Science.gov

Sample records for fusion technology soft

  1. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  2. Fusion of Hard and Soft Information in Nonparametric Density Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-10

    Fusion of Hard and Soft Information in Nonparametric Density Estimation∗ Johannes O. Royset Roger J-B Wets Department of Operations Research...univariate density estimation in situations when the sample ( hard information) is supplemented by “soft” information about the random phenomenon. These... hard and soft information, and give rates of convergence. Numerical examples illustrate the value of soft information, the ability to generate a

  3. Soft technologies, hard choices.

    PubMed

    Norman, C

    1979-01-01

    In the years since the 1st United Nations conference on science, technology, and development in 1963, technology has come under scrutiny and criticism. The 2nd such UN Conference was held in August 1979 and initiated a reassessment of technological development in all countries. The following problems are not amenable to Western-style technology: 1) unemployment; 2) disparities of wealth both inter- and intracountry; and 3) energy needs. Simple transference of technology from the rich to the poor countries will not create badly needed jobs. That is not to say that much capital-intensive technology, e.g., that used in producing chemical fertilizers, is not useful to developing countries. There is a need to spread capital resources and the benefits therefrom more broadly. For example, in the health field, efforts should be made to meet basic health needs rather than invest in expensive medical technology and high-cost hospitals. All the assumptions of rapid economic development for the less developed countries were made in the era of inexpensive energy sources. There is now a need to develop and use technologies utilizing renewable energy sources. Modern technology seems to be placing a stress on the world's biological systems. Certain technologies may simply be incompatible with the need to sustain the earth and its resources. Government efforts will be needed to supplement market action. A world of diversified technologies is envisioned.

  4. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  5. Advances in data representation for hard/soft information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Coughlin, Dan; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Information fusion is becoming increasingly human-centric. While past systems typically relegated humans to the role of analyzing a finished fusion product, current systems are exploring the role of humans as integral elements in a modular and extensible distributed framework where many tasks can be accomplished by either human or machine performers. For example, "participatory sensing" campaigns give humans the role of "soft sensors" by uploading their direct observations or as "soft sensor platforms" by using mobile devices to record human-annotated, GPS-encoded high quality photographs, video, or audio. Additionally, the role of "human-in-the-loop", in which individuals or teams using advanced human computer interface (HCI) tools such as stereoscopic 3D visualization, haptic interfaces, or aural "sonification" interfaces can help to effectively engage the innate human capability to perform pattern matching, anomaly identification, and semantic-based contextual reasoning to interpret an evolving situation. The Pennsylvania State University is participating in a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate fusion of hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. In addition to the importance of this research for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), many of the same challenges and techniques apply to health and medical informatics, crisis management, crowd-sourced "citizen science", and monitoring environmental concerns. One of the key challenges that we have encountered is the development of data formats, protocols, and methodologies to establish an information architecture and framework for the effective capture, representation, transmission, and storage of the vastly heterogeneous data and accompanying metadata -- including capabilities and characteristics of human observers, uncertainty of human observations, "soft" contextual data, and information pedigree

  6. A synthetic dataset for evaluating soft and hard fusion algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Jacob L.; Hall, David L.; Rimland, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    There is an emerging demand for the development of data fusion techniques and algorithms that are capable of combining conventional "hard" sensor inputs such as video, radar, and multispectral sensor data with "soft" data including textual situation reports, open-source web information, and "hard/soft" data such as image or video data that includes human-generated annotations. New techniques that assist in sense-making over a wide range of vastly heterogeneous sources are critical to improving tactical situational awareness in counterinsurgency (COIN) and other asymmetric warfare situations. A major challenge in this area is the lack of realistic datasets available for test and evaluation of such algorithms. While "soft" message sets exist, they tend to be of limited use for data fusion applications due to the lack of critical message pedigree and other metadata. They also lack corresponding hard sensor data that presents reasonable "fusion opportunities" to evaluate the ability to make connections and inferences that span the soft and hard data sets. This paper outlines the design methodologies, content, and some potential use cases of a COIN-based synthetic soft and hard dataset created under a United States Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office (ARO). The dataset includes realistic synthetic reports from a variety of sources, corresponding synthetic hard data, and an extensive supporting database that maintains "ground truth" through logical grouping of related data into "vignettes." The supporting database also maintains the pedigree of messages and other critical metadata.

  7. Fusion technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, K. J.; Latkowski, J. F.; Abbott, R. P.; Anklam, T. P.; Dunne, A. M.; El-Dasher, B. S.; Flowers, D. L.; Fluss, M. J.; Lafuente, A.; Loosmore, G. A.; Morris, K. R.; Moses, E.; Reyes, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) engine design builds upon on going progress at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and offers a near-term pathway to commercial fusion. Fusion technologies that are critical to success are reflected in the design of the first wall, blanket and tritium separation subsystems. The present work describes the LIFE engine-related components and technologies. LIFE utilizes a thermally robust indirect-drive target and a chamber fill gas. Coolant selection and a large chamber solid-angle coverage provide ample tritium breeding margin and high blanket gain. Target material selection eliminates the need for aggressive chamber clearing, while enabling recycling. Demonstrated tritium separation and storage technologies limit the site tritium inventory to attractive levels. These key technologies, along with the maintenance and advanced materials qualification program have been integrated into the LIFE delivery plan. This describes the development of components and subsystems, through prototyping and integration into a First Of A Kind power plant. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsley, Gregory

    One of the biggest challenges currently facing the robotics field is sensor data fusion. Unmanned robots carry many sophisticated sensors including visual and infrared cameras, radar, laser range finders, chemical sensors, accelerometers, gyros, and global positioning systems. By effectively fusing the data from these sensors, a robot would be able to form a coherent view of its world that could then be used to facilitate both autonomous and intelligent operation. Another distinct fusion problem is that of fusing data from teammates with data from onboard sensors. If an entire team of vehicles has the same worldview they will be able to cooperate much more effectively. Sharing worldviews is made even more difficult if the teammates have different sensor types. The final fusion challenge the robotics field faces is that of fusing data gathered by robots with data gathered by human teammates (soft sensors). Humans sense the world completely differently from robots, which makes this problem particularly difficult. The advantage of fusing data from humans is that it makes more information available to the entire team, thus helping each agent to make the best possible decisions. This thesis presents a system for fusing data from multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and human observers. The first issue this thesis addresses is that of centralized data fusion. This is a foundational data fusion issue, which has been very well studied. Important issues in centralized fusion include data association, classification, tracking, and robotics problems. Because these problems are so well studied, this thesis does not make any major contributions in this area, but does review it for completeness. The chapter on centralized fusion concludes with an example unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance problem that demonstrates many of the traditional fusion methods. The second problem this thesis addresses is that of distributed data fusion. Distributed data fusion

  9. Ubiquitin fusion technology: bioprocessing of peptides.

    PubMed

    Pilon, A; Yost, P; Chase, T E; Lohnas, G; Burkett, T; Roberts, S; Bentley, W E

    1997-01-01

    Ubiquitin fusion technology represents an emerging method for economically producing peptides and small proteins in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Our focus is on peptide production where the need for cost-effective, scaleable processes has recently been highlighted by Kelley (1996). There are two principal features: (1) the expression system consists of a suitable E. coli host strain paired with a plasmid that encodes the ubiquitin fusion and (2) an ubiquitin-specific protease, UCH-L3, which cleaves only C-terminal extensions from ubiquitin. In this work, multigram yields were obtained of four ubiquitin fusions derived from cell paste generated in single 10-L fermentations. All were expressed intracellularly and remained soluble at extremely high levels of expression. Bacterial freeze--thaw lysates contained over 95% pure ubiquitin fusion protein. All four fusions were efficiently cleaved to ubiquitin and the peptide products. In one case, the final yield of peptide was 1.08 g from 3 L of low cell density bacterial culture. The combination of exceptional overexpression of the ubiquitin--peptide fusion proteins and a robust and specific protease are unique advantages contributing to a cost-effective, scaleable, and generic bioprocess for peptide production.

  10. Health-Enabled Smart Sensor Fusion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ray

    2012-01-01

    A process was designed to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment and overall health in an intelligent rocket test facility (IRTF), to provide reliable, high-confidence measurements for a variety of propulsion test articles. The object of the technology is to provide sensor fusion based on a distributed architecture. Specifically, the fusion technology is intended to succeed in providing health condition monitoring capability at the intelligent transceiver, such as RF signal strength, battery reading, computing resource monitoring, and sensor data reading. The technology also provides analytic and diagnostic intelligence at the intelligent transceiver, enhancing the IEEE 1451.x-based standard for sensor data management and distributions, as well as providing appropriate communications protocols to enable complex interactions to support timely and high-quality flow of information among the system elements.

  11. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, Glen A.

    2012-08-24

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  12. Embedded Empiricisms in Soft Soil Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; John, L. M. S. Alvin; Adnan, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Civil engineers of today are continuously challenged by innovative projects that push further the knowledge boundaries with conceptual and/or ingenious solutions leading to the realization of that once was considered impossible in the realms of geotechnology. Some of the forward developments rely on empirical methods embedded within soft soil technology and the spectral realms of engineering in its entirety. Empiricisms unlike folklore are not always shrouded in mysticism but can find scientific reasoning to justify them being adopted in design and tangible construction projects. This lecture therefore is an outline exposition of how empiricism has been integrally embedded in total empirical beginnings in the evolution of soft soil technology from the Renaissance time, through the developments of soil mechanics in the 19th century which in turn has paved the way to the rise of computational soil mechanics. Developments in computational soil mechanics has always embraced and are founded on a wide backdrop of empirical geoenvironment simulations. However, it is imperative that a competent geotechnical engineer needs postgraduate training combined with empiricism that is based on years of well- winnowed practical experience to fathom the diverseness and complexity of nature. However, experience being regarded more highly than expertise can, perhaps inadvertently, inhibit development and innovation.

  13. Half-life extension through albumin fusion technologies.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Haemophilia B is characterized by a deficiency of coagulation factor IX (FIX), a protein that is important in the process of haemostasis and normal blood clotting. Recurrent bleeding into joints and soft tissues is the hallmark of severe haemophilia B. The goal of treatment is to prevent and manage haemorrhage and thereby reduce disabling joint and tissue damage, improve quality of life, and extend life expectancy. Current treatment with FIX replacement concentrates often requires repeated, frequent infusions, owing to the relatively short terminal half-life of FIX in the circulation. We have developed a unique technology for improving the biological characteristics of FIX in vivo. For this approach, recombinant FIX (rFIX) was genetically fused to albumin via a cleavable peptide linker. Constructs of the fusion protein were expressed in mammalian cells and characterized following purification. In vitro activation studies demonstrated that cleavage of the linker occurred in parallel with FIX activation. The molar specific clotting activity of the cleavable fusion protein (rIX-FP) was 10- to 30-fold greater than that of the fusion protein with non-cleavable linkers. In rats, rabbits, and FIX-deficient mice, the pharmacokinetics of rIX-FP were significantly improved compared with rFIX. Using the tail-clip bleeding model in FIX-deficient mice, rIX-FP effectively corrected the bleeding time and blood loss. These findings suggest that rIX-FP may be a promising therapy for the treatment of patients with haemophilia B.

  14. A methodology for hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2013-05-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. Traditionally, CBM involves equipping machinery with electronic sensors that continuously monitor components and collect data for analysis. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognitive functions (i.e., sensemaking, problem detection, planning, adaptation, coordination, naturalistic decision making) to traditional CBM may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Cognitive systems engineering techniques provide an opportunity to utilize a dynamic resource—people acting as soft sensors. The literature is extensive on techniques to fuse data from electronic sensors, but little work exists on fusing data from humans with that from electronic sensors (i.e., hard/soft fusion). The purpose of my research is to explore, observe, investigate, analyze, and evaluate the fusion of pilot and maintainer knowledge, experiences, and sensory perceptions with digital maintenance resources. Hard/soft information fusion has the potential to increase problem detection capability, improve flight safety, and increase mission readiness. This proposed project consists the creation of a methodology that is based upon the Living Laboratories framework, a research methodology that is built upon cognitive engineering principles1. This study performs a critical assessment of concept, which will support development of activities to demonstrate hard/soft information fusion in operationally relevant scenarios of aircraft maintenance. It consists of fieldwork, knowledge elicitation to inform a simulation and a prototype.

  15. Soft Robotics: from scientific challenges to technological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laschi, C.

    2016-05-01

    Soft robotics is a recent and rapidly growing field of research, which aims at unveiling the principles for building robots that include soft materials and compliance in the interaction with the environment, so as to exploit so-called embodied intelligence and negotiate natural environment more effectively. Using soft materials for building robots poses new technological challenges: the technologies for actuating soft materials, for embedding sensors into soft robot parts, for controlling soft robots are among the main ones. This is stimulating research in many disciplines and many countries, such that a wide community is gathering around initiatives like the IEEE TAS TC on Soft Robotics and the RoboSoft CA - A Coordination Action for Soft Robotics, funded by the European Commission. Though still in its early stages of development, soft robotics is finding its way in a variety of applications, where safe contact is a main issue, in the biomedical field, as well as in exploration tasks and in the manufacturing industry. And though the development of the enabling technologies is still a priority, a fruitful loop is growing between basic research and application-oriented research in soft robotics.

  16. Soft adaptive fusion of sensor energy for large-scale sensor networks (SAFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2009-04-01

    Target tracking for network surveillance systems has gained significant interest especially in sensitive areas such as homeland security, battlefield intelligence, and facility surveillance. Most of the current sensor network protocols do not address the need for multi-sensor fusion-based target tracking schemes, which is crucial for the longevity of the sensor network. In this paper, we present an efficient fusion model for target tracking in a cluster-based large sensor networks. This new scheme is inspired by the image processing techniques by perceiving a sensor network as an energy map of sensor stimuli and applying typical image processing techniques on this map such as: filtering, convolution, clustering, segmentation, etc to achieve high-level perceptions and understanding of the situation. The new fusion model is called Soft Adaptive Fusion of Sensor Energies (SAFE). SAFE performs soft fusion of the energies collected by a local region of sensors in a large-scale sensor network. This local fusion is then transmitted by the head node to a base-station to update the common operation picture with evolving events of interest. Simulated scenarios showed that SAFE is promising by demonstrating a significant improvement in target tracking reliability, uncertainty, and efficiency.

  17. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1980-08-01

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described. (MOW)

  18. Homeland security application of the Army Soft Target Exploitation and Fusion (STEF) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2010-04-01

    A fusion system that accommodates both text-based extracted information along with more conventional sensor-derived input has been developed and demonstrated in a terrorist attack scenario as part of the Empire Challenge (EC) 09 Exercise. Although the fusion system was developed to support Army military analysts, the system, based on a set of foundational fusion principles, has direct applicability to department of homeland security (DHS) & defense, law enforcement, and other applications. Several novel fusion technologies and applications were demonstrated in EC09. One such technology is location normalization that accommodates both fuzzy semantic expressions such as behind Library A, across the street from the market place, as well as traditional spatial representations. Additionally, the fusion system provides a range of fusion products not supported by traditional fusion algorithms. Many of these additional capabilities have direct applicability to DHS. A formal test of the fusion system was performed during the EC09 exercise. The system demonstrated that it was able to (1) automatically form tracks, (2) help analysts visualize behavior of individuals over time, (3) link key individuals based on both explicit message-based information as well as discovered (fusion-derived) implicit relationships, and (4) suggest possible individuals of interest based on their association with High Value Individuals (HVI) and user-defined key locations.

  19. Could Advanced Fusion Fuels Be Used with Today's Technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, J. F.; Kulcinski, G. L.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Khater, H. Y.

    1998-03-01

    Could today's technology suffice for engineering advanced-fuel, magnetic-fusion power plants, thus making fusion development primarily a physics problem? Such a path would almost certainly cost far less than the present D-T development program, which is driven by daunting engineering challenges as well as physics questions. Advanced fusion fuels, in contrast to D-T fuel, produce a smaller fraction of the fusion power as neutrons but have lower fusion reactivity, leading to a trade-off between engineering and physics. This paper examines the critical fusion engineering issues and related technologies with an eye to their application in tokamak and alternate-concept D-3He power plants. These issues include plasma power balance, magnets, surface heat flux, input power, fuel source, radiation damage, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear proliferation.

  20. Human cognitive and perceptual factors in JDL level 4 hard/soft data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Utilization of human participants as "soft sensors" is becoming increasingly important for gathering information related to a wide range of phenomena including natural and man-made disasters, environmental changes over time, crime prevention, and other roles of the "citizen scientist." The ubiquity of advanced mobile devices is facilitating the role of humans as "hybrid sensor platforms", allowing them to gather data (e.g. video, still images, GPS coordinates), annotate it based on their intuitive human understanding, and upload it using existing infrastructure and social networks. However, this new paradigm presents many challenges related to source characterization, effective tasking, and utilization of massive quantities of physical sensor, human-based, and hybrid hard/soft data in a manner that facilitates decision making instead of simply amplifying information overload. In the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model, "level 4" fusion is a meta-process that attempts to improve performance of the entire fusion system through effective source utilization. While there are well-defined approaches for tasking and categorizing physical sensors, these methods fall short when attempting to effectively utilize a hybrid group of physical sensors and human observers. While physical sensor characterization can rely on statistical models of performance (e.g. accuracy, reliability, specificity, etc.) under given conditions, "soft" sensors add the additional challenges of characterizing human performance, tasking without inducing bias, and effectively balancing strengths and weaknesses of both human and physical sensors. This paper addresses the challenges of the evolving human-centric fusion paradigm and presents cognitive, perceptual, and other human factors that help to understand, categorize, and augment the roles and capabilities of humans as observers in hybrid systems.

  1. Recombinant CBM-fusion technology - Applications overview.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla; Carvalho, Vera; Domingues, Lucília; Gama, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are small components of several enzymes, which present an independent fold and function, and specific carbohydrate-binding activity. Their major function is to bind the enzyme to the substrate enhancing its catalytic activity, especially in the case of insoluble substrates. The immense diversity of CBMs, together with their unique properties, has long raised their attention for many biotechnological applications. Recombinant DNA technology has been used for cloning and characterizing new CBMs. In addition, it has been employed to improve the purity and availability of many CBMs, but mainly, to construct bi-functional CBM-fused proteins for specific applications. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the uses of CBMs recombinantly produced from heterologous organisms, or by the original host, along with the latest advances. Emphasis is given particularly to the applications of recombinant CBM-fusions in: (a) modification of fibers, (b) production, purification and immobilization of recombinant proteins, (c) functionalization of biomaterials and (d) development of microarrays and probes.

  2. Improved GSO Optimized ESN Soft-Sensor Model of Flotation Process Based on Multisource Heterogeneous Information Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Han, Shuang; Shen, Na-na

    2014-01-01

    For predicting the key technology indicators (concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate) of flotation process, an echo state network (ESN) based fusion soft-sensor model optimized by the improved glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the color feature (saturation and brightness) and texture features (angular second moment, sum entropy, inertia moment, etc.) based on grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) are adopted to describe the visual characteristics of the flotation froth image. Then the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) method is used to reduce the dimensionality of the high-dimensional input vector composed by the flotation froth image characteristics and process datum and extracts the nonlinear principal components in order to reduce the ESN dimension and network complex. The ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process is optimized by the GSO algorithm with congestion factor. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization and prediction accuracy to meet the online soft-sensor requirements of the real-time control in the flotation process. PMID:24982935

  3. Improved GSO optimized ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process based on multisource heterogeneous information fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Han, Shuang; Shen, Na-na

    2014-01-01

    For predicting the key technology indicators (concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate) of flotation process, an echo state network (ESN) based fusion soft-sensor model optimized by the improved glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the color feature (saturation and brightness) and texture features (angular second moment, sum entropy, inertia moment, etc.) based on grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) are adopted to describe the visual characteristics of the flotation froth image. Then the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) method is used to reduce the dimensionality of the high-dimensional input vector composed by the flotation froth image characteristics and process datum and extracts the nonlinear principal components in order to reduce the ESN dimension and network complex. The ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process is optimized by the GSO algorithm with congestion factor. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization and prediction accuracy to meet the online soft-sensor requirements of the real-time control in the flotation process.

  4. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  5. Enhancement of Data Analysis Through Multisensor Data Fusion Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-sensor data fusion is an emerging technology that fuses data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment through measurement and detection. Applications of multi-sensor data fusion cross a wide spectrum in military and civilian areas. With the rapid e...

  6. Advanced control strategies for HVAC&R systems—An overview: Part II: Soft and fusion control

    SciTech Connect

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-04-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for HVAC&R is presented. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and the fusion or hybrid of hard and soft control techniques. Part I focused on hardcontrol strategies; Part II focuses on soft and fusion control and some future directions in HVA&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omissions of other works is purely unintentional.

  7. A multi-agent infrastructure for hard and soft information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Hall, David L.

    2011-06-01

    Current needs in tactical situational awareness require a new type of infrastructure to encode, transmit, store, fuse, and display vastly heterogeneous data that may include "hard" sensor types including video, radar, multispectral, acoustic sensor array, 3D flash LIDAR, and "soft" sensor inputs such as textual reports from trained and untrained personnel, unsolicited and solicited open source web information, and hybrid "hard/soft" data such as human-annotated image or video data - which can be highly useful, but difficult to categorize and exploit. While the demand for scalability, rapid deployment, and decentralized access to data and services grows, the need for data security and integrity is as critical as ever. Methods for handling the conflicting needs between access and security are addressed. Furthermore, the evolving role of humans in data fusion systems must be addressed by the infrastructure. In addition to systems enhancing human data analysis capabilities through advanced visualization and sonification techniques, the data itself is more likely to contain information about humans - which is not always a task well suited to conventional data storage and retrieval methods. This paper describes a multi-agent approach to designing a secure, distributed, service-oriented infrastructure to support human-centric hard and soft information fusion.

  8. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-10-01

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. This synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  9. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  10. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE PAGES

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  11. Enabling Technologies for Advanced Soft Tissue Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Tools for measuring soft tissue properties. Workshop on Reality- Based Modeling of Tissues for Simulation and Robot -Assisted Surgery , at IEEE/RSJ IROS...protocols, mathematical models and tools, and validation techniques to determine and describe the biomechanical behavior of living tissues. The...surgical simulation systems that allow new doctors to experience their first surgeries without risk to real patients. They can be implemented in

  12. Soft Technologies, Hard Choices. Worldwatch Paper 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    The infusion of technology into society has created social and environmental problems as well as benefits. Four concerns linked with technology are discussed in this paper: rising unemployment, growing social inequalities, dwindling oil and gas reserves, and potential long-term ecological problems. Indiscriminate transfer of modern labor-saving…

  13. The technology benefits of inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T

    1999-05-26

    The development and demonstration of inertial fusion is incredibly challenging because it requires simultaneously controlling and precisely measuring parameters at extreme values in energy, space, and time. The challenges range from building megajoule (10{sup 6} J) drivers that perform with percent-level precision to fabricating targets with submicron specifications to measuring target performance at micron scale (10{sup {minus}6} m) with picosecond (10{sup {minus}12} s) time resolution. Over the past 30 years in attempting to meet this challenge, the inertial fusion community around the world has invented new technologies in lasers, particle beams, pulse power drivers, diagnostics, target fabrication, and other areas. These technologies have found applications in diverse fields of industry and science. Moreover, simply assembling the teams with the background, experience, and personal drive to meet the challenging requirements of inertial fusion has led to spin-offs in unexpected directions, for example, in laser isotope separation, extreme ultraviolet lithography for microelectronics, compact and inexpensive radars, advanced laser materials processing, and medical technology. The experience of inertial fusion research and development of spinning off technologies has not been unique to any one laboratory or country but has been similar in main research centers in the US, Europe, and Japan. Strengthening and broadening the inertial fusion effort to focus on creating a new source of electrical power (inertial fusion energy [IFE]) that is economically competitive and environmentally benign will yield rich rewards in technology spin-offs. The additional challenges presented by IFE are to make drivers affordable, efficient, and long-lived while operating at a repetition rate of a few Hertz; to make fusion targets that perform consistently at high-fusion yield; and to create target chambers that can repetitively handle greater than 100-MJ yields while producing minimal

  14. Jamming as an enabling technology for soft robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steltz, E.; Mozeika, A.; Rembisz, J.; Corson, N.; Jaeger, H. M.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new architecture in soft robotics that utilizes particulate jamming technology. A novel concept of actuation is described that utilizes jamming technology to modulate the direction and magnitude of the work performed by a single central actuator. Jamming "activators" modulate work by jamming and unjamming (solidifying and liquifying) a granular medium coupled to a core actuator. These ideas are demonstrated in the Jamming Skin Enabled Locomotion (JSEL) prototype which can morph its shape and achieve locomotion. Next, a new actuator, denoted a Jamming Modulated Unimorph (JMU), is presented in addition to the JSEL topology. The JMU uses a single linear actuator and a discrete number of jamming cells to turn the 1 degree of freedom (DOF) linear actuator into a multi DOF bending actuator. Full characterization of the JMU actuator is presented, followed by a concluding argument for jamming as an enabling mechanism for soft robots in general, regardless of actuation technology.

  15. Implementing MEMS technology for soft, (bio)electronics interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Alessia; Hofmeister, Yannick; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2014-06-01

    Soft, bioelectronics interfaces are broadly defined as microfabricated devices with mechanical properties suited to comply with biological tissues. There are many challenges associated with the development of such technology platforms. Simultaneously one must achieve reliable electronic performance, thermal and environmental stability, mechanical compliance, and biocompatibility. Materials and system architecture must be designed such that mechanical integrity and electrical functionality is preserved during fabrication, implementation and use of the interface. Depositing and patterning conventional device materials, ranging from inorganic to organic thin films as well as nanomaterials, directly onto soft elastomeric substrates enable electronic devices with enhanced mechanical flexibility. Success in fabrication also relies on a careful design of the mechanical architecture of the soft interface to minimize mechanical stresses in the most fragile materials.

  16. 'Optical' soft x-ray arrays for fluctuation diagnostics in magnetic fusion energy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.F.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Finkenthal, M.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, L.; Johnson, D.; Majeski, R.

    2004-10-01

    We are developing large pixel count, fast ({>=}100 kHz) and continuously sampling soft x-ray (SXR) array for the diagnosis of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and turbulent fluctuations in magnetic fusion energy plasmas. The arrays are based on efficient scintillators, high thoughput multiclad fiber optics, and multichannel light amplification and integration. Compared to conventional x-ray diode arrays, such systems can provide vastly increased spatial coverage, and access to difficult locations with small neutron noise and damage. An eight-channel array has been built using columnar CsI:Tl as an SXR converter and a multianode photomultiplier tube as photoamplifier. The overall system efficiency is measured using laboratory SXR sources, while the time response and signal-to-noise performance have been evaluated by recording MHD activity from the spherical tori (ST) Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade and National Spherical Torus Experiment, both at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  17. A decision support system for fusion of hard and soft sensor information based on probabilistic latent semantic analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Elangovan, Vinayak; Alkilani, Amjad; Habibi, Mohammad

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an ongoing effort towards development of an intelligent Decision-Support System (iDSS) for fusion of information from multiple sources consisting of data from hard (physical sensors) and soft (textural sources. Primarily, this paper defines taxonomy of decision support systems for latent semantic data mining from heterogeneous data sources. A Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) approach is proposed for latent semantic concepts search from heterogeneous data sources. An architectural model for generating semantic annotation of multi-modality sensors in a modified Transducer Markup Language (TML) is described. A method for TML messages fusion is discussed for alignment and integration of spatiotemporally correlated and associated physical sensory observations. Lastly, the experimental results which exploit fusion of soft/hard sensor sources with support of iDSS are discussed.

  18. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Amy; Callis, Richard; Efthimion, Philip; Foster, John; Keane, Christopher; Onsager, Terry; O'Shea, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  19. Critical Fusion--Technology and Equity in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magolda, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the first year of a formative, external program evaluation of the Critical Fusion Initiative (CFI), which involved a higher education institution, a public high school, a corporation, and two nonprofit organizations. The initiative fused technology and education to address the issue of equity by assisting 16 high school…

  20. Using Soft Computing Technologies for the Simulation of LCAC Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    real-time, time-domain predictions of the vehicle’s dynamics as a function of the control signals given by the driver. Results are presented...free- running LCAC model, faster-than-real-time simulation, soft computing technology 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Maneuvering and Control Division (MCD...like all hovercraft , rides on a cushion of air. The air is supplied to the cushion by four centrifugal fans driven by the craft’s gas turbine

  1. Technological requisites of the magnetic fusion energy programme

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    An integral part of magnetic fusion energy research is the development of the technologies necessary for the confinement and heating of reactor-level plasmas. Heating systems based on energetic neutral beam particle injection or radio frequency waves (or both) will be required to heat plasmas to the temperatures at which fusion is self-sustaining. These systems may be used also to drive plasma currents. The magnet systems required to confine reactor-sized plasmas rely on the development of effective superconductors. Issues associated with safety and tritium handling concerns become important considerations in designing reactor concepts.

  2. Fc fusion as a platform technology: potential for modulating immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ditza; Golding, Basil; Strome, Scott E; Sauna, Zuben E

    2015-01-01

    The platform technology of fragment crystallizable (Fc) fusion, in which the Fc region of an antibody is genetically linked to an active protein drug, is among the most successful of a new generation of bioengineering strategies. Immunogenicity is a critical safety concern in the development of any protein therapeutic. While the therapeutic goal of generating Fc-fusion proteins has been to extend half-life, there is a critical mass of literature from immunology indicating that appropriate design of the Fc component has the potential to engage the immune system for product-specific outcomes. In the context of Fc-fusion therapeutics, a review of progress in understanding Fc biology suggests the prospect of engineering products that have an extended half-life and are able to modulate the immune system.

  3. Mechanical-engineering aspects of mirror-fusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.K.; Doggett, J.N.

    1982-07-15

    The mirror approach to magnetic fusion has evolved from the original simple mirror cell to today's mainline effort: the tandem-mirror machine with thermal barriers. Physics and engineering research is being conducted throughout the world, with major efforts in Japan, the USSR, and the US. At least one facility under construction (MFTF-B) will approach equivalent energy breakeven in physics performance. Significant mechanical engineering development is needed, however, before a demonstration reactor can be constructed. The principal areas crucial to mirror reactor development include large high-field superconducting magnets, high-speed continuous vacuum-pumping systems, long-pulse high-power neutral-beam and rf-plasma heating systems, and efficient high-voltage high-power direct converters. Other areas common to all fusion systems include tritium handling technology, first-wall materials development, and fusion blanket design.

  4. Survey of nuclear fusion technology. A prospect analysis of Tokamak fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, W. K.

    The fusion research evaluation model for analyzing various R and D sinarios, the trend analysis of Tokamak research, and the near-term technologies are discussed. A computer code, FUSREV, was developed. It consists of the plasma power model and the cost/benefit model. Since the state-of-the-arts which are expected to be achieve as the result of subproject R and D's can only be obtained in the form of probability distribution functions Monte Carlo method is employed. The test computation of the code shows acceptable results. However, FUSREV was continuously modified employing new models for both technology and economics.

  5. Use of Soft Computing Technologies For Rocket Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Olcmen, Semih; Polites, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to further improve overall engine system reliability and performance. Specifically, this will be presented by enhancing rocket engine control and engine health management (EHM) using SCT coupled with conventional control technologies, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall s Flight Software Group. The principle goals are to improve software management, software development time and maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control and EHM methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, EHM, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion, software engineering for embedded systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, and Bayesian belief networks), much of which is presented in this paper. The first targeted demonstration rocket engine platform is the MC-1 (formerly FASTRAC Engine) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed laboratory that

  6. Soft-Fault Detection Technologies Developed for Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, partner universities, and defense contractors are working to develop intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) technologies for future spacecraft and launch vehicles. The goals are to provide higher performance (efficiency, transient response, and stability), higher fault tolerance, and higher reliability through the application of digital control and communication technologies. It is also expected that these technologies will eventually reduce the design, development, manufacturing, and integration costs for large, electrical power systems for space vehicles. The main focus of this research has been to incorporate digital control, communications, and intelligent algorithms into power electronic devices such as direct-current to direct-current (dc-dc) converters and protective switchgear. These technologies, in turn, will enable revolutionary changes in the way electrical power systems are designed, developed, configured, and integrated in aerospace vehicles and satellites. Initial successes in integrating modern, digital controllers have proven that transient response performance can be improved using advanced nonlinear control algorithms. One technology being developed includes the detection of "soft faults," those not typically covered by current systems in use today. Soft faults include arcing faults, corona discharge faults, and undetected leakage currents. Using digital control and advanced signal analysis algorithms, we have shown that it is possible to reliably detect arcing faults in high-voltage dc power distribution systems (see the preceding photograph). Another research effort has shown that low-level leakage faults and cable degradation can be detected by analyzing power system parameters over time. This additional fault detection capability will result in higher reliability for long-lived power systems such as reusable launch vehicles and space exploration missions.

  7. The need for a fusion technology information program

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.L. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    In providing an adequate energy technology for the future, which new programs should be considered by the Department of Energy national laboratories to ensure that the US remains in the forefront of international science and technology is an important question. This paper suggests that the urgency for energy independence demands an active communication program that would increase awareness of energy as a critical national issue and would present fusion, with its benefits and risks, as one of the long-term alternative energy sources.

  8. Inertial fusion science and technology for the next century

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E M; Hogan, W J; Landes, S

    1999-09-10

    This paper reviews the leading edge of the basic and applied science and technology that use high-intensity facilities and looks at what opportunities lie ahead. The more than 15,000 experiments on the Nova laser since 1985 and many thousands more on other laser, particle beam, and pulsed power facilities around the world have established the new laboratory field of high-energy-density plasma physics and have furthered development of inertial fusion. New capabilities such as those provided by high-brightness femtosecond lasers have enabled the study of matter in conditions previously unachievable on earth. These experiments, along with advanced calculations now practical because of the progress in computing capability, have established the specifications for the National Ignition Facility and Laser MegaJoule and have enhanced new scientific fields such as laboratory astrophysics. Science and technology developed in inertial fusion have found near-term commercial use, have enabled steady progress toward the goal of fusion ignition and gain in the laboratory, and have opened up new fields of study for the 21st century.

  9. Chamber technology concepts for inertial fusion energy: Three recent examples

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W.; Abdou, M.A.

    1997-02-27

    The most serious challenges in the design of chambers for inertial fusion energy (IFE) are 1) protecting the first wall from fusion energy pulses on the order of several hundred megajoules released in the form of x rays, target debris, and high energy neutrons, and 2) operating the chamber at a pulse repetition rate of 5-10 Hz (i.e., re-establishing, the wall protection and chamber conditions needed for beam propagation to the target between pulses). In meeting these challenges, designers have capitalized on the ability to separate the fusion burn physics from the geometry and environment of the fusion chamber. Most recent conceptual designs use gases or flowing liquids inside the chamber. Thin liquid layers of molten salt or metal and low pressure, high-Z gases can protect the first wall from x rays and target debris, while thick liquid layers have the added benefit of protecting structures from fusion neutrons thereby significantly reducing the radiation damage and activation. The use of thick liquid walls is predicted to 1) reduce the cost of electricity by avoiding the cost and down time of changing damaged structures, and 2) reduce the cost of development by avoiding the cost of developing a new, low-activation material. Various schemes have been proposed to assure chamber clearing and renewal of the protective features at the required pulse rate. Representative chamber concepts are described, and key technical feasibility issues are identified for each class of chamber. Experimental activities (past, current, and proposed) to address these issues and technology research and development needs are discussed.

  10. Dynamic gesture recognition based on multiple sensors fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Wenhui, Wang; Xiang, Chen; Kongqiao, Wang; Xu, Zhang; Jihai, Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the roles of a three-axis accelerometer, surface electromyography sensors and a webcam for dynamic gesture recognition. A decision-level multiple sensor fusion method based on action elements is proposed to distinguish a set of 20 kinds of dynamic hand gestures. Experiments are designed and conducted to collect three kinds of sensor data stream simultaneously during gesture implementation and compare the performance of different subsets in gesture recognition. Experimental results from three subjects show that the combination of three kinds of sensor achieves recognition accuracies at 87.5%-91.8%, which are higher largely than that of the single sensor conditions. This study is valuable to realize continuous and dynamic gesture recognition based on multiple sensor fusion technology for multi-model interaction.

  11. Fusion technology development. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In FY95, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the magnetic fusion program. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Studies (Section 2), DiMES (Section 3), SiC Composite Studies (Section 4), Magnetic Probe (Section 5) and RF Technology (Section 6). Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA`s fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to ITER and other next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, they carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. They continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry.

  12. Fusion technology development annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    In FY96, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the magnetic fusion program. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Design Studies (Section 2), Plasma Interactive Materials (Section 3), SiC/SiC Composite Material Development (Section 4), Magnetic Diagnostic Probes (Section 5) and RF Technology (Section 6). Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA`s fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to ITER and other next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, the authors carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. They continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry.

