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Sample records for fusion temperature based

  1. Data fusion for compensation of temperature variations in Lamb-wave based SHM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dworakowski, Ziemowit; Ambrozinski, Lukasz; Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    Temperature variations affect Lamb wave propagation and therefore in this way they can severely limit application of baseline signals in SHM systems. Various techniques are proposed in the paper to solve this problem. New method based on an interpretation of multiple signals acquired in distinct points of the structure is introduced and compared with other widely used approaches. Data fusion is used to merge a number of methods into one with a substantially increased efficiency.

  2. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  3. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2003-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a partial energy conversion system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  4. Controlled thermonuclear fusion, high temperature plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-05-01

    The primary source of nuclear energy comes from the fission process of heavy nuclei. To utilize the energy released by a thermonuclear fusion process, methods of controlling the fusion reaction were studied. This is controlled thermonuclear fusion technology. The fuel used in a thermonuclear fusion process are isotopes of hydrogen: deuterium and tritium. They can be extracted from the almost unlimited seawater. Nuclear fusion also produces very little radioactive waste. Thermonuclear fusion is a promising energy source with an almost unlimited supply; it is economical, safe, and relatively clean. Ways to raise plasma temperature to a very high level and to maintain it to allow fusion reactions to take place are studied. The physical laws of high temperature plasma was studied to reach this goal which resulted in the development of high temperature plasma physics.

  5. NaOH-based high temperature heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. M.; Rice, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A material called Thermkeep, developed as a low-cost method for the storage of thermal energy for solar electric power generating systems is discussed. The storage device consists of an insulated cylinder containing Thermkeep in which coiled tubular heat exchangers are immersed. A one-tenth scale model of the design contains 25 heat-exchanger tubes and 1500 kg of Thermkeep. Its instrumentation includes thermocouples to measure internal Thermkeep temperatures, vessel surface, heated shroud surface, and pressure gauges to indicate heat-exchanger pressure drops. The test-circuit design is presented and experimental results are discussed.

  6. NaOH-based high temperature heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. M.; Rice, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A material called Thermkeep, developed as a low-cost method for the storage of thermal energy for solar electric power generating systems is discussed. The storage device consists of an insulated cylinder containing Thermkeep in which coiled tubular heat exchangers are immersed. A one-tenth scale model of the design contains 25 heat-exchanger tubes and 1500 kg of Thermkeep. Its instrumentation includes thermocouples to measure internal Thermkeep temperatures, vessel surface, heated shroud surface, and pressure gauges to indicate heat-exchanger pressure drops. The test-circuit design is presented and experimental results are discussed.

  7. High temperature experiment for accelerator inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1985-05-01

    The High Temperature Experiment (HTE) is intended to produce temperatures of 50 to 100 eV in solid density targets driven by heavy ion beams from a multiple beam induction linac. The fundamental variables (particle species, energy, number of beamlets, current and pulse length) must be fixed to achieve the temperature at minimum cost, subject to criteria of technical feasibility and relevance to the development of a Fusion Driver. The conceptual design begins with an assumed (radiation-limited) target temperature and uses limitations due to particle range, beamlet perveance, and target disassembly to bound the allowable values of mass number (A) and energy (E). An accelerator model is then applied to determine the minimum length accelerator, which is a guide to total cost. The accelerator model takes into account limits on transportable charge, maximum gradient, core mass per linear meter, and head-to-tail momentum variation within a pulse.

  8. HYFIRE: fusion-high temperature electrolysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J R; Steinberg, M; Benenati, R; Dang, V D; Horn, F; Isaacs, H; Lazareth, O; Makowitz, H; Usher, J

    1980-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a comprehensive conceptual design study called HYFIRE of a commercial fusion Tokamak reactor, high-temperature electrolysis system. The study is placing particular emphasis on the adaptability of the STARFIRE power reactor to a synfuel application. The HYFIRE blanket must perform three functions: (a) provide high-temperature (approx. 1400/sup 0/C) process steam at moderate pressures (in the range of 10 to 30 atm) to the high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) units; (b) provide high-temperature (approx. 700 to 800/sup 0/C) heat to a thermal power cycle for generation of electricity to the HTE units; and (c) breed enough tritium to sustain the D-T fuel cycle. In addition to thermal energy for the decomposition of steam into its constitutents, H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/, electrical input is required. Power cycle efficiencies of approx. 40% require He cooling for steam superheat. Fourteen hundred degree steam coupled with 40% power cycle efficiency results in a process efficiency (conversion of fusion energy to hydrogen chemical energy) of 50%.

  9. Current-carrying element based on second-generation high-temperature superconductor for the magnet system of a fusion neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, M. S. Ivanov, D. P. E-mail: denis.ivanov30@mail.ru; Novikov, S. I. Shuvaev, S. A. E-mail: sergey.shuvaev@phystech.edu

    2015-12-15

    Application of current-carrying elements (CCEs) made of second-generation high-temperature superconductor (2G HTS) in magnet systems of a fusion neutron source (FNS) and other fusion devices will allow their magnetic field and thermodynamic stability to be increased substantially in comparison with those of low-temperature superconductor (LTS) magnets. For a toroidal magnet of the FNS, a design of a helical (partially transposed) CCE made of 2G HTS is under development with forced-flow cooling by helium gas, a current of 20–30 kA, an operating temperature of 10–20 K, and a magnetic field on the winding of 12–15 T (prospectively ∼20 T). Short-sized samples of the helical flexible heavy-current CCE are being fabricated and investigated; a pilot-line unit for production of long-sized CCE pieces is under construction. The applied fabrication technique allows the CCE to be produced which combines a high operating current, thermal and mechanical stability, manufacturability, and low losses in the alternating modes. The possibility of fabricating the CCE with the outer dimensions and values of the operating parameter required for the FNS (and with a significant margin) using already available serial 2G HTS tapes is substantiated. The maximum field of toroidal magnets with CCEs made of 2G HTS will be limited only by mechanical properties of the magnet’s casing and structure, while the thermal stability will be approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of toroidal magnets with LTS-based CCEs. The helical CCE made of 2G HTS is very promising for fusion and hybrid electric power plants, and its design and technologies of production, as well as the prototype coils made of it for the FNS and other tokamaks, are worth developing now.

  10. High temperature superconductors for fusion at the Swiss Plasma Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzone, P.; Wesche, R.; Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.

    2017-08-01

    High temperature superconductors (HTS) may become in future an option for the superconducting magnets of commercial fusion plants. At the Swiss Plasma Center (SPC) the R&D activity toward HTS high current, high field cables suitable for fusion magnets started in 2012 and led in 2015 to the assembly of the first 60 kA, 12 T prototype conductor. The cable concept developed at the SPC is based on the principle of ‘soldered, twisted stacks’ of REBCO tapes. The required number of stacks is assembled in a cored flat cable, cooled by forced flow of supercritical helium. The sample environment of the test facility at SPC has been upgraded with a HTS adapter and a counter-flow heat exchanger to allow testing the HTS sample in a broader range of temperature (4.5 K-50 K) using the existing, NbTi based superconducting transformer and the closed loop refrigerator.

  11. The emissivities of liquid metals at their fusion temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnell, D. W.; Treverton, J. A.; Valerga, A. J.; Margrave, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A survey of the literature through 1969 shows an almost total lack of experimental emissivity data for metals in the liquid state. The emissivities for several transition metals and various other metals and compounds in the liquid state at their fusion temperatures have been determined. The technique used involves electromagnetic levitation-induction heating of the materials in an inert atmosphere. The brightness temperature of the liquid phase of the material is measured as the material is heated through fusion. Given a reliable value of the fusion temperature, which is available for most pure substances, one may readily calculate an emissivity for the liquid phase at the fusion temperatures. Even in cases where melting points are poorly known, the brightness temperatures are unique parameters, independent of the temperature scale and measured for a chemically defined system at a fixed point. Better emissivities may be recalculated as better melting point data become available.

  12. Object recognition approach based on feature fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Runsheng

    2001-09-01

    Multi-sensor information fusion plays an important pole in object recognition and many other application fields. Fusion performance is tightly depended on the fusion level selected and the approach used. Feature level fusion is a potential and difficult fusion level though there might be mainly three fusion levels. Two schemes are developed for key issues of feature level fusion in this paper. In feature selecting, a normal method developed is to analyze the mutual relationship among the features that can be used, and to be applied to order features. In object recognition, a multi-level recognition scheme is developed, whose procedure can be controlled and updated by analyzing the decision result obtained in order to achieve a final reliable result. The new approach is applied to recognize work-piece objects with twelve classes in optical images and open-country objects with four classes based on infrared image sequence and MMW radar. Experimental results are satisfied.

  13. Oxyhydrogen burner for low-temperature flame fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueltzen, M.; Brüggenkamp, T.; Franke, M.; Altenburg, H.

    1993-04-01

    An oxyhydrogen burner as described in this article enables the growth of crystals by Verneuil's technique at temperatures of about 1000 °C. The powder fed to the crystal passes along a low-temperature pathway through the flame, so that evaporation of volatile components is prevented. Low-temperature flame fusion of superconducting Y-Ba-cuprate is reported.

  14. A Reliability-Based Track Fusion Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Pan, Liqiang; Jin, Shuilin; Liu, Haibo; Yin, Guisheng

    2015-01-01

    The common track fusion algorithms in multi-sensor systems have some defects, such as serious imbalances between accuracy and computational cost, the same treatment of all the sensor information regardless of their quality, high fusion errors at inflection points. To address these defects, a track fusion algorithm based on the reliability (TFR) is presented in multi-sensor and multi-target environments. To improve the information quality, outliers in the local tracks are eliminated at first. Then the reliability of local tracks is calculated, and the local tracks with high reliability are chosen for the state estimation fusion. In contrast to the existing methods, TFR reduces high fusion errors at the inflection points of system tracks, and obtains a high accuracy with less computational cost. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and the superiority of the algorithm in dense sensor environments. PMID:25950174

  15. A reliability-based track fusion algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Pan, Liqiang; Jin, Shuilin; Liu, Haibo; Yin, Guisheng

    2015-01-01

    The common track fusion algorithms in multi-sensor systems have some defects, such as serious imbalances between accuracy and computational cost, the same treatment of all the sensor information regardless of their quality, high fusion errors at inflection points. To address these defects, a track fusion algorithm based on the reliability (TFR) is presented in multi-sensor and multi-target environments. To improve the information quality, outliers in the local tracks are eliminated at first. Then the reliability of local tracks is calculated, and the local tracks with high reliability are chosen for the state estimation fusion. In contrast to the existing methods, TFR reduces high fusion errors at the inflection points of system tracks, and obtains a high accuracy with less computational cost. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and the superiority of the algorithm in dense sensor environments.

  16. Thermochemical hydrogen production based on magnetic fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikorian, O. H.; Brown, L. C.

    1982-06-01

    Conceptual design studies were carried out on an integrated fusion/chemical plant system using a Tandem Mirror Reactor fusion energy source to drive the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Water-Splitting Cycle and produce hydrogen as a future feedstock for synthetic fuels. Blanket design studies for the Tandem Mirror Reactor show that several design alternatives are available for providing heat at sufficiently high temperatures to drive the General Atomic Cycle. The concept of a Joule-boosted decomposer is introduced in one of the systems investigated to provide heat electrically for the highest temperature step in the cycle (the SO3 decomposition step), and thus lower blanket design requirements and costs. Flowsheeting and conceptual process designs have been developed for a complete fusion-driven hydrogen plant, and the information has been used to develop a plot plan for the plant and to estimate hydrogen production costs.

  17. Cognitive fusion analysis based on context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2004-04-01

    The standard fusion model includes active and passive user interaction in level 5 - "User Refinement". User refinement is more than just details of passive automation partitioning - it is the active management of information. While a fusion system can explore many operational conditions over myopic changes, the user has the ability to reason about the hyperopic "big picture." Blasch and Plano developed cognitive-fusion models that address user constraints including: intent, attention, trust, workload, and throughput to facilitate hyperopic analysis. To enhance user-fusion performance modeling (i.e. confidence, timeliness, and accuracy); we seek to explore the nature of context. Context, the interrelated conditions of which something exists, can be modeled in many ways including geographic, sensor, object, and environmental conditioning. This paper highlights user refinement actions based on context to constrain the fusion analysis for accurately representing the trade space in the real world. As an example, we explore a target identification task in which contextual information from the user"s cognitive model is imparted to a fusion belief filter.

  18. A high-temperature inert gas fusion apparatus.

    PubMed

    Mosen, A W; Kelley, R E; Mitchell, H P

    1966-03-01

    A high-temperature inert gas fusion apparatus capable of operating at crucible temperatures as high as 3,100 degrees is described. While this apparatus has been used primarily for the determination of oxygen in pyrolytic carbon-coated uranium carbide particles, its usefulness is not limited to this type of material. It can be generally applied to the determination of oxygen and nitrogen in metals, alloys and other materials amenable to analysis by vacuum-fusion techniques. Analytical results obtained on steel and uranium carbide samples are presented. The apparatus, in its present form, has been in daily use for nearly 2 years. Down time during this period has been negligible. A total of 20 samples can be run in duplicate in an 8-hr shift.

  19. High temperature superconducting current leads for fusion magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.L.; Dederer, J.T.; Singh, S.K. . Science and Technology Center); Hull, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Superconducting magnets for fusion applications typically have very high operating currents. These currents are transmitted from the room temperature power supplies to the low temperature superconducting coils by way of helium-vapor-cooled current leads. Because of the high current magnitude and the resistive characteristics associated with the normal metallic lead conductors, a substantial amount of power is dissipated in the lead. To maintain a stable operation, a high rate of helium vapor flow, generated by the boil-off of liquid helium, is required to cool the lead conductors. This helium boil-off substantially increases both the installation capacity and the operating cost of the helium refrigerator/liquefier. The boil-off of liquid helium can be significantly reduced by employing ceramic high temperature superconductors, such as Y-Ba-Cu-O, in the low temperature part of the lead conductor structure. This concept utilizes the superconducting, as well as the low thermal conductivity properties of the superconductor materials in eliminating power dissipation in part of the current lead and in inhibiting heat conduction into the liquid helium pool, resulting in reduced helium boil-off. This design concept has been conclusively demonstrated by a 2-kA current lead test model using Y-Ba-Cu-O (123) material which, although not optimized in design, has significantly reduced the rate of helium boil-off in comparison to optimized conventional leads. There appear to be no major technological barriers for scaling up this design to higher current levels for applications in fusion magnet systems or in fusion related testing activities. The theoretical basis of the current lead concept, as well as the important design and technology issues are addressed. The potential cost saving derived from employing these leads in fusion magnets is also discussed. In addition, a design concept for a 10-kA lead is presented.

  20. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  1. A New Approach to Image Fusion Based on Cokriging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Mount, David M.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the image fusion problem involving remotely sensed data. We introduce cokriging as a method to perform fusion. We investigate the advantages of fusing Hyperion with ALI. The evaluation is performed by comparing the classification of the fused data with that of input images and by calculating well-chosen quantitative fusion quality metrics. We consider the Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) project as our fusion application. The fusion of ALI with Hyperion data is studies using PCA and wavelet-based fusion. We then propose utilizing a geostatistical based interpolation method called cokriging as a new approach for image fusion.

  2. Progress in Mirror-Based Fusion Neutron Source Development.

    PubMed

    Anikeev, A V; Bagryansky, P A; Beklemishev, A D; Ivanov, A A; Kolesnikov, E Yu; Korzhavina, M S; Korobeinikova, O A; Lizunov, A A; Maximov, V V; Murakhtin, S V; Pinzhenin, E I; Prikhodko, V V; Soldatkina, E I; Solomakhin, A L; Tsidulko, Yu A; Yakovlev, D V; Yurov, D V

    2015-12-04

    The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in worldwide collaboration has developed a project of a 14 MeV neutron source for fusion material studies and other applications. The projected neutron source of the plasma type is based on the gas dynamic trap (GDT), which is a special magnetic mirror system for plasma confinement. Essential progress in plasma parameters has been achieved in recent experiments at the GDT facility in the Budker Institute, which is a hydrogen (deuterium) prototype of the source. Stable confinement of hot-ion plasmas with the relative pressure exceeding 0.5 was demonstrated. The electron temperature was increased up to 0.9 keV in the regime with additional electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of a moderate power. These parameters are the record for axisymmetric open mirror traps. These achievements elevate the projects of a GDT-based neutron source on a higher level of competitive ability and make it possible to construct a source with parameters suitable for materials testing today. The paper presents the progress in experimental studies and numerical simulations of the mirror-based fusion neutron source and its possible applications including a fusion material test facility and a fusion-fission hybrid system.

