithms including data pattern discovery and context conformity. Affordable model-driven and data-driven data mining methods to discover unknown models from non-traditional and `big data' sources are used to automatically learn entity behaviors and correlations with fusion products, [14 and 15]. This paper describes our context assessment software development, and the demonstration of context assessment of non-traditional data to compare to an intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance fusion product based upon an IED POIs workflow.

  2. Risk assessment of a fusion-reactor fuel-processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Bruske, S.Z.; Holland, D.F.

    1983-07-01

    The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology provides a means to systematically examine the potential for accidents that may result in a release of hazardous materials. This report presents the PRA for a typical fusion reactor fuel processing system. The system used in the analysis is based on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, which is being operated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The results of the evaluation are presented in a probability-consequence plot that describes the probability of various accidental tritium release magnitudes.

  3. Tritium Breeding Blanket for a Commercial Fusion Power Plant - A System Engineering Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Wayne R.

    2014-04-14

    The goal of developing a new source of electric power based on fusion has been pursued for decades. If successful, future fusion power plants will help meet growing world-wide demand for electric power. A key feature and selling point for fusion is that its fuel supply is widely distributed globally and virtually inexhaustible. Current world-wide research on fusion energy is focused on the deuterium-tritium (DT for short) fusion reaction since it will be the easiest to achieve in terms of the conditions (e.g., temperature, density and confinement time of the DT fuel) required to produce net energy. Over the past decades countless studies have examined various concepts for TBBs for both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). At this time, the key organizations involved are government sponsored research organizations world-wide. The near-term focus of the MFE community is on the development of TBB mock-ups to be tested on the ITER tokamak currently under construction in Caderache France. TBB concepts for IFE tend to be different from MFE primarily due to significantly different operating conditions and constraints. This report focuses on longer-term commercial power plants where the key stakeholders include: electric utilities, plant owner and operator, manufacturer, regulators, utility customers, and in-plant subsystems including the heat transfer and conversion systems, fuel processing system, plant safety systems, and the monitoring control systems.

  4. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  5. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  6. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  7. Fusion blanket inherent safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    The inherent safety aspect of TPSS reactor blankets has been investigated. The idea is to design the blanket so safe that cost savings can be realized such as through non-nuclear grading construction. If the blanket materials are carefully selected, inherent safety is feasible for fusion reactor blankets up to 5 to 10 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall loading.

  8. Multisensor fusion remote sensing technology for assessing multitemporal responses in ecohydrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkeasorn, Ammarin

    advanced techniques for improving streamflow forecasting. The objective of this section of research is to incorporate sea surface temperature (SST), Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and meteorological characteristics with historical stream data to forecast the actual streamflow using genetic programming. This study case concerns the forecasting of stream discharge of a complex-terrain, semi-arid watershed. This study elicits microclimatological factors and the resultant stream flow rate in river system given the influence of dynamic basin features such as soil moisture, soil temperature, ambient relative humidity, air temperature, sea surface temperature, and precipitation. Evaluations of the forecasting results are expressed in terms of the percentage error (PE), the root-mean-square error (RMSE), and the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r-squared value). The developed models can predict streamflow with very good accuracy with an r-square of 0.84 and PE of 1% for a 30-day prediction. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Flight assessment of a real time multi-resolution image fusion system for use in degraded visual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. I.; Sadler, J. R. E.

    2007-04-01

    Military helicopter operations are often constrained by environmental conditions, including low light levels and poor weather. Recent experience has also shown the difficulty presented by certain terrain when operating at low altitude by day and night. For example, poor pilot cues over featureless terrain with low scene contrast, together with obscuration of vision due to wind-blown and re-circulated dust at low level (brown out). These sorts of conditions can result in loss of spatial awareness and precise control of the aircraft. Atmospheric obscurants such as fog, cloud, rain and snow can similarly lead to hazardous situations and reduced situational awareness. Day Night All Weather (DNAW) systems applied research sponsored by UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) has developed a multi-resolution real time Image Fusion system that has been flown as part of a wider flight trials programme investigating increased situational awareness. Dual-band multi-resolution adaptive image fusion was performed in real-time using imagery from a Thermal Imager and a Low Light TV, both co-bore sighted on a rotary wing trials aircraft. A number of sorties were flown in a range of climatic and environmental conditions during both day and night. (Neutral density filters were used on the Low Light TV during daytime sorties.) This paper reports on the results of the flight trial evaluation and discusses the benefits offered by the use of Image Fusion in degraded visual environments.

  10. Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel, et. al.

    2012-02-23

    With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

  11. A new assessment method for image fusion quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liu; Jiang, Wanying; Li, Jing; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming

    2013-03-01

    Image fusion quality assessment plays a critically important role in the field of medical imaging. To evaluate image fusion quality effectively, a lot of assessment methods have been proposed. Examples include mutual information (MI), root mean square error (RMSE), and universal image quality index (UIQI). These image fusion assessment methods could not reflect the human visual inspection effectively. To address this problem, we have proposed a novel image fusion assessment method which combines the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) with the regional mutual information in this paper. In this proposed method, the source medical images are firstly decomposed into different levels by the NSCT. Then the maximum NSCT coefficients of the decomposed directional images at each level are obtained to compute the regional mutual information (RMI). Finally, multi-channel RMI is computed by the weighted sum of the obtained RMI values at the various levels of NSCT. The advantage of the proposed method lies in the fact that the NSCT can represent image information using multidirections and multi-scales and therefore it conforms to the multi-channel characteristic of human visual system, leading to its outstanding image assessment performance. The experimental results using CT and MRI images demonstrate that the proposed assessment method outperforms such assessment methods as MI and UIQI based measure in evaluating image fusion quality and it can provide consistent results with human visual assessment.

  12. Assessment of Cropping System Diversity in the Fergana Valley Through Image Fusion of Landsat 8 and SENTINEL-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimov, D.; Kuhn, J.; Conrad, C.

    2016-06-01

    In the transitioning agricultural societies of the world, food security is an essential element of livelihood and economic development with the agricultural sector very often being the major employment factor and income source. Rapid population growth, urbanization, pollution, desertification, soil degradation and climate change pose a variety of threats to a sustainable agricultural development and can be expressed as agricultural vulnerability components. Diverse cropping patterns may help to adapt the agricultural systems to those hazards in terms of increasing the potential yield and resilience to water scarcity. Thus, the quantification of crop diversity using indices like the Simpson Index of Diversity (SID) e.g. through freely available remote sensing data becomes a very important issue. This however requires accurate land use classifications. In this study, the focus is set on the cropping system diversity of garden plots, summer crop fields and orchard plots which are the prevalent agricultural systems in the test area of the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan. In order to improve the accuracy of land use classification algorithms with low or medium resolution data, a novel processing chain through the hitherto unique fusion of optical and SAR data from the Landsat 8 and Sentinel-1 platforms is proposed. The combination of both sensors is intended to enhance the object's textural and spectral signature rather than just to enhance the spatial context through pansharpening. It could be concluded that the Ehlers fusion algorithm gave the most suitable results. Based on the derived image fusion different object-based image classification algorithms such as SVM, Naïve Bayesian and Random Forest were evaluated whereby the latter one achieved the highest classification accuracy. Subsequently, the SID was applied to measure the diversification of the three main cropping systems.

  13. Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  14. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  15. Assessment of NDE Methods to Detect Lack of Fusion in HDPE Butt Fusion Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-07-31

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, were conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provided information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch (30.5-cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes, both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Some of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test. The fusion parameters, nondestructive and destructive evaluation results have been correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. There was no single NDE method that detected all of the lack-of-fusion flaws but a combination of NDE methods did detect most of the flaws.

  16. An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M; Kerekes, Ryan A; Treadwell, Jim N

    2009-01-01

    Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

  17. Three-dimensional visualization simulation assessment system based on multi-source data fusion for the Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiangtao; Du, Xiaoping; Tan, Jian; Zhu, Junjie

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a visual three-dimensional simulation and assessment system of the Wenchuan earthquake zone using the Digital Earth concept and highly efficient spatial information visualization technology. Our goal is to provide a foundation for earthquake disaster relief and reconstruction. A number of major collapses, landslides, mud-rock flows and other geological disasters are analysed in the system, and the system can be used to monitor and analyse earthquake relief, rescue and insurance to provide first-hand source material for disaster situation assessment. Multi-sensor, multi-temporal, multi-resolution remote sensing data and multi-scale DEM data are integrated into this system, and produce a sequence of comprehensive resolution datasets. We present management methods for a dynamic multi-resolution terrain model and multi-level scene. These methods are based on the model division, delaminating algorithm, and make use of high-speed buffering mechanisms to achieve a multi-level large-scale real-time rendering of scenes in the disaster areas, which also effectively reduces the rendering delay, and achieves smooth, seamless roaming at different model levels.

  18. Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components.

  19. Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1993-04-01

    The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components.

  20. Innovative insulation systems for superconducting fusion magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, K.; Bittner-Rohrhofer, K.; Fillunger, H.; Maix, R. K.; Prokopec, R.; Weber, H. W.

    2006-03-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastics (GFRPs) are usually employed as insulating materials for the superconducting coils of large fusion magnets, e.g. of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Both the radiation spectrum and the stresses at the magnet location significantly influence the mechanical behaviour of the magnet insulation and, therefore, impose high demands on the material performance. During the last few decades, advanced epoxy based GFRPs with improved mechanical properties and radiation hardness were introduced into fusion technology. More recently, cyanate ester (CE) matrix systems have become of special interest. In this paper, various magnet insulation systems containing boron-free R-glass fibre reinforcements in commercial and new epoxies as well as in pure CE and CE/epoxy blended matrix systems are presented. All systems were irradiated in a fission reactor at ambient temperature (~340 K) to a fast neutron fluence of 1 × 1022 m-2 (E>0.1 MeV). The mechanical properties were assessed at 77 K in tension as well as in interlaminar shear prior to and after irradiation under static and dynamic conditions.

  1. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.; Kozman, T.A.; Bulmer, R.H.; Ng, D.S.

    1981-09-11

    In 1979, R.H. Bulmer of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) discussed a proposed tandem-mirror magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at the 8th symposium on Engineering Problems in Fusion Research. Since then, Congress has voted funds for expanding LLNL's MFTF to a tandem-mirror facility (designated MFTF-B). The new facility, scheduled for completion by 1985, will seek to achieve two goals: (1) Energy break-even capability (Q or the ratio of fusion energy to plasma heating energy = 1) of mirror fusion, (2) Engineering feasibility of reactor-scale machines. Briefly stated, 22 superconducting magnets contained in a 11-m-diam by 65-m-long vacuum vessel will confine a fusion plasma fueled by 80 axial streaming-plasma guns and over 40 radial neutral beams. We have already completed a preliminary design of this magnet system.

  2. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  3. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  4. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  5. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, A.; Binderbauer, M.; Liu, F.; Qerushi, A.; Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F. J.

    2004-02-01

    The Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System, CBFR-SPS, is an aneutronic, magnetic-field-reversed configuration, fueled by an energetic-ion mixture of hydrogen and boron11 (H-B11). Particle confinement and transport in the CBFR-SPS are classical, hence the system is scaleable. Fusion products are helium ions, α-particles, expelled axially out of the system. α-particles flowing in one direction are decelerated and their energy recovered to ``power'' the system; particles expelled in the opposite direction provide thrust. Since the fusion products are charged particles, the system does not require the use of a massive-radiation shield. This paper describes a 100 MW CBFR-SPS design, including estimates for the propulsion-system parameters and masses. Specific emphasis is placed on the design of a closed-cycle, Brayton-heat engine, consisting of heat-exchangers, turbo-alternator, compressor, and finned radiators.

  6. Prospects for lasers for fusion energy assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basov, N. G.; Rozanov, V.

    1985-06-01

    The authors assess the status of laser thermonuclear fusion research in the USSR and abroad, reviewing some of its major advances as well as current objectives of scientists working in this field. The possible development of an experimental laser thermonuclear reactor is discussed. Such a laser must operate with a pulse repetition frequency of 1 to 10 pulses per second, and it must have a service life of about 100 million pulses. It will be made up of individual modules (10 to 20 modules) with an overall energy of 2 to 3 megajoules, and it will ensure stable focusing of radiation on a target about 1 centimeter in size from a distance of about 50 meters. Its efficiency will be adequate and its cost low enough. Lasers of several types (including carbon-dioxide lasers and chemical and excimer lasers based on a mixture of noble gases with halogen) can meet these requirements, but incorporating them in a single unit is quite difficult from the engineering standpoint. The development of modules of such lasers is also an important task.

  7. Magnetic systems for fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1985-02-01

    Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLNL and IMP at ORNL. More recently, the MFTF-B yin-yang coil was successfully tested and the entire tandem configuration is nearing completion. Tokamak magnets have also enjoyed recent success with the large coil project tests at ORNL, preceded by single coil tests in Japan and Germany. In the USSR, the T-7 Tokamak has been operational for many years and the T-15 Tokamak is under construction, with the TF coils nearing completion. Also the Tore Supra is being built in France.

  8. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1999-12-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

  9. Multi-intelligence critical rating assessment of fusion techniques (MiCRAFT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of multi-intelligence fusion techniques includes credibility of algorithm performance, quality of results against mission needs, and usability in a work-domain context. Situation awareness (SAW) brings together low-level information fusion (tracking and identification), high-level information fusion (threat and scenario-based assessment), and information fusion level 5 user refinement (physical, cognitive, and information tasks). To measure SAW, we discuss the SAGAT (Situational Awareness Global Assessment Technique) technique for a multi-intelligence fusion (MIF) system assessment that focuses on the advantages of MIF against single intelligence sources. Building on the NASA TLX (Task Load Index), SAGAT probes, SART (Situational Awareness Rating Technique) questionnaires, and CDM (Critical Decision Method) decision points; we highlight these tools for use in a Multi-Intelligence Critical Rating Assessment of Fusion Techniques (MiCRAFT). The focus is to measure user refinement of a situation over the information fusion quality of service (QoS) metrics: timeliness, accuracy, confidence, workload (cost), and attention (throughput). A key component of any user analysis includes correlation, association, and summarization of data; so we also seek measures of product quality and QuEST of information. Building a notion of product quality from multi-intelligence tools is typically subjective which needs to be aligned with objective machine metrics.

  10. Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Edwards, O; Lagin, L; Van Arsdall, P

    2011-03-18

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) facility point design is being developed at LLNL to support an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based energy concept. This will build upon the technical foundation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system. NIF is designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. The LIFE control systems will have an architecture partitioned by sub-systems and distributed among over 1000's of front-end processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. LIFE's automated control subsystems will require interoperation between different languages and target architectures. Much of the control system will be embedded into the subsystem with well defined interface and performance requirements to the supervisory control layer. An automation framework will be used to orchestrate and automate start-up and shut-down as well as steady state operation. The LIFE control system will be a high parallel segmented architecture. For example, the laser system consists of 384 identical laser beamlines in a 'box'. The control system will mirror this architectural replication for each beamline with straightforward high-level interface for control and status monitoring. Key technical challenges will be discussed such as the injected target tracking and laser pointing feedback. This talk discusses the the plan for controls and information systems to support LIFE.

  11. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Frederick W. Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  12. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Frederick W.; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  13. Inertial confinement fusion reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, T.G.; Bohachevsky, I.O.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of reactor cavity concepts, drivers, and energy conversion mechanisms are being considered to realize commercial applications of ICF. Presented in this paper are: (1) a review of reactor concepts with estimates of practically achievable pulse repetition rates; (2) a survey of drivers with estimates of the requirements on reactor conditions imposed by beam propagation characteristics; and (3) an assessment of compatible driver-reactor combinations.

  14. Vacuum system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents a review of vacuum system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space simulation chamber, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of vacuum system component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with vacuum systems are discussed, including personnel safety, foreign material intrusion, and factors relevant to vacuum systems being the primary confinement boundary for tritium and activated dusts. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  15. The Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion System -- Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, Terry; Tang, Ricky

    2005-02-06

    Many of the previous studies assessing the capability of the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system employed analyses that ignored the 'ambipolar' potential. This electrostatic potential arises as a result of the rapid escape of the electrons due to their small mass. As they escape, they leave behind an excess positive charge which manifests itself in an electric field that slows down the electrons while speeding up the ions until their respective axial diffusions are equalized. The indirect effect on the ions is that their confinement time is reduced relative to that of zero potential, and hence the plasma length must be increased to accommodate that change. But as they emerge from the thruster mirror - which serves as a magnetic nozzle - the ions acquire an added energy equal to that of the potential energy, and that in turn manifests itself in increased specific impulse and thrust. We assess the propulsive performance of the GDM thruster, based on the more rigorous theory, by applying it to a round trip Mars mission employing a continuous burn acceleration/deceleration type of trajectory. We find that the length of the device and travel time decrease with increasing plasma density, while the total vehicle mass reaches a minimum at a plasma density of 3 x 1016 cm-3. At such a density, and an initial DT ion temperature of 10 keV, a travel time of 60 days is found to be achievable at GDM propulsion parameters of about 200,000 seconds of specific impulse and approximately 47 kN of thrust.

  16. Multisensor fusion for system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Sung-Han; Cho, Soojin; Park, Jong-Woong; Kim, Hyunjun

    2014-04-01

    System identification is a fundamental process for developing a numerical model of a physical structure. The system identification process typically involves in data acquisition; particularly in civil engineering applications accelerometers are preferred due to its cost-effectiveness, low noise, and installation convenience. Because the measured acceleration responses result in translational degrees of freedom (DOF) in the numerical model, moment-resisting structures such as beam and plate are not appropriately represented by the models. This study suggests a system identification process that considers both translational and rotational DOFs by using accelerometers and gyroscopes. The proposed approach suggests a systematic way of obtaining dynamic characteristics as well as flexibility matrix from two different measurements of acceleration and angular velocity. Numerical simulation and laboratory experiment are conducted to validate the efficacy of the proposed system identification process.

  17. Mission and Readiness Assessment for Fusion Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Neilson, et. al.

    2012-12-12

    Magnetic fusion development toward DEMO will most likely require a number of fusion nuclear facilities (FNF), intermediate between ITER and DEMO, to test and validate plasma and nuclear technologies and to advance the level of system integration. The FNF mission space is wide, ranging from basic materials research to net electricity demonstration, so there is correspondingly a choice among machine options, scope, and risk in planning such a step. Readiness requirements to proceed with a DEMO are examined, and two FNF options are assessed in terms of the contributions they would make to closing DEMO readiness gaps, and their readiness to themselves proceed with engineering design about ten years from now. An advanced tokamak (AT) pilot plant with superconducting coils and a mission to demonstrate net electricity generation would go a long way toward DEMO. As a next step, however, a pilot plant would entail greater risk than a copper-coil FNSF-AT with its more focussed mission and technology requirements. The stellarator path to DEMO is briefly discussed. Regardless of the choice of FNF option, an accompanying science and technology development program, also aimed at DEMO readiness, is absolutely essential.

  18. Magnetic mirror fusion systems: Characteristics and distinctive features

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1987-08-10

    A tutorial account is given of the main characteristics and distinctive features of conceptual magnetic fusion systems employing the magnetic mirror principle. These features are related to the potential advantages that mirror-based fusion systems may exhibit for the generation of economic fusion power.

  19. Quality assessment of remote sensing image fusion using feature-based fourth-order correlation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dan; Liu, Jun; Chen, Kai; Li, Huali; Liu, Ping; Chen, Huijuan; Qian, Jing

    2016-04-01

    In remote sensing fusion, the spatial details of a panchromatic (PAN) image and the spectrum information of multispectral (MS) images will be transferred into fused images according to the characteristics of the human visual system. Thus, a remote sensing image fusion quality assessment called feature-based fourth-order correlation coefficient (FFOCC) is proposed. FFOCC is based on the feature-based coefficient concept. Spatial features related to spatial details of the PAN image and spectral features related to the spectrum information of MS images are first extracted from the fused image. Then, the fourth-order correlation coefficient between the spatial and spectral features is calculated and treated as the assessment result. FFOCC was then compared with existing widely used indices, such as Erreur Relative Globale Adimensionnelle de Synthese, and quality assessed with no reference. Results of the fusion and distortion experiments indicate that the FFOCC is consistent with subjective evaluation. FFOCC significantly outperforms the other indices in evaluating fusion images that are produced by different fusion methods and that are distorted in spatial and spectral features by blurring, adding noise, and changing intensity. All the findings indicate that the proposed method is an objective and effective quality assessment for remote sensing image fusion.

  20. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF NDE METHODS ON INSPECTION OF HDPE BUTT FUSION PIPING JOINTS FOR LACK OF FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examination approaches for inspecting butt fusion joints in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for lack of fusion (LOF). The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and need for volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic nondestructive techniques and high-speed tensile impact testing for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch IPS DR-11 material by varying the fusion parameters in attempts to provide good joints and joints containing LOF. These butt joints were visually examined and volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) and phased-array (PA) ultrasound. A limited subset of pipe joint material was destructively analyzed by either slicing through the joint and visually examining the surface or by employing a standard high-speed tensile impact test. Initial correlation of the fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluations have shown that areas with gross LOF were detected with both TOFD and PA ultrasound and that the tensile impact test showed a brittle failure at the joint. There is still some ambiguity in results from the less obvious LOF conditions. Current work is targeted on assessing the sensitivity of the ultrasonic volumetric examinations and validating the results with a destructive analysis. It is expected that on-going and future work will lead to quantifying the ultrasonic responses in terms of joint integrity.

  1. Opportunistic replacement of fusion power system parts

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J.A.; George, L.L.

    1981-10-26

    This paper describes a maintenance problem in a fusion power plant. The problem is to specify which life limited parts should be replaced when there is an opportunity. The objective is to minimize the cost rate of replacement parts and of maintenance actions while satisfying a power plant availability constraint. The maintenance policy is to look ahead and replace all parts that will reach their life limits within a time called a screen. Longer screens yield greater system availabilities because more parts are replaced prior to their life limits.

  2. Analysis of decision fusion algorithms in handling uncertainties for integrated health monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zein-Sabatto, Saleh; Mikhail, Maged; Bodruzzaman, Mohammad; DeSimio, Martin; Derriso, Mark; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-06-01

    It has been widely accepted that data fusion and information fusion methods can improve the accuracy and robustness of decision-making in structural health monitoring systems. It is arguably true nonetheless, that decision-level is equally beneficial when applied to integrated health monitoring systems. Several decisions at low-levels of abstraction may be produced by different decision-makers; however, decision-level fusion is required at the final stage of the process to provide accurate assessment about the health of the monitored system as a whole. An example of such integrated systems with complex decision-making scenarios is the integrated health monitoring of aircraft. Thorough understanding of the characteristics of the decision-fusion methodologies is a crucial step for successful implementation of such decision-fusion systems. In this paper, we have presented the major information fusion methodologies reported in the literature, i.e., probabilistic, evidential, and artificial intelligent based methods. The theoretical basis and characteristics of these methodologies are explained and their performances are analyzed. Second, candidate methods from the above fusion methodologies, i.e., Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer, and fuzzy logic algorithms are selected and their applications are extended to decisions fusion. Finally, fusion algorithms are developed based on the selected fusion methods and their performance are tested on decisions generated from synthetic data and from experimental data. Also in this paper, a modeling methodology, i.e. cloud model, for generating synthetic decisions is presented and used. Using the cloud model, both types of uncertainties; randomness and fuzziness, involved in real decision-making are modeled. Synthetic decisions are generated with an unbiased process and varying interaction complexities among decisions to provide for fair performance comparison of the selected decision-fusion algorithms. For verification purposes

  3. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  4. Benchmarking a novel ultrasound-CT fusion system for respiratory motion management in radiotherapy: Assessment of spatio-temporal characteristics and comparison to 4DCT

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, J. A.; Oldham, S. A.

    2008-01-15

    Management of respiratory motion during radiation therapy requires treatment planning and simulation using imaging modalities that possess sufficient spatio-temporal accuracy and precision. An investigation into the use of a novel ultrasound (United States) imaging system for assessment of respiratory motion is presented, exploiting its good soft tissue contrast and temporal precision. The system dynamically superimposes the appropriate image plane sampled from a reference CT data set with the corresponding US B-mode image. An articulating arm is used for spatial registration. While the focus of the study was to quantify the system's ability to track respiratory motion, certain unique spatial calibration procedures were devised that render the software potentially valuable to the general research community. These include direct access to all transformation matrix elements and image scaling factors, a manual latency correction function, and a three-point spatial registration procedure that allows the system to be used in any room possessing a traditional radiotherapy laser localization system. Counter-intuitively, it was discovered that a manual procedure for calibrating certain transformation matrix elements produced superior accuracy to that of an algorithmic Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method. The absolute spatial accuracy was verified by comparing the physical locations of phantom test objects measured using the spatially registered US system, and using data from a 3DCT scan of the phantom as a reference. The spatial accuracy of the display superposition was also tested in a similar manner. The system's dynamic properties were then assessed using three methods. First, the overall system response time was studied using a programmable motion phantom. This included US video update, articulating arm update, CT data set resampling, and image display. The next investigation verified the system's ability to measure the range of motion of a moving anatomical test

  5. Technical Letter Report - Preliminary Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hall, Thomas E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-05-29

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a multi-year program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide engineering studies and assessments of issues related to the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for the reliable inspection of nuclear power plant components. As part of this program, there is a subtask 2D that was set up to address an assessment of issues related to the NDE of high density polyethylene (HDPE) butt fusion joints. This work is being driven by the nuclear industry wanting to employ HDPE materials in nuclear power plant systems. This being a new material for use in nuclear applications, there are a number of issues related to its use and potential problems that may evolve. The industry is pursuing ASME Code Case N-755 entitled “Use of Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe for Section III, Division 1, Construction and Section XI Repair/Replacement Activities” that contains the requirements for nuclear power plant applications of HDPE. This Code Case requires that inspections be performed after the fusion joint is made by visually examining the bead that is formed and conducting a pressure test of the joint. These tests are only effective in general if gross through-wall flaws exist in the fusion joint. The NRC wants to know whether a volumetric inspection can be conducted on the fusion joint that will reliably detect lack-of-fusion conditions that may be produced during joint fusing. The NRC has requested that the work that PNNL is conducting be provided to assist them in resolving this inspection issue of whether effective volumetric NDE can be conducted to detect lack of fusion (LOF) in the butt HDPE joints. PNNL had 24 HDPE pipe specimens manufactured of 3408 material to contain LOF conditions that could be used to assess the effectiveness of NDE in detecting the LOF. Basic ultrasonic material properties were measured and used to guide the use of phased arrays and time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) work that

  6. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Philips, A.; Polsgrove, T.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Basic operation of an MTF propulsion system is introduced. Structural, thermal, radiation-management and electrical design details are presented. The propellant storage and supply system design is also presented. A propulsion system mass estimate and associated performance figures are given. The advantages of helium-3 as a fusion fuel for an advanced MTF system are discussed.

  7. Criteria for practical fusion power systems: Report from the EPRI fusion panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaslow, J.; Brown, M.; Hirsch, R.; izzo, R.; McCann, J.; McCloud, D.; Muston, B.; Peterson, A.; Rosen, S.; Schneider, T.; Skrgic, P.; Snow, B.

    1994-09-01

    Electric utilities are keenly interested in the promise of fusion: large-scale electricity production anywhere, with virtually no natural resource depletion or environmental pollution. To expedite development of commercially viable fusion systems, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)—the R&D wing of the U.S. electric utility industry—recently convened a panel of top utility R&D managers and executive officers to identify the key criteria that must be met by fusion plants in order to be acceptable to utilities. The panel's findings, summarized in this report, emphasize competitive economics, positive public perception, and regulatory simplicity.

  8. An inertial fusion propulsion scheme for solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, Terry; Galbraith, David L.

    The paper analyzes a novel fusion scheme that combines the favorable aspects of both inertial and magnetic confinement approaches as a propulsion device for potential application in solar system exploration. An appropriate set of equations for the plasma dynamics and the magnetic nozzle is used to assess the system's propulsive capability by applying the results to a round trip mission to Mars. It is found that such a device would allow a massive vehicle to make the journey in less than five months. It is shown that catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel results in a somewhat poorer propulsion performance than deuterium-tritium though at a significantly lower neutron production. The velocity increment generated by this system and the corresponding trip time are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Irving and Blum (1959).

  9. Comparison of Intrahepatic and Pancreatic Perfusion on Fusion Images Using a Combined SPECT/CT System and Assessment of Efficacy of Combined Continuous Arterial Infusion and Systemic Chemotherapy in Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osama Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Shinya; Kawanaka, Kouichi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Takamori, Hiroshi; Kanemitsu, Keiichiro; Baba, Hideo

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare intrahepatic and pancreatic perfusion on fusion images using a combined single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT system and to evaluate the efficacy of combined continuous transcatheter arterial infusion (CTAI) and systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and Methods. CTAI was performed in 33 patients (22 men, 11 women; age range, 35-77 years; mean age, 60 years) with stage IV pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis. The reservoir was transcutaneously implanted with the help of angiography. The systemic administration of gemcitabine was combined with the infusion of 5-fluorouracil via the reservoir. In all patients we obtained fusion images using a combined SPECT/CT system. Pancreatic perfusion on fusion images was classified as perfusion presence or as perfusion absent in the pancreatic cancer. Using WHO criteria we recorded the tumor response after 3 months on multislice helical CT scans. Treatment effects were evaluated based on the pancreatic cancer, liver metastasis, and factors such as intrahepatic and pancreatic perfusion on fusion images. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test; survival was evaluated by the Kaplan Meier method (log-rank test). Results. On fusion images, pancreatic and intrahepatic perfusion was recorded as hot spot and as homogeneous distribution, respectively, in 18 patients (55%) and as cold spot and heterogeneous distribution, respectively, in 15 (45%). Patients with hot spot in the pancreatic tumor and homogeneous distribution in the liver manifested better treatment results (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Patients with hot spot both in the pancreatic cancer and in the liver survived longer than those with cold spot in the pancreatic cancer and heterogeneous distribution in the liver (median {+-} SD, 16.0 {+-} 3.7 vs. 8.0 {+-} 1.4 months; p < 0.05). Conclusions. We conclude that in patients with advanced

  10. Recyclotron III, a recirculating plasma fusion system

    SciTech Connect

    Jarnagin, W.S.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a recyclotron nuclear fusion system comprising recyclotrons. Each recyclotron comprises cyclotron means for receiving and accelerating charged particles in spiral and work conservative pathways. An output means forms a beam from particles received from the cyclotron means; (i) the cyclotron means comprising (a) a channel shaped electromagnet having a pair of indented polefaces, oriented along an input axis and defining an input axis and defining an input magnetic well, (b) a pair of elongated linear electrodes centered along the input magnetic well arranged generally parallel to the input axis and having a gap therebetween, (c) tuned oscillator means connected to the electrodes for applying an oscillating electric potential thereto, (ii) the output means comprising (e) inverter means comprising an electromagnet having a polarity opposite that of the channel shaped electromagnet oriented contigously therealong for extracting fully accelerated particles from the cyclotron means, and (f) reinverter means comprising an electromagnet having a polarity the same as that of the channel shaped electromagnet for correcting the flightpath of the extracted particles.

  11. Distributed Fusion Receding Horizon Filtering in Linear Stochastic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, IlYoung; Kim, DuYong; Kim, YongHoon; Lee, SukJae; Shin, Vladimir

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a distributed receding horizon filtering algorithm for multisensor continuous-time linear stochastic systems. Distributed fusion with a weighted sum structure is applied to local receding horizon Kalman filters having different horizon lengths. The fusion estimate of the state of a dynamic system represents the optimal linear fusion by weighting matrices under the minimum mean square error criterion. The key contribution of this paper lies in the derivation of the differential equations for determining the error cross-covariances between the local receding horizon Kalman filters. The subsequent application of the proposed distributed filter to a linear dynamic system within a multisensor environment demonstrates its effectiveness.

  12. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  13. Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion with Validation from Mechanical Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Moran, Traci L.; Watts, Michael W.

    2010-12-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-in. IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer-diameter weld beads were removed for the microwave inspection. In two of the four pipes, both the outer and inner weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. The pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the side-bend test by cutting portions of the fusion joint into slices that were planed and bent. The last step in this limited study will be to correlate the fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. The results of the correlation will be used in identifying any future work that is needed.

  14. Cryogenic system for the mirror fusion test facility

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.; Slack, D.S.; Nelson, R.L.

    1980-02-26

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), currently being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has large superconducting magnets, cryopanels, and supporting cryogenic equipment that will comprise one of the world's largest liquid helium (LHe) systems. The facility will provide mirror magnetic confinement for experimental fusion plasmas that will be approximately the same physical size as if in a conceptual fusion reactor. The cryogenic system typifies the magnitude and makeup of systems that will be used in future magnetic fusion reactors. Here we describe the LHe cryopumping and magnet systems. Principal components include a 3300 W helium refrigerator, 30,000 L LHe storage, a 1.5 MW (2000 hp) refrigerator compressor, 1100 m/sup 2/ of cryopanels, and a 420 MJ superconducting magnet system. Design features, method of operation, thermal protection, and helium recovery operations are discussed.

  15. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  16. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System: expandable, standalone interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Emstad, Erik; del Monaco, Diana Cardenas; Fielding, Louis C; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral fusion cages have been in clinical use since the 1990s. Cages offer the benefits of bone graft containment, restored intervertebral and foraminal height, and a more repeatable, stable procedure compared to interbody fusion with graft material alone. Due to concerns regarding postoperative stability, loss of lordosis, and subsidence or migration of the implant, interbody cages are commonly used with supplemental fixation such as pedicle screw systems or anterior plates. While providing additional stability, supplemental fixation techniques increase operative time, exposure, cost, and morbidity. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System (VariLift® system) has been developed as a standalone solution to provide the benefits of intervertebral fusion cages without the requirement of supplemental fixation. The VariLift® system, FDA-cleared for standalone use in both the cervical and lumbar spine, is implanted in a minimal profile and then expanded in situ to provide segmental stability, restored lordosis, and a large graft chamber. Preclinical testing and analyses have found that the VariLift® System is durable, and reduces stresses that may contribute to subsidence and migration of other standalone interbody cages. Fifteen years of clinical development with the VariLift® system have demonstrated positive clinical outcomes, continued patient maintenance of segmental stability and lordosis, and no evidence of implant migration. The purpose of this report is to describe the VariLift® system, including implant characteristics, principles of operation, indications for use, patient selection criteria, surgical technique, postoperative care, preclinical testing, and clinical experience. The VariLift® System represents an improved surgical option for a stable interbody fusion without requiring supplemental fixation. PMID:26060414

  17. Seeking the Limits of Low-Temperature Nuclear Fusion: Sticking in Muon-Catalyzed Fusion, and Piezonuclear Fusion in Deuterium/condensed Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    Studies seeking an upper limit of two types of low temperature nuclear fusion is presented. The upper limit for muon catalyzed fusion is generally considered to be the number of fusions per muon obtainable. The limiting factor has been found to be how often the muon remains bound to the alpha produced by the fusion, known as the "sticking fraction." Experiments directly measuring the sticking and determining the sticking using high tritium fractions are presented. In deuterium/condensed matter systems the question is nearly whether nuclear fusion proceeds at all. Experiments where neutrons around deuterided titanium and palladium are measured are presented.

  18. Assessment & Commitment Tracking System (ACTS)

    2004-12-20

    The ACTS computer code provides a centralized tool for planning and scheduling assessments, tracking and managing actions associated with assessments or that result from an event or condition, and "mining" data for reporting and analyzing information for improving performance. The ACTS application is designed to work with the MS SQL database management system. All database interfaces are written in SQL. The following software is used to develop and support the ACTS application: Cold Fusion HTMLmore » JavaScript Quest TOAD Microsoft Visual Source Safe (VSS) HTML Mailer for sending email Microsoft SQL Microsoft Internet Information Server« less

  19. Assessment & Commitment Tracking System (ACTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Robert A.; Childs, Teresa A.; Miller, Michael A.; Sellars, Kevin J.

    2004-12-20

    The ACTS computer code provides a centralized tool for planning and scheduling assessments, tracking and managing actions associated with assessments or that result from an event or condition, and "mining" data for reporting and analyzing information for improving performance. The ACTS application is designed to work with the MS SQL database management system. All database interfaces are written in SQL. The following software is used to develop and support the ACTS application: Cold Fusion HTML JavaScript Quest TOAD Microsoft Visual Source Safe (VSS) HTML Mailer for sending email Microsoft SQL Microsoft Internet Information Server

  20. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF NDE METHODS ON INSPECTION OF HDPE BUTT FUSION PIPING JOINTS FOR LACK OF FUSION WITH VALIDATION FROM MECHANICAL TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-07-22

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high speed tensile impact test and the bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12 inch (30.5 cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack of fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time of flight diffraction (TOFD), phased array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Several of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the following techniques: high speed tensile test, bend test, and focused immersion ultrasound on a joint section removed from the pipe coupled with slicing through the joint and examining the revealed surfaces. The fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results will be correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. This is an initial limited study which will aid in identifying key future work.

  1. US-DOE Fusion-Breeder Program: blanket design and system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual design studies are being used to assess the technical and economic feasibility of fusion's potential to produce fissile fuel. A reference design of a fission-suppressed blanket using conventional materials is under development. Theoretically, a fusion breeder that incorporates this fusion-suppressed blanket surrounding a 3000-MW tandem mirror fusion core produces its own tritium plus 5600 kg of /sup 233/U per year. The /sup 233/U could then provide fissile makeup for 21 GWe of light-water reactor (LWR) power using a denatured thorium fuel cycle with full recycle. This is 16 times the net electric power produced by the fusion breeder (1.3 GWe). The cost of electricity from this fusion-fission system is estimated to be only 23% higher than the cost from LWRs that have makeup from U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at present costs (55 $/kg). Nuclear performance, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), radiation effects, and other issues concerning the fission-suppressed blanket are summarized, as are some of the present and future objectives of the fusion breeder program.

  2. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  3. Fusion of image data for beyond-the-fence intruder detection and assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    The use of combined imagery from different imaging sensors has the potential to provide significant performance improvements over the use of a single image sensor for beyond-the-fence detection and assessment of intruders. Sensing beyond the fence is very challenging for imagers due to uncertain dynamic and harsh environmental conditions. The use of imagery from varying spectral bands can alleviate some of this difficulty by providing stronger truth data that can be combined with truth data from other spectral bands to increase detection capabilities. Imagery fusion of collocated, aligned sensors covering varying spectral bands [1,2,3] has already been shown to improve the probability of detection and the reduction of nuisance alarms. The development of new multi-spectral sensing algorithms that incorporate sensors that are not collocated will enable automated sensor-based detection, assessment, localization, and tracking in harsh dynamic environments. This level of image fusion will provide the capability of creating spatial information about the intruders. In turn, the fidelity of sensed activities is increased resulting in opportunities for greater system intelligence for inferring and interpreting these activities and formulating automated responses. The goal of this work is to develop algorithms that will enable the fusion of multi-spectral data for improved detection of intruders and the creation of spatial information that can be further used in assessment decisions.

  4. Non-thermal fusion in a beam plasma system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, F.

    2006-02-01

    The problem of producing fusion power with low neutron emission has been debated in the past in the framework of the magnetic confinement fusion research. Proposals are still being renewed to use advanced fuels in various plasma systems. Since today's toroidal devices cannot support plasma conditions suitable for a large fusion production with such fuels, new concepts and configurations have been studied, where the plasma components are not in a thermal equilibrium. Here, a system of a neutral beam injected into a confined plasma is considered where fusion is produced only between the beam and plasma ions. The collisional slowing down of the beam into the plasma is described by a fluid model. General considerations in this model allow conditions to be found for the fusion-produced power to breakeven against the power needed to sustain the system itself. These conditions are only necessary since the nuclear power is maximized in the present analysis by using favourable assumptions. Nevertheless, the results for different advanced fuels indicate again the very high difficulty of getting a net power produced by the fusion of such fuels, unless the plasma target temperature reaches very high and unrealistic values.

  5. Flibe use in fusion reactors -- An initial safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  6. Flibe Use in Fusion Reactors - An Initial Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Longhurst, Glen Reed

    1999-04-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF2) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  7. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.; Philips, A.

    2002-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Structural, thermal and radiation-management design details are presented. Propellant storage and supply options are also discussed and a propulsion system mass estimate is given.

  8. Designing neuroclassifier fusion system by immune genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jimin; Zhao, Heng; Yang, Wanhai

    2001-09-01

    A multiple neural network classifier fusion system design method using immune genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed. The IGA is modeled after the mechanics of human immunity. By using vaccination and immune selection in the evolution procedures, the IGA outperforms the traditional genetic algorithms in restraining the degenerate phenomenon and increasing the converging speed. The fusion system consists of N neural network classifiers that work independently and in parallel to classify a given input pattern. The classifiers' outputs are aggregated by a fusion scheme to decide the collective classification results. The goal of the system design is to obtain a fusion system with both good generalization and efficiency in space and time. Two kinds of measures, the accuracy of classification and the size of the neural networks, are used by IGA to evaluate the fusion system. The vaccines are abstracted by a self-adaptive scheme during the evolutionary process. A numerical experiment on the 'alternate labels' problem is implemented and the comparisons of IGA with traditional genetic algorithm are presented.

  9. Materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. L.

    1998-01-14

    One of the primary requirements for the development of fusion as an energy source is the qualification of materials for the frost wall/blanket system that will provide high performance and exhibit favorable safety and environmental features. Both economic competitiveness and the environmental attractiveness of fusion will be strongly influenced by the materials constraints. A key aspect is the development of a compatible combination of materials for the various functions of structure, tritium breeding, coolant, neutron multiplication and other special requirements for a specific system. This paper presents an overview of key materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems. Issues such as: chemical compatibility of structure and coolant, hydrogen/tritium interactions with the plasma facing/structure/breeder materials, thermomechanical constraints associated with coolant/structure, thermal-hydraulic requirements, and safety/environmental considerations from a systems viewpoint are presented. The major materials interactions for leading blanket concepts are discussed.

  10. TIR-1 carbon dioxide laser system for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovich, V. A.; Anisimov, V. N.; Afonin, E. A.; Baranov, V. Iu.; Borzenko, V. L.; Kozochkin, S. M.; Maliuta, D. D.; Satov, Iu. A.; Sebrant, A. Iu.; Smakovski, Iu. B.

    1980-03-01

    The paper examines the TIR-1 carbon dioxide laser system for fusion. The current efforts are concentrated on (1) the microsecond laser pulse plasma heating in solenoids and theta pinches, and (2) nanosecond CO2 laser utilization for inertial confinement fusion. The TIR-1 system was designed to develop nanosecond CO2 laser technology and to study laser-target interaction at 10 microns. This system consists of an oscillator-preamplifier that produces about 1-nsec laser pulse with an energy contrast ratio of 1 million, a large triple-pass amplifier, and a target chamber with diagnostic equipment.

  11. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-06-15

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles' exhaust momentum can be used directly to produce high Isp thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p-11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  12. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  13. Concept evaluation of nuclear fusion driven symbiotic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renier, J. P.; Hoffman, T. J.

    An analysis of systems based on D-T and semi-catalyzed D-D fusion-powered U233 breeders is presented. Metallic thorium pebble-bed blankets with a batch reprocessing mode and a molten salt blanket with on-line continuous or batch reprocessing were used. Neutronics depletion calculations are coupled with a scenario optimization and a cost analysis code. The fusion-driven symbiotes are compared with LMFBR-driven energy systems. The analyses of the symbiotic energy systems were performed at equilibrium, at the maximum rate of grid expansion and for a given nuclear power demand. Attractive schemes are identified based on D-T driven fusion-drivers operated with low plasma performance parameters.

  14. Information fusion based optimal control for large civil aircraft system.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Ziyang; Jiang, Ju; Wang, Xinhua; Gao, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Wind disturbance has a great influence on landing security of Large Civil Aircraft. Through simulation research and engineering experience, it can be found that PID control is not good enough to solve the problem of restraining the wind disturbance. This paper focuses on anti-wind attitude control for Large Civil Aircraft in landing phase. In order to improve the riding comfort and the flight security, an information fusion based optimal control strategy is presented to restrain the wind in landing phase for maintaining attitudes and airspeed. Data of Boeing707 is used to establish a nonlinear mode with total variables of Large Civil Aircraft, and then two linear models are obtained which are divided into longitudinal and lateral equations. Based on engineering experience, the longitudinal channel adopts PID control and C inner control to keep longitudinal attitude constant, and applies autothrottle system for keeping airspeed constant, while an information fusion based optimal regulator in the lateral control channel is designed to achieve lateral attitude holding. According to information fusion estimation, by fusing hard constraint information of system dynamic equations and the soft constraint information of performance index function, optimal estimation of the control sequence is derived. Based on this, an information fusion state regulator is deduced for discrete time linear system with disturbance. The simulation results of nonlinear model of aircraft indicate that the information fusion optimal control is better than traditional PID control, LQR control and LQR control with integral action, in anti-wind disturbance performance in the landing phase.

  15. Multisource evidence fusion for cyber-situation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabata, Bikash; Ornes, Chester

    2006-04-01

    Novel methods of detecting cyber attacks on networks have been developed that are able to detect an increasing diverse variety of malicious cyber-events. However, this has only resulted in additional information burden on the network analyst. The integration of the distributed evidence from multiple sources is missing or ad-hoc at best. Only with the fusion of the multi-source evidence can we reason at a higher semantic level to detect and identify attacks and attackers. Further, integration at a higher semantic level will reduce the cognitive load on the security offcer and will make it possible for reasonable responses. This paper presents an overview of the D-Force system that uses a Bayesian Evidential Framework for fusing the multi-source evidence in a network to detect and recognize attacks. Attack hypothesis are generated as a result of evidence at the different network and host sensors. The hypotheses are verified or denied with additional evidence. Based on our initial experiments and tests the D-Force system promises to be a powerful tool in the information security offcers arsenal.

  16. Weighted measurement fusion Kalman estimator for multisensor descriptor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yinfeng; Ran, Chenjian; Gao, Yuan

    2016-08-01

    For the multisensor linear stochastic descriptor system with correlated measurement noises, the fused measurement can be obtained based on the weighted least square (WLS) method, and the reduced-order state components are obtained applying singular value decomposition method. Then, the multisensor descriptor system is transformed to a fused reduced-order non-descriptor system with correlated noise. And the weighted measurement fusion (WMF) Kalman estimator of this reduced-order subsystem is presented. According to the relationship of the presented non-descriptor system and the original descriptor system, the WMF Kalman estimator and its estimation error variance matrix of the original multisensor descriptor system are presented. The presented WMF Kalman estimator has global optimality, and can avoid computing these cross-variances of the local Kalman estimator, compared with the state fusion method. A simulation example about three-sensors stochastic dynamic input and output systems in economy verifies the effectiveness.

  17. Cost assessment of a generic magnetic fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Dory, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A generic magnetic fusion reactor model is used to determine the conditions under which electricity generation from fusion would be economically viable. The use of a generic model helps to circumvent problems associated with present perceptions of magnetic configurations. It helps also to decouple those limitations set by generic constraints such as nuclear cross sections from those set by the state of development today. The model shows that only moderate advances are required in reactor characteristics over current designs to make an economically attractive magnetic fusion reactor.

  18. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    T. Brown

    1999-11-01

    The FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) configuration has been designed to meet the physics objectives and subsystem requirements in an arrangement that allows remote maintenance of in-vessel components and hands-on maintenance of components outside the TF (toroidal-field) boundary. The general arrangement consists of sixteen wedged-shaped TF coils that surround a free-standing central solenoid (CS), a double-wall vacuum vessel and internal plasma-facing components. A center tie rod is used to help support the vertical magnetic loads and a compression ring is used to maintain wedge pressure in the inboard corners of the TF coils. The magnets are liquid nitrogen cooled and the entire device is surrounded by a thermal enclosure. The double-wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex-vessel components. The FIRE configuration development and integration process has evolved from an early stage of concept selection to a higher level of machine definition and component details. This paper describes the status of the configuration development and the integration of the major subsystem components.