  13. Chamber and target technology development for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M; Besenbruch, G; Duke, J; Forman, L; Goodin, D; Gulec, K; Hoffer, J; Khater, H; Kulcinsky, G; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Margevicious, B; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Morley, N; Nobile, A; Payne, S; Peterson, P F; Peterson, R; Petzoldt, R; Schultz, K; Steckle, W; Sviatoslavsky, L; Tillack, M; Ying, A

    1999-04-07

    Fusion chambers and high pulse-rate target systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) must: regenerate chamber conditions suitable for target injection, laser propagation, and ignition at rates of 5 to 10 Hz; extract fusion energy at temperatures high enough for efficient conversion to electricity; breed tritium and fuel targets with minimum tritium inventory; manufacture targets at low cost; inject those targets with sufficient accuracy for high energy gain; assure adequate lifetime of the chamber and beam interface (final optics); minimize radioactive waste levels and annual volumes; and minimize radiation releases under normal operating and accident conditions. The primary goal of the US IFE program over the next four years (Phase I) is to develop the basis for a Proof-of-Performance-level driver and target chamber called the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE will explore beam transport and focusing through prototypical chamber environment and will intercept surrogate targets at high pulse rep-rate. The IRE will not have enough driver energy to ignite targets, and it will be a non-nuclear facility. IRE options are being developed for both heavy ion and laser driven IFE. Fig. 1 shows that Phase I is prerequisite to an IRE, and the IRE plus NIF (Phase II) is prerequisite to a high-pulse rate. Engineering Test Facility and DEMO for IFE, leading to an attractive fusion power plant. This report deals with the Phase-I R&D needs for the chamber, driver/chamber interface (i.e., magnets for accelerators and optics for lasers), target fabrication, and target injection; it is meant to be part of a more comprehensive IFE development plan which will include driver technology and target design R&D. Because of limited R&D funds, especially in Phase I, it is not possible to address the critical issues for all possible chamber and target technology options for heavy ion or laser fusion. On the other hand, there is risk in addressing only one approach to each technology

  14. Technology Advances in Support of Fusion Plasma Imaging Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qi; Lai, Jiali; Hu, Fengqi; Li, Maijou; Chang, Yu-Ting; Domier, Calvin; Luhmann, Neville, Jr.

    2012-10-01

    Innovative technologies are under investigation in key areas to enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave fusion plasma imaging diagnostics. Novel antenna and mixer configurations are being developed at increasingly higher frequencies, to facilitate the use of electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) on high field (> 2.6 T) plasma devices. Low noise preamplifier-based imaging antenna arrays are being developed to increase the sensitivity and dynamic range of microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) diagnostics for the localized measurement of turbulent density fluctuations. High power multi-frequency sources, fabricated using advanced CMOS technology, offer the promise of allowing MIR-based diagnostic instruments to image these density fluctuations in 2-D over an extended plasma volume in high performance tokamak plasmas. Details regarding each of these diagnostic development areas will be presented.

  15. Anterior discectomy without fusion for treatment of cervical lateral soft disc extrusion: a follow-up of 120 cases.

    PubMed

    Grisoli, F; Graziani, N; Fabrizi, A P; Peragut, J C; Vincentelli, F; Diaz-Vasquez, P

    1989-06-01

    One hundred and twenty patients with soft lateral disc herniation underwent surgery by anterior microsurgical discectomy and routine ablation of the posterior longitudinal ligament between 1976 and 1986. The study excluded patients with hard discs and soft disc extrusion with medullary symptoms. In our series 76.6% of patients were men. In 64% of the patients no causative factor was found. All of the patients presented with cervicobrachialgia; 53% also had a motor deficit. In 91.7% a single disc was involved. The last 40 cases were evaluated by computed tomography alone. In 51.5% an extruded disc was found. No permanent postoperative complication was encountered. All patients returned to their previous activities. Fifty patients underwent follow-up radiological evaluation at 1 and 5 years after the intervention and vertebral fusion was observed in 70% of these.

  16. An Analytical Framework for Soft and Hard Data Fusion: A Dempster-Shafer Belief Theoretic Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    generated soft data, such as HUMINT (HUMan 1 2 INTelligence), OSINT (Open Source INTelligence) and COMINT (COMmunications INTelligence), are fundamentally...human intelligence (HUMINT), open source intelligence ( OSINT ), and communications intelligence (COMINT), which is human communications derived from...respectively). The sources correspond to selected intelligence disciplines described in [9]. HUMINT and OSINT sources provide mostly soft

  17. Research on fusion technology based on low-light visible image and infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuo; Piao, Yan; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    Image fusion technology usually combines information from multiple images of the same scene into a single image so that the fused image is often more informative than any source image. Considering the characteristics of low-light visible images, this study presents an image fusion technology to improve contrast of low-light images. This study proposes an adaptive threshold-based fusion rule. Threshold is related to the brightness distribution of original images. Then, the fusion of low-frequency coefficients is determined by threshold. Pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNN)-based fusion rule is proposed for fusion of high-frequency coefficients. Firing times of PCNN reflect the amount of detail information. Thus, a high-frequency coefficient corresponding to maximum firing times is chosen as the fused coefficient. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method obtains high-contrast images and outperforms traditional fusion approaches on image quality.

  18. Soft Skills for Information Technology Professionals in Recruitment Advertisements: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Cynthia J. Moore

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine if the use of soft skills requirements in job posting advertisements for information technology professional positions has increased since the dissertation study by G. K. Tannnahill in 2007, titled "Study of Soft Skills for IT Workers in Recruitment Advertising," to support prior research…

  19. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  20. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development, and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  1. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included 'Capabilities Activation' and 'Capabilities Demonstration' to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included 'Small Glass Shell Deliveries' and 'Composite Polymer Capsules' for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct 'Onsite Support' at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of 'Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats' and established 'Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities' at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the 'Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.' We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process.

  2. Technology development for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törmä, P. T.; Sipilä, H. J.; Koskinen, T.; Mattila, M.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy instruments lose part of their performance due to the lack of suitable components for soft X-ray region below 1 keV. Therefore, in the analysis of low atomic number elements including lithium, beryllium, boron and carbon instrument sensitivity is often limited. In this work we describe how the performance of the spectroscopy of soft X-rays is significantly improved when all devices integrated in the spectroscopic instrument are suitable for both soft and hard X-rays. This concept is based on utilizing ultra-thin SiN X-ray windows with proven performance not only as a detector window but also as an X-ray source window. By including a soft-X-ray-sensitive silicon drift detector with efficient surface charge collection in this concept the sensitivity and performance of the instrument is significantly increased.

  3. Research progress on ultra-precision machining technologies for soft-brittle crystal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hang; Wang, Xu; Guo, Dongming; Chen, Yuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Soft-brittle crystal materials are widely used in many fields, especially optics and microelectronics. However, these materials are difficult to machine through traditional machining methods because of their brittle, soft, and anisotropic nature. In this article, the characteristics and machining difficulties of soft-brittle and crystals are presented. Moreover, the latest research progress of novel machining technologies and their applications for softbrittle crystals are introduced by using some representative materials (e.g., potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)) as examples. This article reviews the research progress of soft-brittle crystals processing.

  4. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  5. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-01-01

    Fusion is an inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economic commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion energy development program is the generation of central station electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. In addition, fusion R and D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other, are the two primary criteria for setting long range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R and D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national labs and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  6. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-03-01

    Fusion is an essentially inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economically attractive commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion-energy development program is the generation of centralstation electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high-energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. These include breeding of fissile fuels, production of hydrogen and other chemical products, transmutation or “burning” of various nuclear or chemical wastes, radiation processing of materials, production of radioisotopes, food preservation, medical diagnosis and medical treatment, and space power and space propulsion. In addition, fusion R&D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other hand, are the two primary criteria for setting long-range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R&D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national laboratories and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long-range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  7. Soft Fusion Energy Path: Isotope Production in Energy Subcritical/Economy Hypercritical D +D Colliding-Beam Mini Fusion Reactor `Exyder'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Tim; Maglich, Bogdan; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Bethe1 and Sakharov2 argued for soft fusion energy path via isotope production, substantiated by Manheimer3. - Copious T and 3He production4 , 5 from D(d, p) T and D(d, n) 3He reactions in 725 KeV D +D colliding beams was measured in weak-focusing Self-Collider6 , 7 radius 0.15 m, in B = 3.12 T, non-linearly stabilized by electron cloud oscillations8 to confinement time = 24 s. Simulations6 predict that by switching to strong focusing9, 10 deuterons 0.75 MeV each, generate 1 3He +1T +1p + 1n at total input energy cost 10.72 MeV. Economic value of T and 3He is 65 and 120 MeV/atom, respectively. We obtain economic gain 205MeV/10.72 MeV ~ 2,000% i.e. 3He production funds cost of T. If first wall is made of Thorium n's will breed 233U releasing 200 MeV/fission, at neutron cost 5.36 MeV versus 160 MeV in beam on target, resulting in no cost 3He production, valued 75K/g. 1. Physics Today, May 1979, p.44; 2. Memoirs, Vintage Books, (1992); 3. Phys. Today, May 2012 p. 12; 4. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 796 (1985); 5. Bull. APS, 57, No. 3 (2012); 6. Part. Acc.1, (1970); 7. ANEUTRONIC FUSION NIM A 271 1-167 (1988); 8. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1818 (1993); 9. Part. Acc. 34, 13 (1990).

  8. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage. (MOW)

  9. Enhancement of data analysis through multisensor data fusion technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper focuses on application of multisensor data fusion for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation. A practical, general data fusion scheme is established on the basis of feature extraction and merging of data from multiple sensors. This scheme integrates...

  10. Unified Research on Network-Based Hard/Soft Information Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    08/28/2012 08/28/2012 08/31/2011 10/11/2011 10/11/2011 Received Paper Amir Shirkhodaie, Vinayak Elagovan, Aaron Rababaah. Acoustic Semantic Labeling...Symposium, Conference: Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition XXI. 23-APR-12, . : , Amjad Alkilani, Amir Shirkhodaie. A Survey on Acoustic ...USA. : , Amjad Alkilani, Amir Shirkhodaie. Acoustic events semantic detection, classification, and annotation for persistent surveillance applications

  11. Review of the Strategic Plan for International Collaboration on Fusion Science and Technology Research. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-01-23

    The United States Government has employed international collaborations in magnetic fusion energy research since the program was declassified in 1958. These collaborations have been successful not only in producing high quality scientific results that have contributed to the advancement of fusion science and technology, they have also allowed us to highly leverage our funding. Thus, in the 1980s, when the funding situation made it necessary to reduce the technical breadth of the U.S. domestic program, these highly leveraged collaborations became key strategic elements of the U.S. program, allowing us to maintain some degree of technical breadth. With the recent, nearly complete declassification of inertial confinement fusion, the use of some international collaboration is expected to be introduced in the related inertial fusion energy research activities as well. The United States has been a leader in establishing and fostering collaborations that have involved scientific and technological exchanges, joint planning, and joint work at fusion facilities in the U.S. and worldwide. These collaborative efforts have proven mutually beneficial to the United States and our partners. International collaborations are a tool that allows us to meet fusion program goals in the most effective way possible. Working with highly qualified people from other countries and other cultures provides the collaborators with an opportunity to see problems from new and different perspectives, allows solutions to arise from the diversity of the participants, and promotes both collaboration and friendly competition. In short, it provides an exciting and stimulating environment resulting in a synergistic effect that is good for science and good for the people of the world.

  12. Soft Skills in the Technology Education Classroom: What Do Students Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kara S.; Rogers, George E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine which nontechnical competencies or soft skills related to technology education should be developed by high school students. Results clearly indicate that university-level engineering and engineering technology professors rate students' interpersonal, communication, and work ethic competencies as desired…

  13. Technological aspects of GEM detector design and assembling for soft x-ray application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Chernyshova, M.

    2016-09-01

    Various types of Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) found applications as tracking detectors in high energy particle physics experiments and as well as imaging detectors, especially for soft X-rays. These detectors offer several advantages like high count rate capability, good spatial and energy resolution, low cost and possibility of constructing large area detectors with very small dead area. Construction, like the triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector has become a standard detector, which is widely used for different imaging applications. Some examples of such applications are: monitoring the impurity in plasma, imaging system for mapping of some parameters like pigment distributions using X-ray fluorescence technique[1], proton range radiography system for quality assurance in hadron therapy. Measuring of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) radiation of magnetic fusion plasma is a standard way of accessing valuable information, for example, about particle transport and MHD. The paper is focused on the design of GEM based soft Xray radiation detecting system which is under development. It is dedicated to study soft X-ray emission of plasma radiation with focus on tungsten emission lines energy region. The paper presents the designing, construction and assembling of a prototype of two triple-GEM detectors for soft-X ray application on the WEST device.

  14. Soft, cutting edge of environmentalism: why and how the appropriate-technology notion is changing the movement

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.E.

    1980-04-01

    The central theme of hard, or centralized, technology versus soft, or small and disperse, technology is traced through two stages of development that the author terms enthusiasm and realism. The overlap between the environmental movement and the soft-technology movement has given the appropriate-technology movement a broad base of ideological support. Soft-technology thinking in environmentalism is broadening its concerns. This trend tends to increase what to date has been environmentalism's rather marginal relevance and legitimacy in the original and still-central domain of the soft-technolgoy movement, namely the developing countries. The small is beautiful concept will force environmentalists to question their commitments to political ideologies as well as environmentalism when faced with achieving environmental reform in the context of achieving greater social equity through redistribution. According to the author, the soft-technology vision of transformation to a soft society is the cutting edge of thought in environmentalism. 45 footnotes, 1 table. (SAC)

  15. Fusion bonding of non-pressurized process piping: A new technology and a new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.J.; Pinder, R.

    1996-07-01

    Perhaps the best-known method of thermoplastic fusion bonding for process piping is hot-plate or heated-tool butt welding. Despite the age of this method and the considerable research available on the subject, in practice, this method of heat fusion relies largely on the skill and knowledge of the machine operator. Hence, the quality of the completed fusion bond is largely dependent on human factors. Another method for joining thermoplastic process piping with heat fusion has been through the use of electrofusion fittings or couplings. A sleeve with an embedded resistance wire is slipped onto mating pipe ends, and welding takes place by electrically heating the resistance wire and forming a molecular bond on the outside surface of the mated pipes. While butt welding tends to rely heavily on the knowledge and experience of the machine operator, electrofusion fittings tend to rely more on automated mechanisms such as the software in the computerized fusion box. An alternative form of thermoplastic welding that employs the features of both butt welding and electrofusion couplings has recently been developed. This unique method employs the principles of electrofusion for performing butt welding. The authors have successfully demonstrated this technology at a major US chemical manufacturer`s facility to produce reliable, leak-tight fusion joints in non-pressurized, process piping applications. Research and practical experience were blended to provide consistent fusion quality based on monitoring key fusion parameters, while still relying on the experience and training of a fusion operator.

  16. Review of LIBS application in nuclear fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong; Feng, Chun-Lei; Oderji, Hassan Yousefi; Luo, Guang-Nan; Ding, Hong-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear fusion has enormous potential to greatly affect global energy production. The next-generation tokamak ITER, which is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of energy production from fusion on a commercial scale, is under construction. Wall erosion, material transport, and fuel retention are known factors that shorten the lifetime of ITER during tokamak operation and give rise to safety issues. These factors, which must be understood and solved early in the process of fusion reactor design and development, are among the most important concerns for the community of plasma-wall interaction researchers. To date, laser techniques are among the most promising methods that can solve these open ITER issues, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an ideal candidate for online monitoring of the walls of current and next-generation (such as ITER) fusion devices. LIBS is a widely used technique for various applications. It has been considered recently as a promising tool for analyzing plasma-facing components in fusion devices in situ. This article reviews the experiments that have been performed by many research groups to assess the feasibility of LIBS for this purpose.

  17. Single crystal artificial diamond detectors for VUV and soft X-rays measurements on JET thermonuclear fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Coffey, I.; Murari, A.; Tartoni, N.; JET-EFDA contributors

    2010-11-01

    Diamond appears to be a promising material for VUV and soft X-ray radiation detection. Its wide band-gap (5.5 eV) results in a very low leakage current (it can operate above room temperature) and its electronic properties (high carrier mobility) allow a fast time response. More importantly, it is optimally suited for harsh environment applications, like those in the JET Tokamak located at the Culham laboratory (UK). Its extreme radiation hardness is well known and another interesting feature, again related to the wide band-gap, is its selective sensitivity to radiation with wavelengths shorter than 225 nm (visible-blind detectors).We report on the performances of two photodetectors based on Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) single crystal diamonds, one optimized for extreme UV detection, the other for soft X-ray radiation detection in the 0.8-8 keV range. These detectors have been fabricated at Roma "Tor Vergata" University using a p-type/intrinsic/metal configuration and they behave like photodiodes allowing operation with no external applied voltage. They have been installed on JET inside a vacuum chamber with a direct horizontal view of JET plasma without any wavelength selection. Their low thickness, low sensitivity to gamma ray and the unbiased operation mode make both detectors ideal for a Tokamak environment. The measurements routinely performed at JET show a low intrinsic dark current (˜0.01 pA) and very high signal to noise ratio (50 dB). Both detectors show a fast response and their signals are acquired using an electronic chain and ADC able to operate at 200 kHz, providing very interesting results for MHD and Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) instability studies on fusion plasmas.

  18. Nuclear Data for Fusion Energy Technologies: Requests, Status and Development Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, U.; Batistoni, P.; Cheng, E.; Forrest, R.A.

    2005-05-24

    The current status of nuclear data evaluations for fusion technologies is reviewed. Well-qualified data are available for neutronics and activation calculations of fusion power reactors and the next-step device ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. Major challenges for the further development of fusion nuclear data arise from the needs of the long-term fusion programme. In particular, co-variance data are required for uncertainty assessments of nuclear responses. Further, the nuclear data libraries need to be extended to higher energies above 20 MeV to enable neutronics and activation calculations of IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility. A significant experimental effort is required in this field to provide a reliable and sound database for the evaluation of cross-section data in the higher energy range.

  19. Soft-robotic arm inspired by the octopus: II. From artificial requirements to innovative technological solutions.

    PubMed

    Mazzolai, B; Margheri, L; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P; Laschi, C

    2012-06-01

    Soft robotics is a current focus in robotics research because of the expected capability of soft robots to better interact with real-world environments. As a point of inspiration in the development of innovative technologies in soft robotics, octopuses are particularly interesting 'animal models'. Octopus arms have unique biomechanical capabilities that combine significant pliability with the ability to exert a great deal of force, because they lack rigid structures but can change and control their degree of stiffness. The octopus arm motor capability is a result of the peculiar arrangement of its muscles and the properties of its tissues. These special abilities have been investigated by the authors in a specific study dedicated to identifying the key principles underlying these biological functions and deriving engineering requirements for robotics solutions. This paper, which is the second in a two-part series, presents how the identified requirements can be used to create innovative technological solutions, such as soft materials, mechanisms and actuators. Experiments indicate the ability of these proposed solutions to ensure the same performance as in the biological model in terms of compliance, elongation and force. These results represent useful and relevant components of innovative soft-robotic systems and suggest their potential use to create a new generation of highly dexterous, soft-bodied robots.

  20. Multi-energy soft-x-ray technique for impurity transport measurements in the fusion plasma edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. J.; Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Kaye, S. M.; Kumar, D.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Paul, S.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    A new diagnostic technique was developed to produce high-resolution impurity transport measurements of the steep-gradient edge of fusion plasmas. Perturbative impurity transport measurements were performed for the first time in the NSTX plasma edge (r/a ˜ 0.6 to the SOL) with short neon gas puffs, and the resulting line and continuum emission was measured with the new edge multi-energy soft-x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic. Neon transport is modeled with the radial impurity transport code STRAHL and the resulting x-ray emission is computed using the ADAS atomic database. The radial transport coefficient profiles D(r) and v(r), and the particle flux from the gas puff Φ(t), are the free parameters in this model and are varied to find the best fit to experimental x-ray emissivity measurements, with bolometry used to constrain the impurity source. Initial experiments were successful and results were consistent with previous measurements of core impurity transport and neoclassical transport calculations. New diagnostic tools will be implemented on NSTX-U to further improve these transport measurements.

  1. An oncogenic NTRK fusion in a soft tissue sarcoma patient with response to the tropomyosin-related kinase (TRK) inhibitor LOXO-101

    PubMed Central

    Doebele, Robert C.; Davis, Lara E.; Vaishnavi, Aria; Le, Anh T.; Estrada-Bernal, Adriana; Keysar, Stephen; Jimeno, Antonio; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Aisner, Dara L.; Li, Yali; Stephens, Philip J.; Morosini, Deborah; Tuch, Brian B.; Fernandes, Michele; Nanda, Nisha; Low, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic TRK fusions induce cancer cell proliferation and engage critical cancer-related downstream signaling pathways. These TRK fusions occur rarely, but in a diverse spectrum of tumor histologies. LOXO-101 is an orally administered inhibitor of the TRK kinase, and is highly selective only for the TRK family of receptors. Preclinical models of LOXO-101 using TRK-fusion bearing human-derived cancer cell lines demonstrate inhibition of the fusion oncoprotein and cellular proliferation in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. The tumor of a 41-year old woman with soft tissue sarcoma metastatic to lung was found to harbor an LMNA-NTRK1 gene fusion encoding a functional LMNA-TRKA fusion oncoprotein as determined by an in situ proximity ligation assay. On a phase 1 study of LOXO-101 (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT02122913), this patient’s tumors underwent rapid and substantial tumor regression, with an accompanying improvement in pulmonary dyspnea, oxygen saturation and plasma tumor markers. PMID:26216294

  2. Argonne National Laboratory contributions to the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    A total of sixteen papers with authors from Argonne National Laboratory were presented at the First International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT), held in Tokyo, Japan, in April 1988. The papers cover the results of recent investigations in blanket design and analysis, fusion neutronics, materials experiments in liquid metal corrosion and solid breeders, tritium recovery analysis, experiments and analysis for liquid metal MHD, reactor safety and economic analysis, and transient electromagnetic analysis.

  3. The Fusion of Learning Theory and Technology in an Online Music History Course Redesign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, Blase; Garcia, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Teaching today's students requires an integration of learner-centered pedagogy with innovative technological resources. In this article, Blase Scarnati and Paula Garcia describe the redesign of a junior-level music history course guided by learner-centered principles and driven by a fusion of stimulating technology-based learning tools and…

  4. Critical soft landing technology issues for future US space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, J. M.; Johnson, D. W.; Mcbride, D. D.

    1992-01-01

    A programmatic need for research and development to support parachute-based landing systems has not existed since the end of the Apollo missions in the mid-1970s. Now, a number of planned space programs require advanced landing capabilities for which the experience and technology base does not currently exist. New requirements for landing on land with controllable, gliding decelerators and for more effective impact attenuation devices justify a renewal of the landing technology development effort that existed during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. A study was performed to evaluate the current and projected national capability in landing systems and to identify critical deficiencies in the technology base required to support the Assured Crew Return Vehicle and the Two-Way Manned Transportation System. A technology development program covering eight landing system performance issues is recommended.

  5. Development of DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Alexeev, P. N.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-07-01

    The history of fusion-fission hybrid systems based on a tokamak device as an extremely efficient DT-fusion neutron source has passed through several periods of ample research activity in the world since the very beginning of fusion research in the 1950s. Recently, a new roadmap of the hybrid program has been proposed with the goal to build a pilot hybrid plant (PHP) in Russia by 2030. Development of the DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies, which is planned to be built by 2023, is the key milestone on the path to the PHP. This facility is in the phase of conceptual design aimed at providing feasibility studies for a full set of steady state tokamak technologies at a fusion energy gain factor Q ˜ 1, fusion power of ˜40 MW and opportunities for testing a wide range of hybrid technologies with the emphasis on continuous nuclide processing in molten salts. This paper describes the project motivations, its current status and the key issues of the design.

  6. Multisensor data fusion technologies in counterchecking disturbed targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ju; Wu, Si-Liang

    2003-04-01

    The technique of data fusion is a new kind of data processing technique and has broad appliance foreground. Appearance of stealthy and disturbed targets in modern battlefield leads to data extraction and fusion by networking various sensors to maximize use of information to perform recognition, orientation and tracking of targets. As we known well, radar only acquire angle information without range information when encounter noise suppress jammer. Netted radars could get position information of interference by make use of radars position relatively and target angle information. Yet if there is more than one target, the orientation of targets could error due to orientation confuse. The paper present methods that through association arithmetic of kalman filter to avoid confuse.

  7. Transferring the Soft-Skills Technology of Workplace Learning and Performance to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jenny; Rothwell, William J.; Webster, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses international business and workplace learning and performance (WLP), and describes a long-term strategic alliance between Motorola University China, Penn State University, Beijing University, and Nankai University. Highlights include a needs assessment of multinational corporations in China; transferring the soft-skills technology of WLP…

  8. Synthesizing Soft Systems Methodology and Human Performance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Glen; Winiecki, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Human performance technology (HPT), like other concepts, models, and frameworks that we use to describe the world in which we live and the way we organize ourselves to accomplish valuable activities, is built from paradigms that were fresh and relevant at the time it was conceived and from the fields of study from which it grew. However, when the…

  9. Softly, Softly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    The term "soft skills" encompasses a cluster of personality traits, language abilities, personal habits and, ultimately, values and attitudes. Soft skills complement "harder", more technical, skills, such as being able to read or type a letter, but they also have a significant impact on the ability of people to do their jobs…

  10. Research into multispectral TDI-CCD imaging and fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Da; Zhou, Jianyong; Liu, Changlin; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-11-01

    A scanning imaging system based on 6144×96 multi-band five-color TDI-CCD was built, which is featuring Real-time imaging capability with high sensitivity and high dynamic range in multi-spectral bands for the same target. In this paper, the respective pixel topology for five TDI-CCD was obtained on the basis of their spatial relationship in five bands. Finally, high resolution gray-scale image and color image reconstruction for the scenic target were achieved by multi-Spectral fusion algorithm.

  11. Phase 1 report on sensor technology, data fusion and data interpretation for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, M.

    1991-10-01

    In this report we discuss sensor technology, data fusion and data interpretation approaches of possible maximal usefulness for subsurface imaging and characterization of land-fill waste sites. Two sensor technologies, terrain conductivity using electromagnetic induction and ground penetrating radar, are described and the literature on the subject is reviewed. We identify the maximum entropy stochastic method as one providing a rigorously justifiable framework for fusing the sensor data, briefly summarize work done by us in this area, and examine some of the outstanding issues with regard to data fusion and interpretation. 25 refs., 17 figs.

  12. Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos.

  13. Underwater object detection technology based on polarization image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongguo; Wang, Shiming

    2010-10-01

    The performance of the traditional underwater optical imaging systems is ultimately limited by the absorption and scattering properties of the water substance. Polarimetric imaging can be used to remove degradation effects, and can be applied to high-level vision tasks, such as object classification and recognition and camouflage identification, etc. The method of improving contrast was presented by polarization imaging. The polarization images when the angle of polarization are 0°, 45°, 90° and 135°, the gray levels of the images are calculated by program. There are much complementary and redundancy information among the polarization images. According to the character of parameter I of stokes vector, degree of linear polarization (DoLP) and the angle of polarization (AoP), A RGB false color based polarimetric images fusion are given to enhance the contrast.

  14. Paediatric and adult soft tissue sarcomas with NTRK1 gene fusions: a subset of spindle cell sarcomas unified by a prominent myopericytic/haemangiopericytic pattern.

    PubMed

    Haller, Florian; Knopf, Jasmin; Ackermann, Anne; Bieg, Matthias; Kleinheinz, Kortine; Schlesner, Matthias; Moskalev, Evgeny A; Will, Rainer; Satir, Ali Abdel; Abdelmagid, Ibtihalat E; Giedl, Johannes; Carbon, Roman; Rompel, Oliver; Hartmann, Arndt; Wiemann, Stefan; Metzler, Markus; Agaimy, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Neoplasms with a myopericytomatous pattern represent a morphological spectrum of lesions encompassing myopericytoma of the skin and soft tissue, angioleiomyoma, myofibromatosis/infantile haemangiopericytoma and putative neoplasms reported as malignant myopericytoma. Lack of reproducible phenotypic and genetic features of malignant myopericytic neoplasms have prevented the establishment of myopericytic sarcoma as an acceptable diagnostic category. Following detection of a LMNA-NTRK1 gene fusion in an index case of paediatric haemangiopericytoma-like sarcoma by combined whole-genome and RNA sequencing, we identified three additional sarcomas harbouring NTRK1 gene fusions, termed 'spindle cell sarcoma, NOS with myo/haemangiopericytic growth pattern'. The patients were two children aged 11 months and 2 years and two adults aged 51 and 80 years. While the tumours of the adults were strikingly myopericytoma-like, but with clear-cut atypical features, the paediatric cases were more akin to infantile myofibromatosis/haemangiopericytoma. All cases contained numerous thick-walled dysplastic-like vessels with segmental or diffuse nodular myxohyaline myo-intimal proliferations of smooth muscle actin-positive cells, occasionally associated with thrombosis. Immunohistochemistry showed variable expression of smooth muscle actin and CD34, but other mesenchymal markers, including STAT6, were negative. This study showed a novel variant of myo/haemangiopericytic sarcoma with recurrent NTRK1 gene fusions. Given the recent introduction of a novel therapeutic approach targeting NTRK fusion-positive neoplasms, recognition of this rare but likely under-reported sarcoma variant is strongly encouraged.

  15. Media analysis of the representations of fusion and other future energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Delicado, Ana; Schmidt, Luisa; Pereira, Sergio; Oltra, Christian; Prades, Ana

    2015-07-01

    Media representations of energy have a relevant impact on public opinion and public support for investment in new energy sources. Fusion energy is one among several emerging energy technologies that requires a strong public investment on its research and development. This paper aims to characterise and compare the media representations of fusion and other emerging energy technologies in Portugal and in Spain. The emerging energy technologies selected for analysis are wave and tidal power, hydrogen, deep sea offshore wind power, energy applications of nanotechnology, bio-fuels from microalgae and IV generation nuclear fission. This work covered the news published in a selection of newspapers in Portugal and Spain between January 2007 and June 2013. (authors)

  16. Technology of ICH systems for advanced fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, D.W.; Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Owens, T.L.; Tsai, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Work has been done at ORNL to improve existing ICRH technology for machines such as the Tore Supra. Improvements have been made in three components of the ICRH system: the antenna, Faraday shield, and rf vacuum feedthrough. Improvements in power handling capabilities and/or efficiency of a factor of 2-4 have been observed. The resulting overall improvement for the system is then 4-16. (WRF)

  17. Impact of physics and technology innovations on compact tokamak fusion pilot plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    For magnetic fusion to be economically attractive and have near-term impact on the world energy scene it is important to focus on key physics and technology innovations that could enable net electricity production at reduced size and cost. The tokamak is presently closest to achieving the fusion conditions necessary for net electricity at acceptable device size, although sustaining high-performance scenarios free of disruptions remains a significant challenge for the tokamak approach. Previous pilot plant studies have shown that electricity gain is proportional to the product of the fusion gain, blanket thermal conversion efficiency, and auxiliary heating wall-plug efficiency. In this work, the impact of several innovations is assessed with respect to maximizing fusion gain. At fixed bootstrap current fraction, fusion gain varies approximately as the square of the confinement multiplier, normalized beta, and major radius, and varies as the toroidal field and elongation both to the third power. For example, REBCO high-temperature superconductors (HTS) offer the potential to operate at much higher toroidal field than present fusion magnets, but HTS cables are also beginning to access winding pack current densities up to an order of magnitude higher than present technology, and smaller HTS TF magnet sizes make low-aspect-ratio HTS tokamaks potentially attractive by leveraging naturally higher normalized beta and elongation. Further, advances in kinetic stabilization and feedback control of resistive wall modes could also enable significant increases in normalized beta and fusion gain. Significant reductions in pilot plant size will also likely require increased plasma energy confinement, and control of turbulence and/or low edge recycling (for example using lithium walls) would have major impact on fusion gain. Reduced device size could also exacerbate divertor heat loads, and the impact of novel divertor solutions on pilot plant configurations is addressed. For

  18. Inertial fusion technology spin-offs-history provides a glimpse of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H

    2000-03-07

    The development and demonstration of inertial fusion is incredibly challenging because it requires simultaneously controlling and precisely measuring parameters at extreme values in energy, space, and time. The challenges range from building megajoule (106 J) drivers that perform with percent-level precision to fabricating targets with submicron specifications to measuring target performance at micron scale (10-6 m) with picosecond (10-12s) time resolution. Over the past 30 years in attempting to meet this challenge, the inertial fusion community around the world has invented new technologies in lasers, particle beams, pulse power drivers, diagnostics, target fabrication, and other areas. These technologies have found applications in diverse fields of industry and science. Moreover, simply assembling the teams with the background, experience, and personal drive to meet the challenging requirements of inertial fusion has led to spin-offs in unexpected directions, for example, in laser isotope separation, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for microelectronics, compact and inexpensive radars, advanced laser materials processing, and medical technology. It is noteworthy that more than 40 R&D 100 awards, the ''Oscars of applied research'' have been received by members of the inertial fusion community over this period. Not surprisingly, the inertial fusion community has created many new companies based on these advances. The experience of inertial fusion research and development of spinning off technologies has not been unique to any one laboratory or country but has been similar in main research centers in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The capabilities of inertial fusion research have also been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of scientific research. Examples include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of

  19. Technological issues of ion cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, D.Q.; Fortgang, C.M.

    1985-07-01

    With the recent promising results of plasma heating using electromagnetic waves (EM waves) in the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak the feasibility of employing ICRF heating to a reactor-like magnetic confinement device is increasing. The high power ICRF experiments funded on JET (Joint European Torus in England) and JT-60 (in Japan) will have rf source power in the range of 10-30 MW. The time scale for the duration of the RF pulse will range from seconds up to steady-state. The development of new RF components that can transmit and launch such high power, long pulse length, EM waves in a plasma environment is a major technological task. In general, the technology issues may be divided into two categories. The first category concerns the region where the plasma comes in contact with the wave launchers. The problems here are dominated by plasmamaterial interaction, heat deposition by the plasma onto the wave launcher, and erosion of the launcher material. It is necessary to minimize the heat deposition from the plasma, the losses of the RF wave energy in the structure, and to prevent sputtering of the antenna components. A solution involves a combined design using special materials and optimal shaping of the Faraday shield (the electrostatic shields which can be used both for an EM wave polarization adjustment and as a particle shield for the launcher). Recent studies by PPPL and McDonnell Douglas Corp. on the Faraday shield designs will be discussed. The second important area where technology development will be necessary is the transmission of high power RF waves through a gas/vacuum interface region. In the past, the vacuum feedthrough has been the bottle neck which prevented high power operation of the PLT antenna.

  20. Specific glass fiber technologies: lensing and laser fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Lang, Guenter; Krissler, Jan; Schroeder, Henning; Scheel, Wolfgang

    2004-04-01

    Besides the common fiber technologies like splicing, polishing and coating there is a demand for specific methods for advanced packaging solutions in the field of telecom and medical applications. We present here three of such methods for lensing glass fibers that can be used to increase optical performance and reliability as well as to reduce the packaging efforts. These technologies are very useful for micro optical assembly, i.e. fiber connectors for high power applications, collimators and telecom transceivers and endoscope imaging or sensor systems. At the Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration Berlin special photonic packaging solutions are developed. Optical interconnects have been obtained a great importance for optical data transfer. Optical fibers are necessary for disturbance free communication of high data rates via long distances. Optical system components perform generation, distribution, transformation, amplifying and processing of optical signals. That's why optical systems are a assembly of different kinds of functional basic elements such as optical fibers, splitters, switches, modulators, transmitters and detectors. Furthermore, industrial applications need a reliable and cost effective coupling of optical fibers to those systems.

  1. Fusion materials science and technology research opportunities now and during the ITER era

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Zinkle; J.P. Planchard; R.W. Callis; C.E. Kessel; P.J. Lee; K.A. McCarty; Various Others

    2014-10-01

    Several high-priority near-term potential research activities to address fusion nuclear science challenges are summarized. General recommendations include: (1) Research should be preferentially focused on the most technologically advanced options (i.e., options that have been developed at least through the singleeffects concept exploration stage, technology readiness levels >3), (2) Significant near-term progress can be achieved by modifying existing facilities and/or moderate investment in new medium-scale facilities, and (3) Computational modeling for fusion nuclear sciences is generally not yet sufficiently robust to enable truly predictive results to be obtained, but large reductions in risk, cost and schedule can be achieved by careful integration of experiment and modeling.

  2. Physics Guidelines and Technological Solutions for Meaningful Fusion Burning Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celentano, G.; Coppi, B.; Cucchiaro, A.