  3. Progress in Mirror-Based Fusion Neutron Source Development

    PubMed Central

    Anikeev, A. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Beklemishev, A. D.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kolesnikov, E. Yu.; Korzhavina, M. S.; Korobeinikova, O. A.; Lizunov, A. A.; Maximov, V. V.; Murakhtin, S. V.; Pinzhenin, E. I.; Prikhodko, V. V.; Soldatkina, E. I.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Tsidulko, Yu. A.; Yakovlev, D. V.; Yurov, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in worldwide collaboration has developed a project of a 14 MeV neutron source for fusion material studies and other applications. The projected neutron source of the plasma type is based on the gas dynamic trap (GDT), which is a special magnetic mirror system for plasma confinement. Essential progress in plasma parameters has been achieved in recent experiments at the GDT facility in the Budker Institute, which is a hydrogen (deuterium) prototype of the source. Stable confinement of hot-ion plasmas with the relative pressure exceeding 0.5 was demonstrated. The electron temperature was increased up to 0.9 keV in the regime with additional electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of a moderate power. These parameters are the record for axisymmetric open mirror traps. These achievements elevate the projects of a GDT-based neutron source on a higher level of competitive ability and make it possible to construct a source with parameters suitable for materials testing today. The paper presents the progress in experimental studies and numerical simulations of the mirror-based fusion neutron source and its possible applications including a fusion material test facility and a fusion-fission hybrid system. PMID:28793722

  4. The Fusion Gain Analysis of the Inductively Driven Liner Compression Based Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John

    2016-10-01

    An analytical analysis of the fusion gain expected in the inductively driven liner compression (IDLC) based fusion is conducted to identify the fusion gain scaling at various operating conditions. The fusion based on the IDLC is a magneto-inertial fusion concept, where a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoid is compressed via the inductively-driven metal liner to drive the FRC to fusion conditions. In the past, an approximate scaling law for the expected fusion gain for the IDLC based fusion was obtained under the key assumptions of (1) D-T fuel at 5-40 keV, (2) adiabatic scaling laws for the FRC dynamics, (3) FRC energy dominated by the pressure balance with the edge magnetic field at the peak compression, and (4) the liner dwell time being liner final diameter divided by the peak liner velocity. In this study, various assumptions made in the previous derivation is relaxed to study the change in the fusion gain scaling from the previous result of G ml1 / 2 El11 / 8 , where ml is the liner mass and El is the peak liner kinetic energy. The implication from the modified fusion gain scaling on the performance of the IDLC fusion reactor system is also explored.

  5. Principle component analysis based hyperspectral image fusion in imaging spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenyi; Wu, Dan; Jiang, Jiangang; Yang, Guoan; Zhang, Chunmin

    2017-02-01

    Image fusion is of great importance in object detection. A PCA based image fusion method was proposed. A pixel-level average method and a wavelet-based methods have been implemented for a comparison study. Different performance metrics without reference image are implemented to evaluate the performance of image fusion algorithms. It has been concluded that image fusion using PCA based method showed better performance.

  6. State-based sensor fusion for surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents a state-based control scheme for sensor fusion in autonomous mobile robots. States specify the sensing strategy for each sensor; the feedback rule to be applied to the sensors; and a set of failure conditions, which signal abnormal or inconsistent evidence. Experiments were conducted in the surveillance domain, where the robot was to determine if three different areas in a cluttered tool room remained unchanged after each visit. The data collected from four sensors (a Sony Hi8 color camcorder, a Pulnix black and white camera, an Inframetrics true infrared camera, and Polaroid ultrasonic transducers) and fused using the sensor fusion effects architecture (SFX) support the claims that the state-based control scheme produces percepts which are consistent with the scene being viewed, can improve the global belief in a percept, can improve the sensing quality of the robot, and it robust under a variety of conditions.

  7. ISAR imaging based on sparse subbands fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Tian, Biao; Xu, Shiyou; Chen, Zengping

    2015-12-01

    Data fusion using subbands, which can obtain a higher range resolution without altering the bandwidth, hardware, and sampling rate of the radar system, has attracted more and more attention in recent years. A method of ISAR imaging based on subbands fusion and high precision parameter estimation of geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) model is presented in this paper. To resolve the incoherence problem in subbands data, a coherent processing method is adopted. Based on an all-pole model, the phase difference of pole and scattering coefficient between each sub-band is used to effectively estimate the incoherent components. After coherent processing, the high and low frequency sub-band data can be expressed as a uniform all-pole model. The gapped-data amplitude and phase estimation (GAPES) algorithm is used to fill up the gapped band. Finally, fusion data is gained by high precision parameter estimation of GTD-all-pole model with full-band data, such as scattering center number, scattering center type and amplitude. The experimental results of simulated data show the validity of the algorithm.

  8. Multispectral image fusion based on fractal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jie; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Chunhua

    2004-01-01

    Imagery sensors have been one indispensable part of the detection and recognition systems. They are widely used to the field of surveillance, navigation, control and guide, et. However, different imagery sensors depend on diverse imaging mechanisms, and work within diverse range of spectrum. They also perform diverse functions and have diverse circumstance requires. So it is unpractical to accomplish the task of detection or recognition with a single imagery sensor under the conditions of different circumstances, different backgrounds and different targets. Fortunately, the multi-sensor image fusion technique emerged as important route to solve this problem. So image fusion has been one of the main technical routines used to detect and recognize objects from images. While, loss of information is unavoidable during fusion process, so it is always a very important content of image fusion how to preserve the useful information to the utmost. That is to say, it should be taken into account before designing the fusion schemes how to avoid the loss of useful information or how to preserve the features helpful to the detection. In consideration of these issues and the fact that most detection problems are actually to distinguish man-made objects from natural background, a fractal-based multi-spectral fusion algorithm has been proposed in this paper aiming at the recognition of battlefield targets in the complicated backgrounds. According to this algorithm, source images are firstly orthogonally decomposed according to wavelet transform theories, and then fractal-based detection is held to each decomposed image. At this step, natural background and man-made targets are distinguished by use of fractal models that can well imitate natural objects. Special fusion operators are employed during the fusion of area that contains man-made targets so that useful information could be preserved and features of targets could be extruded. The final fused image is reconstructed from the

  9. Temperature dependence of calcium-induced fusion of sonicated phosphatidylserine vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, S T; Day, E P; Ho, J T

    1978-01-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence calcium-induced fusion of sonicated phosphatidylserine vesicles. The vesicles were incubated in the presence of calcium at a specified temperature until the resulting aggregation or fusion process had gone to completion. EDTA was then added and the resulting final size of the vesicle population was measured by using dynamic light scattering. This final size was plotted against incubation temperature to show the temperature dependence of calcium-induced fusion. This curve has a peak near 11 degrees C which may be associated with the phase transition of the sonicated phosphatidylserine vesicles in the presence of calcium prior to the aggregation or fusion process. PMID:279918

  10. Apparatus for direct measurement of ash fusion and sintering behavior at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1989-10-01

    Ash fusion, sintering, and deposition may impose serious operational difficulties in conventional and advanced coal-combustion systems. Conventional ash fusion techniques (e.g., ASTM methods) determine the qualitative behavior of ash samples at atmospheric pressure. Presently, there is no known available technique that can measure the behavior of coal ash at elevated temperatures and pressures. In the literature, methods based on electrical resistance or shrinkage of coal ash have been reported at atmospheric pressure (elevated temperatures) conditions. A high-pressure microdilatometer (HPMD) has been developed to investigate ash fusion and sintering behavior at elevated pressures and temperatures by the simultaneous measurement of the temperature of initial contraction and electrical resistivity of samples. This novel technique facilitates the measurement of ash properties over a wide range of temperature, pressure, and gas atmosphere (oxidizing, reducing, or inert). The operating principle of the HPMD includes measuring the temperature at which there is a significant ``shift'' in the electrical resistivity (and/or sample volume) that represents ash sintering and fusion. Sintering occurs through the formation of solid-state, particle-to-particle ``necks'' or the appearance of a molten phase, which allows a path for electrical conductance. The ability to perform both resistivity and shrinkage measurements simultaneously or independently at elevated pressures makes the HPMD truly unique. The HPMD can also be used to investigate the swelling and softening behavior of pyrolyzing coal at elevated pressures and relatively rapid heating rates. The HPMD can provide insights into the sintering/fusion of coal ash or coal swelling at a range of conditions: (a) the influences of various gas atmospheres can be investigated, (b) the effects of pressure can be studied, (c) different temperature/heating rate schemes can be used (constant rates, isothermal holds below or above the

  11. Learned fusion operators based on matrix completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risko, Kelly K. D.; Hester, Charles F.

    2011-05-01

    The efficient and timely management of imagery captured in the battlefield requires methods capable of searching the voluminous databases and extracting highly symbolic concepts. When processing images, a semantic and definition gap exists between machine representations and the user's language. Based on matrix completion techniques, we present a fusion operator that fuses imagery and expert knowledge provided by user inputs during post analysis. Specifically, an information matrix is formed from imagery and a class map as labeled by an expert. From this matrix an image operator is derived for the extraction/prediction of information from future imagery. We will present results using this technique on single mode data.

  12. An Efficient Fusion-Based Defogging.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Ming; Syue, Jin-Yu; Radzicki, Vincent R; Lee, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Degradation in visibility is often introduced to images captured in poor weather conditions, such as fog or haze. To overcome this problem, conventional approaches focus mainly on the enhancement of the overall image contrast. However, because of the unspecified light-source distribution or unsuitable mathematical constraints of the cost functions, it is often difficult to achieve quality results. In this paper, a fusion-based transmission estimation method is introduced to adaptively combine two different transmission models. Specifically, the new fusion weighting scheme and the atmospheric light computed from the Gaussian-based dark channel method improve the estimation of the locations of the light sources. To reduce the flickering effect introduced during the process of frame-based dehazing, a flicker-free module is formulated to alleviate the impacts. The systematic assessments show that this approach is capable of achieving superior defogging and dehazing performance, compared with superior defogging and dehazing performance, compared with the state-of-the-art methods, both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  13. A new electron temperature diagnostic of critical surface based on the ion acoustic decay instability in hot, high density plasma relevant to laser fusion. Semiannual report, April 1--September 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Drake, R.P.; Seka, W.; Craxton, R.S.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    The authors made analysis of the IADI experiments previously made using OMEGA laser system. They obtained two important new results: the first direct observation of the epw excited by the Ion Acoustic Decay Instability, and the first study of the IADI in a plasma that approaches laser-fusion conditions, in the sense of having a density scale length of order 1 mm and an electron temperature, T{sub e}, in excess of 1 keV. Previous observations of the epw`s have been based on the second harmonic emission, from which little can be inferred because the emission is produced by unknown pairs of epw`s, integrated in a complicated way over wavenumber space and real space. In contrast, they have directly observed the epw by using the 90{degree}, collective Thomson scattering (CTS) of a UV laser (at the third harmonic of the pump) from the epw`s. Because the ratio of probe frequency to electron plasma frequency is only about three, the scattering is collective (i.e. k{sub epw}{lambda}{sub De} is small, where k{sub epw} is the epw wave number and {lambda}{sub De} is the Debye length),m even though the scattering angle is large. The electron temperature can then be deduced from the ion sound velocity, obtained from the measurement of the frequency at which growth is maximum at the scattering wavenumber.

  14. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Peter Y.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James

    2015-09-27

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. Here, we measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. We made all measurements in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. Finally, an understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  15. Image fusion for skull base neuronavigation. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Sure, Ulrich; Benes, Ludwig; Riegel, Thomas; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2002-10-01

    An automatic image fusion module (BrainLab, Munich, Germany) is used for the fusion of the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) data sets. The procedure of image fusion takes 5 minutes prior to surgery. The image fusion of CT and MR imaging data visualizes the skull base and tumor margins clearly. Color display of the different data sets allows the tumor and the skull base to be distinguished easily. The fused CT data in bone window mode provides useful additional information on the osseous skull base.

  16. Vesicle fusion to planar membranes is enhanced by cholesterol and low temperature.

    PubMed

    Lee, David E; Lew, Matthew G; Woodbury, Dixon J

    2013-01-01

    Lipid composition and properties play an important role in many cellular properties such as fusion of vesicles to cell membranes, an essential process for exocytosis. Using a model system composed of artificial vesicles (liposomes) and artificial membranes (planar lipid bilayers), we observed that fusion is significantly affected by the lipid phase of the planar membrane. To determine the effect of lipid phases on fusion rates, we utilized the nystatin/ergosterol fusion assay and stimulated fusion with an osmotic gradient. Phase of the planar membrane was altered by changing cholesterol or temperature while the vesicular lipids were held constant. Liquid disordered (L(d) or L(α)) planar membranes were formed from phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine with unsaturated acyl chains. Addition of cholesterol shifts these membranes to the liquid ordered (L(o)) phase and increases liposome fusion. Planar membranes in the L(α) phase were also made from dipalmitoylphoshatidylcholine (DPPC) above the transition temperature (T(m)) of 41.5 ° C. Decreasing the temperature below T(m) shifts these membranes into the ripple phase (P(β')) and also increases liposome fusion. The cholesterol and temperature data are consistent with the hypothesis that fusion is promoted in membranes that have greater exposure of their lipid tails or in membranes which can form leaflet domains with negative curvature. The data are not consistent with the hypothesis that lipid mismatch drives fusion.

  17. IEFIT - An Interactive Approach to High Temperature Fusion Plasma Magnetic Equilibrium Fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Schissel, D.P.; Lao, L.L.

    1999-06-01

    An interactive IDL based wrapper, IEFIT, has been created for the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT written in FORTRAN. It allows high temperature fusion physicists to rapidly optimize a plasma equilibrium reconstruction by eliminating the unnecessarily repeated initialization in the conventional approach along with the immediate display of the fitting results of each input variation. It uses a new IDL based graphics package, GaPlotObj, developed in cooperation with Fanning Software Consulting, that provides a unified interface with great flexibility in presenting and analyzing scientific data. The overall interactivity reduces the process to minutes from the usual hours.

  18. Phenomenology-Based Inverse Scattering for Sensor Information Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-15

    SENSOR INFORMATION FUSION Kung-Hau Ding 15 September 2006 Final Report Approved for Public Release; Distribution...Hanscom AFB MA 01731-2909 TECHNICAL REPORT Title: Phenomenology-Based Inverse Scattering for Sensors Information Fusion Unlimited, Statement A...Scattering for Sensor Information Fusion 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2304 Kung

  19. A fusion based plasma propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, J. A.; Anderson, B.; Bryant, D.; Creese, C.; Djordjevic, V.; Peddicord, K. L.

    1987-01-01

    The Fusion Plasma Propulsion System scoping study was performed to investigate the possibilities of a fusion powered plasma propulsion system for space applications. Specifically, it was to be compared against existing electric propulsion concepts for a manned Mars mission. Design parameters consist of 1000 N thrust for 500 days, and the minimum mass possible. This investigation is briefly presented and conclusions drawn.

  20. Hyperspectral Image Sharpening Based on Ehlers Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Ehlers, M.

    2017-09-01

    As the application of hyperspectral images is increasing, many researchers attempt to extend existing pansharpening techniques to hyperspectral images. This paper focuses on the application of Ehlers fusion to hyperspectral image sharpening. Ehlers fusion involves two crucial algorithms: filter technique in the frequency domain and intensity transform. In this study, different filter types and intensity transform methods were analysed separately. With a combination of filter types and intensity transforms, the fusion procedure was implemented to test data sets. The spectral profiles of the pixels of the images were then used as a tool to control the quality of the fused image. Finally, the performance of Ehlers fusion is compared with Principle Component (PC) analysis, Gram-Schmidt transform (Gram-Schmidt), High-Pass Filtering in the spatial domain (HPF), and Wavelet Principal Component (Wavelet-PC) analysis using the same input data. The comparison shows that Ehlers high-pass filter fusion shows outstanding performance both on spatial enhancement and colour preservation.

  1. Review of fusion synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  2. Tensile properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the Fusion-1 low-temperature experiment in the BOR-60 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gazda, J.; Nowicki, L.J.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    The irradiation has been completed and the test specimens have been retrieved from the lithium-bonded capsule at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR) in Russia. During this reporting period, the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) tensile specimens were received from RIAR and initial testing and examination of these specimens at ANL has been completed. The results, corroborating previous findings showed a significant loss of work hardening capability in the materials. There appears to be no significant difference in behavior among the various heats of vanadium-base alloys in the V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti composition range. The variations in the preirradiation annealing conditions also produced no notable differences.

  3. High-speed surface temperature measurements on plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, M.; Kobayashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    For the lifetime evaluation of plasma facing materials in fusion experimental machines, it is essential to investigate their surface behavior and their temperature responses during an off-normal event such as the plasma disruptions. An infrared thermometer with a sampling speed as fast as 1{times}10{sup {minus}6} s/data, namely, the high-speed infrared thermometer (HSIR), has been developed by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan. To evaluate an applicability of the newly developed HSIR on the surface temperature measurement of plasma facing materials, high heat flux beam irradiation experiments have been performed with three different materials under the surface heat fluxes up to 170 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.04 s in a hydrogen ion beam test facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. As for the results, HSIR can be applicable for measuring the surface temperature responses of the armor tile materials with a little modification. It is also confirmed that surface temperatures measured with the HSIR thermometer show good agreement with the analytical results for stainless steel and carbon based materials at a temperature range of up to 2500{degree}C. However, for aluminum the HSIR could measure the temperature of the high dense vapor cloud which was produced during the heating due to lower melting temperature. Based on the result, a multichannel arrayed HSIR thermometer has been designed and fabricated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

    2012-05-15

    The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

  5. Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interfacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

    2012-05-01

    The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

  6. Temperature derivatives for fusion reactivity of D-D and D-T

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R.; Makaruk, Hanna Ewa

    2016-11-29

    Deuterium-tritium (D-T) and deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction rates are observable using leakage gamma flux. A direct measurement of γ-rays with equipment that exhibits fast temporal response could be used to infer temperature, if the detector signal is amenable for taking the logarithmic time-derivative, alpha. We consider the temperature dependence for fusion cross section reactivity.

  7. Intrinsic temperature sensitivity of influenza C virus hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Takashita, Emi; Muraki, Yasushi; Sugawara, Kanetsu; Asao, Hironobu; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Koji; Tsuji, Takashi; Hongo, Seiji; Ohara, Yoshiro; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Ozawa, Makoto; Matsuzaki, Yoko

    2012-12-01

    Influenza C virus replicates more efficiently at 33°C than at 37°C. To determine whether hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion protein (HEF), a surface glycoprotein of influenza C virus, is a restricting factor for this temperature sensitivity, we analyzed the biological and biochemical properties of HEF at 33°C and 37°C. We found that HEF exhibits intrinsic temperature sensitivities for surface expression and fusion activity.