  19. Fusion Device as an Open System: A New Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Akira

    A new concept of a fusion device as an open system is presented in which the desirable plasma structure is produced by continuous injection of negentropy (or free energy) from and ejection of increased entropy to external environment. Here the energy with increased entropy needs to be continuously ejected out in order to maintain the low entropy state (or ordered structure) of the plasma needed for fusion reaction. In this concept, the energy confinement time TE of the Lawson criteria for ignition (required for conventional fusion devices) becomes irrelevant and is replaced by low entropy confinement (maintenance) time TS. Unlike a classic magnetic container where an adiabatic equilibrium in a closed magnetic container is required, the present concept allows non-adiabatic equilibrium that is sustained by continuous exchange of energy and entropy with external environment.

  20. Environmental and economic assessments of magnetic and inertial fusion energy reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Oishi, T.; Mori, K.

    2011-10-01

    Global warming due to rapid greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the present-day crucial problems, and fusion reactors are expected to be abundant electric power generation systems to reduce human GHG emission amounts. To search for an environmental-friendly and economical fusion reactor system, comparative system studies have been done for several magnetic fusion energy reactors, and have been extended to include inertial fusion energy reactors. We clarify new scaling formulae for the cost of electricity and GHG emission rate with respect to key design parameters, which might be helpful in making a strategy for fusion research development. Comparisons with other conventional electric power generation systems are carried out taking into account the introduction of GHG taxes and the application of the carbon dioxide capture and storage system to fossil power generators.

  1. Distributed fusion and automated sensor tasking in ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preden, Jurgo; Pahtma, Raido; Astapov, Sergei; Ehala, Johannes; Riid, Andri; Motus, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Modern Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems are increasingly being assembled from autonomous systems, so the resulting ISR system is a System of Systems (SoS). In order to take full advantage of the capabilities of the ISR SoS, the architecture and the design of these SoS should be able to facilitate the benefits inherent in a SoS approach - high resilience, higher level of adaptability and higher diversity, enabling on-demand system composition. The tasks performed by ISR SoS can well go beyond basic data acquisition, conditioning and communication as data processing can be easily integrated in the SoS. Such an ISR SoS can perform data fusion, classification and tracking (and conditional sensor tasking for additional data acquisition), these are extremely challenging tasks in this context, especially if the fusion is performed in a distributed manner. Our premise for the ISR SoS design and deployment is that the system is not designed as a complete system, where the capabilities of individual data providers are considered and the interaction paths, including communication channel capabilities, are specified at design time. Instead, we assume a loosely coupled SoS, where the data needs for a specific fusion task are described at a high level at design time and data providers (i.e., sensor systems) required for a specific fusion task are discovered dynamically at run time, the selection criteria for the data providers being the type and properties of data that can be provided by the specific data provider. The paper describes some of the aspects of a distributed ISR SoS design and implementation, bringing examples on both architectural design as well as on algorithm implementations.

  2. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Jeffrey A.

    2011-11-08

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration.

  3. Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schnack, Dalton D

    2006-05-16

    This document reports the successful completion of the OFES Theory Milestone for FY2005, namely, Perform parametric studies to better understand the edge physics regimes of laboratory experiments. Simulate at increased resolution (up to 20 toroidal modes), with density evolution, late into the nonlinear phase and compare results from different types of edge modes. Simulate a single case including a study of heat deposition on nearby material walls. The linear stability properties and nonlinear evolution of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in tokamak plasmas are investigated through numerical computation. Data from the DIII-D device at General Atomics (http://fusion.gat.com/diii-d/) is used for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, but edge parameters are varied to reveal important physical effects. The equilibrium with very low magnetic shear produces an unstable spectrum that is somewhat insensitive to dissipation coefficient values. Here, linear growth rates from the non-ideal NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) agree reasonably well with ideal, i.e. non-dissipative, results from the GATO global linear stability code at low toroidal mode number (n) and with ideal results from the ELITE edge linear stability code at moderate to high toroidal mode number. Linear studies with a more realistic sequence of MHD equilibria (based on DIII-D discharge 86166) produce more significant discrepancies between the ideal and non-ideal calculations. The maximum growth rate for the ideal computations occurs at toroidal mode index n=10, whereas growth rates in the non-ideal computations continue to increase with n unless strong anisotropic thermal conduction is included. Recent modeling advances allow drift effects associated with the Hall electric field and gyroviscosity to be considered. A stabilizing effect can be observed in the preliminary results, but while the distortion in mode structure is readily apparent at n=40, the growth rate is only 13% less than the non-ideal MHD

  4. A Foreign Object Damage Event Detector Data Fusion System for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    A Data Fusion System designed to provide a reliable assessment of the occurrence of Foreign Object Damage (FOD) in a turbofan engine is presented. The FOD-event feature level fusion scheme combines knowledge of shifts in engine gas path performance obtained using a Kalman filter, with bearing accelerometer signal features extracted via wavelet analysis, to positively identify a FOD event. A fuzzy inference system provides basic probability assignments (bpa) based on features extracted from the gas path analysis and bearing accelerometers to a fusion algorithm based on the Dempster-Shafer-Yager Theory of Evidence. Details are provided on the wavelet transforms used to extract the foreign object strike features from the noisy data and on the Kalman filter-based gas path analysis. The system is demonstrated using a turbofan engine combined-effects model (CEM), providing both gas path and rotor dynamic structural response, and is suitable for rapid-prototyping of control and diagnostic systems. The fusion of the disparate data can provide significantly more reliable detection of a FOD event than the use of either method alone. The use of fuzzy inference techniques combined with Dempster-Shafer-Yager Theory of Evidence provides a theoretical justification for drawing conclusions based on imprecise or incomplete data.

  5. Technical assessment of critical Plasma-Materials Interaction (PMI) and High Heat Flux (HHF) issues for alternative fusion concepts (AFCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.N.

    1986-03-01

    A number of approaches to fusion energy are being pursued as alternative fusion concepts (AFCs). The goal of these systems is to provide a more desirable method of producing fusion energy than the mainline programs. Some of the AFCs have both a Low Power Density (LPD) option and a High Power Density (HPD) option. A summary of representative AFC programs and their associated PMI and HHF issues is followed by the technical assessment of the critical issues. These requirements are discussed relative to the mainline and/or HPD components. The HPD options are contrasted with a tabulation of the characteristics of components for the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), which is representative of the HPD concept.

  6. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  7. A Virtualized Computing Platform For Fusion Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T; Adams, P; Fisher, J; Talbot, A

    2011-03-18

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that contains a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. 2,500 servers, 400 network devices and 700 terabytes of networked attached storage provide the foundation for NIF's Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) and Experimental Data Archive. This talk discusses the rationale & benefits for server virtualization in the context of an operational experimental facility, the requirements discovery process used by the NIF teams to establish evaluation criteria for virtualization alternatives, the processes and procedures defined to enable virtualization of servers in a timeframe that did not delay the execution of experimental campaigns and the lessons the NIF teams learned along the way. The virtualization architecture ultimately selected for ICCS is based on the Open Source Xen computing platform and 802.1Q open networking standards. The specific server and network configurations needed to ensure performance and high availability of the control system infrastructure will be discussed.

  8. An Optimal Pulse System Design by Multichannel Sensors Fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dimin; Zhang, David; Lu, Guangming

    2016-03-01

    Pulse diagnosis, recognized as an important branch of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has a long history for health diagnosis. Certain features in the pulse are known to be related with the physiological status, which have been identified as biomarkers. In recent years, an electronic equipment is designed to obtain the valuable information inside pulse. Single-point pulse acquisition platform has the benefit of low cost and flexibility, but is time consuming in operation and not standardized in pulse location. The pulse system with a single-type sensor is easy to implement, but is limited in extracting sufficient pulse information. This paper proposes a novel system with optimal design that is special for pulse diagnosis. We combine a pressure sensor with a photoelectric sensor array to make a multichannel sensor fusion structure. Then, the optimal pulse signal processing methods and sensor fusion strategy are introduced for the feature extraction. Finally, the developed optimal pulse system and methods are tested on pulse database acquired from the healthy subjects and the patients known to be afflicted with diabetes. The experimental results indicate that the classification accuracy is increased significantly under the optimal design and also demonstrate that the developed pulse system with multichannel sensors fusion is more effective than the previous pulse acquisition platforms. PMID:25608317

  9. Open-ended magnetic confinement systems for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-05-01

    Magnetic confinement systems that use externally generated magnetic fields can be divided topologically into two classes: ``closed`` and `open``. The tokamak, the stellarator, and the reversed-field-pinch approaches are representatives of the first category, while mirror-based systems and their variants are of the second category. While the recent thrust of magnetic fusion research, with its emphasis on the tokamak, has been concentrated on closed geometry, there are significant reasons for the continued pursuit of research into open-ended systems. The paper discusses these reasons, reviews the history and the present status of open-ended systems, and suggests some future directions for the research.

  10. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production. .

  11. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  12. Assessment of SiCaP-30 in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model with Concurrent Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Joseph D; Petersen, Emily B; Al-Hili, Ali; Nepola, James V; Fredericks, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy derivatives of the rabbit posterolateral fusion model are considered a challenging environment in which to test bone graft materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of SiCaP-30 as a bone graft substitute relative to autograft (iliac crest bone graft [ICBG]), Actifuse ABX and β-Tricalcium Phosphate-Bioactive Glass-Type I Collagen (βTCP-BG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model with concurrent chemotherapy treatment This was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting with blinded assessment of fusion by manual palpation and flexibility testing. Sixty rabbits were entered into the study with 45 used for analysis. Chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and cis-platin (2.5 mg/kg), were administered one week prior to surgery, and one, two and three weeks post surgery. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorticated and covered with 3cc/side of one of the following graft materials: autologous ICBG, Actifuse ABX (ApaTech Ltd, UK), Vitoss BA (Orthovita, USA) or SiCaP-30 (ApaTech Ltd., UK). Animals were euthanized 12 weeks post surgery. The ICBG group had a 45% (5/11) manual palpation fusion rate and correlated with motion analysis fusion results of 36% (4/11). The Actifuse ABX group had a 33% (4/12) manual palpation fusion rate and a motion analysis fusion rate of 25% (3/12). No motion segments in the Vitoss BA group (0/11) showed any signs of fusion. The SiCaP-30 group demonstrated a statistically higher manual palpation and motion analysis fusion rate of 82% (9/11; p<0.05) and produced superior bone formation compared with Actifuse ABX and βTCP-BG.

  13. Assessment of SiCaP-30 in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model with Concurrent Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Joseph D; Petersen, Emily B; Al-Hili, Ali; Nepola, James V; Fredericks, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy derivatives of the rabbit posterolateral fusion model are considered a challenging environment in which to test bone graft materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of SiCaP-30 as a bone graft substitute relative to autograft (iliac crest bone graft [ICBG]), Actifuse ABX and β-Tricalcium Phosphate-Bioactive Glass-Type I Collagen (βTCP-BG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model with concurrent chemotherapy treatment This was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting with blinded assessment of fusion by manual palpation and flexibility testing. Sixty rabbits were entered into the study with 45 used for analysis. Chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and cis-platin (2.5 mg/kg), were administered one week prior to surgery, and one, two and three weeks post surgery. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorticated and covered with 3cc/side of one of the following graft materials: autologous ICBG, Actifuse ABX (ApaTech Ltd, UK), Vitoss BA (Orthovita, USA) or SiCaP-30 (ApaTech Ltd., UK). Animals were euthanized 12 weeks post surgery. The ICBG group had a 45% (5/11) manual palpation fusion rate and correlated with motion analysis fusion results of 36% (4/11). The Actifuse ABX group had a 33% (4/12) manual palpation fusion rate and a motion analysis fusion rate of 25% (3/12). No motion segments in the Vitoss BA group (0/11) showed any signs of fusion. The SiCaP-30 group demonstrated a statistically higher manual palpation and motion analysis fusion rate of 82% (9/11; p<0.05) and produced superior bone formation compared with Actifuse ABX and βTCP-BG. PMID:26361457

  14. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; et al

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurementsmore » of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  15. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J. Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Atzeni, S.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; and others

    2015-06-15

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D{sup 3}He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N{sub K}) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N{sub K} ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  16. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  17. Application of data fusion in human health risk assessment for hydrocarbon mixtures on contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Roberta; Islam, M Shafiqul; Zargar, Amin; Mohapatra, Asish; Sadiq, Rehan

    2013-11-16

    The exposure and toxicological data used in human health risk assessment are obtained from diverse and heterogeneous sources. Complex mixtures found on contaminated sites can pose a significant challenge to effectively assess the toxicity potential of the combined chemical exposure and to manage the associated risks. A data fusion framework has been proposed to integrate data from disparate sources to estimate potential risk for various public health issues. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed data fusion framework, an illustrative example for a hydrocarbon mixture is presented. The Joint Directors of Laboratories Data Fusion architecture was selected as the data fusion architecture and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) was chosen as the technique for data fusion. For neurotoxicity response analysis, neurotoxic metabolites toxicological data were fused with predictive toxicological data and then probability-boxes (p-boxes) were developed to represent the toxicity of each compound. The neurotoxic response was given a rating of "low", "medium" or "high". These responses were then weighted by the percent composition in the illustrative F1 hydrocarbon mixture. The resulting p-boxes were fused according to DST's mixture rule of combination. The fused p-boxes were fused again with toxicity data for n-hexane. The case study for F1 hydrocarbons illustrates how data fusion can help in the assessment of the health effects for complex mixtures with limited available data. PMID:23219588

  18. Antimatter Driven P-B11 Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, Terry; Martin, James; Godfroy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    One of the major advantages of using P-B11 fusion fuel is that the reaction produces only charged particles in the form of three alpha particles and no neutrons. A fusion concept that lends itself to this fuel cycle is the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) reactor whose distinct advantage lies in the very strong magnetic field that is created when an incident particle (or laser) beam strikes the inner wall of the target pellet. This field serves to thermally insulate the hot plasma from the metal wall thereby allowing the plasma to burn for a long time and produce a large energy magnification. If used as a propulsion device, we propose using antiprotons to drive the system, which we show to be capable of producing very large specific impulse and thrust. By way of validating the confinement properties of MICF we will address a proposed experiment in which pellets coated with P-B11 fuel at the appropriate ratio will be zapped by a beam of antiprotons that enters the target through a hole. Calculations showing the density and temperature of the generated plasma along with the strength of the magnetic field and other properties of the system will be presented and discussed.

  19. Antimatter Driven P-B11 Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammash, Terry; Martin, James; Godfroy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    One of the major advantages of using P-B11 fusion fuel is that the reaction produces only charged particles in the form of three alpha particles and no neutrons. A fusion concept that lends itself to this fuel cycle is the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) reactor whose distinct advantage lies in the very strong magnetic field that is created when an incident particle (or laser) beam strikes the inner wall of the target pellet. This field serves to thermally insulate the hot plasma from the metal wall thereby allowing thc plasma to burn for a long time and produce a large energy magnification. If used as a propulsion device, we propose using antiprotons to drive the system which we show to be capable of producing very large specific impulse and thrust. By way of validating the confinement propenies of MICF we will address a proposed experiment in which pellets coated with P-B11 fuel at the appropriate ratio will be zapped by a beam of antiprotons that enter the target through a hole. Calculations showing the density and temperature of the generated plasma along with the strength of the magnetic field and other properties of the system will be presented and discussed.

  20. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  1. Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. Panel on Integrated Simulation and Optimization of Magnetic Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlburg, Jill; Corones, James; Batchelor, Donald; Bramley, Randall; Greenwald, Martin; Jardin, Stephen; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Laub, Alan; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel; Lindl, John; Lokke, William; Rosenbluth, Marshall; Ross, David; Schnack, Dalton

    2002-11-01

    Fusion is potentially an inexhaustible energy source whose exploitation requires a basic understanding of high-temperature plasmas. The development of a science-based predictive capability for fusion-relevant plasmas is a challenge central to fusion energy science, in which numerical modeling has played a vital role for more than four decades. A combination of the very wide range in temporal and spatial scales, extreme anisotropy, the importance of geometric detail, and the requirement of causality which makes it impossible to parallelize over time, makes this problem one of the most challenging in computational physics. Sophisticated computational models are under development for many individual features of magnetically confined plasmas and increases in the scope and reliability of feasible simulations have been enabled by increased scientific understanding and improvements in computer technology. However, full predictive modeling of fusion plasmas will require qualitative improvements and innovations to enable cross coupling of a wider variety of physical processes and to allow solution over a larger range of space and time scales. The exponential growth of computer speed, coupled with the high cost of large-scale experimental facilities, makes an integrated fusion simulation initiative a timely and cost-effective opportunity. Worldwide progress in laboratory fusion experiments provides the basis for a recent FESAC recommendation to proceed with a burning plasma experiment (see FESAC Review of Burning Plasma Physics Report, September 2001). Such an experiment, at the frontier of the physics of complex systems, would be a huge step in establishing the potential of magnetic fusion energy to contribute to the world’s energy security. An integrated simulation capability would dramatically enhance the utilization of such a facility and lead to optimization of toroidal fusion plasmas in general. This science-based predictive capability, which was cited in the FESAC

  2. Objective Assessment of Multiresolution Image Fusion Algorithms for Context Enhancement in Night Vision: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Blasch, E; Xue, Z; Zhao, J; Laganiere, R; Wu, W

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of image processing techniques is critically important in deciding which algorithm, method, or metric to use for enhanced image assessment. Image fusion is a popular choice for various image enhancement applications such as overlay of two image products, refinement of image resolutions for alignment, and image combination for feature extraction and target recognition. Since image fusion is used in many geospatial and night vision applications, it is important to understand these techniques and provide a comparative study of the methods. In this paper, we conduct a comparative study on 12 selected image fusion metrics over six multiresolution image fusion algorithms for two different fusion schemes and input images with distortion. The analysis can be applied to different image combination algorithms, image processing methods, and over a different choice of metrics that are of use to an image processing expert. The paper relates the results to an image quality measurement based on power spectrum and correlation analysis and serves as a summary of many contemporary techniques for objective assessment of image fusion algorithms.

  3. A novel tiered sensor fusion approach for terrain characterization and safe landing assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrano, Navid; Bajracharya, Max; Howard, Ayanna; Seraji, Homayoun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel tiered sensor fusion methodology for real-time terrain safety assessment. A combination of active and passive sensors, specifically, radar, lidar, and camera, operate in three tiers according to their inherent ranges of operation. Low-level terrain features (e.g. slope, roughness) and high-level terrain features (e.g. hills, craters) are integrated using principles of reasoning under uncertainty. Three methodologies are used to infer landing safety: Fuzzy Reasoning, Probabilistic Reasoning, and Evidential Reasoning. The safe landing predictions from the three fusion engines are consolidated in a subsequent decision fusion stage aimed at combining the strengths of each fusion methodology. Results from simulated spacecraft descents are presented and discussed.

  4. HALO: a reconfigurable image enhancement and multisensor fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, F.; Hickman, D. L.; Parker, Steve J.

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary high definition (HD) cameras and affordable infrared (IR) imagers are set to dramatically improve the effectiveness of security, surveillance and military vision systems. However, the quality of imagery is often compromised by camera shake, or poor scene visibility due to inadequate illumination or bad atmospheric conditions. A versatile vision processing system called HALO™ is presented that can address these issues, by providing flexible image processing functionality on a low size, weight and power (SWaP) platform. Example processing functions include video distortion correction, stabilisation, multi-sensor fusion and image contrast enhancement (ICE). The system is based around an all-programmable system-on-a-chip (SoC), which combines the computational power of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with the flexibility of a CPU. The FPGA accelerates computationally intensive real-time processes, whereas the CPU provides management and decision making functions that can automatically reconfigure the platform based on user input and scene content. These capabilities enable a HALO™ equipped reconnaissance or surveillance system to operate in poor visibility, providing potentially critical operational advantages in visually complex and challenging usage scenarios. The choice of an FPGA based SoC is discussed, and the HALO™ architecture and its implementation are described. The capabilities of image distortion correction, stabilisation, fusion and ICE are illustrated using laboratory and trials data.

  5. Fusion of hyperspectral and LIDAR data using decision template-based fuzzy multiple classifier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Behnaz; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Reinartz, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Regarding to the limitations and benefits of remote sensing sensors, fusion of remote sensing data from multiple sensors such as hyperspectral and LIDAR (light detection and ranging) is effective at land cover classification. Hyperspectral images (HSI) provide a detailed description of the spectral signatures of classes, whereas LIDAR data give height detailed information. However, because of the more complexities and mixed information in LIDAR and HSI, traditional crisp classification methods could not be more efficient. In this situation, fuzzy classifiers could deliver more satisfactory results than crisp classification approaches. Also, referring to the limitation of single classifiers, multiple classifier system (MCS) may exhibit better performance in the field of multi-sensor fusion. This paper presents a fuzzy multiple classifier system for fusions of HSI and LIDAR data based on decision template (DT). After feature extraction and feature selection on each data, all selected features of both data are applied on a cube. Then classifications were performed by fuzzy k-nearest neighbour (FKNN) and fuzzy maximum likelihood (FML) on cube of features. Finally, a fuzzy decision fusion method is utilized to fuse the results of fuzzy classifiers. In order to assess fuzzy MCS proposed method, a crisp MCS based on support vector machine (SVM), KNN and maximum likelihood (ML) as crisp classifiers and naive Bayes (NB) as crisp classifier fusion method is applied on selected cube feature. A co-registered HSI and LIDAR data set from Houston of USA was available to examine the effect of proposed MCSs. Fuzzy MCS on HSI and LIDAR data provide interesting conclusions on the effectiveness and potentialities of the joint use of these two data.

  6. Physics assessment of stellarators as fusion power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.F.; Rome, J.A.; Garabedian, P.R.; Anderson, D.T.; Painter, S.L.

    1995-02-01

    Four different stellarator configurations (a Compact Torsatron, a new modular torsatron, Helias, and a new Modular Helias-like Heliac) were analyzed as fusion power plants and compared with the second-stability ARIES-IV tokamak. The device and plasma parameters were determined by minimizing the projected cost of electricity subject to various constraints. The stellarators were competitive with ARIES-IV for a range of assumptions on confinement models, alpha-particle losses, and beta. 1-D power balance equations were solved for both Lackner-Gottardi confinement scaling with an assumed n{sub e}(r) and for helical-ripple-induced transport with both assumed and calculated forms for n{sub e}(r) and E{sub r}(r).

  7. Failure modes and effects analysis of fusion magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, M; Kazimi, M S; Siu, N O; Thome, R J

    1988-12-01

    A failure modes and consequence analysis of fusion magnet system is an important contributor towards enhancing the design by improving the reliability and reducing the risk associated with the operation of magnet systems. In the first part of this study, a failure mode analysis of a superconducting magnet system is performed. Building on the functional breakdown and the fault tree analysis of the Toroidal Field (TF) coils of the Next European Torus (NET), several subsystem levels are added and an overview of potential sources of failures in a magnet system is provided. The failure analysis is extended to the Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of interactions within the fusion device caused by the operation of the PF magnets is presented in the form of an Interaction Matrix. A number of these interactions may have significant consequences for the TF magnet system particularly interactions triggered by electrical failures in the PF magnet system. In the second part of this study, two basic categories of electrical failures in the PF magnet system are examined: short circuits between the terminals of external PF coils, and faults with a constant voltage applied at external PF coil terminals. An electromagnetic model of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is used to examine the mechanical load conditions for the PF and the TF coils resulting from these fault scenarios. It is found that shorts do not pose large threats to the PF coils. Also, the type of plasma disruption has little impact on the net forces on the PF and the TF coils. 39 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. An approach to select the appropriate image fusion algorithm for night vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, Gabriele; Scherer-Negenborn, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    For many years image fusion has been an important subject in the image processing community. The purpose of image fusion is taking over the relevant information from two or several images to construct one result image. In the past many fusion algorithms were developed and published. Some attempts were made to assess the results from several fusion algorithms automatically with the objective of gaining the best suited output for human observers. But it was shown, that such objective machine-assessment does not always correlate with the observer's subjective perception. In this paper a novel approach is presented, which selects the appropriate fusion algorithm to receive the best image enhancement results for human observers. Assessment of the fusion algorithms' results was done based on the local contrasts. Fusion algorithms are used on a representative data set covering different use cases and image contents. These fusion results of selected data are judged subjectively by some human observers. Then the assessment algorithm with the best fit to the visual perception is used to select the best fusion algorithm for comparable scenarios.

  9. Fusion of calcium isotopes and of nearby systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanini, A. M.

    2012-10-20

    Very recent data on {sup 40,48}Ca+{sup 40,48}Ca are presented. In all cases fusion hindrance far below the barrier has been observed. Coupled-channel effects influence the threshold energy for hindrance. The excitation functions of the two symmetric systems are similar, while the case of {sup 40}Ca+{sup 48}Ca is different both above and below the barrier, possibly due to couplings to transfer channels with Q > 0. Other systems in the same mass region show different trends that have to be related to the nuclear structure of the colliding nuclei. Investigating the behavior of lighter systems will be interesting also from the astrophysical point of view.

  10. Optimized swimmer tracking system by a dynamic fusion of correlation and color histogram techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benarab, D.; Napoléon, T.; Alfalou, A.; Verney, A.; Hellard, P.

    2015-12-01

    To design a robust swimmer tracking system, we took into account two well-known tracking techniques: the nonlinear joint transform correlation (NL-JTC) and the color histogram. The two techniques perform comparably well, yet they both have substantial limitations. Interestingly, they also seem to show some complementarity. The correlation technique yields accurate detection but is sensitive to rotation, scale and contour deformation, whereas the color histogram technique is robust for rotation and contour deformation but shows low accuracy and is highly sensitive to luminosity and confusing background colors. These observations suggested the possibility of a dynamic fusion of the correlation plane and the color scores map. Before this fusion, two steps are required. First is the extraction of a sub-plane of correlation that describes the similarity between the reference and target images. This sub-plane has the same size as the color scores map but they have different interval values. Thus, the second step is required which is the normalization of the planes in the same interval so they can be fused. In order to determine the benefits of this fusion technique, first, we tested it on a synthetic image containing different forms with different colors. We thus were able to optimize the correlation plane and color histogram techniques before applying our fusion technique to real videos of swimmers in international competitions. Last, a comparative study of the dynamic fusion technique and the two classical techniques was carried out to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed technique. The criteria of comparison were the tracking percentage, the peak to correlation energy (PCE), which evaluated the sharpness of the peak (accuracy), and the local standard deviation (Local-STD), which assessed the noise in the planes (robustness).

  11. Development of a fusion fuel cycle systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    The tritium inventory in a D-T fusion experiment, like ITER, may be the major hazard onsite. This tritium is distributed throughout various systems and components. A major thrust of safety work has been aimed at reducing these tritium inventories, or at least at minimizing the amount of tritium that could be mobilized. I have developed models for a time-dependent fuel cycle systems code, which will aid in directing designers towards safer, lower inventory designs. The code will provide a self-consistent picture of system interactions and system interdependencies, and provide a better understanding of how tritium inventories are influenced. A ``systems`` approach is valuable in that a wide range of parameters can be studied, and more promising regions of parameter space can be identified. Ultimately, designers can use this information to specify a machine with minimum tritium inventory, given various constraints. Here, I discuss the models that describe tritium inventory in various components as a function of system parameters, and the unique capabilities of a code that will implement them. The models are time dependent and reflect a level of detail consistent with a systems type of analysis. The models support both a stand-alone Tritium Systems Code, and a module for the SUPERCODE, a time-dependent tokamak systems code. Through both versions, we should gain a better understanding of the interactions among the various components of the fuel cycle systems.

  12. Development of a fusion fuel cycle systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The tritium inventory in a D-T fusion experiment, like ITER, may be the major hazard onsite. This tritium is distributed throughout various systems and components. A major thrust of safety work has been aimed at reducing these tritium inventories, or at least at minimizing the amount of tritium that could be mobilized. I have developed models for a time-dependent fuel cycle systems code, which will aid in directing designers towards safer, lower inventory designs. The code will provide a self-consistent picture of system interactions and system interdependencies, and provide a better understanding of how tritium inventories are influenced. A systems'' approach is valuable in that a wide range of parameters can be studied, and more promising regions of parameter space can be identified. Ultimately, designers can use this information to specify a machine with minimum tritium inventory, given various constraints. Here, I discuss the models that describe tritium inventory in various components as a function of system parameters, and the unique capabilities of a code that will implement them. The models are time dependent and reflect a level of detail consistent with a systems type of analysis. The models support both a stand-alone Tritium Systems Code, and a module for the SUPERCODE, a time-dependent tokamak systems code. Through both versions, we should gain a better understanding of the interactions among the various components of the fuel cycle systems.

  13. Combining cognitive engineering and information fusion architectures to build effective joint systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliva, Amy L.; Gorman, Joe; Voshell, Martin; Tittle, James; Bowman, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The Dual Node Decision Wheels (DNDW) architecture concept was previously described as a novel approach toward integrating analytic and decision-making processes in joint human/automation systems in highly complex sociotechnical settings. In this paper, we extend the DNDW construct with a description of components in this framework, combining structures of the Dual Node Network (DNN) for Information Fusion and Resource Management with extensions on Rasmussen's Decision Ladder (DL) to provide guidance on constructing information systems that better serve decision-making support requirements. The DNN takes a component-centered approach to system design, decomposing each asset in terms of data inputs and outputs according to their roles and interactions in a fusion network. However, to ensure relevancy to and organizational fitment within command and control (C2) processes, principles from cognitive systems engineering emphasize that system design must take a human-centered systems view, integrating information needs and decision making requirements to drive the architecture design and capabilities of network assets. In the current work, we present an approach for structuring and assessing DNDW systems that uses a unique hybrid DNN top-down system design with a human-centered process design, combining DNN node decomposition with artifacts from cognitive analysis (i.e., system abstraction decomposition models, decision ladders) to provide work domain and task-level insights at different levels in an example intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) system setting. This DNDW structure will ensure not only that the information fusion technologies and processes are structured effectively, but that the resulting information products will align with the requirements of human decision makers and be adaptable to different work settings .

  14. Effect of breakup coupling on fusion for 6,7Li+24Mg systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, M. K.; Mukherjee, A.; Dasmahapatra, B.

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of breakup coupling on fusion we have derived fusion cross sections in the framework of continuum discretised coupled channels (CDCC) method using the coupled channels code FRESCO for the systems 6,7Li+24Mg. The CDCC predicted fusion cross sections for the 7Li+24Mg system agree well with the experimental fusion data whereas for the 6Li+24Mg system the agreement is reasonable at below barrier energies. However, within the limits of the present work no definite conclusion could be obtained from the quality of agreement at above barrier energies for the 6Li+24Mg system.

  15. Fusion solution for soldier wearable gunfire detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakiades, George; Desai, Sachi; Deligeorges, Socrates; Buckland, Bruce E.; George, Jemin

    2012-06-01

    Currently existing acoustic based Gunfire Detection Systems (GDS) such as soldier wearable, vehicle mounted, and fixed site devices provide enemy detection and localization capabilities to the user. However, the solution to the problem of portability versus performance tradeoff remains elusive. The Data Fusion Module (DFM), described herein, is a sensor/platform agnostic software supplemental tool that addresses this tradeoff problem by leveraging existing soldier networks to enhance GDS performance across a Tactical Combat Unit (TCU). The DFM software enhances performance by leveraging all available acoustic GDS information across the TCU synergistically to calculate highly accurate solutions more consistently than any individual GDS in the TCU. The networked sensor architecture provides additional capabilities addressing the multiple shooter/fire-fight problems in addition to sniper detection/localization. The addition of the fusion solution to the overall Size, Weight and Power & Cost (SWaP&C) is zero to negligible. At the end of the first-year effort, the DFM integrated sensor network's performance was impressive showing improvements upwards of 50% in comparison to a single sensor solution. Further improvements are expected when the networked sensor architecture created in this effort is fully exploited.

  16. Radiation and confinement in 0D fusion systems codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, H.; Kemp, R.; Fable, E.; Wenninger, R.

    2016-07-01

    In systems modelling for fusion power plants, it is essential to robustly predict the performance of a given machine design (including its respective operating scenario). One measure of machine performance is the energy confinement time {τ\\text{E}} that is typically predicted from experimentally derived confinement scaling laws (e.g. IPB98(y,2)). However, the conventionally used scaling laws have been derived for ITER which—unlike a fusion power plant—will not have significant radiation inside the separatrix. In the absence of a new high core radiation relevant confinement scaling, we propose an ad hoc correction to the loss power {{P}\\text{L}} used in the ITER confinement scaling and the calculation of the stored energy {{W}\\text{th}} by the radiation losses from the ‘core’ of the plasma {{P}\\text{rad,\\text{core}}} . Using detailed ASTRA / TGLF simulations, we find that an appropriate definition of {{P}\\text{rad,\\text{core}}} is given by 60% of all radiative losses inside a normalised minor radius {ρ\\text{core}}=0.75 . We consider this an improvement for current design predictions, but it is far from an ideal solution. We therefore encourage more detailed experimental and theoretical work on this issue.

  17. Implementation of multispectral image fusion system based on SoPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingfei; Wang, Zhihui

    2013-10-01

    Combining the theory of wavelet transform based image fusion and SOPC design method, the authors uses SOPC as the core device to design and implement a image fusion system. The fusion system adopts the Verilog hardware description language, Dsp builder and Quartus II development platform together with macro module to complete the logic design and timing control of each module. In the fusion system, we can achieve simple pixel-level image fusion of two registered images. This design not only builds up an image fusion system based on SOPC in accident, but also provides a hardware design principle in SoPC for the future design and Implementation of more comprehensive function of image processing.

  18. Micro-Computed Tomography-Based Three-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis During Lateral Bending for Spinal Fusion Assessment in a Rat Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Tomonori; Inoue, Nozomu; Sah, Robert L.; Lee, Yu-Po; Taborek, Alexander P.; Williams, Gregory M.; Moseley, Timothy A.; Bae, Won C.

    2014-01-01

    Rat posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) models have been used to assess the safety and effectiveness of new bone substitutes and osteoinductive growth factors using palpation, radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology as standard methods to evaluate spinal fusion. Despite increased numbers of PLF studies involving alternative bone substitutes and growth factors, the quantitative assessment of treatment efficacy during spinal motion has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of spinal fusion on lumbar spine segment stability during lateral bending using a μCT-based three-dimensional (3D) kinematic analysis in the rat PLF model. Fourteen athymic male rats underwent PLF surgery at L4/5 and received bone grafts harvested from the ilium and femurs of syngeneic rats (Isograft, n=7) or no graft (Sham, n=7). At 8 weeks after the PLF surgery, spinal fusion was assessed by manual palpation, plain radiography, μCT, and histology. To determine lumbar segmental motions at the operated level during lateral bending, 3D kinematic analysis was performed. The Isograft group, but not the Sham group, showed spinal fusion on manual palpation (6/7), solid fusion mass in radiographs (6/7), as well as bone bridging in μCT and histological images (5/7). Compared to the Sham group, the Isograft group revealed limited 3D lateral bending angular range of motion and lateral translation during lateral bending at the fused segment where disc height narrowing was observed. This μCT-based 3D kinematic analysis can provide a quantitative assessment of spinal fusion in a rat PLF model to complement current gold standard methods used for efficacy assessment of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:24199634

  19. Micro-computed tomography-based three-dimensional kinematic analysis during lateral bending for spinal fusion assessment in a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomonori; Inoue, Nozomu; Sah, Robert L; Lee, Yu-Po; Taborek, Alexander P; Williams, Gregory M; Moseley, Timothy A; Bae, Won C; Masuda, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    Rat posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) models have been used to assess the safety and effectiveness of new bone substitutes and osteoinductive growth factors using palpation, radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology as standard methods to evaluate spinal fusion. Despite increased numbers of PLF studies involving alternative bone substitutes and growth factors, the quantitative assessment of treatment efficacy during spinal motion has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of spinal fusion on lumbar spine segment stability during lateral bending using a μCT-based three-dimensional (3D) kinematic analysis in the rat PLF model. Fourteen athymic male rats underwent PLF surgery at L4/5 and received bone grafts harvested from the ilium and femurs of syngeneic rats (Isograft, n=7) or no graft (Sham, n=7). At 8 weeks after the PLF surgery, spinal fusion was assessed by manual palpation, plain radiography, μCT, and histology. To determine lumbar segmental motions at the operated level during lateral bending, 3D kinematic analysis was performed. The Isograft group, but not the Sham group, showed spinal fusion on manual palpation (6/7), solid fusion mass in radiographs (6/7), as well as bone bridging in μCT and histological images (5/7). Compared to the Sham group, the Isograft group revealed limited 3D lateral bending angular range of motion and lateral translation during lateral bending at the fused segment where disc height narrowing was observed. This μCT-based 3D kinematic analysis can provide a quantitative assessment of spinal fusion in a rat PLF model to complement current gold standard methods used for efficacy assessment of new therapeutic approaches.

  20. Influenza Virus-Mediated Membrane Fusion: Determinants of Hemagglutinin Fusogenic Activity and Experimental Approaches for Assessing Virus Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Whittaker, Gary R.; Daniel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral protein that facilitates the entry of influenza viruses into host cells. This protein controls two critical aspects of entry: virus binding and membrane fusion. In order for HA to carry out these functions, it must first undergo a priming step, proteolytic cleavage, which renders it fusion competent. Membrane fusion commences from inside the endosome after a drop in lumenal pH and an ensuing conformational change in HA that leads to the hemifusion of the outer membrane leaflets of the virus and endosome, the formation of a stalk between them, followed by pore formation. Thus, the fusion machinery is an excellent target for antiviral compounds, especially those that target the conserved stem region of the protein. However, traditional ensemble fusion assays provide a somewhat limited ability to directly quantify fusion partly due to the inherent averaging of individual fusion events resulting from experimental constraints. Inspired by the gains achieved by single molecule experiments and analysis of stochastic events, recently-developed individual virion imaging techniques and analysis of single fusion events has provided critical information about individual virion behavior, discriminated intermediate fusion steps within a single virion, and allowed the study of the overall population dynamics without the loss of discrete, individual information. In this article, we first start by reviewing the determinants of HA fusogenic activity and the viral entry process, highlight some open questions, and then describe the experimental approaches for assaying fusion that will be useful in developing the most effective therapies in the future. PMID:22852045

  1. Homeland security application of the Army Soft Target Exploitation and Fusion (STEF) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2010-04-01

    A fusion system that accommodates both text-based extracted information along with more conventional sensor-derived input has been developed and demonstrated in a terrorist attack scenario as part of the Empire Challenge (EC) 09 Exercise. Although the fusion system was developed to support Army military analysts, the system, based on a set of foundational fusion principles, has direct applicability to department of homeland security (DHS) & defense, law enforcement, and other applications. Several novel fusion technologies and applications were demonstrated in EC09. One such technology is location normalization that accommodates both fuzzy semantic expressions such as behind Library A, across the street from the market place, as well as traditional spatial representations. Additionally, the fusion system provides a range of fusion products not supported by traditional fusion algorithms. Many of these additional capabilities have direct applicability to DHS. A formal test of the fusion system was performed during the EC09 exercise. The system demonstrated that it was able to (1) automatically form tracks, (2) help analysts visualize behavior of individuals over time, (3) link key individuals based on both explicit message-based information as well as discovered (fusion-derived) implicit relationships, and (4) suggest possible individuals of interest based on their association with High Value Individuals (HVI) and user-defined key locations.

  2. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-01-01

    Fusion is an inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economic commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion energy development program is the generation of central station electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. In addition, fusion R and D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other, are the two primary criteria for setting long range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R and D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national labs and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  3. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  4. Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacki, B. A.; Nuttall, W. J.

    2008-02-01

    Importantly environmental factors are not the only policy-driver for the hydrogen economy. Over the timescale of the development of fusion energy systems, energy security issues are likely to motivate a shift towards both hydrogen production and fusion as an energy source. These technologies combine local control of the system with the collaborative research interests of the major energy users in the global economy. A concept Fusion Island Reactor that might be used to generate H2 (rather than electricity) is presented. Exploitation of produced hydrogen as a coolant and as a fuel is proposed in conjunction with MgB2 conductors for the tokomak magnets windings, and electrotechnical devices for Fusion Island's infrastructure. The benefits of using MgB2 over the Nb-based conductors during construction, operation and decommissioning of the Fusion Island Reactor are presented. The comparison of Nb3Sn strands for ITER fusion magnet with newly developed high field composite MgB2 PIT conductors has shown that at 14 Tesla MgB2 possesses better properties than any of the Nb3Sn conductors produced. In this paper the potential of MgB2 conductors is examined for tokamaks of both the conventional ITER type and a Spherical Tokamak geometry. In each case MgB2 is considered as a conductor for a range of field coil applications and the potential for operation at both liquid helium and liquid hydrogen temperatures is considered. Further research plans concerning the application of MgB2 conductors for Fusion Island are also considered.

  5. A fusion propulsion system for rapid interplanetary travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.

    2000-07-01

    A propulsion system with capabilities that far exceed conventional and nuclear thermal systems is proposed for human exploration of the solar system and beyond. It makes use of fusion nuclear reactions, and is based on the magnetic mirror configuration which was studied extensively as a potential terrestrial power reactor. Unlike the conventional mirror machine, however, the proposed device will confine a plasma of such density and temperature as to make the ion-ion collision mean free path much shorter than the plasma length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid and its escape from the machine is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole, hence the name gasdynamic mirror (GDM) (See Fig. 1). Recent studies of this system reveal that the conditions for its performance as a propulsion system are much less stringent than those imposed by an economically viable power reactor. This is reflected by the small energy magnification factor Q (ratio of fusion power to injected power) required by the propulsion system when compared to that of the power reactor. The plasma confinement in this device is provided by a magnetic field that is stronger at the ends than it is at the center thereby providing the necessary reflecting force for containment while allowing a certain fraction of the energetic particles to escape to generate the thrust. The plasma dynamics and the corresponding propulsion characteristics of GDM can be obtained from a set of coupled conservation equations which yield, among other things, the specific impulse and thrust of such an engine. Typical values of the specific impulse is 1.26 × 10 5 seconds and a thrust of tens of kilonewtons for a system with a dry mass of about 230mT. Such a propulsion system is shown to be about 44 m long and to make a round trip to Mars in less than five months. In this paper we examine the various physics and engineering considerations that lead to the modest vehicle mass noted above.

  6. Laser in vessel-viewing system for nuclear fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, Luciano; Bordone, Andrea; Coletti, Alberto; Ferri De Collibus, Mario; Fornetti, Giorgio G.; Lupini, S.; Neri, Carlo; Poggi, Claudio; Riva, Marco; Semeraro, Luigi; Talarico, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    An amplitude modulated laser radar has been developed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) for periodic in-vessel inspection in large fusion machines. Its overall optical design has been developed taking into account the extremely high radiation levels and operating temperatures foreseen in large European fusion machines such as JET (Joint European Torus) and ITER (International Thermo- nuclear Experimental Reactor). The viewing system is based on a transceiving optical radar using a RF modulated single mode 840 nm wavelength laser beam. The sounding beam is transmitted through a coherent optical fiber and a focusing optic to the inner part of the nuclear reactor vessel by a stainless steel probe on the tip of which a suitable scanning silica prism steers the laser beam along a linear raster spanning a -90 degree(s) to +60 degree(s) in elevation and 360 degree(s) in azimuth for a complete mapping of the vessel itself. All the electronics, including the laser source, avalanche photodiode and all the active components are located outside the bioshield, while passive components (receiving optics, transmitting collimator, fiber optics), located in the torus hall, are made of fused silica so that the overall laser radar is radiation resistant. The signal is acquired, the raster lines being synchronized with the aid of optical encoders linked to the scanning prism, thus yielding a TV like image. Preliminary results have been obtained scanning large sceneries including several real targets having different backscattering properties, colors and surface reflectivity ranging over several decades to simulate the expected dynamic range of the video signals incoming from the vessel.

  7. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE) generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W. R.; Anklam, T. M.; Erlandson, A. C.; Miles, R. R.; Simon, A. J.; Sawicki, R.; Storm, E.

    2010-08-01

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to "burn" spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  8. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE) generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Anklam, T M; Erlandson, A C; Miles, R R; Simon, A J; Sawicki, R; Storm, E

    2009-10-22

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to 'burn' spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  9. Heat transfer in inertial confinement fusion reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hovingh, J.

    1980-04-23

    The short time and deposition distance for the energy from inertial fusion products results in local peak power densities on the order of 10/sup 18/ watts/m/sup 3/. This paper presents an overview of the various inertial fusion reactor designs which attempt to reduce these peak power intensities and describes the heat transfer considerations for each design.

  10. A novel fusion imaging system for endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gruionu, Lucian Gheorghe; Săftoiu, Adrian; Gruionu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Navigation of a flexible endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) probe inside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is problematic due to the small window size and complex anatomy. The goal of the present study was to test the feasibility of a novel fusion imaging (FI) system which uses electromagnetic (EM) sensors to co-register the live EUS images with the pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) data with a novel navigation algorithm and catheter. Methods: An experienced gastroenterologist and a novice EUS operator tested the FI system on a GI tract bench top model. Also, the experienced gastroenterologist performed a case series of 20 patients during routine EUS examinations. Results: On the bench top model, the experienced and novice doctors reached the targets in 67 ± 18 s and 150 ± 24 s with a registration error of 6 ± 3 mm and 11 ± 4 mm, respectively. In the case series, the total procedure time was 24.6 ± 6.6 min, while the time to reach the clinical target was 8.7 ± 4.2 min. Conclusions: The FI system is feasible for clinical use, and can reduce the learning curve for EUS procedures and improve navigation and targeting in difficult anatomic locations. PMID:26879165

  11. Data fusion methodologies for food and beverage authentication and quality assessment - a review.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga

    2015-09-01

    The ever increasing interest of consumers for safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities has driven the attention towards the analytical techniques used for analyzing these commodities. In recent years, rapid and reliable sensor, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques have emerged that, together with multivariate and multiway chemometrics, have improved the whole control process by reducing the time of analysis and providing more informative results. In this progression of more and better information, the combination (fusion) of outputs of different instrumental techniques has emerged as a means for increasing the reliability of classification or prediction of foodstuff specifications as compared to using a single analytical technique. Although promising results have been obtained in food and beverage authentication and quality assessment, the combination of data from several techniques is not straightforward and represents an important challenge for chemometricians. This review provides a general overview of data fusion strategies that have been used in the field of food and beverage authentication and quality assessment.

  12. Data fusion methodologies for food and beverage authentication and quality assessment - a review.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga

    2015-09-01

    The ever increasing interest of consumers for safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities has driven the attention towards the analytical techniques used for analyzing these commodities. In recent years, rapid and reliable sensor, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques have emerged that, together with multivariate and multiway chemometrics, have improved the whole control process by reducing the time of analysis and providing more informative results. In this progression of more and better information, the combination (fusion) of outputs of different instrumental techniques has emerged as a means for increasing the reliability of classification or prediction of foodstuff specifications as compared to using a single analytical technique. Although promising results have been obtained in food and beverage authentication and quality assessment, the combination of data from several techniques is not straightforward and represents an important challenge for chemometricians. This review provides a general overview of data fusion strategies that have been used in the field of food and beverage authentication and quality assessment. PMID:26388360

  13. Safety assessment of Cry1Ab/Ac fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Yunbo; Guo, Xing; Yuan, Yanfang; Huang, Kunlun

    2009-07-01

    Cry1ab/ac gene was fused by both the cry1ab gene (GenBank Accession No. X54939) and the cry1ac gene (GenBank Accession No. Y09787), which was widely used in genetically modified (GM) rice, cotton, maize and so on. In order to support the safety assessment of GM food or feed products containing Cry1Ab/Ac protein, sufficient quantities of Cry1Ab/Ac protein were produced in Escherichia coli for in vitro evaluation and animal studies. The Cry1Ab/Ac protein does not possess the characteristics associated with food toxins or allergens, i.e., it has no sequence homology with any known allergens or toxins, and no N-glycosylation sites, can be rapidly degraded in gastric and intestinal fluids, and is devoid of adverse effects in mice by gavage at a high dose level of 5g (Cry1Ab/Ac protein)/kg body weight. In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the Cry1Ab/Ac protein in human food or animal feed.