    2001-10-01

    The design of the Ignitor machine incorporates a series of solutions that allows it to produce plasma currents up to 11 MA with an adequate safety factor in a compact confinement configuration. The consequent record high poloidal magnetic pressures p_Mp=\\overline\\overlineB^2_p/(2μ_0) makes it possible to achieve ignition at low temperatures and to have a number of contained thermal particle orbits not inferior to that of much larger devices such as ITER-FEAT. In fact, the key parameter of merit for comparison among different machines(J.H. Schultz et al.,Advanced magnets and implications for BPX), BPS Workshop II (G.A. San Siego, CA, 2001) has been recognized to be of the type I_pAq_ψ/R_0, where Ip is the plasma current, A the aspect ratio, R0 the major radius and q_ψ the plasma safety factor. The combined technological solutions are the ''bucking and wedging" concept of the toroidal magnet, the adoption of compression rings, of a (horizontal) magnetic press, the He-subcooling of the (copper) coils and the splitting and grading of the central solenoid. Work sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the US Department of Energy.

  3. Fusion development and technology. Technical progress report, October 15, 1990--October 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R&D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  4. The lucky image-motion prediction for simple scene observation based soft-sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Su, Yun; Hu, Bin

    2015-08-01

    High resolution is important to earth remote sensors, while the vibration of the platforms of the remote sensors is a major factor restricting high resolution imaging. The image-motion prediction and real-time compensation are key technologies to solve this problem. For the reason that the traditional autocorrelation image algorithm cannot meet the demand for the simple scene image stabilization, this paper proposes to utilize soft-sensor technology in image-motion prediction, and focus on the research of algorithm optimization in imaging image-motion prediction. Simulations results indicate that the improving lucky image-motion stabilization algorithm combining the Back Propagation Network (BP NN) and support vector machine (SVM) is the most suitable for the simple scene image stabilization. The relative error of the image-motion prediction based the soft-sensor technology is below 5%, the training computing speed of the mathematical predication model is as fast as the real-time image stabilization in aerial photography.

  5. The Fukushima nuclear disaster and its effects on media framing of fission and fusion energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Luisa; Horta, Ana; Pereira, Sergio; Delicado, Ana

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents results of a comparison of media coverage of fusion and fission energy technologies in three countries (Germany, Spain and Portugal) and in the English language international print media addressing transnational elite, from 2008 to 2012. The analysis showed that the accident in Fukushima in March 2010 did not have significant impact on media framing of nuclear fusion in the major part of print media under investigation. In fact, fusion is clearly dissociated from traditional nuclear (fission) energy and from nuclear accidents. It tends to be portrayed as a safe, clean and unlimited source of energy, although less credited when confronted with research costs, technological feasibility and the possibility to be achieved in a reasonable period of time. On the contrary, fission is portrayed as a hazardous source of energy, expensive when compared to research costs of renewables, hardly a long-term energy option, susceptible to contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or rogue military use. Fukushima accident was consistently discussed in the context of safety problems of nuclear power plants and in many cases appeared not as an isolated event but rather as a reminder of previous nuclear disasters such as Three Miles Island and Chernobyl. (authors)

  6. The curious ability of PEG-fusion technologies to restore lost behaviors after nerve severance

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, G.D.; Sengelaub, D.R.; Trevino, R.C.; Peduzzi, J.D.; Mikesh, M.; Ghergherehchi, C.L.; Schallert, T.; Thayer, W.P.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to PNS and CNS axons are not uncommon. Restoration of lost behaviors following severance of mammalian peripheral nerve axons (PNAs) relies on regeneration by slow outgrowths and is typically poor or nonexistent if after ablation or injuries close to the soma. Behavioral recovery after severing spinal tract axons (STAs) is poor because STAs do not naturally regenerate. Current techniques to enhance PNA and/or STA regeneration have had limited success and do not prevent the onset of Wallerian degeneration of severed distal segments. This review describes the use of a recently-developed polyethylene glycol (PEG)-fusion technology combining concepts in biochemical engineering, cell biology and clinical microsurgery. Within minutes after micro-suturing carefully-trimmed cut ends and applying a well-specified sequence of solutions, PEG-fused axons exhibit morphological continuity (assessed by intra-axonal dye diffusion) and electrophysiological continuity (assessed by conduction of action potentials) across the lesion site. Wallerian degeneration of PEG-fused PNAs is greatly reduced as measured by counts of sensory and/or motor axons, and maintenance of axonal diameters and neuromuscular synapses. After PEG-fusion repair, cut- or crush-severed or ablated PNAs or crush-severed STAs rapidly (within days to weeks), more completely, and permanently restore PNA- or STA-mediated behaviors compared to non-treated or conventionally-treated animals. PEG-fusion success is enhanced or decreased by applying anti-oxidants or oxidants, trimming cut ends or stretching axons, exposure to Ca2+-free or - containing solutions, respectively. PEG-fusion technology employs surgical techniques and chemicals already used by clinicians and has the potential to produce a paradigm-shift in the treatment of traumatic injuries to PNAs and STAs. PMID:26525605

  7. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology program: Soft wear ring seal technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lariviere, Brian W.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility tests, including autogenous ignition, promoted ignition, LOX impact tests, and friction and wear tests on different PV products were conducted for several polymer materials as verification for the implementation of soft wear ring seals in advanced rocket engine turbopumps. Thermoplastics, polyimide based materials, and polyimide-imide base materials were compared for oxygen compatibility, specific wear coefficient, wear debris production, and heat dissipation mechanisms. A thermal model was generated that simulated the frictional heating input and calculated the surface temperature and temperature distribution within the seal. The predictions were compared against measured values. Heat loads in the model were varied to better match the test data and determine the difference between the measured and the calculated coefficients of friction.

  8. Novel neutralized-beam intense neutron source for fusion technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Osher, J.E.; Perkins, L.J.

    1983-07-08

    We describe a neutralized-beam intense neutron source (NBINS) as a relevant application of fusion technology for the type of high-current ion sources and neutral beamlines now being developed for heating and fueling of magnetic-fusion-energy confinement systems. This near-term application would support parallel development of highly reliable steady-state higher-voltage neutral D/sup 0/ and T/sup 0/ beams and provide a relatively inexpensive source of fusion neutrons for materials testing at up to reactor-like wall conditions. Beam-target examples described incude a 50-A mixed D-T total (ions plus neutrals) space-charge-neutralized beam at 120 keV incident on a liquid Li drive-in target, or a 50-A T/sup 0/ + T/sup +/ space-charge-neutralized beam incident on either a LiD or gas D/sub 2/ target with calculated 14-MeV neutron yields of 2 x 10/sup 15//s, 7 x 10/sup 15//s, or 1.6 x 10/sup 16//s, respectively. The severe local heat loading on the target surface is expected to limit the allowed beam focus and minimum target size to greater than or equal to 25 cm/sup 2/.

  9. An ST-VNS approach for fusion technology development and demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, E.T.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Sze, D. K.; Berk, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    A fusion technology development and demonstration concept is conceived using a plasma based volumetric neutron source capable of providing a range of fusion power and wall loading levels during testing, developing, and demonstration stages of operation. The high performance anticipated for the spherical torus (ST) plasma permits large physics margins for the initial neutron wall loading of 0.5 MW/m(2), while still allowing a long-term power reactor relevant physics performance goal of 5 MW/m(2) with reduced margins. An ST-VNS takes advantage of low magnetic field and compact plasma to implement full remote replacement of the center leg of the toroidal field coil, the divertor, the first wall, the shield, and the test blanket modules. At the initial stage of operation, only modest neutron wall loading (0.5 MW/m(2)) would be attempted. Success in achieving reliable operations at 2 MW/m(2) in wall loading at a later stage would fulfill the goals of the VNS; success at 5 MW/m(2) would permit component testing for the demonstration power plants. This approach of ST-VNS provides a realistic opportunity for the ultimate demonstration of safe, reliable, and environmentally attractive fusion systems.

  10. Conceptual capital-cost estimate and facility design of the Mirror-Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    This report contains contributions by Bechtel Group, Inc. to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the final report on the conceptual design of the Mirror Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF). Included in this report are the following contributions: (1) conceptual capital cost estimate, (2) structural design, and (3) plot plan and plant arrangement drawings. The conceptual capital cost estimate is prepared in a format suitable for inclusion as a section in the TDF final report. The structural design and drawings are prepared as partial inputs to the TDF final report section on facilities design, which is being prepared by the FEDC.

  11. Test technology on divergence angle of laser range finder based on CCD imaging fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Sheng-bing; Chen, Zhen-xing; Lv, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Laser range finder has been equipped with all kinds of weapons, such as tank, ship, plane and so on, is important component of fire control system. Divergence angle is important performance and incarnation of horizontal resolving power for laser range finder, is necessary appraised test item in appraisal test. In this paper, based on high accuracy test on divergence angle of laser range finder, divergence angle test system is designed based on CCD imaging, divergence angle of laser range finder is acquired through fusion technology for different attenuation imaging, problem that CCD characteristic influences divergence angle test is solved.

  12. Use of Soft Computing Technologies for a Qualitative and Reliable Engine Control System for Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis; Brown, Terry; Crumbley, R. T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to improve overall vehicle system safety, reliability, and rocket engine performance by development of a qualitative and reliable engine control system (QRECS). Specifically, this will be addressed by enhancing rocket engine control using SCT, innovative data mining tools, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall's Flight Software Group (FSG). The principle goals for addressing the issue of quality are to improve software management, software development time, software maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering, all relative to addressing the issue of reliability. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion (system level), software engineering for embedded flight software systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, data mining, and Bayesian belief networks); some of which are briefed in this paper. For this effort, the targeted demonstration rocket engine testbed is the MC-1 engine (formerly FASTRAC) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed (MAST) laboratory that currently resides at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, building 4476, and is managed by the Avionics Department. A brief plan of action for design, development, implementation, and testing a Phase One effort for QRECS is given, along with expected results. Phase One will focus on development of a Smart Start Engine Module and a Mainstage Engine Module for proper engine start and mainstage engine operations. The overall intent is to demonstrate that by

  13. Application of Multimodality Imaging Fusion Technology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors under the Precision Medicine Plan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yi; Chen, Xian-Xia; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The arrival of precision medicine plan brings new opportunities and challenges for patients undergoing precision diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of medical imaging, information on different modality imaging can be integrated and comprehensively analyzed by imaging fusion system. This review aimed to update the application of multimodality imaging fusion technology in the precise diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors under the precision medicine plan. We introduced several multimodality imaging fusion technologies and their application to the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors in clinical practice. Date Sources: The data cited in this review were obtained mainly from the PubMed database from 1996 to 2016, using the keywords of “precision medicine”, “fusion imaging”, “multimodality”, and “tumor diagnosis and treatment”. Study Selection: Original articles, clinical practice, reviews, and other relevant literatures published in English were reviewed. Papers focusing on precision medicine, fusion imaging, multimodality, and tumor diagnosis and treatment were selected. Duplicated papers were excluded. Results: Multimodality imaging fusion technology plays an important role in tumor diagnosis and treatment under the precision medicine plan, such as accurate location, qualitative diagnosis, tumor staging, treatment plan design, and real-time intraoperative monitoring. Multimodality imaging fusion systems could provide more imaging information of tumors from different dimensions and angles, thereby offing strong technical support for the implementation of precision oncology. Conclusion: Under the precision medicine plan, personalized treatment of tumors is a distinct possibility. We believe that multimodality imaging fusion technology will find an increasingly wide application in clinical practice. PMID:27958232

  14. Review of Fusion Systems and Contributing Technologies for SIHS-TD (Examen des Systemes de Fusion et des Technologies d’Appui pour la DT SIHS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-31

    de la DT - SIHS. L’équipe des sous-systèmes de vision de la DT - SIHS planifie le développement à court terme d’un banc d’essai de fusion...references, the researcher systematically added additional keywords to refine the search. In general, this process produced many irrelevant references...development. State of the art fusion processing system architectures are described. The report analyses selected fusion systems based on their ability to

  15. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  16. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  17. N(pro) fusion technology: On-column complementation to improve efficiency in biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Schindler, S; Missbichler, B; Walther, C; Sponring, M; Cserjan-Puschmann, M; Auer, B; Schneider, R; Dürauer, A

    2016-04-01

    N(pro) fusion technology, a highly efficient system for overexpression of proteins and peptides in Escherichia coli, was further developed by splitting the autoprotease N(pro) into two fragments to generate a functional complementation system. The size of the expression tag is thus reduced from 168 to 58 amino acids, so by 66%. Upon complementation of the fragments auto-proteolytic activity is restored. This process has been shown for three model proteins of different size, a short 16 aa-peptide, MCP-1, and lysozyme. Moreover, the complementation was still functional after immobilization of the N-terminal fragment to a solid support which enables recycling of the immobilized fragment. This strategy enhances overall productivity of N(pro) Fusion Technology and thus allows more efficient production of recombinant proteins with reduced costs and in higher yields. Overall, the N(pro) complementation system has, depending on the size of the target molecule, potential to increase the productivity up to 4 fold for batch refolding and even more for on-column refolding strategies by the proven possibility of regeneration of the immobilized fragment.

  18. The cluster charge identification in the GEM detector for fusion plasma imaging by soft X-ray diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarski, T.; Chernyshova, M.; Malinowski, K.; Pozniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kolasinski, P.; Krawczyk, R.; Wojenski, A.; Zabolotny, W.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement system based on gas electron multiplier detector is developed for soft X-ray diagnostics of tokamak plasmas. The multi-channel setup is designed for estimation of the energy and the position distribution of an X-ray source. The focal measuring issue is the charge cluster identification by its value and position estimation. The fast and accurate mode of the serial data acquisition is applied for the dynamic plasma diagnostics. The charge clusters are counted in the space determined by 2D position, charge value, and time intervals. Radiation source characteristics are presented by histograms for a selected range of position, time intervals, and cluster charge values corresponding to the energy spectra.

  19. Nanomembranes and soft fabrication methods for high performance, low cost energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-09-01

    The production of integrated electronic circuits provides examples of the most advanced fabrication and assembly approaches that are generally characterized by large-scale integration of high-performance compact semiconductor elements that rely on rigid and essentially planar form factors. New methods of fabricating semiconductor membranes of nanoscale thickness with intrinsic mechanical flexible features are beginning to provide a set of means to lift these constraints by engendering deformable, three-dimensional device configurations that are difficult to achieve with bulkscale materials while retaining capacities for high (or altogether new forms of) electronic and/or optoelectronic performance. Together with enabling means of deterministic assembly realized via the advancing technology of transferprinting, these light-weight nanomembrane elements can be distributed over large areas on a soft, bendable, and even biocompatible secondary substrates with high throughput and yields to realize interesting new functionalities in technology. Exemplary cases include: large-area integrated electro-optical systems laminated onto curvilinear or other 3-D surfaces for use in sensing and imaging with capacities for accommodating demanding forms of mechanical flexure; and unconventional hybrid systems for lighting and photovoltaic energy conversion that provide a potentially transformational approach to supplant current technologies with high performance, low cost alternatives. Taken together, the results of recent research efforts illustrate important opportunities for exploiting advances in materials in synergy with physical means of patterning, fabrication and assembly. In this review, we explore several exemplary applications taken from this work, and specifically highlight scalable approaches to high performance integrated systems for low cost energy technologies.

  20. Analysis and correction of defects within parts fabricated using powder bed fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Morton, Philip A.; Hinojos, Alejandro; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2015-09-01

    Quality assurance is an important topic for additive manufacturing (AM) and often seen as a requirement for the transition and adoption of the technology toward fabrication of end use applications. As AM technologies are used for production, it is necessary to ensure high quality, repeatable, and reproducible components are manufactured. Various nondestructive examination techniques have been used to evaluate AM-fabricated parts to determine part quality post-fabrication (e.g. scanning and/or microstructural characterization). In situ monitoring methods have been developed for AM technologies to enable defect detection and have potential to be used for in situ monitoring and correction of fabrication anomalies (e.g. undesired temperature gradients and porosity). In this research, defects (e.g. pores) were seeded into parts fabricated using the powder bed fusion AM process, electron beam melting, and monitored using in situ infrared (IR) thermography. Results from layerwise thermography were compared with results obtained using computer tomography (CT) scanning techniques. Although the measured geometry of the seeded defects between IR thermography and CT was substantially different (area difference of ∼60%), the thermographs did provide a good indication of defects present within a fabricated part. Furthermore, defect correction methods were evaluated including post-processing methods such as hot isostatic pressing as well as in situ correction methods such as layer re-melting. Re-melting a porous layer successfully corrected defects and demonstrates a potential method for in situ defect correction if implemented in future systems equipped with automatic feedback control of powder bed fusion processes.

  1. Site-specific modification of ED-B-targeting antibody using intein-fusion technology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A promising new approach in cancer therapy is the use of tumor specific antibodies coupled to cytotoxic agents. Currently these immunoconjugates are prepared by rather unspecific coupling chemistries, resulting in heterogeneous products. As the drug load is a key parameter for the antitumor activity, site-specific strategies are desired. Expressed protein ligation (EPL) and protein trans-splicing (PTS) are methods for the specific C-terminal modification of a target protein. Both include the expression as an intein fusion protein, followed by the exchange of the intein for a functionalized moiety. Results A full-length IgG specific for fibronectin ED-B was expressed as fusion protein with an intein (Mxe GyrA or Npu DnaE) attached to each heavy chain. In vitro protocols were established to site-specifically modify the antibodies in high yields by EPL or PTS, respectively. Although reducing conditions had to be employed during the process, the integrity or affinity of the antibody was not affected. The protocols were used to prepare immunoconjugates containing two biotin molecules per antibody, attached to the C-termini of the heavy chains. Conclusion Full-length antibodies can be efficiently and site-specifically modified at the C-termini of their heavy chains by intein-fusion technologies. The described protocols can be used to prepare immunoconjugates of high homogeneity and with a defined drug load of two. The attachment to the C-termini is expected to retain the affinity and effector functions of the antibodies. PMID:21777442

  2. Open-Loop Flight Testing of COBALT GN&C Technologies for Precise Soft Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Seubert, Carl R.; Restrepo, Carolina I.

    2017-01-01

    A terrestrial, open-loop (OL) flight test campaign of the NASA COBALT (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) platform was conducted onboard the Masten Xodiac suborbital rocket testbed, with support through the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES), Game Changing Development (GCD), and Flight Opportunities (FO) Programs. The COBALT platform integrates NASA Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) sensing technologies for autonomous, precise soft landing, including the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) velocity and range sensor and the Lander Vision System (LVS) Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) system. A specialized navigation filter running onboard COBALT fuzes the NDL and LVS data in real time to produce a precise navigation solution that is independent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and suitable for future, autonomous planetary landing systems. The OL campaign tested COBALT as a passive payload, with COBALT data collection and filter execution, but with the Xodiac vehicle Guidance and Control (G&C) loops closed on a Masten GPS-based navigation solution. The OL test was performed as a risk reduction activity in preparation for an upcoming 2017 closed-loop (CL) flight campaign in which Xodiac G&C will act on the COBALT navigation solution and the GPS-based navigation will serve only as a backup monitor.

  3. Application of data fusion techniques and technologies for wearable health monitoring.

    PubMed

    King, Rachel C; Villeneuve, Emma; White, Ruth J; Sherratt, R Simon; Holderbaum, William; Harwin, William S

    2017-04-01

    Technological advances in sensors and communications have enabled discrete integration into everyday objects, both in the home and about the person. Information gathered by monitoring physiological, behavioural, and social aspects of our lives, can be used to achieve a positive impact on quality of life, health, and well-being. Wearable sensors are at the cusp of becoming truly pervasive, and could be woven into the clothes and accessories that we wear such that they become ubiquitous and transparent. To interpret the complex multidimensional information provided by these sensors, data fusion techniques are employed to provide a meaningful representation of the sensor outputs. This paper is intended to provide a short overview of data fusion techniques and algorithms that can be used to interpret wearable sensor data in the context of health monitoring applications. The application of these techniques are then described in the context of healthcare including activity and ambulatory monitoring, gait analysis, fall detection, and biometric monitoring. A snap-shot of current commercially available sensors is also provided, focusing on their sensing capability, and a commentary on the gaps that need to be bridged to bring research to market.

  4. Fusion of cone-beam CT and 3D photographic images for soft tissue simulation in maxillofacial surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Soyoung; Kim, Joojin; Hong, Helen

    2016-03-01

    During maxillofacial surgery, prediction of the facial outcome after surgery is main concern for both surgeons and patients. However, registration of the facial CBCT images and 3D photographic images has some difficulties that regions around the eyes and mouth are affected by facial expressions or the registration speed is low due to their dense clouds of points on surfaces. Therefore, we propose a framework for the fusion of facial CBCT images and 3D photos with skin segmentation and two-stage surface registration. Our method is composed of three major steps. First, to obtain a CBCT skin surface for the registration with 3D photographic surface, skin is automatically segmented from CBCT images and the skin surface is generated by surface modeling. Second, to roughly align the scale and the orientation of the CBCT skin surface and 3D photographic surface, point-based registration with four corresponding landmarks which are located around the mouth is performed. Finally, to merge the CBCT skin surface and 3D photographic surface, Gaussian-weight-based surface registration is performed within narrow-band of 3D photographic surface.

  5. Absolute spectral characterization of silicon barrier diode: Application to soft X-ray fusion diagnostics at Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezinet, D.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental protocol for absolute calibration of photo-detectors. Spectral characterization is achieved by a methodology that unlike the usual line emissions-based method, hinges on the Bremsstrahlung radiation of a Soft X-Ray (SXR) tube only. Although the proposed methodology can be applied virtually to any detector, the application presented in this paper is based on Tore Supra's SXR diagnostics, which uses Silicon Surface Barrier Diodes. The spectral response of these n-p junctions had previously been estimated on a purely empirical basis. This time, a series of second-order effects, like the spatial distribution of the source radiated power or multi-channel analyser non linearity, are taken into account to achieve accurate measurements. Consequently, a parameterised physical model is fitted to experimental results and the existence of an unexpected dead layer (at least 5 μm thick) is evidenced. This contribution also echoes a more general on-going effort in favour of long-term quality of passive radiation measurements on Tokamaks.

  6. Design the developed bus parking area management solution based on fusion technology of things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ying-long

    2013-07-01

    Taking advantage of the fusion technology of things this paper constructed a combination of hardware and software application, hardware's major function was to collect the bus behavior data of system needed, including basic data of driver and fare bag stored in moving passive RFID tag, and the information of running status of bus on each stage perceived by all kinds of sensors in the parking area. The information which was handled by the middleware was sent to data center. The program solved the problem on the monitoring of the behavior of the bus in the parking area, meanwhile, achieved the data sharing, so as to tackle the defects of the traditional bus parking area management system's non-automated data collection, non-real-time data presenting and poor data sharing.

  7. Data Fusion Based on Optical Technology for Observation of Human Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Pietro; De Maria, Giuseppe; Natale, Ciro; Pirozzi, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of human observation is becoming more and more frequent within imitation learning and programming by demonstration approaches (PbD) to robot programming. For robotic systems equipped with anthropomorphic hands, the observation phase is very challenging and no ultimate solution exists. This work proposes a novel mechatronic approach to the observation of human hand motion during manipulation tasks. The strategy is based on the combined use of an optical motion capture system and a low-cost data glove equipped with novel joint angle sensors, based on optoelectronic technology. The combination of the two information sources is obtained through a sensor fusion algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) suitably modified to tackle the problem of marker occlusions, typical of optical motion capture systems. This approach requires a kinematic model of the human hand. Another key contribution of this work is a new method to calibrate this model.

  8. Laser plasma sources of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) for application in science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemysław; Jarocki, Roman; Kostecki, Jerzy; Szczurek, Mirosław; Adjei, Daniel; Ahad, Inam Ul; Ayele, Mesfin G.; Fok, Tomasz; Szczurek, Anna; Torrisi, Alfio; Wegrzyński, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2015-05-01

    Laser plasma sources of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) developed in our laboratory for application in various areas of technology and science are presented. The sources are based on a laser-irradiated gas puff target approach. The targets formed by pulsed injection of gas under high-pressure are irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses from Nd:YAG lasers. We use commercial lasers generating pulses with time duration from 1ns to 10ns and energies from 0.5J to 10J at 10Hz repetition rate. The gas puff targets are produced using a double valve system equipped with a special nozzle to form a double-stream gas puff target which secures high conversion efficiency without degradation of the nozzle. The use of a gas puff target instead of a solid target makes generation of laser plasmas emitting soft x-rays and EUV possible without target debris production. The sources are equipped with various optical systems, including grazing incidence axisymmetric ellipsoidal mirrors, a "lobster eye" type grazing incidence multi-foil mirror, and an ellipsoidal mirror with Mo/Si multilayer coating, to collect soft x-ray and EUV radiation and form the radiation beams. In this paper new applications of these sources in various fields, including soft x-ray and EUV imaging in nanoscale, EUV radiography and tomography, EUV materials processing and modification of polymer surfaces, EUV photoionization of gases, radiobiology and soft x-ray contact microscopy are reviewed.

  9. Proceedings of the third symposium on the physics and technology of compact toroids in the magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, R.E.

    1981-03-01

    This document contains papers contributed by the participants of the Third Symposium on Physics and Technology of Compact Toroids in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Subjects include reactor aspects of compact toroids, energetic particle rings, spheromak configurations (a mixture of toroidal and poloidal fields), and field-reversed configurations (FRC's that contain purely poloidal field).

  10. The Fusion Energy Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    2004-06-01

    Presentations from a Fusion Power Associates symposium, The Fusion Energy Option, are summarized. The topics include perspectives on fossil fuel reserves, fusion as a source for hydrogen production, status and plans for the development of inertial fusion, planning for the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, status and promise of alternate approaches to fusion and the need for R&D now on fusion technologies.

  11. Approaching soft X-ray wavelengths in nanomagnet-based microwave technology

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiming; d' Allivy Kelly, O.; Cros, V.; Bernard, R.; Bortolotti, P.; Anane, A.; Brandl, F.; Heimbach, F.; Grundler, D.

    2016-01-01

    Seven decades after the discovery of collective spin excitations in microwave-irradiated ferromagnets, there has been a rebirth of magnonics. However, magnetic nanodevices will enable smart GHz-to-THz devices at low power consumption only, if such spin waves (magnons) are generated and manipulated on the sub-100 nm scale. Here we show how magnons with a wavelength of a few 10 nm are exploited by combining the functionality of insulating yttrium iron garnet and nanodisks from different ferromagnets. We demonstrate magnonic devices at wavelengths of 88 nm written/read by conventional coplanar waveguides. Our microwave-to-magnon transducers are reconfigurable and thereby provide additional functionalities. The results pave the way for a multi-functional GHz technology with unprecedented miniaturization exploiting nanoscale wavelengths that are otherwise relevant for soft X-rays. Nanomagnonics integrated with broadband microwave circuitry offer applications that are wide ranging, from nanoscale microwave components to nonlinear data processing, image reconstruction and wave-based logic. PMID:27063401

  12. [Impact on evaluation of clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine for level in soft targets of processing technology].

    PubMed

    Shao, Ming-Yi; Wei, Ming; Yan, Bo-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a very practical subject, which has its unique theoretical system and clinical characteristics. In the course of clinical practice, the exact clinical efficacy is the key of existence and development. But the existing evaluation system is difficult to objectively evaluate the clinical efficacy of TCM. Therefore, how to objectively evaluate the clinical efficacy and get definitive evidence is the focus of the evaluation of clinical efficacy of TCM. Relative to modern medicine, TCM is more concerned about the changes of feelings and clinical symptoms of the patient in the course of the evolution of the disease. Soft targets mainly used for the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of symptoms and functional activity of the disease. The level in soft targets of processing technology is often used methods in clinical evaluation. But it has often produced the phenomenon which the results of the evaluation is mutual contradiction, which will ultimately affect the effect of evaluation of clinical efficacy of TCM. In order to better evaluate the clinical efficacy of TCM, in the process of adoption of soft targets, it clearly identify it's role, highlighting the characteristics of interventions on disease, and as much as possibly avoid the level in soft targets of processing technology to real assess clinical efficacy of TCM.

  13. Current topics in the field of materials technology of soft ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Takeshi; Ochiai, Tatusshiro

    1995-09-01

    The present paper focuses on the recent progress of materials technology for high performance soft ferrites. The electromagnetic properties of ferrites depend on the producing process and micro- and nano-structures. MnZn ferrite is a principal ferrite for high permeability and power uses. Recently, spray roasting method of Mn-Zn-Fe ternary system has been developed. High initial permeability over 20000 at 10kHz was achieved by using highly pure spray roasted powder of Mn-Fe binary system. Low power loss is of prime importance for power application. Control of grain boundary chemistry and grain size by the adequate selection of additives and firing conditions is required for achieving low power loss at high frequencies. NiCuZn ferrites for multilayer-ferrite chip-components fired under controlled oxygen partial pressure showed high Q-value. This could be explained by nanostructure of grain boundary. MnMgZn ferrites for deflection yoke cores satisfy high cost-performance. Problems of MnMgZn ferrites are loss characteristics and instability of initial permeability. Relaxation of permeability could be depressed by the control of chemical composition and microstructure. Fine magnetite powders by thermal decomposition of iron chloride are under development. This method may be a promising way to low cost and high performance toner for copy machines. High performance such as low loss or high permeability can be achieved by controlling ferrite microstructure and grain boundary chemistry. These can be attained by a highly pure raw powder, a small amount of additives, and an adequate firing program.

  14. Technological and probiotic role of adjunct cultures of non-starter lactobacilli in soft cheeses.

    PubMed

    Burns, Patricia; Cuffia, Facundo; Milesi, Mercedes; Vinderola, Gabriel; Meinardi, Carlos; Sabbag, Nora; Hynes, Erica

    2012-05-01

    The influence of two cheese-isolated Lactobacillus strains on cheese composition, acceptability and probiotic capacity was assessed. Soft cheeses with and without the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum I91 or Lactobacillus paracasei I90 were prepared. Gross composition was assessed and secondary proteolysis was described by soluble fractions and free amino acids profiles. Acceptability was determined by a panel of 98 non-trained consumers. Cheeses harboring added Lactobacillus strains were also studied in vivo to evaluate their probiotic capacity. Gross composition of the cheeses was similar for control and treated (Lactobacillus-added) cheeses. Peptidolysis increased in cheeses with added lactobacilli, which was evidenced by a higher free amino acid content. Overall, the acceptability of the cheeses was good: 65%-80% of the consumers said that they "liked very much" or "liked" the cheeses. Cheeses with L. plantarum I91 showed the highest changes in composition and proteolysis and were the most accepted ones. On the contrary, composition of cheeses with L. paracasei I90 was similar to that of the controls, but these samples were less accepted than cheeses without lactobacilli. The oral administration of cheese containing L. plantarum I91 or L. paracasei I90 proved to be safe and able to enhance the number of IgA + cells in the small intestine lamina propria of mice. The use of selected strains of NSLAB exerted a technological and probiotic role: it contributed to the standardization of cheese quality and induced benefic health effects at the gut mucosa in vivo.

  15. Platform Routing and Data Fusion Technologies for Cooperative ISR - fmCortex (Trademark)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Collaborative Flow: Aerospace and Defense, FAA, Pharmaceutical , Medical, Application Vendors (e.g., 3G Interactive , Fujitsu Software Corp, IBM...platforms based on the estimated ( fuzzy ) time that it takes for the platforms to enter the kill zone of the SAM. Because of the uncertainty in the...dual multi-UAV Level 1 fusion geolocation algorithms, the fuzzy logic and fusion-based threat logic for Level 2/3 fusion, and the robust, multi

  16. Fusion energy science: Clean, safe, and abundant energy through innovative science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    Fusion energy science combines the study of the behavior of plasmas--the state of matter that forms 99% of the visible universe--with a vision of using fusion--the energy source of the stars--to create an affordable, plentiful, and environmentally benign energy source for humankind. The dual nature of fusion energy science provides an unfolding panorama of exciting intellectual challenge and a promise of an attractive energy source for generations to come. The goal of this report is a comprehensive understanding of plasma behavior leading to an affordable and attractive fusion energy source.

  17. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-04

    The Committee`s evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan.

  18. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center 1992--1993 report to the President

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at MIT`s plasma fusion center. Some of the areas covered are: plasma diagnostics; rf plasma heating; gyrotron research; treatment of solid waste by arc plasma; divertor experiments; tokamak studies; and plasma and fusion theory.

  19. Fusion of wireless and non-contact technologies for the dynamic testing of a historic RC bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Rosalba; Pioldi, Fabio; Rizzi, Egidio; Gentile, Carmelo; Chatzi, Eleni N.; Serantoni, Eugenio; Wieser, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a dynamic testing and corresponding signal processing methodology is presented for condition assessment of bridge structures, via use of a diverse and potentially dense grid of low-cost and easily deployable monitoring technologies. In particular, wireless and non-contact sensors are simultaneously deployed on a historic reinforced concrete bridge in order to record acceleration and dynamic displacement response, under operational loading conditions. An innovative monitoring approach is proposed on both the hardware (sensors) and software (algorithmic) front, in which an effective data fusion procedure is adopted for fusing these alternative technologies for vibration-based monitoring in terms of both acceleration and displacement information. The demonstrated efficacy of the fusion procedure on the case-study of an actual operating system, the historic Brivio bridge, reveals the potential of this approach within the context of structural monitoring, where acquisition of heterogeneous information certainly proves advantageous.

  20. Progress in the Science and Technology of Direct Drive Laser Fusion with the KrF Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    important parameters KrF technology leads) Direct Laser Drive is a better choice for Energy Indirect Drive (initial path for NIF ) Laser Beams x-rays Hohlraum...Pellet Direct Drive (IFE) Laser Beams Pellet .. • ID Ignition being explored on NIF • Providing high enough gain for pure fusion energy is...challenging. • DD Ignition physics can be explored on NIF . • More efficient use of laser light, and greater flexibility in applying drive provides potential for

  1. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    This chapter deals with the analysis and engineering scaling of solid breeded blankets. The limits under which full component behavior can be achieved under changed test conditions are explored. The characterization of these test requirements for integrated testing contributes to the overall test matrix and test plan for the understanding and development of fusion nuclear technology. The second chapter covers the analysis and engineering scaling of liquid metal blankets. The testing goals for a complete blanket program are described. (MOW)

  2. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  3. Enhancement display of veins distribution based on binocular vision and image fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Di, Si; Jin, Jian; Bai, Liping

    2014-11-01

    The capture and display of veins distribution is an important issue for some applications, such as medical diagnosis and identification. Therefore, it has become a popular topic in the field of biomedical imaging. Usually, people capture the veins distribution by infrared imaging, but the display result is similar with that of a gray picture and the color and details of skin cannot be remained. To some degree, it is unreal for doctors. In this paper, we develop a binocular vision system to carry out the enhancement display of veins under the condition of keeping actual skin color. The binocular system is consisted of two adjacent cameras. A visible band filter and an infrared band filter are placed in front of the two lenses, respectively. Therefore, the pictures of visible band and infrared band can be captured simultaneously. After that, a new fusion process is applied to the two pictures, which related to histogram mapping, principal component analysis (PCA) and modified bilateral filter fusion. The final results show that both the veins distribution and the actual skin color of the back of the hand can be clearly displayed. Besides, correlation coefficient, average gradient and average distortion are selected as the parameters to evaluate the image quality. By comparing the parameters, it is evident that our novel fusion method is prior to some popular fusion methods such as Gauss filter fusion, Intensity-hue-saturation (HIS) fusion and bilateral filter fusion.

  4. Impact of Spacecraft Shielding on Direct Ionization Soft Error Rates for sub-130 nm Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.; Jordan, Michael M.; Sanders, Anthony B.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Oldham, Timothy R.; Marshall, Paul W.; Heidel, David F.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    We use ray tracing software to model various levels of spacecraft shielding complexity and energy deposition pulse height analysis to study how it affects the direct ionization soft error rate of microelectronic components in space. The analysis incorporates the galactic cosmic ray background, trapped proton, and solar heavy ion environments as well as the October 1989 and July 2000 solar particle events.

  5. Possibilities of applications of fiber Bragg gratings for thermonuclear fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasior, P.

    2016-09-01

    The research on harnessing thermonuclear fusion is considered to be important for reaching global energetic safety as the future thermonuclear fusion reactors offer an inexhaustible and CO2 emission free source of electric power. The development of thermonuclear fusion reactors is a great interdisciplinary effort which needs participation of scientists dealing with many fields of physics and engineering. Due to the experimental character of the works (the best example is the effort for the development of ITER - International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) its crucial part is in the design and application of diagnostics operating in harsh thermonuclear environments. Fiber optics and especially fiber Bragg gratings are components which can operate feasibly in both irradiation and electromagnetic interference conditions. This paper is to give a prospect of application of fiber Bragg grating sensors in devices aimed on the research in the thermonuclear fusion field.

  6. Fusion interfaces for tactical environments: An application of virtual reality technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael W.

    1994-01-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and nonvirtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory, and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multisensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion interface concepts. This new facility, the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments (FITE) Facility is a specialized flight simulator enabling efficient concept development through rapid prototyping and direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE Facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operation fighter pilots in an air combat environment. The facility is utilized by a multidisciplinary design team composed of human factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, experimental psychologists, and oeprational pilots. The FITE computational architecture is composed of twenty-five 80486-based microcomputers operating in real-time. The microcomputers generate out-the-window visuals, in-cockpit and head-mounted visuals, localized auditory presentations, haptic displays on the stick and rudder pedals, as well as executing weapons models, aerodynamic models, and threat models.