  8. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  9. A data fusion-based drought index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Mohammad; Rüdiger, Christoph; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2016-03-01

    Drought and water stress monitoring plays an important role in the management of water resources, especially during periods of extreme climate conditions. Here, a data fusion-based drought index (DFDI) has been developed and analyzed for three different locations of varying land use and climate regimes in Australia. The proposed index comprehensively considers all types of drought through a selection of indices and proxies associated with each drought type. In deriving the proposed index, weekly data from three different data sources (OzFlux Network, Asia-Pacific Water Monitor, and MODIS-Terra satellite) were employed to first derive commonly used individual standardized drought indices (SDIs), which were then grouped using an advanced clustering method. Next, three different multivariate methods (principal component analysis, factor analysis, and independent component analysis) were utilized to aggregate the SDIs located within each group. For the two clusters in which the grouped SDIs best reflected the water availability and vegetation conditions, the variables were aggregated based on an averaging between the standardized first principal components of the different multivariate methods. Then, considering those two aggregated indices as well as the classifications of months (dry/wet months and active/non-active months), the proposed DFDI was developed. Finally, the symbolic regression method was used to derive mathematical equations for the proposed DFDI. The results presented here show that the proposed index has revealed new aspects in water stress monitoring which previous indices were not able to, by simultaneously considering both hydrometeorological and ecological concepts to define the real water stress of the study areas.

  10. Angular radiation temperature simulation for time-dependent capsule drive prediction in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Longfei; Yang, Dong; Li, Hang; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Zhiwei; Li, Liling; Kuang, Longyu; Jiang, Shaoen Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao

    2015-02-15

    The x-ray drive on a capsule in an inertial confinement fusion setup is crucial for ignition. Unfortunately, a direct measurement has not been possible so far. We propose an angular radiation temperature simulation to predict the time-dependent drive on the capsule. A simple model, based on the view-factor method for the simulation of the radiation temperature, is presented and compared with the experimental data obtained using the OMEGA laser facility and the simulation results acquired with VISRAD code. We found a good agreement between the time-dependent measurements and the simulation results obtained using this model. The validated model was then used to analyze the experimental results from the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. More specifically, the variations of the peak radiation temperatures at different view angles with the albedo of the hohlraum, the motion of the laser spots, the closure of the laser entrance holes, and the deviation of the laser power were investigated. Furthermore, the time-dependent radiation temperature at different orientations and the drive history on the capsule were calculated. The results indicate that the radiation temperature from “U20W112” (named according to the diagnostic hole ID on the target chamber) can be used to approximately predict the drive temperature on the capsule. In addition, the influence of the capsule on the peak radiation temperature is also presented.

  11. An FPGA-based heterogeneous image fusion system design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Le; Lin, Yu-chi; Chen, Yan-hua; Zhao, Mei-rong

    2011-08-01

    Taking the advantages of FPGA's low cost and compact structure, an FPGA-based heterogeneous image fusion platform is established in this study. Altera's Cyclone IV series FPGA is adopted as the core processor of the platform, and the visible light CCD camera and infrared thermal imager are used as the image-capturing device in order to obtain dualchannel heterogeneous video images. Tailor-made image fusion algorithms such as gray-scale weighted averaging, maximum selection and minimum selection methods are analyzed and compared. VHDL language and the synchronous design method are utilized to perform a reliable RTL-level description. Altera's Quartus II 9.0 software is applied to simulate and implement the algorithm modules. The contrast experiments of various fusion algorithms show that, preferably image quality of the heterogeneous image fusion can be obtained on top of the proposed system. The applied range of the different fusion algorithms is also discussed.

  12. A novel image fusion approach based on compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongpeng; Liu, Zhaodong; Fang, Bin; Li, Yanxia

    2015-11-01

    Image fusion can integrate complementary and relevant information of source images captured by multiple sensors into a unitary synthetic image. The compressive sensing-based (CS) fusion approach can greatly reduce the processing speed and guarantee the quality of the fused image by integrating fewer non-zero coefficients. However, there are two main limitations in the conventional CS-based fusion approach. Firstly, directly fusing sensing measurements may bring greater uncertain results with high reconstruction error. Secondly, using single fusion rule may result in the problems of blocking artifacts and poor fidelity. In this paper, a novel image fusion approach based on CS is proposed to solve those problems. The non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) method is utilized to decompose the source images. The dual-layer Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) model is used to integrate low-pass subbands; while an edge-retention based fusion rule is proposed to fuse high-pass subbands. The sparse coefficients are fused before being measured by Gaussian matrix. The fused image is accurately reconstructed by Compressive Sampling Matched Pursuit algorithm (CoSaMP). Experimental results demonstrate that the fused image contains abundant detailed contents and preserves the saliency structure. These also indicate that our proposed method achieves better visual quality than the current state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Physiological sensor signals classification for healthcare using sensor data fusion and case-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahina; Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin

    2014-07-03

    Today, clinicians often do diagnosis and classification of diseases based on information collected from several physiological sensor signals. However, sensor signal could easily be vulnerable to uncertain noises or interferences and due to large individual variations sensitivity to different physiological sensors could also vary. Therefore, multiple sensor signal fusion is valuable to provide more robust and reliable decision. This paper demonstrates a physiological sensor signal classification approach using sensor signal fusion and case-based reasoning. The proposed approach has been evaluated to classify Stressed or Relaxed individuals using sensor data fusion. Physiological sensor signals i.e., Heart Rate (HR), Finger Temperature (FT), Respiration Rate (RR), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) are collected during the data collection phase. Here, sensor fusion has been done in two different ways: (i) decision-level fusion using features extracted through traditional approaches; and (ii) data-level fusion using features extracted by means of Multivariate Multiscale Entropy (MMSE). Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is applied for the classification of the signals. The experimental result shows that the proposed system could classify Stressed or Relaxed individual 87.5% accurately compare to an expert in the domain. So, it shows promising result in the psychophysiological domain and could be possible to adapt this approach to other relevant healthcare systems.

  14. Physiological Sensor Signals Classification for Healthcare Using Sensor Data Fusion and Case-Based Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahina; Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Today, clinicians often do diagnosis and classification of diseases based on information collected from several physiological sensor signals. However, sensor signal could easily be vulnerable to uncertain noises or interferences and due to large individual variations sensitivity to different physiological sensors could also vary. Therefore, multiple sensor signal fusion is valuable to provide more robust and reliable decision. This paper demonstrates a physiological sensor signal classification approach using sensor signal fusion and case-based reasoning. The proposed approach has been evaluated to classify Stressed or Relaxed individuals using sensor data fusion. Physiological sensor signals i.e., Heart Rate (HR), Finger Temperature (FT), Respiration Rate (RR), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) are collected during the data collection phase. Here, sensor fusion has been done in two different ways: (i) decision-level fusion using features extracted through traditional approaches; and (ii) data-level fusion using features extracted by means of Multivariate Multiscale Entropy (MMSE). Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is applied for the classification of the signals. The experimental result shows that the proposed system could classify Stressed or Relaxed individual 87.5% accurately compare to an expert in the domain. So, it shows promising result in the psychophysiological domain and could be possible to adapt this approach to other relevant healthcare systems. PMID:24995374

  15. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined.

  16. Formalization and web-based implementation of spatial data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemann, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Spatial data fusion plays an important role for spatial information retrieval from disconnected data sources and is thus a precondition for comprehensive and consistent decision making. In particular on the Web, it can help to combine spatial data from the variety of existing, but distributed sources, e.g. as provided by Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). However, standardized spatial data processing on the Web still lacks broad acceptance beyond the scientific domain. This article describes a formalization and service-based implementation of the spatial data fusion process. The formalization builds on a set theoretic description of the considered domain and derives a number of possible fusion objectives. Geoprocessing patterns are used to describe commonly used sub-routines of the fusion process and therefore support the workflow composition. The implementation is based on open standards and comprises a Web-client, several geoprocessing services and a fusion engine to support the Web-based compilation and execution of spatial data fusion workflows in an ad hoc manner.

  17. A Matrix Pencil Algorithm Based Multiband Iterative Fusion Imaging Method

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yong Qiang; Gao, Xun Zhang; Li, Xiang; Liu, Yong Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Multiband signal fusion technique is a practicable and efficient way to improve the range resolution of ISAR image. The classical fusion method estimates the poles of each subband signal by the root-MUSIC method, and some good results were get in several experiments. However, this method is fragile in noise for the proper poles could not easy to get in low signal to noise ratio (SNR). In order to eliminate the influence of noise, this paper propose a matrix pencil algorithm based method to estimate the multiband signal poles. And to deal with mutual incoherent between subband signals, the incoherent parameters (ICP) are predicted through the relation of corresponding poles of each subband. Then, an iterative algorithm which aimed to minimize the 2-norm of signal difference is introduced to reduce signal fusion error. Applications to simulate dada verify that the proposed method get better fusion results at low SNR. PMID:26781194

  18. A Matrix Pencil Algorithm Based Multiband Iterative Fusion Imaging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yong Qiang; Gao, Xun Zhang; Li, Xiang; Liu, Yong Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Multiband signal fusion technique is a practicable and efficient way to improve the range resolution of ISAR image. The classical fusion method estimates the poles of each subband signal by the root-MUSIC method, and some good results were get in several experiments. However, this method is fragile in noise for the proper poles could not easy to get in low signal to noise ratio (SNR). In order to eliminate the influence of noise, this paper propose a matrix pencil algorithm based method to estimate the multiband signal poles. And to deal with mutual incoherent between subband signals, the incoherent parameters (ICP) are predicted through the relation of corresponding poles of each subband. Then, an iterative algorithm which aimed to minimize the 2-norm of signal difference is introduced to reduce signal fusion error. Applications to simulate dada verify that the proposed method get better fusion results at low SNR.

  19. An innovative thinking-based intelligent information fusion algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huimin; Hu, Liang; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes an intelligent algorithm that can realize information fusion in reference to the relative research achievements in brain cognitive theory and innovative computation. This algorithm treats knowledge as core and information fusion as a knowledge-based innovative thinking process. Furthermore, the five key parts of this algorithm including information sense and perception, memory storage, divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and evaluation system are simulated and modeled. This algorithm fully develops innovative thinking skills of knowledge in information fusion and is a try to converse the abstract conception of brain cognitive science to specific and operable research routes and strategies. Furthermore, the influences of each parameter of this algorithm on algorithm performance are analyzed and compared with those of classical intelligent algorithms trough test. Test results suggest that the algorithm proposed in this study can obtain the optimum problem solution by less target evaluation times, improve optimization effectiveness, and achieve the effective fusion of information.

  20. An Innovative Thinking-Based Intelligent Information Fusion Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes an intelligent algorithm that can realize information fusion in reference to the relative research achievements in brain cognitive theory and innovative computation. This algorithm treats knowledge as core and information fusion as a knowledge-based innovative thinking process. Furthermore, the five key parts of this algorithm including information sense and perception, memory storage, divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and evaluation system are simulated and modeled. This algorithm fully develops innovative thinking skills of knowledge in information fusion and is a try to converse the abstract conception of brain cognitive science to specific and operable research routes and strategies. Furthermore, the influences of each parameter of this algorithm on algorithm performance are analyzed and compared with those of classical intelligent algorithms trough test. Test results suggest that the algorithm proposed in this study can obtain the optimum problem solution by less target evaluation times, improve optimization effectiveness, and achieve the effective fusion of information. PMID:23956699

  1. Maximum common substructure-based data fusion in similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Duesbury, Edmund; Holliday, John; Willett, Peter

    2015-02-23

    Data fusion has been shown to work very well when applied to fingerprint-based similarity searching, yet little is known of its application to maximum common substructure (MCS)-based similarity searching. Two similarity search applications of the MCS will be focused on here. Typically, the number of bonds in the MCS, as well as the bonds in the two molecules being compared, are used in a similarity coefficient. The power of this technique can be extended using data fusion, where the MCS similarities of a set of reference molecules against one database molecule are fused. This "group fusion" technique forms the first application of the MCS in this work. The other application is that of the chemical hyperstructure. The hyperstructure concept is an alternative form of data fusion, being a hypothetical molecule that is constructed from the overlap of a set of existing molecules. This paper compares fingerprint group fusion (extended-connectivity fingerprints), MCS similarity group fusion, and hyperstructure similarity searching, and describes their relative merits and complementarity in virtual screening. It is concluded that the hyperstructure approach as implemented here is less generally effective than conventional fingerprint approaches.

  2. Service-based extensions to the JDL fusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2008-04-01

    Extensions to a previously developed service-based fusion process model are presented. The model accommodates (1) traditional sensor data and human-generated input, (2) streaming and non-streaming data feeds, and (3) the fusion of both physical and non-physical entities. More than a dozen base-level fusion services are identified. These services provide the foundation functional decomposition of levels 0 - 2 in JDL fusion model. Concepts, such as clustering, link analysis and database mining, that have traditionally been only loosely associated with the fusion process, are shown to play key roles within this fusion framework. Additionally, the proposed formulation extends the concepts of tracking and cross-entity association to non-physical entities, as well as supports effective exploitation of a priori and derived context knowledge. Finally, the proposed framework is shown to support set theoretic properties, such as equivalence and transitivity, as well as the development of a pedigree summary metric that characterizes the informational distance between individual fused products and source data.

  3. Z-Pinch fusion-based nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.

    2013-02-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human space flight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly [1]. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield [2]. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10-6 s). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) [3] propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle. The analysis of the Z-Pinch MIF propulsion system concludes that a 40-fold increase of Isp over chemical propulsion is predicted. An Isp of 19,436 s and thrust of 3812 N s/pulse, along with nearly doubling the predicted payload mass fraction, warrants further development of enabling technologies.

  4. Base of the Measles Virus Fusion Trimer Head Receives the Signal That Triggers Membrane Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Apte-Sengupta, Swapna; Negi, Surendra; Leonard, Vincent H. J.; Oezguen, Numan; Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K.; Braun, Werner; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) fusion (F) protein trimer executes membrane fusion after receiving a signal elicited by receptor binding to the hemagglutinin (H) tetramer. Where and how this signal is received is understood neither for MV nor for other paramyxoviruses. Because only the prefusion structure of the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F-trimer is available, to study signal receipt by the MV F-trimer, we generated and energy-refined a homology model. We used two approaches to predict surface residues of the model interacting with other proteins. Both approaches measured interface propensity values for patches of residues. The second approach identified, in addition, individual residues based on the conservation of physical chemical properties among F-proteins. Altogether, about 50 candidate interactive residues were identified. Through iterative cycles of mutagenesis and functional analysis, we characterized six residues that are required specifically for signal transmission; their mutation interferes with fusion, although still allowing efficient F-protein processing and cell surface transport. One residue is located adjacent to the fusion peptide, four line a cavity in the base of the F-trimer head, while the sixth residue is located near this cavity. Hydrophobic interactions in the cavity sustain the fusion process and contacts with H. The cavity is flanked by two different subunits of the F-trimer. Tetrameric H-stalks may be lodged in apposed cavities of two F-trimers. Because these insights are based on a PIV5 homology model, the signal receipt mechanism may be conserved among paramyxoviruses. PMID:22859308

  5. The temperature arrested intermediate of virus-cell fusion is a functional step in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Hamani I; Hope, Thomas J

    2006-05-25

    HIV entry occurs via membrane-mediated fusion of virus and target cells. Interactions between gp120 and cellular co-receptors lead to both the formation of fusion pores and release of the HIV genome into target cells. Studies using cell-cell fusion assays have demonstrated that a temperature-arrested state (TAS) can generate a stable intermediate in fusion related events. Other studies with MLV pseudotyped with HIV envelope also found that a temperature sensitive intermediate could be generated as revealed by the loss of a fluorescently labeled membrane. However, such an intermediate has never been analyzed in the context of virus infection. Therefore, we used virus-cell infection with replication competent HIV to gain insights into virus-cell fusion. We find that the TAS is an intermediate in the process culminating in the HIV infection of a target cell. In the virion-cell TAS, CD4 has been engaged, the heptad repeats of gp41 are exposed and the complex is kinetically predisposed to interact with coreceptor to complete the fusion event leading to infection.

  6. Thermal and structural design aspects of high-temperature blankets for fusion synfuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Reich, M.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising process, high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam at temperatures of greater than or equal to 1000/sup 0/C is examined. In HTE, a large fraction (up to approx. 50%) of the energy input to split water to hydrogen and oxygen comes from thermal energy. For the projected operating conditions achieved by high temperature fusion blankets, overall efficiencies for hydrogen production should be on the order of 60%. The design, thermal-hydraulics, and materials for such blankets are discussed.

  7. Urban Emergency Evacuation Data Fusion Based on "ONE MAP"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, B.; Sun, Q.; Chen, H.

    2013-07-01

    Urban emergency evacuation is a complicated systems engineering, which relates to many departments. How to fuse different scale, different format, different mathematical base spatial data effectively provided by such as police, fire protection, medical and health organization, traffic, emergency rescue and so on is a realistic matter that decision-makers are faced with. This paper analyses the characteristic of multisource spatial data in urban emergency evacuation and assorts it, brings forward the fusion strategy of multisource spatial data based on "one map", designs the frame of multisource spatial data fusion, makes an experiment in the end. The experiment indicates that the efficiency and level of urban emergency evacuation decision-making advances remarkably supported by multisource spatial data fusion.