  14. Comparative assessment of methods for the fusion transcripts detection from RNA-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shailesh; Vo, Angie Duy; Qin, Fujun; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq made possible the global identification of fusion transcripts, i.e. “chimeric RNAs”. Even though various software packages have been developed to serve this purpose, they behave differently in different datasets provided by different developers. It is important for both users, and developers to have an unbiased assessment of the performance of existing fusion detection tools. Toward this goal, we compared the performance of 12 well-known fusion detection software packages. We evaluated the sensitivity, false discovery rate, computing time, and memory usage of these tools in four different datasets (positive, negative, mixed, and test). We conclude that some tools are better than others in terms of sensitivity, positive prediction value, time consumption and memory usage. We also observed small overlaps of the fusions detected by different tools in the real dataset (test dataset). This could be due to false discoveries by various tools, but could also be due to the reason that none of the tools are inclusive. We have found that the performance of the tools depends on the quality, read length, and number of reads of the RNA-Seq data. We recommend that users choose the proper tools for their purpose based on the properties of their RNA-Seq data. PMID:26862001

  15. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  16. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking.

    PubMed

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Pasciuto, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2016-01-26

    Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor's uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process.

  17. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking.

    PubMed

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Pasciuto, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2016-01-01

    Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor's uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process. PMID:26821027

  18. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Pasciuto, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2016-01-01

    Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor’s uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process. PMID:26821027

  19. Risk Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    FEAT, a software system for evaluating risks, was developed by Lockheed and later enhanced under NASA funding. FEAT uses directed graph - or digraph - models to provide information on cause and effect if a set of failure events occurs. James Miller, the program designer at Lockheed, formed DiGraphics, Inc. to market the software that has evolved from FEAT. The Diquest Analyzer, the company's flagship product, assists product designers in identifying the redundancies and weaknesses of a system. The software has applications in the chemical industry for risk assessment, design evaluation, and change management. Additional markets have been found in operations monitoring diagnostics and training of new personnel.

  20. 3D Neutronic Analysis in MHD Calculations at ARIES-ST Fusion Reactors Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hançerliogulları, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we developed new models for liquid wall (FW) state at ARIES-ST fusion reactor systems. ARIES-ST is a 1,000 MWe fusion reactor system based on a low aspect ratio ST plasma. In this article, we analyzed the characteristic properties of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and heat transfer conditions by using Monte-Carlo simulation methods (ARIES Team et al. in Fusion Eng Des 49-50:689-695, 2000; Tillack et al. in Fusion Eng Des 65:215-261, 2003) . In fusion applications, liquid metals are traditionally considered to be the best working fluids. The working liquid must be a lithium-containing medium in order to provide adequate tritium that the plasma is self-sustained and that the fusion is a renewable energy source. As for Flibe free surface flows, the MHD effects caused by interaction with the mean flow is negligible, while a fairly uniform flow of thick can be maintained throughout the reactor based on 3-D MHD calculations. In this study, neutronic parameters, that is to say, energy multiplication factor radiation, heat flux and fissile fuel breeding were researched for fusion reactor with various thorium and uranium molten salts. Sufficient tritium amount is needed for the reactor to work itself. In the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1.05 ARIES-ST fusion model TBR is >1.1 so that tritium self-sufficiency is maintained for DT fusion systems (Starke et al. in Fusion Energ Des 84:1794-1798, 2009; Najmabadi et al. in Fusion Energ Des 80:3-23, 2006).

  1. Fatigue Lifetime Assessment of Aircraft Engine Disc via Multi-source Information Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Zhong; Cui, Ping-Liang; Peng, Weiwen; Gao, Hui-Ying; Wang, Hai-Kun

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue lifetime assessment for aircraft engine discs is an important issue for the operation and health management of aircraft engines. Due to the lack of field test data, traditional methods can hardly meet the requirements of fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. By combining a multi-source information fusion method with a Bayesian inference technique, this paper develops a practical approach for fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Subjective information and historical data are combined coherently with the sparse test data to generate a credible fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Methods for quantifying subjective information, checking different experts' information, and fusing multiple prior distributions are presented to facilitate the implementation of fatigue lifetime assessment. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the procedures and the implication of the proposed method.

  2. Fission-fusion and the evolution of hominin social systems.

    PubMed

    Grove, Matt; Pearce, Eiluned; Dunbar, R I M

    2012-02-01

    The course of hominin evolution has involved successive migrations towards higher absolute latitudes over the past three million years. Poorer habitat quality further from the equator has led to the necessity for groups occupying higher latitudes to live at lower population densities. Coupled with a trend towards increasing group size over this time period, this tendency towards expansion has led to exponential increases in the area requirements of hominin groups, and a concomitant need to adjust foraging patterns. The current analyses suggest that the development of increasingly complex, multi-level fission-fusion social systems could have freed hominins of the foraging constraints imposed by large group sizes and low population densities. Analyses of the fossil record suggest latitudinally-driven differences in area requirements of the australopithecines from East and South Africa, and African and Asian Homo erectus. In contrast, chronologically-driven differences appear between H. erectus as a whole and Homo heidelbergensis, and between H. heidelbergensis and the Neanderthals. These results are discussed in relation to studies of the foraging patterns of primates and hunter-gatherers. PMID:22197359

  3. Fission-fusion and the evolution of hominin social systems.

    PubMed

    Grove, Matt; Pearce, Eiluned; Dunbar, R I M

    2012-02-01

    The course of hominin evolution has involved successive migrations towards higher absolute latitudes over the past three million years. Poorer habitat quality further from the equator has led to the necessity for groups occupying higher latitudes to live at lower population densities. Coupled with a trend towards increasing group size over this time period, this tendency towards expansion has led to exponential increases in the area requirements of hominin groups, and a concomitant need to adjust foraging patterns. The current analyses suggest that the development of increasingly complex, multi-level fission-fusion social systems could have freed hominins of the foraging constraints imposed by large group sizes and low population densities. Analyses of the fossil record suggest latitudinally-driven differences in area requirements of the australopithecines from East and South Africa, and African and Asian Homo erectus. In contrast, chronologically-driven differences appear between H. erectus as a whole and Homo heidelbergensis, and between H. heidelbergensis and the Neanderthals. These results are discussed in relation to studies of the foraging patterns of primates and hunter-gatherers.

  4. Acoustic/magnetic fusion system architecture variants and their classification performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Martin G.

    1997-07-01

    Research in FY-95 first addressed the problem of combining high-frequency (HF) side-scan sonar imagery, low-frequency (LF) side-scan Sonar imagery, and magnetic gradiometer data in order to detect/classify undersea mines. The first approach developed, termed the "Blob-Pair" based acoustic/magnetic (AM) Fusion system architecture, implicitly assumed that a target manifests itself in both HF,LF imagery, and was based on the fusion of single-sensor derived neural network classifier discriminants at a collection of three "decision" nodes, identified with magnetic (M), HF/LF, and HF/LF/M - data fusion cases, respectively. In order, to remove the restrictive assumption of a target manifesting in both }IF,LF data, the "Generalized" AM Fusion Architecture was developed, with a total of 7 "decision" nodes, identified with M, HF, HF/LF, LF, HF/M, HF/LFIM, and LF/M data fusion cases, respectively. However, the "Generalized" AM-Fusion architecture was found empirically to have significantly increased number of false alarms, relative to the "Blob-Pair" based system. Hence, through two-additional AM-Fusion architecture varaints, involving first the use of Classification Token "Post-Processing", and then both Token "Post-Processing" and decision node statistic modification, the performance "gap" between "Blob-Pair" and "Generalized" AM-Fusion Architecture performance was closed.

  5. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 2: assessment of functional outcome following lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    Assessment of functional patient-reported outcome following lumbar spinal fusion continues to be essential for comparing the effectiveness of different treatments for patients presenting with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. When assessing functional outcome in patients being treated with lumbar spinal fusion, a reliable, valid, and responsive outcomes instrument such as the Oswestry Disability Index should be used. The SF-36 and the SF-12 have emerged as dominant measures of general health-related quality of life. Research has established the minimum clinically important difference for major functional outcomes measures, and this should be considered when assessing clinical outcome. The results of recent studies suggest that a patient's pretreatment psychological state is a major independent variable that affects the ability to detect change in functional outcome.

  6. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'Connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  7. Mirror fusion propulsion system: A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Carpenter, Scott A.; Deveny, Marc E.; Oconnell, T.

    1993-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  8. Mirror fusion propulsion system: A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.; Carpenter, S.A.; Deveny, M.E.; Oconnell, T.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  9. Engineering aspects of particle-beam fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, D. L.

    1982-11-01

    The DT fuel ignition in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsule is demonstrated. As part of the ICF effort, two major Particle Beam Fusion Accelerators are being developed with the objective of providing energetic light ion beams of sufficient power density for target implosion. Supporting light ion beam research is being performed. If the answers to several key physics and engineering questions are favorable, pulsed power accelerators will be able to provide an efficient and inexpensive approach to high target gain and eventual power production applications.

  10. Optical design of a laser system for nuclear fusion research.

    PubMed

    de Metz, J

    1971-07-01

    High power laser improvements, high quality aspheric lenses, and sharp focusing on a solid deuterium target enable us to get numerous nuclear fusion reactions inside the deuterium plasma. Since Maiman successfully built the first light amplifier in 1960 [Nature 187, 493 (1960)] and Terhune performed air breakdown experiments in 1962 ["Optical Third Harmonic Generation," Comptes rendus de la 3ème Conférence Internationale d'Electronique Quantique, Paris, 11-15 février 1963, P. Grivet and N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Dunod, Paris, 1964), pp. 1559-15761, the laser has been thought of as a valuable energy source for fusion devices. Now a kind of race has started toward high temperature plasmas created by powerful lasers. However, the peak power of solid state laser is limited by glass damage, pump efficiences, and unwanted effects such as superradiance. So it is necessary to improve all the optical properties of the laser and the focusing of the lens on the target. In this paper, requirements for fusion implying a very high flux will be stated. Successive optical designs will be described together with measurement methods, and the contribution of optical improvements to the occurrence of nuclear fusion reaction in deuterium targets will be evaluated.

  11. Functional fusion of living systems with synthetic electrode interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Staufer, Oskar; Weber, Sebastian; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar; Spatz, Joachim P

    2016-01-01

    Summary The functional fusion of “living” biomaterial (such as cells) with synthetic systems has developed into a principal ambition for various scientific disciplines. In particular, emerging fields such as bionics and nanomedicine integrate advanced nanomaterials with biomolecules, cells and organisms in order to develop novel strategies for applications, including energy production or real-time diagnostics utilizing biomolecular machineries “perfected” during billion years of evolution. To date, hardware–wetware interfaces that sample or modulate bioelectric potentials, such as neuroprostheses or implantable energy harvesters, are mostly based on microelectrodes brought into the closest possible contact with the targeted cells. Recently, the possibility of using electrochemical gradients of the inner ear for technical applications was demonstrated using implanted electrodes, where 1.12 nW of electrical power was harvested from the guinea pig endocochlear potential for up to 5 h (Mercier, P.; Lysaght, A.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chandrakasan, A.; Stankovic, K. Nat. Biotech. 2012, 30, 1240–1243). More recent approaches employ nanowires (NWs) able to penetrate the cellular membrane and to record extra- and intracellular electrical signals, in some cases with subcellular resolution (Spira, M.; Hai, A. Nat. Nano. 2013, 8, 83–94). Such techniques include nanoelectric scaffolds containing free-standing silicon NWs (Robinson, J. T.; Jorgolli, M.; Shalek, A. K.; Yoon, M. H.; Gertner, R. S.; Park, H. Nat Nanotechnol. 2012, 10, 180–184) or NW field-effect transistors (Qing, Q.; Jiang, Z.; Xu, L.; Gao, R.; Mai, L.; Lieber, C. Nat. Nano. 2013, 9, 142–147), vertically aligned gallium phosphide NWs (Hällström, W.; Mårtensson, T.; Prinz, C.; Gustavsson, P.; Montelius, L.; Samuelson, L.; Kanje, M. Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 2960–2965) or individually contacted, electrically active carbon nanofibers. The latter of these approaches is capable of recording electrical

  12. Functional fusion of living systems with synthetic electrode interfaces.

    PubMed

    Staufer, Oskar; Weber, Sebastian; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar; Spatz, Joachim P; Rustom, Amin

    2016-01-01

    The functional fusion of "living" biomaterial (such as cells) with synthetic systems has developed into a principal ambition for various scientific disciplines. In particular, emerging fields such as bionics and nanomedicine integrate advanced nanomaterials with biomolecules, cells and organisms in order to develop novel strategies for applications, including energy production or real-time diagnostics utilizing biomolecular machineries "perfected" during billion years of evolution. To date, hardware-wetware interfaces that sample or modulate bioelectric potentials, such as neuroprostheses or implantable energy harvesters, are mostly based on microelectrodes brought into the closest possible contact with the targeted cells. Recently, the possibility of using electrochemical gradients of the inner ear for technical applications was demonstrated using implanted electrodes, where 1.12 nW of electrical power was harvested from the guinea pig endocochlear potential for up to 5 h (Mercier, P.; Lysaght, A.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chandrakasan, A.; Stankovic, K. Nat. Biotech. 2012, 30, 1240-1243). More recent approaches employ nanowires (NWs) able to penetrate the cellular membrane and to record extra- and intracellular electrical signals, in some cases with subcellular resolution (Spira, M.; Hai, A. Nat. Nano. 2013, 8, 83-94). Such techniques include nanoelectric scaffolds containing free-standing silicon NWs (Robinson, J. T.; Jorgolli, M.; Shalek, A. K.; Yoon, M. H.; Gertner, R. S.; Park, H. Nat Nanotechnol. 2012, 10, 180-184) or NW field-effect transistors (Qing, Q.; Jiang, Z.; Xu, L.; Gao, R.; Mai, L.; Lieber, C. Nat. Nano. 2013, 9, 142-147), vertically aligned gallium phosphide NWs (Hällström, W.; Mårtensson, T.; Prinz, C.; Gustavsson, P.; Montelius, L.; Samuelson, L.; Kanje, M. Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 2960-2965) or individually contacted, electrically active carbon nanofibers. The latter of these approaches is capable of recording electrical responses from oxidative events

  13. Functional fusion of living systems with synthetic electrode interfaces.

    PubMed

    Staufer, Oskar; Weber, Sebastian; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar; Spatz, Joachim P; Rustom, Amin

    2016-01-01

    The functional fusion of "living" biomaterial (such as cells) with synthetic systems has developed into a principal ambition for various scientific disciplines. In particular, emerging fields such as bionics and nanomedicine integrate advanced nanomaterials with biomolecules, cells and organisms in order to develop novel strategies for applications, including energy production or real-time diagnostics utilizing biomolecular machineries "perfected" during billion years of evolution. To date, hardware-wetware interfaces that sample or modulate bioelectric potentials, such as neuroprostheses or implantable energy harvesters, are mostly based on microelectrodes brought into the closest possible contact with the targeted cells. Recently, the possibility of using electrochemical gradients of the inner ear for technical applications was demonstrated using implanted electrodes, where 1.12 nW of electrical power was harvested from the guinea pig endocochlear potential for up to 5 h (Mercier, P.; Lysaght, A.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chandrakasan, A.; Stankovic, K. Nat. Biotech. 2012, 30, 1240-1243). More recent approaches employ nanowires (NWs) able to penetrate the cellular membrane and to record extra- and intracellular electrical signals, in some cases with subcellular resolution (Spira, M.; Hai, A. Nat. Nano. 2013, 8, 83-94). Such techniques include nanoelectric scaffolds containing free-standing silicon NWs (Robinson, J. T.; Jorgolli, M.; Shalek, A. K.; Yoon, M. H.; Gertner, R. S.; Park, H. Nat Nanotechnol. 2012, 10, 180-184) or NW field-effect transistors (Qing, Q.; Jiang, Z.; Xu, L.; Gao, R.; Mai, L.; Lieber, C. Nat. Nano. 2013, 9, 142-147), vertically aligned gallium phosphide NWs (Hällström, W.; Mårtensson, T.; Prinz, C.; Gustavsson, P.; Montelius, L.; Samuelson, L.; Kanje, M. Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 2960-2965) or individually contacted, electrically active carbon nanofibers. The latter of these approaches is capable of recording electrical responses from oxidative events

  14. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 mum of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb 83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by

  15. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Gabriel; Gallardo, Francisco; Farias, Gonzalo; San Martin, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other. PMID:26213932

  16. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hermosilla, Gabriel; Gallardo, Francisco; Farias, Gonzalo; San Martin, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other. PMID:26213932

  17. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Gabriel; Gallardo, Francisco; Farias, Gonzalo; San Martin, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other.

  18. Description of the Fusion-Fission Reactions in the Framework of Dinuclear System Conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Wieleczko, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Within the dinuclear system model fusion-fission reactions 78Kr+40Ca and 86Kr+48Ca is investigated. The charge distributions of the decay products are predicted at bombarding energy 10 MeV/nucleon. The competition is treated between complete fusion followed by the decay of compound nucleus and quasifission channels. The possible explanation of the odd-even staggering in the yield of the final reaction products at high excitation energies is discussed.

  19. Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Aceituno, Javier; Acosta, Leopoldo; Arnay, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle. PMID:22368469

  20. Fusion of a variable baseline system and a range finder.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aceituno, Javier; Acosta, Leopoldo; Arnay, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle. PMID:22368469

  1. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  2. Application of Fusion Gyrotrons to Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, P.; Einstein, H.; Oglesby, K.

    2013-10-01

    The potential size of geothermal energy resources is second only to fusion energy. Advances are needed in drilling technology and heat reservoir formation to realize this potential. Millimeter-wave (MMW) gyrotrons and related technologies developed for fusion energy research could contribute to enabling EGS. Directed MMW energy can be used to advance rock penetration capabilities, borehole casing, and fracking. MMWs are ideally suited because they can penetrate through small particulate extraction plumes, can be efficiently guided long distances in borehole dimensions, and continuous megawatt sources are commercially available. Laboratory experiments with a 10 kW, 28 GHz CPI gyrotron have shown that granite rock can be fractured and melted with power intensities of about 1 kW/cm2 and minute exposure times. Observed melted rock MMW emissivity and estimated thermodynamics suggest that penetrating hot, hard crystalline rock formations may be economic with fusion research developed MMW sources. Supported by USDOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Impact Technologies, LLC.

  3. Modeling of Nonlinear Aggregation for Information Fusion Systems with Outliers Based on the Choquet Integral

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kuo-Lan; Jau, You-Min; Jeng, Jin-Tsong

    2011-01-01

    Modern information fusion systems essentially associate decision-making processes with multi-sensor systems. Precise decision-making processes depend upon aggregating useful information extracted from large numbers of messages or large datasets; meanwhile, the distributed multi-sensor systems which employ several geographically separated local sensors are required to provide sufficient messages or data with similar and/or dissimilar characteristics. These kinds of information fusion techniques have been widely investigated and used for implementing several information retrieval systems. However, the results obtained from the information fusion systems vary in different situations and performing intelligent aggregation and fusion of information from a distributed multi-source, multi-sensor network is essentially an optimization problem. A flexible and versatile framework which is able to solve complex global optimization problems is a valuable alternative to traditional information fusion. Furthermore, because of the highly dynamic and volatile nature of the information flow, a swift soft computing technique is imperative to satisfy the demands and challenges. In this paper, a nonlinear aggregation based on the Choquet integral (NACI) model is considered for information fusion systems that include outliers under inherent interaction among feature attributes. The estimation of interaction coefficients for the proposed model is also performed via a modified algorithm based on particle swarm optimization with quantum-behavior (QPSO) and the high breakdown value estimator, least trimmed squares (LTS). From simulation results, the proposed MQPSO algorithm with LTS (named LTS-MQPSO) readily corrects the deviations caused by outliers and swiftly achieves convergence in estimating the parameters of the proposed NACI model for the information fusion systems with outliers. PMID:22163747

  4. Digital image fusion systems: color imaging and low-light targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrera, Joseph P.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents digital image fusion (enhanced A+B) systems in color imaging and low light target applications. This paper will discuss first the digital sensors that are utilized in the noted image fusion applications which is a 1900x1086 (high definition format) CMOS imager coupled to a Generation III image intensifier for the visible/near infrared (NIR) digital sensor and 320x240 or 640x480 uncooled microbolometer thermal imager for the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) digital sensor. Performance metrics for these digital imaging sensors will be presented. The digital image fusion (enhanced A+B) process will be presented in context of early fused night vision systems such as the digital image fused system (DIFS) and the digital enhanced night vision goggle and later, the long range digitally fused night vision sighting system. Next, this paper will discuss the effects of user display color in a dual color digital image fusion system. Dual color image fusion schemes such as Green/Red, Cyan/Yellow, and White/Blue for image intensifier and thermal infrared sensor color representation, respectively, are discussed. Finally, this paper will present digitally fused imagery and image analysis of long distance targets in low light from these digital fused systems. The result of this image analysis with enhanced A+B digital image fusion systems is that maximum contrast and spatial resolution is achieved in a digital fusion mode as compared to individual sensor modalities in low light, long distance imaging applications. Paper has been cleared by DoD/OSR for Public Release under Ref: 08-S-2183 on August 8, 2008.

  5. Supervised classification of aerial imagery and multi-source data fusion for flood assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sava, E.; Harding, L.; Cervone, G.

    2015-12-01

    Floods are among the most devastating natural hazards and the ability to produce an accurate and timely flood assessment before, during, and after an event is critical for their mitigation and response. Remote sensing technologies have become the de-facto approach for observing the Earth and its environment. However, satellite remote sensing data are not always available. For these reasons, it is crucial to develop new techniques in order to produce flood assessments during and after an event. Recent advancements in data fusion techniques of remote sensing with near real time heterogeneous datasets have allowed emergency responders to more efficiently extract increasingly precise and relevant knowledge from the available information. This research presents a fusion technique using satellite remote sensing imagery coupled with non-authoritative data such as Civil Air Patrol (CAP) and tweets. A new computational methodology is proposed based on machine learning algorithms to automatically identify water pixels in CAP imagery. Specifically, wavelet transformations are paired with multiple classifiers, run in parallel, to build models discriminating water and non-water regions. The learned classification models are first tested against a set of control cases, and then used to automatically classify each image separately. A measure of uncertainty is computed for each pixel in an image proportional to the number of models classifying the pixel as water. Geo-tagged tweets are continuously harvested and stored on a MongoDB and queried in real time. They are fused with CAP classified data, and with satellite remote sensing derived flood extent results to produce comprehensive flood assessment maps. The final maps are then compared with FEMA generated flood extents to assess their accuracy. The proposed methodology is applied on two test cases, relative to the 2013 floods in Boulder CO, and the 2015 floods in Texas.

  6. Remedial Action Assessment System

    1997-02-01

    RAAS1.1 is a software-based system designed to assist remediation professionals at each stage of the environmental analysis process. RAAS1.1 provides a template for environmental restoration analysis, and provides the user with key results at each step in the analysis. RAAS1.1 assists the user to develop a coherent and consistent site description, estimate baseline and residual risk to public health from the contaminated site, identify applicable environmental restoration technologies, and formulate feasible remedial response alternatives. Inmore » addition, the RAAS1.1 methodology allows the user to then assess and compare those remedial response alternatives across EPA criteria, including: compliance with objectives; short-term and long-term effectiveness; extent of treatment; and implementability of the technologies. The analytic methodology is segmented and presented in a standardized, concise, easy-to-use format that can be viewed on the personal computer screen, saved and further manipulated, or printed for later use. Each screen and analytic step is accessed via a user-friendly personal computer graphical interface. Intuitively-designed buttons, menus, and lists help the user focus in on the particular information and analysis component of interest; the corresponding results are presented in a format that facilitates their use in decision-making.« less

  7. Improving the recognition of fingerprint biometric system using enhanced image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharif, Salim; El-Saba, Aed; Stripathi, Reshma

    2010-04-01

    Fingerprints recognition systems have been widely used by financial institutions, law enforcement, border control, visa issuing, just to mention few. Biometric identifiers can be counterfeited, but considered more reliable and secure compared to traditional ID cards or personal passwords methods. Fingerprint pattern fusion improves the performance of a fingerprint recognition system in terms of accuracy and security. This paper presents digital enhancement and fusion approaches that improve the biometric of the fingerprint recognition system. It is a two-step approach. In the first step raw fingerprint images are enhanced using high-frequency-emphasis filtering (HFEF). The second step is a simple linear fusion process between the raw images and the HFEF ones. It is shown that the proposed approach increases the verification and identification of the fingerprint biometric recognition system, where any improvement is justified using the correlation performance metrics of the matching algorithm.

  8. Evolution of fusion hindrance for asymmetric systems at deep sub-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.; Pandit, S. K.; Nanal, V.; Ichikawa, T.; Hagino, K.; Navin, A.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Parkar, V. V.; Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P. C.; Kumar, Abhinav; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of fusion cross-sections of 7Li and 12C with 198Pt at deep sub-barrier energies are reported to unravel the role of the entrance channel in the occurrence of fusion hindrance. The onset of fusion hindrance has been clearly observed in 12C +198Pt system but not in 7Li +198Pt system, within the measured energy range. Emergence of the hindrance, moving from lighter (6,7Li) to heavier (12C, 16O) projectiles is explained employing a model that considers a gradual transition from a sudden to adiabatic regime at low energies. The model calculation reveals a weak effect of the damping of coupling to collective motion for the present systems as compared to that obtained for systems with heavier projectiles.

  9. Anomaly Detection for Resilient Control Systems Using Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-08-01

    Resilient control systems in critical infrastructures require increased cyber-security and state-awareness. One of the necessary conditions for achieving the desired high level of resiliency is timely reporting and understanding of the status and behavioral trends of the control system. This paper describes the design and development of a neural-network based data-fusion system for increased state-awareness of resilient control systems. The proposed system consists of a dedicated data-fusion engine for each component of the control system. Each data-fusion engine implements three-layered alarm system consisting of: (1) conventional threshold-based alarms, (2) anomalous behavior detector using self-organizing maps, and (3) prediction error based alarms using neural network based signal forecasting. The proposed system was integrated with a model of the Idaho National Laboratory Hytest facility, which is a testing facility for hybrid energy systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the implemented data fusion system provides timely plant performance monitoring and cyber-state reporting.

  10. Aperture tolerances for neutron-imaging systems in inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilea, M. C.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Lerche, R. A.; Disdier, L.

    2008-02-01

    Neutron-imaging systems are being considered as an ignition diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Hogan et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 (2001)]. Given the importance of these systems, a neutron-imaging design tool is being used to quantify the effects of aperture fabrication and alignment tolerances on reconstructed neutron images for inertial confinement fusion. The simulations indicate that alignment tolerances of more than 1mrad would introduce measurable features in a reconstructed image for both pinholes and penumbral aperture systems. These simulations further show that penumbral apertures are several times less sensitive to fabrication errors than pinhole apertures.

  11. Fusion hindrance for a positive-q-value system (24)Mg+(30)Si.

    PubMed

    Jiang, C L; Stefanini, A M; Esbensen, H; Rehm, K E; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Back, B B; Corradi, L; Fioretto, E; Montagnoli, G; Scarlassara, F; Montanari, D; Courtin, S; Bourgin, D; Haas, F; Goasduff, A; Szilner, S; Mijatovic, T

    2014-07-11

    Measurements of the excitation function for the fusion of (24)Mg+(30)Si (Q=17.89  MeV)have been extended toward lower energies with respect to previous experimental data. The S-factor maximum observed in this large, positive-Q-value system is the most pronounced among such systems studied thus far. The significance and the systematics of an S-factor maximum in systems with positive fusion Q values are discussed. This result would strongly impact the extrapolated cross sections and reaction rates in the carbon and oxygen burnings and, thus, the study of the history of stellar evolution. PMID:25062170

  12. Near-barrier fusion of proton- and neutron-halo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, E. F.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that the behaviour of the fusion excitation functions for proton-halo and neutron-halo systems presents important differences, especially in the energy region slightly above the barrier. Measurements for 6He, 11Li and 11Be projectiles are discussed to exemplify the behaviour of neutron-halo systems, while experiments with 8B beams illustrate the situation for proton-halo nuclei. With respect to a standard benchmark, neutron- (proton-) halo systems show a fusion suppression (enhancement) above the barrier.

  13. Applications of intelligent-measurement systems in controlled-fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Lindquist, W.B.; Peterson, R.L.; Wyman, R.H.

    1981-06-22

    The paper describes the control and instrumentation for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA. This large-scale scientific experiment in controlled thermonuclear fusion, which is currently being expanded, originally had 3000 devices to control and 7000 sensors to monitor. A hierarchical computer control system, is used with nine minicomputers forming the supervisory system. There are approximately 55 local control and instrumentation microcomputers. In addition, each device has its own monitoring equipment, which in some cases consists of a small computer. After describing the overall system a more detailed account is given of the control and instrumentation for two large superconducting magnets.

  14. Sub-barrier fusion and transfers in the 40Ca + 58,64Ni systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgin, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Goasduff, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Corradi, L.; Huiming, J.; Scarlassara, F.; Fioretto, E.; Simenel, C.; Rowley, N.; Szilner, S.; Mijatović, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion cross sections have been measured in the 40Ca + 58Ni and 40Ca + 64Ni systems at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier. The 40Ca beam was delivered by the XTU Tandem accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and evaporation residues were measured at very forward angles with the LNL electrostatic beam deflector. Coupled-channels calculations were performed which highlight possible strong effects of neutron transfers on the fusion below the barrier in the 40Ca + 64Ni system. Microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations have also been performed for both systems. Preliminary results are shown.

  15. Analysing the role of fusion power in the future global energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Ciorba, U.; Gracceva, F.; Eder, T.; Hamacher, T.; Lehtila, A.; Biberacher, M.; Grohnheit, P. E.; Ward, D.; Han, W.; Eherer, C.; Pina, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work presents the EFDA Times model (ETM), developed within the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). ETM is an optimization global energy model which aims at providing the optimum energy system composition in terms of social wealth and sustainability including fusion as an alternative technology in the long term. Two framework scenarios are defined: a Base case scenario with no limits to CO2 emissions, and a 450ppm scenario with a limit of 450ppm in CO2-eq concentrations set by 2100. Previous results showed that in the Base case scenario, with no measures for CO2 emission reductions, fusion does not enter the energy system. However, when CO2 emission restrictions are imposed, the global energy system composition changes completely. In a 450ppm scenario, coal technologies disappear in a few decades, being mainly replaced by nuclear fission technologies which experience a great increase when constrained only by Uranium resources exhaustion. Fission technologies are then replaced by the fusion power plants that start in 2070, with a significant contribution to the global electricity production by 2100. To conclude the work, a sensitivity analysis will be presented on some parameters that may affect the possible role of fusion in the future global energy system. Note to the reader: The article number has been corrected on web pages on November 22, 2013.

  16. Analysing the role of fusion power in the future global energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Ciorba, U.; Gracceva, F.; Eder, T.; Hamacher, T.; Lehtila, A.; Biberacher, M.; Grohnheit, P. E.; Ward, D.; Han, W.; Eherer, C.; Pina, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work presents the EFDA Times model (ETM), developed within the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). ETM is an optimization global energy model which aims at providing the optimum energy system composition in terms of social wealth and sustainability including fusion as an alternative technology in the long term. Two framework scenarios are defined: a Base case scenario with no limits to CO2 emissions, and a 450ppm scenario with a limit of 450ppm in CO2-eq concentrations set by 2100. Previous results showed that in the Base case scenario, with no measures for CO2 emission reductions, fusion does not enter the energy system. However, when CO2 emission restrictions are imposed, the global energy system composition changes completely. In a 450ppm scenario, coal technologies disappear in a few decades, being mainly replaced by nuclear fission technologies which experience a great increase when constrained only by Uranium resources exhaustion. Fission technologies are then replaced by the fusion power plants that start in 2070, with a significant contribution to the global electricity production by 2100. To conclude the work, a sensitivity analysis will be presented on some parameters that may affect the possible role of fusion in the future global energy system.

  17. Incomplete fusion reactions at low energies in 13C+169Tm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Sharma, M. K.; Gupta, S.; Murlithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2014-03-01

    Aiming to investigate the incomplete fusion processes at low projectile energies, experiments have been carried out for the 13C + 169Tm system at ≈ 4-7 MeV/A. Excitation functions for several heavy residues likely to be populated via complete and incomplete fusion processes have been measured using heavy recoil residue catcher technique followed by γ- ray spectroscopy. The measured cross-sections for the complete fusion (xn and pxn) channels are compared with the statistical model code PACE4, consistently using the same set of parameters. The complete fusion channels are found to be consistent with the model calculations. However, the cross-sections for all the measured α-emitting channels are found to be significantly enhanced over the calculations. Analysis of data indicate a significant fraction of incomplete fusion even at energies as low as 17% above barrier. The present results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern's systematics. Incomplete fusion strength function is found to be relatively large for alpha cluster projectile i.e. for 12C as compared to one neutron excess 13C projectile.

  18. An infrared/video fusion system for military robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.W.; Roberts, R.S.

    1997-08-05

    Sensory information is critical to the telerobotic operation of mobile robots. In particular, visual sensors are a key component of the sensor package on a robot engaged in urban military operations. Visual sensors provide the robot operator with a wealth of information including robot navigation and threat assessment. However, simple countermeasures such as darkness, smoke, or blinding by a laser, can easily neutralize visual sensors. In order to provide a robust visual sensing system, an infrared sensor is required to augment the primary visual sensor. An infrared sensor can acquire useful imagery in conditions that incapacitate a visual sensor. A simple approach to incorporating an infrared sensor into the visual sensing system is to display two images to the operator: side-by-side visual and infrared images. However, dual images might overwhelm the operator with information, and result in degraded robot performance. A better solution is to combine the visual and infrared images into a single image that maximizes scene information. Fusing visual and infrared images into a single image demands balancing the mixture of visual and infrared information. Humans are accustom to viewing and interpreting visual images. They are not accustom to viewing or interpreting infrared images. Hence, the infrared image must be used to enhance the visual image, not obfuscate it.

  19. A data fusion algorithm for multi-sensor microburst hazard assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig R.; Hansman, R. John

    1994-01-01

    A recursive model-based data fusion algorithm for multi-sensor microburst hazard assessment is described. An analytical microburst model is used to approximate the actual windfield, and a set of 'best' model parameters are estimated from measured winds. The winds corresponding to the best parameter set can then be used to compute alerting factors such as microburst position, extent, and intensity. The estimation algorithm is based on an iterated extended Kalman filter which uses the microburst model parameters as state variables. Microburst state dynamic and process noise parameters are chosen based on measured microburst statistics. The estimation method is applied to data from a time-varying computational simulation of a historical microburst event to demonstrate its capabilities and limitations. Selection of filter parameters and initial conditions is discussed. Computational requirements and datalink bandwidth considerations are also addressed.

  20. Fusion tags for protein solubility, purification and immunogenicity in Escherichia coli: the novel Fh8 system

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sofia; Almeida, André; Castro, António; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are now widely produced in diverse microbial cell factories. The Escherichia coli is still the dominant host for recombinant protein production but, as a bacterial cell, it also has its issues: the aggregation of foreign proteins into insoluble inclusion bodies is perhaps the main limiting factor of the E. coli expression system. Conversely, E. coli benefits of cost, ease of use and scale make it essential to design new approaches directed for improved recombinant protein production in this host cell. With the aid of genetic and protein engineering novel tailored-made strategies can be designed to suit user or process requirements. Gene fusion technology has been widely used for the improvement of soluble protein production and/or purification in E. coli, and for increasing peptide’s immunogenicity as well. New fusion partners are constantly emerging and complementing the traditional solutions, as for instance, the Fh8 fusion tag that has been recently studied and ranked among the best solubility enhancer partners. In this review, we provide an overview of current strategies to improve recombinant protein production in E. coli, including the key factors for successful protein production, highlighting soluble protein production, and a comprehensive summary of the latest available and traditionally used gene fusion technologies. A special emphasis is given to the recently discovered Fh8 fusion system that can be used for soluble protein production, purification, and immunogenicity in E. coli. The number of existing fusion tags will probably increase in the next few years, and efforts should be taken to better understand how fusion tags act in E. coli. This knowledge will undoubtedly drive the development of new tailored-made tools for protein production in this bacterial system. PMID:24600443

  1. Energy Logic (EL): a novel fusion engine of multi-modality multi-agent data/information fusion for intelligent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2009-04-01

    The rapidly advancing hardware technology, smart sensors and sensor networks are advancing environment sensing. One major potential of this technology is Large-Scale Surveillance Systems (LS3) especially for, homeland security, battlefield intelligence, facility guarding and other civilian applications. The efficient and effective deployment of LS3 requires addressing number of aspects impacting the scalability of such systems. The scalability factors are related to: computation and memory utilization efficiency, communication bandwidth utilization, network topology (e.g., centralized, ad-hoc, hierarchical or hybrid), network communication protocol and data routing schemes; and local and global data/information fusion scheme for situational awareness. Although, many models have been proposed to address one aspect or another of these issues but, few have addressed the need for a multi-modality multi-agent data/information fusion that has characteristics satisfying the requirements of current and future intelligent sensors and sensor networks. In this paper, we have presented a novel scalable fusion engine for multi-modality multi-agent information fusion for LS3. The new fusion engine is based on a concept we call: Energy Logic. Experimental results of this work as compared to a Fuzzy logic model strongly supported the validity of the new model and inspired future directions for different levels of fusion and different applications.

  2. Condition Assessment Information System

    2002-09-16

    CAIS2000 records, tracks and cost maintenance deficiencies associated with condition assessments of real property assets. Cost information is available for 39,000 items in the currenht RS Means, Facilities Construction Manual. These costs can, in turn, be rolled by by asset to produce the summary condition of an asset or site.

  3. Extended Logic Intelligent Processing System for a Sensor Fusion Processor Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Thomas, Tyson; Li, Wei-Te; Daud, Taher; Fabunmi, James

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the hardware implementation and initial tests from a low-power, highspeed reconfigurable sensor fusion processor. The Extended Logic Intelligent Processing System (ELIPS) is described, which combines rule-based systems, fuzzy logic, and neural networks to achieve parallel fusion of sensor signals in compact low power VLSI. The development of the ELIPS concept is being done to demonstrate the interceptor functionality which particularly underlines the high speed and low power requirements. The hardware programmability allows the processor to reconfigure into different machines, taking the most efficient hardware implementation during each phase of information processing. Processing speeds of microseconds have been demonstrated using our test hardware.

  4. Overview and status of a mirror fusion propulsion system design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Scott A.; Brennan, Kathleen M.

    1999-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to describe and emphasize the important discoveries made since 1986 in the engineering design of space fusion propulsion plants. Among the important discoveries are four fundamental design principles (DPs) which should be used when adapting candidate Earth-based fusion-electric power plants to propulsion in space. DP1. Maximize direct access to space for waste radiation. DP2. Operate components as passive radiators whenever possible. DP3. Optimize the plasma characteristics for best specific jet power DP4. Optimize mission capability versus lifetime-mass-to-orbit (LMTO). Another discovery is a design philosophy called IDEAs (Integrated Design Environment Algorithms) which is a tool for discovering new fundamental design principles. These discoveries allowed us to adapt, and then to optimize, an earth-based fusion-electric magnetic-mirror-fusion reactor concept for propulsion in space. The resulting design is called the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS); and its design status is reviewed. This work can be used as a general road map for others attempting to convert earth-based designs to propulsion in space. It also has applicability to matter-antimatter propulsion systems engineering.

  5. Second Symposium on ``Current trends in international fusion research: review and assessment`` Chairman`s summary of session

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1998-02-26

    This session began with a keynote speech by B. Coppi of M.I.T., entitled: ``Physics of Fusion Burning Plasmas, Ignition, and Relevant Technology Issues.`` It continued with a second paper on the tokamak approach to fusion, presented by E. Mazzucato of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, entitled ``High Confinement Plasma Confinement Regime in TFTR Configurations with Reversed Magnetic Shear.`` The session continued with three talks discussing various aspects of the so-called ``Field Reversed Configuration`` (FRC), and concluded with a talk on a more general topic. The first of the three FRC papers, presented by J. Slough of the University of Washington, was entitled ``FRC Reactor for Deep Space Propulsion.`` This paper was followed by a paper by S. Goto of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of Osaka University in Japan, entitled ``Experimental Initiation of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) Toward Helium-3 Fusion.`` The third of the FRC papers, authored by H. Mimoto and Y. Tomito of the National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya, Japan, and presented by Y. Tomita was entitled ``Helium-3 Fusion Based on a Field-Reversed Configuration.`` The session was concluded with a paper presented by D. Ryutov of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory entitled: ``A User Facility for Research on Fusion Systems with Dense Plasmas.``

  6. A hingeless Fc fusion system for site-specific cleavage by IdeS.

    PubMed

    Novarra, Shabazz; Grinberg, Luba; Rickert, Keith W; Barnes, Arnita; Wilson, Susan; Baca, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Fusion of proteins to the Fc region of IgG is widely used to express cellular receptors and other extracellular proteins, but cleavage of the fusion partner is sometimes required for downstream applications. Immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) is a protease with exquisite specificity for human IgG, and it can also cleave Fc-fusion proteins at a single site in the N-terminal region of the CH2 domain. However, the site of IdeS cleavage results in the disulfide-linked hinge region partitioning with the released protein, complicating downstream usage of the cleaved product. To tailor the Fc fragment for release of partner proteins by IdeS treatment, we investigated the effect of deleting regions of IgG-derived sequence that are upstream of the cleavage site. Elimination of the IgG-derived hinge sequence along with several residues of the CH2 domain had negligible effects on expression and purity of the fusion protein, while retaining efficient processing by IdeS. An optimal Fc fragment comprising residues 235-447 of the human IgG1 heavy chain sufficed for efficient production of fusion proteins and minimized the amount of residual Ig-derived sequence on the cleavage product following IdeS treatment. Pairing of this truncated Fc fragment with IdeS cleavage enables highly specific cleavage of Fc-fusion proteins, thus eliminating the need to engineer extraneous cleavage sequences. This system should be helpful for producing Fc-fusion proteins requiring downstream cleavage, particularly those that are sensitive to internal miscleavage if treated with alternative proteases.

  7. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  8. A joint FED watermarking system using spatial fusion for verifying the security issues of teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, P; Krishna, P Venkata

    2014-05-01

    Teleradiology allows transmission of medical images for clinical data interpretation to provide improved e-health care access, delivery, and standards. The remote transmission raises various ethical and legal issues like image retention, fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc. A joint FED watermarking system means a joint fingerprint/encryption/dual watermarking system is proposed for addressing these issues. The system combines a region based substitution dual watermarking algorithm using spatial fusion, stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key, and fingerprint verification algorithm using invariants. This paper aims to give access to the outcomes of medical images with confidentiality, availability, integrity, and its origin. The watermarking, encryption, and fingerprint enrollment are conducted jointly in protection stage such that the extraction, decryption, and verification can be applied independently. The dual watermarking system, introducing two different embedding schemes, one used for patient data and other for fingerprint features, reduces the difficulty in maintenance of multiple documents like authentication data, personnel and diagnosis data, and medical images. The spatial fusion algorithm, which determines the region of embedding using threshold from the image to embed the encrypted patient data, follows the exact rules of fusion resulting in better quality than other fusion techniques. The four step stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key for encrypting the patient data with fingerprint verification system using algebraic invariants improves the robustness of the medical information. The experiment result of proposed scheme is evaluated for security and quality analysis in DICOM medical images resulted well in terms of attacks, quality index, and imperceptibility.

  9. Fusion hierarchies, T-systems, and Y-systems of logarithmic minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2014-05-01

    A Temperley-Lieb (TL) loop model is a Yang-Baxter integrable lattice model with nonlocal degrees of freedom. On a strip of width N \\in N, the evolution operator is the double-row transfer tangle D(u), an element of the TL algebra TLN(β) with loop fugacity β = 2cosλ, \\lambda \\in R. Similarly, on a cylinder, the single-row transfer tangle T(u) is an element of the so-called enlarged periodic TL algebra. The logarithmic minimal models {LM}(p,p') comprise a subfamily of the TL loop models for which the crossing parameter λ = (p‧- p)π/p‧ is a rational multiple of π parameterized by coprime integers 1 ≤ p < p‧. For these special values, additional symmetries allow for particular degeneracies in the spectra that account for the logarithmic nature of these theories. For critical dense polymers {LM}(1,2), with β = 0, D(u) and T(u) satisfy inversion identities that have led to the exact determination of the eigenvalues in any representation and for arbitrary finite system size N. The generalization for p‧ > 2 takes the form of functional relations for D(u) and T(u) of polynomial degree p‧. These derive from fusion hierarchies of commuting transfer tangles Dm, n(u) and Tm, n(u), where D(u) = D1,1(u) and T(u) = T1,1(u). The fused transfer tangles are constructed from (m, n)-fused face operators involving Wenzl-Jones projectors Pk on k = m or k = n nodes. Some projectors Pk are singular for k ≥ p‧, but we argue that Dm, n(u) and Tm, n(u) are nonsingular for every m,n \\in N in certain cabled link state representations. For generic λ, we derive the fusion hierarchies and the associated T- and Y-systems. For the logarithmic theories, the closure of the fusion hierarchies at n = p‧ translates into functional relations of polynomial degree p‧ for Dm, 1(u) and Tm, 1(u). We also derive the closure of the Y-systems for the logarithmic theories. The T- and Y-systems are the key to exact integrability, and we observe that the underlying structure of these

  10. Large orbit magnetic confinement systems for advanced fusion fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rostoker, N.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the grant/contract was to illuminate the problem of magnetic confinement for plasmas where the majority of ions have large gyro-orbits and do not obey adiabatic particle dynamics. The electrons are adiabatic. We considered a class of equilibria where large orbit ions dominate; the equilibria are rigorous solutions of the Vlasov/Maxwell equations. For a simple cse -- the infinitely long, low beta, rotating plasma a complete stability analysis was carried out. This problem was the basis of the first paper on finite Larmor radius stabilization. In that paper an expansion in {var epsilon} = {bar {alpha}}{sub i}/r{sub o} was carried out to the first significant order beyond MHD. In this report the same problem is solved to all orders in {var epsilon}. While this case is of limited applicability to experiments it is rigorous and without approximations, so that it can be used to verify approximations to be developed for more complex and useful cases. The application of the results to date to small fusion reactors is described in the second paper which was written after the termination of the contract, but is based in part on material developed during the contract period.

  11. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Heterogeneous Data Fusion Methods for Disaster Risk Assessment using Grid Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, Nataliia; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, a risk-oriented approach to manage disasters has been adopted. Risk is a function of two arguments: hazard probability and vulnerability [1]. In order to assess flood risk, for example, aggregation of heterogeneous data acquired from multiple sources is required. Outputs from hydrological and hydraulic models make it possible to predict floods; in situ observations such as river level and flows are used for early warning and models calibration. Remote sensing observations can be effectively used for rapid mapping in case of emergencies, and can be assimilated into models. One point that is mutual for all datasets is their geospatial nature. In order to enable operational assessment of disaster risk, appropriate technology is necessary. In this paper we discuss different strategies to heterogeneous data fusion and show their application in the domain of disaster monitoring and risk assessment. In particular, two case-studies are presented. The first one focuses on the use of time-series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images to generate a maximum flood extent image for each flood event. These maps are fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI) [2]. The RFI values are compared to relative water depth generated from the LISFLOOD-FP model. The model is calibrated against the satellite-derived flood extent. The model with different combinations of Manning's parameters was run in the Grid environment at Space Research Institute NASU-SSAU [3], and the optimal set of parameters was found. It is shown that RFI and water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Therefore, it justifies the use of RFI values for risk assessment. The second case-study deals with quantitative estimation of drought risk in Ukraine based on satellite data. Drought hazard mapping is performed based on the use of vegetation health

  13. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.; Gauster, W.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Mattas, R.F.; Morgan, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.A,; Watson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G,

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted.

  14. OPERATION OF FUSION REACTORS IN ONE ATMOSPHERE OF AIR INSTEAD OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, J. Reece

    2009-07-26

    Engineering design studies of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants have assumed that the plasma will undergo fusion reactions in a vacuum environment. Operation under vacuum requires an expensive additional major system for the reactor-a vacuum vessel with vacuum pumping, and raises the possibility of sudden unplanned outages if the vacuum containment is breached. It would be desirable in many respects if fusion reactors could be made to operate at one atmosphere with air surrounding the plasma, thus eliminating the requirement of a pressure vessel and vacuum pumping. This would have obvious economic, reliability, and engineering advantages for currently envisaged power plant reactors; it would make possible forms of reactor control not possible under vacuum conditions (i.e. adiabatic compression of the fusion plasma by increasing the pressure of surrounding gas); it would allow reactors used as aircraft engines to operate as turbojets or ramjets in the atmosphere, and it would allow reactors used as fusion rockets to take off from the surface of the earth instead of low earth orbit.