  7. Expression of biologically recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds via oleosin fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Guan, Lili; Guo, Yongxin; Du, Linna; Wang, Fawei; Wang, Yanfang; Zhen, Lu; Wang, Qingman; Zou, Deyi; Chen, Wei; Yu, Lei; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun

    2015-07-15

    The potential of oleosins to act as carriers for recombinant foreign proteins in plant cells has been established. Using the oleosin fusion technology, the protein can be targeted to oil bodies in oilseeds by fusing it to the N- or C-terminus of oleosin. In this study, aFGF was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds via oleosin fusion technology. A plant-preferred aFGF gene was synthesized by optimizing codon usage and was fused to the C-terminus of the A. thaliana 18.5kDa oleosin gene. The fusion gene was driven by the phaseolin promoter to confer seed-specific expression of the human acidic fibroblast growth factor in A. thaliana. The T-DNA region of the recombinant plasmid pKO-aFGF was introduced into the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana by the floral dip method. The aFGF protein expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The biological activity showed that oil bodies fused to aFGF stimulated NIH/3T3 cell proliferation activity.

  8. [Study on the polarized reflectance-hyperspectral information fusion technology of tomato leaves nutrient diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Jing; Mao, Han-Ping; Li, Qing-Lin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Sun, Jun; Zuo, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Yong

    2014-09-01

    combined with high spectral information fusion technology and achieve good diagnoses effect. It has a great significance for the improvement of model accuracy and the development of special instruments. The research provides a new idea for the rapid detection of tomato nutrient content.

  9. Recurrent BCOR Internal Tandem Duplication and YWHAE-NUTM2B Fusions in Soft Tissue Undifferentiated Round Cell Sarcoma of Infancy: Overlapping Genetic Features With Clear Cell Sarcoma of Kidney.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chien; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Argani, Pedram; Chung, Catherine T; Graf, Nicole S; Wright, Dale C; Kellie, Stewart J; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Ludwig, Kathrin; Zin, Angelica; Alaggio, Rita; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-08-01

    Soft tissue undifferentiated round cell sarcoma (URCS) occurring in infants is a heterogenous group of tumors, often lacking known genetic abnormalities. On the basis of a t(10;17;14) karyotype in a pelvic URCS of a 4-month-old boy showing similar breakpoints with clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK), we have investigated the possibility of shared genetic abnormalities in CCSK and soft tissue URCS. Most CCSKs are characterized by BCOR exon 16 internal tandem duplications (ITDs), whereas a smaller subset shows YWHAE-NUTM2B/E fusions. Because of overlapping clinicopathologic features, we have also investigated these genetic alterations in the so-called primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy (PMMTI). Among the 22 infantile URCSs and 7 PMMTIs selected, RNA sequencing was performed in 5 and 2 cases, with frozen tissue, respectively. The remaining cases with archival material were tested for YWHAE-NUTM2B/E by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and BCOR ITD by PCR. A control group of 4 CCSKs and 14 URCSs in older children or adults without known gene fusion and 20 other sarcomas with similar histomorphology or age at presentation were also tested. A YWHAE-NUTM2B fusion was confirmed in the index case by FISH and RT-PCR, whereas BCOR ITD was lacking. An identical YWHAE-NUTM2B fusion was found in another URCS case of a 5-month-old girl with a back lesion. The remaining cases and control group lacked YWHAE gene rearrangements; instead, consistent BCOR ITDs, similar to CCSK, were found in 15/29 (52%) infantile sarcoma cases (9/22 infantile URCS and 6/7 PMMTI). In the control cohort, BCOR ITD was found only in 3 CCSK cases but not in the other sarcomas. Histologically, URCS with both genotypes and PMMTI shared significant histologic overlap, with uniform small blue round cells with fine chromatin and indistinct nucleoli. A prominent capillary network similar to CCSK, rosette structures, and varying

  10. Technological value of SPECT/CT fusion imaging for the diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z G; Zhang, G X; Hao, S H; Zhang, W W; Zhang, T; Zhang, Z P; Wu, R X

    2015-11-24

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of diagnosing and locating lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) fusion imaging with 99mTc labeled red blood cells ((99m)Tc-RBC). Fifty-six patients with suspected lower GI bleeding received a preoperative intravenous injection of (99m)Tc-RBC and each underwent planar, SPECT/CT imaging of the lower abdominal region. The location and path of lower GI bleeding were diagnosed by contrastive analysis of planar and SPECT/CT fusion imaging. Among the 56 patients selected, there were abnormalities in concentrated radionuclide activity with planar imaging in 50 patients and in SPECT/CT fusion imaging in 52 patients. Moreover, bleeding points that were coincident with the surgical results were evident with planar imaging in 31 patients and with SPECT/CT fusion imaging in 48 patients. The diagnostic sensitivity of planar imaging and SPECT/CT fusion imaging were 89.3% (50/56) and 92.9% (52/56), respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (χ(2) = 0.11, P > 0.05). The corresponding positional accuracy values were 73.8% (31/42) and 92.3% (48/52), and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 4.63, P < 0.05). (99m)Tc- RBC SPECT/CT fusion imaging is an effective, simple, and accurate method that can be used for diagnosing and locating lower GI bleeding.

  11. Pinch me - I'm fusing! Fusion Power - what is it? What is a z pinch? And why are z-pinches a promising fusion power technology?

    SciTech Connect

    DERZON,MARK S.

    2000-03-01

    The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article the author points out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and how it may one day generate electrical power for mankind.

  12. Development of the Science and Technology of Electron Beam Pumped KrF Lasers for Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethian, John

    2002-11-01

    Electron beam pumped krypton fluoride (KrF) lasers are an attractive driver for inertial fusion energy. They have demonstrated very high beam quality, which is essential for reducing imprint in direct drive targets. Their short wavelength (248 nm) mitigates the growth of plasma instabilities. And they have the potential to meet the fusion needs for repetition rate, efficiency, and cost. This paper reviews the development of e-beam pumped KrF lasers. It will include a description of the fundamental physics and technology, as well as the challenges in developing a fusion system. Although KrF laser development is a multi-disciplinary endeavor, this talk will emphasize areas of interest to plasma physicists: electron beams, KrF kinetics, and pulsed power. The paper will describe experiments and modeling that has identified and mitigated instabilities in the electron beam. It will describe the electron beam propagation experiments, the supporting 3D parallel PIC codes, and how these have been used to design systems for maximum electron energy deposition into the laser gas. KrF kinetics modeling will be discussed. These newly developed time dependent codes can predict the output of several experiments operating under significantly different conditions. They are now being used as a design tool to predict the performance of future KrF systems. Finally, the talk will discuss the development of the pulsed power needed to drive the electron beams. This includes conventional gas switched systems for single shot devices together with the recently demonstrated all solid state switches that have the promise to meet the fusion requirements. The talk will be cast in context of the large, single shot KrF lasers built in the 1990's such as Nike (NRL-US), Ashura (Japan), and Titania (UK), as well as the Electra 700 J, 5 Hz rep-rate laser that is currently under development at NRL.

  13. Modeling for free surface flow with phase change and its application to fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaoyong

    The development of predictive capabilities for free surface flow with phase change is essential to evaluate liquid wall protection schemes for various fusion chambers. With inertial fusion energy (IFE) concepts such as HYLIFE-II, rapid condensation into cold liquid surfaces is required when using liquid curtains for protecting reactor walls from blasts and intense neutron radiation. With magnetic fusion energy (MFE) concepts, droplets are injected onto the free surface of the liquid to minimize evaporation by minimizing the surface temperature. This dissertation presents a numerical methodology for free surface flow with phase change to help resolve feasibility issues encountered in the aforementioned fusion engineering fields, especially spray droplet condensation efficiency in IFE and droplet heat transfer enhancement on free surface liquid divertors in MFE. The numerical methodology is being conducted within the framework of the incompressible flow with the phase change model. A new second-order projection method is presented in conjunction with Approximate-Factorization techniques (AF method) for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A sub-cell conception is introduced and the Ghost Fluid Method in extended in a modified mass transfer model to accurately calculate the mass transfer across the interface. The Crank-Nicholson method is used for the diffusion term to eliminate the numerical viscous stability restriction. The third-order ENO scheme is used for the convective term to guarantee the accuracy of the method. The level set method is used to capture accurately the free surface of the flow and the deformation of the droplets. This numerical investigation identifies the physics characterizing transient heat and mass transfer of the droplet and the free surface flow. The results show that the numerical methodology is quite successful in modeling the free surface with phase change even though some severe deformations such as breaking and merging occur. The

  14. Hydrogeologic Data Fusion. Industry Programs/Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscut Program. OST Reference #2944

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Problem: The fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface requires knowledge of the hydrogeologic system. Site characterization typically involves the collection of various data sets needed to create a conceptual model that represents what’s known about contaminant migration in the subsurface at a particular site. How Hydrogeologic Data Fusion Works Hydrogeologic Data Fusion is a mathematical tool that can be used to combine various types of geophysical, geologic, and hydrologic data from different types of sensors to estimate geologic and hydrogeologic properties. It can be especially useful at hazardous waste sites where the hydrology, geology, or contaminant distribution is significantly complex such that groundwater modeling is required to enable a reasonable and accurate prediction of subsurface conditions.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Ultrasound Fusion-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Review of Technology, Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kongnyuy, Michael; George, Arvin K.; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided (12–14 core) systematic biopsy of the prostate is the recommended standard for patients with suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa). Advances in imaging have led to the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of PCa with subsequent development of software-based co-registration allowing for the integration of MRI with real-time TRUS during prostate biopsy. A number of fusion-guided methods and platforms are now commercially available with common elements in image and analysis and planning. Implementation of fusion-guided prostate biopsy has now been proven to improve the detection of clinically significant PCa in appropriately selected patients. PMID:26902626

  16. Functional expression and purification of recombinant Hepcidin25 production in Escherichia coli using SUMO fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Vahideh; Saffar, Behnaz; Emamzadeh, Rahman

    2017-04-30

    Hepcidin25 is a small cysteine-rich peptide hormone known as a new class of antimicrobial peptides. The purpose of the present study was to express, purify and investigate the antibacterial properties of recombinant human hepcidin25 protein production in Escherichia coli. Human hepcidin25 gene was optimized and fused to a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) gene for higher expression. Then SUMO-hepcidin25 was cloned into the pET-32a (+) vector and expressed in E. coli Origami. The fusion protein with a molecular weight of approximately 35kDa was analyzed on SDS-PAGE gel. The highest expression was observed after 6h induction and the fusion protein consisted approximately 47% of the total cellular protein. The purified SUMO-hepcidin25 purity was determined to be higher than 95%, with a final yield of 3.9mgl(-)(1) of media. The recombinant hepcidin25 showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Klebsiella pneumonia) and Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 150μgml(-1), 18.7μg/ml(-1) and 37.5μg/ml(-1), respectively. These results indicated that thioredoxin and SUMO dual fusion system is an efficient production system for synthesis functional human hepcidin25.

  17. Soft X-Ray (1-7 nm) Solar Spectrometer based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L. V.; Wieman, S. R.; Chao, W.

    2015-12-01

    A new soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer combines proven detector technology demonstrated on the SOHO Solar EUV Monitor (SOHO/SEM) and SDO EUV SpectroPhotometer (SDO/EVE/ESP) instruments with novel technology for X-ray optics nanofabrication developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The new spectrometer will provide solar SXR measurements of absolute irradiance in the 1.0 to 7.0 nm range spectrally resolved into bands narrower than 1 nm - measurements that are not available from existing solar-observing instruments but are important for studying and modeling coronal dynamics and the Sun-Earth's connection, e.g. the Earth's Ionosphere. For the proposed SXR spectrometer we will introduce a transmission grating based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication technology developed at the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The CXRO technology has been used in the fabrication of X-ray zone plates with feature sizes as small as 25 nm in optical elements with overall sizes on the order of 1 cm. The CXRO technology has significant flexibility in terms of pattern geometry, and is thus capable of producing linear transmission gratings with aperture sizes similar to SEM and ESP but with four times the dispersion. With such dispersion, reasonable spectral resolution (< 1nm) can be obtained using commercial off-the shelf (COTS) X-ray sensitive AXUV type silicon photodiodes from the Optodiode Corp. in an instrument with overall size and mass similar to that of SEM or ESP.

  18. Novel Applications of Ultrasound Technology to Visualize and Characterize Myofascial Trigger Points and Surrounding Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Shah, Jay P.; Gebreab, Tadesse; Yen, Ru-Huey; Gilliams, Elizabeth; Danoff, Jerome; Gerber, Lynn H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Apply ultrasound (US) imaging techniques to better describe the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and the immediately adjacent soft tissue. Design Descriptive (exploratory) study. Setting Biomedical research center. Participants 9 subjects meeting Travell and Simons’s criteria for MTrPs in a taut band in the upper trapezius. Interventions (None) Main Outcome Measures MTrPs were evaluated by 1) physical examination, 2) pressure algometry, and 3) three types of ultrasound imaging including grayscale (2D US), vibration sonoelastography (VSE), and Doppler. Methods Four sites in each patient were labeled based on physical examination as either active MTrP (spontaneously-painful, A-MTrP), latent MTrP (non-painful, L-MTrP), or normal myofascial tissue. US examination was performed on each subject by a team blinded to the physical findings. A 12-5 MHz US transducer was used. VSE was performed by color Doppler variance imaging while simultaneously inducing vibrations (~92Hz) with a handheld massage vibrator. Each site was assigned a tissue imaging score (TIS) as follows: 0 = uniform echogenicity and stiffness; 1 = focal hypoechoic region with stiff nodule; 2 = multiple hypoechoic regions with stiff nodules. Blood flow in the neighborhood of MTrPs was assessed using Doppler imaging. Each site was assigned a blood flow waveform score (BFS) as follows: 0 = normal arterial flow in muscle; 1 = elevated diastolic flow; 2 = high-resistance flow waveform with retrograde diastolic flow. Results MTrPs appeared as focal, hypoechoic regions on 2D US, indicating local changes in tissue echogenicity, and as focal regions of reduced vibration amplitude on VSE, indicating a localized stiff nodule. MTrPs were elliptical in shape, with a size of 0.16 ± 0.11 cm2. There were no significant differences in size between A-MTrPs and L-MTrPs. Sites containing MTrPs were more likely to have higher TIS compared to normal myofascial tissue (p<0.002). Small arteries (or

  19. Robust site security using smart seismic array technology and multi-sensor data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellickson, Dean; Richards, Paul; Reynolds, Zane; Keener, Joshua

    2010-04-01

    Traditional site security systems are susceptible to high individual sensor nuisance alarm rates that reduce the overall system effectiveness. Visual assessment of intrusions can be intensive and manually difficult as cameras are slewed by the system to non intrusion areas or as operators respond to nuisance alarms. Very little system intrusion performance data are available other than discrete sensor alarm indications that provide no real value. This paper discusses the system architecture, integration and display of a multi-sensor data fused system for wide area surveillance, local site intrusion detection and intrusion classification. The incorporation of a novel seismic array of smart sensors using FK Beamforming processing that greatly enhances the overall system detection and classification performance of the system is discussed. Recent test data demonstrates the performance of the seismic array within several different installations and its ability to classify and track moving targets at significant standoff distances with exceptional immunity to background clutter and noise. Multi-sensor data fusion is applied across a suite of complimentary sensors eliminating almost all nuisance alarms while integrating within a geographical information system to feed a visual-fusion display of the area being secured. Real-time sensor detection and intrusion classification data is presented within a visual-fusion display providing greatly enhanced situational awareness, system performance information and real-time assessment of intrusions and situations of interest with limited security operator involvement. This approach scales from a small local perimeter to very large geographical area and can be used across multiple sites controlled at a single command and control station.

  20. The Sustainable Nuclear Future: Fission and Fusion E.M. Campbell Logos Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. Michael

    2010-02-01

    Global industrialization, the concern over rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and other negative environmental effects due to the burning of hydrocarbon fuels and the need to insulate the cost of energy from fuel price volatility have led to a renewed interest in nuclear power. Many of the plants under construction are similar to the existing light water reactors but incorporate modern engineering and enhanced safety features. These reactors, while mature, safe and reliable sources of electrical power have limited efficiency in converting fission power to useful work, require significant amounts of water, and must deal with the issues of nuclear waste (spent fuel), safety, and weapons proliferation. If nuclear power is to sustain its present share of the world's growing energy needs let alone displace carbon based fuels, more than 1000 reactors will be needed by mid century. For this to occur new reactors that are more efficient, versatile in their energy markets, require minimal or no water, produce less waste and more robust waste forms, are inherently safe and minimize proliferation concerns will be necessary. Graphite moderated, ceramic coated fuel, and He cooled designs are reactors that can satisfy these requirements. Along with other generation IV fast reactors that can further reduce the amounts of spent fuel and extend fuel resources, such a nuclear expansion is possible. Furthermore, facilities either in early operations or under construction should demonstrate the next step in fusion energy development in which energy gain is produced. This demonstration will catalyze fusion energy development and lead to the ultimate development of the next generation of nuclear reactors. In this presentation the role of advanced fission reactors and future fusion reactors in the expansion of nuclear power will be discussed including synergies with the existing worldwide nuclear fleet. )

  1. Electricity production from laser-driven fusion reactors: technological aspects of power conversion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important considerations for laser driven fusion power plants is the safe and efficient operation of the chamber that contains the thermonuclear energy released from the target. Several approaches to the design of such a chamber are described in this paper and the critical issues associated with protection of the first wall, the performance of the structural materials, and the cost are discussed. Presently, the need for direct drive illumination of the cryogenic targets makes the use of liquid first wall protection problematical at best. The use of dry first walls protected with a few torr of an inert gas seems to hold the most promise.

  2. A Soft Technology: Recruiting and Retaining Women and Minorities in High Tech Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Juliette D.; Roberts, Shirley L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program at Washtenaw Community College, Michigan, to upgrade the basic skills of women and minority students and provide the academic support needed for success in high technology occupational training programs. Examines the following program components: academic progress, counseling, peer support, financial aid, and advocacy. (DMM)

  3. A New Method Based on RF Impedance Technology and Soft Ferromagnetic Ribbons for Real-Time Corrosion Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Izabella; Devkota, Jagannath; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Mahn-Huong

    2015-03-01

    Development of a quick, cheap, and reliable technique to estimate the concentration of corrosive chemicals has been of technological interest for safety in industries and the environment for many years. Here we present a new approach for real-time monitoring of chemical corrosion based on the radio-frequency (RF) impedance technology and soft ferromagnetic ribbons. The impedance (Z), resistance (R), and reactance (X) of a commercial METGLAS®2714A ribbon was measured in real time for 5 μl of drop-casted HNO3 of various concentrations. Variations in the concentration of the drop-casted acid were assessed by considering the difference (Δ) in the Z, R, and X with and without the acid treatment. The measurements performed at 0.2 MHz showed a large linear increase in the ΔZ and ΔR with the acid concentration which is ideal for developing highly sensitive chemical sensors. Since the ribbon used is commercially available at low cost and the measurement system is quick and low power consuming, the proposed sensor can be used as an easy, quick, and low-cost chemical probe in industries and environmental safety purposes. Department of physics, University of South Florida.

  4. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A; Kulcinski, J; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Santarius, J; Simonen, T; Wirth, B D; Ying, A

    2009-11-23

    The successful operation (with {beta} {le} 60%, classical ions and electrons with Te = 250 eV) of the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia, extrapolates to a 2 MW/m{sup 2} Dynamic Trap Neutron Source (DTNS), which burns only {approx}100 g of tritium per full power year. The DTNS has no serious physics, engineering, or technology obstacles; the extension of neutral beam lines to steady state can use demonstrated engineering; and it supports near-term tokamaks and volume neutron sources. The DTNS provides a neutron spectrum similar to that of ITER and satisfies the missions specified by the materials community to test fusion materials (listed as one of the top grand challenges for engineering in the 21st century by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering) and subcomponents (including tritium-breeding blankets) needed to construct DEMO. The DTNS could serve as the first Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), called for by ReNeW, and could provide the data necessary for licensing subsequent FSNFs.

  5. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Simonen, T C

    2009-07-17

    This report summarizes discussions and conclusions of the workshop to 'Assess The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification'. The workshop was held at LBNL, Berkeley, CA on March 12, 2009. Most workshop attendees have worked on magnetic mirror systems, several have worked on similar neutron source designs, and others are knowledgeable of materials, fusion component, and neutral beams The workshop focused on the gas dynamic trap DT Neutron Source (DTNS) concept being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia. The DTNS may be described as a line source of neutrons, in contrast to a spallation or a D-Lithium source with neutrons beaming from a point, or a tokamak volume source. The DTNS is a neutral beam driven linear plasma system with magnetic mirrors to confine the energetic deuterium and tritium beam injected ions, which produce the 14 MeV neutrons. The hot ions are imbedded in warm-background plasma, which traps the neutral atoms and provides both MHD and micro stability to the plasma. The 14 MeV neutron flux ranges typically at the level of 1 to 4 MW/m2.

  6. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  7. Building on knowledge base of sodium cooled fast spectrum reactors to develop materials technology for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Baldev; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara

    2009-04-01

    The alloys 316L(N) and Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel are the major structural materials for fabrication of structural components in sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). Various factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of these alloys and different modes of deformation and failure in SFR systems, their analysis and the simulated tests performed on components for assessment of structural integrity and the applicability of RCC-MR code for the design and validation of components are highlighted. The procedures followed for optimal design of die and punch for the near net shape forming of petals of main vessel of 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR); the safe temperature and strain rate domains established using dynamic materials model for forming of 316L(N) and 9Cr-1Mo steels components by various industrial processes are illustrated. Weldability problems associated with 316L(N) and Mo. 9Cr-1Mo are briefly discussed. The utilization of artificial neural network models for prediction of creep rupture life and delta-ferrite in austenitic stainless steel welds is described. The usage of non-destructive examination techniques in characterization of deformation, fracture and various microstructural features in SFR materials is briefly discussed. Most of the experience gained on SFR systems could be utilized in developing science and technology for fusion reactors. Summary of the current status of knowledge on various aspects of fission and fusion systems with emphasis on cross fertilization of research is presented.

  8. Soft computing prediction of economic growth based in science and technology factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, Dušan; Petković, Dalibor; Nikolić, Vlastimir; Milovančević, Miloš; Petković, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and apply the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) to forecast the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate. In this study the GDP growth was analyzed based on ten science and technology factors. These factors were: research and development (R&D) expenditure in GDP, scientific and technical journal articles, patent applications for nonresidents, patent applications for residents, trademark applications for nonresidents, trademark applications for residents, total trademark applications, researchers in R&D, technicians in R&D and high-technology exports. The ELM results were compared with genetic programming (GP), artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic results. Based upon simulation results, it is demonstrated that ELM has better forecasting capability for the GDP growth rate.

  9. [Use of plasma technology in treatment of patients with pyo-inflammatory diseases of soft tissues].

    PubMed

    Khasanov, A G; Nikmatsianov, S S; Nurtdinov, M A; Bakiev, I M; Men'shikov, A M; Shaĭbakov, D G

    2007-01-01

    The authors substantiated the method of treatment of pyo-inflammatory diseases based on experiments in white rats, using plasma flow at different stages of the process. The plasma technology was used in the clinic in 130 patients that allowed shortening the period of preparing the wounds to operative treatment and reducing the period of hospital stay from 15.3 to 9.2 days, improving results of treatment by 20% and saving on expensive bandaging materials and medicines.

  10. Lenr and "cold Fusion" Excess Heat:. Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2005-12-01

    During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplar of this has been the "hydrino" physics work of Dr. Randall Mills and his colleagues at Black-Light Power Corporation, which was a radical outgrowth from the cold fusion field that emerged publicly in May 1991.2 Even more far-reaching is the work in vacuum energy extraction pioneered by Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa, which first became public in 1996.3 This vacuum energy experimentation began in the early 1980s and has been reduced to prototype technological devices, such as the patented PAGDTM (pulsed abnormal glow discharge) electric power generator, as well as many published experiments that can be performed in table-top fashion to verify the Correa Aetherometry (non-luminiferous or non-electromagnetic aether measurement science).4 In an era when mainstream science and its media is all agog about dark matter and dark energy composing the vast bulk of the universe, there is a great need to reconcile, if possible, the significant bodies of evidence from these three major experimental and theoretical streams: cold fusion/LENR, hydrino physics, and

  11. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1997-02-01

    On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA.

  12. Opto-acoustic image fusion technology for diagnostic breast imaging in a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Ulissey, Michael; Stavros, A. T.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Lavin, Philip; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. C.; Otto, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    Functional opto-acoustic (OA) imaging was fused with gray-scale ultrasound acquired using a specialized duplex handheld probe. Feasibility Study findings indicated the potential to more accurately characterize breast masses for cancer than conventional diagnostic ultrasound (CDU). The Feasibility Study included OA imagery of 74 breast masses that were collected using the investigational Imagio® breast imaging system. Superior specificity and equal sensitivity to CDU was demonstrated, suggesting that OA fusion imaging may potentially obviate the need for negative biopsies without missing cancers in a certain percentage of breast masses. Preliminary results from a 100 subject Pilot Study are also discussed. A larger Pivotal Study (n=2,097 subjects) is underway to confirm the Feasibility Study and Pilot Study findings.

  13. An Overview of High Energy Short Pulse Technology for Advanced Radiography of Laser Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J; Key, M; Britten, J; Beach, R; Beer, G; Brown, C; Bryan, S; Caird, J; Carlson, T; Crane, J; Dawson, J; Erlandson, A C; Fittinghoff, D; Hermann, M; Hoaglan, C; Iyer, A; Jones, L; Jovanovic, I; Komashko, A; Landen, O; Liao, Z; Molander, W; Mitchell, A; Moses, E; Nielsen, N; Nguyen, H; Nissen, J; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Risinger, L; Rushford, M; Skulina, K; Spaeth, M; Stuart, B; Tietbohl, G; Wattellier, B

    2004-06-18

    The technical challenges and motivations for high-energy, short-pulse generation with NIF-class, Nd:glass laser systems are reviewed. High energy short pulse generation (multi-kilojoule, picosecond pulses) will be possible via the adaptation of chirped pulse amplification laser techniques on the NIF. Development of meter-scale, high efficiency, high-damage-threshold final optics is a key technical challenge. In addition, deployment of HEPW pulses on NIF is constrained by existing laser infrastructure and requires new, compact compressor designs and short-pulse, fiber-based, seed-laser systems. The key motivations for high energy petawatt pulses on NIF is briefly outlined and includes high-energy, x-ray radiography, proton beam radiography, proton isochoric heating and tests of the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion.

  14. TBM/MTM for HTS-FNSF: An innovative testing strategy to qualify/validate fusion technologies for U.S. DEMO

    DOE PAGES

    El-Guebaly, Laila; Rowcliffe, Arthur; Menard, Jonathan; ...

    2016-08-11

    The qualification and validation of nuclear technologies are daunting tasks for fusion demonstration (DEMO) and power plants. This is particularly true for advanced designs that involve harsh radiation environment with 14 MeV neutrons and high-temperature operating regimes. This paper outlines the unique qualification and validation processes developed in the U.S., offering the only access to the complete fusion environment, focusing on the most prominent U.S. blanket concept (the dual cooled PbLi (DCLL)) along with testing new generations of structural and functional materials in dedicated test modules. The venue for such activities is the proposed Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), whichmore » is viewed as an essential element of the U.S. fusion roadmap. A staged blanket testing strategy has been developed to test and enhance the DCLL blanket performance during each phase of FNSF D-T operation. A materials testing module (MTM) is critically important to include in the FNSF as well to test a broad range of specimens of future, more advanced generations of materials in a relevant fusion environment. Here, the most important attributes for MTM are the relevant He/dpa ratio (10–15) and the much larger specimen volumes compared to the 10–500 mL range available in the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) and European DEMO-Oriented Neutron Source (DONES).« less

  15. TBM/MTM for HTS-FNSF: An innovative testing strategy to qualify/validate fusion technologies for U.S. DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    El-Guebaly, Laila; Rowcliffe, Arthur; Menard, Jonathan; Brown, Thomas

    2016-08-11

    The qualification and validation of nuclear technologies are daunting tasks for fusion demonstration (DEMO) and power plants. This is particularly true for advanced designs that involve harsh radiation environment with 14 MeV neutrons and high-temperature operating regimes. This paper outlines the unique qualification and validation processes developed in the U.S., offering the only access to the complete fusion environment, focusing on the most prominent U.S. blanket concept (the dual cooled PbLi (DCLL)) along with testing new generations of structural and functional materials in dedicated test modules. The venue for such activities is the proposed Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), which is viewed as an essential element of the U.S. fusion roadmap. A staged blanket testing strategy has been developed to test and enhance the DCLL blanket performance during each phase of FNSF D-T operation. A materials testing module (MTM) is critically important to include in the FNSF as well to test a broad range of specimens of future, more advanced generations of materials in a relevant fusion environment. Here, the most important attributes for MTM are the relevant He/dpa ratio (10–15) and the much larger specimen volumes compared to the 10–500 mL range available in the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) and European DEMO-Oriented Neutron Source (DONES).

  16. Navigation and Elctro-Optic Sensor Integration Technology for Fusion of Imagery and Digital Mapping Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    Electro - Optic Sensor Integration Technology (NEOSIT) software application. The design is highly modular and based on COTS tools to facilitate integration with sensors, navigation and digital data sources already installed on different host

  17. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  18. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ``Capabilities Activation`` and ``Capabilities Demonstration`` to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ``Small Glass Shell Deliveries`` and ``Composite Polymer Capsules`` for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ``Onsite Support`` at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ``Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats`` and established ``Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities`` at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ``Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.`` We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process.

  19. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support. Annual report, January 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  20. Half-life extension of the HIV-fusion inhibitor peptide TRI-1144 using a novel linker technology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eric L; Ashley, Gary W; Dillen, Lieve; Stoops, Bart; Austin, Nigel E; Malcolm, Bruce A; Santi, Daniel V

    2015-06-01

    We have previously developed a linker technology for half-life extension of peptides, proteins and small molecule drugs (1). The linkers undergo β-elimination reactions with predictable cleavage rates to release the native drug. Here we utilize this technology for half-life extension of the 38 amino acid HIV-1 fusion inhibitor TRI-1144. Conjugation of TRI-1144 to 40 kDa PEG by an appropriate β-eliminative linker and i.v. administration of the conjugate increased the in vivo half-life of the released peptide from 4 to 34 h in the rat, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were in excellent accord with a one-compartment model. From these data we simulated the pharmacokinetics of the PEG-TRI-1144 conjugate in humans, predicting a t1/2,β of 70 h for the released peptide, and that a serum concentration of 25 nM could be maintained by weekly doses of 8 μmol of the conjugate. Using a non-circulating carrier (2) similar simulations indicated a t1/2,β of 150 h for the peptide released from the conjugate and that dosing of only 1.8 μmol/week could maintain serum concentrations of TRI-1144 above 25 nM. Hence, releasable β-eliminative linkers provide significant half-life extension to TRI-1144 and would be expected to do likewise for related peptides.

  1. Solid state laser technology for inertial confinement fusion: A collection of articles from ''Energy and Technology Review''

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This paper contains reprinted articles that record several milestones in laser research at LLNL. ''Neodymium-Glass Laser Research and Development at LLNL'' recounts the history of the Laser Program and our work on neodymium-glass lasers. ''Nova Laser Technology'' describes the capabilities of the Nova laser and some of its uses. ''Building Nova: Industry Relations and Technology Transfer'' illustrates the Laboratory's commitment to work with US industry in technology development. ''Managing the Nova Laser Project'' details the organization and close monitoring of costs and schedules during the construction of the Nova laser facility. The article ''Optical Coatings by the Sol-Gel Process,'' describes our chemical process for making the damage-resistant, antireflective silica coatings used on the Nova laser glass. The technical challenges in designing and fabricating the KDP crystal arrays used to convert the light wave frequency of the Nova lasers are reported in ''Frequency Conversion of the Nova Laser.'' Two articles, ''Eliminating Platinum Inclusions in Laser Glass'' and ''Detecting Microscopic Inclusions in Optical Glass,'' describe how we dealt with the problem of damaging metal inclusions in the Nova laser glass. The last article reprinted here, ''Auxilliary Target Chamber for Nova,'' discusses the diversion of two of Nova's ten beamlines into a secondary chamber for the purpose of increasing our capacity for experimentation.

  2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center FY97--FY98 work proposal

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Alcator C-Mod is the high-field, high-density divertor tokamak in the world fusion program. It is one of five divertor experiments capable of plasma currents exceeding one megamp. Because of its compact dimensions, Alcator C-Mod investigates an essential area in parameter space, which complements the world`s larger experiments, in establishing the tokamak physics database. Three key areas of investigation have been called out in which Alcator C-Mod has a vital role to play: (1) divertor research on C-Mod takes advantage of the advanced divertor shaping, the very high scrap-off-layer power density, unique abilities in impurity diagnosis, and the High-Z metal wall, to advance the physics understanding of this critical topic; (2) in transport studies, C-Mod is making critical tests of both empirical scalings and theoretically based interpretations of tokamak transport, at dimensional parameters that are unique but dimensionless parameters often comparable to those in much larger experiments; (3) in the area of Advanced Tokamak research, so important to concept optimization, the high-field design of the device also provides long pulse length, compared to resistive skin time, which provides an outstanding opportunity to investigate the extent to which enhanced confinement and stability can be sustained in steady-state, using active profile control. In addition to these main programmatic emphasis, important enabling research is being performed in MHD stability and control, which has great significance for the immediate design of ITER, and in the physics and engineering of ICRF, which is the main auxiliary heating method on C-Mod.

  3. A review of nuclear data needs and their status for fusion reactor technology with some suggestions on a strategy to satisfy the requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L. ); Cheng, E.T. )

    1991-09-01

    A review was performed on the needs and status of nuclear data for fusion-reactor technology. Generally, the status of nuclear data for fusion has been improved during the past two decades due to the dedicated effort of the nuclear data developers. However, there are still deficiencies in the nuclear data base, particularly in the areas of activation and neutron scattering cross sections. Activation cross sections were found to be unsatisfactory in 83 of the 153 reactions reviewed. The scattering cross sections for fluorine and boron will need to be improved at energies above 1 MeV. Suggestions concerning a strategy to address the specific fusion nuclear data needs for dosimetry and activation are also provided.

  4. A Laser Technology Test Facility for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Campbell, R W; Ebbers, C A; Freitas, B L; Latkowski, J; Molander, W A; Sutton, S B; Telford, S; Caird, J A

    2009-10-06

    A LIFE laser driver needs to be designed and operated which meets the rigorous requirements of the NIF laser system while operating at high average power, and operate for a lifetime of >30 years. Ignition on NIF will serve to demonstrate laser driver functionality, operation of the Mercury laser system at LLNL demonstrates the ability of a diode-pumped solid-state laser to run at high average power, but the operational lifetime >30 yrs remains to be proven. A Laser Technology test Facility (LTF) has been designed to specifically address this issue. The LTF is a 100-Hz diode-pumped solid-state laser system intended for accelerated testing of the diodes, gain media, optics, frequency converters and final optics, providing system statistics for billion shot class tests. These statistics will be utilized for material and technology development as well as economic and reliability models for LIFE laser drivers.

  5. The Science and Technologies for Fusion Energy With Lasers and Direct-Drive Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    17Li blanket, with a silicon carbide composite (SiCf/ SiC ) structure operating at 1000 ◦C, could have more than 50% efficiency in generating hydrogen...288, Dec. 2005. [53] T. Hinoki, L. L. Snead, and C. A. Blue, “Development of refractory armored silicon carbide by infrared transient liquid phase...final optics (grazing incidence and dielectric mirrors ); target fabrication, injection, and tracking technologies; and the development of the reaction

  6. Metal shell technology based upon hollow jet instability. [for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M.; Lee, M. C.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Spherical shells of submillimeter size are sought as ICF targets. Such shells must be dimensionally precise, smooth, of high strength, and composed of a high atomic number material. A technology for the production of shells based upon the hydrodynamic instability of an annular jet of molten metal is described. Shells in the 0.7-2.0 mm size range have been produced using tin as a test material. Specimens exhibit good sphericity, fair concentricity, and excellent finish over most of the surface. Work involving a gold-lead-antimony alloy is in progress. Droplets of this are amorphous and possess superior surface finish. The flow of tin models that of the alloy well; experiments on both metals show that the technique holds considerable promise.