  8. Polarization image fusion algorithm based on improved PCNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Yuan, Yan; Su, Lijuan; Hu, Liang; Liu, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The polarization detection technique provides polarization information of objects which conventional detection techniques are unable to obtain. In order to fully utilize of obtained polarization information, various polarization imagery fusion algorithms have been developed. In this research, we proposed a polarization image fusion algorithm based on the improved pulse coupled neural network (PCNN). The improved PCNN algorithm uses polarization parameter images to generate the fused polarization image with object details for polarization information analysis and uses the matching degree M as the fusion rule. The improved PCNN fused image is compared with fused images based on Laplacian pyramid (LP) algorithm, Wavelet algorithm and PCNN algorithm. Several performance indicators are introduced to evaluate the fused images. The comparison showed the presented algorithm yields image with much higher quality and preserves more detail information of the objects.

  9. Study on Information Fusion Based Check Recognition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong

    Automatic check recognition techniques play an important role in financial systems, especially in risk management. This paper presents a novel check recognition system based on multi-cue information fusion theory. For Chinese bank check, the amount can be independently determined by legal amount, courtesy amount, or E13B code. The check recognition algorithm consists of four steps: preprocessing, check layout analysis, segmentation and recognition, and information fusion. For layout analysis, an adaptive template matching algorithm is presented to locate the target recognition regions on the check. The hidden markov model is used to segment and recognize legal amount. Courtesy and E13B code are recognized by artificial neural network method, respectively. Finally, D-S evidence theory is then introduced to fuse above three recognition results for better recognition performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the system can robustly recognize checks and the information fusion based algorithm improves the recognition rate by 5~10 percent.

  10. MEMS based ion beams for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Ardanuc, S.; Vinayakumar, K. B.; Schaffer, Z. A.; Lal, A.

    2016-10-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication provides an exciting opportunity to shrink existing accelerator concepts to smaller sizes and to reduce cost by orders of magnitude. We revisit the concept of a Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) and show how, with current technologies, the concept can be downsized from gap distances of several cm to distances in the sub-mm regime. The basic concept implements acceleration gaps using radio frequency (RF) fields and electrostatic quadrupoles (ESQ) on silicon wafers. First results from proof-of-concept experiments using printed circuit boards to realize the MEQALAC structures are presented. We show results from accelerating structures that were used in an array of nine (3x3) parallel beamlets with He ions at 15 keV. We will also present results from an ESQ focusing lattice using the same beamlet layout showing beam transport and matching. We also will discuss our progress in fabricating MEMS devices in silicon wafers for both the RF and ESQ structures and integration of necessary RF-circuits on-chip. The concept can be scaled up to thousands of beamlets providing high power beams at low cost and can be used to form and compress a plasma for the development of magnetized target fusion approaches. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy through the ARPA-e ALPHA program under contracts DE-AC0205CH11231 (LBNL).

  11. Inertial fusion research based on pulsed power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    PBFA II, with design parameters of 3.5 MJ and 100 TW, is being designed to allow inertial fusion ignition experiments using imploding foils or light ion beams. Flexibility is being retained to implode a cylindrical foil through magnetically insulated power concentration at 30 MA or to drive one or more ion diodes operating in the 10-MV range. In both cases our goal is to deliver 100 TW/cm/sup 2/ and 1 MJ to a target in order to investigate ignition and possibly breakeven. Imploding foil data on Proto II has demonstrated that electromagnetic energy can be efficiently converted into foil kinetic energy with the output increasing as the square of the foil current. Our experiments have reached 60 kJ at 5 MA with the foil imploding in 80 ns and stagnating in 10 ns. This implosion demonstrates adequate stability, and modeling has shown that this behavior should extrapolate to higher currents if the implosion time is less than 100 ns. In order to extend the scaling data to 8 MA, we have modified Proto II by extending magnetic insulation to inhibit insulator flashover.

  12. Fusion sputtering for bonding to zirconia-based materials.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of fusion sputtering on zirconia-resin microtensile bond strength after 6 months of water storage. Zirconia disks received one of the following surface treatments: particle abrasion with 50-µm aluminum oxide particles or fusion sputtering, while as-sintered specimens served as a control. The prepared zirconia disks (Lava Zirconia) were bonded to pre-aged composite disks (Filtek Z250) using a phosphatemonomer- containing resin cement (RelyX Unicem), and the bonded specimens were sectioned into micro-bars (1 x 1 x 6 mm) which were either immediately tested or after 6 months of water storage (n = 25). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface roughness were performed for the prepared specimens. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Particle abrasion (33.1 MPa) and fusion sputtering (42.5 MPa) produced significantly higher MTBS values and resisted degradation after 6 months of water storage, while as-sintered specimens (12.4 MPa) demonstrated a significant reduction in bond strength after water storage (2.9 MPa). SEM examination indicated that fusion sputtering resulted in the creation of retentive zirconia beads on the treated surface, which enhanced micromechanical retention with adhesive resin and prevented interfacial failure. Fusion sputtering is a new and a simple method suitable for enhancing the bond strength of adhesive resins to zirconia-based frameworks.

  13. Remote sensing image fusion based on frequency domain segmenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deren; Li, Linyi; Yu, Xin

    2006-10-01

    Remote sensing image fusion has become one of hotspots in the researches and applications of Geoinformatics in recent years. It has been widely used to integrate low-resolution multispectral images with high-resolution panchromatic images. In order to obtain good fusion effects, high frequency components of panchromatic images and low frequency components of multispectral images should be identified and combined in a reasonable way. However, it is very difficult due to complex processes of remote sensing image formation. In order to solve this problem, a new remote sensing image fusion method based on frequency domain segmenting is proposed in this paper. Discrete wavelet packet transform is used as the mathematical tool to segment the frequency domain of remote sensing images after analyzing the frequency relationship between high-resolution panchromatic images and low-resolution multispectral images. And several wavelet packet coefficient features are extracted and combined as the fusion decision criteria. Besides visual perception and some statistical parameters, classification accuracy parameters are also used to evaluate the fusion effects in the experiment. And the results show that fused images by the proposed method are not only suitable for human perception but also suitable for some computer applications such as remote sensing image classification.

  14. Depth perception based on fusion of stereo images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chih-Ping

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, we present an edge-based stereo vision algorithm that treats the stereo correspondence problem as a resolution problem rather than a searching problem as in earlier work. The stereopsis is obtained through `fusion' rather than `point-to-point' matching. Rayleigh criterion for resolution diffraction pattern is applied in the fusion process, and the disparity information of the entire image is obtained in one convolution operation. The computation burden is largely reduced. This algorithm uses cross-looking cameras model so that the fixation point can be used as a reference point to register the two images. The edge filter used is developed according to the schematic model of cortical simple cells in the human visual system. During the fusion process, an additional procedure imitating the `optic decussation' in human visual processing is performed so as to minimize the ambiguity due to surface occlusion.

  15. Cold nuclear fusion and muon-catalyzed fusion. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a nuclear fusion process which occurs at lower temperatures and pressures than conventional fusion reactions. The references describe theoretical and experimental results for a proposed muon-catalyzed fusion reactor, and for studies on muon sticking and reactivation. The temperature dependence of fusion rates, and resolution of some engineering challenges are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Noise temperature improvement for magnetic fusion plasma millimeter wave imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, J.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas [B. Tobias et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 6, 2106042 (2011)]. Of particular importance have been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry systems for imaging Te and ne fluctuations. These instruments have employed heterodyne receiver arrays with Schottky diode mixer elements directly connected to individual antennas. Consequently, the noise temperature has been strongly determined by the conversion loss with typical noise temperatures of ˜60 000 K. However, this can be significantly improved by making use of recent advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit chip low noise amplifiers to insert a pre-amplifier in front of the Schottky diode mixer element. In a proof-of-principle design at V-Band (50-75 GHz), significant improvement of noise temperature from the current 60 000 K to measured 4000 K has been obtained.

  17. Noise temperature improvement for magnetic fusion plasma millimeter wave imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Lai, J; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C

    2014-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas [B. Tobias et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 6, 2106042 (2011)]. Of particular importance have been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry systems for imaging T(e) and n(e) fluctuations. These instruments have employed heterodyne receiver arrays with Schottky diode mixer elements directly connected to individual antennas. Consequently, the noise temperature has been strongly determined by the conversion loss with typical noise temperatures of ~60,000 K. However, this can be significantly improved by making use of recent advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit chip low noise amplifiers to insert a pre-amplifier in front of the Schottky diode mixer element. In a proof-of-principle design at V-Band (50-75 GHz), significant improvement of noise temperature from the current 60,000 K to measured 4000 K has been obtained.

  18. Information fusion based optimal control for large civil aircraft system.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Ziyang; Jiang, Ju; Wang, Xinhua; Gao, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Wind disturbance has a great influence on landing security of Large Civil Aircraft. Through simulation research and engineering experience, it can be found that PID control is not good enough to solve the problem of restraining the wind disturbance. This paper focuses on anti-wind attitude control for Large Civil Aircraft in landing phase. In order to improve the riding comfort and the flight security, an information fusion based optimal control strategy is presented to restrain the wind in landing phase for maintaining attitudes and airspeed. Data of Boeing707 is used to establish a nonlinear mode with total variables of Large Civil Aircraft, and then two linear models are obtained which are divided into longitudinal and lateral equations. Based on engineering experience, the longitudinal channel adopts PID control and C inner control to keep longitudinal attitude constant, and applies autothrottle system for keeping airspeed constant, while an information fusion based optimal regulator in the lateral control channel is designed to achieve lateral attitude holding. According to information fusion estimation, by fusing hard constraint information of system dynamic equations and the soft constraint information of performance index function, optimal estimation of the control sequence is derived. Based on this, an information fusion state regulator is deduced for discrete time linear system with disturbance. The simulation results of nonlinear model of aircraft indicate that the information fusion optimal control is better than traditional PID control, LQR control and LQR control with integral action, in anti-wind disturbance performance in the landing phase. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Landrum, B.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    components are within the current state of the art for pulsed power technology. Experimental facilities with the required pulsed power capabilities already exist. 7) The scheme does not require prefabricated fuel target and liner hardware in any esoteric form or state. All necessary fuel and liner material are introduced into the engine in the form of ordinary matter in gaseous state at room temperature, greatly simplifying their handling on board. They are delivered into the fusion reaction chamber in a completely standoff manner.

  20. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Landrum, B.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    components are within the current state of the art for pulsed power technology. Experimental facilities with the required pulsed power capabilities already exist. 7) The scheme does not require prefabricated fuel target and liner hardware in any esoteric form or state. All necessary fuel and liner material are introduced into the engine in the form of ordinary matter in gaseous state at room temperature, greatly simplifying their handling on board. They are delivered into the fusion reaction chamber in a completely standoff manner.

  1. Image fusion using DFT-based digital filter banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Murat; Erer, Isin; Ersoy, Okan K.

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new fusion algorithm based on a multidecomposition approach with the DFT based symmetric, zero-phase, nonoverlapping digital filter bank representation. The DFT of the signal is separated into two parts leading to the low and high -pass components then decimated by two to obtain subband signals. The original signal may be recovered by interpolating the subband signals, computing their inverse DFT and summing the results. In the proposed image fusion algorithm, two or more source images are decomposed into subbands by DFT based digital filters. The detail and approximation subband coefficients are modified according to their magnitudes and mean values, respectively. Then, the modified subbands are combined in the subband domain. Finally, the fused image is obtained by the inverse transform.

  2. Improvement of information fusion-based audio steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana

    2010-01-01

    In the paper we extend an existing information fusion based audio steganalysis approach by three different kinds of evaluations: The first evaluation addresses the so far neglected evaluations on sensor level fusion. Our results show that this fusion removes content dependability while being capable of achieving similar classification rates (especially for the considered global features) if compared to single classifiers on the three exemplarily tested audio data hiding algorithms. The second evaluation enhances the observations on fusion from considering only segmental features to combinations of segmental and global features, with the result of a reduction of the required computational complexity for testing by about two magnitudes while maintaining the same degree of accuracy. The third evaluation tries to build a basis for estimating the plausibility of the introduced steganalysis approach by measuring the sensibility of the models used in supervised classification of steganographic material against typical signal modification operations like de-noising or 128kBit/s MP3 encoding. Our results show that for some of the tested classifiers the probability of false alarms rises dramatically after such modifications.

  3. An airport surface surveillance solution based on fusion algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianliang; Xu, Yang; Liang, Xuelin; Yang, Yihuang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an airport surface surveillance solution combined with Multilateration (MLAT) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). The moving target to be monitored is regarded as a linear stochastic hybrid system moving freely and each surveillance technology is simplified as a sensor with white Gaussian noise. The dynamic model of target and the observation model of sensor are established in this paper. The measurements of sensors are filtered properly by estimators to get the estimation results for current time. Then, we analysis the characteristics of two fusion solutions proposed, and decide to use the scheme based on sensor estimation fusion for our surveillance solution. In the proposed fusion algorithm, according to the output of estimators, the estimation error is quantified, and the fusion weight of each sensor is calculated. The two estimation results are fused with weights, and the position estimation of target is computed accurately. Finally the proposed solution and algorithm are validated by an illustrative target tracking simulation.

  4. A new hyperspectral image compression paradigm based on fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Raúl; Melián, José; López, Sebastián.; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    The on-board compression of remote sensed hyperspectral images is an important task nowadays. One of the main difficulties is that the compression of these images must be performed in the satellite which carries the hyperspectral sensor. Hence, this process must be performed by space qualified hardware, having area, power and speed limitations. Moreover, it is important to achieve high compression ratios without compromising the quality of the decompress image. In this manuscript we proposed a new methodology for compressing hyperspectral images based on hyperspectral image fusion concepts. The proposed compression process has two independent steps. The first one is to spatially degrade the remote sensed hyperspectral image to obtain a low resolution hyperspectral image. The second step is to spectrally degrade the remote sensed hyperspectral image to obtain a high resolution multispectral image. These two degraded images are then send to the earth surface, where they must be fused using a fusion algorithm for hyperspectral and multispectral image, in order to recover the remote sensed hyperspectral image. The main advantage of the proposed methodology for compressing remote sensed hyperspectral images is that the compression process, which must be performed on-board, becomes very simple, being the fusion process used to reconstruct image the more complex one. An extra advantage is that the compression ratio can be fixed in advanced. Many simulations have been performed using different fusion algorithms and different methodologies for degrading the hyperspectral image. The results obtained in the simulations performed corroborate the benefits of the proposed methodology.

  5. Fruit classification based on weighted score-level feature fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Hulin; Hang Chan, Leanne Lai; Liu, Cairong; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We describe an object classification method based on weighted score-level feature fusion using learned weights. Our method is able to recognize 20 object classes in a customized fruit dataset. Although the fusion of multiple features is commonly used to distinguish variable object classes, the optimal combination of features is not well defined. Moreover, in these methods, most parameters used for feature extraction are not optimized and the contribution of each feature to an individual class is not considered when determining the weight of the feature. Our algorithm relies on optimizing a single feature during feature selection and learning the weight of each feature for an individual class from the training data using a linear support vector machine before the features are linearly combined with the weights at the score level. The optimal single feature is selected using cross-validation. The optimal combination of features is explored and tested experimentally using a customized fruit dataset with 20 object classes and a variety of complex backgrounds. The experiment results show that the proposed feature fusion method outperforms four state-of-the-art fruit classification algorithms and improves the classification accuracy when compared with some state-of-the-art feature fusion methods.

  6. Space target image fusion method based on image clarity criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhisheng; Yang, Miao; Xie, Chunzhi

    2017-05-01

    Optical and infrared imaging is often used in ground-based optical space target observation. The fusion of the two types of images for a more detailed observation is the key problem to be solved. A space target multimodal image fusion scheme based on the joint sparsity model, which takes the correlations among the native sparse characteristics of the image, clarity features of the image, and multisource images into consideration, is proposed. First, using an overcomplete dictionary, the source images are represented as a combination of a shared sparse component and exclusive sparse components. Second, a method for image clarity feature extraction is proposed to design the fusion rules of exclusive sparse components to obtain the fused exclusive sparse components. Finally, the fused image is reconstructed with the fused sparse components and overcompleted dictionary. The proposed method was tested on the space target image and nature scene image data sets. Compared with traditional methods such as the multiscale transform-based methods, sparse representation-based methods, and joint sparsity representation-based methods, the final experimental results demonstrated that our method outperforms the existing state-of-the-art methods on the human visual effect and the objective evaluation indexes. In particular, for the evaluation indexes Q and QE, the scores increase to nearly 10% more than those for traditional methods, which indicates that the fused image of our method has better edge clarity.

  7. Information fusion based techniques for HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, D. G.; Del Barrio, A. A.; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Meyer-Baese, Anke; Grecos, Christos

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the conflict circumstances of multi-parameter H.265/HEVC encoder system, the present paper introduces the analysis of many optimizations' set in order to improve the trade-off between quality, performance and power consumption for different reliable and accurate applications. This method is based on the Pareto optimization and has been tested with different resolutions on real-time encoders.

  8. Impact of temperature-velocity distribution on fusion neutron peak shape

    DOE PAGES

    Munro, D. H.; Field, J. E.; Hatarik, R.; ...