  15. SAFIRE: A systems analysis code for ICF (inertial confinement fusion) reactor economics

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Meier, W.R.; Carson, C.F.; Glasgow, B.B.

    1987-01-12

    The SAFIRE (Systems Analysis for ICF Reactor Economics) code incorporates analytical models for scaling the cost and performance of several inertial confinement fusion reactor concepts for electric power. The code allows us to vary design parameters (e.g., driver energy, chamber pulse rate, net electric power) and evaluate the resulting change in capital cost of power plant and the busbar cost of electricity. The SAFIRE code can be used to identify the most attractive operating space and to identify those design parameters with the greatest leverage for improving the economics of inertial confinement fusion electric power plants.

  16. Radiation-induced electrical breakdown of helium in fusion reactor superconducting magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.

    1983-12-02

    A comprehensive theoretical study has been performed on the reduction of the electrical breakdown potential of liquid and gaseous helium under neutron and gamma radiation. Extension of the conventional Townsend breakdown theory indicates that radiation fields at the superconducting magnets of a typical fusion reactor are potentially capable of significantly reducing currently established (i.e., unirradiated) helium breakdown voltages. Emphasis is given to the implications of these results including future deployment choices of magnet cryogenic methods (e.g., pool-boiling versus forced-flow), the possible impact on magnet shielding requirements and the analogous situation for radiation-induced electrical breakdown in fusion RF transmission systems.

  17. Analyzing cell fusion events within the central nervous system using bone marrow chimerism.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    It has emerged that cells which typically reside in the bone marrow have the capacity to cross the blood brain barrier and contribute genetic material to a range of neuronal cell types within the central nervous system. One such mechanism to account for this phenomenon is cellular fusion, occurring between migrating bone marrow-derived stem cells and neuronal cells in-situ. Biologically, the significance as to why cells from distinct lineages fuse with cells of the central nervous system is, as yet, unclear. Growing evidence however suggests that these cell fusion events could provide an efficient means of rescuing the highly complex and differentiated neuronal cell types that cannot be replaced in adulthood. To facilitate further understanding of cell fusion within the central nervous system, we describe here a technique to establish chimeric mice that are stably reconstituted with green fluorescent protein expressing sex-mismatched bone marrow. These chimeric mice are known to represent an excellent model for studying bone marrow cell migration and infiltration throughout the body, while in parallel, as will be described here, also provide a means to neatly analyze both bone marrow-derived cell fusion and trans-differentiation events within the central nervous system.

  18. Enhanced protein expression in the baculovirus/insect cell system using engineered SUMO fusions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Spurrier, Joshua; Butt, Tauseef R; Strickler, James E

    2008-11-01

    Recombinant protein expression in insect cells varies greatly from protein to protein. A fusion tag that is not only a tool for detection and purification, but also enhances expression and/or solubility would greatly facilitate both structure/function studies and therapeutic protein production. We have shown that fusion of SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) to several test proteins leads to enhanced expression levels in Escherichia coli. In eukaryotic expression systems, however, the SUMO tag could be cleaved by endogenous desumoylase. In order to adapt SUMO-fusion technology to these systems, we have developed an alternative SUMO-derived tag, designated SUMOstar, which is not processed by native SUMO proteases. In the present study, we tested the SUMOstar tag in a baculovirus/insect cell system with several proteins, i.e. mouse UBP43, human tryptase beta II, USP4, USP15, and GFP. Our results demonstrate that fusion to SUMOstar enhanced protein expression levels at least 4-fold compared to either the native or His(6)-tagged proteins. We isolated active SUMOstar tagged UBP43, USP4, USP15, and GFP. Tryptase was active following cleavage with a SUMOstar specific protease. The SUMOstar system will make significant impact in difficult-to-express proteins and especially to those proteins that require the native N-terminal residue for function.

  19. Theory and modeling of radiation effects in materials for fusion energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1996-04-01

    The U.S./Japan Workshop on Theory and Modeling of Radiation Effects in Materials for Fusion Energy Systems, under Phase III of the DOE/Monbusho collaboration, convened on July 17-18, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A brief summary of the workshop is followed by the workshop program.

  20. A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

    2011-10-01

    A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

  1. Estimating orientation using magnetic and inertial sensors and different sensor fusion approaches: accuracy assessment in manual and locomotion tasks.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2014-10-09

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided.

  2. Estimating Orientation Using Magnetic and Inertial Sensors and Different Sensor Fusion Approaches: Accuracy Assessment in Manual and Locomotion Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

  3. Fusion of spatio-temporal UAV and proximal sensing data for an agricultural decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsigiannis, P.; Galanis, G.; Dimitrakos, A.; Tsakiridis, N.; Kalopesas, C.; Alexandridis, T.; Chouzouri, A.; Patakas, A.; Zalidis, G.

    2016-08-01

    Over the last few years, multispectral and thermal remote sensing imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has found application in agriculture and has been regarded as a means of field data collection and crop condition monitoring source. The integration of information derived from the analysis of these remotely sensed data into agricultural management applications facilitates and aids the stakeholder's decision making. Whereas agricultural decision support systems (DSS) have long been utilised in farming applications, there are still critical gaps to be addressed; as the current approach often neglects the plant's level information and lacks the robustness to account for the spatial and temporal variability of environmental parameters within agricultural systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of a custom built autonomous UAV platform in providing critical information for an agricultural DSS. This hexacopter UAV bears two cameras which can be triggered simultaneously and can capture both the visible, near-infrared (VNIR) and the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths. The platform was employed for the rapid extraction of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the crop water stress index (CWSI) of three different plantations, namely a kiwi, a pomegranate, and a vine field. The simultaneous recording of these two complementary indices and the creation of maps was advantageous for the accurate assessment of the plantation's status. Fusion of UAV and soil scanner system products pinpointed the necessity for adjustment of the irrigation management applied. It is concluded that timely CWSI and NDVI measures retrieved for different crop growing stages can provide additional information and can serve as a tool to support the existing irrigation DSS that had so far been exclusively based on telemetry data from soil and agrometeorological sensors. Additionally, the use of the multi-sensor UAV was found to be beneficial in collecting timely, spatio

  4. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  5. Simulation and Analysis of Isotope Separation System for Fusion Fuel Recovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senevirathna, Bathiya; Gentile, Charles

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents results of a simulation of the Fuel Recovery System (FRS) for the Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) reactor. The LIFE reaction will produce exhaust gases that will need to be recycled in the FRS along with xenon, the chamber's intervention gas. Solids and liquids will first be removed and then vapor traps are used to remove large gas molecules such as lead. The gas will be reacted with lithium at high temperatures to extract the hydrogen isotopes, protium, deuterium, and tritium in hydride form. The hydrogen isotopes will be recovered using a lithium blanket processing system already in place and this product will be sent to the Isotope Separation System (ISS). The ISS will be modeled in software to analyze its effectiveness. Aspen HYSYS was chosen for this purpose for its widespread use industrial gas processing systems. Reactants and corresponding chemical reactions had to be initialized in the software. The ISS primarily consists of four cryogenic distillation columns and these were modeled in HYSYS based on design requirements. Fractional compositions of the distillate and liquid products were analyzed and used to optimize the overall system.

  6. Inertial fusion energy power reactor fuel recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C. A.; Kozub, T.; Langish, S. W.; Ciebiera, L. P.; Nobile, A.; Wermer, J.; Sessions, K.

    2008-07-15

    A conceptual design is proposed to support the recovery of un-expended fuel, ash, and associated post-detonation products resident in plasma exhaust from a {approx}2 GWIFE direct drive power reactor. The design includes systems for the safe and efficient collection, processing, and purification of plasma exhaust fuel components. The system has been conceptually designed and sized such that tritium bred within blankets, lining the reactor target chamber, can also be collected, processed, and introduced into the fuel cycle. The system will nominally be sized to process {approx}2 kg of tritium per day and is designed to link directly to the target chamber vacuum pumping system. An effort to model the fuel recovery system (FRS) using the Aspen Plus engineering code has commenced. The system design supports processing effluent gases from the reactor directly from the exhaust of the vacuum pumping system or in batch mode, via a buffer vessel in the Receiving and Analysis System. Emphasis is on nuclear safety, reliability, and redundancy as to maximize availability. The primary goal of the fuel recovery system design is to economically recycle components of direct drive IFE fuel. The FRS design is presented as a facility sub-system in the context of supporting the larger goal of producing safe and economical IFE power. (authors)

  7. A computational magnetohydrodynamic model of a gasdynamic fusion space propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlandt, Chad J. R.

    This work advances the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion space propulsion system concept by testing the potential of an advanced aneutronic fusion fuel combination of proton-11boron and evaluating GDMs operating at less than breakeven being driven with nuclear electric reactors. Finding neither option to be a panacea, the author moves forward in developing an ideal 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computational model for simulating concept GDMs. The challenges identified and remediated include Alfven wave-speeds a few percent the speed of light with characteristic lengths on the order of a centimeter, the extreme aspect ratio of GDM systems, massive background magnetic fields, and traveling waves along the length of the GDM. Due to the remaining physical challenges of modeling the GDM system, including a slow systemic relaxation time and localized radiation losses, the computational requirements of the full 3-D MHD model remains too computationally demanding, which suggests a future approach involving a hybrid of 1-D and 3-D models.

  8. A simple system for converting lacZ to gfp reporter fusions in diverse bacteria.

    PubMed

    Goulian, Mark; van der Woude, Marjan

    2006-05-10

    We describe new plasmids that facilitate the rapid conversion of lacZ fusions to gfp transcriptional fusions in bacteria. The exchange is based on a double recombination between lacZ sequences in a suicide vector and the recipient chromosome. The suicide vector is a mobilizable, conditionally replicative plasmid that contains the gene for gfp with flanking lacZ homology and is derived from a broad host range plasmid that has been successfully used in a wide range of bacterial species. The technique was used to convert lacZ reporter fusions to gfp fusions in Escherichia coli, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Green fluorescent protein expression in the new recombinants reflected the beta galactosidase expression in the parent strains. GFP is particularly useful for rapid quantification of gene expression in real time and in single cells. As a demonstration of an application of this system, we studied the induction of virE transcription by the VirA/VirG two-component system in A. tumefaciens in response to various levels of phenolic inducer. Analysis of GFP fluorescence in single cells revealed that at intermediate levels of inducer the population of cells was remarkably heterogeneous. The tools described here will be useful for general studies of transcriptional regulation as well as for applications that require spatial and temporal identification of gene expression, such as in the study of biofilms, and interactions between bacteria and their environment. PMID:16500039

  9. Intelligent query by humming system based on score level fusion of multiple classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo Nam, Gi; Thu Trang Luong, Thi; Ha Nam, Hyun; Ryoung Park, Kang; Park, Sung-Joo

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the necessity for content-based music retrieval that can return results even if a user does not know information such as the title or singer has increased. Query-by-humming (QBH) systems have been introduced to address this need, as they allow the user to simply hum snatches of the tune to find the right song. Even though there have been many studies on QBH, few have combined multiple classifiers based on various fusion methods. Here we propose a new QBH system based on the score level fusion of multiple classifiers. This research is novel in the following three respects: three local classifiers [quantized binary (QB) code-based linear scaling (LS), pitch-based dynamic time warping (DTW), and LS] are employed; local maximum and minimum point-based LS and pitch distribution feature-based LS are used as global classifiers; and the combination of local and global classifiers based on the score level fusion by the PRODUCT rule is used to achieve enhanced matching accuracy. Experimental results with the 2006 MIREX QBSH and 2009 MIR-QBSH corpus databases show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of single classifier and other fusion methods.

  10. Neutron flux assessment of a neutron irradiation facility based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion.

    PubMed

    Sztejnberg Gonçalves-Carralves, M L; Miller, M E

    2015-12-01

    Neutron generators based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion were considered for the design of a neutron irradiation facility for explanted organ Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) that could be installed in a health care center as well as in research areas. The chosen facility configuration is "irradiation chamber", a ~20×20×40 cm(3) cavity near or in the center of the facility geometry where samples to be irradiated can be placed. Neutron flux calculations were performed to study different manners for improving scattering processes and, consequently, optimize neutron flux in the irradiation position. Flux distributions were assessed through numerical simulations of several models implemented in MCNP5 particle transport code. Simulation results provided a wide spectrum of combinations of net fluxes and energy spectrum distributions. Among them one can find a group that can provide thermal neutron fluxes per unit of production rate in a range from 4.1·10(-4) cm(-2) to 1.6·10(-3) cm(-2) with epithermal-to-thermal ratios between 0.3% and 13% and fast-to-thermal ratios between 0.01% to 8%. Neutron generators could be built to provide more than 10(10) n s(-1) and, consequently, with an arrangement of several generators appropriate enough neutron fluxes could be obtained that would be useful for several BNCT-related irradiations and, eventually, for clinical practice.

  11. Fusion-based, high-volume automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Reisman, James G.

    1994-02-01

    Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) provide a means for non-manual fingerprint database searches. Future AFIS applications demand greater fingerprint match request throughput, and for larger fingerprint databases. Barriers to the implementation of a high volume AFIS are analyzed. Data-fusion methods are proposed as a method to maximize integration of fingerprint feature information with limited computational resources. Preliminary results from a prototype AFIS system are presented.

  12. Operational System-Impact Products for the Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSBX) and the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC/WXT) have combined efforts under the Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D). The SEEFS architecture and database enable modular use and execution of SEEFS products, and the high-level Decision Aid shows the combined effects of all SEEFS product output on a given asset and on multi-asset missions. This presentation provides a general overview of the SEEFS program, along with details of the first round of products expected to be operational for use in exercises and/or real-time operations in 2007-2008.

  13. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    SciTech Connect

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  14. Mirror fusion test facility magnet system. Final design report

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.; Hodges, A.J.; VanSant, J.H.; Dalder, E.N.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Scanlan, R.M.; Shimer, D.W.; Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.

    1980-09-03

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) magnet description, (2) superconducting manufacture, (3) mechanical behavior of conductor winding, (4) coil winding, (5) thermal analysis, (6) cryogenic system, (7) power supply system, (8) structural analysis, (9) structural finite element analysis refinement, (10) structural case fault analysis, and (11) structural metallurgy. (MOW)

  15. Knowledge-based imaging-sensor fusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westrom, George

    1989-01-01

    An imaging system which applies knowledge-based technology to supervise and control both sensor hardware and computation in the imaging system is described. It includes the development of an imaging system breadboard which brings together into one system work that we and others have pursued for LaRC for several years. The goal is to combine Digital Signal Processing (DSP) with Knowledge-Based Processing and also include Neural Net processing. The system is considered a smart camera. Imagine that there is a microgravity experiment on-board Space Station Freedom with a high frame rate, high resolution camera. All the data cannot possibly be acquired from a laboratory on Earth. In fact, only a small fraction of the data will be received. Again, imagine being responsible for some experiments on Mars with the Mars Rover: the data rate is a few kilobits per second for data from several sensors and instruments. Would it not be preferable to have a smart system which would have some human knowledge and yet follow some instructions and attempt to make the best use of the limited bandwidth for transmission. The system concept, current status of the breadboard system and some recent experiments at the Mars-like Amboy Lava Fields in California are discussed.

  16. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz; Norikane, L.; Way, Jobea

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Geographic Information System for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data are presented. Topics covered include: scientific objectives; schedule; and Geographic Information System.

  17. Evaluation techniques and metrics for assessment of pan+MSI fusion (pansharpening)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercovich, Ryan A.

    2015-05-01

    Fusion of broadband panchromatic data with narrow band multispectral data - pansharpening - is a common and often studied problem in remote sensing. Many methods exist to produce data fusion results with the best possible spatial and spectral characteristics, and a number have been commercially implemented. This study examines the output products of 4 commercial implementations with regard to their relative strengths and weaknesses for a set of defined image characteristics and analyst use-cases. Image characteristics used are spatial detail, spatial quality, spectral integrity, and composite color quality (hue and saturation), and analyst use-cases included a variety of object detection and identification tasks. The imagery comes courtesy of the RIT SHARE 2012 collect. Two approaches are used to evaluate the pansharpening methods, analyst evaluation or qualitative measure and image quality metrics or quantitative measures. Visual analyst evaluation results are compared with metric results to determine which metrics best measure the defined image characteristics and product use-cases and to support future rigorous characterization the metrics' correlation with the analyst results. Because pansharpening represents a trade between adding spatial information from the panchromatic image, and retaining spectral information from the MSI channels, the metrics examined are grouped into spatial improvement metrics and spectral preservation metrics. A single metric to quantify the quality of a pansharpening method would necessarily be a combination of weighted spatial and spectral metrics based on the importance of various spatial and spectral characteristics for the primary task of interest. Appropriate metrics and weights for such a combined metric are proposed here, based on the conducted analyst evaluation. Additionally, during this work, a metric was developed specifically focused on assessment of spatial structure improvement relative to a reference image and

  18. Optimization of parasitic isolators in laser fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Figueira, J.F.; Phipps, C.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The results of model calculations for the optimization of the efficiency of high-gain amplifier systems stabilized by saturable absorbers are described. It is shown that the isolator performance can be characterized by a convenient figure of merit.

  19. An FEL-based microwave system for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, R. R.; Jong, R. A.; Orzechowski, T. J.; Scharlemann, E. T.; Throop, A. L.; Kulke, B.; Thomassen, K. I.; Stallard, B. W.

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes designs for 280-GHz and 560-GHz microwave sources based on free electron lasers (FELs). These 10-MW units are based on technology developed over the last 5 years. A first demonstration of high-average-power microwave production with an FEL system is expected in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) facility. This paper gives details on the design and construction of that 250-GHz, 2-MW system and discusses specific applications for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT).

  20. Modular System for Neutronics Calculations of Fission Reactors, Fusion Blankets, and Other Systems.

    1999-07-23

    AUS is a neutronics code system which may be used for calculations of a wide range of fission reactors, fusion blankets and other neutron applications. The present version, AUS98, has a nuclear cross section library based on ENDF/B-VI and includes modules which provide for reactor lattice calculations, one-dimensional transport calculations, multi-dimensional diffusion calculations, cell and whole reactor burnup calculations, and flexible editing of results. Calculations of multi-region resonance shielding, coupled neutron and photon transport, energymore » deposition, fission product inventory and neutron diffusion are combined within the one code system. The major changes from the previous release, AUS87, are the inclusion of a cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI, the addition of the POW3D multi-dimensional diffusion module, the addition of the MICBURN module for controlling whole reactor burnup calculations, and changes to the system as a consequence of moving from IBM mainframe computers to UNIX workstations.« less

  1. Novel, spherically-convergent ion systems for neutron source and fusion energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. C.; Nebel, R. A.; Ribe, F. L.; Schauer, M. M.; Schranck, L. S.; Umstadter, K. R.

    1999-06-01

    Combining spherical convergence with electrostatic or electro-magnetostatic confinement of a nonneutral plasma offers the possibility of high fusion gain in a centimeter-sized system. The physics principles, scaling laws, and experimental embodiments of this approach are presented. Steps to development of this approach from its present proof-of-principle experiments to a useful fusion power reactor are outlined. This development path is much less expensive and simpler, compared to that for conventional magnetic confinement and leads to different and useful products at each stage. Reactor projections show both high mass power density and low to moderate wall loading. This approach is being tested experimentally in PFX-I (Penning Fusion eXperiment-Ions), which is based on the following recent advances: 1) Demonstration, in PFX (our former experiment), that it is possible to combine nonneutral electron plasma confinement with nonthermal, spherical focussing; 2) Theoretical development of the POPS (Periodically Oscillating Plasma Sphere) concept, which allows spherical compression of thermal-equilibrium ions; 3) The concept of a massively-modular approach to fusion power, and associated elimination of the critical problem of extremely high first wall loading. PFX-I is described. PFX-I is being designed as a small (<1.5 cm) spherical system into which moderate-energy electrons (up to 100 kV) are injected. These electrons are magnetically insulated from passing to the sphere and their space charge field is then used to spherically focus ions. Results of initial operation with electrons only are presented. Deuterium operation can produce significant neutron output with unprecedented efficiency (fusion gain Q).

  2. The Positioning Accuracy of BAUV Using Fusion of Data from USBL System and Movement Parameters Measurements.

    PubMed

    Krzysztof, Naus; Aleksander, Nowak

    2016-08-15

    The article presents a study of the accuracy of estimating the position coordinates of BAUV (Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) by the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method. The fusion of movement parameters measurements and position coordinates fixes was applied. The movement parameters measurements are carried out by on-board navigation devices, while the position coordinates fixes are done by the USBL (Ultra Short Base Line) system. The problem of underwater positioning and the conceptual design of the BAUV navigation system constructed at the Naval Academy (Polish Naval Academy-PNA) are presented in the first part of the paper. The second part consists of description of the evaluation results of positioning accuracy, the genesis of the problem of selecting method for underwater positioning, and the mathematical description of the method of estimating the position coordinates using the EKF method by the fusion of measurements with on-board navigation and measurements obtained with the USBL system. The main part contains a description of experimental research. It consists of a simulation program of navigational parameter measurements carried out during the BAUV passage along the test section. Next, the article covers the determination of position coordinates on the basis of simulated parameters, using EKF and DR methods and the USBL system, which are then subjected to a comparative analysis of accuracy. The final part contains systemic conclusions justifying the desirability of applying the proposed fusion method of navigation parameters for the BAUV positioning.

  3. The Positioning Accuracy of BAUV Using Fusion of Data from USBL System and Movement Parameters Measurements.

    PubMed

    Krzysztof, Naus; Aleksander, Nowak

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a study of the accuracy of estimating the position coordinates of BAUV (Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) by the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method. The fusion of movement parameters measurements and position coordinates fixes was applied. The movement parameters measurements are carried out by on-board navigation devices, while the position coordinates fixes are done by the USBL (Ultra Short Base Line) system. The problem of underwater positioning and the conceptual design of the BAUV navigation system constructed at the Naval Academy (Polish Naval Academy-PNA) are presented in the first part of the paper. The second part consists of description of the evaluation results of positioning accuracy, the genesis of the problem of selecting method for underwater positioning, and the mathematical description of the method of estimating the position coordinates using the EKF method by the fusion of measurements with on-board navigation and measurements obtained with the USBL system. The main part contains a description of experimental research. It consists of a simulation program of navigational parameter measurements carried out during the BAUV passage along the test section. Next, the article covers the determination of position coordinates on the basis of simulated parameters, using EKF and DR methods and the USBL system, which are then subjected to a comparative analysis of accuracy. The final part contains systemic conclusions justifying the desirability of applying the proposed fusion method of navigation parameters for the BAUV positioning. PMID:27537884

  4. The Positioning Accuracy of BAUV Using Fusion of Data from USBL System and Movement Parameters Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Krzysztof, Naus; Aleksander, Nowak

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a study of the accuracy of estimating the position coordinates of BAUV (Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) by the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method. The fusion of movement parameters measurements and position coordinates fixes was applied. The movement parameters measurements are carried out by on-board navigation devices, while the position coordinates fixes are done by the USBL (Ultra Short Base Line) system. The problem of underwater positioning and the conceptual design of the BAUV navigation system constructed at the Naval Academy (Polish Naval Academy—PNA) are presented in the first part of the paper. The second part consists of description of the evaluation results of positioning accuracy, the genesis of the problem of selecting method for underwater positioning, and the mathematical description of the method of estimating the position coordinates using the EKF method by the fusion of measurements with on-board navigation and measurements obtained with the USBL system. The main part contains a description of experimental research. It consists of a simulation program of navigational parameter measurements carried out during the BAUV passage along the test section. Next, the article covers the determination of position coordinates on the basis of simulated parameters, using EKF and DR methods and the USBL system, which are then subjected to a comparative analysis of accuracy. The final part contains systemic conclusions justifying the desirability of applying the proposed fusion method of navigation parameters for the BAUV positioning. PMID:27537884

  5. Fusion of neutron-rich systems using time-dependent density-constrained DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberacker, Volker; Umar, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    In connection with experiments at Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities, we study fusion reactions with a new approach [1] which is based on a time-dependent density-constrained density functional theory (DFT). The only input is the Skyrme NN interaction, there are no adjustable parameters. We calculate heavy-ion interaction potentials V(R), mass parameters M(R), and total fusion cross sections. Some of the effects naturally included in these calculations are: neck formation, mass exchange, internal excitations, deformation effects, as well as nuclear alignment for deformed systems. Results will be presented for low-energy fusion reactions of ^12C+^16,24O and for ^16,24O+^16,24,28O which occur in the crust of neutron stars [2]. Finally, we will discuss fusion with neutron-rich halo nuclei, in particular ^11Li+^208Pb.[4pt] [1] Umar and Oberacker, PRC 74, 021601(R) (2006)[0pt] [2] Umar, Oberacker, and Horowitz, PRC 85, 055801 (2012)

  6. Large distributed control system using ADA in fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, J. P., LLNL

    1998-04-21

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a large distributed control system constructed using object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers that run software written in Ada and communicating through CORBA. The project has completed its final design review; implementation of the first of five planned increments will be delivered at the end of fiscal year 1998. Preliminary measures of the distributed controls performance confirm the design decisions reported in this paper, and the measurement and supporting simulation of full system performance continue.

  7. The Physics Design for a Fusion Driven Sub-critical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Wu

    2002-11-01

    The Fusion Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is a sub-critical nuclear energy system drive by fusion neutron source, which provides a feasible, safe, economic and highly efficient potential of disposing High Level Waste (HLW) and produce fission nuclear fuel as a early application of fusion technology. This paper reviews the past physics reactor design of fusion-fission hybrid reactor in China, and a low aspect ratio tokamak energy system that has been proposed, which aims at high β, good confinement, and steady-state operation in a compact configuration at modest field. The system includes a low aspect ratio tokamak as fusion neutron driver, a radioactivity clean nuclear power system as blanket and novel concept of liquid metal conductor as centre conductor post. Parameters of such kind reactor are the following. Major radius 1.4m, Minor radius 1m, plasma current 9.2MA, Toroidal field 2.5T, Plasma edge q=5, Average density 1.6 10^20m^3, Average temperature 10keV, Plasma volume 50m^3, Bootstrap current fraction 0.72, Fusion power 100MW, Drive power 28MW, Neutron wall loading 1.0MW/m-2. The plasma configuration is an important part in the low-A tokamak. The Eq code has been used to get a equilibrium. From this calculation, we have found a simple set of PF coils that satisfies the requirements of the large elongation plasma configuration and a vertical field with less curve field lines in the low-A tokamak. The natural elongation can be attributed mostly to differences in the current density profile. In order to determine the feasibility of the low-A tokamak operation, a transient simulation has been made which includes the equilibrium, transport and plasma position shape control in the low-A tokamak. A 1-1/2 equilibrium evolution code has been used to make this simulation. The code is two-dimensional time dependent free boundary simulation code that advances the MHD equations describing the transport time-scale evolution of a axisymmetric tokamak plasma.

  8. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-04

    The Committee`s evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan.

  9. Assessment of some of the problems in the USA of superconducting magnets for fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, D.N.

    1981-11-05

    This paper discusses some of the general difficulties and problems encountered during the development of the technology of superconductors and superconducting magnets for fusion and expresses some personal concerns.

  10. System and method for cognitive processing for data fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system and method for cognitive processing of sensor data. A processor array receiving analog sensor data and having programmable interconnects, multiplication weights, and filters provides for adaptive learning in real-time. A static random access memory contains the programmable data for the processor array and the stored data is modified to provide for adaptive learning.

  11. Wrap-Around Out-the-Window Sensor Fusion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jeffrey; Boe, Eric A.; Delgado, Francisco; Secor, James B.; Clark, Michael R.; Ehlinger, Kevin D.; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Cockpit Evaluation System (ACES) includes communication, computing, and display subsystems, mounted in a van, that synthesize out-the-window views to approximate the views of the outside world as it would be seen from the cockpit of a crewed spacecraft, aircraft, or remote control of a ground vehicle or UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). The system includes five flat-panel display units arranged approximately in a semicircle around an operator, like cockpit windows. The scene displayed on each panel represents the view through the corresponding cockpit window. Each display unit is driven by a personal computer equipped with a video-capture card that accepts live input from any of a variety of sensors (typically, visible and/or infrared video cameras). Software running in the computers blends the live video images with synthetic images that could be generated, for example, from heads-up-display outputs, waypoints, corridors, or from satellite photographs of the same geographic region. Data from a Global Positioning System receiver and an inertial navigation system aboard the remote vehicle are used by the ACES software to keep the synthetic and live views in registration. If the live image were to fail, the synthetic scenes could still be displayed to maintain situational awareness.

  12. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  13. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L. S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-01-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and institutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included.

  14. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  15. Data fusion concept in multispectral system for perimeter protection of stationary and moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciurapiński, Wieslaw; Dulski, Rafal; Kastek, Mariusz; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Życzkowski, Marek; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Piszczek, Marek

    2009-09-01

    The paper presents the concept of multispectral protection system for perimeter protection for stationary and moving objects. The system consists of active ground radar, thermal and visible cameras. The radar allows the system to locate potential intruders and to control an observation area for system cameras. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of detection probability of intruder and reduction of false alarms. A final decision from system is worked out using image data. The method of data fusion used in the system has been presented. The system is working under control of FLIR Nexus system. The Nexus offers complete technology and components to create network-based, high-end integrated systems for security and surveillance applications. Based on unique "plug and play" architecture, system provides unmatched flexibility and simplistic integration of sensors and devices in TCP/IP networks. Using a graphical user interface it is possible to control sensors and monitor streaming video and other data over the network, visualize the results of data fusion process and obtain detailed information about detected intruders over a digital map. System provides high-level applications and operator workload reduction with features such as sensor to sensor cueing from detection devices, automatic e-mail notification and alarm triggering.

  16. A systematic assessment of the use of platelet-rich plasma in spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Elder, Benjamin D; Holmes, Christina; Goodwin, C Rory; Lo, Sheng-Fu; Puvanesarajah, Varun; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Locke, John E; Witham, Timothy F

    2015-05-01

    Spinal fusion is one of the most commonly performed procedures for the treatment of spinal instability caused by a multitude of pathologies. However, despite significant advances in spinal instrumentation, failed fusion, or pseudoarthrosis, remains a significant challenge. Therefore, other additives such as bone graft extenders and growth factors have been explored as a method to augment fusion rates. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) represents an additional approach, as it has shown some promise in bone regeneration. While the general use of PRP in orthopedic applications has been reviewed previously, its use in spinal fusion has not been systematically analyzed. The objective of this review is to systematically discuss the role of PRP in augmentation of bone regeneration for the purpose of spinal fusion. Background information on PRP, including a discussion of its preparation, activation, and growth factors, is included. Additionally, data from in vitro studies utilizing PRP in bone tissue engineering strategies is analyzed, and the available animal and clinical studies are systematically reviewed in order to provide guidance on future research pathways as well as the potential role of PRP in spinal fusion surgery.

  17. Conceptual Design of a Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabinski, Leo; Maples, Charlotte; Miernik, Janie; Stratham, Geoffrey; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; Santarius, John; Percy, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project that aims to develop a conceptual design for a Z-pinch thruster, that could be applied to develop advanced thruster designs which promise high thrust/high specific impulse propulsion. Overviews shows the concept of the design, which use annular nozzles with deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel and a Lithium mixture as a cathode, Charts show the engine performance as a function of linear mass, nozzle performance (i.e., plasma segment trajectories), and mission analysis for possible Mars and Jupiter missions using this concept for propulsion. Slides show views of the concepts for the vehicle configuration, thrust coil configuration, the power management system, the structural analysis of the magnetic nozzle, the thermal management system, and the avionics suite,

  18. Real-time Enhancement, Registration, and Fusion for a Multi-Sensor Enhanced Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) to aid pilots while flying in poor visibility conditions. The EVS captures imagery using two infrared video cameras. The cameras are placed in an enclosure that is mounted and flown forward-looking underneath the NASA LaRC ARIES 757 aircraft. The data streams from the cameras are processed in real-time and displayed on monitors on-board the aircraft. With proper processing the camera system can provide better-than- human-observed imagery particularly during poor visibility conditions. However, to obtain this goal requires several different stages of processing including enhancement, registration, and fusion, and specialized processing hardware for real-time performance. We are using a real-time implementation of the Retinex algorithm for image enhancement, affine transformations for registration, and weighted sums to perform fusion. All of the algorithms are executed on a single TI DM642 digital signal processor (DSP) clocked at 720 MHz. The image processing components were added to the EVS system, tested, and demonstrated during flight tests in August and September of 2005. In this paper we briefly discuss the EVS image processing hardware and algorithms. We then discuss implementation issues and show examples of the results obtained during flight tests. Keywords: enhanced vision system, image enhancement, retinex, digital signal processing, sensor fusion

  19. Minimally Invasive Multi-Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using a Percutaneously Inserted Spinal Fixation System : Technical Tips, Surgical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung; Park, Keun Ho; Ju, Chag Il; Lee, Seung Myung; Shin, Ho

    2011-01-01

    Objective There are technical limitations of multi-level posterior pedicle screw fixation performed by the percutaneous technique. The purpose of this study was to describe the surgical technique and outcome of minimally invasive multi-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and to determine its efficacy. Methods Forty-two patients who underwent mini-open PLIF using the percutaneous screw fixation system were studied. The mean age of the patients was 59.1 (range, 23 to 78 years). Two levels were involved in 32 cases and three levels in 10 cases. The clinical outcome was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and Low Back Outcome Score (LBOS). Achievement of radiological fusion, intra-operative blood loss, the midline surgical scar and procedure related complications were also analyzed. Results The mean follow-up period was 25.3 months. The mean LBOS prior to surgery was 34.5, which was improved to 49.1 at the final follow up. The mean pain score (VAS) prior to surgery was 7.5 and it was decreased to 2.9 at the last follow up. The mean estimated blood loss was 238 mL (140-350) for the two level procedures and 387 mL (278-458) for three levels. The midline surgical scar was 6.27 cm for two levels and 8.25 cm for three level procedures. Complications included two cases of asymptomatic medial penetration of the pedicle border. However, there were no signs of neurological deterioration or fusion failure. Conclusion Multi-level, minimally invasive PLIF can be performed effectively using the percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation system. It can be an alternative to the traditional open procedures. PMID:22259691

  20. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  1. Research and Development of Landmine Detection System by a Compact Fusion Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kai; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Mizutani, Toshiyuki; Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Imoto, Masaki; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Ohnishi, Masami; Osawa, Hodaka; Hotta, Eiki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Okino, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masato; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Yuura, Morimasa; Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Takamasa

    2005-05-15

    Current results are described on the research and development of an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). Landmines are to be identified through backscattering of neutrons, and specific-energy capture {gamma}-rays by hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the landmine explosives.For this purpose, improvements in the IECF were made by various methods to achieve a drastic enhancement of neutron yields of more than 10{sup 8} n/s in pulsed operation. This required R and D on the power source, as well as analysis of envisaged detection systems with multi-sensors. The results suggest promising and practical features for humanitarian landmine detection, particularly, in Afghanistan.

  2. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Abbott, R; Beach, R; Blink, J; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; MacIntyre, A; Miles, R; Storm, E

    2008-10-02

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R&D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost.

  3. Magnetic mirror fusion-fission early history and applicability to other systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R

    2009-08-24

    In the mid 1970s to mid 1980s the mirror program was stuck with a concept, the Standard Mirror that was Q {approx} 1 where Q=P{sub fusion}/P{sub injection}. Heroic efforts were put into hybridizing thinking added energy and fuel sales would make a commercial product. At the same time the tokamak was thought to allow ignition and ultrahigh Q values of 20 or even higher. There was an effort to use neutral beams to drive the tokamak just like the mirror machines were driven in which case the Q value plunged to a few, however this was thought to be achievable decades earlier than the high Q versions. Meanwhile current drive and other features of the tokamak have seen the projected Q values come down to the range of 10. Meanwhile the mirror program got Q enhancement into high gear and various tandem mirrors projected Q values up towards 10 and with advanced features over 10 with axi-symmetric magnets (See R. F. Post papers), however the experimental program is all but non-existent. Meanwhile, the gas dynamic trap mirror system which is present day state-of-the-art can with low risk produce Q of {approx}0.1 useful for a low risk, low cost neutron source for materials development useful for the development of materials for all fusion concepts (see Simonen white paper: 'A Physics-Based Strategy to Develop a Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid' and D.D. Ryutov, 'Axisymmetric MHD-stable mirror as a neutron source and a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid'). Many early hybrid designs with multi-disciplinary teams were carried out in great detail for the mirror system with its axi-symmetric blanket modules. It is recognized that most of these designs are adaptable to tokamak or inertial fusion geometry. When Q is low (1 to 2) economics gives a large economic penalty for high recirculating power. These early studies covered the three design types: Power production, fuel production and waste burning. All three had their place but power production fell away because every study showed

  4. Experimental study of incomplete fusion reactions in the O16 + Te130 system below 6 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Devendra P.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Unnati, Sharma, M. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2014-02-01

    Background: The measurement and analysis of excitation functions may be used as an important tool to understand incomplete fusion reaction dynamics. Purpose: Several studies have been carried out to study incomplete fusion reactions at low energies, but a clear picture of incomplete fusion reaction processes at energies below 6 MeV/nucleon has yet to emerge. Further, there is no theoretical model which may give a good representation of incomplete fusion processes. Method: Off-line γ-ray spectrometry has been used to measure the excitation functions in the 16O+130Te system at energies ≈3-6 MeV/nucleon. Results: Excitation functions for five reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion processes in the O16 + Te130 system have been measured. Measured cross-sections have been compared with the predictions of the statistical model code pace4. A significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions compared to theoretical predictions for α-emitting channels has been observed and is attributed to incomplete fusion processes. The relative strength of incomplete fusion has been found to increase with projectile energy. In the case of the Xe133(3αn) channel, the isomeric cross-section ratios have been deduced and found to increase rapidly with beam energy, indicating the importance of imparted angular momentum. The angular momentum at different energies has also been calculated. The analysis of the data indicates that incomplete fusion is associated even for angular momentum values smaller than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion. The results have been discussed in terms of the α-cluster structure of the projectile for various fusion reactions. Conclusions: It may be concluded that, apart from complete fusion, incomplete fusion processes are of greater importance even at energies as low as ≈3-6 MeV/nucleon, where fusion evaporation channels are expected to be dominant. The measured isomeric cross-section ratio for the

  5. Portable Immune-Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Mishra, Saroj K.

    1995-01-01

    Portable immune-assessment system developed for use in rapidly identifying infections or contaminated environment. System combines few specific fluorescent reagents for identifying immune-cell dysfunction, toxic substances, buildup of microbial antigens or microbial growth, and potential identification of pathogenic microorganisms using fluorescent microplate reader linked to laptop computer. By using few specific dyes for cell metabolism, DNA/RNA conjugation, specific enzyme activity, or cell constituents, one makes immediate, onsite determination of person's health or of contamination of environment.

  6. Large Scale Mapping of Disturbance and Recovery Using Fusion of Radar and Lidar: An Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubayah, R.; Saatchi, S. S.; Blair, J. B.; Shugart, H. H.; Hofton, M.

    2004-12-01

    Forested landscapes are generally composed of a heterogeneous mixture of patches that reflect the complex interaction of processes occurring at many spatial and temporal scales. Whether caused by natural disturbances, such as blow downs and fire, or management practices, such as logging and agriculture, ecosystem structure and carbon fluxes will vary strongly as a result of differences in successional stage. Identifying and tracking these dynamics through space and time has been extraordinarily difficult, given the burden and limited scope of field-based methods, and the limited efficacy of most remote sensing approaches. Lidar remote sensing has proven to be exceptionally effective for mapping forest structure and successional status, providing critical initialization for carbon modeling approaches. However, application of lidar-based methods has been hindered by the relative expense and sparse spatial coverage of existing data sets. Regional and continental scale studies may thus require the integration of sparse lidar observations with data from sensors that may reasonably be expected to provide continuous coverage of some aspect of forest structure at high spatial resolution over large areas. One such technology is radar remote sensing. In this paper we assess the potential of integrating p-band radar with waveform lidar for the mapping of disturbance and recovery. Lidar data acquired over the tropical forests of La Selva, Costa Rica, are used to derive canopy height, biomass, and forest vertical structure. These data are then combined with p-band radar acquired several years later to develop and evaluate approaches to fusion that facilitate the determination of ecosystem dynamics.

  7. Systems modeling and analysis of heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.

    1998-06-03

    A computer model for systems analysis of heavy ion drivers based on induction linac technology has been used to evaluate driver designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Design parameters and estimated costs have been determined for drivers with various ions, different charge states, different front-end designs, with and without beam merging, and various pulse compression and acceleration schedules. We have examined the sensitivity of the results to variations in component cost assumptions, design constraints, and selected design parameters

  8. Sub-Barrier Fusion Calculations for the {sup 9}Li+{sup 70}Zn System

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A. B.; Kocak, G.

    2008-11-11

    Sub-barrier fusion cross sections for the {sup 9}Li+{sup 70}Zn system are analyzed within the framework of the coupled channels model. We find that inclusion of the inelastic and one-neutron transfer channels in the coupled-channels calculations fails to reproduce the data. We find that possible formation of a molecular bond accompanied by two-neutron transfer may account for the observed behavior.

  9. The risk assessment information system

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.B.; Bonczek, R.R.; McGinn, C.W.; Land, M.L.; Bloom, L.D.; Sample, B.E.; Dolislager, F.G.

    1998-06-01

    In an effort to provide service-oriented environmental risk assessment expertise, the Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Risk Excellence (CRE) and DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) are sponsoring Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a web-based system for disseminating risk tools and information to its users. This system, the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS), was initially developed to support the site-specific needs of the DOE-ORO Environmental Restoration Risk Assessment Program. With support from the CRE, the system is currently being expanded to benefit all DOE risk information users and can be tailored to meet site-specific needs. Taking advantage of searchable and executable databases, menu-driven queries, and data downloads, using the latest World Wide Web technologies, the RAIS offers essential tools that are used in the risk assessment process or anywhere from project scoping to implementation. The RAIS tools can be located directly at http://risk.lsd.ornl.gov/homepage/rap{_}tool.htm or through the CRE`s homepage at http://www.doe.gov/riskcenter/home.html.

  10. Developmental validation of the PowerPlex(®) Fusion 6C System.

    PubMed

    Ensenberger, Martin G; Lenz, Kristy A; Matthies, Learden K; Hadinoto, Gregory M; Schienman, John E; Przech, Angela J; Morganti, Michael W; Renstrom, Daniel T; Baker, Victoria M; Gawrys, Kori M; Hoogendoorn, Marlijn; Steffen, Carolyn R; Martín, Pablo; Alonso, Antonio; Olson, Hope R; Sprecher, Cynthia J; Storts, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    The PowerPlex(®) Fusion 6C System is a 27-locus, six-dye, multiplex that includes all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and increases overlap with STR database standards throughout the world. Additionally, it contains two, rapidly mutating, Y-STRs and is capable of both casework and database workflows, including direct amplification. A multi-laboratory developmental validation study was performed on the PowerPlex(®) Fusion 6C System. Here, we report the results of that study which followed SWGDAM guidelines and includes data for: species specificity, sensitivity, stability, precision, reproducibility and repeatability, case-type samples, concordance, stutter, DNA mixtures, and PCR-based procedures. Where appropriate we report data from both extracted DNA samples and direct amplification samples from various substrates and collection devices. Samples from all studies were separated on both Applied Biosystems 3500 series and 6-dye capable 3130 series Genetic Analyzers and data is reported for each. Together, the data validate the design and demonstrate the performance of the PowerPlex(®) Fusion 6C System.

  11. Inertial and optical sensor fusion to compensate for partial occlusions in surgical tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Changyu; Liu, Yue

    2015-08-01

    To solve the occlusion problem in optical tracking system (OTS) for surgical navigation, this paper proposes a sensor fusion approach and an adaptive display method to handle cases where partial or total occlusion occurs. In the sensor fusion approach, the full 6D pose information provided by the optical tracker is used to estimate the bias of the inertial sensors when all of the markers are visible. When partial occlusion occurs, the optical system can track the position of at least one marker which can be combined with the orientation estimated from the inertial measurements to recover the full 6D pose information. When all the markers are invisible, the position tracking will be realized based on outputs of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) which may generate increasing drifting error. To alert the user when the drifting error is great enough to influence the navigation, the images adaptive to the drifting error are displayed in the field of the user's view. The experiments are performed with an augmented reality HMD which displays the AR images and the hybrid tracking system (HTS) which consists of an OTS and an IMU. Experimental result shows that with proposed sensor fusion approach the 6D pose of the head with respect to the reference frame can be estimated even under partial occlusion conditions. With the help of the proposed adaptive display method, the users can recover the scene of markers when the error is considered to be relatively high.

  12. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

  13. Assessment of Residential GSHP System

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing

    2010-09-01

    This report first briefly reviews geothermal heat pump (GHP) technology and the current status of the GHP industry in the United States. Then it assesses the potential national benefits, in terms of energy savings, reduced summer peak electrical demand, consumer energy cost savings, and reduced CO{sub 2} emissions from retrofitting the space heating, space cooling, and water heating systems in existing U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GHP systems. The investment for retrofitting typical U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GHP systems is also analyzed using the metrics of net present value and levelized cost.

  14. RACC Code System for Computing Radioactivity-Related Parameters for Fusion Reactor Systems Modified for Pulsed/Intermittent Activation Analysis.

    1996-04-30

    Version 00 CCC-388/RACC was specifically developed to compute the radioactivity and radioactivity-related parameters (e.g., afterheat, biological hazard potential, etc.) due to neutron activation within Inertial Fusion Energy and Magnetic Fusion Energy reactor systems. It can also be utilized to compute the radioactivity in fission, accelerator or any other neutron generating and neutron source system. This new version designated RACC-PULSE is based on CCC-388 and has the capability to model irradiation histories of varying flux levelsmore » having varying pulse widths (on times) and dwell periods (off times) and varying maintenance periods. This provides the user with the flexibility of modeling most any complexity of irradiation history beginning with simple steady state operating systems to complex multi-flux level pulse/intermittent operating systems.« less

  15. Direct measurement of the impulse in a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Maeno, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Mori, Yoshitaka; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2011-08-15

    An experiment is conducted to measure an impulse for demonstrating a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket. The impulse is produced by the interaction between plasma and magnetic field. In the experiment, the system consists of plasma and neodymium permanent magnets. The plasma is created by a single-beam laser aiming at a polystyrene spherical target. The impulse is 1.5 to 2.2 {mu}Ns by means of a pendulum thrust stand, when the laser energy is 0.7 J. Without magnetic field, the measured impulse is found to be zero. These results indicate that the system for generating impulse is working.