  7. The Use of Analytic Decision Game (ADG) Methods for Test and Evaluation of Hard and Soft Data Fusion Systems and Education of a New Generation of Data Fusion Analysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    and methods of social communication with very positive results. To look at today’s student participating in an analytic decision game is to get a...New York: Psycology Press, 2011. Print [2] J. Jordan, Information, Technology, and Innovation: Resources for Growth in a Connected World, John

  8. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  9. Multisensor fusion remote sensing technology for assessing multitemporal responses in ecohydrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkeasorn, Ammarin

    ) satellite imagery as previously developed was used. Eight commonly used vegetation indices were calculated from the reflectance obtained from Landsat 5 TM satellite images. The vegetation indices were individually used to classify vegetation cover in association with genetic programming algorithm. The soil moisture and vegetation indices were integrated into Landsat TM images based on a pre-pixel channel approach for riparian classification. Two different classification algorithms were used including genetic programming, and a combination of ISODATA and maximum likelihood supervised classification. The white box feature of genetic programming revealed the comparative advantage of all input parameters. The GP algorithm yielded more than 90% accuracy, based on unseen ground data, using vegetation index and Landsat reflectance band 1, 2, 3, and 4. The detection of changes in the buffer zone was proved to be technically feasible with high accuracy. Overall, the development of the RICAL algorithm may lead to the formulation of more effective management strategies for the handling of non-point source pollution control, bird habitat monitoring, and grazing and live stock management in the future. Geo-environmental information amassed in this study includes soil permeability, surface temperature, soil moisture, precipitation, leaf area index (LAI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). With the aid of a remote sensing-based GIP analysis, only five locations out of more than 800 candidate sites were selected by the spatial analysis, and then confirmed by a field investigation. The methodology developed in this remote sensing-based GIP analysis will significantly advance the state-of-the-art technology in optimum arrangement/distribution of water sensor platforms for maximum sensing coverage and information-extraction capacity. To more efficiently use the limited amount of water or to resourcefully provide adequate time for flood warning, the results have led us to seek

  10. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  11. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  12. Hyper-Uniform Site-Controlled Quantum Dot Arrays Prepared by Soft Nano-Imprint Lithography Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-24

    and thus, avoiding potential damage to the substrate. The (100) semi-insulating GaAs substrate is coated with 50 nm silicon dioxide followed by a UV ... curable PR of 120 nm thick . Next, the soft NIL technique is used to replicate the designed pattern in the silicon dioxide and PR layers. The pattern

  13. Investigating the degree of "stigma" associated with nuclear energy technologies: A cross-cultural examination of the case of fusion power.

    PubMed

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana; Espluga, Josep

    2012-07-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy technologies are, in some sense, "stigmatised" by historical environmental and military associations is of particular interest in contemporary debates about sustainable energy policy. Recent claims in the literature suggest that despite such stigmatisation, lay views on such technologies may be shifting towards a "reluctant acceptance," in the light of concerns about issues like anthropogenic climate change. In this paper, we report on research into learning and reasoning processes concerned with a largely unknown nuclear energy technology; namely fusion power. We focus on the role of the nuclear label, or "brand," in informing how lay citizens make sense of the nature of this technology. Our findings derive from a comparative analysis of data generated in Spain and Britain, using the same methodology.

  14. Detection of ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts and the TFE3 antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue in a series of 18 cases of alveolar soft part sarcoma: useful diagnostic tools in cases with unusual histological features.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ann; Bartle, Gillian; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P; Meis, Jeanne M; Mangham, D Chas; Grimer, Rob J; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare malignancy; diagnostic problems may occur when cases present as a metastasis or with unusual morphologic features. In this study, a series of 18 cases with follow-up information were analysed with regard to the ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts and immuno-detection of TFE3 using archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Novel primers to detect ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts, type 1 and 2, were designed. The patients, ten female and eight male, ranged in age from 3 to 46 years; 16 involved soft tissues of the extremities (nine, lower; seven, upper), one involved the uterine cervix and one was a primary bone tumour of the foot. Seven ASPS had unusual morphologic features lacking the typical alveolar pattern. Seven had lung metastases at the time of diagnosis, and three developed lung and brain metastases later. Four patients died of disease (after 1-5 years); four are alive with metastases (after 2-15 years), and ten are alive and well (after 1-10 years). Vascular invasion correlated with metastatic disease. All 18 ASPS, four granular cell tumours (one of which was malignant) and one adrenal cortical carcinoma showed TFE3 immuno-positivity. The 18/18 ASPS showed ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts (nine, type 1; nine, type 2), four of which had a balanced translocation. ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts were not detected in 25 controls. We conclude that immuno-detection of TFE3 and RT-PCR-based identification of ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are powerful tools in the diagnosis of ASPS, particularly in cases with unusual morphologic features.

  15. Soft leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Giudice, Gian F.; Raidal, Martti

    2003-11-01

    We study "soft leptogenesis", a new mechanism of leptogenesis which does not require flavour mixing among the right-handed neutrinos. Supersymmetry soft-breaking terms give a small mass splitting between the CP-even and CP-odd right-handed sneutrino states of a single generation and provide a CP-violating phase sufficient to generate a lepton asymmetry. The mechanism is successful if the lepton-violating soft bilinear coupling is unconventionally (but not unnaturally) small. The values of the right-handed neutrino masses predicted by soft leptogenesis can be low enough to evade the cosmological gravitino problem.

  16. Particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    Today, in keeping with Sandia Laboratories` designation by the Department of Energy as the lead laboratory for the pulsed power approach to fusion, its efforts include major research activities and the construction of new facilities at its Albuquerque site. Additionally, in its capacity as lead laboratory, Sandia coordinates DOE-supported pulsed power fusion work at other government operated laboratories, with industrial contractors, and universities. The beginning of Sandia`s involvement in developing fusion power was an outgrowth of its contributions to the nation`s nuclear weapon program. The Laboratories` work in the early 1960`s emphasized the use of pulsed radiation environments to test the resistance of US nuclear weapons to enemy nuclear bursts. A careful study of options for fusion power indicated that Sandia`s expertise in the pulsed power field could provide a powerful match to ignite fusion fuel. Although creating test environments is an achieved goal of Sandia`s overall program, this work and other military tasks protected by appropriate security regulations will continue, making full use of the same pulsed power technology and accelerators as the fusion-for-energy program. Major goals of Sandia`s fusion program including the following: (1) complete a particle accelerator to deliver sufficient beam energy for igniting fusion targets; (2) obtain net energy gain, this goal would provide fusion energy output in excess of energy stored in the accelerator; (3) develop a technology base for the repetitive ignition of pellets in a power reactor. After accomplishing these goals, the technology will be introduced to the nation`s commercial sector.

  17. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  18. Spinal Fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... concept of fusion is similar to that of welding in industry. Spinal fusion surgery, however, does not ... bone taken from the patient has a long history of use and results in predictable healing. Autograft ...

  19. Radioscapholunate Fusions

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Duncan Thomas; Bain, Gregory Ian

    2012-01-01

    Radiocarpal fusions are performed for a variety of indications, most commonly for debilitating painful arthritis. The goal of a wrist fusion is to fuse the painful, diseased joints and to preserve motion through the healthy joints. Depending on the extent of the disease process, radiocarpal fusions may take the form of radiolunate, radioscapholunate, or total wrist fusions. Surgical techniques and instrumentation have advanced over the last few decades, and consequently the functional outcomes have improved and complications decreased. Techniques for partial carpal fusions have improved and now include distal scaphoid and triquetrum excision, which improves range of motion and fusion rates. In this article we discuss the various surgical techniques and fixation methods available and review the corresponding evidence in the literature. The authors' preferred surgical technique of radioscapholunate fusion with distal scaphoid and triquetrum excision is outlined. New implants and new concepts are also discussed. PMID:24179717

  20. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  1. Feasibility of contactless 3D optical measurement for the analysis of bone and soft tissue lesions: new technologies and perspectives in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Porta, Davide; Picozzi, Massimo

    2009-05-01

    In forensic pathology and anthropology, a correct analysis of lesions on soft tissues and bones is of the utmost importance, in order to verify the cause and manner of death. Photographs, videos, and photogrammetry may be an optimal manner of immortalizing a lesion, both on cadavers and skeletal remains; however, none of these can supply a detailed three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the lesion. Up to now, only the use of casts has given us the possibility of studying deep lesions such as saw marks with an accurate and complete 3D reconstruction of bone structure. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of 3D optical contactless measurement for the accurate recording of soft tissue and bone lesions, in order to develop a unique and precise method of registering and analyzing lesions, both in forensic pathology and anthropology. Three cases were analyzed: the first, a car accident with blunt force skin injuries; the second, a murder with blunt force injury to the head applied with a metal rod; the third, a series of sharp force knife and saw lesions on bone. Results confirm that 3D optical digitizing technology is a crucial tool in the immortalization of wound morphology in the medico-legal context even on "difficult" substrates such as cut marks and saw marks on bone.

  2. The path to fusion power.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris; Ward, David

    2007-04-15

    Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in power station conditions the materials that would be used in their construction. Assuming no major adverse surprises, an orderly fusion development programme could lead to a prototype fusion power station putting electricity into the grid within 30 years, with commercial fusion power following some 10 or more years later. In the second half of the century, fusion could therefore be an important part of the portfolio of measures that are needed to cope with rising demand for energy in an environmentally responsible manner. In this paper, we describe the basics of fusion, its potential attractions, the status of fusion R&D, the remaining challenges and how they will be tackled at the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor and the proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, and the timetable for the subsequent commercialization of fusion power.

  3. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  4. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  5. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way

  6. Accelerated Peri-Implant Soft Tissue Conditioning With Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Technology and Surgical Intervention: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hyoung; Sohn, Dong-Seok

    2015-12-01

    The conventional soft tissue conditioning technique around implant demands time and effort for optimizing soft tissue contour. This article describes an alternative technique for achieving proper emergence profile with a custom-milled titanium abutment, interim restoration, and surgical intervention. With this technique, peri-implant soft tissue is conditioned and healed against a correct designed interim restoration without composite resin addition.

  7. Recombinant enterokinase light chain with affinity tag: expression from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its utilities in fusion protein technology.

    PubMed

    Choi, S I; Song, H W; Moon, J W; Seong, B L

    2001-12-20

    Enterokinase and recombinant enterokinase light chain (rEK(L)) have been used widely to cleave fusion proteins with the target sequence of (Asp)(4)-Lys. In this work, we show that their utility as a site-specific cleavage agent is compromised by sporadic cleavage at other sites, albeit at low levels. Further degradation of the fusion protein in cleavage reaction is due to an intrinsic broad specificity of the enzyme rather than to the presence of contaminating proteases. To offer facilitated purification from fermentation broth and efficient removal of rEK(L) after cleavage reaction, thus minimizing unwanted cleavage of target protein, histidine affinity tag was introduced into rEK(L). Utilizing the secretion enhancer peptide derived from the human interleukin 1 beta, the recombinant EK(L) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and efficiently secreted into culture medium. The C-terminal His-tagged EK(L) was purified in a single-step procedure on nickel affinity chromatography. It retained full enzymatic activity similar to that of EK(L), whereas the N-terminal His-tagged EK(L) was neither efficiently purified nor had any enzymatic activity. After cleavage reaction of fusion protein, the C-terminal His-tagged EK(L) was efficiently removed from the reaction mixture by a single passage through nickel-NTA spin column. The simple affinity tag renders rEK(L) extremely useful for purification, post-cleavage removal, recovery, and recycling and will broaden the utility and the versatility of the enterokinase for the production of recombinant proteins.

  8. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  9. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  10. The Innovations, Technology and Waste Management Approaches to Safely Package and Transport the World's First Radioactive Fusion Research Reactor for Burial

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Rule; Erik Perry; Jim Chrzanowski; Mike Viola; Ron Strykowsky

    2003-09-15

    Original estimates stated that the amount of radioactive waste that will be generated during the dismantling of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor will approach two million kilograms with an associated volume of 2,500 cubic meters. The materials were activated by 14 MeV neutrons and were highly contaminated with tritium, which present unique challenges to maintain integrity during packaging and transportation. In addition, the majority of this material is stainless steel and copper structural metal that were specifically designed and manufactured for this one-of-a-kind fusion research reactor. This provided further complexity in planning and managing the waste. We will discuss the engineering concepts, innovative practices, and technologies that were utilized to size reduce, stabilize, and package the many unique and complex components of this reactor. This waste was packaged and shipped in many different configurations and methods according to the transportation regulations and disposal facility requirements. For this particular project, we were able to utilize two separate disposal facilities for burial. This paper will conclude with a complete summary of the actual results of the waste management costs, volumes, and best practices that were developed from this groundbreaking and successful project.

  11. Fusion Technology related studies at JET: Post-mortem tile analysis with MKII-HD geometry, In situ laser detritiation and Molecular Sieve Bed detritiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekris, N.; Coad, J. P.; Grisolia, C.; Likonen, J.; Semerok, A.; Dylst, K.; Widdowson, A.; JET-EFDA Contributor

    2011-10-01

    The JET Task Force Fusion Technology (TF-FT) has been launched with the aim of addressing issues related to JET and ITER. In this regard, studies related to the plasma-wall interactions identified erosion and deposition areas of the first wall of the vacuum vessel and provided the basis of our current knowledge on plasma-wall interaction processes at JET. In addition, characterisation of the properties of co-deposited layers covering the plasma exposed tiles have also been investigated and several detritiation techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, or photon-cleaning have been successfully tested not only ex situ but also in situ. In the field of waste management, TF-FT also launched a series of tasks aiming at the detritiation of any kind of waste produced by a Fusion facility. Based on such studies it is now possible to scale up the developed detritiation facilities in order to be able to reach dimensions used at JET or ITER.

  12. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2016-07-12

    ITER (in Latin “the way”) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium – fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project – China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States – represent more than half the world’s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  13. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  14. Synergetic Multisensor Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    technology have led to increased interest in using DEMs for navigation and other applications. In particular, DEMs are attractive for use in aircraft...Multisensor Fusion for Computer Vision [67]. 30 6. POSI!IONAL zSTIM&TION TECEnIQUzs FOR AN OUTDOOR MOBLE ROBOT The autonomous navigation of mobile robots is

  15. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL98-0521 : Development of an Electric Bus Inverter Based on ORNL Auxiliary Resonant Tank (ART) Soft-Switching Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, C.W.

    2001-05-08

    The Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has for many years been developing technologies for power converters for motor drives and many other applications. Some of the research goals are to improve efficiency and reduce audible and electromagnetic interference noise generation for inverters and the driven loads. The converters are being required to produce more power with reduced weight and volume, which requires improvements in heat removal from the electronics, as well as improved circuit designs that have fewer electrical losses. PEEMRC has recently developed and patented a soft-switching inverter topology called an Auxiliary Resonant Tank (ART), and this design has been tested and proven at ORNL using a 10-kW laboratory prototype. The objective of this project was to develop, test, and install the ART inverter technology in an electric transit bus with the final goal of evaluating performance of the ORNL inverter under field conditions in a vehicle. A scaled-up inverter with the capacity to drive a 22-e bus was built based on the 10-kW ORNL laboratory prototype ART soft-switching inverter. Most (if not all) commercially available inverters for traction drive and other applications use hard-switching inverters. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was established with the Chattanooga Area Regional Transit Authority (CARTA), the Electric Transit Vehicle Institute (ETVI), and Advanced Vehicle Systems (AVS), all of Chattanooga, along with ORNL. CARTA, which maintains and operates the public transit system in Chattanooga, provided an area for testing the vehicle alongside other similar vehicles in the normal operating environment. ETVI offers capabilities in standardized testing and reporting and also provides exposure in the electric transit vehicle arena for ORNL's technologies. The third Chattanooga partner, (AVS) manufactures all-electric and hybrid electric transit buses using

  16. Fire-protection research for energy technology: FY 80 year-end report. [For fusion energy experiments and other energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-05-26

    This continuing research program was initiated in 1977 in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program has since been expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-tree analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate moel and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes.

  17. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  18. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  19. Fusion research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  20. Soft normed rings.

    PubMed

    Uluçay, Vakkas; Şahin, Mehmet; Olgun, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft normed rings by soft set theory. The notions of soft normed rings, soft normed ideals, soft complete normed rings are introduced and also several related properties and examples are given.

  1. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  2. Gene fusions AHRR-NCOA2, NCOA2-ETV4, ETV4-AHRR, P4HA2-TBCK, and TBCK-P4HA2 resulting from the translocations t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) and t(4;5)(q24;q31) in a soft tissue angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Viset, Trond; Heim, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    We present an angiofibroma of soft tissue with the karyotype 46,XY,t(4;5)(q24;q31),t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) [8]/46,XY,t(1;14)(p31;q32)[2]/46,XY[3]. RNA-sequencing showed that the t(4;5)(q24;q31) resulted in recombination of the genes TBCK on 4q24 and P4HA2 on 5q31.1 with generation of an in-frame TBCK-P4HA2 and the reciprocal but out-of-frame P4HA2-TBCK fusion transcripts. The putative TBCK-P4HA2 protein would contain the kinase, the rhodanese-like domain, and the Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domains of TBCK together with the P4HA2 protein which is a component of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase. The t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) three-way chromosomal translocation targeted AHRR (on 5p15), NCOA2 (on 8q13), and ETV4 (on 17q21) generating the in-frame fusions AHRR-NCOA2 and NCOA2-ETV4 as well as an out-of-frame ETV4-AHRR transcript. In the AHRR-NCOA2 protein, the C-terminal part of AHRR is replaced by the C-terminal part of NCOA2 which contains two activation domains. The NCOA2-ETV4 protein would contain the helix-loop-helix, PAS_9 and PAS_11, CITED domains, the SRC-1 domain of NCOA2 and the ETS DNA-binding domain of ETV4. No fusion gene corresponding to t(1;14)(p31;q32) was found. Our findings indicate that, in spite of the recurrence of AHRR-NCOA2 in angiofibroma of soft tissue, additional genetic events (or fusion genes) might be required for the development of this tumor. PMID:27633981

  3. Low-loss, robust fusion splicing of silica to chalcogenide fiber for integrated mid-infrared laser technology development.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Rajesh; Gattass, Rafael R; Nguyen, Vinh; Chin, Geoff; Gibson, Dan; Kim, Woohong; Shaw, L Brandon; Sanghera, Jasbinder S

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a low-loss, repeatable, and robust splice between single-mode silica fiber and single-mode chalcogenide (CHG) fiber. These splices are particularly difficult to create because of the significant difference in the two fibers' glass transition temperatures (∼1000°C) as well as the large difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the fibers (∼20×10(-6)/°C). With 90% light coupled through the silica-CHG fiber splice, predominantly in the fundamental circular-symmetric mode, into the core of the CHG fiber and with 0.5 dB of splice loss measured around the wavelength of 2.5 μm, after correcting only for the Fresnel loss, the silica-CHG splice offers excellent beam quality and coupling efficiency. The tensile strength of the splice is greater than 12 kpsi, and the laser damage threshold is greater than 2 W (CW) and was limited by the available laser pump power. We also utilized this splicing technique to demonstrate 2 to 4.5 μm ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a monolithic all-fiber system comprising a CHG fiber and a high peak power 2 μm pulsed Raman-shifted thulium fiber laser. This is a major development toward compact form factor commercial applications of soft-glass mid-IR fibers.

  4. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  5. Robotic radiosurgery vs. brachytherapy as a boost to intensity modulated radiotherapy for tonsillar fossa and soft palate tumors: the clinical and economic impact of an emerging technology.

    PubMed

    Nijdam, W; Levendag, P; Fuller, D; Schulz, R; Prevost, J-B; Noever, I; Uyl-de Groot, C

    2007-12-01

    As a basis for making decisions regarding optimal treatment for patients with tonsillar fossa and soft palate tumors, we conducted a preliminary investigation of costs and quality of life (QoL) for two modalities [brachytherapy (BT) and robotic radiosurgery] used to boost radiation to the primary tumors following external beam radiotherapy. BT was well established in our center; a boost by robotic radiosurgery was begun more recently in patients for whom BT was not technically feasible. Robotic radiosurgery boost treatment has the advantage of being non-invasive and is able to reach tumors in cases where there is deep parapharyngeal tumor extension. A neck dissection was performed for patients with nodal-positive disease. Quality of life (pain and difficulty swallowing) was established in long-term follow-up for patients undergoing BT and over a one-year follow-up in robotic radiosurgery patients. Total hospital costs for both groups were computed. Our results show that efficacy and quality of life at one year are comparable for BT and robotic radiosurgery. Total cost for robotic radiosurgery was found to be less than BT primarily due to the elimination of hospital admission and operating room expenses. Confirmation of robotic radiosurgery treatment efficacy and reduced morbidity in the long term requires further study. Quality of life and cost analyses are critical to Health Technology Assessments (HTA). The present study shows how a preliminary HTA of a new medical technology such as robotic radiosurgery with its typical hypofractionation characteristics might be based on short-term clinical outcomes and assumptions of equivalence.

  6. Design and Implementation of Technology Enabled Affective Learning Using Fusion of Bio-Physical and Facial Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Arindam; Chakrabarti, Amlan

    2016-01-01

    Technology Enabled Learning is a cognitive, constructive, systematic, collaborative learning procedure, which transforms teaching-learning pedagogy where role of emotion is very often neglected. Emotion plays significant role in the cognitive process of human being, so the transformation is incomplete without capturing the learner's emotional…

  7. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  8. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way

  9. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  10. The Research on The Fusion Technology of Wireless LANs and Personal Area Networks for Emergency Secure in Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiyuan, Li

    The author has provided craft brother with predictive wireless communication modality and imaginative solutions, and discussed the applied mode of amalgamation technology of wireless LANs and personal area networks for emergency secure in coal mine. The fire protection jobs of emergency secure will become more scientific, more efficient and more flexible in this circumstance. The study can supply bailout team with the situation of a disaster and the location of miner, enhance the efficiency of emergency secure in coal mine.

  11. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  12. Fusion Data Grid Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Wang, Nanbor

    2004-11-01

    Simulations and experiments in the fusion and plasma physics community generate large datasets at remote sites. Visualization and analysis of these datasets are difficult because of the incompatibility among the various data formats adopted by simulation, experiments, and analysis tools, and the large sizes of analyzed data. Grids and Web Services technologies are capable of providing solutions for such heterogeneous settings, but need to be customized to the field-specific needs and merged with distributed technologies currently used by the community. This paper describes how we are addressing these issues in the Fusion Grid Service under development. We also present performance results of relevant data transfer mechanisms including binary SOAP, DIME, GridFTP and MDSplus and CORBA. We will describe the status of data converters (between HDF5 and MDSplus data types), developed in collaboration with MIT (J. Stillerman). Finally, we will analyze bottlenecks of MDSplus data transfer mechanism (work performed in collaboration with General Atomics (D. Schissel and M. Qian).

  13. Multi-sensor fusion development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bish, Sheldon; Rohrer, Matthew; Scheffel, Peter; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and McQ Inc. are developing a generic sensor fusion architecture that involves several diverse processes working in combination to create a dynamic task-oriented, real-time informational capability. Processes include sensor data collection, persistent and observational data storage, and multimodal and multisensor fusion that includes the flexibility to modify the fusion program rules for each mission. Such a fusion engine lends itself to a diverse set of sensing applications and architectures while using open-source software technologies. In this paper, we describe a fusion engine architecture that combines multimodal and multi-sensor fusion within an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) framework. The modular, plug-and-play architecture of OSUS allows future fusion plugin methodologies to have seamless integration into the fusion architecture at the conceptual and implementation level. Although beyond the scope of this paper, this architecture allows for data and information manipulation and filtering for an array of applications.

  14. Cold Fusion, A Journalistic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2005-03-01

    Author of the recent book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion, and founder of New Energy Times, Steven B. Krivit presents a summary of cold fusion's, past, present and possible future. This talk will briefly review five highlights of the recent New Energy Times investigation into cold fusion research:1. Analysis of early studies that supposedly disproved cold fusion.2. Key early corroborations that supported the claims of Fleischmann and Pons.3. The evolving understanding of cold fusion reaction paths and by-products.4. A look at volumetric power density.5. Brief comparison of the progress in hot fusion research as compared to cold fusion research.New Energy Times, founded in 2000, is an independent communications company which currently specializes in reporting on cold fusion researchootnotetextReferences and copies of the presentation are available at www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htmhttp://www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htm. It has no affiliations with any organization, entity or party which invests in these technologies, nor any individual researcher or research facility.

  15. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  16. The fusion of gerontology and technology in nursing education: History and demonstration of the Gerontological Informatics Reasoning Project--GRIP.

    PubMed

    Dreher, H Michael; Cornelius, Fran; Draper, Judy; Pitkar, Harshad; Manco, Janet; Song, Il-Yeol

    2006-01-01

    Phase I of our Gerontological Reasoning Informatics Project (GRIP) began in the summer of 2002 when all 37 senior undergraduate nursing students in our accelerated BSN nursing program were given PDAs. These students were oriented to use a digitalized geriatric nursing assessment tool embedded into their PDA in a variety of geriatric clinical agencies. This informatics project was developed to make geriatric nursing more technology oriented and focused on seven modules of geriatric assessment: intellect (I), nutrition (N), self-concept (S), physical activity (P), interpersonal functioning (I), restful sleep (R), and elimination (E)--INSPIRE. Through phase II and now phase III, the GRIP Project has become a major collaboration between the College of Nursing & Health Professions and College of Information Science and Technology at Drexel University. The digitalized geriatric nursing health assessment tool has undergone a second round of reliability and validity testing and is now used to conduct a 20 minute comprehensive geriatric health assessment on the PDA, making our undergraduate gerontology course the most high tech clinical course in our nursing curriculum.

  17. Soft Mappings Space

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Taha Yasin; Bayramov, Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Various soft topologies are being introduced on a given function space soft topological spaces. In this paper, soft compact-open topology is defined in functional spaces of soft topological spaces. Further, these functional spaces are studied and interrelations between various functional spaces with soft compact-open topology are established. PMID:25374936

  18. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    Liu G, Wong HK. Laminectomy and fusion. In: Shen FH, Samartzis D, Fessler RG, eds. Textbook of the Cervical Spine . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 34. Wood GW. Arthrodesis of the spine. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative ...

  19. Fusion of current technologies with real-time 3D MEMS ladar for novel security and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siepmann, James P.

    2006-05-01

    Through the utilization of scanning MEMS mirrors in ladar devices, a whole new range of potential military, Homeland Security, law enforcement, and civilian applications is now possible. Currently, ladar devices are typically large (>15,000 cc), heavy (>15 kg), and expensive (>$100,000) while current MEMS ladar designs are more than a magnitude less, opening up a myriad of potential new applications. One such application with current technology is a GPS integrated MEMS ladar unit, which could be used for real-time border monitoring or the creation of virtual 3D battlefields after being dropped or propelled into hostile territory. Another current technology that can be integrated into a MEMS ladar unit is digital video that can give high resolution and true color to a picture that is then enhanced with range information in a real-time display format that is easier for the user to understand and assimilate than typical gray-scale or false color images. The problem with using 2-axis MEMS mirrors in ladar devices is that in order to have a resonance frequency capable of practical real-time scanning, they must either be quite small and/or have a low maximum tilt angle. Typically, this value has been less than (< or = to 10 mg-mm2-kHz2)-degrees. We have been able to solve this problem by using angle amplification techniques that utilize a series of MEMS mirrors and/or a specialized set of optics to achieve a broad field of view. These techniques and some of their novel applications mentioned will be explained and discussed herein.

  20. Editorially Speaking - Fusion Power: Reasons for Higher Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippincott, William T.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research trends in the use of laser-fusion technology in combustion chambers to eradicate energy shortages. Indicates that fusion power could be made available at a relatively low expense. (CC)

  1. Information integration for data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  2. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the ...

  3. Magnetic fusion 1985: what next

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K.

    1985-03-01

    Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion.

  4. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  5. Soft translations and soft extensions of BCI/BCK-algebras.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Nazra; Rani, Nazia; Ali, Muhammad Irfan; Hussain, Azhar

    2014-01-01

    The concept of soft translations of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras is introduced and some related properties are studied. Notions of Soft extensions of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras are also initiated. Relationships between soft translations and soft extensions are explored.

  6. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  7. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.; Crocker, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Use of deuterium-tritium burning fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control, (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment, (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions, (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices, and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

  8. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  9. Outlook for the fusion hybrid and tritium-breeding fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. M.; Cohen, R.; Simpson, J. W.

    The study examines the outlook for fusion hybrid reactors. The study evaluates the status of fusion hybrid technology in the United States and analyzes the circumstances under which such reactors might be deployed. The study also examines a related concept, the tritium-breeding fusion reactor. The study examined two potential applications for fusion hybrid technology: (1) the production of fissile material to fuel light-water reactors, and (2) the direct production of baseload electricity. For both applications, markets were sufficiently problematical or remote (mid-century or later) to warrant only modest current research and development emphasis on technology specific to the fusion hybrid reactor. For the tritium-breeding fusion reactor, a need for tritium for use in nuclear weapons might arise well before the middle of the next century, so that a program of design studies, experimentation, and evaluation should be undertaken.

  10. World progress toward fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. F.

    1989-09-01

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements (about 75 percent of that required for ignition) have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R&D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century.

  11. Patterning proteins and cells using soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Kane, R S; Takayama, S; Ostuni, E; Ingber, D E; Whitesides, G M

    1999-12-01

    This review describes the pattering of proteins and cells using a non-photolithographic microfabrication technology, which we call 'soft lithography' because it consists of a set of related techniques, each of which uses stamps or channels fabricated in an elastomeric ('soft') material for pattern transfer. The review covers three soft lithographic techniques: microcontact printing, patterning using microfluidic channels, and laminar flow patterning. These soft lithographic techniques are inexpensive, are procedurally simple, and can be used to pattern a variety of planar and non-planar substrates. Their successful application does not require stringent regulation of the laboratory environment, and they can be used to pattern surfaces with delicate ligands. They provide control over both the surface chemistry and the cellular environment. We discuss both the procedures for patterning based on these soft lithographic techniques, and their applications in biosensor technology, in tissue engineering, and for fundamental studies in cell biology.

  12. Surgery for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Surgery for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Depending on the site and stage ... of Soft Tissue Sarcomas, by Stage More In Soft Tissue Sarcoma About Soft Tissue Sarcoma Causes, Risk ...

  13. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  14. Technologies for Army Knowledge Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Proceedings of the 1st International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), Sardinia, Italy, 9–12 June 2002. Goldman, R.; Geib , C.; Miller, C. A New Model of...1023 SCIENCE RESEARCH CTR 223 JAMES P BRAWLEY DR SW ATLANTA GA 30314 1 SCHOOL OF ENGRNG MORGAN STATE UNIVERSITY E DELOATCH BALTIMORE

  15. Ewing Sarcoma, an enigmatic malignancy of likely progenitor cell origin, driven by transcription factor oncogenic fusions

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicka, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Since its first description by James Ewing in 1921, Ewing Sarcoma has been a cryptic malignancy. A poorly differentiated tumor of uncertain histogenesis and aggressive biologic behavior, it is the second most common malignancy of bone and soft tissue affecting adolescents and young adults. Some two decades ago, the understanding of Ewing Sarcoma biology took a leap forward with the identification of recurrent EWS/Ets fusions, which drive onco-genesis in this disease. A further leap forward occurred over the last half decade with the application of gene silencing, global expression profiling and primary cell culture technologies to the study of this disease. Resulting work has revealed EWS/Ets fusions to be surprisingly versatile regulators of gene expression, and has narrowed the search for the elusive cell of origin. Improved understanding of EWS/Ets biology and relevant oncogenic pathways has in turn led to the development of targeted therapies, including, recently, small molecules targeting key complexes involving the oncogenic fusion itself. In many respects still remaining an enigma, Ewing Sarcoma is an important model for cancers originating in progenitor-type cells or manifesting progenitor-type cell features, and cancers containing recurrent oncogenic fusions, the latter a surprisingly expanding number. PMID:20490326

  16. Novel Hydrophobin Fusion Tags for Plant-Produced Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ritala, Anneli; Linder, Markus; Joensuu, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobin fusion technology has been applied in the expression of several recombinant proteins in plants. Until now, the technology has relied exclusively on the Trichoderma reesei hydrophobin HFBI. We screened eight novel hydrophobin tags, T. reesei HFBII, HFBIII, HFBIV, HFBV, HFBVI and Fusarium verticillioides derived HYD3, HYD4 and HYD5, for production of fusion proteins in plants and purification by two-phase separation. To study the properties of the hydrophobins, we used N-terminal and C-terminal GFP as a fusion partner. Transient expression of the hydrophobin fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed large variability in accumulation levels, which was also reflected in formation of protein bodies. In two-phase separations, only HFBII and HFBIV were able to concentrate GFP into the surfactant phase from a plant extract. The separation efficiency of both tags was comparable to HFBI. When the accumulation was tested side by side, HFBII-GFP gave a better yield than HFBI-GFP, while the yield of HFBIV-GFP remained lower. Thus we present here two alternatives for HFBI as functional fusion tags for plant-based protein production and first step purification. PMID:27706254

  17. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.

  18. Lunar Helium-3 and Fusion Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Office of Exploration sponsored the NASA Lunar Helium-3 and Fusion Power Workshop. The meeting was held to understand the potential of using He-3 from the moon for terrestrial fusion power production. It provided an overview, two parallel working sessions, a review of sessions, and discussions. The lunar mining session concluded that mining, beneficiation, separation, and return of He-3 from the moon would be possible but that a large scale operation and improved technology is required. The fusion power session concluded that: (1) that He-3 offers significant, possibly compelling, advantages over fusion of tritium, principally increased reactor life, reduced radioactive wastes, and high efficiency conversion, (2) that detailed assessment of the potential of the D/He-3 fuel cycle requires more information, and (3) D/He-3 fusion may be best for commercial purposes, although D/T fusion is more near term.

  19. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  20. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  1. JPRS Report. Science & Technology, Japan. Surface Reforming by Ion Implantation Symposium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    trains. In research into nuclear fusion aimed at developing energy for the next age , technology for generating a great quantity of ion beams to meet...metal membrane, increasing its adhesive strength through ion implantation and brazing and soldering it with the metal bulk via the metal membrane. 39...100-nm Fe and soldering it with a cast iron plate using a Pb- Sn soft solder21. The interfacial adhesive strength between Ti and Si3N4 increases as

  2. Nanocrystalline Fe88-2xCoxNixZr7B4Cu1 alloys: Soft magnets for vehicle electrification technologies (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipling, K. E.; Daniil, M.; Willard, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the effect of substituting Co and Ni for Fe on the crystallization behavior, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of Fe88-2xCoxNixZr7B4Cu1 (x = 0-22.00). The magnetization generally decreases and the coercivity increases with increasing x, whereas the Curie temperature of the amorphous phase increases significantly (from 73 °C at x = 0 to 570 °C at x = 22.00). There is thus an optimum composition near x = 5.50 exhibiting excellent soft magnetic properties at 300-500 °C. The higher magnetization and Curie temperature as compared with Fe-based alloys, and smaller Co content as compared with (Fe,Co)-based alloys, make this alloy attractive as an affordable high-temperature soft magnetic material.

  3. Soft X-ray optics and technology; Proceedings of the Meeting, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, Dec. 8-11, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Ernst-Eckhard; Schmahl, Guenter

    Recent advances in the design, construction, and application of soft X-ray (SX) sources and optics are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include VUV and SX sources, high-brightness synchrotron radiation sources, SX mirrors, instruments for X-ray astronomy satellites, and SX instrumentation for synchrotron sources. Consideration is given to VUV and SX optics, multilayers, SX scanning microscopy, microfabrication and zone plates, and SX radiometry and detectors. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, spectra, and sample images are provided.

  4. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  5. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes > 1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa ("displacement-per-atom", the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  6. The first fusion reactor: ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    Established by the signature of the ITER Agreement in November 2006 and currently under construction at St Paul-lez-Durance in southern France, the ITER project [1,2] involves the European Union (including Switzerland), China, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, South Korea and the United States. ITER (`the way' in Latin) is a critical step in the development of fusion energy. Its role is to provide an integrated demonstration of the physics and technology required for a fusion power plant based on magnetic confinement.

  7. Extreme Mechanics in Soft Pneumatic Robots and Soft Microfluidic Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, Carmel

    2012-02-01

    In the near future, machines and robots will be completely soft, stretchable, impact resistance, and capable of adapting their shape and functionality to changes in mission and environment. Similar to biological tissue and soft-body organisms, these next-generation technologies will contain no rigid parts and instead be composed entirely of soft elastomers, gels, fluids, and other non-rigid matter. Using a combination of rapid prototyping tools, microfabrication methods, and emerging techniques in so-called ``soft lithography,'' scientists and engineers are currently introducing exciting new families of soft pneumatic robots, soft microfluidic sensors, and hyperelastic electronics that can be stretched to as much as 10x their natural length. Progress has been guided by an interdisciplinary collection of insights from chemistry, life sciences, robotics, microelectronics, and solid mechanics. In virtually every technology and application domain, mechanics and elasticity have a central role in governing functionality and design. Moreover, in contrast to conventional machines and electronics, soft pneumatic systems and microfluidics typically operate in the finite deformation regime, with materials stretching to several times their natural length. In this talk, I will review emerging paradigms in soft pneumatic robotics and soft microfluidic electronics and highlight modeling and design challenges that arise from the extreme mechanics of inflation, locomotion, sensor operation, and human interaction. I will also discuss perceived challenges and opportunities in a broad range of potential application, from medicine to wearable computing.