    2017-02-21

    Doppler broadening of the 14 MeV DT and 2.45 MeV DD fusion neutron lines has long been our best measure of temperature in a burning plasma. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), yields are high enough and our neutron spectrometers accurate enough that we see finer details of the peak shape. For example, we can measure the shift of the peak due to the bulk motion of the plasma, and we see indications of non-thermal broadening, skew, and kurtosis of the peak caused by the variations of temperature and fluid velocity during burn. We can also distinguish spectral differences amongmore » several lines of sight. Finally, this paper will review the theory of fusion neutron line shape, show examples of non-Gaussian line shapes and directional variations in NIF data, and describe detailed spectral shapes we see in radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of implosions.« less

  9. Impact of temperature-velocity distribution on fusion neutron peak shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, D. H.; Field, J. E.; Hatarik, R.; Peterson, J. L.; Hartouni, E. P.; Spears, B. K.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2017-05-01

    Doppler broadening of the 14 MeV DT and 2.45 MeV DD fusion neutron lines has long been our best measure of temperature in a burning plasma. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), yields are high enough and our neutron spectrometers accurate enough that we see finer details of the peak shape. For example, we can measure the shift of the peak due to the bulk motion of the plasma, and we see indications of non-thermal broadening, skew, and kurtosis of the peak caused by the variations of temperature and fluid velocity during burn. We can also distinguish spectral differences among several lines of sight. This paper will review the theory of fusion neutron line shape, show examples of non-Gaussian line shapes and directional variations in NIF data, and describe detailed spectral shapes we see in radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of implosions.

  10. A NATIONAL COLLABORATORY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA PHYSICS FOR MAGNETIC FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

    2006-08-01

    visualizations and perform analysis of their simulation data from either the MDSplus data storage environment or from locally stored HDF5 files. More advanced tools for visualization and analysis also were created in collaboration with the SciDAC Center for Extended MHD Modeling. Versions of SCIRun with the FusionViewer have been made available to fusion scientists on the Mac OS X, Linux, and other Unix based platforms and have been downloaded 1163 times. SCIRun has been used with NIMROD, M3D, BOUT fusion simulation data as well as simulation data from other SciDAC application areas (e.g., Astrophysics). The subsequent visualization results - including animations - have been incorporated into invited talks at multiple APS/DPP meetings as well as peer reviewed journal articles. As an example, SCIRun was used for the visualization and analysis of a NIMROD simulation of a disruption that occurred in a DIII-D experiment. The resulting animations and stills were presented as part of invited talks at APS/DPP meetings and the SC04 conference in addition to being highlighted in the NIH/NSF Visualization Research Challenges Report. By achieving its technical goals, the University of Utah played a key role in the successful development of a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. Many of the visualization tools developed as part of the NFC continue to be used by Fusion and other SciDAC application scientists and are currently being supported and expanded through follow-on up on SciDAC projects (Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technology, and the Visualization and Analysis in Support of Fusion SAP).

  11. Single-flux-quantum logic circuits exploiting collision-based fusion gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, T.; Yamada, K.; Amemiya, Y.

    2008-09-01

    We propose a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) logic circuit based on the fusion computing systems--collision-based and reaction-diffusion fusion computers. A fusion computing system consists of regularly arrayed unit cells (fusion gates), where each unit has two input arms and two output arms and is connected to its neighboring cells with the arms. We designed functional SFQ circuits that implemented the fusion computation. The unit cell was able to be made with ten Josephson junctions. Circuit simulation with standard Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb 2.5-kA/cm 2 process parameters showed that the SFQ fusion computing systems could operate at 10 GHz clock.

  12. Based on Multi-sensor Information Fusion Algorithm of TPMS Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulan, Zhou; Yanhong, Zang; Yahong, Lin

    In the paper are presented algorithms of TPMS (Tire Pressure Monitoring System) based on multi-sensor information fusion. A Unified mathematical models of information fusion are constructed and three algorithms are used to deal with, which include algorithm based on Bayesian, algorithm based on the relative distance (an improved algorithm of bayesian theory of evidence), algorithm based on multi-sensor weighted fusion. The calculating results shows that the algorithm based on d-s evidence theory of multisensor fusion method better than the algorithm the based on information fusion method or the bayesian method.

  13. Alternate applications of fusion power: development of a high-temperature blanket for synthetic-fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, P.A.; Mattas, R.F.; Krajcinovic, D.; DePaz, J.; Gohar, Y.

    1981-11-01

    This study has shown that utilization of the unique features of a fusion reactor can result in a novel and potentially economical method of decomposing steam into hydrogen and oxygen. Most of the power of fusion reactors is in the form of energetic neutrons. If this power could be used to produce high temperature uncontaminated steam, a large fraction of the energy needed to decomposee the steam could be supplied as thermal energy by the fusion reaction. Proposed high temperature electrolysis processes require steam temperature in excess of 1000/sup 0/C for high efficiency. The design put forth in this study details a system that can accomplish that end.

  14. Fusion Segmentation Method Based on Fuzzy Theory for Color Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Huang, G.; Zhang, J.

    2017-09-01

    The image segmentation method based on two-dimensional histogram segments the image according to the thresholds of the intensity of the target pixel and the average intensity of its neighborhood. This method is essentially a hard-decision method. Due to the uncertainties when labeling the pixels around the threshold, the hard-decision method can easily get the wrong segmentation result. Therefore, a fusion segmentation method based on fuzzy theory is proposed in this paper. We use membership function to model the uncertainties on each color channel of the color image. Then, we segment the color image according to the fuzzy reasoning. The experiment results show that our proposed method can get better segmentation results both on the natural scene images and optical remote sensing images compared with the traditional thresholding method. The fusion method in this paper can provide new ideas for the information extraction of optical remote sensing images and polarization SAR images.

  15. LADAR And FLIR Based Sensor Fusion For Automatic Target Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Fred; Gutfinger, Dan

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to show results of automatic target classification and sensor fusion for forward looking infrared (FLIR) and Laser Radar sensors. The sensor fusion data base was acquired from the Naval Weapon Center and it consists of coregistered Laser RaDAR (range and reflectance image), FLIR (raw and preprocessed image) and TV. Using this data base we have developed techniques to extract relevant object edges from the FLIR and LADAR which are correlated to wireframe models. The resulting correlation coefficients from both the LADAR and FLIR are fused using either the Bayesian or the Dempster-Shafer combination method so as to provide a higher confidence target classifica-tion level output. Finally, to minimize the correlation process the wireframe models are modified to reflect target range (size of target) and target orientation which is extracted from the LADAR reflectance image.

  16. Dynamic gesture recognition based on multiple sensors fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Wenhui, Wang; Xiang, Chen; Kongqiao, Wang; Xu, Zhang; Jihai, Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the roles of a three-axis accelerometer, surface electromyography sensors and a webcam for dynamic gesture recognition. A decision-level multiple sensor fusion method based on action elements is proposed to distinguish a set of 20 kinds of dynamic hand gestures. Experiments are designed and conducted to collect three kinds of sensor data stream simultaneously during gesture implementation and compare the performance of different subsets in gesture recognition. Experimental results from three subjects show that the combination of three kinds of sensor achieves recognition accuracies at 87.5%-91.8%, which are higher largely than that of the single sensor conditions. This study is valuable to realize continuous and dynamic gesture recognition based on multiple sensor fusion technology for multi-model interaction.

  17. Gabor-based fusion technique for Optical Coherence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Jannick P; Meemon, Panomsak; Murali, Supraja; Thompson, Kevin P; Lee, Kye-sung

    2010-02-15

    We recently reported on an Optical Coherence Microscopy technique, whose innovation intrinsically builds on a recently reported - 2 microm invariant lateral resolution by design throughout a 2 mm cubic full-field of view - liquid-lens-based dynamic focusing optical probe [Murali et al., Optics Letters 34, 145-147, 2009]. We shall report in this paper on the image acquisition enabled by this optical probe when combined with an automatic data fusion method developed and described here to produce an in-focus high resolution image throughout the imaging depth of the sample. An African frog tadpole (Xenopus laevis) was imaged with the novel probe and the Gabor-based fusion technique, demonstrating subcellular resolution in a 0.5 mm (lateral) x 0.5 mm (axial) without the need, for the first time, for x-y translation stages, depth scanning, high-cost adaptive optics, or manual intervention. In vivo images of human skin are also presented.

  18. Transmission final lenses in the HiPER laser fusion power plant: system design for temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páramo, A. R.; Sordo, F.; Garoz, D.; Le Garrec, B.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2014-12-01

    The European laser fusion project HiPER is developing technologically feasible components for a laser fusion power plant with an evacuated dry wall chamber which is likely to operate with a shock ignition scheme and direct targets. One of the key components is the final optics. In this work, we consider silica transmission final lenses and address the major issues regarding the unavoidable neutron irradiation they must withstand. For pre-commercial power plants (150 MJ target yield at 10 Hz) a distance of 16 m between the final lenses and target leads to maximum lens temperatures within tolerable limits. However, a non-uniform steady-state temperature profile is a major concern because it is the origin of unacceptable aberrations that severely affect the target spots. We have devised an active intervention system based on a heat-transfer fluid to keep the temperature profile as smooth as possible. The main characteristics of the temperature control system are defined throughout this work and enable the operation of the plant, both for the start-up procedure and for normal operation.

  19. Perceptual Based Image Fusion with Applications to Hyperspectral Image Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    spectral bands from the AVIRIS hyperspectral sensor will be evaluated. 1.4 Approach/ Thesis Organization Chapter one described data processing problems...Based Image Fusion with Applications to Hyperspectral Image Data THESIS A o .:or \\Terry Allen Wilson NTS _ Captain, USAF DTIC Tf-, LI Unannou!c<ej LI...Applications to Hyperspectral Image Data THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of

  20. RWCFusion: identifying phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions based on fusion pair random walk scoring method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianmei; Li, Xuecang; Yao, Qianlan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Jian; Ai, Bo; Liu, Wei; Wang, Qiuyu; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Yuejuan; Bai, Xuefeng; Song, Chao; Li, Shang; Li, Enmin; Xu, Liyan; Li, Chunquan

    2016-09-20

    While gene fusions have been increasingly detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies based methods in human cancers, these methods have limitations in identifying driver fusions. In addition, the existing methods to identify driver gene fusions ignored the specificity among different cancers or only considered their local rather than global topology features in networks. Here, we proposed a novel network-based method, called RWCFusion, to identify phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions. To evaluate its performance, we used leave-one-out cross-validation in 35 cancers and achieved a high AUC value 0.925 for overall cancers and an average 0.929 for signal cancer. Furthermore, we classified 35 cancers into two classes: haematological and solid, of which the haematological got a highly AUC which is up to 0.968. Finally, we applied RWCFusion to breast cancer and found that top 13 gene fusions, such as BCAS3-BCAS4, NOTCH-NUP214, MED13-BCAS3 and CARM-SMARCA4, have been previously proved to be drivers for breast cancer. Additionally, 8 among the top 10 of the remaining candidate gene fusions, such as SULF2-ZNF217, MED1-ACSF2, and ACACA-STAC2, were inferred to be potential driver gene fusions of breast cancer by us.

  1. RWCFusion: identifying phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions based on fusion pair random walk scoring method

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianmei; Li, Xuecang; Yao, Qianlan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Jian; Ai, Bo; Liu, Wei; Wang, Qiuyu; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Yuejuan; Bai, Xuefeng; Song, Chao; Li, Shang; Li, Enmin; Xu, Liyan; Li, Chunquan

    2016-01-01

    While gene fusions have been increasingly detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies based methods in human cancers, these methods have limitations in identifying driver fusions. In addition, the existing methods to identify driver gene fusions ignored the specificity among different cancers or only considered their local rather than global topology features in networks. Here, we proposed a novel network-based method, called RWCFusion, to identify phenotype-specific cancer driver gene fusions. To evaluate its performance, we used leave-one-out cross-validation in 35 cancers and achieved a high AUC value 0.925 for overall cancers and an average 0.929 for signal cancer. Furthermore, we classified 35 cancers into two classes: haematological and solid, of which the haematological got a highly AUC which is up to 0.968. Finally, we applied RWCFusion to breast cancer and found that top 13 gene fusions, such as BCAS3-BCAS4, NOTCH-NUP214, MED13-BCAS3 and CARM-SMARCA4, have been previously proved to be drivers for breast cancer. Additionally, 8 among the top 10 of the remaining candidate gene fusions, such as SULF2-ZNF217, MED1-ACSF2, and ACACA-STAC2, were inferred to be potential driver gene fusions of breast cancer by us. PMID:27506935

  2. Infrared and color visible image fusion system based on luminance-contrast transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Gong, Wenfeng; Wang, Chensheng

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an infrared and color image fusion algorithm based on luminance-contrast transfer technique is presented. This algorithm shall operate YCbCr transform on color visible image, and obtain the luminance component. Then, the grey-scale image fusion methods are utilized to fuse the luminance component of visible and infrared images to acquire grey-scale fusion image. After that, the grey-scale fusion image and visible image are fused to form color fusion image based on inversed YCbCr transform. To acquire better details appearance, a natural-sense color transfer fusion algorithm based on reference image is proposed. Furthermore, a real-time infrared/visible image fusion system based on FPGA is realized. Finally, this design and achievement is verified experimentally, and the experimental results show that the system can produce a color fusion image with good image quality and real-time performance.

  3. HYFIRE II: fusion/high-temperature electrolysis conceptual-design study. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    As in the previous HYFIRE design study, the current study focuses on coupling a Tokamak fusion reactor with a high-temperature blanket to a High-Temperature Electrolyzer (HTE) process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Scaling of the STARFIRE reactor to allow a blanket power to 6000 MW(th) is also assumed. The primary difference between the two studies is the maximum inlet steam temperature to the electrolyzer. This temperature is decreased from approx. 1300/sup 0/ to approx. 1150/sup 0/C, which is closer to the maximum projected temperature of the Westinghouse fuel cell design. The process flow conditions change but the basic design philosophy and approaches to process design remain the same as before. Westinghouse assisted in the study in the areas of systems design integration, plasma engineering, balance-of-plant design, and electrolyzer technology.

  4. Demonstration of ignition radiation temperatures in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion hohlraums.