  16. A new in vitro hemagglutinin inhibitor screening system based on a single-vesicle fusion assay

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hanki; Jin, Wook; Jeong, Byeong-Chul; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) from the influenza virus plays a pivotal role in the infection of host mammalian cells and is, therefore, a druggable target, similar to neuraminidase. However, research involving the influenza virus must be conducted in facilities certified at or above Biosafety Level 2 because of the potential threat of the contagiousness of this virus. To develop a new HA inhibitor screening system without intact influenza virus, we conceived a single-vesicle fusion assay using full-length recombinant HA. In this study, we first showed that full-length recombinant HA can mediate membrane fusion in ensemble and single-vesicle fusion assays. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) frequency pattern of single-vesicle complexes completely differed when the inhibitors targeted the HA1 or HA2 domain of HA. This result indicates that analysing the FRET patterns in this assay can provide information regarding the domains of HA inhibited by compounds and compounds’ inhibitory activities. Therefore, our results suggest that the assay developed here is a promising tool for the discovery of anti-influenza virus drug candidates as a new in vitro inhibitor screening system against HA from the influenza virus. PMID:27469068

  17. An Efficient Genome-Wide Fusion Partner Screening System for Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung-Hoon; Hyun Sung, Bong; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Soon-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Mook; Kim, Mi-Jin; Lee, Cho-Ryong; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    To produce rarely secreted recombinant proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we developed a novel genome-wide optimal translational fusion partner (TFP) screening system that involves recruitment of an optimal secretion signal and fusion partner. A TFP library was constructed from a genomic and truncated cDNA library by using the invertase-based signal sequence trap technique. The efficiency of the system was demonstrated using two rarely secreted proteins, human interleukin (hIL)-2 and hIL-32. Optimal TFPs for secretion of hIL-2 and hIL-32 were easily selected, yielding secretion of these proteins up to hundreds of mg/L. Moreover, numerous uncovered yeast secretion signals and fusion partners were identified, leading to efficient secretion of various recombinant proteins. Selected TFPs were found to be useful for the hypersecretion of other recombinant proteins at yields of up to several g/L. This screening technique could provide new methods for the production of various types of difficult-to-express proteins. PMID:26195161

  18. Recording system and data fusion algorithm for enhancing the estimation of the respiratory rate from photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Roxana A; Ciorecan, Silvia I; Ungureanu, Constantin; Arends, Johan; Strungaru, Rodica; Ungureanu, G Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory rate is a vital parameter that can provide valuable information about the health condition of a patient. The extraction of respiratory information from photoplethysmographic signal (PPG) was actually encouraged by the reported results, our main goal being to obtain accurate respiratory rate estimation from the PPG signal. We developed a fusion algorithm that identifies the best derived respiratory signals, from which is possible to extract the respiratory rate; based on these, a global respiratory rate is computed using the proposed fusion algorithm. The algorithm is qualitatively tested on real PPG signals recorded by an acquisition system we implemented, using a reflection pulse oximeter sensor. Its performance is also statistically evaluated using benchmark dataset publically available from CapnoBase.Org. PMID:26737653

  19. An experimental system for determining the influence of microgravity on B lymphocyte activation and cell fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammons, D. W.; Zimmermann, U.; Klinman, N. R.; Gessner, P.; Humphreys, R. C.; Emmons, S. P.; Neil, G. A.

    The influence of microgravity on lymphocyte activation is central to the understanding of immunological function in space. Moreover, the adaptation of groundbased technologies to microgravity conditions presents opportunities for biotechnological applications including high efficiency production of antibody forming hybridomas. Because the emerging technology of microgravity hybridoma generation is dependent upon activation and cultivation of B lymphocytes during flight, we have adapted mitogen-driven B lymphocyte stimulation and culture that allows for the in vitro generation of large numbers of antibody forming cells suitable for cell fusion over a period of 1-2 weeks. We believe that this activation and cultivation system can be flown on near-term space flights to test fundamental hypotheses about mammalian cell activation, cell fusion, metabolism, secretion, growth, and bio-separation.

  20. Recording system and data fusion algorithm for enhancing the estimation of the respiratory rate from photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Roxana A; Ciorecan, Silvia I; Ungureanu, Constantin; Arends, Johan; Strungaru, Rodica; Ungureanu, G Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory rate is a vital parameter that can provide valuable information about the health condition of a patient. The extraction of respiratory information from photoplethysmographic signal (PPG) was actually encouraged by the reported results, our main goal being to obtain accurate respiratory rate estimation from the PPG signal. We developed a fusion algorithm that identifies the best derived respiratory signals, from which is possible to extract the respiratory rate; based on these, a global respiratory rate is computed using the proposed fusion algorithm. The algorithm is qualitatively tested on real PPG signals recorded by an acquisition system we implemented, using a reflection pulse oximeter sensor. Its performance is also statistically evaluated using benchmark dataset publically available from CapnoBase.Org.

  1. Process Model of A Fusion Fuel Recovery System for a Direct Drive IFE Power Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natta, Saswathi; Aristova, Maria; Gentile, Charles

    2008-11-01

    A task has been initiated to develop a detailed representative model for the fuel recovery system (FRS) in the prospective direct drive inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor. As part of the conceptual design phase of the project, a chemical process model is developed in order to observe the interaction of system components. This process model is developed using FEMLAB Multiphysics software with the corresponding chemical engineering module (CEM). Initially, the reactants, system structure, and processes are defined using known chemical species of the target chamber exhaust. Each step within the Fuel recovery system is modeled compartmentally and then merged to form the closed loop fuel recovery system. The output, which includes physical properties and chemical content of the products, is analyzed after each step of the system to determine the most efficient and productive system parameters. This will serve to attenuate possible bottlenecks in the system. This modeling evaluation is instrumental in optimizing and closing the fusion fuel cycle in a direct drive IFE power reactor. The results of the modeling are presented in this paper.

  2. Assessing cell fusion and cytokinesis failure as mechanisms of clone 9 hepatocyte multinucleation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Simic, Damir; Euler, Catherine; Thurby, Christina; Peden, Mike; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah; Bunch, Todd; Sanderson, Thomas; Van Vleet, Terry

    2012-08-01

    In this in vitro model of hepatocyte multinucleation, separate cultures of rat Clone 9 cells are labeled with either red or green cell tracker dyes (Red Cell Tracker CMPTX or Vybrant CFDA SE Cell Tracer), plated together in mixed-color colonies, and treated with positive or negative control agents for 4 days. The fluorescent dyes become cell-impermeant after entering cells and are not transferred to adjacent cells in a population, but are inherited by daughter cells after fusion. The mixed-color cultures are then evaluated microscopically for multinucleation and analysis of the underlying mechanism (cell fusion/cytokinesis). Multinucleated cells containing only one dye have undergone cytokinesis failure, whereas dual-labeled multinucleated cells have resulted from fusion.

  3. A motorized ultrasound system for MRI-ultrasound fusion guided prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifabadi, Reza; Xu, Sheng; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: This study presents MoTRUS, a motorized transrectal ultrasound system, to enable remote navigation of a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe during da Vinci assisted prostatectomy. MoTRUS not only provides a stable platform to the ultrasound probe, but also allows the physician to navigate it remotely while sitting on the da Vinci console. This study also presents phantom feasibility study with the goal being intraoperative MRI-US image fusion capability to bring preoperative MR images to the operating room for the best visualization of the gland, boundaries, nerves, etc. Method: A two degree-of-freedom probe holder is developed to insert and rotate a bi-plane transrectal ultrasound transducer. A custom joystick is made to enable remote navigation of MoTRUS. Safety features have been considered to avoid inadvertent risks (if any) to the patient. Custom design software has been developed to fuse pre-operative MR images to intraoperative ultrasound images acquired by MoTRUS. Results: Remote TRUS probe navigation was evaluated on a patient after taking required consents during prostatectomy using MoTRUS. It took 10 min to setup the system in OR. MoTRUS provided similar capability in addition to remote navigation and stable imaging. No complications were observed. Image fusion was evaluated on a commercial prostate phantom. Electromagnetic tracking was used for the fusion. Conclusions: Motorized navigation of the TRUS probe during prostatectomy is safe and feasible. Remote navigation provides physician with a more precise and easier control of the ultrasound image while removing the burden of manual manipulation of the probe. Image fusion improved visualization of the prostate and boundaries in a phantom study.

  4. Quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, Robert M (Inventor); Smidts, Carol S (Inventor); Mosleh, Ali (Inventor); Chang, Yung-Hsien (Inventor); Swaminathan, Sankaran (Inventor); Groen, Francisco J (Inventor); Tan, Zhibin (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS) builds a risk model of a system for which risk of failure is being assessed, then analyzes the risk of the system corresponding to the risk model. The QRAS performs sensitivity analysis of the risk model by altering fundamental components and quantifications built into the risk model, then re-analyzes the risk of the system using the modifications. More particularly, the risk model is built by building a hierarchy, creating a mission timeline, quantifying failure modes, and building/editing event sequence diagrams. Multiplicities, dependencies, and redundancies of the system are included in the risk model. For analysis runs, a fixed baseline is first constructed and stored. This baseline contains the lowest level scenarios, preserved in event tree structure. The analysis runs, at any level of the hierarchy and below, access this baseline for risk quantitative computation as well as ranking of particular risks. A standalone Tool Box capability exists, allowing the user to store application programs within QRAS.

  5. Data-fusion display system with volume rendering of intraoperatively scanned CT images.

    PubMed

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Otake, Yoshito; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Nakata, Norio

    2005-01-01

    In this study we have designed and created a data-fusion display that has enabled volumetric MIP image navigation using intraoperative C-arm CT data in the operating room. The 3D volumetric data reflecting a patient's inner structure is directly displayed on the monitor through video images of the surgical field using a 3D optical tracking system, a ceiling-mounted articulating monitor, and a small size video camera mounted at the back of the monitor. The system performance was validated in an experiment carried out in the operating room.

  6. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bers, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  7. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  8. Assessing the efficacy of vesicle fusion with planar membrane arrays using a mitochondrial porin as reporter

    SciTech Connect

    Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila; Hansen, Jesper S.; Stibius, Karin B.; Groth, Jesper S.; Helix-Nielsen, Claus

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} We have established a vesicle fusion efficacy assay based on the major non-specific porin of Fusobacterium nucleatum (FomA). {yields} Maximal fusion obtained was almost 150,000 porin insertions during 20 min. {yields} Incorporation can be either first order or exponential kinetics which has implications for establishing protein delivery to biomimetic membranes. -- Abstract: Reconstitution of functionally active membrane protein into artificially made lipid bilayers is a challenge that must be overcome to create a membrane-based biomimetic sensor and separation device. In this study we address the efficacy of proteoliposome fusion with planar membrane arrays. We establish a protein incorporation efficacy assay using the major non-specific porin of Fusobacterium nucleatum (FomA) as reporter. We use electrical conductance measurements and fluorescence microscopy to characterize proteoliposome fusion with an array of planar membranes. We show that protein reconstitution in biomimetic membrane arrays may be quantified using the developed FomA assay. Specifically, we show that FomA vesicles are inherently fusigenic. Optimal FomA incorporation is obtained with a proteoliposome lipid-to-protein molar ratio (LPR) = 50 more than 10{sup 5} FomA proteins could be incorporated in a bilayer array with a total membrane area of 2 mm{sup 2} within 20 min. This novel assay for quantifying protein delivery into lipid bilayers may be a useful tool in developing biomimetic membrane applications.

  9. Corral Monitoring System assessment results

    SciTech Connect

    Filby, E.E.; Haskel, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the results of a functional and operational assessment of the Corral Monitoring Systems (CMS), which was designed to detect and document accountable items entering or leaving a monitored site. Its development was motivated by the possibility that multiple sites in the nuclear weapons states of the former Soviet Union might be opened to such monitoring under the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The assessment was performed at three levels. One level evaluated how well the planned approach addressed the target application, and which involved tracking sensitive items moving into and around a site being monitored as part of an international treaty or other agreement. The second level examined the overall design and development approach, while the third focused on individual subsystems within the total package. Unfortunately, the system was delivered as disassembled parts and pieces, with very poor documentation. Thus, the assessment was based on fragmentary operating data coupled with an analysis of what documents were provided with the system. The system design seemed to be a reasonable match to the requirements of the target application; however, important questions about site manning and top level administrative control were left unanswered. Four weaknesses in the overall design and development approach were detected: (1) poor configuration control and management, (2) inadequate adherence to a well defined architectural standard, (3) no apparent provision for improving top level error tolerance, and (4) weaknesses in the object oriented programming approach. The individual subsystems were found to offer few features or capabilities that were new or unique, even at the conceptual level. The CMS might possibly have offered a unique combination of features, but this level of integration was never realized, and it had no unique capabilities that could be readily extracted for use in another system.

  10. Advanced fueling system for steady-state operation of a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.

    2008-07-15

    Steady-state Advanced Tokamak scenarios rely on optimized density and pressure profiles to maximize the bootstrap current fraction. Under this mode of operation, the fuelling system must deposit small amounts of fuel where it is needed, and as often as needed, so as to compensate for fuel losses, but not to adversely alter the established density and pressure profiles. A precision fuelling system has the capability for controlling the fusion burn by maintaining the required pressure profile to maximize the bootstrap current fraction. An advanced fuelling system based on Compact Toroid (CT) injection has the potential to meet these needs while simultaneously simplifying the requirements of the tritium handling systems. Simpler engineering systems would reduce reactor construction and maintenance cost through increased reliability. A CT fueling system is described together with the associated tritium handling requirements. (authors)

  11. A comprehensive assessment of the risk of bone morphogenetic protein use in spinal fusion surgery and postoperative cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kevin S; McCormick, Paul C; Levi, Allan D

    2015-07-01

    The risk of postoperative cancer following the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in spinal fusion is one potential complication that has received significant interest. Until recently, there has been little clinical evidence to support the assertion of potential cancer induction after BMP use in spinal surgery. This report aims to summarize the findings from clinical data available to date from the Yale University Open Data Access (YODA) project as well as more recently published large database studies regarding the association of BMP use in spinal fusion and the risk of postoperative cancer. A detailed review was based on online databases, primary studies, FDA reports, and bibliographies of key articles for studies that assessed the efficacy and safety of BMP in spinal fusion. In an analysis of the YODA project, one meta-analysis detected a statistically significant increase in cancer occurrence at 24 months but not at 48 months, and the other meta-analysis did not detect a significant increase in postoperative cancer occurrence. Analysis of 3 large health care data sets (Medicare, MarketScan, and PearlDiver) revealed that none were able to detect a significant increase in risk of malignant cancers when BMP was used compared with controls. The potential risk of postoperative cancer formation following the use of BMP in spinal fusion must be interpreted on an individual basis for each patient by the surgeon. There is no conclusive evidence that application of the common formulations of BMP during spinal surgery results in the formation of cancer locally or at a distant site.

  12. Demonstration of polyscann ultrasonic butt-fusion inspection system for polyethylene pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Orange S., Jr.; Hunt, James B.

    1993-07-01

    The demonstration of the Polyscann Ultrasonic Butt-Fusion Inspection System and laboratory research into its effectiveness as a quality control tool for installation of polyethylene pipe are described. In the demonstration, conducted at North Fort Hood, TX, 13 sections of 8 in. diameter polyethylene pipe were assembled and tied into a previously installed 8 in. gas pipeline. The system was successfully used to inspect each new butt-fusion joint in its entirety, and provided a computerized record of joint cross-sections and status. Laboratory tests indicated that the equipment results were mostly reliable, but it could not detect a low-density weld contaminant such as dried grass. Benefits of the Polyscann system include its nondestructive evaluation technology, capability of evaluating all joints without interrupting pipeline productivity, data-logging capabilities, ease of use, and ability to identify necessary repairs before the pipe is buried. After this demonstration was concluded, the manufacturer discontinued the system that was tested, and is redesigning it to be portable by one person and capable of detecting low-density contaminants such as grass. Price and release date for the updated system are pending.

  13. Materials degradation in fission reactors: Lessons learned of relevance to fusion reactor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was, Gary S.

    2007-08-01

    The management of materials in power reactor systems has become a critically important activity in assuring the safe, reliable and economical operation of these facilities. Over the years, the commercial nuclear power reactor industry has faced numerous 'surprises' and unexpected occurrences in materials. Mitigation strategies have sometimes solved one problem at the expense of creating another. Other problems have been solved successfully and have motivated the development of techniques to foresee problems before they occur. This paper focuses on three aspects of fission reactor experience that may benefit future fusion systems. The first is identification of parameters and processes that have had a large impact on the behavior of materials in fission systems such as temperature, dose rate, surface condition, gradients, metallurgical variability and effects of the environment. The second is the development of materials performance and failure models to provide a basis for assuring component integrity. Last is the development of proactive materials management programs that identify and pre-empt degradation processes before they can become problems. These aspects of LWR experience along with the growing experience with materials in the more demanding advanced fission reactor systems form the basis for a set of 'lessons learned' to aid in the successful management of materials in fusion reactor systems.

  14. Evaluation of CFETR as a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility using multiple system codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S.; Costley, A. E.; Wan, B. N.; Garofalo, A. M.; Leuer, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a multi-system codes benchmarking study of the recently published China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) pre-conceptual design (Wan et al 2014 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42 495). Two system codes, General Atomics System Code (GASC) and Tokamak Energy System Code (TESC), using different methodologies to arrive at CFETR performance parameters under the same CFETR constraints show that the correlation between the physics performance and the fusion performance is consistent, and the computed parameters are in good agreement. Optimization of the first wall surface for tritium breeding and the minimization of the machine size are highly compatible. Variations of the plasma currents and profiles lead to changes in the required normalized physics performance, however, they do not significantly affect the optimized size of the machine. GASC and TESC have also been used to explore a lower aspect ratio, larger volume plasma taking advantage of the engineering flexibility in the CFETR design. Assuming the ITER steady-state scenario physics, the larger plasma together with a moderately higher BT and Ip can result in a high gain Qfus ˜ 12, Pfus ˜ 1 GW machine approaching DEMO-like performance. It is concluded that the CFETR baseline mode can meet the minimum goal of the Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) mission and advanced physics will enable it to address comprehensively the outstanding critical technology gaps on the path to a demonstration reactor (DEMO). Before proceeding with CFETR construction steady-state operation has to be demonstrated, further development is needed to solve the divertor heat load issue, and blankets have to be designed with tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1 as a target.

  15. New approach to information fusion for Lipschitz classifiers ensembles: Application in multi-channel C-OTDR-monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Andrey V.; Egorov, Dmitry V.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents new results concerning selection of an optimal information fusion formula for an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. The goal of information fusion is to create an integral classificatory which could provide better generalization ability of the ensemble while achieving a practically acceptable level of effectiveness. The problem of information fusion is very relevant for data processing in multi-channel C-OTDR-monitoring systems. In this case we have to effectively classify targeted events which appear in the vicinity of the monitored object. Solution of this problem is based on usage of an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers each of which corresponds to a respective channel. We suggest a brand new method for information fusion in case of ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. This method is called "The Weighing of Inversely as Lipschitz Constants" (WILC). Results of WILC-method practical usage in multichannel C-OTDR monitoring systems are presented.

  16. Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

    1980-01-01

    The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. A description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies is presented.

  17. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  18. The Mirror Fusion Test Facility cryogenic system: Performance, management approach, and present equipment status

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, D.S.; Chronis, W.C.

    1987-06-08

    The cryogenic system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a 14-kW, 4.35-K helium refrigeration system that proved to be highly successful and cost-effective. All operating objectives were met, while remaining within a few percent of initial cost and schedule plans. The management approach used in MFTF allowed decisions to be made quickly and effectively, and it helped keep costs down. Manpower levels, extent and type of industrial participation, key aspects of subcontractor specifications, and subcontractor interactions are reviewed, as well as highlights of the system tests, operation, and present equipment status. Organizations planning large, high-technology systems may benefit from this experience with the MFTF cryogenic system.

  19. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  20. A preliminary assessment of beryllium dust oxidation during a wet bypass accident in a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Brad J. Merrill; Richard L. Moore; J. Phillip Sharp

    2008-09-01

    A beryllium dust oxidation model has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) for the MELCOR safety computer code. The purpose of this model is to investigate hydrogen production from beryllium dust layers on hot surfaces inside a fusion reactor vacuum vessel (VV) during in-vessel loss-of-cooling accidents (LOCAs). This beryllium dust oxidation model accounts for the diffusion of steam into a beryllium dust layer, the oxidation of the dust particles inside this layer based on the beryllium-steam oxidation equations developed at the INL, and the effective thermal conductivity of this beryllium dust layer. This paper details this oxidation model and presents the results of the application of this model to a wet bypass accident scenario in the ITER device.

  1. Sub-barrier fusion excitation for the system {sup 7}Li + {sup 28}Si

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Mandira; Majumdar, H.; Basu, P.; Roy, Subinit; Biswas, M.; Pradhan, M. K.; Kailas, S.

    2008-08-15

    The sub-barrier fusion excitation functions are measured for the first time for the system {sup 7}Li+ {sup 28}Si by the characteristic {gamma}-ray method in the energy range E{sub lab}=7-11.5 MeV. The results show an enhancement, below the barrier, by about a factor of two when compared with the one-dimensional barrier penetration (1D BPM) model. Introduction of coupling with the rotational 2{sup +} state (1.779 MeV) of the target improves the fit somewhat, but still an enhancement of about 25-40% remains.

  2. CAIS. Condition Assessment Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, J.C.

    1996-09-30

    CAIS is used by Architects and Engineers to gather facility condition assessment data. This data consist of architectural, civil, structural, electrical, and mechanical systems and components that are a part of the inspected facility. Data is collected using a hand-held, pen-based computer system which is preprogrammed for detailed inventories of individual components. The program is deficiency based for collecting data for repair and replacement observations. Observations are recorded on checklists preformatted to individual site needs, allowing for comments on unusual conditions to be documented on site. Data is transferred to a central database, where it can be reviewed, costed, and reported on using different scenarios. Information can be transferred to the DOE operations offices as well as to the DOE FIMS database for each site.

  3. Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawan, M. E.; Ghoniem, N. M.; Snead, L.; Katoh, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation damage parameters in SiC/SiC composite structures are determined in both magnetic (MFE) and inertial (IFE) confinement fusion systems. Variations in the geometry, neutron energy spectrum, and pulsed nature of neutron production result in significant differences in damage parameters between the two systems. With the same neutron wall loading, the displacement damage rate in the first wall in an IFE system is ˜10% lower than in an MFE system, while gas production and burnup rates are a factor of 2 lower. Self-cooled LiPb and Flibe blankets were analyzed. While using LiPb results in higher displacement damage, Flibe yields higher gas production and burnup rates. The effects of displacement damage and helium production on defect accumulation in SiC/SiC composites are also discussed.

  4. Supervisory control and diagnostics system for the mirror fusion test facility: overview and status 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McGoldrick, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a complex facility requiring a highly-computerized Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) to monitor and provide control over ten subsystems; three of which require true process control. SCDS will provide physicists with a method of studying machine and plasma behavior by acquiring and processing up to four megabytes of plasma diagnostic information every five minutes. A high degree of availability and throughput is provided by a distributed computer system (nine 32-bit minicomputers on shared memory). Data, distributed across SCDS, is managed by a high-bandwidth Distributed Database Management System. The MFTF operators' control room consoles use color television monitors with touch sensitive screens; this is a totally new approach. The method of handling deviations to normal machine operation and how the operator should be notified and assisted in the resolution of problems has been studied and a system designed.

  5. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  6. Studying calcium triggered vesicle fusion in a single vesicle-vesicle content/lipid mixing system

    PubMed Central

    Kyoung, Minjoung; Zhang, Yunxiang; Diao, Jiajie; Chu, Steven; Brunger, Axel T.

    2013-01-01

    This Protocol describes a single vesicle-vesicle microscopy system to study Ca2+-triggered vesicle fusion. Donor vesicles contain reconstituted synaptobrevin and synaptotagmin-1. Acceptor vesicles contain reconstituted syntaxin and SNAP-25, and are tethered to a PEG-coated glass surface. Donor vesicles are mixed with the tethered acceptor vesicles and incubated for several minutes at zero Ca2+-concentration, resulting in a collection of single interacting vesicle pairs. The donor vesicles also contain two spectrally distinct fluorophores that allow simultaneous monitoring of temporal changes of the content and membrane. Upon Ca2+-injection into the sample chamber, our system therefore differentiates between hemifusion and complete fusion of interacting vesicle pairs and determines the temporal sequence of these events on a sub-hundred millisecond timescale. Other factors, such as complexin, can be easily added. Our system is unique by monitoring both content and lipid mixing, and by starting from a metastable state of interacting vesicle pairs prior to Ca2+-injection. PMID:23222454

  7. Alpha Particles Play a Relatively Minor Role in Magnetized Target Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2002-03-15

    Two problems related to alpha particle physics in magnetized target fusion (MTF) systems are briefly discussed. First, we evaluate the pressure and density of alpha particles under the assumption that they are perfectly confined and have a classical slowing-down distribution. It turns out that because of a comparatively low plasma temperature in MTF systems, the relative pressure and density of alpha particles are more than an order of magnitude less than in fusion reactors based on ITER-type tokamaks. Therefore, one may expect that even in the extreme case of a perfect confinement of alpha particles, their presence will have a much weaker (than in the case of tokamaks) effect on plasma stability and transport. Second, we discuss the kinetics of plasma burn under the opposite extreme assumption that all the alpha particles are instantaneously lost, without leaving any energy in a plasma. It turns out that even in this case, the plasma energy yield in batch-burn systems is only weakly affected by burnout effects.

  8. Real-time enhancement, registration, and fusion for a multi-sensor enhanced vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2006-05-01

    Over the last few years NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) to aid pilots while flying in poor visibility conditions. The EVS captures imagery using two infrared video cameras. The cameras are placed in an enclosure that is mounted and flown forward-looking underneath the NASA LaRC ARIES 757 aircraft. The data streams from the cameras are processed in realtime and displayed on monitors on-board the aircraft. With proper processing the camera system can provide better-than-human-observed imagery particularly during poor visibility conditions. However, to obtain this goal requires several different stages of processing including enhancement, registration, and fusion, and specialized processing hardware for realtime performance. We are using a realtime implementation of the Retinex algorithm for image enhancement, affine transformations for registration, and weighted sums to perform fusion. All of the algorithms are executed on a single TI DM642 digital signal processor (DSP) clocked at 720 MHz. The image processing components were added to the EVS system, tested, and demonstrated during flight tests in August and September of 2005. In this paper we briefly discuss the EVS image processing hardware and algorithms. We then discuss implementation issues and show examples of the results obtained during flight tests.

  9. Real-time Enhancement, Registration, and Fusion for an Enhanced Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) to aid pilots while flying in poor visibility conditions. The EVS captures imagery using two infrared video cameras. The cameras are placed in an enclosure that is mounted and flown forward-looking underneath the NASA LaRC ARIES 757 aircraft. The data streams from the cameras are processed in real-time and displayed on monitors on-board the aircraft. With proper processing the camera system can provide better-than-human-observed imagery particularly during poor visibility conditions. However, to obtain this goal requires several different stages of processing including enhancement, registration, and fusion, and specialized processing hardware for real-time performance. We are using a real-time implementation of the Retinex algorithm for image enhancement, affine transformations for registration, and weighted sums to perform fusion. All of the algorithms are executed on a single TI DM642 digital signal processor (DSP) clocked at 720 MHz. The image processing components were added to the EVS system, tested, and demonstrated during flight tests in August and September of 2005. In this paper we briefly discuss the EVS image processing hardware and algorithms. We then discuss implementation issues and show examples of the results obtained during flight tests.

  10. Measurement of fusion excitation functions in the system {sup 78}Kr + {sup 100}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H.

    1995-08-01

    Earlier measurements of fusion reactions involving {sup 78}Kr and {sup 100}Mo projectiles and Ni-targets showed surprisingly large fusion yields at low energies which could not be explained by coupled-channels calculations. The main difference to similar measurements involving the neighboring {sup 86}Kr and {sup 92}Mo isotopes was the different slope of the excitation functions at sub-barrier energies. An analysis of a variety of experiments showed a correlation between the nuclear structure and the slope of the excitation functions, with the {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} transitional nuclei ({sup 78}Kr, {sup 100}Mo) exhibiting shallower slopes than the {open_quotes}stiff{close_quotes} nuclei ({sup 86}Kr, {sup 92}Mo) measured at the same energies with respect to the barrier. In this experiment we studied the fusion excitation function involving two transitional nuclei {sup 78}Kr + {sup 100}Mo. The measurements were performed with {sup 78}Kr beams from the ECR source at energies between 285-370 MeV. Separation of the evaporation nucleus from the elastically scattered particles was achieved by measuring time-of-flight and magnetic rigidity in the gas-filled spectrograph. The data were completely analyzed. A comparison of the cross sections with measurements for the system {sup 86}Kr + {sup 92}Mo populating the same compound nucleus {sup 178}Pt. It shows good agreement at the highest energies, but quite different falloffs of the excitation functions toward lower energies. Coupled-channels calculations, including multi-phonon excitation for the two systems, are being performed.

  11. Mobile munitions assessment system development

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, L.C.; Watts, K.D.; Jorgensen, C.L.

    1996-05-01

    The United States has been involved in the development, testing, storage and disposal of chemical weapons since World War I. As a result, there are numerous sites which contain the presence of chemical warfare materiel. This materiel is in the form of buried surplus munitions, munitions that did not detonate during testing and other forms. These items pose a significant human health and environmental hazard and must be disposed of properly. The US Army was tasked by the Department of Defense with the remediation of all non-stockpile chemical warfare materiel. To help comply with this tasking, the Army Project Manager for Nonstockpile Chemical Materiel is sponsoring the development of a Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS). The system is being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Dugway Proving Ground. The purpose of the system is to inspect suspect munitions and containers, identify the fill, evaluate the fuzing and firing train and analyze samples from the surrounding area to determine if chemical warfare materiel is present. The information gained from the application of the MMAS and other systems is intended to be used to establish the best method to handle and dispose of a given munition and its contents.

  12. Fusion of a FBG-based health monitoring system for wind turbines with a fiber-optic lightning detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Sebastian G. M.; Wiesent, Benjamin; Müller, Mathias S.; Puente León, Fernando; Méndez Hernández, Yarú

    2008-04-01

    Wind turbine blades are made of composite materials and reach a length of more than 42 meters. Developments for modern offshore turbines are working on about 60 meters long blades. Hence, with the increasing height of the turbines and the remote locations of the structures, health monitoring systems are becoming more and more important. Therefore, fiber-optic sensor systems are well-suited, as they are lightweight, immune against electromagnetic interference (EMI), and as they can be multiplexed. Based on two separately existing concepts for strain measurements and lightning detection on wind turbines, a fused system is presented. The strain measurement system is based on a reflective fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) network embedded in the composite structure of the blade. For lightning detection, transmissive &fiber-optic magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect are used to register the lightning parameters and estimate the impact point. Hence, an existing lightning detection system will be augmented, due to the fusion, by the capability to measure strain, temperature and vibration. Load, strain, temperature and impact detection information can be incorporated into the turbine's monitoring or SCADA system and remote controlled by operators. Data analysis techniques allow dynamic maintenance scheduling to become a reality, what is of special interest for the cost-effective maintenance of large offshore or badly attainable onshore wind parks. To prove the feasibility of this sensor fusion on one optical fiber, interferences between both sensor systems are investigated and evaluated.

  13. Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale. PMID:25031874

  14. The estrogen receptor fusion system in mouse models: a reversible switch.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Jonathan; Littlewood, Trevor; Evan, Gerard I; Soucek, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Reversible regulatory mouse models have significantly contributed to our understanding of normal tissue and cancer biology, providing the opportunity to temporally control initiation, progression, and evolution of physiological and pathological events. The tamoxifen inducible system, one of the best-characterized "reversible switch" models, has a number of beneficial features. In this system, the hormone-binding domain of the mammalian estrogen receptor is used as a heterologous regulatory domain. Upon ligand binding, the receptor is released from its inhibitory complex and the fusion protein becomes functional. We summarize the advantages and drawbacks of the system, describe several mouse models that rely on it, and discuss potential improvements that could render it even more useful and versatile. PMID:25734072

  15. Thermoplastic fusion bonding using a pressure-assisted boiling point control system.

    PubMed

    Park, Taehyun; Song, In-Hyouk; Park, Daniel S; You, Byoung Hee; Murphy, Michael C

    2012-08-21

    A novel thermoplastic fusion bonding method using a pressure-assisted boiling point (PABP) control system was developed to apply precise temperatures and pressures during bonding. Hot embossed polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) components containing microchannels were sealed using the PABP system. Very low aspect ratio structures (AR = 1/100, 10 μm in depth and 1000 μm in width) were successfully sealed without collapse or deformation. The integrity and strength of the bonds on the sealed PMMA devices were evaluated using leakage and rupture tests; no leaks were detected and failure during the rupture tests occurred at pressures greater than 496 kPa. The PABP system was used to seal 3D shaped flexible PMMA devices successfully.

  16. Highly radiation-resistant vacuum impregnation resin systems for fusion magnet insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, P. E.; Munshi, N. A.; Denis, R. J.

    2002-05-01

    Magnets built for fusion devices such as the newly proposed Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) need to be highly reliable, especially in a high radiation environment. Insulation materials are often the weak link in the design of superconducting magnets due to their sensitivity to high radiation doses, embrittlement at cryogenic temperatures, and the limitations on their fabricability. An insulation system capable of being vacuum impregnated with desirable properties such as a long pot-life, high strength, and excellent electrical integrity and which also provides high resistance to radiation would greatly improve magnet performance and reduce the manufacturing costs. A new class of insulation materials has been developed utilizing cyanate ester chemistries combined with other known radiation-resistant resins, such as bismaleimides and polyimides. These materials have been shown to meet the demanding requirements of the next generation of devices, such as FIRE. Post-irradiation testing to levels that exceed those required for FIRE showed no degradation in mechanical properties. In addition, the cyanate ester-based systems showed excellent performance at cryogenic temperatures and possess a wide range of processing variables, which will enable cost-effective fabrication of new magnets. This paper details the processing parameters, mechanical properties at 76 K and 4 K, as well as post-irradiation testing to dose levels surpassing 108 Gy.

  17. Simulation of System Error Tolerances of a High Current Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Steven M.; Bangerter, Roger O.; Freidman, Alex; Grote, Dave P.; Seidl, Peter A.

    2000-10-01

    A driver-scale, intense ion beam transport experiment (HCX) is being designed to test issues for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) [1]. Here we present detailed, Particle in Cell simulations of HCX to parametrically explore how various system errors can impact machine performance. The simulations are transverse and include the full 3D fields of the quadrupole focusing magnets, spreads in axial momentum, conducting pipe boundary conditions, etc. System imperfections such as applied focusing field errors (magnet strength, field nonlinearities, etc.), alignment errors (magnet offsets and rotations), beam envelope mismatches to the focusing lattice, induced beam image charges, and beam distribution errors (beam nonuniformities, collective modes, and other distortions) are all analyzed in turn and in combination. The influence of these errors on the degradation of beam quality (emittance growth), halo production, and loss of beam control are evaluated. Evaluations of practical machine apertures and centroid steering corrections that can mitigate particle loss and degradation of beam quality are carried out. 1. P.A. Seidl, L.E. Ahle, R.O. Bangerter, V.P. Karpenko, S.M. Lund, A Faltens, R.M. Franks, D.B. Shuman, and H.K. Springer, Design of a Proof of Principal High Current Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion, these proceedings.

  18. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Iván G.; Bergasa, Luis M.; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, J. Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study. PMID:24412904

  19. Fusion of optimized indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for driver drowsiness detection.

    PubMed

    Daza, Iván García; Bergasa, Luis Miguel; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, Jose Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-09

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  20. DPSSL pumped 20-TW Ti:sapphire laser system for DD fusion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, T.; Hatano, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kawashima, T.

    2016-03-01

    A diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) pumped 20-TW output Ti:sapphire laser system has been developed. A diode-pumped Nd:glass laser with output energy of 12.7 J in 527 nm was used as a pump source for a 20-TW Ti:sapphire amplifier. A CeLiB6O10 nonlinear optical crystal was used as a frequency doubler of the Nd:glass DPSSL[1]. Figure 1 shows typical output pulse energy of the 20-TW amplifier as a function of pumping energy and a near field pattern. A 1.65 J pulse energy was obtained by 4.5 J pump energy. The amplified seed pulse is compressed to typically 60 fs as shown in Fig. 1 by a vacuumed pulse compressor with 80% of transmissivity. Encircled energy ratio, into a circled with 8 μm diameter area, of far field pattern focused by off-axis parabolic mirror with F# of 3 is numerically evaluated to 40% at TW class output condition. Then focal intensity would reach to 1018W/cm2. This all- DPSSL system contributes for stable and continual investigation of laser induced plasma experiment. We have succeeded continual and high efficient generation of DD fusion neutron from CD nano-particles by cluster fusion scheme using the 20-TW laser. A yield of ∼105 neutrons per shot was stably observed during continuous 100 shots with repetition rate of 0.1Hz.

  1. Data fusion-based design for automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, James G.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a data fusion-based approach to designing an Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS). Fingerprint matching methods vary from pattern matching, using ridge structure, orientation, or even the entire fingerprint itself, to point critical matching, using localized features such as ridge discontinuities, e.g. minutiae, or porous structures. Localized matching methods, such as minutiae, tend to yield more compact templates, in general, than pattern based methods. However, the reliability of localized features may be an issue, since they are affected adversely by the quality of the captured fingerprint, i.e. the degree of noise. Minutiae-based matching methods tend to be slower, albeit more accurate, than pattern-based methods. The trade-off in designing a cost-effective AFIS in terms of processing power (CPU) used, matching speed, and accuracy, lies in the choice of the proper matching methods that are selected to optimize performance by maximizing the matching accuracy while minimizing the search time. In this paper we present a systematic design and study of a fusion-based AFIS using a multiplicity of matching methods to optimize system performance and minimize required CPU cost.

  2. Visual programming environment for multisensor data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David L.; Kasmala, Gerald

    1996-06-01

    In recent years, numerous multisensor data fusion systems have been developed for a wide variety of applications. Defense related applications include; automatic target recognition systems, identification-friend-foe-neutral, automated situation assessment and threat assessment systems, and systems for smart weapons. Non-defense applications include; robotics, condition-based maintenance, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics. For each of these applications, multiple sensor data are combined to achieve inferences which are not generally possible using only a single sensor. Implementation of these data fusion systems often involves a significant amount of effort. In particular, software must be developed for components such as data base access, human computer interfaces and displays, communication software, and data fusion algorithms. While commercial software packages exist to assist development of data bases, communications, and human computer interfaces, there are no general purpose packages available to support the implementation of the data fusion algorithms. This paper describes a visual programming tool developed to assist in rapid prototyping of data fusion systems. This toolkit is modeled after the popular tool, Khoros, used by the image processing community. The tool described here is written in visual C, and provides the capability to rapidly implement and apply data fusion algorithms. An application to condition based maintenance is described.

  3. A systems engineering approach to technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Crepea, A T

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a technology assessment process based on systems engineering methodologies used in the aerospace and defense industries. Systems engineering, defined in the U.S. military manual for engineering management, is a logical sequence of activities and decisions transforming an operational need into a description of system performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Like systems engineering, technology assessment is driven by a single, clear need. The objective of systems engineering is to design a new system configuration; technology assessment assesses existing technologies to address this need. A six-step technology assessment model based on systems engineering principles is presented, including: (1) needs assessment; (2) clinical feasibility analysis; (3) systems assessment; (4) approval; (5) implementation; and (6) follow-up/CQI. PMID:10144457

  4. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  5. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  6. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  7. In-Service Design & Performance Prediction of Advanced Fusion Material Systems by Computational Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Odette; G. E. Lucas

    2005-11-15

    This final report on "In-Service Design & Performance Prediction of Advanced Fusion Material Systems by Computational Modeling and Simulation" (DE-FG03-01ER54632) consists of a series of summaries of work that has been published, or presented at meetings, or both. It briefly describes results on the following topics: 1) A Transport and Fate Model for Helium and Helium Management; 2) Atomistic Studies of Point Defect Energetics, Dynamics and Interactions; 3) Multiscale Modeling of Fracture consisting of: 3a) A Micromechanical Model of the Master Curve (MC) Universal Fracture Toughness-Temperature Curve Relation, KJc(T - To), 3b) An Embrittlement DTo Prediction Model for the Irradiation Hardening Dominated Regime, 3c) Non-hardening Irradiation Assisted Thermal and Helium Embrittlement of 8Cr Tempered Martensitic Steels: Compilation and Analysis of Existing Data, 3d) A Model for the KJc(T) of a High Strength NFA MA957, 3e) Cracked Body Size and Geometry Effects of Measured and Effective Fracture Toughness-Model Based MC and To Evaluations of F82H and Eurofer 97, 3-f) Size and Geometry Effects on the Effective Toughness of Cracked Fusion Structures; 4) Modeling the Multiscale Mechanics of Flow Localization-Ductility Loss in Irradiation Damaged BCC Alloys; and 5) A Universal Relation Between Indentation Hardness and True Stress-Strain Constitutive Behavior. Further details can be found in the cited references or presentations that generally can be accessed on the internet, or provided upon request to the authors. Finally, it is noted that this effort was integrated with our base program in fusion materials, also funded by the DOE OFES.

  8. Design of 3D measurement system based on multi-sensor data fusion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiguang; Han, Jun; Yu, Xun

    2009-05-01

    With the rapid development of shape measurement technique, multi-sensor approach becomes one of valid way to improve the accuracy, to expend measuring range, to reduce occlusion, to realize multi-resolution measurement, and to increase measuring speed simultaneously. Sensors in multi-sensor system can have different system parameters, and they may have different measuring range and different precision. Light sectioning method is one of useful measurement technique for 3D profile measurement. It is insensitive to the surface optical property of 3D object, has scarcely any demand on surrounding. A multi-sensor system scheme, which uses light sectioning method and multi-sensor data fusion techniques, is presented for blade of aviation engine and spiral bevel gear measurement. The system model is developed to build the relationship between measuring range & precision and system parameters. The system parameters were set according to system error analysis, measuring range and precision. The result shows that the system is more universal than it's ancestor, and that the accuracy of the system is about 0.05mm for the 60× 60mm2 measuring range, and that the system is successful for the aero-dynamical data curve of blade of aviation engine and tooth profile of spiral bevel gear measurement with 3600 multi-resolution measuring character.

  9. A scalable portable object-oriented framework for parallel multisensor data-fusion applications in HPC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Prasad, Guru

    2004-04-01

    Multi-sensor Data Fusion is synergistic integration of multiple data sets. Data fusion includes processes for aligning, associating and combining data and information in estimating and predicting the state of objects, their relationships, and characterizing situations and their significance. The combination of complex data sets and the need for real-time data storage and retrieval compounds the data fusion problem. The systematic development and use of data fusion techniques are particularly critical in applications requiring massive, diverse, ambiguous, and time-critical data. Such conditions are characteristic of new emerging requirements; e.g., network-centric and information-centric warfare, low intensity conflicts such as special operations, counter narcotics, antiterrorism, information operations and CALOW (Conventional Arms, Limited Objectives Warfare), economic and political intelligence. In this paper, Aximetric presents a novel, scalable, object-oriented, metamodel framework for parallel, cluster-based data-fusion engine on High Performance Computing (HPC) Systems. The data-clustering algorithms provide a fast, scalable technique to sift through massive, complex data sets coming through multiple streams in real-time. The load-balancing algorithm provides the capability to evenly distribute the workload among processors on-the-fly and achieve real-time scalability. The proposed data-fusion engine exploits unique data-structures for fast storage, retrieval and interactive visualization of the multiple data streams.

  10. Incomplete fusion studies in the 19F+159Tb system at low energies and its correlation with various systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaib, Mohd.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Devendra P.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2016-07-01

    The excitation functions of reaction residues populated via the complete fusion and incomplete fusion process in the interaction of the 19F+159Tb system have been measured at energies ≈4 -6 MeV/nucleon, using off-line γ -ray spectroscopy. The analysis of data was done within the framework of statistical model code pace4 (a compound nucleus model). A significant fraction of incomplete fusion was observed in the production of reaction residues involving α particle(s) in the exit channels, even at energies as low as near the Coulomb barrier. The incomplete fusion strength function was deduced from the experimental excitation functions and the dependence of this strength function on various entrance channel parameters was studied. The present results show a strong dependence on the projectile α -Q value that agrees well with the existing data. To probe the dependence of incomplete fusion on entrance channel mass asymmetry, the present work was compared with the results obtained in the interaction of 12C, 16O, and 19F with nearby targets available in the literature. It was observed that the mass asymmetry linearly increases for each projectile separately and turns out to be a projectile-dependent mass-asymmetry systematics. The deduced incomplete fusion strength functions in the present work are also plotted as a function of ZPZT (Coulomb effect) and compared with the existing literature. A strong dependence of the Coulomb effect on the incomplete fusion fraction was observed. It was found that the fraction of incomplete fusion linearly increases with ZPZT and was found to be more for larger ZPZT values indicating significantly important linear systematics.

  11. Assessment of Novel Anti-thrombotic Fusion Proteins for Inhibition of Stenosis in a Porcine Model of Arteriovenous Graft

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Christi M.; Zhuplatov, Ilya; He, Yuxia; Wun, Tze-Chein; Kim, Seong-Eun; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis arteriovenous synthetic grafts (AVG) provide high volumetric blood flow rates shortly after surgical placement. However, stenosis often develops at the vein-graft anastomosis contributing to thrombosis and early graft failure. Two novel fusion proteins, ANV-6L15 and TAP-ANV, inhibit the tissue factor/factor VIIa coagulation complex and the factor Xa/factor Va complex, respectively. Each inhibitor domain is fused to an annexin V domain that targets the inhibitor activity to sites of vascular injury to locally inhibit thrombosis. This study’s objective was to determine if these antithrombotic proteins are safe and effective in inhibiting AVG stenosis. Methods A bolus of either TAP-ANV or ANV-6L15 fusion protein was administered intravenously immediately prior to surgical placement of a synthetic graft between the external jugular vein and common carotid artery in a porcine model. At surgery, the vein and artery were irrigated with the anti-thrombotic fusion protein. Control animals received intravenous heparin. At 4 weeks, MRI was performed to evaluate graft patency, the pigs were then euthanized and grafts and attached vessels were explanted for histomorphometric assessment of neointimal hyperplasia at the vein-graft anastomosis. Blood was collected at surgery, immediately after surgery and at euthanasia for serum metabolic panels and coagulation chemistries. Results No acute thrombosis occurred in the control group or in either experimental group. No abnormal serum chemistries, activated clotting times or PT, PTT values were observed after treatment in experimental or control animals. However, at the vein-graft anastomosis, there was no difference between the control and experimental groups in cross-sectional lumen areas, as measured on MRI, and no difference in hyperplasia areas as determined by histomorphometry. These results suggest that local irrigation of TAP-ANV or ANV-6L15 intra-operatively was as effective in inhibiting acute graft

  12. Multiple-source spatial data fusion and integration research in the region unified planning management information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Liangpei; Liu, Zhenmin; Jiao, Hongbo; Chen, Liqun

    2008-12-01

    In order to manage the internal resources of Gulf of Tonkin and integrate multiple-source spatial data, the establishment of region unified plan management system is needed. The data fusion and the integrated research should be carried on because there are some difficulties in the course of the system's establishment. For example, kinds of planning and the project data format are different, and data criterion is not unified. Besides, the time state property is strong, and spatial reference is inconsistent, etc. In this article the ARCGIS ENGINE is introduced as the developing platform, key technologies are researched, such as multiple-source data transformation and fusion, remote sensing data and DEM fusion and integrated, plan and project data integration, and so on. Practice shows that the system improves the working efficiency of Guangxi Gulf of Tonkin Economic Zone Management Committee significantly and promotes planning construction work of the economic zone remarkably.

  13. A practical approach for active camera coordination based on a fusion-driven multi-agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Alvaro Luis; Molina, José M.; Patricio, Miguel A.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system architecture to manage spatially distributed active (or pan-tilt-zoom) cameras. Traditional video surveillance algorithms are of no use for active cameras, and we have to look at different approaches. Such multi-sensor surveillance systems have to be designed to solve two related problems: data fusion and coordinated sensor-task management. Generally, architectures proposed for the coordinated operation of multiple cameras are based on the centralisation of management decisions at the fusion centre. However, the existence of intelligent sensors capable of decision making brings with it the possibility of conceiving alternative decentralised architectures. This problem is approached by means of a MAS, integrating data fusion as an integral part of the architecture for distributed coordination purposes. This paper presents the MAS architecture and system agents.

  14. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N; Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design. PMID:26694387

  15. Autonomous landing of a helicopter UAV with a ground-based multisensory fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dianle; Zhong, Zhiwei; Zhang, Daibing; Shen, Lincheng; Yan, Chengping

    2015-02-01

    In this study, this paper focus on the vision-based autonomous helicopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing problems. This paper proposed a multisensory fusion to autonomous landing of an UAV. The systems include an infrared camera, an Ultra-wideband radar that measure distance between UAV and Ground-Based system, an PAN-Tilt Unit (PTU). In order to identify all weather UAV targets, we use infrared cameras. To reduce the complexity of the stereovision or one-cameral calculating the target of three-dimensional coordinates, using the ultra-wideband radar distance module provides visual depth information, real-time Image-PTU tracking UAV and calculate the UAV threedimensional coordinates. Compared to the DGPS, the test results show that the paper is effectiveness and robustness.