  8. Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…

  9. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H. ); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. ); Loomis, B.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  10. Superconducting magnets for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1987-07-02

    Fusion magnet technology has made spectacular advances in the past decade; to wit, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and the Large Coil Project. However, further advances are still required for advanced economical fusion reactors. Higher fields to 14 T and radiation-hardened superconductors and insulators will be necessary. Coupled with high rates of nuclear heating and pulsed losses, the next-generation magnets will need still higher current density, better stability and quench protection. Cable-in-conduit conductors coupled with polyimide insulations and better steels seem to be the appropriate path. Neutron fluences up to 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in niobium tin are achievable. In the future, other amorphous superconductors could raise these limits further to extend reactor life or decrease the neutron shielding and corresponding reactor size.

  11. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  12. Development of a Green Soft Chemical Method for the Synthesis of Cathode Materials Utilized in Lithium-ion Energy Storage Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicker, Scott Ambrose

    The statement of the problem is to develop an environmental friendly, cost effective cathode material with the technical requirements to withstand the energy demand of directly storing electricity for the uses in today society. The author solved the problem by designing a water soluble, thermally stable organic moiety that is used as fuel and a template in the low temperature solution combustion synthesis of cathode materials utilized in lithium-ion energy storage devices. The Green Soft Chemical method (MADHAMS) is a useful alternative solution-combustion method for the synthesis of highly pure, fine-sized, spherical & cubic cathode powders. With the global demand pushing industrial applications toward green chemistry, we developed this technique with environmental friendly solvents. This MADHAMS method would fall within the "Self-Propagation Combustion Synthesis (SPCS)" family. SPCS is a family of methods that utilize metal nitrates as conventional oxidants and organic compounds as fuels. As the nitrate decomposes and the fuel is oxidized, energy is released into the local system as heat energy. The energy can be controlled by the metal-ion-to-fuel ratio. As part of this study, the properties and characteristics of the cathode powders prepared by a green soft chemical method are extensively investigated. This report also describes the non-isothermal investigation of the dependence of the activation energy on the extent of conversion of lithium cobalt dioxide using the iso-conversional method of Friedman. Lithium cobalt dioxide was prepared by the direct reaction of lithium carbonate and cobalt oxide. Cobalt oxide was prepared from the thermal decomposition of Cobalt (II) propenoate so that the starting materials used in the kinetic investigation would closely resemble or represent the natural decomposition products that are produced during the green soft chemical synthetic methods. The kinetic analysis of the variation in Ealpha with alpha revealed that this

  13. Advanced fission and fossil plant economics-implications for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    In order for fusion energy to be a viable option for electric power generation, it must either directly compete with future alternatives or serve as a reasonable backup if the alternatives become unacceptable. This paper discusses projected costs for the most likely competitors with fusion power for baseload electric capacity and what these costs imply for fusion economics. The competitors examined include advanced nuclear fission and advanced fossil-fired plants. The projected costs and their basis are discussed. The estimates for these technologies are compared with cost estimates for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion plants. The conclusion of the analysis is that fusion faces formidable economic competition. Although the cost level for fusion appears greater than that for fission or fossil, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion`s potential competitiveness.

  14. Inertial fusion experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Tikhonchuk, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-09-01

    Inertial fusion research is approaching a critical milestone, namely the demonstration of ignition and burn. The world's largest high-power laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF), is under operation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the USA. Another ignition machine, Laser Mega Joule (LMJ), is under construction at the CEA/CESTA research centre in France. In relation to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) at LLNL, worldwide studies on inertial fusion applications to energy production are growing. Advanced ignition schemes such as fast ignition, shock ignition and impact ignition, and the inertial fusion energy (IFE) technology are under development. In particular, the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, and the OMEGA-EP project at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University Rochester, and the HiPER project in the European Union (EU) for fast ignition and shock ignition are progressing. The IFE technology research and development are advanced in the frameworks of the HiPER project in EU and the LIFE project in the USA. Laser technology developments in the USA, EU, Japan and Korea were major highlights in the IAEA FEC 2010. In this paper, the status and prospects of IFE science and technology are described.

  15. Fusion of Dependent and Independent Biometric Information Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    recognition. A novel Borda count for fusion based on ranks and confidence was proposed. All experiments were performed on real-world handwritten words...r k r j kjRM xg 2 21 1 21 1 1 0 .))(( )( ),( Λ Λ xα xα α αα Experiments showed that the fusion methods can improve the performance of person...fusing three biometrics DRDC Ottawa CR 2005-052 39 6.4 Soft decision-level fusion The sixth experiment shows the FRR and FAR of the

  16. Review of fusion synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  17. Carbon nanotubes and graphene towards soft electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although silicon technology has been the main driving force for miniaturizing device dimensions to improve cost and performance, the current application of Si to soft electronics (flexible and stretchable electronics) is limited due to material rigidity. As a result, various prospective materials have been proposed to overcome the rigidity of conventional Si technology. In particular, nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are promising due to outstanding elastic properties as well as an excellent combination of electronic, optoelectronic, and thermal properties compared to conventional rigid silicon. The uniqueness of these nano-carbon materials has opened new possibilities for soft electronics, which is another technological trend in the market. This review covers the recent progress of soft electronics research based on CNTs and graphene. We discuss the strategies for soft electronics with nano-carbon materials and their preparation methods (growth and transfer techniques) to devices as well as the electrical characteristics of transparent conducting films (transparency and sheet resistance) and device performances in field effect transistor (FET) (structure, carrier type, on/off ratio, and mobility). In addition to discussing state of the art performance metrics, we also attempt to clarify trade-off issues and methods to control the trade-off on/off versus mobility). We further demonstrate accomplishments of the CNT network in flexible integrated circuits on plastic substrates that have attractive characteristics. A future research direction is also proposed to overcome current technological obstacles necessary to realize commercially feasible soft electronics.

  18. Fusion research: the past is prologue

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F

    1998-10-14

    At this juncture fusion research can be viewed as being at a turning point, a time to review its past and to imagine its future. Today, almost 50 years since the first serious attempts to address the daunting problem of achieving controlled fusion, we have both an opportunity and a challenge. Some predictions place fusion research today at a point midway between its first inception and its eventual maturation - in the middle of the 21st century - when fusion would become a major source of energy. Our opportunity therefore is to assess what we have learned from 50 years of hard work and use that knowledge as a starting point for new and better approaches to solving the fusion problem. Our challenge is to prove the "50 more years" prophesy wrong, by finding ways to shorten the time when fusion power becomes a reality. The thesis will be advanced that in the magnetic confinement approach to fusion open-ended magnetic confinement geometries offer much in responding to the challenge. A major advantage of open systems is that, owing to their theoretically and experimentally demonstrated ability to suppress plasma instabilities of both the MHD and the high-frequency wave-particle variety, the confinement becomes predictable from "classical," i.e., Fokker-Planck-type analysis. In a time of straitened budgetary circumstances for magnetic fusion research now being faced in the United States, the theoretical tractability of mirror-based systems is a substantial asset. In pursuing this avenue it is also necessary to keep an open mind as to the forms that mirror-based fusion power plants might take. For example, one can look to the high-energy physics community for a possible model: This community has shown the feasibility of constructing large and complex particle accelerators using superconducting magnets, vacuum chambers and complicated particle-handling technology, housed in underground tunnels that are 20 or more kilometers long. In the paper examples of mirror

  19. Inertial confinement fusion. Quarterly report, July--September 1993: Volume 3, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, R.A.; Murphy, P.W.; Schleich, D.P.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following research: Diode-pumped solid- state-laser driver for inertial fusion energy power plants; Longitudinal beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion accelerators; Design of the ion sources for heavy ion fusion; Measurement of electron density in laser-produced plasma with a soft x-ray moire deflectometer; and Analysis of weakly nonlinear three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth.

  20. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has

  1. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  2. Viral membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a "fusion loop" or "fusion peptide") engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics.

  3. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  4. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  5. Flavoured soft leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Chee Sheng; Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.

    2008-06-01

    We study the impact of flavour in ``soft leptogenesis'' (leptogenesis induced by soft supersymmetry breaking terms). We address the question of how flavour effects can affect the region of parameters in which successful soft leptogenesis induced by CP violation in the right-handed sneutrino mixing is possible. We find that for decays which occur in the intermediate to strong washout regimes for all flavours, the produced total B-L asymmetry can be up to a factor Script O(30) larger than the one predicted with flavour effects being neglected. This enhancement, permits slightly larger values of the required lepton violating soft bilinear term.

  6. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  7. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; Betti, R.; Bauer, B. S.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Miller, R. L.; Laberge, M.; Delage, M.

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  8. Strategic plan for the restructured US fusion energy sciences program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This plan reflects a transition to a restructured fusion program, with a change in focus from an energy technology development program to a fusion energy sciences program. Since the energy crisis of the early 1970`s, the U.S. fusion program has presented itself as a goal- oriented fusion energy development program, with milestones that required rapidly increasing budgets. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 also called for a goal-oriented development program consistent with the Department`s planning. Actual funding levels, however, have forced a premature narrowing of the program to the tokamak approach. By 1995, with no clear, immediate need driving the schedule for developing fusion energy and with enormous pressure to reduce discretionary spending, Congress cut fusion program funding for FY 1996 by one-third and called for a major restructuring of the program. Based on the recommendations of the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), the Department has decided to pursue a program that concentrates on world-class plasma, science, and on maintaining an involvement in fusion energy science through international collaboration. At the same time, the Japanese and Europeans, with energy situations different from ours, are continuing with their goal- oriented fusion programs. Collaboration with them provides a highly leveraged means of continued involvement in fusion energy science and technology, especially through participation in the engineering and design activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor program, ITER. This restructured fusion energy sciences program, with its focus on fundamental fusion science and technology, may well provide insights that lead to more attractive fusion power plants, and will make use of the scientific infrastructure that will allow the United States to launch a fusion energy development program at some future date.

  9. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir; Sanjiv , Pritha; Ray

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  10. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  11. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    SciTech Connect

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2015-07-14

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  12. Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than ICF. Second, the magnetic field is only used for insulation, not confinement, and the plasma is wall confined, so that plasma instabilities are traded in for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the degree of compression required to reach fusion condition is lower than for ICF, so that hydrodynamic instabilities are much less threatening. The standoff driver innovation proposes to dynamically form the target plasma and a gaseous shell that compresses and confines the target plasma. Therefore, fusion target fabrication is traded in for a multiplicity of plasma guns, which must work in synchrony. The standoff driver embodiment of MTF leads to a fusion propulsion system concept that is potentially compact and lightweight. We will discuss the underlying physics of MTF and some of the details of the fusion propulsion concept using the standoff driver approach. We discuss here the optimization of an MTF target design for space propulsion. .

  13. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  14. Soft Pion Processes

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Nambu, Y.

    1968-01-01

    My talk is concerned with a review, not necessarily of the latest theoretical developments, but rather of an old idea which has contributed to recent theoretical activities. By soft pion processes I mean processes in which low energy pions are emitted or absorbed or scattered, just as we use the word soft photon in a similar context. Speaking more quantitatively, we may call a pion soft if its energy is small compared to a natural scale in the reaction. This scale is determined by the particular dynamics of pion interaction, and one may roughly say that a pion is soft if its energy is small compared to the energies of the other individual particles that participate in the reaction. It is important to note at this point that pion is by far the lightest member of all the hadrons, and much of the success of the soft pion formulas depends on this fact.

  15. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  16. Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs given into ... Depending on the type and stage of sarcoma, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or ...

  17. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements. PMID:22619599

  18. Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  19. A Comprehensive Study of Soft Palate Development in Mice.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Alexandre; Parada, Carolina; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital birth defects. Tremendous efforts have been made over the last decades towards understanding hard palate development. However, little is known about soft palate morphogenesis and myogenesis. Finding an appropriate surgical repair to restore physiological functions of the soft palate in patients with cleft palate is a major challenge for surgeons, and complete restoration is not always achievable. Here, we first analyzed the morphology, orientation and attachments of the four muscles of the murine soft palate and found that they are very similar to their counterparts in humans, validating the use of mus musculus as a model for future studies. Our data suggests that muscle differentiation extends from the lateral region to the midline following palatal fusion. We also detected an epithelial seam in the fusing soft palatal shelves, consistent with the process of fusion of the posterior palatal shelves, followed by degradation of the epithelial remnants. Innervation and vascularization are present mainly in the oral side of the soft palate, complementing the differentiated muscles. Cell lineage tracing using Wnt1-Cre;Zsgreenfl/fl mice indicated that all the tendons and mesenchyme embedding the soft palate muscles are neural crest-derived. We propose that the posterior attachment of the soft palate to the pharyngeal wall is an interface between the neural crest- and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme in the craniofacial region, and thus can serve as a potential model for the study of boundaries during development. Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive view of the development and morphology of the murine soft palate and serves as a reference for further molecular analyses.

  20. A Comprehensive Study of Soft Palate Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Alexandre; Parada, Carolina; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital birth defects. Tremendous efforts have been made over the last decades towards understanding hard palate development. However, little is known about soft palate morphogenesis and myogenesis. Finding an appropriate surgical repair to restore physiological functions of the soft palate in patients with cleft palate is a major challenge for surgeons, and complete restoration is not always achievable. Here, we first analyzed the morphology, orientation and attachments of the four muscles of the murine soft palate and found that they are very similar to their counterparts in humans, validating the use of mus musculus as a model for future studies. Our data suggests that muscle differentiation extends from the lateral region to the midline following palatal fusion. We also detected an epithelial seam in the fusing soft palatal shelves, consistent with the process of fusion of the posterior palatal shelves, followed by degradation of the epithelial remnants. Innervation and vascularization are present mainly in the oral side of the soft palate, complementing the differentiated muscles. Cell lineage tracing using Wnt1-Cre;Zsgreenfl/fl mice indicated that all the tendons and mesenchyme embedding the soft palate muscles are neural crest-derived. We propose that the posterior attachment of the soft palate to the pharyngeal wall is an interface between the neural crest- and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme in the craniofacial region, and thus can serve as a potential model for the study of boundaries during development. Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive view of the development and morphology of the murine soft palate and serves as a reference for further molecular analyses. PMID:26671681

  1. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  2. Use of data fusion to optimize contaminant transport predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Eeckhout, E. van

    1997-10-01

    The original data fusion workstation, as envisioned by Coleman Research Corp., was constructed under funding from DOE (EM-50) in the early 1990s. The intent was to demonstrate the viability of fusion and analysis of data from various types of sensors for waste site characterization, but primarily geophysical. This overall concept changed over time and evolved more towards hydrogeological (groundwater) data fusion after some initial geophysical fusion work focused at Coleman. This initial geophysical fusion platform was tested at Hanford and Fernald, and the later hydrogeological fusion work has been demonstrated at Pantex, Savannah River, the US Army Letterkenny Depot, a DoD Massachusetts site and a DoD California site. The hydrogeologic data fusion package has been spun off to a company named Fusion and Control Technology, Inc. This package is called the Hydrological Fusion And Control Tool (Hydro-FACT) and is being sold as a product that links with the software package, MS-VMS (MODFLOW-SURFACT Visual Modeling System), sold by HydroGeoLogic, Inc. MODFLOW is a USGS development, and is in the public domain. Since the government paid for the data fusion development at Coleman, the government and their contractors have access to the data fusion technology in this hydrogeologic package for certain computer platforms, but would probably have to hire FACT (Fusion and Control Technology, Inc.,) and/or HydroGeoLogic for some level of software and services. Further discussion in this report will concentrate on the hydrogeologic fusion module that is being sold as Hydro-FACT, which can be linked with MS-VMS.

  3. Strategy for D/He-3 fusion development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santarius, John F.

    1988-01-01

    It is concluded that Deuterium/Helium-3 fusion faces a more difficult physics development path but an easier technology development path than does Deuterium/Tritium. Early D/He-3 tests in next generation D/T fusion experiments might provide a valuable D/He-3 proof-of-principle at modest cost. At least one high leverage alternate concept should be vigorously pursued. Space applications of D/He-3 fusion are critically important to large scale development.

  4. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-15

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  5. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments without Superconducting Electromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-08-19

    Long-pulse fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long-pulse ignition with deuterium-tritium fuel. Long-pulse resistive electromagnets are alternatives to today's delicate and costly superconductors. At any rate, superconducting technology is now evolving independent of fusion, so near-term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful.

  6. Prospects for toroidal fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    Work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak has refined understanding of the realities of a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning magnetic fusion reactor. An ITER-like tokamak reactor using ITER costs and performance would lead to a cost of electricity (COE) of about 130 mills/kWh. Advanced tokamak physics to be tested in the Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX), coupled with moderate components in engineering, technology, and unit costs, should lead to a COE comparable with best existing fission systems around 60 mills/kWh. However, a larger unit size, {approximately}2000 MW(e), is favored for the fusion system. Alternative toroidal configurations to the conventional tokamak, such as the stellarator, reversed-field pinch, and field-reversed configuration, offer some potential advantage, but are less well developed, and have their own challenges.

  7. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.; Hogan, W.J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Klein, G.; Diaz, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short-duration manned-mission performance exceeding other technologies. We are conducting a study to assess the systems aspects of inertial fusion as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983) we describe the required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel. We give preliminary design details for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days. Specific mission performance results will be published elsewhere, after the study has been completed.

  8. Magnetic mirror fusion: status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1980-02-11

    Two improved mirror systems, the tandem mirror (TM) and the field-reversed mirror (FRM) are being intensively studied. The twin practical aims of these studies: to improve the economic prospects for mirror fusion power plants and to reduce the size and/or complexity of such plants relative to earlier approaches to magnetic fusion. While at the present time the program emphasis is still strongly oriented toward answering scientific questions, the emphasis is shifting as the data accumulates and as larger facilities - ones with a heavy technological and engineering orientation - are being prepared. The experimental and theoretical progress that led to the new look in mirror fusion research is briefly reviewed, the new TM and the FRM ideas are outlined, and the projected future course of mirror fusion research is discussed.

  9. Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Gasdynamic Mirror, or GDM, is an example of a magnetic mirror-based fusion propulsion system. Its design is primarily consisting of a long slender solenoid surrounding a vacuum chamber that contains plasma. The bulk of the fusion plasma is confined by magnetic field generated by a series of toroidal-shaped magnets in the center section of the device. the purpose of the GDM Fusion Propulsion Experiment is to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to demonstrate many of the operational characteristics of a full-size plasma can be confined within the desired physical configuration and still reman stable. This image shows an engineer from Propulsion Research Technologies Division at Marshall Space Flight Center inspecting solenoid magnets-A, an integrate part of the Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment.

  10. Rotting softly and stealthily.

    PubMed

    Toth, Ian K; Birch, Paul R J

    2005-08-01

    The soft rot erwiniae, which are plant pathogens on potato and other crops world-wide, synthesize and secrete large quantities of plant cell wall degrading enzymes that are responsible for the soft rot phenotype, earning them the epithet 'brute force' pathogens. They have been distinguished from classic 'stealth' pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, which possesses an extensive battery of Type III secreted effector proteins and phytotoxins to manipulate and suppress host defences. However, recent studies, including whole-genome sequencing, are revealing many components of stealth pathogenesis within the soft rot erwiniae (SRE), suggesting that 'stealth' and 'brute force' should not be regarded as mutually exclusive modes of pathogenesis.

  11. Avian Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2016-01-01

    Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resection and anastomosis, cloacoplasty, cloacopexy), respiratory (rhinolith removal, sinusotomy, tracheotomy, tracheal resection and anastomosis, tracheostomy, pneumonectomy) and reproductive (ovocentesis, ovariectomy, salpingohysterectomy, cesarean section, orchidectomy, vasectomy, phallectomy) systems are reviewed.

  12. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) for interplanetary fusion propulsion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.

    1987-10-02

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted.

  13. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) for interplanetary fusions propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, Charles D.; Klein, Gail; Sercel, Joel; Hoffman, Nate; Murray, Kathy; Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted.

  14. Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2003: State of the Art 2003, Published by the American Nuclear Society

    SciTech Connect

    Editors: B. A. Hammel; D. D. Meyerhofer; J. Meyer-ter-Vehn; H. Azechi. Organizing Chair: W. J. Hogan

    2004-06-01

    Collection of all papers presented and submitted at the IFSA2003 conference. Topics included target design and performance, fast ignition, plasma instabilities, laser technology, fusion reactor technology

  15. Linker engineering for fusion protein construction: Improvement and characterization of a GLP-1 fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yuelin; Tong, Yue; Gao, Mingming; Chen, Chen; Gao, Xiangdong; Yao, Wenbing

    2016-01-01

    Protein engineering has been successfully applied in protein drug discovery. Using this technology, we previously have constructed a fusion protein by linking the globular domain of adiponectin to the C-terminus of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog. Herein, to further improve its bioactivity, we reconstructed this fusion protein by introducing linker peptides of different length and flexibility. The reconstructed fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using nickel affinity chromatography. Their agonist activity towards receptors of GLP-1 and adiponectin were assessed in vitro by using luciferase assay and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) immunoblotting, respectively. The effects of the selected fusion protein on glucose and lipid metabolism were evaluated in mice. The fusion protein reconstructed using a linker peptide of AMGPSSGAPGGGGS showed high potency in activating GLP-1 receptor and triggering AMPK phosphorylation via activating the adiponectin receptor. Remarkably, the optimized fusion protein was highly effective in lowering blood glucose and lipids in mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the bioactivity of this GLP-1 fusion protein can be significantly promoted by linker engineering, and indicate that the optimized GLP-1 fusion protein is a promising lead structure for anti-diabetic drug discovery.

  16. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Wiffen, Frederick W.; Noe, Susan P.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2014-10-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the ORNL fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing DOE Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger U.S. and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.

  17. Construction and Analysis of High-Ethanol-Producing Fusants with Co-Fermentation Ability through Protoplast Fusion and Double Labeling Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jingping; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Luyan; Zhang, Mengyun; Ping, Wenxiang

    2014-01-01

    Double labeling of resistance markers and report genes can be used to breed engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that can assimilate xylose and glucose as a mixed carbon source for ethanol fermentation and increased ethanol production. In this study Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and Candida shehatae 20335 were used as parent strains to conduct protoplast fusion and the resulting fusants were screened by double labeling. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to assess the ethanol yield following the fermentation of xylose and glucose, as both single and mixed carbon sources, by the fusants. Interestingly, one fusant (ZLYRHZ7) was demonstrated to have an excellent fermentation performance, with an ethanol yield using the mixed carbon source of 0.424 g g−1, which compares with 0.240 g g−1 (W5) and 0.353 g g−1 (20335) for the parent strains. This indicates an improvement in the ethanol yield of 43.4% and 16.7%, respectively. PMID:25268957

  18. Soft systems, hard lessons.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, B

    2000-12-01

    This paper is concerned with practical experiences of achieving human factors and safety interventions in the nuclear power and process control industries. It rests upon the premise that, although human factors (HF) and safety may be technological in approach, they nevertheless must operate in a socio-technical environment, within companies with corporate structures and cultures, interacting with regulatory authorities. A crucial ingredient to the successful implementation and integration of human factors into company practices and procedures is therefore the nature of the inter-relationships between human factors personnel and those who control the existing procedures determining all aspects of the design and operational processes. Such inter-relationships can largely determine whether HF is implemented or not. These human-human interactions and interfaces in a socio-technical system may be referred to as soft systems. When training in human factors, much of the training is concerned with technical aspects of the discipline. However, when entering industry or consultancy, one quickly discovers that technical aspects are usually the least of one's problems. This paper is concerned with experiences and guidance to better help the human factors professional starting out in industry. There is little scientific method in the paper. It is, instead, a distillation of this author's and others' experiences in acting either as a practitioner or consultant, or as leader of a human factors unit in industries that have at times been reluctant or even hostile about the perceived 'invasion' of human factors. However, to avoid being purely anecdotal, the experiences are placed in a framework concerned with the life cycle of integrating human factors into an industry, from being the first HF person in a company, to the development of a successful unit, or the absorption of a successful unit into other departments. Within this framework a range of strategic aspects are dealt with

  19. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  20. Sensor fusion for airborne landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Miranda A.; Gader, Paul D.; Bolton, Jeremy; Zare, Alina; Mendez-Vasquez, Andres

    2006-05-01

    Sensor fusion has become a vital research area for mine detection because of the countermine community's conclusion that no single sensor is capable of detecting mines at the necessary detection and false alarm rates over a wide variety of operating conditions. The U. S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) evaluates sensors and algorithms for use in a multi-sensor multi-platform airborne detection modality. A large dataset of hyperspectral and radar imagery exists from the four major data collections performed at U. S. Army temperate and arid testing facilities in Autumn 2002, Spring 2003, Summer 2004, and Summer 2005. There are a number of algorithm developers working on single-sensor algorithms in order to optimize feature and classifier selection for that sensor type. However, a given sensor/algorithm system has an absolute limitation based on the physical phenomena that system is capable of sensing. Therefore, we perform decision-level fusion of the outputs from single-channel algorithms and we choose to combine systems whose information is complementary across operating conditions. That way, the final fused system will be robust to a variety of conditions, which is a critical property of a countermine detection system. In this paper, we present the analysis of fusion algorithms on data from a sensor suite consisting of high frequency radar imagery combined with hyperspectral long-wave infrared sensor imagery. The main type of fusion being considered is Choquet integral fusion. We evaluate performance achieved using the Choquet integral method for sensor fusion versus Boolean and soft "and," "or," mean, or majority voting.

  1. Soft bioelectronics using nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunjae; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, soft bioelectronics has attracted significant attention because of its potential applications in biointegrated healthcare devices and minimally invasive surgical tools. Mechanical mismatch between conventional electronic/optoelectronic devices and soft human tissues/organs, however, causes many challenges in materials and device designs of bio-integrated devices. Intrinsically soft hybrid materials comprising twodimensional nanomaterials are utilized to solve these issues. In this paper, we describe soft bioelectronic devices based on graphene synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition process. These devices have unique advantages over rigid electronics, particularly in biomedical applications. The functionalized graphene is hybridized with other nanomaterials and fabricated into high-performance sensors and actuators toward wearable and minimally invasive healthcare devices. Integrated bioelectronic systems constructed using these devices solve pending issues in clinical medicine while providing new opportunities in personalized healthcare.

  2. Very Soft Sculpture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deGrassi, Jennifer

    1979-01-01

    Instructions are provided for making dolls, or soft people sculptures, by stuffing nylons with cotton and shaping the result with stitching and decoration. This article is one of seven in this issue on fiber arts. (SJL)

  3. Soft QCD at Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, Murilo; /Orsay, LAL

    2010-06-01

    Experimental studies of soft Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at Tevatron are reported in this note. Results on inclusive inelastic interactions, underlying events, double parton interaction and exclusive diffractive production and their implications to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics are discussed.

  4. Soft Magnetic Materials for Improved Energy Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    A main focus of sustainable energy research has been development of renewable energy technologies (e.g. from wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, etc.) to decrease our dependence on non-renewable energy resources (e.g. fossil fuels). By focusing on renewable energy sources now, we hope to provide enough energy resources for future generations. In parallel with this focus, it is essential to develop technologies that improve the efficiency of energy production, distribution, and consumption, to get the most from these renewable resources. Soft magnetic materials play a central role in power generation, conditioning, and conversion technologies and therefore promoting improvements in the efficiency of these materials is essential for our future energy needs. The losses generated by the magnetic core materials by hysteretic, acoustic, and/or eddy currents have a great impact on efficiency. A survey of soft magnetic materials for energy applications will be discussed with a focus on improvement in performance using novel soft magnetic materials designed for these power applications. A group of premiere soft magnetic materials -- nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys -- will be highlighted for their potential in addressing energy efficiency. These materials are made up of nanocrystalline magnetic transition metal-rich grains embedded within an intergranular amorphous matrix, obtained by partial devitrification of melt-spun amorphous ribbons. The nanoscale grain size results in a desirable combination of large saturation induction, low coercivity, and moderate resistivity unobtainable in conventional soft magnetic alloys. The random distribution of these fine grains causes a reduction in the net magnetocrystalline anisotropy, contributing to the excellent magnetic properties. Recently developed (Fe,Co,Ni)88Zr7B4Cu1 alloys will be discussed with a focus on the microstructure/magnetic property relationship and their effects on the energy efficiency of these materials for AC

  5. Fusion excitation functions involving transitional nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H.

    1995-08-01

    Measurements of fusion excitation functions involving transitional nuclei {sup 78}Kr and {sup 100}Mo showed a different behavior at low energies, if compared to measurements with {sup 86}Kr and {sup 92}Mo. This points to a possible influence of nuclear structure on the fusion process. One way to characterize the structure of vibrational nuclei is via their restoring force parameters C{sub 2} which can be calculated from the energy of the lowest 2{sup +} state and the corresponding B(E2) value. A survey of the even-even nuclei between A = 28-150 shows strong variations in C{sub 2} values spanning two orders of magnitude. The lowest values for C{sub 2} are observed for {sup 78}Kr, {sup 104}Ru and {sup 124}Xe followed by {sup 74,76}Ge, {sup 74,76}Se, {sup 100}Mo and {sup 110}Pd. In order to learn more about the influence of {open_quotes}softness{close_quotes} on the sub-barrier fusion enhancement, we measured cross sections for evaporation residue production for the systems {sup 78}Kr + {sup 104}Ru and {sup 78}Kr + {sup 76}Ge with the gas-filled magnet technique. For both systems, fusion excitation functions involving the closed neutron shell nucleus {sup 86}Kr were measured previously. The data are presently being analyzed.

  6. Comment on ‘On the fusion triple product and fusion power gain of tokamak pilot plants and reactors’, by A. Costley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, W.; Lackner, K.; Sauter, O.; Wenninger, R.; Zohm, H.

    2017-03-01

    In this comment, we discuss the arguments raised in two recent papers (Costley 2016 Nucl. Fusion 56 066003, Costley et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 033001) on the claimed size independence of fusion power, triple product and fusion gain in tokamak reactors, and we show that all these three quantities actually do depend on the size of the tokamak, when distinguishing between independent input parameters (design parameters) and output quantities, and when taking into account technological limitations.

  7. Ambient ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-04-01

    Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors.

  8. Magnetized Target Fusion: Prospects for Low-Cost Fusion Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter J.; Barnes, Daniel C.; Degnan, James; Parks, Paul; Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) has attracted renewed interest in recent years because it has the potential to resolve one of the major problems with conventional fusion energy research - the high cost of facilities to do experiments and in general develop practical fusion energy. The requirement for costly facilities can be traced to fundamental constraints. The Lawson condition implies large system size in the case of conventional magnetic confinement, or large heating power in the case of conventional inertial confinement. The MTF approach is to use much higher fuel density than with conventional magnetic confinement (corresponding to megabar pressures), which results in a much-reduced system size to achieve Lawson conditions. Intrinsically the system must be pulsed because the pressures exceed the strength of any known material. To facilitate heating the fuel (or "target") to thermonuclear conditions with a high-power high-intensity source of energy, magnetic fields are used to insulate the high-pressure fuel from material surroundings (thus "magnetized target"). Because of magnetic insulation, the required heating power intensity is reduced by many orders of magnitude compared to conventional inertial fusion, even with relatively poor energy confinement in the magnetic field, such as that characterized by Bohm diffusion. In this paper we show semi-quantitatively why MTF-should allow fusion energy production without costly facilities within the same generally accepted physical constraints used for conventional magnetic and inertial fusion. We also briefly discuss potential applications of this technology ranging from nuclear rockets for space propulsion to a practical commercial energy system. Finally, we report on the exploratory research underway, and the interesting physics issues that arise in the MTF regime of parameters. Experiments at Los Alamos are focused on formation of a suitable plasma target for compression, utilizing the knowledge base for compact

  9. Progress toward fusion with light ions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    New results in target design, beam generation and transport, and pulse power technology have led to a program shift stressing light ion-driven inertial confinement fusion. According to present estimates, a gain ten fusion pellet will require at least one megajoule and approx. 100 TW power input. Progress in ion sources has resulted in beam power density of approx. 1 TW/cm/sup 2/, a factor of ten increase over the last year, and cylindrical implosion experiments have been performed. Other experiments have demonstrated the ability to transport ion and electron beams with high efficiency and have confirmed numerical predictions on the properties of beam transport channels converging at a target. These developments together with improvements in pulse power technology allow us to project that the 72 beam, 100 TW Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator, PBFA-II will attain target output energy equal to stored energy in the accelerator.

  10. Generic Stellarator-like Magnetic Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald

    2015-11-01

    The Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper, published in 1985, has been updated, reflecting the improved science and technology base in the magnetic fusion program. Key changes beyond inflation are driven by important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs from ITER construction, and the use of a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence in modern fusion reactor designs. In this paper the generic approach is applied to a catalyzed D-D stellarator-like reactor. It is shown that an interesting power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved for a reference reactor: R/ < a > ~ 4 , confinement factor, fren = 0.9-1.15, < β > ~ 8 . 0 -11.5 %, Zeff ~ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ~ 0.07, Bm ~ 14-16 T, and R ~ 18-24 m. J. Sheffield was supported under ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  11. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall.

  12. Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin

    2003-01-01

    This article begins by drawing on literature to examine the various definitions of "technology" and "technique." Following a discussion of the origin of technology in education, the remaining sections of the article focus on the relationships and interaction between: (1) machines and technique; (2) science and technique; (3)…

  13. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  14. Continuous conic imploding magneto-inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yian

    2013-10-01

    Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) compresses a magnetized plasma target, combining the features of both magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). We proposed a new MIF scheme in which the fusion fuel is continuously compressed by a large ratio conic implosion, as the fuel has been compressed to about a millionth of its original volume (about 1 cubic centimeter), the temperature rises to a few electron-volts and pre-ionized, a small single turn coil (STC) at the cone top then discharges to produce a very strong magnetic field in the fusion fuel, the discharge will magnetize the plasma and create a field reversed configuration (FRC) or theta-pinch in the plasma, as the compression goes on, the magnetized plasma will be further compressed to fusion burn. The implosion happens inside a solid cone coated or wetted by lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) eutectic alloy (LBE). LBE is driven by high pressure air into the conic chamber to compress the very thin fuel. To minimize the amount of impurities in the fuel, the cone is pre-filled by LBE and a small fuel bubble is put in, then LBE sinks to bottom to create a large volume (about 1 cubic meter) and very thin bubble. This approach does not require artificial pre-ionization; the compression is continuous and accelerating because of the conic shape; a small sized STC producing high magnetic field is also a known technology. All these features should make the approach promising.

  15. Heavy ion fusion: Prospects and status

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to review the status of HIF as it was presented at Princeton, and also to try to deduce something about the prospects for HIF in particular, and fusion in general, from the world and US political scene. The status of the field is largely, though not entirely, expressed through presentations from the two leading HIF efforts: (1) the US program, centered at LBNL and LLNL, is primarily concerned with applying induction linac technology for HIF drivers; (2) the European program, centered at GSI, Darmstadt, but including several other laboratories, is primarily directed towards the rf linac approach using storage rings for energy compression. Several developments in the field of HIF should be noted: (1) progress towards construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) gives strength to the whole rational for developing a driver for Inertial Fusion Energy; (2) the field of accelerator science has matured far beyond the status that it had in 1976; (3) Heavy Ion Fusion has passed some more reviews, including one by the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), and has received the usual good marks; (5) as the budgets for Magnetic Fusion have fallen, the pressures on the Office of Fusion energy (OFE) have intensified, and a move is underway to shift the HIF program out of the IFE program and back into the ICF program in the Defense Programs (DP) side of the DOE.

  16. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  17. Antiproton catalyzed fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.L. Jr.; Perkins, L.J.; Haney, S.W.

    1995-05-15

    Because of the potential application to power production, it is important to investigate a wide range of possible means to achieve nuclear fusion, even those that may appear initially to be infeasible. In antiproton catalyzed fusion, the negative antiproton shields the repulsion between the positively charged nuclei of hydrogen isotopes, thus allowing a much higher level of penetration through the repulsive Coulomb barrier, and thereby greatly enhancing the fusion cross section. Because of their more compact wave function, the more massive antiprotons offer considerably more shielding than do negative muons. The effects of the shielding on fusion cross sections are most predominate, at low energies. If the antiproton could exist in the ground state with a nucleus for a sufficient time without annihilating, the fusion cross sections are so enhanced that at room temperature energies, values up to about 1,000 barns (that for d+t) would be possible. Unfortunately, the cross section for antiproton annihilation with the incoming nucleus is even higher. A model that provides an upper bound for the fusion to annihilation cross section for all relevant energies indicates that each antiproton will catalyze no more than about one fusion. Because the energy required to make one antiproton greatly exceeds the fusion energy that is released, this level of catalysis is far from adequate for power production.

  18. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  19. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  20. Fusion Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt; J.M. Ogden

    2002-02-06

    Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment.

  1. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  2. Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel, et. al.