    PubMed

    Glenzer, S H; MacGowan, B J; Meezan, N B; Adams, P A; Alfonso, J B; Alger, E T; Alherz, Z; Alvarez, L F; Alvarez, S S; Amick, P V; Andersson, K S; Andrews, S D; Antonini, G J; Arnold, P A; Atkinson, D P; Auyang, L; Azevedo, S G; Balaoing, B N M; Baltz, J A; Barbosa, F; Bardsley, G W; Barker, D A; Barnes, A I; Baron, A; Beeler, R G; Beeman, B V; Belk, L R; Bell, J C; Bell, P M; Berger, R L; Bergonia, M A; Bernardez, L J; Berzins, L V; Bettenhausen, R C; Bezerides, L; Bhandarkar, S D; Bishop, C L; Bond, E J; Bopp, D R; Borgman, J A; Bower, J R; Bowers, G A; Bowers, M W; Boyle, D T; Bradley, D K; Bragg, J L; Braucht, J; Brinkerhoff, D L; Browning, D F; Brunton, G K; Burkhart, S C; Burns, S R; Burns, K E; Burr, B; Burrows, L M; Butlin, R K; Cahayag, N J; Callahan, D A; Cardinale, P S; Carey, R W; Carlson, J W; Casey, A D; Castro, C; Celeste, J R; Chakicherla, A Y; Chambers, F W; Chan, C; Chandrasekaran, H; Chang, C; Chapman, R F; Charron, K; Chen, Y; Christensen, M J; Churby, A J; Clancy, T J; Cline, B D; Clowdus, L C; Cocherell, D G; Coffield, F E; Cohen, S J; Costa, R L; Cox, J R; Curnow, G M; Dailey, M J; Danforth, P M; Darbee, R; Datte, P S; Davis, J A; Deis, G A; Demaret, R D; Dewald, E L; Di Nicola, P; Di Nicola, J M; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Dobson, D B; Doppner, T; Driscoll, J D; Dugorepec, J; Duncan, J J; Dupuy, P C; Dzenitis, E G; Eckart, M J; Edson, S L; Edwards, G J; Edwards, M J; Edwards, O D; Edwards, P W; Ellefson, J C; Ellerbee, C H; Erbert, G V; Estes, C M; Fabyan, W J; Fallejo, R N; Fedorov, M; Felker, B; Fink, J T; Finney, M D; Finnie, L F; Fischer, M J; Fisher, J M; Fishler, B T; Florio, J W; Forsman, A; Foxworthy, C B; Franks, R M; Frazier, T; Frieder, G; Fung, T; Gawinski, G N; Gibson, C R; Giraldez, E; Glenn, S M; Golick, B P; Gonzales, H; Gonzales, S A; Gonzalez, M J; Griffin, K L; Grippen, J; Gross, S M; Gschweng, P H; Gururangan, G; Gu, K; Haan, S W; Hahn, S R; Haid, B J; Hamblen, J E; Hammel, B A; Hamza, A V; Hardy, D L; Hart, D R; Hartley, R G; Haynam, C A; Heestand, G M; Hermann, M R; Hermes, G L; Hey, D S; Hibbard, R L; Hicks, D G; Hinkel, D E; Hipple, D L; Hitchcock, J D; Hodtwalker, D L; Holder, J P; Hollis, J D; Holtmeier, G M; Huber, S R; Huey, A W; Hulsey, D N; Hunter, S L; Huppler, T R; Hutton, M S; Izumi, N; Jackson, J L; Jackson, M A; Jancaitis, K S; Jedlovec, D R; Johnson, B; Johnson, M C; Johnson, T; Johnston, M P; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D H; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R L; Keating, G A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Kenitzer, S L; Kimbrough, J R; King, K; Kirkwood, R K; Klingmann, J L; Knittel, K M; Kohut, T R; Koka, K G; Kramer, S W; Krammen, J E; Krauter, K G; Krauter, G W; Krieger, E K; Kroll, J J; La Fortune, K N; Lagin, L J; Lakamsani, V K; Landen, O L; Lane, S W; Langdon, A B; Langer, S H; Lao, N; Larson, D W; Latray, D; Lau, G T; Le Pape, S; Lechleiter, B L; Lee, Y; Lee, T L; Li, J; Liebman, J A; Lindl, J D; Locke, S F; Loey, H K; London, R A; Lopez, F J; Lord, D M; Lowe-Webb, R R; Lown, J G; Ludwigsen, A P; Lum, N W; Lyons, R R; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A J; Magat, M D; Maloy, D T; Malsbury, T N; Markham, G; Marquez, R M; Marsh, A A; Marshall, C D; Marshall, S R; Maslennikov, I L; Mathisen, D G; Mauger, G J; Mauvais, M -Y; McBride, J A; McCarville, T; McCloud, J B; McGrew, A; McHale, B; MacPhee, A G; Meeker, J F; Merill, J S; Mertens, E P; Michel, P A; Miller, M G; Mills, T; Milovich, J L; Miramontes, R; Montesanti, R C; Montoya, M M; Moody, J; Moody, J D; Moreno, K A; Morris, J; Morriston, K M; Nelson, J R; Neto, M; Neumann, J D; Ng, E; Ngo, Q M; Olejniczak, B L; Olson, R E; Orsi, N L; Owens, M W; Padilla, E H; Pannell, T M; Parham, T G; Patterson, R W; Pavel, G; Prasad, R R; Pendlton, D; Penko, F A; Pepmeier, B L; Petersen, D E; Phillips, T W; Pigg, D; Piston, K W; Pletcher, K D; Powell, C L; Radousky, H B; Raimondi, B S; Ralph, J E; Rampke, R L; Reed, R K; Reid, W A; Rekow, V V; Reynolds, J L; Rhodes, J J; Richardson, M J; Rinnert, R J; Riordan, B P; Rivenes, A S; Rivera, A T; Roberts, C J; Robinson, J A; Robinson, R B; Robison, S R; Rodriguez, O R; Rogers, S P; Rosen, M D; Ross, G F; Runkel, M; Runtal, A S; Sacks, R A; Sailors, S F; Salmon, J T; Salmonson, J D; Saunders, R L; Schaffer, J R; Schindler, T M; Schmitt, M J; Schneider, M B; Segraves, K S; Shaw, M J; Sheldrick, M E; Shelton, R T; Shiflett, M K; Shiromizu, S J; Shor, M; Silva, L L; Silva, S A; Skulina, K M; Smauley, D A; Smith, B E; Smith, L K; Solomon, A L; Sommer, S; Soto, J G; Spafford, N I; Speck, D E; Springer, P T; Stadermann, M; Stanley, F; Stone, T G; Stout, E A; Stratton, P L; Strausser, R J; Suter, L J; Sweet, W; Swisher, M F; Tappero, J D; Tassano, J B; Taylor, J S; Tekle, E A; Thai, C; Thomas, C A; Thomas, A; Throop, A L; Tietbohl, G L; Tillman, J M; Town, R P J; Townsend, S L; Tribbey, K L; Trummer, D; Truong, J; Vaher, J; Valadez, M; Van Arsdall, P; Van Prooyen, A J; Vergel de Dios, E O; Vergino, M D; Vernon, S P; Vickers, J L; Villanueva, G T; Vitalich, M A; Vonhof, S A; Wade, F E; Wallace, R J; Warren, C T; Warrick, A L; Watkins, J; Weaver, S; Wegner, P J; Weingart, M A; Wen, J; White, K S; Whitman, P K; Widmann, K; Widmayer, C C; Wilhelmsen, K; Williams, E A; Williams, W H; Willis, L; Wilson, E F; Wilson, B A; Witte, M C; Work, K; Yang, P S; Young, B K; Youngblood, K P; Zacharias, R A; Zaleski, T; Zapata, P G; Zhang, H; Zielinski, J S; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Niemann, C; Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A; Van Wonterghem, B M; Atherton, L J; Moses, E I

    2011-02-25

    We demonstrate the hohlraum radiation temperature and symmetry required for ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions. Cryogenic gas-filled hohlraums with 2.2 mm-diameter capsules are heated with unprecedented laser energies of 1.2 MJ delivered by 192 ultraviolet laser beams on the National Ignition Facility. Laser backscatter measurements show that these hohlraums absorb 87% to 91% of the incident laser power resulting in peak radiation temperatures of T(RAD)=300 eV and a symmetric implosion to a 100 μm diameter hot core.

  5. Reliability-Based Decision Fusion in Multimodal Biometric Verification Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryszczuk, Krzysztof; Richiardi, Jonas; Prodanov, Plamen; Drygajlo, Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    We present a methodology of reliability estimation in the multimodal biometric verification scenario. Reliability estimation has shown to be an efficient and accurate way of predicting and correcting erroneous classification decisions in both unimodal (speech, face, online signature) and multimodal (speech and face) systems. While the initial research results indicate the high potential of the proposed methodology, the performance of the reliability estimation in a multimodal setting has not been sufficiently studied or evaluated. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantages of using the unimodal reliability information in order to perform an efficient biometric fusion of two modalities. We further show the presented method to be superior to state-of-the-art multimodal decision-level fusion schemes. The experimental evaluation presented in this paper is based on the popular benchmarking bimodal BANCA database.

  6. Mirror-based fusion: some possible new directions

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    This paper examines some possible areas for the study of new approaches to fusion research, ones that employ magnetic confinement systems based on open-ended field topology and employing the magnetic mirror principle. In the spirit of encouraging a wider look at possibilities, some unconventional approaches are suggested. These approaches, involving long linear systems having ion injectors and direct converters at their ends, attempt to exploit some inherent advantages of open-ended systems for fusion. The results of analysis, calculations and preliminary cost estimates for long linear systems of this type that utilize the magnetic mirror effect to achieve their operating regimes will be presented. The approaches suggested, when examined in greater depth, may not stand the test of time, but they might encourage thinking in new areas.

  7. Vegetation change detection based on image fusion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yonghong; Liu, Yueyan; Yu, Hui; Li, Deren

    2005-10-01

    The change detection of land use and land cover has always been the focus of remotely sensed study and application. Based on techniques of image fusion, a new approach of detecting vegetation change according to vector of brightness index (BI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) extracted from multi-temporal remotely sensed imagery is proposed. The procedure is introduced. Firstly, the Landsat eTM+ imagery is geometrically corrected and registered. Secondly, band 2,3,4 and panchromatic images of Landsat eTM+ are fused by a trous wavelet fusion, and bands 1,2,3 of SPOT are registered to the fused images. Thirdly, brightness index and perpendicular vegetation index are respectively extracted from SPOT images and fused images. Finally, change vectors are obtained and used to detect vegetation change. The testing results show that the approach of detecting vegetation change is very efficient.

  8. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot’s wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot’s movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes. PMID:26712766

  9. Physical Activity Recognition using Posterior-adapted Class-based Fusion of Multi-Accelerometers data.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Alok; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Chandran, Vinod; Trost, Stewart

    2017-05-17

    This paper proposes the use of posterior-adapted class-based weighted decision fusion to effectively combine multiple accelerometers data for improving physical activity recognition. The cutting-edge performance of this method is benchmarked against model-based weighted fusion and class-based weighted fusion without posterior adaptation, based on two publicly available datasets, namely PAMAP2 and MHEALTH. Experimental results show that: (a) posterior-adapted class-based weighted fusion outperformed model-based and class-based weighted fusion; (b) decision fusion with two accelerometers showed statistically significant improvement in average performance compared to the use of a single accelerometer; (c) generally, decision fusion from 3 accelerometers did not show further improvement from the best combination of 2 accelerometers, (d) a combination of ankle and wrist located accelerometers showed the best overall performance compared to any combination of two or three accelerometers.

  10. Multi-focus image fusion based on window empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xinqiang; Zheng, Jiaoyue; Hu, Gang; Wang, Jiao

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve multi-focus image fusion quality, a novel fusion algorithm based on window empirical mode decomposition (WEMD) is proposed. This WEMD is an improved form of bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD), due to its decomposition process using the adding window principle, effectively resolving the signal concealment problem. We used WEMD for multi-focus image fusion, and formulated different fusion rules for bidimensional intrinsic mode function (BIMF) components and the residue component. For fusion of the BIMF components, the concept of the Sum-modified-Laplacian was used and a scheme based on the visual feature contrast adopted; when choosing the residue coefficients, a pixel value based on the local visibility was selected. We carried out four groups of multi-focus image fusion experiments and compared objective evaluation criteria with other three fusion methods. The experimental results show that the proposed fusion approach is effective and performs better at fusing multi-focus images than some traditional methods.

  11. Patch-based label fusion for automatic multi-atlas-based prostate segmentation in MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Jani, Ashesh B.; Rossi, Peter J.; Mao, Hui; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a 3D multi-atlas-based prostate segmentation method for MR images, which utilizes patch-based label fusion strategy. The atlases with the most similar appearance are selected to serve as the best subjects in the label fusion. A local patch-based atlas fusion is performed using voxel weighting based on anatomical signature. This segmentation technique was validated with a clinical study of 13 patients and its accuracy was assessed using the physicians' manual segmentations (gold standard). Dice volumetric overlapping was used to quantify the difference between the automatic and manual segmentation. In summary, we have developed a new prostate MR segmentation approach based on nonlocal patch-based label fusion, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy with manual segmentations.

  12. A novel image fusion algorithm based on human vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qiguang; Wang, Baoshu

    2006-04-01

    The proposed new fusion algorithm is based on the improved pulse coupled neural network(PCNN) model, the fundamental characteristics of images and the properties of human vision system. Compared with the traditional algorithm where the linking strength of each neuron is the same and its value is chosen through experimentation, this algorithm uses the contrast of each pixel as its value, so that the linking strength of each pixel can be chosen adaptively. After the processing of PCNN with the adaptive linking strength, new fire mapping images are obtained for each image taking part in the fusion. The clear objects of each original image are decided by the compare-selection operator with the fire mapping images pixel by pixel and then all of them are merged into a new clear image. Furthermore, by this algorithm, other parameters, for example, Δ, the threshold adjusting constant, only have a slight effect on the new fused image. It therefore overcomes the difficulty in adjusting parameters in PCNN. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm works better in preserving the edge and texture information than the wavelet transform method and the Laplacian pyramid method do image fusion.

  13. Electron-temperature requirements for neutralized inertial-confinement-fusion light-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their large self-space-charge fields, light ion beam drivers of energy and power sufficient to achieve inertial confinement fusion (ICF) cannot be focused on a small fuel pellet unless neutralized. Even if initially neutralized with comoving electrons, these beams will not stay neutralized and focus during propagation through a vacuum chamber unless the initial thermal energy of the neutralizing electrons is sufficiently small. In this paper we discuss the effects which contribute to the effective initial temperature of the neutralizing electrons, including compressional shock heating. We also employ a simple heuristic model to construct envelope equations which govern axial as well as radial beam compression and use them to predict the largest initial electron temperature consistent with the required beam compression. This temperature for typical light ion beam systems is about ten eV - a temperature which may be possible to achieve.

  14. Soldered joints—an essential component of demountable high temperature superconducting fusion magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Yeekin; Surrey, Elizabeth; Hampshire, Damian

    2016-07-01

    Demountable superconducting magnet coils would offer significant benefits to commercial nuclear fusion power plants. Whether large pressed joints or large soldered joints provide the solution for demountable fusion magnets, a critical component or building block for both will be the many, smaller-scale joints that enable the supercurrent to leave the superconducting layer, cross the superconducting tape and pass into the solder that lies between the tape and the conductor that eventually provides one of the demountable surfaces. This paper considers the electrical and thermal properties of this essential component part of demountable high temperature superconducting (HTS) joints by considering the fabrication and properties of jointed HTSs consisting of a thin layer of solder (In52Sn48 or Pb38Sn62) sandwiched between two rare-earth-Ba2Cu3O7 (REBCO) second generation HTS coated conductors (CCs). The HTS joints are analysed using numerical modelling, critical current and resistivity measurements on the joints from 300 to 4.2 K in applied magnetic fields up to 12 T, as well as scanning electron microscopy studies. Our results show that the copper/silver layers significantly reduce the heating in the joints to less than a few hundred mK. When the REBCO alone is superconducting, the joint resistivity (R J) predominantly has two sources, the solder layer and an interfacial resistivity at the REBCO/silver interface (∼25 nΩ cm2) in the as-supplied CCs which together have a very weak magnetoresistance in fields up to 12 T. We achieved excellent reproducibility in the R J of the In52Sn48 soldered joints of better than 10% at temperatures below T c of the REBCO layer which can be compared to variations of more than two orders of magnitude in the literature. We also show that demountable joints in fusion energy magnets are viable and need only add a few percent to the total cryogenic cost for a fusion tokamak.

  15. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

  16. Feature-based MRI data fusion for cardiac arrhythmia studies.

    PubMed

    Magtibay, Karl; Beheshti, Mohammadali; Foomany, Farbod Hosseyndoust; Massé, Stéphane; Lai, Patrick F H; Zamiri, Nima; Asta, John; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Jaffray, David; Krishnan, Sridhar; Umapathy, Karthikeyan

    2016-05-01

    Current practices in studying cardiac arrhythmias primarily use electrical or optical surface recordings of a heart, spatially limited transmural recordings, and mathematical models. However, given that such arrhythmias occur on a 3D myocardial tissue, information obtained from such practices lack in dimension, completeness, and are sometimes prone to oversimplification. The combination of complementary Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (MRI)-based techniques such as Current Density Imaging (CDI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) could provide more depth to current practices in assessing the cardiac arrhythmia dynamics in entire cross sections of myocardium. In this work, we present an approach utilizing feature-based data fusion methods to demonstrate that complimentary information obtained from electrical current distribution and structural properties within a heart could be quantified and enhanced. Twelve (12) pairs of CDI and DTI image data sets were gathered from porcine hearts perfused through a Langendorff setup. Images were fused together using feature-based data fusion techniques such as Joint Independent Component Analysis (jICA), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), and their combination (CCA+jICA). The results suggest that the complimentary information of cardiac states from CDI and DTI are enhanced and are better classified with the use of data fusion methods. For each data set, an increase in mean correlations of fused images were observed with 38% increase from CCA+jICA compared to the original images while mean mutual information of the fused images from jICA and CCA+jICA increased by approximately three-fold. We conclude that MRI-based techniques present potential viable tools in furthering studies for cardiac arrhythmias especially Ventricular Fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Probabilistic graph-based feature fusion and score fusion using SIFT features for face and ear biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Mehrotra, Hunny; Gupta, Phalguni; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2009-08-01

    Multibiometric systems offer more reliable and accurate performance combining the benefits of using multiple traits for user authentication. Due to incompatible biometric characteristics such as unmatched image patterns, improper feature registration and feature space representation, image scaling and unfeasible fusion schemes often degrades the performance of multibiometric systems. This paper focuses on the benefits of feature level and match score level fusions of face and ear biometrics using scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) representation and probabilistic graph. The proposed fusion techniques first compute and detect the SIFT features from face and ear images independently. Further probabilistic graphs are drawn on extracted feature points. By using iterative relaxation algorithm in both the graphs, which are drawn on face and ear images, corresponding feature points are searched and match points are paired and grouped into two independent sets. During feature level fusion, both the feature sets are concatenated together into an augmented group. Combined feature set is normalized using 'min-max' normalization rule and finally the concatenated feature vector is used for verification. In match score level fusion, independent verifications are performed using relaxation based probabilistic graphs and point pattern matching algorithm. As a result, independent matching scores generated from face and ear biometrics is fused together using 'sum' rule. The reported experimental results show the performance improvements in verification by applying feature level. and score level fusions.

  18. Selected transport studies of a tokamak-based DEMO fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fable, E.; Wenninger, R.; Kemp, R.

    2017-02-01

    As a next-step in the tokamak-based fusion programme, the DEMO fusion reactor is foreseen to produce relevant output electricity, in the order of  ∼500 MW delivered to the network. The scenarios that are being presently investigated consist of a pulsed device, called DEMO1, and a steady-state device, called DEMO2. In this work, which is focused on the pulsed device DEMO1, scenarios are studied from the point of view of core transport, to assess plasma performance and limitations due to core microinstabilities. The role of radiated power, aspect ratio, and height of temperature pedestal are assessed as they impact both core energy and particle transport. Open issues in this framework are also discussed.

  19. The plasma-wall interaction region: a key low temperature plasma for controlled fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counsell, G. F.

    2002-08-01

    The plasma-wall interaction region of a fusion device provides the interface between the hot core plasma and the material surfaces. To obtain acceptably low levels of erosion from these surfaces requires most of the power leaving the core to be radiated. This is accomplished in existing devices by encouraging plasma detachment, in which the hot plasma arriving in the region is cooled by volume recombination and ion-neutral momentum transfer with a dense population of neutrals recycled from the surface. The result is a low temperature (1 eV1019 m-3) but weakly ionized (n0>1020 m-3, ne/n0<0.1) plasma found nowhere else in the fusion environment. This plasma provides many of the conditions found in industrial plasmas exploiting plasma chemistry and the presence of carbon in the region (in the form of carbon-fibre composite used in the plasma facing materials) can result in the formation of deposited hydrocarbon films. The plasma-wall interaction region is therefore among the most difficult in fusion to model, requiring an understanding of atomic, molecular and surface physics issues.