  16. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N.; Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design. PMID:26694387

  17. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N; Li, Jia

    2015-12-14

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design.

  18. Status of fusion maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission.

  19. Noise temperature improvement for magnetic fusion plasma millimeter wave imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-03-15

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas [B. Tobias et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 6, 2106042 (2011)]. Of particular importance have been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry systems for imaging T{sub e} and n{sub e} fluctuations. These instruments have employed heterodyne receiver arrays with Schottky diode mixer elements directly connected to individual antennas. Consequently, the noise temperature has been strongly determined by the conversion loss with typical noise temperatures of ∼60 000 K. However, this can be significantly improved by making use of recent advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit chip low noise amplifiers to insert a pre-amplifier in front of the Schottky diode mixer element. In a proof-of-principle design at V-Band (50–75 GHz), significant improvement of noise temperature from the current 60 000 K to measured 4000 K has been obtained.

  20. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  1. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification. PMID:27036822

  2. A Double-Switch Cell Fusion-Inducible Transgene Expression System for Neural Stem Cell-Based Antiglioma Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yumei; Lam, Dang Hoang; Huang, Juan; Tang, Yi; Luo, Xitu; Wang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in neural stem cell- (NSC-) based tumor-targeted gene therapy showed that NSC vectors expressing an artificially engineered viral fusogenic protein, VSV-G H162R, could cause tumor cell death specifically under acidic tumor microenvironment by syncytia formation; however, the killing efficiency still had much room to improve. In the view that coexpression of another antitumoral gene with VSV-G can augment the bystander effect, a synthetic regulatory system that triggers transgene expression in a cell fusion-inducible manner has been proposed. Here we have developed a double-switch cell fusion-inducible transgene expression system (DoFIT) to drive transgene expression upon VSV-G-mediated NSC-glioma cell fusion. In this binary system, transgene expression is coregulated by a glioma-specific promoter and targeting sequences of a microRNA (miR) that is highly expressed in NSCs but lowly expressed in glioma cells. Thus, transgene expression is “switched off” by the miR in NSC vectors, but after cell fusion with glioma cells, the miR is diluted and loses its suppressive effect. Meanwhile, in the syncytia, transgene expression is “switched on” by the glioma-specific promoter. Our in vitro and in vivo experimental data show that DoFIT successfully abolishes luciferase reporter gene expression in NSC vectors but activates it specifically after VSV-G-mediated NSC-glioma cell fusion. PMID:26074975

  3. Soft computing-based terrain visual sensing and data fusion for unmanned ground robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we have primarily discussed technical challenges and navigational skill requirements of mobile robots for traversability path planning in natural terrain environments similar to Mars surface terrains. We have described different methods for detection of salient terrain features based on imaging texture analysis techniques. We have also presented three competing techniques for terrain traversability assessment of mobile robots navigating in unstructured natural terrain environments. These three techniques include: a rule-based terrain classifier, a neural network-based terrain classifier, and a fuzzy-logic terrain classifier. Each proposed terrain classifier divides a region of natural terrain into finite sub-terrain regions and classifies terrain condition exclusively within each sub-terrain region based on terrain visual clues. The Kalman Filtering technique is applied for aggregative fusion of sub-terrain assessment results. The last two terrain classifiers are shown to have remarkable capability for terrain traversability assessment of natural terrains. We have conducted a comparative performance evaluation of all three terrain classifiers and presented the results in this paper.

  4. Real-time detection of undersea mines: a complete screening and acoustic fusion processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacramone, Anthony; Desai, Mukund N.

    1999-08-01

    A complete mine detection/classification (D/C) system has been specified and implemented, which runs in real-time, and has been exercised on the latest available dual-frequency side-scan sonar acoustic image sets. The compete DC system is comprised of a collection of algorithms that has been developed and evolved at Draper Laboratory over the past decade. The detection process consists of image normalization, enhancement, segmentation, and feature extraction algorithms. The enhancement algorithm is a variant of a Markov Random Field based anomaly screener developed in FY-94. The feature that were extracted were those derived in FY-93. A distance constrained matching algorithm, which was developed in FY-95, is used to generate a list of high and low frequency fused tokens. The classification process involves the evaluation of a hierarchy of three multi-layer perceptron neural networks: HF, LF, and HF/LF fused. Research performed in FY-95 also concentrated on the development of several variants of information fusion with hierarchical neural networks. The 'discriminant-combining' variant of fusion was selected as part of this DC system. In addition, a classification post- processing and decision node statistic modification step, which was developed in FY-96, was included. This paper will describe the algorithm that were implemented. However, the emphasis will be on the performance results of processing the latest available side-scan imagery, comparison of single sensor vs dual-frequency sensor results, and the issues that were encountered while exercising the DC system on the new data set.

  5. Big fusion, little fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Frank; ddtuttle

    2016-08-01

    In reply to correspondence from George Scott and Adam Costley about the Physics World focus issue on nuclear energy, and to news of construction delays at ITER, the fusion reactor being built in France.

  6. An integrated approach to assessing the fracture safe margins of fusion reactor structures

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, G.R.

    1996-10-01

    Design and operation of fusion reactor structures will require an appropriate data base closely coupled to a reliable failure analysis method to safely manage irradiation embrittlement. However, ongoing irradiation programs will not provide the information on embrittlement necessary to accomplish these objectives. A new engineering approach is proposed based on the concept of a master toughness-temperature curve indexed on an absolute temperature scale using shifts to account for variables such as size scales, crack geometry and loading rates as well as embrittlement. While providing a simple practical engineering expedient, the proposed method can also be greatly enhanced by fundamental mechanism based models of fracture and embrittlement. Indeed, such understanding is required for the effective use of small specimen test methods, which is a integral element in developing the necessary data base.

  7. Biomechanical Comparison of Spinal Fusion Methods Using Interspinous Process Compressor and Pedicle Screw Fixation System Based on Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jisoo; Kim, Sohee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomechanical effects of a newly proposed Interspinous Process Compressor (IPC) and compare with pedicle screw fixation at surgical and adjacent levels of lumbar spine. Methods A three dimensional finite element model of intact lumbar spine was constructed and two spinal fusion models using pedicle screw fixation system and a new type of interspinous devices, IPC, were developed. The biomechanical effects such as range of motion (ROM) and facet contact force were analyzed at surgical level (L3/4) and adjacent levels (L2/3, L4/5). In addition, the stress in adjacent intervertebral discs (D2, D4) was investigated. Results The entire results show biomechanical parameters such as ROM, facet contact force, and stress in adjacent intervertebral discs were similar between PLIF and IPC models in all motions based on the assumption that the implants were perfectly fused with the spine. Conclusion The newly proposed fusion device, IPC, had similar fusion effect at surgical level, and biomechanical effects at adjacent levels were also similar with those of pedicle screw fixation system. However, for clinical applications, real fusion effect between spinous process and hooks, duration of fusion, and influence on spinous process need to be investigated through clinical study. PMID:26962413

  8. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  9. Calibration of laser scanner and camera fusion system for intelligent vehicles using Nelder-Mead optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osgood, Thomas J.; Huang, Yingping

    2013-03-01

    A novel method is presented here for the calibration of a sensor fusion system for intelligent vehicles. In this example, the sensors are a camera and a laser scanner which observe the same scene from different viewpoints. The method employs the Nelder-Mead direct search algorithm to minimize the sum of squared errors between the image coordinates and the re-projected laser data by iteratively adjusting and improving the calibration parameters. The method is applied to a real set of data collected from a test vehicle. Using only 11 well-spaced target points observable by each sensor, 12 intrinsic and extrinsic parameters indicating the position relationship between the sensors can be estimated to give an accurate projection. Experiments show that the method can project the laser points onto the image plane with an average error of 1.01 pixels (1.51 pixels worst case).

  10. Sensor data fusion for mine detection from a vehicle-mounted system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Indar L.; Diehl, Vince E.; Moore, Tim; Marble, Jay A.; Tran, Ky; Bishop, Steven S.

    2000-08-01

    The MH/K) Close in Detector (CID) system employs ground penetrating radar (GPR), forward looking IR and metal detectors that are individually and collectively processed to generate automatic target detections. The detection preprocessing is initially being accomplished on a sensor by sensor basis. For the IR sensor, we apply digital filtering techniques and morphology to detect the mines and a separate filter to characterize the background level. For preprocessing the GPR returns, we apply an inverse Fourier transform to the complex frequency return signal to obtain depth information and apply digital filtering techniques to remove fixed pattern noise and provide contrast enhancement. Metal detector returns are preprocessed using a distance measure of the return compared with the averaged background. A representative data set is extracted from the preprocessed data for each of the sensor types. Other MH/K team efforts for ATR and fusion development include TRW, BAE and Sandia National Laboratories.

  11. Fusion research: the past is prologue

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F

    1998-10-14

    At this juncture fusion research can be viewed as being at a turning point, a time to review its past and to imagine its future. Today, almost 50 years since the first serious attempts to address the daunting problem of achieving controlled fusion, we have both an opportunity and a challenge. Some predictions place fusion research today at a point midway between its first inception and its eventual maturation - in the middle of the 21st century - when fusion would become a major source of energy. Our opportunity therefore is to assess what we have learned from 50 years of hard work and use that knowledge as a starting point for new and better approaches to solving the fusion problem. Our challenge is to prove the "50 more years" prophesy wrong, by finding ways to shorten the time when fusion power becomes a reality. The thesis will be advanced that in the magnetic confinement approach to fusion open-ended magnetic confinement geometries offer much in responding to the challenge. A major advantage of open systems is that, owing to their theoretically and experimentally demonstrated ability to suppress plasma instabilities of both the MHD and the high-frequency wave-particle variety, the confinement becomes predictable from "classical," i.e., Fokker-Planck-type analysis. In a time of straitened budgetary circumstances for magnetic fusion research now being faced in the United States, the theoretical tractability of mirror-based systems is a substantial asset. In pursuing this avenue it is also necessary to keep an open mind as to the forms that mirror-based fusion power plants might take. For example, one can look to the high-energy physics community for a possible model: This community has shown the feasibility of constructing large and complex particle accelerators using superconducting magnets, vacuum chambers and complicated particle-handling technology, housed in underground tunnels that are 20 or more kilometers long. In the paper examples of mirror

  12. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm

    PubMed Central

    López, Natalia M; di Sciascio, Fernando; Soria, Carlos M; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2009-01-01

    Background Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA) and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF), both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Methods Tested in five volunteers, a redundant arrangement was obtained with two pairs of electrodes for each recording channel. The myoelectric signals were electronically amplified, filtered and digitalized, while the processing, fusion algorithms and control were implemented in a personal computer under MATLAB® environment and in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The experiments used an industrial robotic manipulator BOSCH SR-800, type SCARA, with four degrees of freedom; however, only the first joint was used to move the end effector to a desired position, the latter obtained as proportional to the EMG amplitude. Results Several trials, including disconnecting and reconnecting one electrode and disturbing the signal with synthetic noise, were performed to test the fusion techniques. The results given by VWA and DKF were transformed into joint coordinates and used as command signals to the robotic arm. Even though the resultant signal was not exact, the failure was ignored and the joint reference signal never exceeded the workspace limits. Conclusion The fault robustness and safety characteristics of a myoelectric controlled manipulator system were substantially improved. The proposed scheme prevents potential risks for the operator, the equipment and the environment. Both algorithms showed efficient behavior. This outline could be applied to myoelectric control of prosthesis, or assistive manipulators to better assure the system functionality when electrode faults or noisy environment are present. PMID:19243627

  13. Fusion of Laser Altimetry Data with Dems Derived from Stereo Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, T.; Csatho, B. M.; Duncan, K.

    2016-06-01

    During the last two decades surface elevation data have been gathered over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from a variety of different sensors including spaceborne and airborne laser altimetry, such as NASA's Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), as well as from stereo satellite imaging systems, most notably from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Worldview. The spatio-temporal resolution, the accuracy, and the spatial coverage of all these data differ widely. For example, laser altimetry systems are much more accurate than DEMs derived by correlation from imaging systems. On the other hand, DEMs usually have a superior spatial resolution and extended spatial coverage. We present in this paper an overview of the SERAC (Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection) system, designed to cope with the data complexity and the computation of elevation change histories. SERAC simultaneously determines the ice sheet surface shape and the time-series of elevation changes for surface patches whose size depends on the ruggedness of the surface and the point distribution of the sensors involved. By incorporating different sensors, SERAC is a true fusion system that generates the best plausible result (time series of elevation changes) a result that is better than the sum of its individual parts. We follow this up with an example of the Helmheim gacier, involving ICESat, ATM and LVIS laser altimetry data, together with ASTER DEMs.

  14. Research on the image fusion and target extraction based on bionic compound eye system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaowei; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Wang, Zihan; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shiyu

    2015-08-01

    People attach more and more importance to bionic compound eye due to its advantages such as small volume, large field of view and sensitivity to high-speed moving objects. Small field of view and large volume are the disadvantages of traditional image sensor and in order to avoid these defects, this paper intends to build a set of compound eye system based on insect compound eye structure and visual processing mechanism. In the center of this system is the primary sensor which has high resolution ratio. The primary sensor is surrounded by the other six sensors which have low resolution ratio. Based on this system, this paper will study the target image fusion and extraction method by using plane compound eye structure. This paper designs a control module which can combine the distinguishing features of high resolution image with local features of low resolution image so as to conduct target detection, recognition and location. Compared with traditional ways, the way of high resolution in the center and low resolution around makes this system own the advantages of high resolution and large field of view and enables the system to detect the object quickly and recognize the object accurately.

  15. Understanding the system in risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, R.; Vandewart, R.; Wyss, G.; Funkhouser, D.

    1998-02-01

    In the assessment of a system, understanding the system is central. Even so, most of the current literature takes a narrow view of understanding, making only the catalog of system ``assets`` explicit, while maintaining the balance of the analyst`s understanding inside the analyst`s head. This can lead to problems with non-repeatability and incompleteness of assessment results. This paper introduces the notion of using explicit system models to document the analyst`s understanding of the system and shows that, from these models, standard assessment products, such as fault trees and event trees, can be automatically derived. This paper also presents five ``views`` of a system that can be used to document the analyst`s understanding of the system. These views go well beyond the standard instruction to identify the system`s assets to show that a much richer understanding of the system can be required for effective assessment.

  16. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 2: Subsystems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    Volume 2 (Subsystems Assessment) is part of a five-volume report entitled Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Volume 2 presents the projected performance capabilities and cost characteristics of applicable subsystems, considering an additional decade of development. Subsystems of interest include energy storage and conversion devices as well as the necessary powertrain components and vehicle subsystems. Volume 2 also includes updated battery information based on the assessment of an independent battery review board (with the aid of subcontractor reports on advanced battery characteristics).

  17. Sub-barrier fusion of {sup 36}S + {sup 64}Ni and other medium-light systems

    SciTech Connect

    Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Silvestri, R.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Szilner, S.

    2010-12-15

    Sub-barrier fusion cross sections of {sup 36}S + {sup 64}Ni have been measured down to {approx_equal}3 {mu}b. The logarithmic slope of the fusion excitation function has a steep rise in the barrier region with decreasing energy and saturates at lower energies. The data can be reproduced within the coupled-channels model using a Woods-Saxon potential with a large diffuseness. The slope saturation is analogous to what has been observed for {sup 36}S, {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, while for heavier systems the slope increases steadily below the barrier.

  18. Heme precursor injection is effective for Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase fusion protein production by a silkworm expression system.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kounosuke; Lee, Jae Man; Tomozoe, Yusuke; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2015-10-01

    Recombinant peroxidase from Arthromyces ramosus, fused with domains of antibody-binding proteins, was successfully obtained by a silkworm larvae expression system. The catalytic activity of the fusion peroxidase was increased 6-fold with the injection of 5-aminolevulinic acid into silkworm larvae as a heme precursor.

  19. Multisensor data fusion implementation within a distributed command and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazian, Elisa

    1992-07-01

    The naval forces will encounter air, surface, underwater, electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR), communications, radar, electronic warfare, etc., threats. Technological advancements of future threats to the navy will place heavy demands (quicker reaction to faster, stealth threats) upon the ability to process and interpret tactical data provided by multiple and often dissimilar sensors. This emphasizes the need for a naval platform employing an automated distributed command and control system (CCS) which includes a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF) function to increase probability of mission success facing the threats of the future. The main advantage of a distributed CCS is redundancy and reconfigurability resulting in a high degree of survivability and flexibility while accomplishing the mission. The MSDF function provides the combat system with a capability to analyze sensor data from multiple sensors and derive contact/track solutions, which would not be derived by the individual sensors. The command and control (C2) functions, including the MSDF function, operate within a number of general purpose C2 processors, communicating with each other and the sensor systems via a high speed data bus. Different sensors are more effective in different environmental conditions and for different geometrical parameters (elevation, distance, bearing, etc.). The MSDF function combines the capabilities of all the sensors providing the operators and other CCS functions with more accurate solutions faster than each sensor system operating alone. An architecture of a distributed CCS using an MSDF function to increase the probability of mission success of a naval platform is presented.

  20. Multi-sensor fusion system using wavelet-based detection algorithm applied to physiological monitoring under high-G environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, Han Chool

    2000-06-01

    A significant problem in physiological state monitoring systems with single data channels is high rates of false alarm. In order to reduce false alarm probability, several data channels can be integrated to enhance system performance. In this work, we have investigated a sensor fusion methodology applicable to physiological state monitoring, which combines local decisions made from dispersed detectors. Difficulties in biophysical signal processing are associated with nonstationary signal patterns and individual characteristics of human physiology resulting in nonidentical observation statistics. Thus a two compartment design, a modified version of well established fusion theory in communication systems, is presented and applied to biological signal processing where we combine discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) with sensor fusion theory. The signals were decomposed in time-frequency domain by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to capture localized transient features. Local decisions by wavelet power analysis are followed by global decisions at the data fusion center operating under an optimization criterion, i.e., minimum error criterion (MEC). We used three signals acquired from human volunteers exposed to high-G forces at the human centrifuge/dynamic flight simulator facility in Warminster, PA. The subjects performed anti-G straining maneuvers to protect them from the adverse effects of high-G forces. These maneuvers require muscular tensing and altered breathing patterns. We attempted to determine the subject's state by detecting the presence or absence of the voluntary anti-G straining maneuvers (AGSM). During the exposure to high G force the respiratory patterns, blood pressure and electroencephalogram (EEG) were measured to determine changes in the subject's state. Experimental results show that the probability of false alarm under MEC can be significantly reduced by applying the same rule found at local thresholds to all subjects, and MEC can be employed as a

  1. Radiographic analysis of epiphyseal fusion at knee joint to assess likelihood of having attained 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; Cingolani, M; Giuliodori, A; De Luca, S; Ferrante, L

    2012-11-01

    Radiological analysis of the epiphyses of the knee joint provides new valuable information, which may be used in combination with these well-established techniques in order to maximise the accuracy in the assessment of age of 18 years. A total of 215 antero-posterior radiographs of the knee was reviewed retrospectively in patients aged between 14 and 24 years old (99 boys, 116 girls). Fusion was scored as stage 1, epiphysis not fused; stage 2, epiphysis is fully ossified and epiphyseal scar is visible; and stage 3, epiphysis is fully ossified and epiphyseal scar is not visible. Scores of 0, 1 and 2 were assigned to stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Lastly, the score related to epiphyseal fusion at the knee joint was obtained by adding the three scores of the distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal fibula. Age distribution gradually increased with each score, for both genders. The mean age (±standard error) in each score category varied between genders, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.11). Five tests were performed to discriminate between individuals who were or were not at age 18 years or more, according to the receiver operating curve. For boys, the highest value of accuracy was obtained with score 3, with high sensitivity (Se = 93.33 %) and specificity (Sp = 89.29 %). For girls, it was obtained with score 4, with high accuracy (Acc = 85.86 %). These results indicate that radiographic analysis of the knee is a valuable alternative as a non-invasive method of estimation of 18 years of age.

  2. Coatings for laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-12-18

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors.

  3. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  4. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion: The Laser Elevator Solar System Survey for Propellants Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wayne Pryor worked on three projects this summer. These were: 1) Inertial Electrostatic Confinement; 2) The Laser Elevator; and 3) Solar System Survey for Propellants Abstract. We Assisted Jon Nadler from Richland Community College in assembling and operating a table-top nuclear fusion reactor. We successfully demonstrated neutron production in a deuterium plasma. Pryor also obtained basic spectroscopic information on the atomic and molecular emissions in the plasma. The second project consisted of the completion of a paper on a novel propulsion concept (due to Tom Meyer of Colorado, the first author): a laser sail that bounces light back to the laser source. Recycling the photons from source to sail perhaps 100-1000 times dramatically improves the energy efficiency of this system, which may become very important for high-velocity missions in the future. Lastly, we compiled a very basic inventory of solar system propellant resources, their locations, and their accessibility. This initial inventory concentrates on sunlight availability, water availability, and the difficulty (delta-velocity requirement and radiation environment) in getting there.

  5. Fusion-Fission of Extremely Light Mass Compound Systems 20,21,22Ne*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Raj K.

    The study of binary symmetric decay (BSD) of extremely light compound systems 20,21,22Ne*, formed in 10,11B + 10,11B reactions at Elab = 48 MeV, is extended to analyze the effects of orientation degree of freedom within the framework of Dynamical Cluster-decay Model (DCM) of Gupta and collaborators. As observed in one of our earlier study with spherical consideration of nuclei, the present one also reveals the occurrence of the fusion-fission (ff) in the BSD of these compound systems, which is in competition with the deep inelastic orbiting (DIO), having maximum contribution for 20Ne* followed by 21Ne* and 22Ne*, in line with experimental results. The comparison between the BSD cross-sections, σBSD, of compound systems 20,21,22Ne* for the considerations of spherical and oriented nuclei, shows similar results with the exception that the contribution of ff is largest in the decay of 20Ne* for the later case. Also, the difference of the values of neck length parameter ΔR are more for the case of oriented nuclei. The agreement with the experimental data is good for both the considerations.

  6. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. D.; Hogan, W. J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Klein, G.; Diaz, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short-duration manned-mission performance exceeding other technologies. We are conducting a study to assess the systems aspects of inertial fusion as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983) we describe the required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel. We give preliminary design details for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days. Specific mission performance results will be published elsewhere, after the study has been completed.

  7. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system.

  8. Control systems for membrane fusion in the ancestral eukaryote; evolution of tethering complexes and SM proteins

    PubMed Central

    Koumandou, V Lila; Dacks, Joel B; Coulson, Richard MR; Field, Mark C

    2007-01-01

    Background In membrane trafficking, the mechanisms ensuring vesicle fusion specificity remain to be fully elucidated. Early models proposed that specificity was encoded entirely by SNARE proteins; more recent models include contributions from Rab proteins, Syntaxin-binding (SM) proteins and tethering factors. Most information on membrane trafficking derives from an evolutionarily narrow sampling of model organisms. However, considering factors from a wider diversity of eukaryotes can provide both functional information on core systems and insight into the evolutionary history of the trafficking machinery. For example, the major Qa/syntaxin SNARE families are present in most eukaryotic genomes and likely each evolved via gene duplication from a single ancestral syntaxin before the existing eukaryotic groups diversified. This pattern is also likely for Rabs and various other components of the membrane trafficking machinery. Results We performed comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses, when relevant, on the SM proteins and components of the tethering complexes, both thought to contribute to vesicle fusion specificity. Despite evidence suggestive of secondary losses amongst many lineages, the tethering complexes are well represented across the eukaryotes, suggesting an origin predating the radiation of eukaryotic lineages. Further, whilst we detect distant sequence relations between GARP, COG, exocyst and DSL1 components, these similarities most likely reflect convergent evolution of similar secondary structural elements. No similarity is found between the TRAPP and HOPS complexes and the other tethering factors. Overall, our data favour independent origins for the various tethering complexes. The taxa examined possess at least one homologue of each of the four SM protein families; since the four monophyletic families each encompass a wide diversity of eukaryotes, the SM protein families very likely evolved before the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA

  9. In search of nuclear fusion in electrolytic cells and in metal/gas systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, D. R.; Paquette, J.; Boniface, H. A.; Graham, W. R. C.; Johnson, R. E.; Briden, N. A.; Cross, W. G.; Arneja, A.; Tennant, D. C.; Lone, M. A.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Chambers, K. W.; McIlwain, A. K.; Attas, E. M.; Dutton, R.

    1990-06-01

    It has been reported recently in the literature that unexpected thermal and nuclear effects (production of excess heat, neutrons, γ-rays, and tritium) can occur during the electrolysis of heavy water at palladium or titanium electrodes, or during temperature and pressure cycling of the titanium/deuterium gas system. We have attempted to reproduce some of these experiments. A variety of electrochemical cells having palladium cathodes in the form of wires, tubes, sheets, and rods have been used to electrolyze heavy water containing 0.1 mol.dm-3 LiOH, 0.1 mol.dn-3 LiOD or 0.5 mol.dm-3 D3PO4. Current densities of up to 200 mA.cm-2 were applied. The mass of the palladium cathodes covered the range from 1-40 grams and the surface area varied from 8-140 cm2. Neutron detection systems with low constant backgrounds were used to search for neutron emission during electrolysis. These included3He- and10BF3-based detectors. After running some of the cells for more than 30 days, no neutron emission above background could be detected. This puts upper limits of 0.5 s-1 and 2×10-23 fus. D-D.s-1 on the neutron emission and the fusion rate, respectively. A sensitive and accurate heat-flow calorimeter was built and used to monitor the energy balance of some of the cells during electrolysis. No unexpected heat effects were observed. This puts an upper limit of 0.13 W.cm-3 on the specific excess power. No enrichment of the electrolyte in tritium was evident after electrolysis. Experiments were also performed with the titanium/ deuterium gas system. These consisted of exposing titanium metal to a deuterium gas pressure of 40 atmospheres, lowering the temperature to -196°C, releasing the pressure and gradually warming the titanium to room temperature. No neutron emission above background was observed during these experiments, which puts upper limits of 0.5 s-1 and 4×10-25 fus.D-D.s-1 on the neutron emission and fusion rate, respectively.

  10. 1998 FFTF annual system assessment reports

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.

    1998-03-19

    The health of FFTF systems was assessed assuming a continued facility standby condition. The review was accomplished in accordance with the guidelines of FFTF-EI-083, Plant Evaluation Program. The attached document includes an executive summary of the significant conclusions and assessment reports for each system evaluated.

  11. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  12. Design of deuterium and tritium pellet injector systems for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R.B.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Lunsford, R.V.; Maxon, B.S.; Milora, S.L.; Webster, D.J.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Three pellet injector designs developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are planned for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to reach the goal of a tritium pellet injector by 1988. These are the Repeating Pneumatic Injector (RPI), the Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI). Each of the pellet injector designs have similar performance characteristics in that they deliver up to 4-mm-dia pellets at velocities up to 1500 m/s with a dsign goal to 2000 m/s. Similar techniques are utilized to freeze and extrude the pellet material. The injector systems incorporate three gun concepts which differ in the number of gun barrels and the method of forming and chambering the pellets. The RPI, a single barrel repeating design, has been operational on TFTR since April 1985. Fabrication and assembly are essentially complete for DPI, and TPI is presently on hold after completing about 80% of the design. The TFTR pellet injector program is described, and each of the injector systems is described briefly. Design details are discussed in other papers at this symposium.

  13. A Locomotion Intent Prediction System Based on Multi-Sensor Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baojun; Zheng, Enhao; Wang, Qining

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion intent prediction is essential for the control of powered lower-limb prostheses to realize smooth locomotion transitions. In this research, we develop a multi-sensor fusion based locomotion intent prediction system, which can recognize current locomotion mode and detect locomotion transitions in advance. Seven able-bodied subjects were recruited for this research. Signals from two foot pressure insoles and three inertial measurement units (one on the thigh, one on the shank and the other on the foot) are measured. A two-level recognition strategy is used for the recognition with linear discriminate classifier. Six kinds of locomotion modes and ten kinds of locomotion transitions are tested in this study. Recognition accuracy during steady locomotion periods (i.e., no locomotion transitions) is 99.71% ± 0.05% for seven able-bodied subjects. During locomotion transition periods, all the transitions are correctly detected and most of them can be detected before transiting to new locomotion modes. No significant deterioration in recognition performance is observed in the following five hours after the system is trained, and small number of experiment trials are required to train reliable classifiers. PMID:25014097

  14. Ion source development for a photoneutralization based NBI system for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonin, A.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Bechu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A.

    2015-04-01

    The next step after ITER is to demonstrate the viability and generation of electricity by a future fusion reactor (DEMO). The specifications required to operate an NBI system on DEMO are very demanding. The system has to provide a very high level of power and energy, ~100MW of D° beam at 1MeV, including high wall-plug efficiency (η > 60%). For this purpose, a new injector concept, called Siphore, is under investigation between CEA and French universities. Siphore is based on the stripping of the accelerated negative ions by photo-detachment provided by several Fabry-Perot cavities (3.5MW of light power per cavity) implemented along the D- beam. The beamline is designed to be tall and narrow in order that the photon flux overlaps the entire negative ion beam. The paper will describe the present R&D at CEA which addresses the development of an ion source and pre-accelerator prototypes for Siphore, the main goal being to produce an intense negative ion beam sheet. The negative ion source Cybele is based on a magnetized plasma column where hot electrons are emitted from the source center. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize the plasma and to compare with numerical models being developed in French universities.

  15. Low-Energy Fusion-Fission Dynamics of Heavy Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, Valery; Greiner, Walter

    2006-08-14

    A new approach is proposed for a unified description of strongly coupled deep-inelastic (DI) scattering, fusion, fission, and quasi-fission (QF) processes of heavy ion collisions. A unified driving-potential and a unified set of dynamic Langevin-type equations of motion are used in this approach. This makes it possible to perform a full (continuous) time analysis of the evolution of heavy nuclear systems, starting from the approaching stage, moving up to the formation of the compound nucleus or emerging into two final fragments. The calculated mass, charge, energy and angular distributions of the reaction products agree well with the corresponding experimental data for heavy and superheavy nuclear systems. Collisions of very heavy nuclei (such as 238U+248Cm) are investigated as an alternative way for production of superheavy elements. Large charge and mass transfer was found in these reactions due to the inverse (anti-symmetrizing) quasi-fission process leading to formation of surviving superheavy long-lived neutron-rich nuclei.

  16. Novel approaches to improve iris recognition system performance based on local quality evaluation and feature fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Chen, Huiling; He, Fei; Pang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    For building a new iris template, this paper proposes a strategy to fuse different portions of iris based on machine learning method to evaluate local quality of iris. There are three novelties compared to previous work. Firstly, the normalized segmented iris is divided into multitracks and then each track is estimated individually to analyze the recognition accuracy rate (RAR). Secondly, six local quality evaluation parameters are adopted to analyze texture information of each track. Besides, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to get the weights of these evaluation parameters and corresponding weighted coefficients of different tracks. Finally, all tracks' information is fused according to the weights of different tracks. The experimental results based on subsets of three public and one private iris image databases demonstrate three contributions of this paper. (1) Our experimental results prove that partial iris image cannot completely replace the entire iris image for iris recognition system in several ways. (2) The proposed quality evaluation algorithm is a self-adaptive algorithm, and it can automatically optimize the parameters according to iris image samples' own characteristics. (3) Our feature information fusion strategy can effectively improve the performance of iris recognition system.

  17. Based on Weibull Information Fusion Analysis Semiconductors Quality the Key Technology of Manufacturing Execution Systems Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Hui; Tang, Ying-Chun; Dai, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor materials and Product qualified rate are directly related to the manufacturing costs and survival of the enterprise. Application a dynamic reliability growth analysis method studies manufacturing execution system reliability growth to improve product quality. Refer to classical Duane model assumptions and tracking growth forecasts the TGP programming model, through the failure data, established the Weibull distribution model. Combining with the median rank of average rank method, through linear regression and least squares estimation method, match respectively weibull information fusion reliability growth curve. This assumption model overcome Duane model a weakness which is MTBF point estimation accuracy is not high, through the analysis of the failure data show that the method is an instance of the test and evaluation modeling process are basically identical. Median rank in the statistics is used to determine the method of random variable distribution function, which is a good way to solve the problem of complex systems such as the limited sample size. Therefore this method has great engineering application value.

  18. Ion source development for a photoneutralization based NBI system for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Simonin, A.; Esch, H. P. L. de; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Bechu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A.

    2015-04-08

    The next step after ITER is to demonstrate the viability and generation of electricity by a future fusion reactor (DEMO). The specifications required to operate an NBI system on DEMO are very demanding. The system has to provide a very high level of power and energy, ~100MW of D° beam at 1MeV, including high wall-plug efficiency (η > 60%). For this purpose, a new injector concept, called Siphore, is under investigation between CEA and French universities. Siphore is based on the stripping of the accelerated negative ions by photo-detachment provided by several Fabry-Perot cavities (3.5MW of light power per cavity) implemented along the D{sup −} beam. The beamline is designed to be tall and narrow in order that the photon flux overlaps the entire negative ion beam. The paper will describe the present R and D at CEA which addresses the development of an ion source and pre-accelerator prototypes for Siphore, the main goal being to produce an intense negative ion beam sheet. The negative ion source Cybele is based on a magnetized plasma column where hot electrons are emitted from the source center. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize the plasma and to compare with numerical models being developed in French universities.

  19. Novel approaches to improve iris recognition system performance based on local quality evaluation and feature fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Chen, Huiling; He, Fei; Pang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    For building a new iris template, this paper proposes a strategy to fuse different portions of iris based on machine learning method to evaluate local quality of iris. There are three novelties compared to previous work. Firstly, the normalized segmented iris is divided into multitracks and then each track is estimated individually to analyze the recognition accuracy rate (RAR). Secondly, six local quality evaluation parameters are adopted to analyze texture information of each track. Besides, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to get the weights of these evaluation parameters and corresponding weighted coefficients of different tracks. Finally, all tracks' information is fused according to the weights of different tracks. The experimental results based on subsets of three public and one private iris image databases demonstrate three contributions of this paper. (1) Our experimental results prove that partial iris image cannot completely replace the entire iris image for iris recognition system in several ways. (2) The proposed quality evaluation algorithm is a self-adaptive algorithm, and it can automatically optimize the parameters according to iris image samples' own characteristics. (3) Our feature information fusion strategy can effectively improve the performance of iris recognition system. PMID:24693243

  20. Novel Approaches to Improve Iris Recognition System Performance Based on Local Quality Evaluation and Feature Fusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    For building a new iris template, this paper proposes a strategy to fuse different portions of iris based on machine learning method to evaluate local quality of iris. There are three novelties compared to previous work. Firstly, the normalized segmented iris is divided into multitracks and then each track is estimated individually to analyze the recognition accuracy rate (RAR). Secondly, six local quality evaluation parameters are adopted to analyze texture information of each track. Besides, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to get the weights of these evaluation parameters and corresponding weighted coefficients of different tracks. Finally, all tracks' information is fused according to the weights of different tracks. The experimental results based on subsets of three public and one private iris image databases demonstrate three contributions of this paper. (1) Our experimental results prove that partial iris image cannot completely replace the entire iris image for iris recognition system in several ways. (2) The proposed quality evaluation algorithm is a self-adaptive algorithm, and it can automatically optimize the parameters according to iris image samples' own characteristics. (3) Our feature information fusion strategy can effectively improve the performance of iris recognition system. PMID:24693243

  1. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

  2. A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

    2012-08-01

    An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

  3. Network Systems Administration Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lexington Community Coll., KY. Office of Institutional Research.

    In spring 1996, Lexington Community College (LCC) in Kentucky, conducted a survey to gather information on employment trends and educational needs in the field of network systems administration (NSA). NSA duties involve the installation and administration of network operating systems, applications software, and networking infrastructure;…

  4. System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Tutterow, Vestal; Crane, Ryan

    2009-08-01

    Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their services and for consumers in determining the relative quality of these system assessment services. On August 19, 2008, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued four new draft Standards for trial use that are designed to raise the bar and define the market for these services. These draft Standards set the requirements for conducting an energy assessment at an industrial facility for four different system types: compressed air, process heating, pumping, and steam. The Standards address topics such as organizing and conducting assessments; analyzing the data collected; and reporting and documentation. This paper addresses both the issues and challenges in developing the Standards and the accompanying Guidance Documents, as well as the result of field testing by industrial facilities, consultants, and utilities during the trial use period that ended in January, 2009. These Standards will be revised and released by ASME for public review, and subsequently submitted for approval as American National Standards for publication in late 2009. Plans for a related activity to establish a professional-level program to certify practitioners in the area of system assessments, opportunities to integrate the ASME Standards with related work on industrial energy efficiency, as well as plans to expand the system assessment Standard portfolio are also discussed.

  5. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  6. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Shenk, Tanya M; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E

    2011-10-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log(10) reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29-59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000-08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  7. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, Charles D.; Hoffman, Nate; Murray, Kathy; Klein, Gail; Diaz, Franklin Chang

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short duration manned mission performance exceeding other technologies. A study was conducted to assess the systems aspects of inertial as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983). The required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel is described. Preliminary design details are given for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days.

  8. Research-to-operations (R2O) for the Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS) system-impact products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Stephen

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Branch of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC SLG/WMLE) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command's (AFSPC) Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes the Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D) products. This presentation will provide overviews of the current system impact products, along with plans and potentials for future products expected for the SEEFS program. The overviews will include information on applicable research-to-operations (R2O) issues, to include input data coverage and quality control, output confidence levels, modeling standards, and validation efforts.

  9. Safety assessment of the tritium recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Safety Assessment (SA) contains descriptions and evaluations of the environmental, health, and safety issues associated with the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) at the Pinellas Plant. It provides: 1. site and facility descriptions, 2. an overall description of the TRS and its operations, 3. an evaluation of the hazards associated with TRS operations, 4. descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate identified hazards, and 5. assessment of potential accidents and their associated risks. This SA contains the results of safety evaluations of TRS operations, equipment, and supplied systems. The evaluations include, as appropriate, preliminary hazards listings, qualitative risk assessments, and quantitative risk assessments.

  10. Fusion of the positive Q-value system {sup 36}S+{sup 48}Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Montagnoli, G.; Beghini, S.; Guiot, B.; Mason, P.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Silvestri, R.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Marginean, N.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Szilner, S.

    2009-03-04

    The fusion excitation function for {sup 36}S+{sup 48}Ca with positive Q-value for the compound nucleus formation, has been measured from near the barrier down to very low energies, where ''fusion hindrance'' may be expected. No evidence of hindrance shows up in the measured energy range. Coupled-channels calculations have been performed with a large diffuseness parameter of the Woods-Saxon potential, reproducing the data above and below the barrier.

  11. Fed-batch production of recombinant human calcitonin precursor fusion protein using Staphylococcus carnosus as an expression-secretion system.

    PubMed

    Dilsen, S; Paul, W; Sandgathe, A; Tippe, D; Freudl, R; Thömmes, J; Kula, M R; Takors, R; Wandrey, C; Weuster-Botz, D

    2000-09-01

    A pH-auxostatic fed-batch process was developed for the secretory production of a fusion protein consisting of the pro-part of Staphylococcus hyicus lipase and two synthetic human calcitonin (hCT) precursor repeats under the control of a xylose-inducible promotor from Staphylococcus xylosus. Using glycerol as the energy source and pH-controlled addition of yeast extract resulted in the production of 2000 mg 1(-1) of the fusion protein (420 mg 1(-1) of the recombinant hCT precursor) within 14 h, reaching 45 g 1(-1) cell dry mass with Staphylococcus carnosus in a stirred-tank reactor. Product titer and space-time yield (30 mg calcitonin precursor 1(-1) h(-1)) were thus improved by a factor of 2, and 4.5, respectively, compared to Escherichia coli expression-secretion systems for the production of calcitonin precursors. Two hundred grams of the fusion protein was secreted by the recombinant S. carnosus on a 150-1 scale (scale-up factor of 50) with a minimum use of technical-grade yeast extract (40 mg fusion protein g(-1) yeast extract).

  12. Context extraction for local fusion for landmine detection with multi-sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigui, Hichem; Gader, Paul D.; Ben Abdallah, Ahmed Chamseddine

    2009-05-01

    We present a local method for fusing the results of several landmine detectors using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Wideband Electro-Magnetic Induction (WEMI) sensors. The detectors considered include Edge Histogram Descriptor (EHD), Hidden Markov Models (HMM), and Spectral Correlation Feature (SCF) for the GPR sensor, and a feature-based classifier for the metal detector. The above detectors use different types of features and different classification methods. Our approach, called Context Extraction for Local Fusion with Feature Discrimination(CELF-FD), is a local approach that adapts the fusion method to different regions of the feature space. It is based on a novel objective function that combines context identification and multi-algorithm fusion criteria into a joint objective function. The context identification component thrives to partition the input feature space into clusters and identify the relevant features within each cluster. The fusion component thrives to learns the optimal fusion parameters within each cluster. Results on large and diverse GPR and WEMI data collections show that the proposed method can identify meaningful and coherent clusters and that these clusters require different fusion parameters. Our initial experiments have also indicated that CELF-FD outperforms the original CELF algorithm and all individual detectors.

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality: a fusion of geochemical and geophysical information via Bayesian neural networks.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Saumen; Erram, V C; Gupta, Gautam; Tiwari, Ram Krishna; Kulkarni, U D; Sangpal, R R

    2013-04-01

    Deplorable quality of groundwater arising from saltwater intrusion, natural leaching and anthropogenic activities is one of the major concerns for the society. Assessment of groundwater quality is, therefore, a primary objective of scientific research. Here, we propose an artificial neural network-based method set in a Bayesian neural network (BNN) framework and employ it to assess groundwater quality. The approach is based on analyzing 36 water samples and inverting up to 85 Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding data. We constructed a priori model by suitably parameterizing geochemical and geophysical data collected from the western part of India. The posterior model (post-inversion) was estimated using the BNN learning procedure and global hybrid Monte Carlo/Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization scheme. By suitable parameterization of geochemical and geophysical parameters, we simulated 1,500 training samples, out of which 50 % samples were used for training and remaining 50 % were used for validation and testing. We show that the trained model is able to classify validation and test samples with 85 % and 80 % accuracy respectively. Based on cross-correlation analysis and Gibb's diagram of geochemical attributes, the groundwater qualities of the study area were classified into following three categories: "Very good", "Good", and "Unsuitable". The BNN model-based results suggest that groundwater quality falls mostly in the range of "Good" to "Very good" except for some places near the Arabian Sea. The new modeling results powered by uncertainty and statistical analyses would provide useful constrain, which could be utilized in monitoring and assessment of the groundwater quality. PMID:22899457

  14. Fusion of Remote Sensing and Non-authoritative Data for Flood Disaster and Transportation Infrastructure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnebele, Emily K.

    Flooding is the most frequently occurring natural hazard on Earth; with catastrophic, large scale floods causing immense damage to people, property, and the environment. Over the past 20 years, remote sensing has become the standard technique for flood identification because of its ability to offer synoptic coverage. Unfortunately, remote sensing data are not always available or only provide partial or incomplete information of an event due to revisit limitations, cloud cover, and vegetation canopy. The ability to produce accurate and timely flood assessments before, during, and after an event is a critical safety tool for flood disaster management. Furthermore, knowledge of road conditions and accessibility is crucial for emergency managers, first responders, and residents. This research describes a model that leverages non-authoritative data to improve flood extent mapping and the evaluation of transportation networks during all phases of a flood disaster. Non-authoritative data can provide real-time, on-the-ground information when traditional data sources may be incomplete or lacking. The novelty of this approach is the application of freely available, non-authoritative data and its effective integration with established data and methods. Although this model will not replace existing flood mapping and disaster protocols, as a result of fusing heterogeneous data of varying spatial and temporal scales, it allows for increased certainty in flood assessment by "filling in the gaps" in the spatial and temporal progression of a flood event. The research model and its application are defined by four case studies of recent flood events in the United States and Canada. The model illustrates how non-authoritative, authoritative, and remote-sensing data can be integrated together during or after a flood event to provide damage assessments, temporal progressions of a flood event, and near real-time flood estimations.

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality: a fusion of geochemical and geophysical information via Bayesian neural networks.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Saumen; Erram, V C; Gupta, Gautam; Tiwari, Ram Krishna; Kulkarni, U D; Sangpal, R R

    2013-04-01

    Deplorable quality of groundwater arising from saltwater intrusion, natural leaching and anthropogenic activities is one of the major concerns for the society. Assessment of groundwater quality is, therefore, a primary objective of scientific research. Here, we propose an artificial neural network-based method set in a Bayesian neural network (BNN) framework and employ it to assess groundwater quality. The approach is based on analyzing 36 water samples and inverting up to 85 Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding data. We constructed a priori model by suitably parameterizing geochemical and geophysical data collected from the western part of India. The posterior model (post-inversion) was estimated using the BNN learning procedure and global hybrid Monte Carlo/Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization scheme. By suitable parameterization of geochemical and geophysical parameters, we simulated 1,500 training samples, out of which 50 % samples were used for training and remaining 50 % were used for validation and testing. We show that the trained model is able to classify validation and test samples with 85 % and 80 % accuracy respectively. Based on cross-correlation analysis and Gibb's diagram of geochemical attributes, the groundwater qualities of the study area were classified into following three categories: "Very good", "Good", and "Unsuitable". The BNN model-based results suggest that groundwater quality falls mostly in the range of "Good" to "Very good" except for some places near the Arabian Sea. The new modeling results powered by uncertainty and statistical analyses would provide useful constrain, which could be utilized in monitoring and assessment of the groundwater quality.

  16. Automatic Mesh Adaptivity for Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Neutronics Modeling of Fusion Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Wilson, P.; Sawan, M.; Mosher, Scott W; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to facilitate and expedite the use of the CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques in accurate full-scale neutronics simulations of fusion energy systems with immense sizes and complicated geometries. First, a macromaterial approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm decouples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility and resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation. Additionally, because of the significant increase in the efficiency of FW-CADIS simulations, the three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved on a regular computer cluster, eliminating the need for a world-class super computer.

  17. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Kime, S.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.

    2012-03-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MegaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 {mu}m were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  18. Interactive Scene Analysis Module - A sensor-database fusion system for telerobotic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Eric G.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Goode, Plesent W.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishing a task with telerobotics typically involves a combination of operator control/supervision and a 'script' of preprogrammed commands. These commands usually assume that the location of various objects in the task space conform to some internal representation (database) of that task space. The ability to quickly and accurately verify the task environment against the internal database would improve the robustness of these preprogrammed commands. In addition, the on-line initialization and maintenance of a task space database is difficult for operators using Cartesian coordinates alone. This paper describes the Interactive Scene' Analysis Module (ISAM) developed to provide taskspace database initialization and verification utilizing 3-D graphic overlay modelling, video imaging, and laser radar based range imaging. Through the fusion of taskspace database information and image sensor data, a verifiable taskspace model is generated providing location and orientation data for objects in a task space. This paper also describes applications of the ISAM in the Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL) at NASA Langley Research Center, and discusses its performance relative to representation accuracy and operator interface efficiency.

  19. The Gevaltig: An inertial fusion powered manned spacecraft design for outer solar system missions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, K.A.

    1989-10-01

    The Gevaltig is an inertial fusion powered rocket engine capable of manned missions to other planets with round trip mission times as low as 100 days. The Gevaltig design was previously described for a mission to Mars. This effort defines the spacecraft components in terms of mass and presents a mission analysis for a manned trip to Titan, a moon of Saturn. The Gevaltig component masses are provided as a function of fuel pellet ignition frequency. These variable mass components include the fuel tanks, radiators, structure and EM pumps. Fixed mass components include the drivers, coil, coil shield, power processing system, payload, crew shield and laser mirrors. A 6 MW nuclear reactor is included in the design for startup purposes. Various combinations of thrust, mission duration and specific impulse were evaluated to determine a reasonable mission scenario for the Titan mission. The mission analysis yielded several viable mission scenarios, with round trip durations of 370 to 500 days and initial (launch) masses from lunar orbit of 2500 to 20,000 metric tons. 15 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. A novel microfluidic system for the mass production of Inertial Fusion Energy shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N. T.