    2012-02-23

    With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

  3. Some Interplanetary Missions Using IEC Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Brandon, Larry B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    IEC fusion offers the possibility of very efficient space propulsion with substantial thrust, examine human travel to the planets in order to determine the impact this technology could have reduced travel time and reduced fuel mass, travel via IEC propulsion is from earth orbit to another planetary orbit. Propulsion to a planet's or moon's surface assumed separate.

  4. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Berry, L.A.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1990-02-01

    This report discusses the following topics on fusion research: toroidal confinement activities; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; fusion theory and computation; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; advanced systems program; fusion materials research; neutron transport; and management services, quality assurance, and safety.

  5. A Summary of the NASA Fusion Propulsion Workshop 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Turchi, Peter J.; Santarius, John F.; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A NASA Fusion Propulsion Workshop was held on Nov. 8 and 9, 2000 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. A total of 43 papers were presented at the Workshop orally or by posters, covering a broad spectrum of issues related to applying fusion to propulsion. The status of fusion research was reported at the Workshop showing the outstanding scientific research that has been accomplished worldwide in the fusion energy research program. The international fusion research community has demonstrated the scientific principles of fusion creating plasmas with conditions for fusion burn with a gain of order unity: 0.25 in Princeton TFTR, 0.65 in the Joint European Torus, and a Q-equivalent of 1.25 in Japan's JT-60. This research has developed an impressive range of physics and technological capabilities that may be applied effectively to the research of possibly new propulsion-oriented fusion schemes. The pertinent physics capabilities include the plasma computational tools, the experimental plasma facilities, the diagnostics techniques, and the theoretical understanding. The enabling technologies include the various plasma heating, acceleration, and the pulsed power technologies.

  6. Injectable silk foams for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Evangelia; Lo, Tim J; Fournier, Eric P; Brown, Joseph E; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Gil, Eun S; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L

    2015-02-18

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate.

  7. Injectable Silk Foams for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, E.; Lo, T.J.; Fournier, E.P.; Brown, J.E.; Abbott, R.D.; Gil, E.S.; Marra, K.G.; Rubin, J.P.; Leisk, G.G.; Kaplan, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow for the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration. Adipose derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10 day period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3 month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure was applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate. PMID:25323438

  8. The mechanics of soft biological composites.

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Thao D.; Grazier, John Mark; Boyce, Brad Lee; Jones, Reese E.

    2007-10-01

    Biological tissues are uniquely structured materials with technologically appealing properties. Soft tissues such as skin, are constructed from a composite of strong fibrils and fluid-like matrix components. This was the first coordinated experimental/modeling project at Sandia or in the open literature to consider the mechanics of micromechanically-based anisotropy and viscoelasticity of soft biological tissues. We have exploited and applied Sandia's expertise in experimentation and mechanics modeling to better elucidate the behavior of collagen fibril-reinforced soft tissues. The purpose of this project was to provide a detailed understanding of the deformation of ocular tissues, specifically the highly structured skin-like tissue in the cornea. This discovery improved our knowledge of soft/complex materials testing and modeling. It also provided insight into the way that cornea tissue is bio-engineered such that under physiologically-relevant conditions it has a unique set of properties which enhance functionality. These results also provide insight into how non-physiologic loading conditions, such as corrective surgeries, may push the cornea outside of its natural design window, resulting in unexpected non-linear responses. Furthermore, this project created a clearer understanding of the mechanics of soft tissues that could lead to bio-inspired materials, such as highly supple and impact resistant body armor, and improve our design of human-machine interfaces, such as micro-electrical-mechanical (MEMS) based prosthetics.

  9. Data Quality of Sentinel-1 IW SLC Images and Artificial Twin Backscatterers Designed for 3D Surface Change Monitoring with Fusion of PSI and GNSS Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyai, Laszio; Szucs, Eszter; Wesztergom, Viktor

    2016-08-01

    Supported by ESA project the application of integrated PSI and GNSS technology is under development using properly selected Sentinel-1 IW SLC ascending and descending images. The designed geodetic benchmarks are supplied with twin truncated trihedral corner reflectors (TCRs). They are oriented to the average satellite positions and can be used for additional geodetic and GNSS measurement, too. In this paper the characteristics of the in front and back side standing TCRs arrangement are summarised using the available images. According to the primary practical results both arrangement can fulfil the preliminary requirements.

  10. Soft and Ultra-soft Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, William; Burdynska, Joanna; Kirby, Sam; Zhou, Yang; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Rubinstein, Michael; Sheiko, Sergei; UNC-MIRT Team

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric networks are attractive engineering materials utilized for various mechanically demanding applications. As such, much attention has been paid to reinforcement of polymer mechanical properties with little interest in how to make softer elastomers to address numerous biomedical applications including implants and cell differentiation. Without swelling in a solvent, it is challenging to obtain materials with a modulus below ca.105 Pa, which is dictated by chain entanglements. Here we present two methodologies for the creation of soft and ultra-soft dry elastomeric compounds. The first method utilizes polymer capsules as temperature responsive filler. Depending on volume fraction of microcapsules this method is capable of fine tuning modulus within an order of magnitude. The second technique uses the densely grafted molecular brush architecture to create solvent-free polymer melts and elastomers with plateau moduli in the range one hundred to ten hundred Pa. Such compounds may find uses in biomedical applications including reconstructive surgery and cell differentiation. National Science Foundation DMR-1122483.

  11. Tensional acoustomechanical soft metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tianjian

    2016-06-01

    We create acoustomechanical soft metamaterials whose response to uniaxial tensile stressing can be easily tailored by programming acoustic wave inputs, resulting in force versus stretch curves that exhibit distinct monotonic, s-shape, plateau and non-monotonic snapping behaviors. We theoretically demonstrate this unique metamaterial by considering a thin soft material sheet impinged by two counter-propagating ultrasonic wave inputs across its thickness and stretched by an in-plane uniaxial tensile force. We establish a theoretical acoustomechanical model to describe the programmable mechanics of such soft metamaterial, and introduce the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of its force versus stretch curve to boundary different behaviors that appear during deformation. The proposed phase diagrams for the underlying nonlinear mechanics show promising prospects for designing tunable and switchable photonic/phononic crystals and microfluidic devices that harness snap-through instability.

  12. Tensional acoustomechanical soft metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tianjian

    2016-06-06

    We create acoustomechanical soft metamaterials whose response to uniaxial tensile stressing can be easily tailored by programming acoustic wave inputs, resulting in force versus stretch curves that exhibit distinct monotonic, s-shape, plateau and non-monotonic snapping behaviors. We theoretically demonstrate this unique metamaterial by considering a thin soft material sheet impinged by two counter-propagating ultrasonic wave inputs across its thickness and stretched by an in-plane uniaxial tensile force. We establish a theoretical acoustomechanical model to describe the programmable mechanics of such soft metamaterial, and introduce the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of its force versus stretch curve to boundary different behaviors that appear during deformation. The proposed phase diagrams for the underlying nonlinear mechanics show promising prospects for designing tunable and switchable photonic/phononic crystals and microfluidic devices that harness snap-through instability.

  13. Tensional acoustomechanical soft metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tianjian

    2016-01-01

    We create acoustomechanical soft metamaterials whose response to uniaxial tensile stressing can be easily tailored by programming acoustic wave inputs, resulting in force versus stretch curves that exhibit distinct monotonic, s-shape, plateau and non-monotonic snapping behaviors. We theoretically demonstrate this unique metamaterial by considering a thin soft material sheet impinged by two counter-propagating ultrasonic wave inputs across its thickness and stretched by an in-plane uniaxial tensile force. We establish a theoretical acoustomechanical model to describe the programmable mechanics of such soft metamaterial, and introduce the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of its force versus stretch curve to boundary different behaviors that appear during deformation. The proposed phase diagrams for the underlying nonlinear mechanics show promising prospects for designing tunable and switchable photonic/phononic crystals and microfluidic devices that harness snap-through instability. PMID:27264106

  14. Soft Decision Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  15. Picosecond resolution soft x-ray laser plasma interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S; Nilsen, J; Ng, A; Shlyaptsev, V; Dunn, J; Hunter, J; Keenan, R; Marconi, M; Filevich, J; Rocca, J; Smith, R

    2003-12-01

    We describe a soft x-ray laser interferometry technique that allows two-dimensional diagnosis of plasma electron density with picosecond time resolution. It consists of the combination of a robust high throughput amplitude division interferometer and a 14.7 nm transient inversion soft x-ray laser that produces {approx} 5 ps pulses. Due to its picosecond resolution and short wavelength scalability, this technique has potential for extending the high inherent precision of soft x-ray laser interferometry to the study of very dense plasmas of significant fundamental and practical interest, such as those investigated for inertial confined fusion. Results of its use in the diagnostics of dense large scale laser-created plasmas are presented.

  16. Molecular diagnostics in soft tissue sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen M; Coleman, Joshua; Bridge, Julia A; Iwenofu, O Hans

    2015-04-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare malignant heterogenous tumors of mesenchymal origin with over fifty subtypes. The use of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections (and immunohistochemistry) in the morphologic assessment of these tumors has been the bane of clinical diagnosis until recently. The last decade has witnessed considerable progress in the understanding and application of molecular techniques in refining the current understanding of soft tissue sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors beyond the limits of traditional approaches. Indeed, the identification of reciprocal chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in some subsets of sarcomas with potential implications in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment has been revolutionary. The era of molecular targeted therapy presents a platform that continues to drive biomarker discovery and personalized medicine in soft tissue sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In this review, we highlight how the different molecular techniques have enhanced the diagnosis of these tumors with prognostic and therapeutic implications.

  17. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  18. Superconductivity and fusion energy—the inseparable companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    2015-02-01

    Although superconductivity will never produce energy by itself, it plays an important role in energy-related applications both because of its saving potential (e.g., power transmission lines and generators), and its role as an enabling technology (e.g., for nuclear fusion energy). The superconducting magnet’s need for plasma confinement has been recognized since the early development of fusion devices. As long as the research and development of plasma burning was carried out on pulsed devices, the technology of superconducting fusion magnets was aimed at demonstrations of feasibility. In the latest generation of plasma devices, which are larger and have longer confinement times, the superconducting coils are a key enabling technology. The cost of a superconducting magnet system is a major portion of the overall cost of a fusion plant and deserves significant attention in the long-term planning of electricity supply; only cheap superconducting magnets will help fusion get to the energy market. In this paper, the technology challenges and design approaches for fusion magnets are briefly reviewed for past, present, and future projects, from the early superconducting tokamaks in the 1970s, to the current ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and W7-X projects and future DEMO (Demonstration Reactor) projects. The associated cryogenic technology is also reviewed: 4.2 K helium baths, superfluid baths, forced-flow supercritical helium, and helium-free designs. Open issues and risk mitigation are discussed in terms of reliability, technology, and cost.

  19. New technologies to improve laboratory testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtis, C. A.

    Several core technologies that are having, or will have, an impact on the clinical laboratory are discussed. These include instrument-related technologies such as computer technology, chemometrics, robotics, sensors, and biological technologies such as cell fusion and recombinant DNA.

  20. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  1. Some properties of fuzzy soft proximity spaces.

    PubMed

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities.

  2. New developments in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Beginning in 1984, the US Department of Energy plans a program aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as pellet drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This paper will describe the events in the field of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) that have occurred in the three years since the Lausanne conference in this series. The emphasis will be on the events leading towards the new energy oriented program. in addition to providing an overview of progress in HIF, such a discussion may prove useful for promoters of any emerging energy technology.

  3. Fusion looks to the future - again

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1984-11-02

    The $46 million budget cut in the US magnetic fusion program introduced a new approach that abandons the race to build a working power reactor in favor of a long-term emphasis on science, technology, and international cooperation. Administration policies which favor private funding for demonstration projects and general concern over the deficit have changed the overall fusion policy, although there is some concern among research groups that the program will become unfocused without its detailed timetable. If this happens, they see the program becoming even more vulnerable to future budget cuts. 2 references.

  4. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  5. Forms of Soft Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    For the past several years, students at Madison Senior High School in San Diego have responded to the tactile texture and draping quality of soft materials. They experimented enthusiastically with three-dimensional forms made out of foam rubber. Here is the result of their efforts and experimentation. (Author/RK)

  6. Soft Robotic Grippers for Biological Sampling on Deep Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Kevin C.; Becker, Kaitlyn P.; Phillips, Brennan; Kirby, Jordan; Licht, Stephen; Tchernov, Dan; Gruber, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article presents the development of an underwater gripper that utilizes soft robotics technology to delicately manipulate and sample fragile species on the deep reef. Existing solutions for deep sea robotic manipulation have historically been driven by the oil industry, resulting in destructive interactions with undersea life. Soft material robotics relies on compliant materials that are inherently impedance matched to natural environments and to soft or fragile organisms. We demonstrate design principles for soft robot end effectors, bench-top characterization of their grasping performance, and conclude by describing in situ testing at mesophotic depths. The result is the first use of soft robotics in the deep sea for the nondestructive sampling of benthic fauna. PMID:27625917

  7. Materials, Devices and Systems of Soft Bioelectronics for Precision Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Gao, Wei; Yin, Zhouping

    2017-03-29

    The potential applications of soft bioelectronics in biomedical research and clinical trials have inspired a great deal of research interest in the past decade. While there has been significant amount of work in the fabrication and characterization of soft and stretchable sensors for monitoring of physical conditions and vital signs of human body, the development of soft bioelectronics based medical treatment and intervention systems has just begun. In addition to health monitoring, active treatments are essential for disease control in the healthcare domain, and medical therapy and surgery realized by sophisticated soft bioelectronic systems are better demonstrations of their utility in healthcare. In this Research News, we summarize recent key research achievements in soft bioelectronics enabled precision therapy, with emphasis on drug delivery, therapeutic and surgical mechanisms and tools enabled by integrated systems. Challenges in technology development and prospects for commercialization are also discussed.

  8. Soft Robotic Grippers for Biological Sampling on Deep Reefs.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Kevin C; Becker, Kaitlyn P; Phillips, Brennan; Kirby, Jordan; Licht, Stephen; Tchernov, Dan; Wood, Robert J; Gruber, David F

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the development of an underwater gripper that utilizes soft robotics technology to delicately manipulate and sample fragile species on the deep reef. Existing solutions for deep sea robotic manipulation have historically been driven by the oil industry, resulting in destructive interactions with undersea life. Soft material robotics relies on compliant materials that are inherently impedance matched to natural environments and to soft or fragile organisms. We demonstrate design principles for soft robot end effectors, bench-top characterization of their grasping performance, and conclude by describing in situ testing at mesophotic depths. The result is the first use of soft robotics in the deep sea for the nondestructive sampling of benthic fauna.

  9. Enabling Technologies for Advanced Soft Tissue Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    for Iransport to the lab, and connected conditions. via the portal vein and the hepatic artery to a perfusion apparatus within 90 minutes post It has...120mmHg) and portal vein (15-20mmHg). Both pressures and flow rates can be easily adjusted by altering the height of the reservoirs and by partially...Biomechanical Properties with Magnetic Resonance Elastography . Physics in Medicine and Biology, 45. (2000) 1591-16 10 21. Sarvazyan, A.P., Skovoroda

  10. Materials and technologies for soft implantable neuroprostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, Stéphanie P.; Courtine, Grégoire; Guck, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    Implantable neuroprostheses are engineered systems designed to restore or substitute function for individuals with neurological deficits or disabilities. These systems involve at least one uni- or bidirectional interface between a living neural tissue and a synthetic structure, through which information in the form of electrons, ions or photons flows. Despite a few notable exceptions, the clinical dissemination of implantable neuroprostheses remains limited, because many implants display inconsistent long-term stability and performance, and are ultimately rejected by the body. Intensive research is currently being conducted to untangle the complex interplay of failure mechanisms. In this Review, we emphasize the importance of minimizing the physical and mechanical mismatch between neural tissues and implantable interfaces. We explore possible materials solutions to design and manufacture neurointegrated prostheses, and outline their immense therapeutic potential.

  11. Enabling Technologies for Advanced Soft Tissue Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) and ABAQUS environments in order to perform the optimization, minimizing the mean-square error between the experimental...been working on implementing the model in real-time using uniaxial compression breast data and a modified version of the model written to run in Matlab ...perfused whole organ testing 21 were noted and the load was applied in pseudo -random 77 order for 300 s, with repetition of the first load at the Following

  12. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  13. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2008-01-01

    Infection by viruses having lipid-bilayer envelopes proceeds through fusion of the viral membrane with a membrane of the target cell. Viral ‘fusion proteins’ facilitate this process. They vary greatly in structure, but all seem to have a common mechanism of action, in which a ligand-triggered, large-scale conformational change in the fusion protein is coupled to apposition and merger of the two bilayers. We describe three examples—the influenza virus hemagglutinin, the flavivirus E protein and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein—in some detail, to illustrate the ways in which different structures have evolved to implement this common mechanism. Fusion inhibitors can be effective antiviral agents. PMID:18596815

  14. Fusion-breeder program

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-11-19

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding /sup 239/Pu and /sup 233/U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed. (MOW)

  15. Soft Decision Analyzer and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Lansdowne, Chatwin (Inventor); Zucha, Joan P. (Inventor); Schlesinger, Adam M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A soft decision analyzer system is operable to interconnect soft decision communication equipment and analyze the operation thereof to detect symbol wise alignment between a test data stream and a reference data stream in a variety of operating conditions.

  16. Soft Decision Analyzer and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Lansdowne, Chatwin (Inventor); Zucha, Joan P. (Inventor); Schlesinger, Adam M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A soft decision analyzer system is operable to interconnect soft decision communication equipment and analyze the operation thereof to detect symbol wise alignment between a test data stream and a reference data stream in a variety of operating conditions.

  17. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  18. Glossary of fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitson, M. O.

    1985-02-01

    The Glossary of Fusion Energy is an attempt to present a concise, yet comprehensive collection of terms that may be beneficial to scientists and laymen who are directly or tangentially concerned with this burgeoning energy enterprise. Included are definitions of terms in theoretical plasma physics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, and some related physics concepts. Also, short descriptions of some of the major thermonuclear experiments currently under way in the world today are included.

  19. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  20. Fusion ignition research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dale Meade

    2000-07-18

    Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

  1. A. Sakharov and Fusion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2012-02-01

    In the landmark paper by Tamm and Sakharov [1], a controlled nuclear fusion reactor based on an axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration whose principles remain valid to this day, was proposed. In the light of present understanding of plasma physics the virtues (e.g. that of considering the D-D reaction) and the shortcomings of this paper are pointed out. In fact, relatively recent results of theoretical plasma physics (e.g. discovery of the so called second stability region) and advances in high field magnet technology have made it possible to identify the parameters of meaningful experiments capable of exploring D-D and D-^3He burn conditions. At the same time an experimental program (IGNIR) has been undertaken through a (funded) collaboration between Italy and Russia to investigate D-T plasmas close to ignition conditions based on an advanced high field toroidal confinement configuration. A. Sakharov envisioned a bolder approach to fusion research than that advocated by some of his contemporaries. The time taken to design and decide to fabricate the first experiment capable of reaching ignition conditions is due in part to the problem of gaining an adequate understanding the expected physics of fusion burning plasmas. However, most of the relevant financial effort has gone in the pursuit of slow and indirect enterprises complying with the ``playing it safe'' tendencies of large organizations or motivated by the purpose to develop technologies or maintain a high level of expertise in plasma physics to the expected benefit of other kinds of endeavors. The creativity demonstrated by A. Sakharov in dealing with civil rights and disarmament issues is needed, while maintaining our concerns for energy and the environment on a global scale, to orient the funding for fusion research toward a direct and well based scientific effort on concepts for which a variety of developments can be envisioned. These can span from uncovering new physics relevant, for instance

  2. Proton Collimator for Fusion Energy Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momota, Hiromu; Miley, George

    2001-10-01

    A proton collimator concept is under study for use with various fusion devices such as an inertial confinement fusion (IEC) reactor. G. H. Miley, et al., IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science, 25 (1997), 733. It consists essentially of a pair of coils anti-parallel to an external magnetic channel. Spacing of the coils is equal to the coil radius, forming a "Helmholtz Coil". To eliminate the attractive force between pair coils, a stabilization coil is installed anti-parallel to pair coils. The resulting magnetic configuration is cylindrically symmetric. Currents on each coil are chosen to chancel the magnetic field at the center, forming a hexa-pole magnetic configuration. With the zero-field region near the plasma center, an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor or the IEC could be operated without interference. Isotropic fusion protons, as well as leaking fuel components, from D-D or D-He3 fusion will be collimated by the outer magnetic field. This stream can then be lead to a traveling wave direct energy converter, TWDEC, H. Momota, et al., Fusion Technology, 21 (1992), 2307-2323. or to a thruster for space propulsion. H. Momota, et al., AIAA Joint Propulsion Conf., Huntsville Al. Bombardment of particles on structural devices can largely be avoided by optimizing current ratios on the pair and stabilization coils. Another property of this design is that it scatters charged particles into random directions near the center, providing a separation of low-energy leaking unburned fuel components from energetic fusion products. Such separation is essential for use with a TWDEC or for a space thruster to avoid unwanted waste of costly fuel components. A quantitative discussion of these features will be presented.

  3. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  4. Potential for immunotherapy in soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, William W; Somaiah, Neeta; Engleman, Edgar G

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare, heterogeneous tumors of mesenchymal origin. Despite optimal treatment, a large proportion of patients will develop recurrent and metastatic disease. For these patients, current treatment options are quite limited. Significant progress has been made recently in the use of immunotherapy for the treatment of other solid tumors (e.g. prostate cancer, melanoma). There is a strong rationale for immunotherapy in STS, based on an understanding of disease biology. For example, STS frequently have chromosomal translocations which result in unique fusion proteins and specific subtypes have been shown to express cancer testis antigens. In this review, we discuss the current status of immunotherapy in STS, including data from human studies with cancer vaccines, adoptive cell therapy, and immune checkpoint blockade. Further research into STS immunology is needed to help design logical, subtype-specific immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25625925

  5. Using Online Project-Based Capstone Experiences to Enhance Soft Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Gwendolyn Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Employers of newly minted information technology graduates are concerned that students graduating with information technology degrees offered in online environments are lacking critical noncomputing skills (soft skills). Further, it is unclear whether online environments have the capacity to foster the "soft skills" necessary for…

  6. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

    2011-05-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  7. HEDP and new directions for fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for fusion energy has a long history and the demonstration of thermonuclear energy release in 1951 represented a record achievement for high energy density. While this first demonstration was in response to the extreme fears of mankind, it also marked the beginning of a great hope that it would usher in an era of boundless cheap energy. In fact, fusion still promises to be an enabling technology that can be compared to the prehistoric utilization of fire. Why has the quest for fusion energy been so long on promises and so short in fulfillment? This paper briefly reviews past approaches to fusion energy and suggests new directions. By putting aside the old thinking and vigorously applying our experimental, computational and theoretical tools developed over the past decades we should be able to make rapid progress toward satisfying an urgent need. Fusion not only holds the key to abundant green energy, but also promises to enable deep space missions and the creation of rare elements and isotopes for wide-ranging industrial applications and medical diagnostics.

  8. Implementation and Analysis for APR1400 Soft Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid advancement of digital technology, the definite technical advantages of digital control system compared to analog control system are accelerating the implementation of advanced distributed digital control system in the nuclear power plant. One of the major advantages of digital control system is the capability of Soft Control System. The design of Soft Control System for Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) plant of Man-Machine Interface System (MMIS) is based on full digital technologies to enhance reliability, operability and maintainability. Computer-based compact workstation has been adopted in the APR1400 Main Control Room (MCR) to provide convenient working environment. This paper introduces the approaches and methodologies of Soft Control System for the Advanced Control Room (ACR). This paper also explains major design features for operation and display of the Soft Control System and its implementation to cope with regulatory requirements. (authors)

  9. Can Soft Tissue Sarcomas Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tissue Sarcoma Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Soft Tissue Sarcomas Be Found Early? People who have ... Your Doctor About Soft Tissue Sarcomas? More In Soft Tissue Sarcoma About Soft Tissue Sarcoma Causes, Risk ...

  10. Survival by Stage of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival by Stage of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Survival rates are often used by ... Your Doctor About Soft Tissue Sarcomas? More In Soft Tissue Sarcoma About Soft Tissue Sarcoma Causes, Risk ...

  11. Materials issues in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Batra, I. S.

    2010-02-01

    The world scientific community is presently engaged in one of the toughest technological tasks of the current century, namely, exploitation of nuclear fusion in a controlled manner for the benefit of mankind. Scientific feasibility of controlled fusion of the light elements in plasma under magnetic confinement has already been proven. International efforts in a coordinated and co-operative manner are presently being made to build ITER - the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - to test, in this first step, the concept of 'Tokamak' for net fusion energy production. To exploit this new developing option of making energy available through the route of fusion, India too embarked on a robust fusion programme under which we now have a working tokamak - the Aditya and a steady state tokamak (SST-1), which is on the verge of functioning. The programme envisages further development in terms of making SST-2 followed by a DEMO and finally the fusion power reactor. Further, with the participation of India in the ITER program in 2005, and recent allocation of half - a - port in ITER for placing our Lead - Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) based Test Blanket Module (TBM), meant basically for breeding tritium and extracting high grade heat, the need to understand and address issues related to materials for these complex systems has become all the more necessary. Also, it is obvious that with increasing power from the SST stages to DEMO and further to PROTOTYPE, the increasing demands on performance of materials would necessitate discovery and development of new materials. Because of the 14.1 MeV neutrons that are generated in the D+T reaction exploited in a tokamak, the materials, especially those employed for the construction of the first wall, the diverter and the blanket segments, suffer crippling damage due to the high He/dpa ratios that result due to the high energy of the neutrons. To meet this challenge, the materials that need to be developed for the tokamaks

  12. Alignment control and softness creation in hair with glycylglycine.

    PubMed

    Breakspear, Steven; Fukuhara, Masaki; Itou, Takashi; Hirano, Yuji; Nojiri, Masayoshi; Kiyomine, Akira; Inoue, Shigeto

    2013-01-01

    Thick and coarse hair, as typically found among the Japanese population, frequently lacks softness that consumers are acutely aware of. Such poor feeling is accentuated by daily grooming, weathering, and chemical treatments, in particular, which can cause changes in the hair shape and the creation of frizzy or irregularly shaped hair. Existing technologies to improve the soft feel of hair, though effective, usually concentrate on the surface of the fiber and often leave the hair feeling either overconditioned or sometimes even sticky from product buildup. Hair softness is said to be governed by a number of factors, but primarily hair diameter and surface condition. In this study, we have also identified hair alignment as playing a critical role in hair softness. In addition, by studying how Japanese women perceive hair softness when touching their hair, we have identified that the strain on the hair fiber associated with these manipulations is far smaller than previously considered. With these factors in mind, we have studied the mechanisms behind a new softening technology containing glycylglycine (GG). It has been found that treatment with GG can give a tangible feeling of hair softness by dramatically improving alignment in unruly hair and by lowering the modulus of the fiber. Moreover, using the atomic force microscope, it has been revealed that the properties of the cell membrane complex of the hair cortex may be modified after GG treatment; the role of this additive in modifying the internal properties of the hair to create softness will thus be discussed.

  13. Cooperative Learning and Soft Skills Training in an IT Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogy of higher education is shifting from passive to active and deep learning. At the same time, the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) are demanding soft skills training. Thus, in designing an IT course, we devised group teaching projects where students learn to work with…

  14. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  15. Soft contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, R. L.; VanLeeuwen, Wm. N.

    1972-01-01

    A series of 55 patients were fitted with a new type of hydrophilic soft contact lens. These were found more comfortable than hard contact lenses and they had a protective and pain-relieving action in cases of chronic corneal disease. Vision was not as good as with hard contact lenses and a greater potential danger of infection was found. They are preferred by many patients despite the noticeable thick edge and the difficulty of obtaining an identical replacement. PMID:5042887

  16. Reptile Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles.

  17. Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

  18. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  19. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue. PMID:21394222

  20. Categorical properties of soft sets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Li, Shenggang; Akram, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates some novel categorical properties of soft sets. By combining categorical theory with soft set theory, a categorical framework of soft set theory is established. It is proved that the category SFun of soft sets and soft functions has equalizers, finite products, pullbacks, and exponential properties. It is worth mentioning that we find that SFun is both a topological construct and Cartesian closed. The category SRel of soft sets and Z-soft set relations is also characterized, which shows the existence of the zero objects, biproducts, additive identities, injective objects, projective objects, injective hulls, and projective covers. Finally, by constructing proper adjoint situations, some intrinsic connections between SFun and SRel are established.

  1. Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

    1995-09-01

    The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

  2. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  3. Burning DT Plasmas with Ultrafast Soft X-Ray Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.

    2012-10-01

    Fast ignition with narrowband, coherent ultrafast soft x-ray pulsesfootnotetextS. X. Hu, V. N. Goncharov, and S. Skupsky, ``Burning Plasmas with Ultrashort Soft-X-Ray Flashing,'' to be published in Physics of Plasmas. has been investigated for cryogenic deuterium--tritium (DT) plasma conditions achieved on the OMEGA Laser System. In contrast to using hard x-rays (hν = 3 to 6 keV) proposed in the original x-ray fast-ignition proposal, we find that soft x-ray sources with hν 500-eV photons can be more suitable for igniting the dense DT plasmas. Two-dimensional radiation--hydrodynamics simulations have identified the breakeven conditions for realizing such a ``hybrid'' ignition scheme (direct-drive compression with soft x-ray heating) with 50-μm-offset targets: an ˜10-ps soft x-ray pulse (hν 500 eV) with a total energy of 500 to 1000 J to be focused into a 10-μm spot size. A variety of x-ray pulse parameters have also been investigated for optimization. It is noted that an order of magnitude increase in neutron yield has been predicted even with x-ray energy as low as ˜50 J. Scaling this idea to a 1-MJ large-scale NIF target, a gain above ˜30 can be reached with the same soft x-ray pulse at 1.65-kJ energy. Even though such energetic x-ray sources do not currently exist, we hope that the proposed ignition scheme may stimulate efforts on generating powerful soft x-ray sources in future. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  4. Human SUMO fusion systems enhance protein expression and solubility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongyuan; Li, Haolong; Guan, Wei; Ling, Haili; Wang, Zhiyong; Mu, Tianyang; Shuler, Franklin D; Fang, Xuexun

    2010-10-01

    A major challenge associated with recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli is generation of large quantities of soluble, functional protein. Yeast SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier), has been shown to enhance heterologous protein expression and solubility as fusion tag, however, the effects of human SUMOs on protein expression have not been investigated. Here we describe the use of human SUMO1 and SUMO2 as a useful gene fusion technology. Human SUMO1 and SUMO2 fusion expression vectors were constructed and tested in His-tag and ubiquitin fusion expression systems. Two difficult-to-express model proteins, matrix metalloprotease-13 (MMP13) and enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) were fused to the C-terminus of the human SUMO1 and SUMO2 expression vectors. These constructs were expressed in E. coli and evaluation of MMP13 and eGFP expression and solubility was conducted. We found that both SUMO1 and SUMO2 had the ability to enhance the solubility of MMP13 and eGFP, with the SUMO2 tag having a more significant effect. Since fusion tags produce varying quantities of soluble proteins, we assessed the effect of SUMO2 coupled with ubiquitin (Ub). SUMO2-ubiquitin and ubiquitin-SUMO2 fusion expression plasmids were constructed with eGFP as a passenger protein. Following expression in E. coli, both plasmids could improve eGFP expression and solubility similar to the SUMO2 fusion and better than the ubiquitin fusion. The sequential order of SUMO2 and ubiquitin had little effect on expression and solubility of eGFP. Purification of eGFP from the gene fusion product, SUMO2-ubiquitin-eGFP, involved cleavage by a deubiquitinase (Usp2-cc) and Ni-Sepharose column chromatography. The eGFP protein was purified to high homogeneity. In summary, human SUMO1 and SUMO2 are useful gene fusion technologies enhancing the expression, solubility and purification of model heterologous proteins.

  5. Modeling alveolar soft part sarcomagenesis in the mouse: a role for lactate in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Matthew L.; Jin, Huifeng; Straessler, Krystal; Smith-Fry, Kyllie; Zhu, Ju-Fen; Monument, Michael J.; Grossmann, Allie; Randall, R. Lor; Capecchi, Mario R.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS), a deadly soft tissue malignancy with a predilection for adolescents and young adults, associates consistently with t(X;17) translocations that generate the fusion gene ASPSCR1-TFE3. We proved the oncogenic capacity of this fusion gene by driving sarcomagenesis in mice from conditional ASPSCR1-TFE3 expression. The completely penetrant tumors were indistinguishable from human ASPS by histology and gene expression. They formed preferentially in the anatomic environment highest in lactate--the cranial vault--, expressed high levels of lactate importers, harbored abundant mitochondria, metabolized lactate as a metabolic substrate and responded to the administration of exogenous lactate with tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. These data demonstrate lactate’s role as a driver of alveolar soft part sarcomagenesis. PMID:25453902

  6. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  7. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  8. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  9. Ceramics for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

  10. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the “burning plasma” regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  11. On Soft β-Open Sets and Soft β-Continuous Functions

    PubMed Central

    Akdag, Metin; Ozkan, Alkan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concepts soft β-interior and soft β-closure of a soft set in soft topological spaces. We also study soft β-continuous functions and discuss their relations with soft continuous and other weaker forms of soft continuous functions. PMID:25045746

  12. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    2000-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a new, larger inertial fusion energy program. To manage program growth, we have developed a new inertial fusion energy research and we have established a Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion. There has been significant technical progress. Improvements in target design have reduced the predicted energy requirements by approximately a factor of two. There have also been important experiments on chamber dynamics and other inertial fusion technologies. The accelerator program has completed a number of small-scale experiments. Experiments with driver-scale beams are being designed -- including experiments with driver-scale ion sources and injectors. Finally we are developing the technologies needed to build a major research facility known as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)

  13. Pulsed Power Fusion Program update

    SciTech Connect

    Quintenz, J.P.; Adams, R.G.; Allshouse, G.O.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has supported a substantial research program in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) since the early 1970s. Over the course of the ensuing 25 years, pulsed power energy, efficiency, and relatively low cost of the technology when compared to the mainline ICF approach involving large glass lasers. These compelling advantages of pulsed power, however, have been tempered with the difficulty that has been encountered in concentrating the energy in space and time to create the high energy and power density required to achieve temperatures useful in indirect drive ICF. Since the Beams `96 meeting two years ago, the situation has changed dramatically and extremely high x-ray power ({approximately}290 TW) and energy ({approximately}1.8 MJ) have been produced in fast x-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator. These sources have been utilized to heat hohlraums to >150 eV and have opened the door to important ICF capsule experiments.

  14. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  15. Fusion welding process

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  16. Fusion safety program Annual report, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Carmack, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY-95. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions. Among the technical areas covered in this report are tritium safety, beryllium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, safety aspects of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed by the Fusion Safety Program for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the technical support for commercial fusion facility conceptual design studies. A final activity described is work to develop DOE Technical Standards for Safety of Fusion Test Facilities.

  17. Environmental and safety issues of the fusion fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental and safety concerns inherent in the development of fusion energy, and the current Department of Energy programs seeking to: (1) develop safe and reliable techniques for tritium control; (2) reduce the quantity of activation products produced; and (3) provide designs to limit the potential for accidents that could result in release of radioactive materials. Because of the inherent safety features of fusion and the early start that has been made in safety problem recognition and solution, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial power.

  18. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation.

  19. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  20. Magnet operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a review of magnet operating experiences for normal-conducting and superconducting magnets from fusion, particle accelerator, medical technology, and magnetohydrodynamics research areas. Safety relevant magnet operating experiences are presented to provide feedback on field performance of existing designs and to point out the operational safety concerns. Quantitative estimates of magnet component failure rates and accident event frequencies are also presented, based on field experience and on performance of similar components in other industries.

  1. An antiproton catalyst for inertial confinement fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Raymond A.; Newton, Richard; Smith, Gerald A.; Toothacker, William S.; Kanzleiter, Randall J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of an inertial confinement fusion propulsion system involving an antiproton catalyst (for antiproton-induced fission). It is argued that, when the two processes, fusion and antimatter annihilation, are combined into one system, a viable candidate propulsion system for planetary exploration emerges. It is shown that as much as 7.6 GW of power, well within the requrements for interplanetary travel, can be achieved using existing driver technologies and available quantities of antiprotons.

  2. Inertial Confinement Fusion Research at LOS Alamos National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batha, S. H.; Albright, B. J.; Alexander, D. J.; Barnes, Cris W.; Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Cooley, J. C.; Cooley, J. H.; Day, R. D.; DeFriend, K. A.; Delamater, N. D.; Dodd, E. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Fernandez, J. C.; Flippo, K. A.; Grim, G. P.; Goldman, S. R.; Greenfield, S. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hoffman, N. M.; Holmes, R. L.; Johnson, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Lanier, N. E.; Loomis, E.; Lopez, F. E.; Luo, S.; Mack, J. M.; Magelssen, G. R.; Montgomery, D. S.; Nobile, A.; Oertel, J. A.; Reardon, P.; Rose, H. A.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, M. J.; Seifter, A.; Shimada, T.; Swift, D. C.; Tierney, T. E.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Wilke, M. D.; Wilson, D. C.; Workman, J.; Yin, L.