  20. Ion temperature from tangential charge exchange neutral analysis on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, C.L.; Medley, S.S.; Hammett, G.W.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Scott, S.D.

    1987-09-01

    Fokker-Planck simulations of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) energetic ion mode discharges were performed to evaluate the utility of deriving the central ion temperature, T/sub i/, from deuterium neutral beam charge exchange spectra above the neutral beam injection energy. The T/sub i/ values obtained from fitting the calculated spectra obtained from sightlines nearly tangent to the neutral beam injection radius reproduce the central ion temperature within +-10% over the full range of TFTR energetic ion mode parameters. The code simulations demonstrate that the ion temperature obtained from the high energy tangential deuterium charge exchange spectrum is insensitive to variations in the plasma density, Z/sub eff/, plasma current, loop voltage, and injected neutral beam power and energy. Use of this method to reduce charge exchange data from TFTR energetic ion mode plasmas is demonstrated. 17 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Potential for use of high-temperature superconductors in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The present rate of development of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) is sufficiently rapid that there may be opportunities for their use in contemporary fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The most likely 1application is for delivering power to the superconducting magnets, especially in substituting for the current leads between the temperatures of 4 K and 77K. A second possible application of HTSs is as a liquid-nitrogen-cooled power bus, connecting the power supplies to the magnets, thus reducing the ohmic heating losses over these relatively long cables. A third potential application of HTSs is as an inner high-field winding of the toroidal field coils that would operate at {approx}20 K. While the use of higher temperature magnets offers significant advantages to the reactor system, it is unlikely that tested conductors of this type will be available within the ITER time frame. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  2. On Feasibility of Absolute Measurements of Ion Temperature in D-3He Fusion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki

    2003-05-01

    We investigate a possibility of using γ-ray-generating nuclear reactions for absolute measurements of bulk ion temperature in D-3He fusion plasma. Radiative capture processes between fuel ions and specific γ-ray modes of nuclear reactions induced by a small admixture of 6Li are examined for such an application. It is shown that ion temperature can be determined by comparative measurements of the respective γ-ray yields. An essential point of the method proposed is that any fluctuations of plasma parameters during the measurements do not affect accuracy of temperature probe. Nuclear reactions 3He(3He,γ)6Be and 6Li(3He,γp)8Be are suggested for diagnostics for the first time. Necessary data on reaction cross sections and Maxwellian rate parameters are calculated.

  3. Potential for use of high-temperature superconductors in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, John R.

    1992-09-01

    The present rate of development of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) is sufficiently rapid that there may be opportunities for their use in contemporary fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The most likely application is for delivering power to the superconducting magnets, especially in substituting for the current leads between the temperatures of 4 and 77 K. A second possible application of HTSs is in a liquid-nitrogen-cooled power bus connecting the power supplies to the magnets, thus reducing ohmic heating losses in these relatively long cables. A third potential application of HTSs is in inner high-field windings of the toroidal field coils that would operate at ~ 20 K. While the use of higher temperature magnets offers significant advantages to the reactor system, it is unlikely that tested HTSs for this application will be available within the ITER time frame.

  4. Noise temperature improvement for magnetic fusion plasma millimeter wave imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-03-15

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas [B. Tobias et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 6, 2106042 (2011)]. Of particular importance have been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry systems for imaging T{sub e} and n{sub e} fluctuations. These instruments have employed heterodyne receiver arrays with Schottky diode mixer elements directly connected to individual antennas. Consequently, the noise temperature has been strongly determined by the conversion loss with typical noise temperatures of ∼60 000 K. However, this can be significantly improved by making use of recent advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit chip low noise amplifiers to insert a pre-amplifier in front of the Schottky diode mixer element. In a proof-of-principle design at V-Band (50–75 GHz), significant improvement of noise temperature from the current 60 000 K to measured 4000 K has been obtained.

  5. Multimodality medical image registration and fusion techniques using mutual information and genetic algorithm-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Mahua; Das, Arpita

    2011-01-01

    Medical image fusion has been used to derive the useful complimentary information from multimodal images. The prior step of fusion is registration or proper alignment of test images for accurate extraction of detail information. For this purpose, the images to be fused are geometrically aligned using mutual information (MI) as similarity measuring metric followed by genetic algorithm to maximize MI. The proposed fusion strategy incorporating multi-resolution approach extracts more fine details from the test images and improves the quality of composite fused image. The proposed fusion approach is independent of any manual marking or knowledge of fiducial points and starts the procedure automatically. The performance of proposed genetic-based fusion methodology is compared with fuzzy clustering algorithm-based fusion approach, and the experimental results show that genetic-based fusion technique improves the quality of the fused image significantly over the fuzzy approaches.

  6. Human Motion Retrieval Based on Statistical Learning and Bayesian Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qinkun; Song, Ren

    2016-01-01

    A novel motion retrieval approach based on statistical learning and Bayesian fusion is presented. The approach includes two primary stages. (1) In the learning stage, fuzzy clustering is utilized firstly to get the representative frames of motions, and the gesture features of the motions are extracted to build a motion feature database. Based on the motion feature database and statistical learning, the probability distribution function of different motion classes is obtained. (2) In the motion retrieval stage, the query motion feature is extracted firstly according to stage (1). Similarity measurements are then conducted employing a novel method that combines category-based motion similarity distances with similarity distances based on canonical correlation analysis. The two motion distances are fused using Bayesian estimation, and the retrieval results are ranked according to the fused values. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified experimentally. PMID:27732673

  7. Robust fusion-based processing for military polarimetric imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Hyun-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Polarisation information within a scene can be exploited in military systems to give enhanced automatic target detection and recognition (ATD/R) performance. However, the performance gain achieved is highly dependent on factors such as the geometry, viewing conditions, and the surface finish of the target. Such performance sensitivities are highly undesirable in many tactical military systems where operational conditions can vary significantly and rapidly during a mission. Within this paper, a range of processing architectures and fusion methods is considered in terms of their practical viability and operational robustness for systems requiring ATD/R. It is shown that polarisation information can give useful performance gains but, to retained system robustness, the introduction of polarimetric processing should be done in such a way as to not compromise other discriminatory scene information in the spectral and spatial domains. The analysis concludes that polarimetric data can be effectively integrated with conventional intensity-based ATD/R by either adapting the ATD/R processing function based on the scene polarisation or else by detection-level fusion. Both of these approaches avoid the introduction of processing bottlenecks and limit the impact of processing on system latency.

  8. Research on fusion technology based on low-light visible image and infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuo; Piao, Yan; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    Image fusion technology usually combines information from multiple images of the same scene into a single image so that the fused image is often more informative than any source image. Considering the characteristics of low-light visible images, this study presents an image fusion technology to improve contrast of low-light images. This study proposes an adaptive threshold-based fusion rule. Threshold is related to the brightness distribution of original images. Then, the fusion of low-frequency coefficients is determined by threshold. Pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNN)-based fusion rule is proposed for fusion of high-frequency coefficients. Firing times of PCNN reflect the amount of detail information. Thus, a high-frequency coefficient corresponding to maximum firing times is chosen as the fused coefficient. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method obtains high-contrast images and outperforms traditional fusion approaches on image quality.

  9. Information fusion via isocortex-based Area 37 modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-08-01

    A simplified model of information processing in the brain can be constructed using primary sensory input from two modalities (auditory and visual) and recurrent connections to the limbic subsystem. Information fusion would then occur in Area 37 of the temporal cortex. The creation of meta concepts from the low order primary inputs is managed by models of isocortex processing. Isocortex algorithms are used to model parietal (auditory), occipital (visual), temporal (polymodal fusion) cortex and the limbic system. Each of these four modules is constructed out of five cortical stacks in which each stack consists of three vertically oriented six layer isocortex models. The input to output training of each cortical model uses the OCOS (on center - off surround) and FFP (folded feedback pathway) circuitry of (Grossberg, 1) which is inherently a recurrent network type of learning characterized by the identification of perceptual groups. Models of this sort are thus closely related to cognitive models as it is difficult to divorce the sensory processing subsystems from the higher level processing in the associative cortex. The overall software architecture presented is biologically based and is presented as a potential architectural prototype for the development of novel sensory fusion strategies. The algorithms are motivated to some degree by specific data from projects on musical composition and autonomous fine art painting programs, but only in the sense that these projects use two specific types of auditory and visual cortex data. Hence, the architectures are presented for an artificial information processing system which utilizes two disparate sensory sources. The exact nature of the two primary sensory input streams is irrelevant.

  10. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    DOEpatents

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1990-01-01

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  11. Proton recoil telescope based on diamond detectors for measurement of fusion neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Caiffi, Barbara; Taiuti, Mauro; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ripani, Marco; Pillon, Mario

    2015-07-01

    Diamonds are very promising candidates for the neutron diagnostics in harsh environments such as fusion reactor. In the first place this is because of their radiation hardness, exceeding that of Silicon by an order of magnitude. Also, in comparison to the standard on-line neutron diagnostics (fission chambers, silicon based detectors, scintillators), diamonds are less sensitive to γ rays, which represent a huge background in fusion devices. Finally, their low leakage current at high temperature suppresses the detector intrinsic noise. In this talk a CVD diamond based detector has been proposed for the measurement of the 14 MeV neutrons from D-T fusion reaction. The detector was arranged in a proton recoil telescope configuration, featuring a plastic converter in front of the sensitive volume in order to induce the (n,p) reaction. The segmentation of the sensitive volume, achieved by using two crystals, allowed to perform measurements in coincidence, which suppressed the neutron elastic scattering background. A preliminary prototype was assembled and tested at FNG (Frascati Neutron Generator, ENEA), showing promising results regarding efficiency and energy resolution. (authors)

  12. Feature and score fusion based multiple classifier selection for iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Rabiul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a new feature and score fusion based iris recognition approach where voting method on Multiple Classifier Selection technique has been applied. Four Discrete Hidden Markov Model classifiers output, that is, left iris based unimodal system, right iris based unimodal system, left-right iris feature fusion based multimodal system, and left-right iris likelihood ratio score fusion based multimodal system, is combined using voting method to achieve the final recognition result. CASIA-IrisV4 database has been used to measure the performance of the proposed system with various dimensions. Experimental results show the versatility of the proposed system of four different classifiers with various dimensions. Finally, recognition accuracy of the proposed system has been compared with existing N hamming distance score fusion approach proposed by Ma et al., log-likelihood ratio score fusion approach proposed by Schmid et al., and single level feature fusion approach proposed by Hollingsworth et al.

  13. Impact of temperature-velocity distribution on fusion neutron peak shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, David

    2016-10-01

    Doppler broadening of the 14 MeV DT and 2.45 MeV DD fusion neutron lines has long been our best measure of temperature in a burning plasma. At the National Ignition Facility yields are high enough and our neutron spectrometers accurate enough that we see finer details of the peak shape. For example, we can measure the shift of the peak due to bulk motion of the plasma, and we see indications of non-thermal broadening, skew, and kurtosis of the peak caused by the variations of temperature and fluid velocity during burn. We can also distinguish spectral differences among several lines of sight. This talk will review the theory of fusion neutron line shape, show examples of non-Gaussian line shapes and directional variations in NIF data, and describe detailed spectral shapes we see in radhydro implosion simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Tritium permeation characterization of materials for fusion and generation IV very high temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.; Pilatzke, K.; McCrimmon, K.; Castillo, I.; Suppiah, S.

    2015-03-15

    The objective of this work is to establish the tritium-permeation properties of structural alloys considered for Fusion systems and very high temperature reactors (VHTR). A description of the work performed to set up an apparatus to measure permeation rates of hydrogen and tritium in 304L stainless steel is presented. Following successful commissioning with hydrogen, the test apparatus was commissioned with tritium. Commissioning tests with tritium suggest the need for a reduction step that is capable of removing the oxide layer from the test sample surfaces before accurate tritium-permeation data can be obtained. Work is also on-going to clearly establish the temperature profile of the sample to correctly estimate the tritium-permeability data.

  15. Observation of Multiple Reconnections during Self-organization Process of High Temperature Fusion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. K.; Tobias, B.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Munsat, T.; Donné, A. J. H.; Spakman, G. W.; Textor Team

    2011-10-01

    Images of a high resolution 2-D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic shows evidence of multiple magnetic reconnection processes during the internal disruption of a high temperature tokamak plasmas. The disruption induces magnetic self-organization of the toroidal plasma being accompanied by successive or simultaneous multiple layer reconnection. The degree of asymmetric deformation of the internal magnetic structure (m/n=1/1 mode) prior to temperature crash influences the outcome of the disruptive behavior. The observation is critical for the building block of first principle theoretical modeling of the sawtooth oscillation in current driven toroidal plasmas and the understandings can be applied to the impulsive disruptive behavior in flares of the solar, accretion disk and stellar coronae, Earth magnetospheric storms, and controlled fusion. Work supported by the NRF of Korea, the US DOE, the NWO of the Netherlands, and the EURATOM-FOM association.

  16. Atomic and Molecular Collisional Radiative Modeling for Spectroscopy of Low Temperature and Magnetic Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fantz, U.; Wuenderlich, D.

    2011-05-11

    The quantitative analysis of spectroscopic data from low temperature plasmas is strongly supported from collisional radiative (CR) modeling. Low pressure plasmas for basic research in the lab and for industrial use have several aspects in common with the cold edge of magnetic fusion plasmas. On the basis of applications of CR modeling for atomic and molecular hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and diatomic radicals such as CH and C{sub 2}, the relevance of individual processes for data interpretation is demonstrated for ionizing and recombining plasmas. Examples of such processes are opacity, dissociative excitation, dissociative recombination, mutual neutralization, and energy pooling. It is shown that the benchmark of CR modeling with experimental data can be used to identify problems in the ingoing data set of cross sections and rate coefficients. Using the flexible solver Yacora, the capability of CR modeling of low temperature plasmas is highlighted.

  17. Fusion of multiple sensor imagery based on target motion characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Tien-Ren; Libert, John M.

    1991-08-01

    Fusion of multiple sensor imagery is an effective approach to clutter rejection in target detection and recognition. However, image registration at the pixel level and even at the feature level poses significant problems. We are developing a neural network computational schemes that will permit fusion of multiple sensor information according to target motion characteristics. One such scheme implements the Law of Common Fate to differentiate moving targets from dynamic background clutter on the basis of homogeneous velocity; spatiotemporal frequency analysis is applied to time-varying sensor imagery to detect and locate individual moving objects. Another computational scheme applies Gabor filters and differential Gabor filters to calculate image flow and then employs a Lie group-based neural network to interpret the 2D image flow in terms of 3D motion, and to delineate regions of homogeneous 3D motion; the motion-keyed regions may be correlated among sensor types to associate multiattribute information with the individual targets in the scene and to exclude clutter.

  18. Microfluidics-Based PCR for Fusion Transcript Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The microfluidic technology allows the production of network of submillimeter-size fluidic channels and reservoirs in a variety of material systems. The microfluidic-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows automated multiplexing of multiple samples and multiple assays simultaneously within a network of microfluidic channels and chambers that are co-ordinated in controlled fashion by the valves. The individual PCR reaction is performed in nanoliter volume, which allows testing on samples with limited DNA and RNA. The microfluidics devices are used in various types of PCR such as digital PCR and single molecular emulsion PCR for genotyping, gene expression, and miRNA expression. In this chapter, the use of a microfluidics-based PCR for simultaneous screening of 14 known fusion transcripts in patients with leukemia is described.

  19. A Reliability-Based Method to Sensor Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Miaoyan; Xie, Chunhe

    2017-01-01

    Multi-sensor data fusion technology based on Dempster–Shafer evidence theory is widely applied in many fields. However, how to determine basic belief assignment (BBA) is still an open issue. The existing BBA methods pay more attention to the uncertainty of information, but do not simultaneously consider the reliability of information sources. Real-world information is not only uncertain, but also partially reliable. Thus, uncertainty and partial reliability are strongly associated with each other. To take into account this fact, a new method to represent BBAs along with their associated reliabilities is proposed in this paper, which is named reliability-based BBA. Several examples are carried out to show the validity of the proposed method. PMID:28678179

  20. A Reliability-Based Method to Sensor Data Fusion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhuang, Miaoyan; Xie, Chunhe

    2017-07-05

    Multi-sensor data fusion technology based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is widely applied in many fields. However, how to determine basic belief assignment (BBA) is still an open issue. The existing BBA methods pay more attention to the uncertainty of information, but do not simultaneously consider the reliability of information sources. Real-world information is not only uncertain, but also partially reliable. Thus, uncertainty and partial reliability are strongly associated with each other. To take into account this fact, a new method to represent BBAs along with their associated reliabilities is proposed in this paper, which is named reliability-based BBA. Several examples are carried out to show the validity of the proposed method.

  1. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  2. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-13

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  3. A method based on IHS cylindrical transform model for quality assessment of image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaokun; Jia, Yonghong

    2005-10-01

    Image fusion technique has been widely applied to remote sensing image analysis and processing, and methods for quality assessment of image fusion in remote sensing have also become the research issues at home and abroad. Traditional assessment methods combine calculation of quantitative indexes and visual interpretation to compare fused images quantificationally and qualitatively. However, in the existing assessment methods, there are two defects: on one hand, most imdexes lack the theoretic support to compare different fusion methods. On the hand, there is not a uniform preference for most of the quantitative assessment indexes when they are applied to estimate the fusion effects. That is, the spatial resolution and spectral feature could not be analyzed synchronously by these indexes and there is not a general method to unify the spatial and spectral feature assessment. So in this paper, on the basis of the approximate general model of four traditional fusion methods, including Intensity Hue Saturation(IHS) triangle transform fusion, High Pass Filter(HPF) fusion, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) fusion, Wavelet Transform(WT) fusion, a correlation coefficient assessment method based on IHS cylindrical transform is proposed. By experiments, this method can not only get the evaluation results of spatial and spectral features on the basis of uniform preference, but also can acquire the comparison between fusion image sources and fused images, and acquire differences among fusion methods. Compared with the traditional assessment methods, the new methods is more intuitionistic, and in accord with subjective estimation.