    2016-04-01

    A system which can mass produce millimetre sized spherical polymer shells economically and with high precision will be a great step towards the Inertial Fusion Energy goal. Microfluidics has shown itself to be a disruptive technology, where a rapid and continuous production of compound emulsions can be processed into such shells. Planar emulsion generators co-flow-focus in one step (COFON) and cascaded co-flow- focus (COFUS) enable millimetre compound emulsions to be produced using a one or two step formation process respectively. The co-flow-focus geometry uses symmetric and curved carrier fluid entrance walls to create a focusing orifice-minima and a carrier flow which aids movement and shaping of the dispersed fluid(s) towards the outlet, whilst maintaining operation in the dripping regime. Precision concentric alignment of these compound emulsions remains one of the greatest challenges. However steps to solve this passively using curved channel modulation to perturbate the emulsion have shown that rapid alignment can be achieved. Issues with satellite droplet formation, repeatability of the emulsion generation and cost are also addressed.

  1. Technical evaluation of major candidate blanket systems for fusion power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Seki, Masahiro; Minato, Akio

    1987-03-01

    The key functions required for tritium breeding blankets for a fusion power reactor are ; (1) self-sufficient tritium breeding, (2) in-situ tritium recovery and low tritium inventory, (3) high temperature cooling giving a high efficiency of electricity generation and (4) thermo-mechanical reliability and simplified remote maintenance to obtain high plant availability. Blanket performance is substantially governed by materials selection. Major options of structure/breeder/coolant/neutron multiplier materials considered for the present design study are PCA/Li/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/O/Be, Mo-alloy/Li/sub 2/O/He/Be, Mo-alloy/LiAlO/sub 2//He/Be, V-alloy/Li/Li/none, and Mo-alloy/Li/He/none. In addition, remote maintenance of blankets, tritium recovery system, heat transport and energy conversion have been investigated. In this report, technological problems and critical R and D issues for power reactor blanket development are identified and a comparison of major candidate blanket concepts is discussed in terms of the present materials data base, economic performance, prospects for future improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies. improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies.

  2. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, T; Landoas, O; Briat, M; Kime, S; Rossé, B; Thfoin, I; Bourgade, J L; Disdier, L; Glebov, V Yu; Marshall, F J; Sangster, T C

    2012-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution (~10 μm) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MégaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a (60)Co γ-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 μm were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  3. Development of a Prototype Lattice Boltzmann Code for CFD of Fusion Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Pattison, Martin J; Premnath, Kannan N; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Dwivedi, Vinay

    2007-02-26

    Designs of proposed fusion reactors, such as the ITER project, typically involve the use of liquid metals as coolants in components such as heat exchangers, which are generally subjected to strong magnetic fields. These fields induce electric currents in the fluids, resulting in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces which have important effects on the flow. The objective of this SBIR project was to develop computational techniques based on recently developed lattice Boltzmann techniques for the simulation of these MHD flows and implement them in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the study of fluid flow systems encountered in fusion engineering. The code developed during this project, solves the lattice Boltzmann equation, which is a kinetic equation whose behaviour represents fluid motion. This is in contrast to most CFD codes which are based on finite difference/finite volume based solvers. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a relatively new approach which has a number of advantages compared with more conventional methods such as the SIMPLE or projection method algorithms that involve direct solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. These are that the LBM is very well suited to parallel processing, with almost linear scaling even for very large numbers of processors. Unlike other methods, the LBM does not require solution of a Poisson pressure equation leading to a relatively fast execution time. A particularly attractive property of the LBM is that it can handle flows in complex geometries very easily. It can use simple rectangular grids throughout the computational domain -- generation of a body-fitted grid is not required. A recent advance in the LBM is the introduction of the multiple relaxation time (MRT) model; the implementation of this model greatly enhanced the numerical stability when used in lieu of the single relaxation time model, with only a small increase in computer time. Parallel processing was implemented using MPI and demonstrated the

  4. System Analysis and Risk Assessment System.

    2000-11-20

    Version 00 SARA4.16 is a program that allows the user to review the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and to perform limited sensitivity analysis on these results. This tool is intended to be used by a less technical oriented user and does not require the level of understanding of PRA concepts required by a full PRA analysis tool. With this program a user can review the information generated by a PRA analyst andmore » compare the results to those generated by making limited modifications to the data in the PRA. Also included in this program is the ability to graphically display the information stored in the database. This information includes event trees, fault trees, P&IDs and uncertainty distributions. SARA 4.16 is incorporated in the SAPHIRE 5.0 code package.« less

  5. Overview and Status of the Space Weather System-Impact Products for the SSA Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC SYAG/SED) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command's (AFSPC) Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes the Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D) products. The SEEFS architecture and database enable modular use and execution of the SEEFS products, and the high-level Decision Aid shows the combined effects of all SEEFS product output on a given asset and on multi-asset missions. This presentation will provide general overviews and status update of the SEEFS program, along with details of the first round of products expected to be operational for use in exercises and/or real-time operations in 2009.

  6. Toward a fusion of optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging for poultry meat quality assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An emerging poultry meat quality concern is associated with chicken breast fillets having an uncharacteristically hard or rigid feel (called the wooden breast condition). The cause of the wooden breast condition is still largely unknown, and there is no single objective evaluation method or system k...

  7. Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, G.

    This chapter is devoted to the fundamental concepts of nuclear fusion. To be more precise, it is devoted to the theoretical basics of fusion reactions between light nuclei such as hydrogen, helium, boron, and lithium. The discussion is limited because our purpose is to focus on laboratory-scale fusion experiments that aim at gaining energy from the fusion process. After discussing the methods of calculating the fusion cross section, it will be shown that sustained fusion reactions with energy gain must happen in a thermal medium because, in beam-target experiments, the energy of the beam is randomized faster than the fusion rate. Following a brief introduction to the elements of plasma physics, the chapter is concluded with the introduction of the most prominent fusion reactions ongoing in the Sun.

  8. A Novel Human Autonomy Assessment System

    PubMed Central

    Munstermann, Marco; Stevens, Torsten; Luther, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel human autonomy assessment system for generating context and discovering the behaviors of older people who use ambulant services. Our goal is to assist caregivers in assessing possibly abnormal health conditions in their clients concerning their level of autonomy, thus enabling caregivers to take countermeasures as soon as possible. PMID:22969374

  9. Scientific method, adversarial system, and technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic framework is provided for the consideration of the purposes and techniques of scientific method and adversarial systems. Similarities and differences in these two techniques of inquiry are considered with reference to their relevance in the performance of assessments.

  10. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 5: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    An appendix to the systems assessment for the electric hybrid vehicle project is presented. Included are battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs and battery discharge models.

  11. SCIENCE BRIEF: CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the condition of a collection system, data and information are gathered through observation, direct inspection, investigation, and indirect monitoring and reporting. An analysis of the data and information helps determine the structural, operational, and performance sta...

  12. OASIS: A Data Fusion System Optimized for Access to Distributed Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. B.; Kong, M.; Good, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    The On-Line Archive Science Information Services (OASIS) is accessible as a java applet through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive home page. It uses Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to provide data fusion and interaction services for astronomers. These services include the ability to process and display arbitrarily large image files, and user-controlled contouring, overlay regeneration and multi-table/image interactions. OASIS has been optimized for access to distributed archives and data sets. Its second release (June 2002) provides a mechanism that enables access to OASIS from "third-party" services and data providers. That is, any data provider who creates a query form to an archive containing a collection of data (images, catalogs, spectra) can direct the result files from the query into OASIS. Similarly, data providers who serve links to datasets or remote services on a web page can access all of these data with one instance of OASIS. In this was any data or service provider is given access to the full suite of capabilites of OASIS. We illustrate the "third-party" access feature with two examples: queries to the high-energy image datasets accessible from GSFC SkyView, and links to data that are returned from a target-based query to the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). The second release of OASIS also includes a file-transfer manager that reports the status of multiple data downloads from remote sources to the client machine. It is a prototype for a request management system that will ultimately control and manage compute-intensive jobs submitted through OASIS to computing grids, such as request for large scale image mosaics and bulk statistical analysis.

  13. Tools for Predicting Optical Damage on Inertial Confinement Fusion-Class Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Carr, C W; Liao, Z M; Honig, J; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Johnson, M A; Adams, J J; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W H; Matthews, M J; Jancaitis, K S; Kegelmeyer, L M

    2010-12-20

    Operating a fusion-class laser to its full potential requires a balance of operating constraints. On the one hand, the total laser energy delivered must be high enough to give an acceptable probability for ignition success. On the other hand, the laser-induced optical damage levels must be low enough to be acceptably handled with the available infrastructure and budget for optics recycle. Our research goal was to develop the models, database structures, and algorithmic tools (which we collectively refer to as ''Loop Tools'') needed to successfully maintain this balance. Predictive models are needed to plan for and manage the impact of shot campaigns from proposal, to shot, and beyond, covering a time span of years. The cost of a proposed shot campaign must be determined from these models, and governance boards must decide, based on predictions, whether to incorporate a given campaign into the facility shot plan based upon available resources. Predictive models are often built on damage ''rules'' derived from small beam damage tests on small optics. These off-line studies vary the energy, pulse-shape and wavelength in order to understand how these variables influence the initiation of damage sites and how initiated damage sites can grow upon further exposure to UV light. It is essential to test these damage ''rules'' on full-scale optics exposed to the complex conditions of an integrated ICF-class laser system. Furthermore, monitoring damage of optics on an ICF-class laser system can help refine damage rules and aid in the development of new rules. Finally, we need to develop the algorithms and data base management tools for implementing these rules in the Loop Tools. The following highlights progress in the development of the loop tools and their implementation.

  14. Comparison of the Dynesys Dynamic Stabilization System and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Lumbar Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Shan, Jian-Lin; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Li, Fang; Guan, Kai; Sun, Tian-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been few studies comparing the clinical and radiographic outcomes between the Dynesys dynamic stabilization system and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The objective of this study is to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of Dynesys and PLIF for lumbar degenerative disease. Methods Of 96 patients with lumbar degenerative disease included in this retrospectively analysis, 46 were treated with the Dynesys system and 50 underwent PLIF from July 2008 to March 2011. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. We also evaluated the occurrence of radiographic and symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). Results The mean follow-up time in the Dynesys group was 53.6 ± 5.3 months, while that in the PLIF group was 55.2 ± 6.8 months. At the final follow-up, the Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale score were significantly improved in both groups. The range of motion (ROM) of stabilized segments in Dynesys group decreased from 7.1 ± 2.2° to 4.9 ± 2.2° (P < 0.05), while that of in PLIF group decreased from 7.3 ± 2.3° to 0° (P < 0.05). The ROM of the upper segments increased significantly in both groups at the final follow-up, the ROM was higher in the PLIF group. There were significantly more radiographic ASDs in the PLIF group than in the Dynesys group. The incidence of complications was comparable between groups. Conclusions Both Dynesys and PLIF can improve the clinical outcomes for lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to PLIF, Dynesys stabilization partially preserves the ROM of the stabilized segments, limits hypermobility in the upper adjacent segment, and may prevent the occurrence of ASD. PMID:26824851

  15. Oxygen Compatibility Assessment of Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel; Sparks, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazards are inherent in oxygen systems and a storied history of fires in rocket engine propulsion components exists. To detect and mitigate these fire hazards requires careful, detailed, and thorough analyses applied during the design process. The oxygen compatibility assessment (OCA) process designed by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) can be used to determine the presence of fire hazards in oxygen systems and the likelihood of a fire. This process may be used as both a design guide and during the approval process to ensure proper design features and material selection. The procedure for performing an OCA is a structured step-by-step process to determine the most severe operating conditions; assess the flammability of the system materials at the use conditions; evaluate the presence and efficacy of ignition mechanisms; assess the potential for a fire to breach the system; and determine the reaction effect (the potential loss of life, mission, and system functionality as the result of a fire). This process should be performed for each component in a system. The results of each component assessment, and the overall system assessment, should be recorded in a report that can be used in the short term to communicate hazards and their mitigation and to aid in system/component development and, in the long term, to solve anomalies that occur during engine testing and operation.

  16. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  17. Quadruplex digital flight control system assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulcare, D. B.; Downing, L. E.; Smith, M. K.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the development and validation of a double fail-operational digital flight control system architecture for critical pitch axis functions. Architectural tradeoffs are assessed, system simulator modifications are described, and demonstration testing results are critiqued. Assessment tools and their application are also illustrated. Ultimately, the vital role of system simulation, tailored to digital mechanization attributes, is shown to be essential to validating the airworthiness of full-time critical functions such as augmented fly-by-wire systems for relaxed static stability airplanes.

  18. [Stiffening effect of a transsacral fusion system for the lumbosacral junction. A probabilistic finite element analysis and sensitivity study].

    PubMed

    Boustani, H N; Rohlmann, A; Abouezzeddine, O; Bergmann, G; Zander, T

    2011-02-01

    The novel transsacral fusion system AxiALIF allows stabilization of the lumbosacral junction. The system consists of a screw with two different diameters. With additional facet screws or internal fixation devices 360° fusion can be achieved. The effects of different parameters such as length, diameter combination and material of the transsacral screw, type of additional fixation and stiffness of the bone are unknown. In a probabilistic finite element analysis, the input parameters were randomly varied. The rotational angles and the axial forces in the various implants were calculated for four different load scenarios. In a subsequent sensitivity study the influences of single input parameters on the variance of the results were calculated. A transsacral screw significantly reduces the motion in the treated segment, except for axial rotation. An additional fixation has a strong effect on the variance of rotation angles. The other parameters usually explain less than 10% of the variance. The novel lumbosacral fusion system allows good stabilization of the segment, especially when additional fixation via facet screws or fixators is performed.

  19. Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-01

    Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

  20. The Fusion Model of Intelligent Transportation Systems Based on the Urban Traffic Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wang-Dong; Wang, Tao

    On these issues unified representation of urban transport information using urban transport ontology, it defines the statute and the algebraic operations of semantic fusion in ontology level in order to achieve the fusion of urban traffic information in the semantic completeness and consistency. Thus this paper takes advantage of the semantic completeness of the ontology to build urban traffic ontology model with which we resolve the problems as ontology mergence and equivalence verification in semantic fusion of traffic information integration. Information integration in urban transport can increase the function of semantic fusion, and reduce the amount of data integration of urban traffic information as well enhance the efficiency and integrity of traffic information query for the help, through the practical application of intelligent traffic information integration platform of Changde city, the paper has practically proved that the semantic fusion based on ontology increases the effect and efficiency of the urban traffic information integration, reduces the storage quantity, and improve query efficiency and information completeness.

  1. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  2. Theoretical study of effects of the entrance channel on the relative yield of complete fusion and quasifission in heavy-ion collisions within a dinuclear system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheyli, S.; Khanlari, M. Varasteh

    2016-09-01

    The relative yield of complete fusion and quasifission components for the 12C+204Pb , 19F+197Au , 30Si+186W , and 48Ca+168Er reactions which all lead to the compound nucleus 216Ra are analyzed to calculate the entrance channel effects by comparison of capture, complete fusion, and quasifission cross sections, emission barriers (Bfus*,Bq f ), as well as complete fusion probability estimated by statistical method within the framework of the dinuclear system model. The difference among complete fusion probabilities calculated by the dinuclear system model for different entrance channels can be explained by the hindrance to complete fusion due to the larger inner fusion barrier Bfus* for the transformation of the dinuclear system into a compound nucleus and the increase of the quasifission contribution due to the decreasing of the emission barrier Bq f of quasifission as a function of the angular momentum. Although these reactions with different entrance channels populate the same compound nucleus 216Ra at similar excitation energies, the model predicts the negligible quasifission probability for reactions having higher entrance channel mass asymmetry and the dominant decay channel is complete fission. For reactions induced by massive projectiles such as Si and Ca having lower entrance channel mass asymmetry, the quasifission component is dominant in the evolution of dinuclear system, and the fusion process is extremely hindered.

  3. An adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J.T.; Bliss, E.S.; Byrd, J.L.; Feldman, M.; Kartz, M.A.; Toeppen, J.S.; Wonterghem, B. Van; Winters, S.E.

    1995-09-17

    Using adaptive optics the authors have obtained nearly diffraction-limited 5 kJ, 3 nsec output pulses at 1.053 {micro}m from the Beamlet demonstration system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The peak Strehl ratio was improved from 0.009 to 0.50, as estimated from measured wavefront errors. They have also measured the relaxation of the thermally induced aberrations in the main beam line over a period of 4.5 hours. Peak-to-valley aberrations range from 6.8 waves at 1.053 {micro}m within 30 minutes after a full system shot to 3.9 waves after 4.5 hours. The adaptive optics system must have enough range to correct accumulated thermal aberrations from several shots in addition to the immediate shot-induced error. Accumulated wavefront errors in the beam line will affect both the design of the adaptive optics system for NIF and the performance of that system.

  4. Measurements of fusion cross sections in the systems {sup 58,64}Ni +, {sup 78,86}Kr

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H.

    1995-08-01

    We investigated the nuclear structure dependence of the sub-barrier fusion enhancement in heavy-ion induced reactions by studying the systems {sup 58,64}Ni + {sup 78,86}Kr at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. These {sup 78,86}Kr selected because, similar to the Mo case discussed isotopes were above, there are strong changes in nuclear structure as a function of the neutron number. However, contrary to Mo, where the {open_quotes}softness{close_quotes} of the nucleus increases with higher neutron number, the most collective nucleus for the Kr case is the neutron-deficient {sup 78}Kr. The experiment was performed with Kr beams from the positive-ion injector using enriched {sup 78,86}Kr gas in the ECR ion source. The separation of evaporation residues from the elastically-scattered particles was achieved by using their difference in time-of-flight and magnetic rigidity in the gas-filled spectrograph. The excitation functions for the four systems were compared to coupled-channels calculations including inelastic excitations of one- and two-phonon states in projectile and target. For systems involving {sup 86}Kr, good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, while for {sup 78}Kr + {sup 58,64}Ni an additional enhancement of the cross sections persisted at the lowest energies. It was found that this fusion enhancement correlates with the nuclear structure of the individual nucleus. Characterizing the structure of vibrational even-even nuclei by their restoring force parameter C{sub 2}, which can be calculated from the energy of the lowest 2{sup +} state and the associated B(E2) value, one observes that nuclei with small C{sub 2} values exhibit a large sub-barrier fusion enhancement, while nuclei with high values of C{sub 2} (usually closed-shell nuclei), show smaller fusion yields.

  5. Fusion of real-time simulation, sensing, and geo-informatics in assessing tsunami impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimura, S.; Inoue, T.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Musa, A.; Murashima, Y.; Gokon, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bringing together state-of-the-art high-performance computing, remote sensing and spatial information sciences, we establish a method of real-time tsunami inundation forecasting, damage estimation and mapping to enhance disaster response. Right after a major (near field) earthquake is triggered, we perform a real-time tsunami inundation forecasting with use of high-performance computing platform (Koshimura et al., 2014). Using Tohoku University's vector supercomputer, we accomplished "10-10-10 challenge", to complete tsunami source determination in 10 minutes, tsunami inundation modeling in 10 minutes with 10 m grid resolution. Given the maximum flow depth distribution, we perform quantitative estimation of exposed population using census data and mobile phone data, and the numbers of potential death and damaged structures by applying tsunami fragility curve. After the potential tsunami-affected areas are estimated, the analysis gets focused and moves on to the "detection" phase using remote sensing. Recent advances of remote sensing technologies expand capabilities of detecting spatial extent of tsunami affected area and structural damage. Especially, a semi-automated method to estimate building damage in tsunami affected areas is developed using pre- and post-event high-resolution SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data. The method is verified through the case studies in the 2011 Tohoku and other potential tsunami scenarios, and the prototype system development is now underway in Kochi prefecture, one of at-risk coastal city against Nankai trough earthquake. In the trial operation, we verify the capability of the method as a new tsunami early warning and response system for stakeholders and responders.

  6. Status of fusion research and implications for D/He-3 systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.

    1988-01-01

    World wide programs in both magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion research have made steady progress towards the experimental demonstration of energy breakeven. However, after breakeven is achieved, considerable time and effort must still be expended to develop a usable power plant. The main program described is focused on Deuterium-Tritium devices. In magnetic confinement, three of the most promising high beta approaches with a reasonable experimental data base are the Field Reversed Configuration, the high field tokamak, and the dense Z-pinch. The situation is less clear in inertial confinement where the first step requires an experimental demonstration of D/T spark ignition. It appears that fusion research has reached a point in time where an R and D plan to develop a D/He-3 fusion reactor can be laid out with some confidence of success.

  7. Fusion to Hydrophobin HFBI Improves the Catalytic Performance of a Cytochrome P450 System

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Sebastian; Schumacher, Dominik; Raszkowski, Daniel; Girhard, Marco; Urlacher, Vlada B.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) are heme-containing enzymes that oxidize a broad range of substrates in the presence of molecular oxygen and NAD(P)H. For their activity, most P450s rely on one or two redox proteins responsible for the transfer of electrons from the cofactor NAD(P)H to the heme. One of the challenges when using P450s in vitro, especially when non-physiological redox proteins are applied, is the inefficient transfer of electrons between the individual proteins resulting in non-productive consumption of NAD(P)H – referred to as uncoupling. Herein, we describe the improvement of the coupling efficiency between a P450 and its redox partner – diflavin reductase – by fusing both enzymes individually to the hydrophobin HFBI – a small self-assembling protein of the fungus Trichoderma reesei. The separated monooxygenase (BMO) and reductase (BMR) domains of P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium were chosen as a P450-reductase model system and individually fused to HFBI. The fusion proteins could be expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. When HFBI-fused BMO and BMR were mixed in vitro, substantially higher coupling efficiencies were measured as compared with the respective non-fused enzymes. Consequently, myristic acid conversion increased up to 20-fold (after 6 h) and 5-fold (after 24 h). Size exclusion chromatography demonstrated that in vitro the hydrophobin-fused enzymes build multimeric protein assemblies. Thus, the higher activity is hypothesized to be due to HFBI-mediated self-assembly arranging BMO and BMR in close spatial proximity in aqueous solution. PMID:27458582

  8. Fusion to Hydrophobin HFBI Improves the Catalytic Performance of a Cytochrome P450 System.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Sebastian; Schumacher, Dominik; Raszkowski, Daniel; Girhard, Marco; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) are heme-containing enzymes that oxidize a broad range of substrates in the presence of molecular oxygen and NAD(P)H. For their activity, most P450s rely on one or two redox proteins responsible for the transfer of electrons from the cofactor NAD(P)H to the heme. One of the challenges when using P450s in vitro, especially when non-physiological redox proteins are applied, is the inefficient transfer of electrons between the individual proteins resulting in non-productive consumption of NAD(P)H - referred to as uncoupling. Herein, we describe the improvement of the coupling efficiency between a P450 and its redox partner - diflavin reductase - by fusing both enzymes individually to the hydrophobin HFBI - a small self-assembling protein of the fungus Trichoderma reesei. The separated monooxygenase (BMO) and reductase (BMR) domains of P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium were chosen as a P450-reductase model system and individually fused to HFBI. The fusion proteins could be expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. When HFBI-fused BMO and BMR were mixed in vitro, substantially higher coupling efficiencies were measured as compared with the respective non-fused enzymes. Consequently, myristic acid conversion increased up to 20-fold (after 6 h) and 5-fold (after 24 h). Size exclusion chromatography demonstrated that in vitro the hydrophobin-fused enzymes build multimeric protein assemblies. Thus, the higher activity is hypothesized to be due to HFBI-mediated self-assembly arranging BMO and BMR in close spatial proximity in aqueous solution. PMID:27458582

  9. Assessment of Closed-Loop Control Using Multi-Mode Sensor Fusion For a High Reynolds Number Transonic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Kerwin; Elhadidi, Basman; Glauser, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the different noise production mechanisms caused by the free shear flows in a turbulent jet flow provides insight to improve ``intelligent'' feedback mechanisms to control the noise. Towards this effort, a control scheme is based on feedback of azimuthal pressure measurements in the near field of the jet at two streamwise locations. Previous studies suggested that noise reduction can be achieved by azimuthal actuators perturbing the shear layer at the jet lip. The closed-loop actuation will be based on a low-dimensional Fourier representation of the hydrodynamic pressure measurements. Preliminary results show that control authority and reduction in the overall sound pressure level was possible. These results provide motivation to move forward with the overall vision of developing innovative multi-mode sensing methods to improve state estimation and derive dynamical systems. It is envisioned that estimating velocity-field and dynamic pressure information from various locations both local and in the far-field regions, sensor fusion techniques can be utilized to ascertain greater overall control authority.

  10. A DATA FUSION SYSTEM FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF NON-PIGGABLE PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Shreekanth Mandayam; Robi Polikar; John C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) To design sensor data fusion algorithms that can synergistically combine defect related information from heterogeneous sensors used in gas pipeline inspection for reliably and accurately predicting the condition of the pipe-wall. (2) To develop efficient data management techniques for signals obtained during multisensor interrogation of a gas pipeline. During this reporting period, Rowan University designed, developed and exercised multisensor data fusion algorithms for identifying defect related information present in magnetic flux leakage, ultrasonic testing and thermal imaging nondestructive evaluation signatures of a test-specimen suite representative of benign and anomalous indications in gas transmission pipelines.

  11. Sub-Barrier Fusion in the HI + 208Pb Systems and Nuclear Potentials for Cluster Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Sagaidak, R.N.; Tretyakova, S.P.; Khlebnikov, S.V.; Ogloblin, A.A.; Rowley, N.

    2005-11-21

    Near-barrier fusion excitation functions for the 12,14C, 16,18O + 208Pb reactions have been analyzed in the framework of the barrier-passing model using different forms of the nuclear potential and the phenomenology of a fluctuating barrier. The best-fit fusion potentials were used to estimate cluster decay probabilities from the corresponding ground states of Ra and Th, i.e., for the inverse decay process. The analysis supports the 'alpha-decay-like' scenario for carbon and oxygen emission from these nuclei.

  12. A system for testing distributed information fusion applications for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehn, Hans; Happe, Jens; Guitouni, Adel; Valin, Pierre; Bossé, Éloi

    2008-03-01

    A PRECARN partnership project, called CanCoastWatch (CCW), is bringing together a team of researchers from industry, government, and academia for creating an advanced simulation test bed for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of Network Enabled Operations in a Coastal Wide Area Surveillance situation. The test bed allows experimenting with higher-level distributed information fusion, dynamic resource management and configuration management given multiple constraints on the resources and their communications networks. The test bed provides general services that are useful for testing many fusion applications. This includes a multi-layer plug-and-play architecture, and a general multi-agent framework based on John Boyd's OODA loop.

  13. Autonomous navigation vehicle system based on robot vision and multi-sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lihong; Chen, Yingsong; Cui, Zhouping

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of autonomous navigation vehicle based on robot vision and multi-sensor fusion technology is expatiated in this paper. In order to acquire more intelligence and robustness, accurate real-time collection and processing of information are realized by using this technology. The method to achieve robot vision and multi-sensor fusion is discussed in detail. The results simulated in several operating modes show that this intelligent vehicle has better effects in barrier identification and avoidance and path planning. And this can provide higher reliability during vehicle running.

  14. Results of the Development of Humanitarian Landmine Detection System by a Compact Fusion Neutron Source and Dual Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kai; Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Toku, Hisayuki; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hotta, Eiki; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Ohnishi, Masami; Osawa, Hodaka; Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Doi, Toshiro

    2009-03-10

    A 5-year task is described on the research and development of the advanced humanitarian landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device and 3 dual sensors made of BGO and NaI(Tl). With 10{sup 7} D-D neutrons/s stably produced in steady-state mode, H-2.2 MeV, N-5.3, 10.8 MeV {gamma} rays from (n,{gamma}) reaction with hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the explosives are measured for two kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX), under the conditions of three different buried depths, and soil moistures each. Final probabilities of detection for arid soil are found to be 100% in the present tests. The neutron backscattering method is also found to be efficient.

  15. An Expert System For Multispectral Threat Assessment And Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Alan N.

    1987-05-01

    A concept has been defined for an automatic system to manage the self-defense of a combat aircraft. Distinctive new features of this concept include: a. the flexible prioritization of tasks and coordinated use of sensor, countermeasures, flight systems and weapons assets by means of an automated planning function; b. the integration of state-of-the-art data fusion algorithms with event prediction processing; c. the use of advanced Artificial Intelligence tools to emulate the decision processes of tactical EW experts. Threat Assessment functions (a) estimate threat identity, lethality and intent on the basis of multi-spectral sensor data, and (b) predict the time to critical events in threat engagements (e.g., target acquisition, tracking, weapon launch, impact). Response Management functions (a) select candidate responses to reported threat situations; (b) estimate the effects of candidate actions on survival; and (c) coordinate the assignment of sensors, weapons and countermeasures with the flight plan. The system employs Finite State Models to represent current engagements and to predict subsequent events. Each state in a model is associated with a set of observable features, allowing interpretation of sensor data and adaptive use of sensor assets. Defined conditions on state transitions allow prediction of times to critical future states and are used in planning self-defensive responses, which are designed either to impede a particular state transition or to force a transition to a lower threat state.

  16. A Substrate-Fusion Protein Is Trapped inside the Type III Secretion System Channel in Shigella flexneri

    PubMed Central

    Dohlich, Kim; Zumsteg, Anna Brotcke; Goosmann, Christian; Kolbe, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) is a macromolecular complex used by Gram-negative bacteria to secrete effector proteins from the cytoplasm across the bacterial envelope in a single step. For many pathogens, the T3SS is an essential virulence factor that enables the bacteria to interact with and manipulate their respective host. A characteristic structural feature of the T3SS is the needle complex (NC). The NC resembles a syringe with a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and a long needle-like structure that protrudes from the bacterium. Based on the paradigm of a syringe-like mechanism, it is generally assumed that effectors and translocators are unfolded and secreted from the bacterial cytoplasm through the basal body and needle channel. Despite extensive research on T3SS, this hypothesis lacks experimental evidence and the mechanism of secretion is not fully understood. In order to elucidate details of the T3SS secretion mechanism, we generated fusion proteins consisting of a T3SS substrate and a bulky protein containing a knotted motif. Because the knot cannot be unfolded, these fusions are accepted as T3SS substrates but remain inside the NC channel and obstruct the T3SS. To our knowledge, this is the first time substrate fusions have been visualized together with isolated NCs and we demonstrate that substrate proteins are secreted directly through the channel with their N-terminus first. The channel physically encloses the fusion protein and shields it from a protease and chemical modifications. Our results corroborate an elementary understanding of how the T3SS works and provide a powerful tool for in situ-structural investigations in the future. This approach might also be applicable to other protein secretion systems that require unfolding of their substrates prior to secretion. PMID:24453973

  17. Finite Element Analysis of a New Pedicle Screw-Plate System for Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Changqing; Liu, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) is increasingly popular for the surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar disc diseases. The constructs intended for segmental stability are varied in MI-TLIF. We adopted finite element (FE) analysis to compare the stability after different construct fixations using interbody cage with posterior pedicle screw-rod or pedicle screw-plate instrumentation system. Methods A L3–S1 FE model was modified to simulate decompression and fusion at L4–L5 segment. Fixation modes included unilateral plate (UP), unilateral rod (UR), bilateral plate (BP), bilateral rod (BR) and UP+UR fixation. The inferior surface of the S1 vertebra remained immobilized throughout the load simulation, and a bending moment of 7.5 Nm with 400N pre-load was applied on the L3 vertebra to recreate flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Range of motion (ROM) and Von Mises stress were evaluated for intact and instrumentation models in all loading planes. Results All reconstructive conditions displayed decreased motion at L4–L5. The pedicle screw-plate system offered equal ROM to pedicle screw-rod system in unilateral or bilateral fixation modes respectively. Pedicle screw stresses for plate system were 2.2 times greater than those for rod system in left lateral bending under unilateral fixation. Stresses for plate were 3.1 times greater than those for rod in right axial rotation under bilateral fixation. Stresses on intervertebral graft for plate system were similar to rod system in unilateral and bilateral fixation modes respectively. Increased ROM and posterior instrumentation stresses were observed in all loading modes with unilateral fixation compared with bilateral fixation in both systems. Conclusions Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion augmentation with pedicle screw-plate system fixation increases fusion construct stability equally to the pedicle screw-rod system. Increased posterior

  18. A novel multisensor traffic state assessment system based on incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Jiang, Yaoliang

    2014-01-01

    A novel multisensor system with incomplete data is presented for traffic state assessment. The system comprises probe vehicle detection sensors, fixed detection sensors, and traffic state assessment algorithm. First of all, the validity checking of the traffic flow data is taken as preprocessing of this method. And then a new method based on the history data information is proposed to fuse and recover the incomplete data. According to the characteristics of space complementary of data based on the probe vehicle detector and fixed detector, a fusion model of space matching is presented to estimate the mean travel speed of the road. Finally, the traffic flow data include flow, speed and, occupancy rate, which are detected between Beijing Deshengmen bridge and Drum Tower bridge, are fused to assess the traffic state of the road by using the fusion decision model of rough sets and cloud. The accuracy of experiment result can reach more than 98%, and the result is in accordance with the actual road traffic state. This system is effective to assess traffic state, and it is suitable for the urban intelligent transportation system.

  19. A Novel Multisensor Traffic State Assessment System Based on Incomplete Data

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Jiang, Yaoliang

    2014-01-01

    A novel multisensor system with incomplete data is presented for traffic state assessment. The system comprises probe vehicle detection sensors, fixed detection sensors, and traffic state assessment algorithm. First of all, the validity checking of the traffic flow data is taken as preprocessing of this method. And then a new method based on the history data information is proposed to fuse and recover the incomplete data. According to the characteristics of space complementary of data based on the probe vehicle detector and fixed detector, a fusion model of space matching is presented to estimate the mean travel speed of the road. Finally, the traffic flow data include flow, speed and, occupancy rate, which are detected between Beijing Deshengmen bridge and Drum Tower bridge, are fused to assess the traffic state of the road by using the fusion decision model of rough sets and cloud. The accuracy of experiment result can reach more than 98%, and the result is in accordance with the actual road traffic state. This system is effective to assess traffic state, and it is suitable for the urban intelligent transportation system. PMID:25162055

  20. Multifocus image fusion scheme based on nonsubsampled contourlet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinxing; Wang, Dianhong; Duan, Zhijuan; Li, Dongming

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel multifocus image fusion scheme based on nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT). The selection principles for different subband coefficients in NSCT domain are discussed in detail. In order to be consistent with the characteristics of the human visual system and improve the robustness of the fusion algorithm to the noise, the NSCT-DCT energy is first developed. Based on it, the clarity measure and bandpass energy contrast are defined and employed to motivate the pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) for the fusion of lowpass and bandpass subbands, respectively. The performance of the proposed fusion scheme is assessed by experiments and the results demonstrate that the algorithm proposed in the paper compares favorably to wavelet-based, contourlet-based and NSCTbased fusion algorithms in terms of visual appearances and objective criterion.

  1. Hyperspectral and in situ data fusion for the steering of plant production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

    2009-04-01

    Plant production systems are governed by biotic and a-biotic factors and by management practices. Some of the relevant parameters have already been identified and incorporated as inputs into existing models for production assessment, early-warning, and process management. These parameters originate nowadays primarily from in-situ measurements and observations. Non-invasive remotely sensed data, the diagnostic tools of excellence where it concerns the interaction of solar energy with biomass, have seldom been included and if so, mostly to support yield assessment and harvest monitoring only. The availability of new-generation hyperspectral/hypertemporal signatures will greatly facilitate their integration into full-fledged plant production model either via direct use, forcing, assimilation or re-initialization strategies. The main objective of IS-HS (Integration of In Situ data and HyperSpectral remote sensing for plant production modeling) is to set up a multidisciplinary research platform to deepen our system understanding and to develop production-oriented schemes to steer capital-intensive vegetation scenarios. Real-time steering in a 10-15 year timeframe is envisaged, where current system state is monitored, and steered towards an ideal state in terms of production quantity and quality. IS-HS focuses on hyperspectral sensor design, time series analysis tools for remote sensing data of vegetation systems, on the establishment of two stream communication between satellite and ground sensors, on the development of citrus plant production systems, and on the design of in-situ data sensor networks. The general framework of this system approach will be presented. In time, this integration should allow to cross the bridge from post-harvest assessment to near real-time potential and actual yield monitoring in terms of crop.

  2. Evaluation of a Hybrid Dynamic Stabilization and Fusion System in the Lumbar Spine: A 10 Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kashkoush, Ahmed; Agarwal, Nitin; Paschel, Erin; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The development of adjacent-segment disease is a recognized consequence of lumbar fusion surgery. Posterior dynamic stabilization, or motion preservation, techniques have been developed which theoretically decrease stress on adjacent segments following fusion. This study presents the experience of using a hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion construct for degenerative lumbar spine pathology in place of rigid arthrodesis. Methods: A clinical cohort investigation was conducted of 66 consecutive patients (31 female, 35 male; mean age: 53 years, range: 25 – 76 years) who underwent posterior lumbar instrumentation with the Dynesys Transition Optima (DTO) implant (Zimmer-Biomet Spine, Warsaw, IN) hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion system over a 10-year period. The median length of follow-up was five years. DTO consists of pedicle screw fixation coupled to a rigid rod as well as a flexible longitudinal connecting system. All patients had symptoms of back pain and neurogenic claudication refractory to non-surgical treatment. Patients underwent lumbar arthrodesis surgery in which the hybrid system was used for stabilization instead of arthrodesis of the stenotic adjacent level. Results: Indications for DTO instrumentation were primary degenerative disc disease (n = 52) and failed back surgery syndrome (n = 14). The most common dynamically stabilized and fused segments were L3-L4 (n = 37) and L5-S1 (n = 33), respectively. Thirty-eight patients (56%) underwent decompression at the dynamically stabilized level, and 57 patients (86%) had an interbody device placed at the level of arthrodesis. Complications during the follow-up period included a single case of screw breakage and a single case of pseudoarthrosis. Ten patients (15%) subsequently underwent conversion of the dynamic stabilization portion of their DTO instrumentation to rigid spinal arthrodesis. Conclusion: The DTO system represents a novel hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion construct

  3. An approach to 3D model fusion in GIS systems and its application in a future ECDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Depeng; Pan, Mingyang

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics technology is widely used in various areas and causes profound changes. As an information carrier, 3D models are becoming increasingly important. The use of 3D models greatly helps to improve the cartographic expression and design. 3D models are more visually efficient, quicker and easier to understand and they can express more detailed geographical information. However, it is hard to efficiently and precisely fuse 3D models in local systems. The purpose of this study is to propose an automatic and precise approach to fuse 3D models in geographic information systems (GIS). It is the basic premise for subsequent uses of 3D models in local systems, such as attribute searching, spatial analysis, and so on. The basic steps of our research are: (1) pose adjustment by principal component analysis (PCA); (2) silhouette extraction by simple mesh silhouette extraction and silhouette merger; (3) size adjustment; (4) position matching. Finally, we implement the above methods in our system Automotive Intelligent Chart (AIC) 3D Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS). The fusion approach we propose is a common method and each calculation step is carefully designed. This approach solves the problem of cross-platform model fusion. 3D models can be from any source. They may be stored in the local cache or retrieved from Internet, or may be manually created by different tools or automatically generated by different programs. The system can be any kind of 3D GIS system.

  4. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  5. The development of a universal diagnostic probe system for Tokamak fusion test reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastronardi, R.; Cabral, R.; Manos, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), the largest such facility in the U.S., is discussed with respect to instrumentation in general and mechanisms in particular. The design philosophy and detailed implementation of a universal probe mechanism for TFTR is discussed.

  6. Afghanistan irrigation system assessment using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Helmand-Arghandab Valley irrigation system in southern Afghanistan is one of the country's most important capital resources. Prior to the civil and military conflict that has engulfed Afghanistan for more than 15 years, agricultural lands irrigated by the system produced a large proportion of the country's food grains and cotton. This study successfully employed Landsat satellite imagery, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and field surveys to assess changes that have occurred in this system since 1973 as a consequence of the war. This information is a critical step in irrigation rehabilitation for restoration of Afghanistan's agricultural productivity.

  7. Development of a Psychological Assessment System

    PubMed Central

    Lushene, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    The development and validation of a psychological assessment system is described. The system currently has the capability to administer, score, and in many cases interpret, 62 different psychological tests. In addition, the system collects patient information by automated interviews in 18 areas of relevance. The system also has the capability of assisting the development of psychiatric diagnoses utilizing the new DSM III diagnostic criteria. The present system, programmed in ANS MUMPS, has been used to administer over 8,000 psychological tests and has received excellent acceptance in the institutions where it has been installed.

  8. Quantitative performance assessments for neuromagnetic imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryo; Hiyama, Ei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation method to assess the performance of neuromagnetic imaging systems using two kinds of performance metrics: A-prime metric and spatial resolution. We compute these performance metrics for virtual sensor systems having 80, 160, 320, and 640 sensors, and discuss how the system performance is improved, depending on the number of sensors. We also compute these metrics for existing whole-head MEG systems, MEGvision™ (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) that uses axial-gradiometer sensors, and TRIUX™ (Elekta Corporate, Stockholm, Sweden) that uses planar-gradiometer and magnetometer sensors. We discuss performance comparisons between these significantly different systems.

  9. Quantitative performance assessments for neuromagnetic imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryo; Hiyama, Ei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation method to assess the performance of neuromagnetic imaging systems using two kinds of performance metrics: A-prime metric and spatial resolution. We compute these performance metrics for virtual sensor systems having 80, 160, 320, and 640 sensors, and discuss how the system performance is improved, depending on the number of sensors. We also compute these metrics for existing whole-head MEG systems, MEGvision™ (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) that uses axial-gradiometer sensors, and TRIUX™ (Elekta Corporate, Stockholm, Sweden) that uses planar-gradiometer and magnetometer sensors. We discuss performance comparisons between these significantly different systems. PMID:24110711

  10. Mobile Munitions Assessment System Field Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; K. D. Watts

    1999-05-27

    The US has developed, stored, tested, and conducted disposal operations on various forms of chemical munitions for several decades. The remnants of these activities have resulted in the presence of suspect CWM at more than 200 sites in the US, the District of Columbia, and the US Virgin Islands. An advanced Mobile Munitions Assessment System (Phase II MMAS) has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory under contract to the US Army's Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel for use in the assessment and characterization of ''non-stockpile'' chemical warfare materiel (CWM). The Phase II MMAS meets the immediate need to augment response equipment currently used by the US Army with a system that includes state-of-the-art assessment equipment and advanced sensors. The Phase II MMAS will be used for response to known storage and remediation sites. This system is designed to identify the munition type; evaluate the condition of the CWM; evaluate the environmental conditions in the vicinity of the CWM; determine if fuzes, bursters, or safety and arming devices are in place; identify the chemical fill; provide other data (e.g., meteorological data) necessary for assessing the risk associated with handling, transporting, and disposing of CWM; and record the data on a dedicated computer system. The Phase II MMAS is capable of over-the-road travel and air transport to any site for conducting rigorous assessments of suspect CWM. The Phase II MMAS utilizes a specially-designed commercial motor home to provide a means to transport an interactive network of non-intrusive characterization and assessment equipment. The assessment equipment includes radiography systems, a gamma densitometer system, a Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) system, a Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) system, air monitoring equipment (i.e., M-90s and a field ion spectroscopy system), and a phase determination

  11. The Applications of Decision-Level Data Fusion Techniques in the Field of Multiuser Detection for DS-UWB Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yebo; Yang, Minglei; Shi, Zhenguo; Wu, Zhilu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the decision-level data fusion techniques are extended to the multiuser detection (MUD) field. Then two novel MUD algorithms, that is the chairman arbitrating decision-level fusion criterion (CA-DFC) based MUD algorithm and the veto logic decision-level fusion criterion (VL-DFC) based MUD algorithm, are proposed for DS-UWB communication systems. In CA-DFC based method, the chairman can make his arbitration among the preliminary decisions from sub-optimal detectors by his own rule. In the VL-DFC based method, the undetermined bits in these preliminary decisions are considered to construct a simplified solution space, and then the chairman can make his final decision within this space. Simulation results demonstrate that the performances of CA-DFC and VL-DFC based MUD algorithms are superior to those of other sub-optimal MUD algorithms, and even close to that of OMD. Moreover, both of these proposed algorithms have lower computational complexity than OMD, which reveals their efficiency. Compared with CA-DFC, VL-DFC based algorithm achieves a little improvement in its performance, at the cost of the increment in its computational complexity. Thus, they can be applied to different practical situations. PMID:26404273

  12. Sensoring fusion data from the optic and acoustic emissions of electric arcs in the GMAW-S process for welding quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Sadek Crisóstomo Absi; Cayo, Eber Huanca

    2012-01-01

    The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms.

  13. Sensoring fusion data from the optic and acoustic emissions of electric arcs in the GMAW-S process for welding quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Sadek Crisóstomo Absi; Cayo, Eber Huanca

    2012-01-01

    The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms. PMID:22969330

  14. Sensoring Fusion Data from the Optic and Acoustic Emissions of Electric Arcs in the GMAW-S Process for Welding Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Sadek Crisóstomo Absi; Cayo, Eber Huanca

    2012-01-01

    The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms. PMID:22969330

  15. Cleavage fracture and irradiation embrittlement of fusion reactor alloys: mechanisms, multiscale models, toughness measurements and implications to structural integrity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odette, G. R.; Yamamoto, T.; Rathbun, H. J.; He, M. Y.; Hribernik, M. L.; Rensman, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    stress near a crack tip, and constraint loss associated with large amounts of deformation in small specimens and shallow surface cracks. We describe micromechanical models that can be used to adjust the toughness measured using small specimens to both the intrinsic material KJc and the effective toughness pertinent to a structure. Finally, using a simple example, we illustrate the profound implications of size-geometry effects on the fracture of fusion structures. This assessment is based on a metric of strength and ductility, specified as the ratios of the critical load and displacement at fracture to the corresponding yield load and displacement, Pc/ Py and Δc/ Δy, respectively. Even in cases where the material experiences very brittle elastic fracture in standard tests, or in heavy sections, with Pc/ Py<1, the extrinsic factors pertinent to fusion structures (small shallow cracks in thin sections, etc.) lead to Pc/ Py>1 and Δc/ Δy≫1. Indeed, in some circumstances, the benefits of irradiation due to increases in Pc may more than offset the liabilities of the decreases in Δc.

  16. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project and the Tokamak Physics Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-27

    If the US is to meet the energy needs of the future, it is essential that new technologies emerge to compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels and the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors. Fusion energy has the potential to become a major source of energy for the future. Power from fusion energy would provide a substantially reduced environmental impact as compared with other forms of energy generation. Since fusion utilizes no fossil fuels, there would be no release of chemical combustion products to the atmosphere. Additionally, there are no fission products formed to present handling and disposal problems, and runaway fuel reactions are impossible due to the small amounts of deuterium and tritium present. The purpose of the TPX Project is to support the development of the physics and technology to extend tokamak operation into the continuously operating (steady-state) regime, and to demonstrate advances in fundamental tokamak performance. The purpose of TFTR D&D is to ensure compliance with DOE Order 5820.2A ``Radioactive Waste Management`` and to remove environmental and health hazards posed by the TFTR in a non-operational mode. There are two proposed actions evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA). The actions are related because one must take place before the other can proceed. The proposed actions assessed in this EA are: the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR); to be followed by the construction and operation of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Both of these proposed actions would take place primarily within the TFTR Test Cell Complex at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The TFTR is located on ``D-site`` at the James Forrestal Campus of Princeton University in Plainsboro Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, and is operated by PPPL under contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  17. Mechanical system reliability and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Mahadevan, S.; Huang, Q.; Mehta, S.

    1994-11-01

    A new methodology is reported for the prediction of the reliability of mechanical structures subject to multiple failure modes, including noncritical damage. The reduction of system reliability due to accumulated damage is quantitatively estimated by updating the critical system failure states at each level of damage. Correlated design variables are automatically accounted for in the system reliability calculations. Second-order reliability bounds are reported which are unbiased to the ordering of the events. A system risk assessment methodology is also reported that accounts for the cost of multiple types of failure modes and includes the effect of inspection success on reducing the consequences of system failure. Application of the new technology is illustrated for a simplified system model of an aeropropulsion rotor system. However, the methodology is general and is applicable to any engineering system.