    2009-07-01

    Inertial confinement fusion research at Los Alamos National Laboratory is focused on high-leverage areas of thermonuclear ignition to which LANL can apply its historic strengths and that are complementary to high-energy-density-physics topics. Using the Trident and Omega laser facilities, experiments are pursued in laser-plasma instabilities, symmetry, Be technologies, neutron and fusion-product diagnostics, and defect hydrodynamics.

  3. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  4. Workmanship standards for fusion welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. D.

    1967-01-01

    Workmanship standards manual defines practices, that adhere to rigid codes and specifications, for fusion welding of component piping, assemblies, and systems. With written and pictorial presentations, it is part of the operating procedure for fusion welding.

  5. Soft skills and dental education.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z

    2013-05-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.

  6. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  7. Fusion engineering device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  8. Information fusion based optimal control for large civil aircraft system.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Ziyang; Jiang, Ju; Wang, Xinhua; Gao, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Wind disturbance has a great influence on landing security of Large Civil Aircraft. Through simulation research and engineering experience, it can be found that PID control is not good enough to solve the problem of restraining the wind disturbance. This paper focuses on anti-wind attitude control for Large Civil Aircraft in landing phase. In order to improve the riding comfort and the flight security, an information fusion based optimal control strategy is presented to restrain the wind in landing phase for maintaining attitudes and airspeed. Data of Boeing707 is used to establish a nonlinear mode with total variables of Large Civil Aircraft, and then two linear models are obtained which are divided into longitudinal and lateral equations. Based on engineering experience, the longitudinal channel adopts PID control and C inner control to keep longitudinal attitude constant, and applies autothrottle system for keeping airspeed constant, while an information fusion based optimal regulator in the lateral control channel is designed to achieve lateral attitude holding. According to information fusion estimation, by fusing hard constraint information of system dynamic equations and the soft constraint information of performance index function, optimal estimation of the control sequence is derived. Based on this, an information fusion state regulator is deduced for discrete time linear system with disturbance. The simulation results of nonlinear model of aircraft indicate that the information fusion optimal control is better than traditional PID control, LQR control and LQR control with integral action, in anti-wind disturbance performance in the landing phase.

  9. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  10. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  11. Auditory Fusion in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sylvia M.; McCroskey, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on auditory fusion (defined in terms of a listerner's ability to distinguish paired acoustic events from single acoustic events) in 3- to 12-year-old children. The subjects listened to 270 pairs of tones controlled for frequency, intensity, and duration. (CM)

  12. A fusion of minds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Mystery still surrounds the visit of the astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell to the Soviet Union in 1963. But his collaboration - and that of other British scientists - eased geopolitical tensions at the height of the Cold War and paved the way for today's global ITER fusion project, as Richard Corfield explains.

  13. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  14. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  15. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source. (JDH)

  16. A survey on dielectric elastomer actuators for soft robots.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2017-01-23

    Conventional industrial robots with the rigid actuation technology have made great progress for humans in the fields of automation assembly and manufacturing. With an increasing number of robots needing to interact with humans and unstructured environments, there is a need for soft robots capable of sustaining large deformation while inducing little pressure or damage when maneuvering through confined spaces. The emergence of soft robotics offers the prospect of applying soft actuators as artificial muscles in robots, replacing traditional rigid actuators. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are recognized as one of the most promising soft actuation technologies due to the facts that: i) dielectric elastomers are kind of soft, motion-generating materials that resemble natural muscle of humans in terms of force, strain (displacement per unit length or area) and actuation pressure/density; ii) dielectric elastomers can produce large voltage-induced deformation. In this survey, we first introduce the so-called DEAs emphasizing the key points of working principle, key components and electromechanical modeling approaches. Then, different DEA-driven soft robots, including wearable/humanoid robots, walking/serpentine robots, flying robots and swimming robots, are reviewed. Lastly, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for the further studies in terms of mechanism design, dynamics modeling and autonomous control.

  17. Microfluidic Applications of Soft Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Krulevitch, P; Hamilton, J

    2001-04-10

    The soft lithography fabrication technique was applied to three microfluidic devices. The method was used to create an original micropump design and retrofit to existing designs for a DNA manipulation device and a counter biological warfare sample preparation device. Each device presented unique and original challenges to the soft lithography application. AI1 design constraints of the retrofit devices were satisfied using PDMS devices created through variation of soft lithography methods. The micropump utilized the versatility of PDMS, creating design options not available with other materials. In all cases, the rapid processing of soft lithography reduced the fabrication time, creating faster turnaround for design modifications.

  18. Modeling Soft Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Kurt

    Soft matter science or soft materials science is a relatively new term for the science of a huge class of rather different materials such as colloids, polymers (of synthetic or biological origin), membranes, complex molecular assemblies, complex fluids, etc. and combinations thereof. While many of these systems are contained in or are even the essential part of everyday products ("simple" plastics such as yoghurt cups, plastic bags, CDs, many car parts; gels and networks such as rubber, many low fat foods, "gummi" bears; colloidal systems such as milk, mayonnaise, paints, almost all cosmetics or body care products, the border lines between the different applications and systems are of course not sharp) or as biological molecules or assemblies (DNA, proteins, membranes and cytoskeleton, etc.) are central to our existence, others are basic ingredients of current and future high tech products (polymers with specific optical or electronic properties, conducting macromolecules, functional materials). Though the motivation is different in life science rather than in materials science biomolecular simulations, the basic structure of the problems faced in the two fields is very similar.

  19. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  20. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel. PMID:26892762

  1. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  2. Soft materials in neuroengineering for hard problems in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Woong; Shin, Gunchul; Park, Sung Il; Yu, Ki Jun; Xu, Lizhi; Rogers, John A

    2015-04-08

    We describe recent advances in soft electronic interface technologies for neuroscience research. Here, low modulus materials and/or compliant mechanical structures enable modes of soft, conformal integration and minimally invasive operation that would be difficult or impossible to achieve using conventional approaches. We begin by summarizing progress in electrodes and associated electronics for signal amplification and multiplexed readout. Examples in large-area, surface conformal electrode arrays and flexible, multifunctional depth-penetrating probes illustrate the power of these concepts. A concluding section highlights areas of opportunity in the further development and application of these technologies.

  3. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Wiffen, F. W.; Katoh, Yutai; Melton, Stephanie G.

    2015-12-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by “FOA” in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  4. Assessment of NDE Methods to Detect Lack of Fusion in HDPE Butt Fusion Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-07-31

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, were conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provided information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch (30.5-cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes, both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Some of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test. The fusion parameters, nondestructive and destructive evaluation results have been correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. There was no single NDE method that detected all of the lack-of-fusion flaws but a combination of NDE methods did detect most of the flaws.

  5. Gene Fusion Markup Language: a prototype for exchanging gene fusion data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An avalanche of next generation sequencing (NGS) studies has generated an unprecedented amount of genomic structural variation data. These studies have also identified many novel gene fusion candidates with more detailed resolution than previously achieved. However, in the excitement and necessity of publishing the observations from this recently developed cutting-edge technology, no community standardization approach has arisen to organize and represent the data with the essential attributes in an interchangeable manner. As transcriptome studies have been widely used for gene fusion discoveries, the current non-standard mode of data representation could potentially impede data accessibility, critical analyses, and further discoveries in the near future. Results Here we propose a prototype, Gene Fusion Markup Language (GFML) as an initiative to provide a standard format for organizing and representing the significant features of gene fusion data. GFML will offer the advantage of representing the data in a machine-readable format to enable data exchange, automated analysis interpretation, and independent verification. As this database-independent exchange initiative evolves it will further facilitate the formation of related databases, repositories, and analysis tools. The GFML prototype is made available at http://code.google.com/p/gfml-prototype/. Conclusion The Gene Fusion Markup Language (GFML) presented here could facilitate the development of a standard format for organizing, integrating and representing the significant features of gene fusion data in an inter-operable and query-able fashion that will enable biologically intuitive access to gene fusion findings and expedite functional characterization. A similar model is envisaged for other NGS data analyses. PMID:23072312

  6. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T.; Knutson, B.; Dunne, A. M.; Kasper, J.; Sheehan, T.; Lang, D.; Roberts, V.; Mau, D.

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  7. Inertial fusion power plant concept of operations and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Brad; Dunne, Mike; Kasper, Jack; Sheehan, Timothy; Lang, Dwight; Anklam, Tom; Roberts, Valerie; Mau, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  8. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Soft Soil Mobility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-11

    Technology (NIST) will be maintained for all measuring and test equipment. b. All measuring and test equipment will be labeled with the following...the appropriate off-road tire pressure settings should be used. If the vehicle is equipped with traction control technology , tests should be...miles per hour MTA Munson Test Area NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NRMM NATO

  10. INTEGRATE: gene fusion discovery using whole genome and transcriptome data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; White, Nicole M.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Fulton, Robert S.; Tomlinson, Chad; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilson, Richard K.; Maher, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    While next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become the primary technology for discovering gene fusions, we are still faced with the challenge of ensuring that causative mutations are not missed while minimizing false positives. Currently, there are many computational tools that predict structural variations (SV) and gene fusions using whole genome (WGS) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data separately. However, as both WGS and RNA-seq have their limitations when used independently, we hypothesize that the orthogonal validation from integrating both data could generate a sensitive and specific approach for detecting high-confidence gene fusion predictions. Fortunately, decreasing NGS costs have resulted in a growing quantity of patients with both data available. Therefore, we developed a gene fusion discovery tool, INTEGRATE, that leverages both RNA-seq and WGS data to reconstruct gene fusion junctions and genomic breakpoints by split-read mapping. To evaluate INTEGRATE, we compared it with eight additional gene fusion discovery tools using the well-characterized breast cell line HCC1395 and peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from the same patient (HCC1395BL). The predictions subsequently underwent a targeted validation leading to the discovery of 131 novel fusions in addition to the seven previously reported fusions. Overall, INTEGRATE only missed six out of the 138 validated fusions and had the highest accuracy of the nine tools evaluated. Additionally, we applied INTEGRATE to 62 breast cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and found multiple recurrent gene fusions including a subset involving estrogen receptor. Taken together, INTEGRATE is a highly sensitive and accurate tool that is freely available for academic use. PMID:26556708

  11. INTEGRATE: gene fusion discovery using whole genome and transcriptome data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; White, Nicole M; Schmidt, Heather K; Fulton, Robert S; Tomlinson, Chad; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Maher, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    While next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become the primary technology for discovering gene fusions, we are still faced with the challenge of ensuring that causative mutations are not missed while minimizing false positives. Currently, there are many computational tools that predict structural variations (SV) and gene fusions using whole genome (WGS) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data separately. However, as both WGS and RNA-seq have their limitations when used independently, we hypothesize that the orthogonal validation from integrating both data could generate a sensitive and specific approach for detecting high-confidence gene fusion predictions. Fortunately, decreasing NGS costs have resulted in a growing quantity of patients with both data available. Therefore, we developed a gene fusion discovery tool, INTEGRATE, that leverages both RNA-seq and WGS data to reconstruct gene fusion junctions and genomic breakpoints by split-read mapping. To evaluate INTEGRATE, we compared it with eight additional gene fusion discovery tools using the well-characterized breast cell line HCC1395 and peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from the same patient (HCC1395BL). The predictions subsequently underwent a targeted validation leading to the discovery of 131 novel fusions in addition to the seven previously reported fusions. Overall, INTEGRATE only missed six out of the 138 validated fusions and had the highest accuracy of the nine tools evaluated. Additionally, we applied INTEGRATE to 62 breast cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and found multiple recurrent gene fusions including a subset involving estrogen receptor. Taken together, INTEGRATE is a highly sensitive and accurate tool that is freely available for academic use.

  12. An accelerated fusion power development plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Stephen O.; Baker, Charles C.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Kinkead, Susan D.

    1991-06-01

    Energy for electricity and transportation is a national issue with worldwide environmental and political implications. The world must have energy options for the next century that are not vulnerable to possible disruption for technical, environmental, public confidence, or other reasons. Growing concerns about the greenhouse effect and the safety of transporting oil may lead to reduced burning of coal and other fossil fuels, and the incidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, as well as nuclear waste storage problems, have eroded public acceptance of nuclear fission. Meeting future world energy needs will require improvements in energy efficiency and conservation. However, the world will soon need new central station power plants and increasing amounts of fuel for the transportation sector. The use of fossil fuels, and possibly even fission power, will very likely be restricted because of environmental, safety, and, eventually, supply considerations. Time is running out for policymakers. New energy technologies cannot be brought to the marketplace overnight. Decades are required to bring a new energy production technology from conception to full market penetration. With the added urgency to mitigate deleterious environmental effects of energy use, policymakers must act decisively now to establish and support vigorous energy technology development programs. The U.S. has invested 8 billion over the past 40 years in fusion research and development. If the U.S. fusion program proceeds according to its present strategy, an additional 40 years, and more money, will be expended before fusion will provide commercial electricity. Such an extended schedule is neither cost-effective nor technically necessary. It is time to launch a national venture to construct and operate a fusion power pilot plant. Such a plant could be operational within 15 years of a national commitment to proceed.

  13. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  14. Surgical fusion in childhood spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Stanton, R P; Meehan, P; Lovell, W W

    1985-01-01

    Twenty cases of surgical fusion for spondylolisthesis were reviewed at the Scottish Rite Hospital (Atlanta, GA, U.S.A.) to determine whether a procedure other than a simple posterolateral fusion is necessary for most patients. The patients were treated postoperatively with pantaloon spica cast immobilization. The fusion rate was high (90%), and patient satisfaction was high. One patient developed neurologic loss postoperatively. Two patients' slips progressed greater than 10% before solid fusion occurred. Thus, bilateral posterolateral fusion, followed by pantaloon spica cast immobilization, is effective for patients with symptomatic spondylolisthesis or asymptomatic children with grade 3 or greater slips. Reduction was not performed in this series.

  15. US blanket technology programs. [Directory of current research

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental research in US programs related to blanket technology is described through brief summaries of the objectives, facilities, recent experimental results and principal investigators for the Blanket Technology Program, TRIO-1 Experiment, TSTA, Fusion Hybrid Program and selected activities in the Fusion Materials and Fusion Safety Programs in neutronics research.

  16. Single Fusion Events at Polarized Liquid-Liquid Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela; Espín, Vanesa Fernández; Martínez-Ortiz, Francisco; García de la Torre, José; Compton, Richard G

    2017-01-16

    A new electrochemical framework for tracking individual soft particles in solution and monitoring their fusion with polarized liquid-liquid interfaces is reported. The physicochemical principle lies in the interfacial transfer of an ionic probe confined in the particles dispersed in solution and that is released upon their collision and fusion with the fluid interface. As a proof-of-concept, spike-like transients of a stochastic nature are reported in the current-time response of 1,2-dichloroethane(DCE)|water(W) submilli-interfaces after injection of DCE-in-W emulsions. The sign and potential dependence of the spikes reflect the charge and lipophilicity of the ionic load of the droplets. A comparison with dynamic light scattering measurements indicates that each spike is associated with the collision of a single sub-picoliter droplet. This opens a new framework for the study of single fusion events at the micro- and nanoscale and of ion transport across biomimetic soft interfaces.

  17. Soft Systems Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  18. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  19. Pulsating Soft Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Shilpa; Holzman, Roi; Miller, Laura; Samson, Julia; Shavit, Uri

    2016-11-01

    Soft corals of the family Xeniidae have a pulsating motion, a behavior not observed in many other sessile organisms. We are studying how this behavior may give these corals a competitive advantage. We will present experimental data and computational simulations of the pulsations of the coral. Video data and kinematic analysis will be shown from the lab and the field. We will present direct numerical simulations of the pulsations of the coral and the resulting fluid flow by solving the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the immersed boundary method. Furthermore, parameter sweeps studying the resulting fluid flow will be discussed. This work is supported by NSF PoLS #1505061 (to S. Khatri) and #1504777 (to L. Miller).

  20. BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SOFT DRINKS

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, William Royal

    1920-01-01

    Prohibition has boomed soft drinks so that more than ever there is need of rigid inspection. Dr. Stokes finds beverages with five-figure counts and empty “sterile” bottles always with some bacteria, sometimes with millions. This paper should attract the attention of health officers to their soft drink problems. PMID:18010284

  1. Not-so-Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  2. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation of a

  3. Soft-collinear supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Elor, Gilly; Larkoski, Andrew J.

    2017-03-01

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with super-symmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is cconstructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence be-tween SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in "collinear superspace", a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  4. The soft keratoprosthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, D R

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop a keratoprosthesis which utilizes a biocolonizable skirt attached to a soft, elastomeric optic for world-wide application. METHODS: Over a period of 20 years, using in vivo animal implantation studies, a series of experiments was conducted testing materials for biocompatibility and durability which resulted in the development of an improved design. A new surgical technique was developed, using porous, biocolonizable haptics embedded within the sclera and combined with the established techniques of resection of Descemet's membrane and a conjunctival flap. RESULTS: Animal implantation studies indicated that 6 haptics, equidistantly placed, was the optimal shape. Two clinical trials resulted in the selection of an aliphatic polyether-based urethane for the optic and 60 mu pore polytetrafluoroethylene for the porous ingrowth material. Heated, pressurized injection moulding proved to be the optimal bonding method between the skirt and the optic. Sclerally embedded haptics achieved excellent integration with the tissue. CONCLUSIONS: This keratoprosthesis is a significant improvement over previous models with a rigid optic in that: 1. The porous ingrowth haptic is sclerally anchored, preventing extrusion. 2. It has a soft elastomeric optic which more successfully defuses the shearing forces of the keratoprosthesis/tissue interface secondary to blinking. 3. The optic is less massive and of greater circumference at the optic/tissue interface, thereby imparting less energy per area with a given movement. 4. The optic does not project posteriorly thereby decreasing anterior chamber irritation and reducing the possibility of glaucoma, uveitis, endophthalmitis, and retinal detachment. 5. This keratoprosthesis allows a normal field of view for the patient and an effective funduscopic view for the surgeon. 6. The large optical diameter eliminates problems with decentralization of the image. 7. It has a significantly better cosmetic

  5. New double soft emission theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; He, Song; Yuan, Ellis Ye

    2015-09-01

    We study the behavior of the tree-level S-matrix of a variety of theories as two particles become soft. By analogy with the recently found subleading soft theorems for gravitons and gluons, we explore subleading terms in double soft emissions. We first consider double soft scalar emissions and find subleading terms that are controlled by the angular momentum operator acting on hard particles. The order of the subleading theorems depends on the presence or not of color structures. Next we obtain a compact formula for the leading term in a double soft photon emission. The theories studied are a special Galileon, Dirac-Born-Infeld, Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar, nonlinear sigma model and Yang-Mills-Scalar. We use the recently found Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of these theories in order to give a simple proof of the leading order part of all these theorems.

  6. Experiments in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-03-28

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models.

  7. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Unconventional approaches to fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Brunelli, B.; Leotta, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to unconventional approaches to fusionthose thermonuclear reactors that, in comparison with Tokamak and other main lines, have received little attention in the worldwide scientific community. Many of the approaches considered are still in the embryonic stages. The authors-an international group of active nuclear scientists and engineers-focus on the parameters achieved in the use of these reactors and on the meaning of the most recent physical studies and their implications for the future. They also compare these approaches with conventional ones, the Tokamak in particular, stressing the non-plasma-physics requirements of fusion reactors. Unconventional compact toroids, linear systems, and multipoles are considered, as are the ''almost conventional'' fusion machines: stellarators, mirrors, reversed-field pinches, and EBT.

  9. The "Science First" Approach to Fusion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2003-04-01

    Meaningful fusion burning plasmas are self organized physical entities for which there are limited means to make reliable theoretical predictions. Therefore, near term experiments, based on technologies that do not require major new developments, are needed which should achieve values of the criticality parameter Kf in the range 2/3 < K_f≤ 1. Here, K_f=P_a/P_Loss, Pa is the power emitted as α-particles by fusion reactions and P_Loss is the rate of energy loss. It is suggested that the US should have meaningful experiment on fusion burning plasmas represented by an Ignitor(B. Coppi, A. Airoldi, et al., Nucl. Fus.), 41, 9 (2001)-like machine (such as the proposed Columbus(B. Coppi and M. Salvetti, MIT (R.L.E.) Report PTP-02/06 (2002)) device), with the same criteria of design simplicity and plasma stability adopted for Ignitor, and collaborate in the near term with the ongoing Ignitor program in Italy directed at demonstrating ignition (K_f≃ 1) over times that exceed all the intrinsic physics time. Moreover, experts on the physics and the technologies of burning plasma devices could develop the conceptual design of an ``ITER-Physics'' experiment to be constructed on a longer term basis by an international consortium. The design would not include tritium-producing blankets, be of more compact dimensions than ITER-FEAT, have higher poloidal fields, higher safety factors against the main instabilities and involve smaller costs and shorter construction times.

  10. Active Surfaces and Interfaces of Soft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiming

    A variety of intriguing surface patterns have been observed on developing natural systems, ranging from corrugated surface of white blood cells at nanometer scales to wrinkled dog skins at millimeter scales. To mimetically harness functionalities of natural morphologies, artificial transformative skin systems by using soft active materials have been rationally designed to generate versatile patterns for a variety of engineering applications. The study of the mechanics and design of these dynamic surface patterns on soft active materials are both physically interesting and technologically important. This dissertation starts with studying abundant surface patterns in Nature by constructing a unified phase diagram of surface instabilities on soft materials with minimum numbers of physical parameters. Guided by this integrated phase diagram, an electroactive system is designed to investigate a variety of electrically-induced surface instabilities of elastomers, including electro-creasing, electro-cratering, electro-wrinkling and electro-cavitation. Combing experimental, theoretical and computational methods, the initiation, evolution and transition of these instabilities are analyzed. To apply these dynamic surface instabilities to serving engineering and biology, new techniques of Dynamic Electrostatic Lithography and electroactive anti-biofouling are demonstrated.

  11. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Shademan, Azad; Decker, Ryan S; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-05-04

    The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques.

  12. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerz, D. A.

    1987-12-01

    Fusion, the process that powers our Sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on Earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the Moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical.

  14. Maximum Likelihood Fusion Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-09

    data fusion, hypothesis testing,maximum likelihood estimation, mobile robot navigation REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...61 vi 9 Bibliography 62 vii 10 LIST OF FIGURES 1.1 Illustration of mobile robotic agents. Land rovers such as (left) Pioneer robots ...simultaneous localization and mapping 1 15 Figure 1.1: Illustration of mobile robotic agents. Land rovers such as (left) Pioneer robots , (center) Segways

  15. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  16. Soft Robotics: New Perspectives for Robot Bodyware and Control

    PubMed Central

    Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable advances of robotics in the last 50 years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others), but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more), is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control. The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments. PMID:25022259

  17. Cold fusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hembree, D. M.; Burchfield, L. A.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Perey, F. G.; Mamantov, G.

    1990-06-01

    A series of experiments designed to detect the by-products expected from deuterium fusion occurring in the palladium and titanium cathodes of heavy water, D2O, electrolysis cells is reported. The primary purpose of this account is to outline the integrated experimental design developed to test the cold fusion hypothesis and to report preliminary results that support continuing the investigation. Apparent positive indicators of deuterium fusion were observed, but could not be repeated or proved to originate from the electrochemical cells. In one instance, two large increases in the neutron count rate, the largest of which exceeded the background by 27 standard deviations, were observed. In a separate experiment, one of the calorimetry cells appeared to be producing approximately 18 percent more power that the input value, but thermistor failure prevented an accurate recording of the event as a function of time. In general, the tritium levels in most cells followed the slow enrichment expected from the electrolysis of D2O containing a small amount of tritium. However, after 576 hours of electrolysis, one cell developed a tritium concentration approximately seven times greater than expected level.

  18. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  19. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation: lecture 4. Soft x-ray imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The history and present techniques of soft x-ray imaging are reviewed briefly. The physics of x-ray imaging is described, including the temporal and spatial coherence of x-ray sources. Particular technologies described are: contact x-ray microscopy, zone plate imaging, scanned image zone plate microscopy, scanned image reflection microscopy, and soft x-ray holography and diffraction. (LEW)

  20. The Soft-Skills Learning Triangle: A Learning Model for Supporting Online Management & Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Soft-skills Learning Triangle (SLT)--a model created to help coaches, mentors, and educators understand how web-technologies can be used to support management learning and soft-skills development. SLT emerged as part of a larger action-learning research project--the NewMindsets Management Education…

  1. Alternative Penetrometers to Measure the Near Surface Strength of Soft Seafloor Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Strength of Soft Seafloor Soils Mark R. Tufenkjian Department of Civil Engineering, California State University, Los Angeles 5151 State University... seafloor soils. Further the education of participating undergraduate and graduate students by active involvement in research and mentoring activities...accurately measure the near surface shear strength of soft seafloor soils. APPROACH Review current full-flow penetrometer technology: Review technical

  2. Alternative Penetrometers to Measure the Near Surface Strength of Soft Seafloor Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Strength of Soft Seafloor Soils Mark R. Tufenkjian Department of Civil Engineering, California State University, Los Angeles 5151 State University... seafloor soils. Further the education of participating undergraduate and graduate students by active involvement in research and mentoring activities...surface shear strength of soft seafloor soils. APPROACH Review current full-flow penetrometer technology: Review technical literature to evaluate

  3. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.G.; Meier, W.

    1995-03-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of {approximately}16{cents} per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GW{sub e} IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level.

  4. Pulsed power accelerators for particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.H.; Barr, G.W.; VanDevender, J.P.; White, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing the construction phase of the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-I (PBFA-I). Testing of the 36 module, 30 TW, 1 MJ output accelerator is in the initial stages. The 4 MJ, PBFA Marx generator has provided 3.6 MA into water-copper sulfate load resistors with a spread from first to last Marx firing between 15 to 25 ns and an output power of 5.7 TW. This accelerator is a modular, lower voltage, pulsed power device that is capable of scaling to power levels exceeding 100 TW. The elements of the PBFA technology and their integration into an accelerator system for particle beam fusion will be discussed.

  5. [Non fusion techniques in spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Schizas, C; Duff, J M; Tessitore, E; Faundez, A

    2009-12-16

    In order to prevent adjacent segment degeneration following spinal fusion new techniques are being used. Lumbar disc arthroplasty yields mid term results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Cervical disc arthroplasty is indicated in the treatment of cervicobrachialgia with encouraging initial results. The ability of arthroplasty to prevent adjacent segment degeneration has yet to be proven. Although dynamic stabilization had not been proven effective in treating chronic low back pain, it might be useful following decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Interspinal devices are useful in mild lumbar spinal stenosis but their efficacy in treating low back pain is yet to be proven. Confronted with a growing number of new technologies clinicians should remain critical while awaiting long term results.

  6. Status and Prospects of the Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M H

    2006-11-15

    Fast ignition is an alternate concept in inertial confinement fusion, which has the potential for easier ignition and greater energy multiplication. If realized it could improve the prospects for inertial fusion energy. It poses stimulating challenges in science and technology and the research is approaching a key stage in which the feasibility of fast ignition will be determined. This review covers the concepts, the state of the science and technology, the near term prospects and the challenges and risks involved in demonstrating high gain fast ignition.

  7. Fusion safety program annual report fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY 1997. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in FY 1979 to perform research and develop data needed to ensure safety in fusion facilities. Activities include experiments, analysis, code development and application, and other forms of research. These activities are conducted at the INEEL, different DOE laboratories, and other institutions. The technical areas covered in this report include chemical reactions and activation product release, tritium safety, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. Work done for ITER this year has focused on developing the needed information for the Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-2).

  8. RWCFusion: identifying phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions based on fusion pair random walk scoring method

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianmei; Li, Xuecang; Yao, Qianlan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Jian; Ai, Bo; Liu, Wei; Wang, Qiuyu; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Yuejuan; Bai, Xuefeng; Song, Chao; Li, Shang; Li, Enmin; Xu, Liyan; Li, Chunquan

    2016-01-01

    While gene fusions have been increasingly detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies based methods in human cancers, these methods have limitations in identifying driver fusions. In addition, the existing methods to identify driver gene fusions ignored the specificity among different cancers or only considered their local rather than global topology features in networks. Here, we proposed a novel network-based method, called RWCFusion, to identify phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions. To evaluate its performance, we used leave-one-out cross-validation in 35 cancers and achieved a high AUC value 0.925 for overall cancers and an average 0.929 for signal cancer. Furthermore, we classified 35 cancers into two classes: haematological and solid, of which the haematological got a highly AUC which is up to 0.968. Finally, we applied RWCFusion to breast cancer and found that top 13 gene fusions, such as BCAS3-BCAS4, NOTCH-NUP214, MED13-BCAS3 and CARM-SMARCA4, have been previously proved to be drivers for breast cancer. Additionally, 8 among the top 10 of the remaining candidate gene fusions, such as SULF2-ZNF217, MED1-ACSF2, and ACACA-STAC2, were inferred to be potential driver gene fusions of breast cancer by us. PMID:27506935

  9. RWCFusion: identifying phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions based on fusion pair random walk scoring method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianmei; Li, Xuecang; Yao, Qianlan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Jian; Ai, Bo; Liu, Wei; Wang, Qiuyu; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Yuejuan; Bai, Xuefeng; Song, Chao; Li, Shang; Li, Enmin; Xu, Liyan; Li, Chunquan

    2016-09-20

    While gene fusions have been increasingly detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies based methods in human cancers, these methods have limitations in identifying driver fusions. In addition, the existing methods to identify driver gene fusions ignored the specificity among different cancers or only considered their local rather than global topology features in networks. Here, we proposed a novel network-based method, called RWCFusion, to identify phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions. To evaluate its performance, we used leave-one-out cross-validation in 35 cancers and achieved a high AUC value 0.925 for overall cancers and an average 0.929 for signal cancer. Furthermore, we classified 35 cancers into two classes: haematological and solid, of which the haematological got a highly AUC which is up to 0.968. Finally, we applied RWCFusion to breast cancer and found that top 13 gene fusions, such as BCAS3-BCAS4, NOTCH-NUP214, MED13-BCAS3 and CARM-SMARCA4, have been previously proved to be drivers for breast cancer. Additionally, 8 among the top 10 of the remaining candidate gene fusions, such as SULF2-ZNF217, MED1-ACSF2, and ACACA-STAC2, were inferred to be potential driver gene fusions of breast cancer by us.

  10. Recent advances and challenges for diode-pumped solid-state lasers as an inertial fusion energy driver candidate

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.A.; Beach, R.J.; Bibeau, C.

    1997-12-23

    We discuss how solid-state laser technology can serve in the interests of fusion energy beyond the goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is now being constructed to ignite a deuterium-tritium target to fusion conditions in the laboratory for the first time. We think that advanced solid-state laser technology can offer the repetition-rate and efficiency needed to drive a fusion power plant, in contrast to the single-shot character of NIF. As discuss below, we propose that a gas-cooled, diode-pumped Yb:S-FAP laser can provide a new paradigm for fusion laser technology leading into the next century.

  11. Fusion for Space Propulsion and Plasma Liner Driven MTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y.C. Francis; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    in the light of significant development of the enabling pulsed power component technologies that have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The extreme states of matter required to produce fusion reactions may be more readily realizable in the pulsed states with less system mass than in steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in pulsed fusion systems using plasmas in the appropriate density regimes. Magnetized target fusion, which attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement and inertial compression-containment into one single integrated fusion scheme, appears to have benefits that are worth exploring for propulsion application.

  12. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may be impossible to rapidly asses with certainty which individual in the crowd is the one carrying the observed weapon. Sensor fusion is an enabling technology that may be used to solve this problem. Through fusion the signal of the sensor that depicts the weapon can be displayed in the context provided by a sensor of a different modality. We propose an image fusion scheme in which non-literal imagery can be fused with standard color images such that the result clearly displays the observed weapons in the context of the original color image. The procedure is such that the relevant contrast details from the non-literal image are transferred to the color image without altering the original color distribution of this image. The result is a natural looking color image that fluently combines all details from both input sources. When an observer who performs a dynamic crowd surveillance task, detects a weapon in the scene, he will also be able to quickly determine which person in the crowd is actually carrying the observed weapon (e.g. "the man with the red T-shirt and blue jeans"). The method is illustrated by the fusion of thermal 8-12 μm imagery with standard RGB color images.

  13. Identification of novel fusion genes with 28S ribosomal DNA in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Taki, Tomohiko; Nagoshi, Hisao; Chinen, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Yuichi; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Kuroda, Junya; Horiike, Shigeo; Nishida, Kazuhiro; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2014-04-01

    Fusion genes are frequently observed in hematologic malignancies and soft tissue sarcomas, and are usually associated with chromosome abnormalities. Many of these fusion genes create in-frame fusion transcripts that result in the production of fusion proteins, and some of which aid tumorigenesis. These fusion proteins are often associated with disease phenotype and clinical outcome, and act as markers for minimal residual disease and indicators of therapeutic targets. Here, we identified the 28S ribosomal DNA (RN28S1) gene as a novel fusion partner of the B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 11B gene (BCL11B), the immunoglobulin κ variable 3-20 gene (IGKV3-20) and the component of oligomeric Golgi complex 1 gene (COG1) in hematologic malignancies. The RN28S1-BCL11B fusion transcript was identified in a case with mixed-lineage (T/myeloid) acute leukemia having t(6;14)(q25;q32) by cDNA bubble PCR using BCL11B primers; however, the gene fused to BCL11B on 14q32 was not on 6q25. IGKV3-20-RN28S1 and COG1-RN28S1 fusion transcripts were identified in the Burkitt lymphoma cell line HBL-5, and the multiple myeloma cell line KMS-18. RN28S1 would not translate, and the breakpoints in partner genes of RN28S1 were within the coding exons, suggesting that disruption of fusion partners by fusion to RN28S1 is the possible mechanism of tumorigenesis. Although further analysis is needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) through which these RN28S1-related fusions play roles in tumorigenesis, our findings provide important insights into the role of rDNA function in human genomic architecture and tumorigenesis.

  14. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  15. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    PubMed

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  16. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  17. Soft Decision Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  18. [Image fusion in medical radiology].

    PubMed

    Burger, C

    1996-07-20

    Image fusion supports the correlation between images of two or more studies of the same organ. First, the effect of differing geometries during image acquisitions, such as a head tilt, is compensated for. As a consequence, congruent images can easily be obtained. Instead of merely putting them side by side in a static manner and burdening the radiologist with the whole correlation task, image fusion supports him with interactive visualization techniques. This is especially worthwhile for small lesions as they can be more precisely located. Image fusion is feasible today. Easy and robust techniques are readily available, and furthermore DICOM, a rapidly evolving data exchange standard, diminishes the once severe compatibility problems for image data originating from systems of different manufacturers. However, the current solutions for image fusion are not yet established enough for a high throughput of fusion studies. Thus, for the time being image fusion is most appropriately confined to clinical research studies.

  19. Lead (Pb) hohlraum: target for inertial fusion energy.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Amendt, P; Atherton, L J; Dunne, M; Glenzer, S H; Lindl, J D; Meeker, D; Moses, E I; Nikroo, A; Wallace, R

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress towards demonstrating inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has sparked wide interest in Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) for carbon-free large-scale power generation. A LIFE-based fleet of power plants promises clean energy generation with no greenhouse gas emissions and a virtually limitless, widely available thermonuclear fuel source. For the LIFE concept to be viable, target costs must be minimized while the target material efficiency or x-ray albedo is optimized. Current ICF targets on the NIF utilize a gold or depleted uranium cylindrical radiation cavity (hohlraum) with a plastic capsule at the center that contains the deuterium and tritium fuel. Here we show a direct comparison of gold and lead hohlraums in efficiently ablating deuterium-filled plastic capsules with soft x rays. We report on lead hohlraum performance that is indistinguishable from gold, yet costing only a small fraction.

  20. Lead (Pb) Hohlraum: Target for Inertial Fusion Energy

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Atherton, L. J.; Dunne, M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Lindl, J. D.; Meeker, D.; Moses, E. I.; Nikroo, A.; Wallace, R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress towards demonstrating inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has sparked wide interest in Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) for carbon-free large-scale power generation. A LIFE-based fleet of power plants promises clean energy generation with no greenhouse gas emissions and a virtually limitless, widely available thermonuclear fuel source. For the LIFE concept to be viable, target costs must be minimized while the target material efficiency or x-ray albedo is optimized. Current ICF targets on the NIF utilize a gold or depleted uranium cylindrical radiation cavity (hohlraum) with a plastic capsule at the center that contains the deuterium and tritium fuel. Here we show a direct comparison of gold and lead hohlraums in efficiently ablating deuterium-filled plastic capsules with soft x rays. We report on lead hohlraum performance that is indistinguishable from gold, yet costing only a small fraction. PMID:23486285