  18. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA utilizes an evidence based system to perform risk assessments for the human system for spaceflight missions. The center of this process is the multi-disciplinary Human System Risk Board (HSRB). The HSRB is chartered from the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) at NASA Headquarters. The HSRB reviews all human system risks via an established comprehensive risk and configuration management plan based on a project management approach. The HSRB facilitates the integration of human research (terrestrial and spaceflight), medical operations, occupational surveillance, systems engineering and many other disciplines in a comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB considers all factors that influence human risk. These factors include pre-mission considerations such as screening criteria, training, age, sex, and physiological condition. In mission factors such as available countermeasures, mission duration and location and post mission factors such as time to return to baseline (reconditioning), post mission health screening, and available treatments. All of the factors influence the total risk assessment for each human risk. The HSRB performed a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30, where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research and, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit for 6 and 12 months, deep space for 30 days and 1 year, a lunar mission for 1 year, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary

  19. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-01-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  20. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-06-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  1. Developing structural, high-heat flux and plasma facing materials for a near-term DEMO fusion power plant: The EU assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, D.; Agostini, P.; Boutard, J. L.; Buckthorpe, D.; Diegele, E.; Dudarev, S. L.; English, C.; Federici, G.; Gilbert, M. R.; Gonzalez, S.; Ibarra, A.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Li Puma, A.; Marbach, G.; Morris, P. F.; Packer, L. W.; Raj, B.; Rieth, M.; Tran, M. Q.; Ward, D. J.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The findings of the EU 'Materials Assessment Group' (MAG), within the 2012 EU Fusion Roadmap exercise, are discussed. MAG analysed the technological readiness of structural, plasma facing and high heat flux materials for a DEMO concept to be constructed in the early 2030s, proposing a coherent strategy for R&D up to a DEMO construction decision. A DEMO phase I with a 'Starter Blanket' and 'Starter Divertor' is foreseen: the blanket being capable of withstanding ⩾2 MW yr m-2 fusion neutron fluence (∼20 dpa in the front-wall steel). A second phase ensues for DEMO with ⩾5 MW yr m-2 first wall neutron fluence. Technical consequences for the materials required and the development, testing and modelling programmes, are analysed using: a systems engineering approach, considering reactor operational cycles, efficient maintenance and inspection requirements, and interaction with functional materials/coolants; and a project-based risk analysis, with R&D to mitigate risks from material shortcomings including development of specific risk mitigation materials. The DEMO balance of plant constrains the blanket and divertor coolants to remain unchanged between the two phases. The blanket coolant choices (He gas or pressurised water) put technical constraints on the blanket steels, either to have high strength at higher temperatures than current baseline variants (above 650 °C for high thermodynamic efficiency from He-gas coolant), or superior radiation-embrittlement properties at lower temperatures (∼290-320 °C), for construction of water-cooled blankets. Risk mitigation proposed would develop these options in parallel, and computational and modelling techniques to shorten the cycle-time of new steel development will be important to achieve tight R&D timescales. The superior power handling of a water-cooled divertor target suggests a substructure temperature operating window (∼200-350 °C) that could be realised, as a baseline-concept, using tungsten on a copper

  2. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  3. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  4. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    &E potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selection, judicious design choices, and integration of safety requirements into the design of the facility. To achieve this goal, S&E research is focused on understanding the behaviour of the largest sources of radioactive and hazardous materials in a fusion facility, understanding how energy sources in a fusion facility could mobilize those materials, developing integrated state-of-the-art S&E computer codes and risk tools for safety assessment, and evaluating and improving fusion facility design in terms of accident safety, worker safety, and waste disposal. There are three papers considering safety issues of the test blanket modules (TBM) producing tritium to be installed in ITER. These modules represent different concepts of demonstration fusion power facilities (DEMO). L. Boccaccini et al (Germany) analyses the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety under specific accidents in the European helium-cooled pebble-bed TBM, e.g. pressurization of the vacuum vessel (VV), hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and VV causing air ingress. Safety analysis is also presented for Chinese TBM with a helium-cooled solid breeder to be tested in ITER by Z. Chen et al (China). Radiological inventories, afterheat, waste disposal ratings, electromagnetic characteristics, LOCA and tritium safety management are considered. An overview of a preliminary safety analysis performed for a US proposed TBM is presented by B. Merrill et al (USA). This DEMO relevant dual coolant liquid lead-lithium TBM has been explored both in the USA and EU. T. Pinna et al (Italy) summarize the six-year development of a failure rate database for fusion specific components on the basis of data coming from operating experience gained in various fusion laboratories. The activity began in 2001 with the study of the Joint European Torus vacuum and active gas handling systems. Two years later the

  5. Fusion-Fission in the MAGNESIUM-24 + Magnesium -24 System at E(lab) = 89 Mev: a Study of Fission Systematics in a Light Heavy-Ion System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Asad Talat

    Measurements of the yields of heavy fragments of mass numbers (A >= 6) produced from the ^{24}Mg + ^{24}Mg to ^{48}Cr reaction at E _{rm lab} = 89 MeV have been performed to study the fully energy damped processes. The inclusive data obtained by using the five forward-angle silicon surface-barrier detectors were characterized into three classes: elastic and quasi-elastic products, evaporation -residue products, and fusion-fission products. The elastic products were used to establish the normalization for the reaction cross section. The heaviest fragments (A > 34) observed in the forward -angle SSB detectors were considered to be the result of the fusion-evaporation process. The evaporation-residue cross section deduced from this analysis has been compared to the previous measurements and found to be in good agreement with the systematics established by these measurements. The sum of the measured evaporation-residue cross section and the fusion-fission cross sections was used to deduce the compound nucleus spin, which was used in the transition -state model calculation. The lighter fragments (6 <= A <= 24) were considered to be the result of the fusion-fission process. The binary yields measured in this ^{24} Mg + ^{24}Mg system can be explained as the result of the statistical decay of the ^{48}Cr compound nucleus, in agreement with fusion-fission hypothesis in the framework of transition-state model. High resolution Q-value spectra representing the symmetric ^{24}Mg + ^{24}Mg and asymmetric ^{20}Ne + ^{28 }Si channels were obtained using two large -area, position-sensitive, multiwire proportional counters. High selectivity in the population of states in the decay products is clearly observed in these channels. The results of the present analysis and of the measurements of the resonance behavior of this system suggest the coexistence of fission from the compound nucleus with that from the deformed configurations believed responsible for the resonance behavior.

  6. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  7. Design Vulnerability Assessments for Safeguards Sealing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brockman, Linda; Johnston, Roger; Kravtchenko, Victor; Undem, Halvor A.; Wishard, Bernard

    2010-08-11

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (the "Agency") engages in a rigorous equipment authorization process prior to deploying Safeguards instrumentation, including Safeguards sealing systems, for world-wide use. A positive result from a vulnerability assessment is one of the many requirements that must be met prior to instrumentation deployment. Given the long time period in the Safeguards instrumentation development cycle, the substantial Member State investments made, and the significant Agency staff time required, a negative result for the vulnerability assessment can result in the loss of time, considerable additional expense, or even the failure to deploy an instrument or sealing system at all. First suggested in 1998 by the General Physics Institute in Moscow, an approach that incorporates a design vulnerability assessment minimizes the risk of deployment failure by teaming a public sector vulnerability assessment team with the instrument or sealing system design team in order to identify, at the earliest possible design stage, inherent vulnerabilities. Involving the vulnerability assessors early and often in the design and development process avoids many of the problems inherent in evaluating security vulnerabilities only after the design is finalized. The disadvantages include increased costs and time to deployment. An improved pressure-sensitive adhesive label seal, called the "VOID-3 seal" was developed for the Agency using this design vulnerability assessment process.

  8. Real-time radar data fusion and registration systems for single integrated air picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Andrew L.; Niu, Ruixin; Kasperovich, Irina; Varshney, Pramod K.; Carroll, Clifford E.

    2006-05-01

    Real-time fusion of data collected from a variety of radars that acquire information from multiple perspectives and/or different frequencies, is being shown to provide a more accurate picture of the adversary threat cloud than any single radar or group of radars operating independently. This paper describes a cooperative multi-sensor approach in which multiple radars operate together in a non-interference limited manner, and where decision algorithms are applied to optimize the acquisition, tracking, and discrimination of moving targets with low false alarm rate. The approach is twofold: (i) measure and process radar returns in a shared manner for target feature extraction by exploiting frequency and spatial diversity; and (ii) employ feature-aided track/fusion algorithms to detect, discriminate, and track real targets from the adversary noise cloud. The results of computer simulations are provided that demonstrate the advantages of this approach.

  9. A DATA FUSION SYSTEM FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF NON-PIGGABLE PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Shreekanth Mandayam; Robi Polikar; John C. Chen

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) To design sensor data fusion algorithms that can synergistically combine defect related information from heterogeneous sensors used in gas pipeline inspection for reliably and accurately predicting the condition of the pipe-wall. (2) To develop efficient data management techniques for signals obtained during multisensor interrogation of a gas pipeline. During this reporting period, Rowan University designed, developed and exercised multisensor data fusion algorithms for identifying defect related information present in magnetic flux leakage, ultrasonic testing, thermal imaging and acoustic emission nondestructive evaluation signatures of a test-specimen suite representative of benign and anomalous indications in gas transmission pipelines. Specifically, the algorithms presented in the earlier reports were augmented to predict information related to defect depth (severity).

  10. A Data Fusion System for the Nondestructive Evaluation of Non-Piggable Pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Shreekanth Mandayam; Robi Polikar; John C. Chen

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) To design sensor data fusion algorithms that can synergistically combine defect related information from heterogeneous sensors used in gas pipeline inspection for reliably and accurately predicting the condition of the pipe-wall; and (2) To develop efficient data management techniques for signals obtained during multisensor interrogation of a gas pipeline. This final report summarizes all research activities conducted by Rowan University during the project period. This includes the design and development of experimental validation test platforms, the design and development of data fusion algorithms for defect identification and sizing, and finally, the design and development of advanced visualization algorithms for the effective management of data resulting from multi-sensor interrogation of gas transmission pipelines.

  11. Process for Selecting System Level Assessments for Human System Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, James; Park, John

    2006-01-01

    The integration of many life support systems necessary to construct a stable habitat is difficult. The correct identification of the appropriate technologies and corresponding interfaces is an exhaustive process. Once technologies are selected secondary issues such as mechanical and electrical interfaces must be addressed. The required analytical and testing work must be approached in a piecewise fashion to achieve timely results. A repeatable process has been developed to identify and prioritize system level assessments and testing needs. This Assessment Selection Process has been defined to assess cross cutting integration issues on topics at the system or component levels. Assessments are used to identify risks, encourage future actions to mitigate risks, or spur further studies.

  12. Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in

  13. Development of an Information Fusion System for Engine Diagnostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.

  14. Novel Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Technique for Shutdown Dose Rate Analyses of Fusion Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L; Grove, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    The rigorous 2-step (R2S) method uses three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport simulations to calculate the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in fusion reactors. Accurate full-scale R2S calculations are impractical in fusion reactors because they require calculating space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes everywhere inside the reactor. The use of global Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques was suggested for accelerating the neutron transport calculation of the R2S method. The prohibitive computational costs of these approaches, which increase with the problem size and amount of shielding materials, inhibit their use in the accurate full-scale neutronics analyses of fusion reactors. This paper describes a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic technique that uses the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) methodology but focuses on multi-step shielding calculations. The Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) method speeds up the Monte Carlo neutron calculation of the R2S method using an importance function that represents the importance of the neutrons to the final SDDR. Using a simplified example, preliminarily results showed that the use of MS-CADIS enhanced the efficiency of the neutron Monte Carlo simulation of an SDDR calculation by a factor of 550 compared to standard global variance reduction techniques, and that the increase over analog Monte Carlo is higher than 10,000.

  15. Assessment of a Four-View Mammographic Image Feature Based Fusion Model to Predict Near-Term Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Tan, Maxine; Pu, Jiantao; Cheng, Samuel; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and assess a new quantitative four-view mammographic image feature based fusion model to predict the near-term breast cancer risk of the individual women after a negative screening mammography examination of interest. The dataset included fully-anonymized mammograms acquired on 870 women with two sequential full-field digital mammography examinations. For each woman, the first "prior" examination in the series was interpreted as negative (not recalled) during the original image reading. In the second "current" examination, 430 women were diagnosed with pathology verified cancers and 440 remained negative ("cancer-free"). For each of four bilateral craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique view images of left and right breasts, we computed and analyzed eight groups of global mammographic texture and tissue density image features. A risk prediction model based on three artificial neural networks was developed to fuse image features computed from two bilateral views of four images. The risk model performance was tested using a ten-fold cross-validation method and a number of performance evaluation indices including the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and odds ratio (OR). The highest AUC = 0.725 ± 0.026 was obtained when the model was trained by gray-level run length statistics texture features computed on dense breast regions, which was significantly higher than the AUC values achieved using the model trained by only two bilateral one-view images (p < 0.02). The adjustable OR values monotonically increased from 1.0 to 11.8 as model-generated risk score increased. The regression analysis of OR values also showed a significant increase trend in slope (p < 0.01). As a result, this preliminary study demonstrated that a new four-view mammographic image feature based risk model could provide useful and supplementary image information to help predict the near-term breast cancer risk.

  16. In vitro assessment of biodurability: acellular systems.

    PubMed Central

    de Meringo, A; Morscheidt, C; Thélohan, S; Tiesler, H

    1994-01-01

    The assessment of biodurability of man-made vitreous fibers is essential to the limitation of health hazards associated with human exposure to environments in which respirable fibers are present. In vitro acellular systems provide effective test methods of measuring fiber solubility provided care is taken to select the most suitable solvent and test conditions for the specific fiber type and dimension. PMID:7882955

  17. Rapid Training System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesher, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A systematic self-assessment mirrors quality system and certification models, thus making a strong argument for high-quality design, control, and management of the training function. Accomplished for the ongoing betterment of the function, not as a summative judgment of conformance, it discovers strengths and weaknesses and results in a common…

  18. Fusion safety program Annual report, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Carmack, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY-95. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions. Among the technical areas covered in this report are tritium safety, beryllium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, safety aspects of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed by the Fusion Safety Program for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the technical support for commercial fusion facility conceptual design studies. A final activity described is work to develop DOE Technical Standards for Safety of Fusion Test Facilities.

  19. Fusion Safety Program annual report, fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Dolan, T.J.; Herring, J.S.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Motloch, C.G.; Petti, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in fiscal year 1994. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions, including the University of Wisconsin. The technical areas covered in this report include tritium safety, beryllium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, safety aspects of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate data base development, and thermalhydraulics code development and their application to fusion safety issues. Much of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed by the Fusion Safety Program for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and of the technical support for commercial fusion facility conceptual design studies. A major activity this year has been work to develop a DOE Technical Standard for the safety of fusion test facilities.

  20. Analytical Assessment of the Reciprocating Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David E.; Blackmon, James B.; Morton, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary analysis tool has been created in Microsoft Excel to determine deliverable payload mass, total system mass, and performance of spacecraft systems using various types of propellant feed systems. These mass estimates are conducted by inserting into the user interface the basic mission parameters (e.g., thrust, burn time, specific impulse, mixture ratio, etc.), system architecture (e.g., propulsion system type and characteristics, propellants, pressurization system type, etc.), and design properties (e.g., material properties, safety factors, etc.). Different propellant feed and pressurization systems are available for comparison in the program. This gives the user the ability to compare conventional pressure fed, reciprocating feed system (RFS), autogenous pressurization thrust augmentation (APTA RFS), and turbopump systems with the deliverable payload, inert mass, and total system mass being the primary comparison metrics. Analyses of several types of missions and spacecraft were conducted and it was found that the RFS offers a performance improvement, especially in terms of delivered payload, over conventional pressure fed systems. Furthermore, it is competitive with a turbopump system at low to moderate chamber pressures, up to approximately 1,500 psi. Various example cases estimating the system mass and deliverable payload of several types of spacecraft are presented that illustrate the potential system performance advantages of the RFS. In addition, a reliability assessment of the RFS was conducted, comparing it to simplified conventional pressure fed and turbopump systems, based on MIL-STD 756B; these results showed that the RFS offers higher reliability, and thus substantially longer periods between system refurbishment, than turbopump systems, and is competitive with conventional pressure fed systems. This is primarily the result of the intrinsic RFS fail-operational capability with three run tanks, since the system can operate with just two run

  1. Fusion reactor systems studies. Progress report for the period November 1, 1996--October 31, 1997, and final report

    SciTech Connect

    El-Guebaly, L.A.; Blanchard, J.P.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1997-08-01

    During FY97, the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute personnel have participated in the ARIES-RS and the ARIES-ST projects. The main areas of effort are: (1) neutronics analysis; (2) shielding of components and personnel; (3) neutron wall loading distribution; (4) radiation damage to in-vessel components; (5) components lifetimes; (6) embrittled materials designs issues; (7) stress and structural analysis; (8) activation, LOCA, and safety analysis; (9) support and fabrication of components; (10) vacuum system; and (11) maintenance. Progress made in these areas are summarized.

  2. Assessing Psychological Inflexibility: The Psychometric Properties of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth in Two Adult Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Thomas A.; Valentiner, David P.; Gillen, Michael J.; Hiraoka, Regina; Twohig, Michael P.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; McGrath, Patrick B.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; L. A. Greco, W. Lambert, & R. A. Baer, 2008), a self-report measure of psychological inflexibility for children and adolescents, might be useful for measuring psychological inflexibility for adults. The psychometric properties of the AFQ-Y were examined…

  3. Hydrogen turbine power conversion system assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lucci, A. D.; Campbell, J.; Lee, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A three part technical study was conducted whereby parametric technical and economic feasibility data were developed on several power conversion systems suitable for the generation of central station electric power through the combustion of hydrogen and the use of the resulting heat energy in turbogenerator equipment. The study assessed potential applications of hydrogen-fueled power conversion systems and identified the three most promising candidates: (1) Ericsson Cycle, (2) gas turbine, and (3) direct steam injection system for fossil fuel as well as nuclear powerplants. A technical and economic evaluation was performed on the three systems from which the direct injection system (fossil fuel only) was selected for a preliminary conceptual design of an integrated hydrogen-fired power conversion system.

  4. Fission thrust sail as booster for high Δv fusion based propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyssens, Frederik; Wouters, Kristof; Driesen, Maarten

    2015-12-01

    The fission thrust sail as booster for nuclear fusion-based rocket propulsion for future starships is introduced and studied. First order calculations are used together with Monte Carlo simulations to assess system performance. If a D-D fusion rocket such as e.g. considered in Project Icarus has relatively low efficiency (~30%) in converting fusion fuel to a directed exhaust, adding a fission sail is shown to be beneficial for the obtainable delta-v. In addition, this type of fission-fusion hybrid propulsion has the potential to improve acceleration and act as a micrometeorite shield.

  5. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume V. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report, which is divided into five volumes, documents the evaluation of advanced electric and hybrid vehicles for potential development by the early 1990s. The primary objective of the assessment is to recommend subsystem research priorities based on a comparison of alternatives as part of complete vehicle systems with equivalent performance. The assessment includes evaluations of candidate technologies as well as technical and economic comparisons of vehicle systems for specified missions. The availability of nonpetroleum fuel is also addressed, and preference analyses are used to assist in the evaluation of the relative merits of competing systems. Volume V, the Appendices, includes reports on battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs, and battery discharge models.

  6. Physics of laser fusion. Volume IV. The future development of high-power solid-state laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    Solid state lasers, particularly neodymium glass systems, have undergone intensive development during the last decade. In this paper, we review solid state laser technology in the context of high-peak-power systems for inertial confinement fusion. Specifically addressed are five major factors: efficiency, wavelength flexibility, average power, system complexity, and cost; these factors today limit broader application of the technology. We conclude that each of these factors can be greatly improved within current fundamental physical limits. We further conclude that the systematic development of new solid state laser madia, both vitreous and crystalline, should ultimately permit the development of wavelength-flexible, very high average power systems with overall efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20%.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Smart LED Lighting System Using a Self Adaptive Weighted Data Fusion Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Lin, Jia-Syun

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to develop a smart LED lighting system, which is remotely controlled by Android apps via handheld devices, e.g., smartphones, tablets, and so forth. The status of energy use is reflected by readings displayed on a handheld device, and it is treated as a criterion in the lighting mode design of a system. A multimeter, a wireless light dimmer, an IR learning remote module, etc. are connected to a server by means of RS 232/485 and a human computer interface on a touch screen. The wireless data communication is designed to operate in compliance with the ZigBee standard, and signal processing on sensed data is made through a self adaptive weighted data fusion algorithm. A low variation in data fusion together with a high stability is experimentally demonstrated in this work. The wireless light dimmer as well as the IR learning remote module can be instructed directly by command given on the human computer interface, and the reading on a multimeter can be displayed thereon via the server. This proposed smart LED lighting system can be remotely controlled and self learning mode can be enabled by a single handheld device via WiFi transmission. Hence, this proposal is validated as an approach to power monitoring for home appliances, and is demonstrated as a digital home network in consideration of energy efficiency.

  8. Developing a Novel Gene-Delivery Vector System Using the Recombinant Fusion Protein of Pseudomonas Exotoxin A and Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Histone HPhA.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xin; Zhang, Guoli; Zhang, Ling; Feng, Yan; Li, Zehong; Wu, GuangMou; Yue, Yuhuan; Li, Gensong; Cao, Yu; Zhu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery system with many advantages has a great potential for the future of gene therapy. One inherent obstacle of such approach is the uptake by endocytosis into vesicular compartments. Receptor-mediated gene delivery method holds promise to overcome this obstacle. In this study, we developed a receptor-mediated gene delivery system based on a combination of the Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), which has a receptor binding and membrane translocation domain, and the hyperthermophilic archaeal histone (HPhA), which has the DNA binding ability. First, we constructed and expressed the rPE-HPhA fusion protein. We then examined the cytotoxicity and the DNA binding ability of rPE-HPhA. We further assessed the efficiency of transfection of the pEGF-C1 plasmid DNA to CHO cells by the rPE-HPhA system, in comparison to the cationic liposome method. The results showed that the transfection efficiency of rPE-HPhA was higher than that of cationic liposomes. In addition, the rPE-HPhA gene delivery system is non-specific to DNA sequence, topology or targeted cell type. Thus, the rPE-HPhA system can be used for delivering genes of interest into mammalian cells and has great potential to be applied for gene therapy. PMID:26556098

  9. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1993-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR

  10. Rapid assessment of high-dose radiation exposures through scoring of cell-fusion-induced premature chromosome condensation and ring chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Lamadrid Boada, A I; Romero Aguilera, I; Terzoudi, G I; González Mesa, J E; Pantelias, G; García, O

    2013-09-18

    Analysis of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) mediated by fusion of G0-lymphocytes with mitotic CHO cells in combination with rapid visualization and quantification of rings (PCC-Rf) is proposed as an alternative technique for dose assessment of radiation-exposed individuals. Isolated lymphocytes or whole blood from six individuals were γ-irradiated with 5, 10, 15 and 20Gy at a dose rate of 0.5Gy/min. Following either 8- or 24-h post-exposure incubation of irradiated samples at 37°C, chromosome spreads were prepared by standard PCC cytogenetic procedures. The protocol for PCC fusion proved to be effective at doses as high as 20Gy, enabling the analysis of ring chromosomes and excess PCC fragments. The ring frequencies remained constant during the 8-24-h repair time; the pooled dose relationship between ring frequency (Y) and dose (D) was linear: Y=(0.088±0.005)×D. During the repair time, excess fragments decreased from 0.91 to 0.59 chromatid pieces per Gy, revealing the importance of information about the exact time of exposure for dose assessment on the basis of fragments. Compared with other cytogenetic assays to estimate radiation dose, the PCC-Rf method has the following benefits: a 48-h culture time is not required, allowing a much faster assessment of dose in comparison with conventional scoring of dicentrics and rings in assays for chemically-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC-Rch), and it allows the analysis of heavily irradiated lymphocytes that are delayed or never reach mitosis, thus avoiding the problem of saturation at high doses. In conclusion, the use of the PCC fusion assay in conjunction with scoring of rings in G0-lymphocytes offers a suitable alternative for fast dose estimation following accidental exposure to high radiation doses.

  11. Climate and energy: A comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermeyer, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects of five energy technologies on global, regional, and local climate are assessed. The energy technologies examined are coal combustion, light water nuclear reactors, satellite power systems, terrestrial photovoltaics, and fusion. The assessment focuses on waste heat rejection, production of particulate aerosols, and emission of carbon dioxide. The current state of climate modeling and long range climate prediction introduces considerable uncertainty into the assessment, but it may be concluded that waste heat will not produce detectable changes in global climate until world energy use increases 100fold, although minor effects on local weather may occur now; that carbon dioxide from coal combustion in the US alone accounts for about 30% of the current increase in global atmospheric CO2 which may, by about 2050 increase world temperature 2to 3 C, with pronounced effects on world climate; and that rocket exhaust from numerous launches during construction of a satellite power system may affect the upper atmosphere, with uncertain consequences.

  12. Assessment of reservoir system variable forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenmacher, Martin; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2015-05-01

    Forecast ensembles are a convenient means to model water resources uncertainties and to inform planning and management processes. For multipurpose reservoir systems, forecast types include (i) forecasts of upcoming inflows and (ii) forecasts of system variables and outputs such as reservoir levels, releases, flood damage risks, hydropower production, water supply withdrawals, water quality conditions, navigation opportunities, and environmental flows, among others. Forecasts of system variables and outputs are conditional on forecasted inflows as well as on specific management policies and can provide useful information for decision-making processes. Unlike inflow forecasts (in ensemble or other forms), which have been the subject of many previous studies, reservoir system variable and output forecasts are not formally assessed in water resources management theory or practice. This article addresses this gap and develops methods to rectify potential reservoir system forecast inconsistencies and improve the quality of management-relevant information provided to stakeholders and managers. The overarching conclusion is that system variable and output forecast consistency is critical for robust reservoir management and needs to be routinely assessed for any management model used to inform planning and management processes. The above are demonstrated through an application from the Sacramento-American-San Joaquin reservoir system in northern California.

  13. Review and assessment of information kiosk systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, E.

    1997-03-01

    This report reviews the current state-of-the-art and assesses the progress that is being made in kiosk information systems. This information will be used in developing a kiosk system for the Metro Dade Transit (MDTA), which has recently been awarded a Federal Transit Administration (FTA) operational test grant to develop an informational kiosk prototype at major rail and bus transfer points. A literature review of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) American National Clearinghouse and FTA`s Advanced Public Transportation Systems project summaries revealed kiosk projects at several transit agencies. These transit agencies were surveyed to gather information about kiosk technology. This survey provided the information about kiosk systems deployed or tested at transit agencies.

  14. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.

    2014-08-01

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  15. The Mercury Laser System-A scaleable average-power laser for fusion and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C A; Moses, E I

    2008-03-26

    Nestled in a valley between the whitecaps of the Pacific and the snowcapped crests of the Sierra Nevada, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is home to the nearly complete National Ignition Facility (NIF). The purpose of NIF is to create a miniature star-on demand. An enormous amount of laser light energy (1.8 MJ in a pulse that is 20 ns in duration) will be focused into a small gold cylinder approximately the size of a pencil eraser. Centered in the gold cylinder (or hohlraum) will be a nearly perfect sphere filled with a complex mixture of hydrogen gas isotopes that is similar to the atmosphere of our Sun. During experiments, the laser light will hit the inside of the gold cylinder, heating the metal until it emits X-rays (similar to how your electric stove coil emits visible red light when heated). The X-rays will be used to compress the hydrogen-like gas with such pressure that the gas atoms will combine or 'fuse' together, producing the next heavier element (helium) and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. 2010 will mark the first credible attempt at this world-changing event: the achievement of fusion energy 'break-even' on Earth using NIF, the world's largest laser! NIF is anticipated to eventually perform this immense technological accomplishment once per week, with the capability of firing up to six shots per day - eliminating the need for continued underground testing of our nation's nuclear stockpile, in addition to opening up new realms of science. But what about the day after NIF achieves ignition? Although NIF will achieve fusion energy break-even and gain, the facility is not designed to harness the enormous potential of fusion for energy generation. A fusion power plant, as opposed to a world-class engineering research facility, would require that the laser deliver drive pulses nearly 100,000 times more frequently - a rate closer to 10 shots per second as opposed to several shots per day.

  16. Interfaces MATXS Cross-Section Libraries to Nuclear Transport Codes for Fusion Systems Analysis.

    1985-04-10

    Version: 00 TRANSX-CTR is a computer code that reads nuclear data from a library in MATXS format and produces transport tables with many discrete-ordinates (Sn) and diffusion codes. Tables can be produced for neutron, photon, or coupled transport. Options include adjoint tables, mixtures, self-shielding, group collapse, homogenization, thermal upscatter, prompt or steady-state fission, transport corrections, elastic removal corrections, and flexible response-function edits. The ability to prepare coupled tables and response edits for heating, damage, gasmore » production, and delayed activity makes TRANSX-CTR especially useful for fusion reactor studies.« less

  17. A DATA FUSION SYSTEM FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF NON-PIGGABLE PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Shreekanth Mandayam; Robi Polikar; John C. Chen

    2005-05-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) To design sensor data fusion algorithms that can synergistically combine defect related information from heterogeneous sensors used in gas pipeline inspection for reliably and accurately predicting the condition of the pipe-wall; and (2) To develop efficient data management techniques for signals obtained during multisensor interrogation of a gas pipeline. During this reporting period, Rowan University designed, developed and exercised algorithms for the effective management of data resulting from multi-sensor interrogation of gas transmission pipelines. Specifically, advanced visualization techniques were employed for immersive, interactive and navigable data representations.

  18. The research of auto-focusing method for the image mosaic and fusion system with multi-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Ke; Yao, Suying; Shi, Zaifeng; Xu, Jiangtao; Liu, Jiangming

    2013-09-01

    In modern image processing, due to the development of digital image processing, the focus of the sensor can be automatically set by the digital processing system through computation. In the other hand, the auto-focusing synchronously and consistently is one of the most important factors for image mosaic and fusion processing, especially for the system with multi-sensor which are put on one line in order to gain the wide angle video information. Different images sampled by the sensors with different focal length values will always increase the complexity of the affine matrix of the image mosaic and fusion in next, which potentially reducing the efficiency of the system and consuming more power. Here, a new fast evaluation method based on the gray value variance of the image pixel is proposed to find the common focal length value for all sensors to achieve the better image sharpness. For the multi-frame pictures that are sampled from different sensors that have been adjusted and been regarded as time synchronization, the gray value variances of the adjacent pixels are determined to generate one curve. This curve is the focus measure function which describes the relationship between the image sharpness and the focal length value of the sensor. On the basis of all focus measure functions of all sensors in the image processing system, this paper uses least square method to carry out the data fitting to imitate the disperse curves and give one objective function for the multi-sensor system, and then find the optimal solution corresponding to the extreme value of the image sharpness according to the evaluation of the objective function. This optimal focal length value is the common parameter for all sensors in this system. By setting the common focal length value, in the premise of ensuring the image sharpness, the computing of the affine matrix which is the core processing of the image mosaic and fusion which stitching all those pictures into one wide angle image will be

  19. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-20

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, {eta}prop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and {eta}prop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons.

  20. Generic Sensor Data Fusion Services for Web-enabled Environmental Risk Management and Decision-Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Zoheir; Middleton, Stuart; Veres, Galina; Zlatev, Zlatko; Salvo, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    The advancement of smart sensor technology in the last few years has led to an increase in the deployment of affordable sensors for monitoring the environment around Europe. This is generating large amounts of sensor observation information and inevitably leading to problems about how to manage large volumes of data as well as making sense out the data for decision-making. In addition, the various European Directives (Water Framework Diectives, Bathing Water Directives, Habitat Directives, etc.. ) which regulate human activities in the environment and the INSPIRE Directive on spatial information management regulations have implicitely led the designated European Member States environment agencies and authorities to put in place new sensor monitoring infrastructure and share information about environmental regions under their statutory responsibilities. They will need to work cross border and collectively reach environmental quality standards. They will also need to regularly report to the EC on the quality of the environments of which they are responsible and make such information accessible to the members of the public. In recent years, early pioneering work on the design of service oriented architecture using sensor networks has been achieved. Information web-services infrastructure using existing data catalogues and web-GIS map services can now be enriched with the deployment of new sensor observation and data fusion and modelling services using OGC standards. The deployment of the new services which describe sensor observations and intelligent data-processing using data fusion techniques can now be implemented and provide added value information with spatial-temporal uncertainties to the next generation of decision support service systems. The new decision support service systems have become key to implement across Europe in order to comply with EU environmental regulations and INSPIRE. In this paper, data fusion services using OGC standards with sensor

  1. Activation of theMercury Laser System: A Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser Driver for Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Beach, R J; Bibeau, C; Ebbers, C A; Freitas, B L; Kanz, V K; Payne, S A; Schaffers, K I; Skulina, K M; Smith, L K; Tassano, J B

    2001-09-10

    Initial measurements are reported for the Mercury laser system, a scalable driver for rep-rated inertial fusion energy. The performance goals include 10% electrical efficiency at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length. We report on the first Yb:S-FAP crystals grown to sufficient size for fabricating full size (4 x 6 cm) amplifier slabs. The first of four 160 kW (peak power) diode arrays and pump delivery systems were completed and tested with the following results: 5.5% power droop over a 0.75 ms pulse, 3.95 nm spectral linewidth, far field divergence of 14.0 mrad and 149.5 mrad in the microlensed and unmicrolensed directions respectively, and 83% optical-to-optical transfer efficiency through the pump delivery system.

  2. Lithium Ceramic Blankets for Russian Fusion Reactors and Influence of Breeding Operation Mode on Parameters of Reactor Tritium Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kapyshev, Victor K.; Chernetsov, Mikhail Yu.; Zhevotov, Sergej I.; Kersnovskij, Alexandr Yu.; Kolbasov, Boris N.; Kovalenko, Victor G.; Paltusov, Nikolaj P.; Sernyaev, Georgeij A.; Sterebkov, Juri S.; Zyryanov, Alexej P.

    2005-07-15

    Russian controlled fusion program supposes development of a DEMO reactor design and participation in ITER Project. A solid breeder blanket of DEMO contains a ceramic lithium orthosilicate breeder and a beryllium multiplier. Test modules of the blanket are developed within the scope of ITER activities. Experimental models of module tritium breeding zones (TBZ), materials and fabrication technology of the TBZ, tritium reactor systems to analyse and process gas released from lithium ceramics are being developed. Two models of tritium breeding and neutron multiplying elements of the TBZ have been designed, manufactured and tested in IVV-2M nuclear reactor. Initial results of the in-pile experiments and outcome of lithium ceramics irradiation in a water-graphite nuclear reactor are considered to be a data base for development of the test modules and initial requirements for DEMO tritium system design. Influence of the tritium release parameters and hydrogen concentration in a purge gas on parameters of reactor system are discussed.

  3. Biosensing of BCR/ABL fusion gene using an intensity-interrogation surface plasmon resonance imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiangling; Huang, Yu; Bian, Xintong; Li, DanDan; Cheng, Quan; Ding, Shijia

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a custom-made intensity-interrogation surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) system has been developed to directly detect a specific sequence of BCR/ABL fusion gene in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The variation in the reflected light intensity detected from the sensor chip composed of gold islands array is proportional to the change of refractive index due to the selective hybridization of surface-bound DNA probes with target ssDNA. SPRi measurements were performed with different concentrations of synthetic target DNA sequence. The calibration curve of synthetic target sequence shows a good relationship between the concentration of synthetic target and the change of reflected light intensity. The detection limit of this SPRi measurement could approach 10.29 nM. By comparing SPRi images, the target ssDNA and non-complementary DNA sequence are able to be distinguished. This SPRi system has been applied for assay of BCR/ABL fusion gene extracted from real samples. This nucleic acid-based SPRi biosensor therefore offers an alternative high-effective, high-throughput label-free tool for DNA detection in biomedical research and molecular diagnosis.

  4. Implant survivorship analysis after minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion using the iFuse Implant System®

    PubMed Central

    Cher, Daniel J; Reckling, W Carlton; Capobianco, Robyn A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgical revision rate is a key outcome with all permanent implants. The iFuse Implant System® is a permanent implant used to perform minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion. The purpose of this study is to determine the surgical revision rate after sacroiliac joint fusion surgery with this system. Methods Using two internal sources of information, revision surgeries were identified and linked to index surgeries. The likelihood of revision surgery was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier life table approach. Predictors of revision were explored. Results Four-year survivorship free from implant revision was 96.46%. Revision rate did not differ by sex and was lower for age >65. In all, 24% of revisions occurred within the first 30 days after surgery; 63.5% occurred within year 1. Implant survivorship has improved annually since the device was introduced in 2009. Conclusion The survivorship rate with this implant is high and improving; the rate is somewhat higher than total hip replacement but lower than that of lumbar spine procedures. PMID:26648762

  5. Static and dynamic analyses on the MFTF (Mirror Fusion Test Facility)-B Axicell Vacuum Vessel System: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1986-09-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large-scale, tandem-mirror-fusion experiment. MFTF-B comprises many highly interconnected systems, including a magnet array and a vacuum vessel. The vessel, which houses the magnet array, is supported by reinforced concrete piers and steel frames resting on an array of foundations and surrounded by a 7-ft-thick concrete shielding vault. The Pittsburgh-Des Moines (PDM) Corporation, which was awarded the contract to design and construct the vessel, carried out fixed-base static and dynamic analyses of a finite-element model of the axicell vessel and magnet systems, including the simulation of various loading conditions and three postulated earthquake excitations. Meanwhile, LLNL monitored PDM's analyses with modeling studies of its own, and independently evaluated the structural responses of the vessel in order to define design criteria for the interface members and other project equipment. The assumptions underlying the finite-element model and the behavior of the axicell vessel are described in detail in this report, with particular emphasis placed on comparing the LLNL and PDM studies and on analyzing the fixed-base behavior with the soil-structure interaction, which occurs between the vessel and the massive concrete vault wall during a postulated seismic event. The structural members that proved sensitive to the soil effect are also reevaluated.

  6. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.

    1980-01-01

    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  7. Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samsa, M.

    1980-01-01

    An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

  8. Neuro-fuzzy systems for computer-aided myocardial viability assessment.

    PubMed

    Behloul, F; Lelieveldt, B P; Boudraa, A; Janier, M F; Revel, D; Reiber, J H

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes a multimodality framework for computer-aided myocardial viability assessment based on neuro-fuzzy techniques. The proposed approach distinguishes two main levels: the modality-independent inference level and the modality-dependent application level. This two-level distinction releases the hard constraint of multimodality image registration. An abstract description template is used to describe the different myocardial functions (contractile function, perfusion, metabolism). Parameters extracted from different image modalities are combined to derive a diagnostic image. The neuro-fuzzy techniques make our system transparent, adaptive and easily extendable. Its effectiveness and robustness are demonstrated in a positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging data fusion application.

  9. Adenoviral vector which delivers FasL-GFP fusion protein regulated by the tet-inducible expression system.

    PubMed

    Rubinchik, S; Ding, R; Qiu, A J; Zhang, F; Dong, J

    2000-05-01

    Fas ligand (FasL) is a member of the tumor necrosis family and when bound to its receptor, Fas, induces apoptosis. It plays important roles in immune response, degenerative and lymphoproliferative diseases, development and tumorigenesis. It is also involved in generation of immune privilege sites in the eye and testis. Harnessing the power of this molecule is expected to lead to a powerful chemotherapeutic. We describe the construction and characterization of replication-deficient adenoviral vectors that express a fusion of murine FasL and green fluorescent protein (GFP). FasL-GFP retains full activity of wild-type FasL, at the same time allowing for easy visualization and quantification in both living and fixed cells. The fusion protein is under the control of a tetracycline-regulated gene expression system. Tight control of expression is achieved by creating a novel 'double recombinant' Ad vector, in which the tet-responsive element and the transactivator element are built into the opposite ends of the same vector to avoid enhancer interference. Expression can be conveniently regulated by tetracycline or its derivatives in a dose-dependent manner. The vector was able to deliver FasL-GFP gene to cells in vitro efficiently, and the expression level and function of the fusion protein was modulated by the concentration of doxycycline. This regulation allows us to produce high titers of the vector by inhibiting FasL expression in an apoptosis-resistant cell line. Induction of apoptosis was demonstrated in all cell lines tested. These results indicate that our vector is a potentially valuable tool for FasL-based gene therapy of cancer and for the study of FasL/Fas-mediated apoptosis and immune privilege. PMID:10845726

  10. An assessment of EIA system in India

    SciTech Connect

    Panigrahi, Jitendra K.; Amirapu, Susruta

    2012-07-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was first introduced in India based on the Environmental Protection Act (EPA), 1986. But formally it came in to effect, when Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has passed a major legislative measure under EPA in January 1994 for Environmental Clearance (EC) known as EIA Notification, 1994. Subsequently, EIA processes have been strengthened by MoEF by a series of amendments. The current practice is adhering to EIA Notification, 2006 and its amendments. The pieces of evidence collected and analysis in the present assessment suggest that, despite a sound legislative, administrative and procedural set-up EIA has not yet evolved satisfactorily in India. An appraisal of the EIA system against systematic evaluation criteria, based on discussions with various stakeholders, EIA expert committee members, approval authorities, project proponents, NGOs and consulting professionals, reveals various drawbacks of the EIA system. These mainly include; inadequate capacity of EIA approval authorities, deficiencies in screening and scoping, poor quality EIA reports, inadequate public participation and weak monitoring. Overall, EIA is used presently as a project justification tool rather than as a project planning tool to contribute to achieving sustainable development. While shortcomings are challenging, Government of India is showing a high degree of commitment. The EIA system in the country is undergoing progressive refinements by steadily removing the constraints. The paper identifies opportunities for taking advantage of the current circumstances for strengthening the EIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment has been carried out on Environmental Clearance under EIA Notification, 2006, MoEF, Government of India. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA system is appraised against systematic evaluation criteria proposed by Ahmad and Wood (2002), Wood (2003), Fuller (1999). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis

  11. Systems engineering process and organization assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results of an eight week assessment of NASA/MSFC Phase A and Phase B systems engineering processes, methodologies, and activities. Specifically, fourteen inconsistencies or weaknesses were identified and recommendations for corrective action were generated. A 1.5 hour briefing on these results was given in EL51 on 8-11-92; that documentation is available from the author or either NASA Colleague.

  12. Fusion-power demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, C. D.; Logan, B. G.; Carlson, G. A.; Neef, W. S.; Moir, R. W.; Campbell, R. B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I. R.; Carpenter, T. J.

    1983-03-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment.

  13. Software quality assessment for health care systems.

    PubMed

    Braccini, G; Fabbrini, F; Fusani, M

    1997-01-01

    The problem of defining a quality model to be used in the evaluation of the software components of a Health Care System (HCS) is addressed. The model, based on the ISO/IEC 9126 standard, has been interpreted to fit the requirements of some classes of applications representative of Health Care Systems, on the basis of the experience gained both in the field of medical Informatics and assessment of software products. The values resulting from weighing the quality characteristics according to their criticality outline a set of quality profiles that can be used both for evaluation and certification.

  14. Code System for Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment.

    2001-03-27

    Version 00 SEISIM1 calculates the probabilities of seismically induced failures for components and systems and propagates these calculations to determine the probability of accident sequences and the resulting total risk, which is quantified as an expected value of radiation release and exposure from a given nuclear power plant. SEISIM1 was developed as a fundamental tool for the systems analysis portion of the NRC's Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The SSMRP provides a complete, self-containedmore » methodology to assess and quantify the risk to nuclear power plants from seismic events and seismically induced failures.« less

  15. System Study: Technology Assessment and Prioritizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this NASA funded project is to assess and prioritize advanced technologies required to achieve the goals for an "Intelligent Propulsion System" through collaboration among GEAE, NASA, and Georgia Tech. Key GEAE deliverables are parametric response surface equations (RSE's) relating technology features to system benefits (sfc, weight, fuel burn, design range, acoustics, emission, etc...) and listings of Technology Impact Matrix (TIM) with benefits, debits, and approximate readiness status. TIM has been completed for GEAE and NASA proposed technologies. The combined GEAE and NASA TIM input requirement is shown in Table.1. In the course of building the RSE's and TIM, significant parametric technology modeling and RSE accuracy improvements were accomplished. GEAE has also done preliminary ranking of the technologies using Georgia Tech/GEAE USA developed technology evaluation tools. System level impact was performed by combining beneficial technologies with minimum conflict among various system figures of merits to assess their overall benefits to the system. The shortfalls and issues with modeling the proposed technologies are identified, and recommendations for future work are also proposed.

  16. Internal Film Receiver systems assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.V.

    1988-03-01

    This report documents SERI's Internal Film Receiver (IFR) design study and system assessment effort; and it compares the performance and economic potential of this system to conventional salt-in-tube receivers and to systems with the direct absorption receiver (DAR). SPECO, Inc., under contract to SERI, performed the receiver configuration work and their final report is included as Appendix A. The IFR is similar to the DAR in that both use films flowing over nearly vertical plates to absorb the solar energy. However, in the IFR the radiation strikes the outside of the absorber plate and the working fluid flows down the inside. The results of the system-level assessment indicate that the IFR concept has the potential to deliver levelized energy costs (LEC) on the order of 5%--7% lower than the salt-in-tube receiver. Although the potential economic benefits of the IFR are not as great as those for the DAR, which shows more than a 15% improvement in LEC over the salt-in-tube receiver system, this may be offset by the lower technical risks with the IFR. 3 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. A noise assessment and prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Robert O.; Noble, John M.

    1990-12-01

    A system has been designed to provide an assessment of noise levels that result from testing activities at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. The system receives meteorological data from surface stations and an upper air sounding system. The data from these systems are sent to a meteorological model, which provides forecasting conditions for up to three hours from the test time. The meteorological data are then used as input into an acoustic ray trace model which projects sound level contours onto a two-dimensional display of the surrounding area. This information is sent to the meteorological office for verification, as well as the range control office, and the environmental office. To evaluate the noise level predictions, a series of microphones are located off the reservation to receive the sound and transmit this information back to the central display unit. The computer models are modular allowing for a variety of models to be utilized and tested to achieve the best agreement with data. This technique of prediction and model validation will be used to improve the noise assessment system.

  18. A noise assessment and prediction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Robert O.; Noble, John M.

    1990-01-01

    A system has been designed to provide an assessment of noise levels that result from testing activities at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. The system receives meteorological data from surface stations and an upper air sounding system. The data from these systems are sent to a meteorological model, which provides forecasting conditions for up to three hours from the test time. The meteorological data are then used as input into an acoustic ray trace model which projects sound level contours onto a two-dimensional display of the surrounding area. This information is sent to the meteorological office for verification, as well as the range control office, and the environmental office. To evaluate the noise level predictions, a series of microphones are located off the reservation to receive the sound and transmit this information back to the central display unit. The computer models are modular allowing for a variety of models to be utilized and tested to achieve the best agreement with data. This technique of prediction and model validation will be used to improve the noise assessment system.

  19. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  20. Simultaneous optical model analysis of elastic scattering, fusion, and breakup for the {sup 9}Be+{sup 144}Sm system at near-barrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Camacho, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Padron, I.

    2008-05-15

    A simultaneous optical model calculation of elastic scattering, complete fusion, and breakup cross sections for energies around the Coulomb barrier is presented for reactions involving the weakly bound projectile {sup 9}Be on the medium size target {sup 144}Sm. In the calculations, the nuclear polarization potential U is split into a volume part U{sub F}, which is responsible for fusion reactions, and a surface part U{sub DR}, which accounts for direct reactions. A simultaneous {chi}{sup 2} analysis of elastic and complete fusion data shows that the extracted optical potential parameters of the real V{sub F} and imaginary W{sub F} parts of U{sub F} and the corresponding parts V{sub DR} and W{sub DR} of U{sub DR} satisfy separately the dispersion relation. Energy-dependent forms for the fusion and direct reaction potentials indicate that, at the strong absorption radius, the direct reaction potentials dominate over the fusion potentials. Moreover, the imaginary direct reaction potential results in a rather smooth function of E around the barrier energy. These findings show that the threshold anomaly, usually present in reactions with tightly bound projectiles, is not exhibited for the system {sup 9}Be+{sup 144}Sm. Within this formalism, the effect of breakup reactions on complete fusion is studied by turning on and off the potentials responsible for breakup reactions.