  4. Underwater object detection technology based on polarization image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongguo; Wang, Shiming

    2010-10-01

    The performance of the traditional underwater optical imaging systems is ultimately limited by the absorption and scattering properties of the water substance. Polarimetric imaging can be used to remove degradation effects, and can be applied to high-level vision tasks, such as object classification and recognition and camouflage identification, etc. The method of improving contrast was presented by polarization imaging. The polarization images when the angle of polarization are 0°, 45°, 90° and 135°, the gray levels of the images are calculated by program. There are much complementary and redundancy information among the polarization images. According to the character of parameter I of stokes vector, degree of linear polarization (DoLP) and the angle of polarization (AoP), A RGB false color based polarimetric images fusion are given to enhance the contrast.

  5. Weighted feature fusion for content-based image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soysal, Omurhan A.; Sumer, Emre

    2016-07-01

    The feature descriptors such as SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform), SURF (Speeded-up Robust Features) and ORB (Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF) are known as the most commonly used solutions for the content-based image retrieval problems. In this paper, a novel approach called "Weighted Feature Fusion" is proposed as a generic solution instead of applying problem-specific descriptors alone. Experiments were performed on two basic data sets of the Inria in order to improve the precision of retrieval results. It was found that in cases where the descriptors were used alone the proposed approach yielded 10-30% more accurate results than the ORB alone. Besides, it yielded 9-22% and 12-29% less False Positives compared to the SIFT alone and SURF alone, respectively.

  6. Compressive Sensing Image Fusion Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Lv, J.; Jiang, S.; Zhou, H.

    2017-09-01

    In order to solve the problem that the spatial matching is difficult and the spectral distortion is large in traditional pixel-level image fusion algorithm. We propose a new method of image fusion that utilizes HIS transformation and the recently developed theory of compressive sensing that is called HIS-CS image fusion. In this algorithm, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to select the fusion coefficient ω. In the iterative process, the image fusion coefficient ω is taken as particle, and the optimal value is obtained by combining the optimal objective function. Then we use the compression-aware weighted fusion algorithm for remote sensing image fusion, taking the coefficient ω as the weight value. The algorithm ensures the optimal selection of fusion effect with a certain degree of self-adaptability. To evaluate the fused images, this paper uses five kinds of index parameters such as Entropy, Standard Deviation, Average Gradient, Degree of Distortion and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio. The experimental results show that the image fusion effect of the algorithm in this paper is better than that of traditional methods.

  7. Demountable, High field High-Temperature Superconductor TF coils for flexible steady-state fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Phillip; Bromberg, Leslie; Vieira, Rui; Minervini, Joseph; Galea, Christopher; Hensley, Sarah; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The excellent properties of HTS materials (e.g., YBCO) at high fields and elevated temperatures (>20 K), offer operational advantages for fusion machines, but results in challenges. For fusion devices, the ability to disassemble the TF coil is very attractive as it provides direct access to maintain the vacuum vessel, first wall and other components in a timely manner. High current conductors, made from multiple thin tapes, are not available but are being developed. Quench protection is a serious issue with HTS magnets, and novel means are needed to detect normal zones and to quickly discharge the magnet. Potential cables designs, demountable magnets and solutions to quench and protection issues for an HTS TF magnet for the Vulcan device (long term PMI studies) will be described. We also describe means for making continuous, persistent loops with HTS tapes. These loops offer an alternative to expensive monoliths for field control for complex geometries, such as stellarator-like fields. Partially supported by US DOE DE-FC02-93ER54186.

  8. Deuterated palladium at temperatures from 4. 3 to 400 K and pressures to 105 kbar: Search for cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Silvera, I.F.; Moshary, F. )

    1990-11-15

    We have studied a sample of deuterated palladium at pressures up to 105 kbar and temperatures from 4.3 to 400 K in an effort to detect cold fusion. A (D)/(Pd) concentration of 1.34{plus minus}0.1 was achieved. No evidence of cold fusion was found with a limit of 2.5{times}10{sup {minus}18} fusions (DD pair){sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} from neutron detection and 1.5{times}10{sup {minus}8} fusions (DD pair){sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} from detection of possible heating; a {gamma}-ray detector showed no evidence of {gamma} rays differing from background.

  9. Materials studies for magnetic fusion energy applications at low temperatures, 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. P.; Simon, N. J.

    1984-05-01

    Work leading toward development of strong, tough structural alloys for use in superconducting magnets of magnetic fusion power plants is reported. Low temperature studies were conducted to assess the quantitative dependence of the yield strength, density, and elastic constants of AISI 304 stainless steels upon carbon and nitrogen concentration. Tensile property measurements of developmental austenitic steels confirmed the dependence of yield strength upon temperature. Evidence is presented to show that the flow strength and austenite stability of stainless steels are not significantly affected by 8-T fields at 4 K. Instrumentation developed for low temperature testing included a computer assisted apparatus used to measure threshold fatigue. Low temperature welding research involved an investigation of the weld reinforcement effect on the weld joint strength and measurements of the 4 K fracture toughness of magnesium-chromium steel weldments and electroodes. In the area of non-metallics, a standardized test specimen was devised to aid in screening radiation-resistant composites for magnet insulation. Mechanical properties of concrete mortar and polyurethane foam at 4 K are reported.

  10. Multi-focus image fusion using a guided-filter-based difference image.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiang; Qin, Hanlin; Li, Jia; Zhou, Huixin; Yang, Tingwu

    2016-03-20

    The aim of multi-focus image fusion technology is to integrate different partially focused images into one all-focused image. To realize this goal, a new multi-focus image fusion method based on a guided filter is proposed and an efficient salient feature extraction method is presented in this paper. Furthermore, feature extraction is primarily the main objective of the present work. Based on salient feature extraction, the guided filter is first used to acquire the smoothing image containing the most sharpness regions. To obtain the initial fusion map, we compose a mixed focus measure by combining the variance of image intensities and the energy of the image gradient together. Then, the initial fusion map is further processed by a morphological filter to obtain a good reprocessed fusion map. Lastly, the final fusion map is determined via the reprocessed fusion map and is optimized by a guided filter. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method does markedly improve the fusion performance compared to previous fusion methods and can be competitive with or even outperform state-of-the-art fusion methods in terms of both subjective visual effects and objective quality metrics.

  11. Effect of Temperature on the Desorption of Lithium from Molybdenum(110) Surfaces: Implications for Fusion Reactor First Wall Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Mohan; Roszell, John; Scoullos, Emanuel V.; ...

    2016-03-30

    Determining the strength of Li binding to Mo is critical to assessing the survivability of Li as a potential first wall material in fusion reactors. Here, we present the results of a joint experimental and theoretical investigation into how Li desorbs from Mo(110) surfaces, based on what can be deduced from temperature-programmed desorption measurements and density functional theory (DFT). Li desorption peaks measured at temperatures ranging from 711 K (1 monolayer, ML) to 1030 K (0.04 ML), with corresponding desorption onsets from 489 to 878 K, follow a trend similar to predicted Gibbs free energies for Li adsorption. Bader chargemore » analysis of DFT densities reveals that repulsive forces between neighboring positively charged Li atoms increase with coverage and thus reduce the bond strength between Mo and Li, thereby lowering the desorption temperature as the coverage increases. In addition, DFT predicts that Li desorbs at higher temperatures from a surface with vacancies than from a perfect surface, offering an explanation for the anomalously high desorption temperatures for the last Li to desorb from Mo(110). Analysis of simulated local densities of states indicates that the stronger binding to the defective surface is correlated with enhanced interaction between Li and Mo, involving the Li 2s electrons and not only the Mo 4d electrons as in the case of the pristine surface, but also the Mo 5s electrons in the case with surface vacancies. We suggest that steps and kinks present on the Mo(110) surface behave similarly and contribute to the high desorption temperatures. These findings imply that roughened Mo surfaces may strengthen Li film adhesion at higher temperatures.« less

  12. Effect of Temperature on the Desorption of Lithium from Molybdenum(110) Surfaces: Implications for Fusion Reactor First Wall Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mohan; Roszell, John; Scoullos, Emanuel V.; Riplinger, Christoph; Koel, Bruce E.; Carter, Emily A.

    2016-03-30

    Determining the strength of Li binding to Mo is critical to assessing the survivability of Li as a potential first wall material in fusion reactors. Here, we present the results of a joint experimental and theoretical investigation into how Li desorbs from Mo(110) surfaces, based on what can be deduced from temperature-programmed desorption measurements and density functional theory (DFT). Li desorption peaks measured at temperatures ranging from 711 K (1 monolayer, ML) to 1030 K (0.04 ML), with corresponding desorption onsets from 489 to 878 K, follow a trend similar to predicted Gibbs free energies for Li adsorption. Bader charge analysis of DFT densities reveals that repulsive forces between neighboring positively charged Li atoms increase with coverage and thus reduce the bond strength between Mo and Li, thereby lowering the desorption temperature as the coverage increases. In addition, DFT predicts that Li desorbs at higher temperatures from a surface with vacancies than from a perfect surface, offering an explanation for the anomalously high desorption temperatures for the last Li to desorb from Mo(110). Analysis of simulated local densities of states indicates that the stronger binding to the defective surface is correlated with enhanced interaction between Li and Mo, involving the Li 2s electrons and not only the Mo 4d electrons as in the case of the pristine surface, but also the Mo 5s electrons in the case with surface vacancies. We suggest that steps and kinks present on the Mo(110) surface behave similarly and contribute to the high desorption temperatures. These findings imply that roughened Mo surfaces may strengthen Li film adhesion at higher temperatures.

  13. A channel-based color fusion technique using multispectral images for night vision enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2011-09-01

    A fused image using multispectral images can increase the reliability of interpretation because it combines the complimentary information apparent in multispectral images. While a color image can be easily interpreted by human users (for visual analysis), and thus improves observer performance and reaction times. We propose a fast color fusion method, termed as channel-based color fusion, which is efficient for real time applications. Notice that the term of "color fusion" means combing multispectral images into a color-version image with the purpose of resembling natural scenes. On the other hand, false coloring technique usually has no intention of resembling natural scenery. The framework of channel-based color fusion is as follows, (1) prepare for color fusion by preprocessing, image registration and fusion; (2) form a color fusion image by properly assigning multispectral images to red, green, and blue channels; (3) fuse multispectral images (gray fusion) using a wavelet-based fusion algorithm; and (4) replace the value component of color fusion in HSV color space with the gray-fusion image, and finally transform back to RGB space. In night vision imaging, there may be two or several bands of images available, for example, visible (RGB), image intensified (II), near infrared (NIR), medium wave infrared (MWIR), long wave infrared (LWIR). The proposed channel-wise color fusions were tested with two-band (e.g., NIR + LWIR, II + LWIR, RGB + LWIR) or three-band (e.g., RGB + NIR + LWIR) multispectral images. Experimental results show that the colors in the fused images by the proposed method are vivid and comparable with that of the segmentation-based colorization. The processing speed of new method is much faster than any segmentation-based method.

  14. Improved Image Fusion Method Based on NSCT and Accelerated NMF

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Lai, Siyu; Li, Mingdong

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF)-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can be generated faster in that the update rules for W and H are optimized and less iterations are needed. In addition, the Neighborhood Homogeneous Measurement (NHM) rule is performed on the high-frequency part to achieve the band-pass coefficients. Finally, the ultimate fused image is obtained by integrating all sub-images with the inverse NSCT. The simulated experiments prove that our method indeed promotes performance when compared to PCA, NSCT-based, NMF-based and weighted NMF-based algorithms. PMID:22778618

  15. Improved image fusion method based on NSCT and accelerated NMF.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Lai, Siyu; Li, Mingdong

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF)-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can be generated faster in that the update rules for W and H are optimized and less iterations are needed. In addition, the Neighborhood Homogeneous Measurement (NHM) rule is performed on the high-frequency part to achieve the band-pass coefficients. Finally, the ultimate fused image is obtained by integrating all sub-images with the inverse NSCT. The simulated experiments prove that our method indeed promotes performance when compared to PCA, NSCT-based, NMF-based and weighted NMF-based algorithms.

  16. Implementation of multispectral image fusion system based on SoPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingfei; Wang, Zhihui

    2013-10-01

    Combining the theory of wavelet transform based image fusion and SOPC design method, the authors uses SOPC as the core device to design and implement a image fusion system. The fusion system adopts the Verilog hardware description language, Dsp builder and Quartus II development platform together with macro module to complete the logic design and timing control of each module. In the fusion system, we can achieve simple pixel-level image fusion of two registered images. This design not only builds up an image fusion system based on SOPC in accident, but also provides a hardware design principle in SoPC for the future design and Implementation of more comprehensive function of image processing.

  17. A Simplified Dynamical Approach To The Study of Atmospheric Events Based On Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardo, V.; Siccardi, F.; Taramasso, A. C.

    Improvements and developments in operational remote sensing technology make available high-resolution observations describing the hydrometeorological conditions associated with heavy precipitation events. This work deals with the possibility of combining different data sources to study the precipitation process. Data fusion seems to be an effective way to combine models and measurements from different sensors operating over a range of scales. The goal is to take advantage of the strengths of each source to improve the knowledge of deep convection mechanisms. Special attention is paid to weather radar data. Doppler radial wind data lead to the retrieval of quite reliable wind fields when more than one sensor overlaps its optical visibility range with another. The new Italian weather-radar coverage design requires to deeply analyse the capabilities of this measurement system, which is strongly linked to raindrop characteristics. A three-dimensional physically based rainfall-forecasting model is formulated with the aim of performing data fusion. The work focuses on a description of the primary processes, interacting at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, within a column of atmosphere associated with a convective cloud. Parameterization of the model compo- nents is based on hydrometeorological observations, including radar Doppler velocity data, satellite-infrared brightness temperature and ground-level measurements of tem- perature, pressure and dew point temperature. The capability of assimilating different types of data and observations helps to compensate the simplified dynamics and leads to an enhanced definition of the convective processes.

  18. Trust based Fusion over Noisy Channels through Anomaly Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Trust based Fusion over Noisy Channels through Anomaly Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks∗ Shameek Bhattacharjee Department of EECS University of...of Systems]: Fault Tolerance General Terms Algorithms, Performance, Security, Theory Keywords Cognitive radio networks, attacks, anomaly detection , trust...TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Trust based Fusion over Noisy Channels through Anomaly Detection in Cognitive Radio

  19. Events leading to the opening and closing of the exocytotic fusion pore have markedly different temperature dependencies. Kinetic analysis of single fusion events in patch-clamped mouse mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Oberhauser, A F; Monck, J R; Fernandez, J M

    1992-01-01

    The earliest event in exocytosis is the formation of a fusion pore, an aqueous channel that connects the lumen of a secretory granule with the extracellular space. We can observe the formation of individual fusion pores and their subsequent dilation or closure by measuring the changes in the admittance of patch-clamped mast cells during GTP gamma S-stimulated exocytotic fusion. To investigate the molecular structure of the fusion pore, we have studied the temperature dependency of the rate constants for fusion pore formation and closure. An Arrhenius plot of the rate of fusion pore formation shows a simple linear relationship with an apparent activation energy of 23 kcal/mol. In contrast, the Arrhenius plot of the rate of closure of the fusion pore is discontinuous, with the break at approximately 13 degrees C. Above the break point, the rate of closure has a weak temperature dependence (7 kcal/mol), whereas below 13 degrees C the rate of closure is temperature independent. This type of temperature dependency is characteristic of events that depend on diffusion in a lipid phase that undergoes a fluid-solid phase transition. We propose that the formation of the fusion pore is regulated by the conformational change of a molecular structure with a high activation energy, whereas the closure of the fusion pore is regulated by lipids that become phase separated at 13 degrees C. PMID:1504250

  20. Astronomical data fusion tool based on PostgreSQL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bo; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Zhong, Shou-Bo; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2016-11-01

    With the application of advanced astronomical technologies, equipments and methods all over the world, astronomical observations cover the range from radio, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray bands, and enter into the era of full wavelength astronomy. How to effectively integrate data from different ground- and space-based observation equipments, different observers, different bands and different observation times, requires data fusion technology. In this paper we introduce a cross-match tool that is developed in the Python language, is based on the PostgreSQL database and uses Q3C as the core index, facilitating the cross-match work of massive astronomical data. It provides four different cross-match functions, namely: (I) cross-match of the custom error range; (II) cross-match of catalog errors; (III) cross-match based on the elliptic error range; (IV) cross-match of the nearest neighbor algorithm. The resulting cross-matched set provides a good foundation for subsequent data mining and statistics based on multiwavelength data. The most advantageous aspect of this tool is a user-oriented tool applied locally by users. By means of this tool, users can easily create their own databases, manage their own data and cross-match databases according to their requirements. In addition, this tool is also able to transfer data from one database into another database. More importantly, it is easy to get started with the tool and it can be used by astronomers without writing any code.

  1. Ray-Based Calculations of Backscatter in Laser Fusion Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Strozzi, D J; Williams, E A; Hinkel, D E; Froula, D H; London, R A; Callahan, D A

    2008-02-26

    A steady-state model for Brillouin and Raman backscatter along a laser ray path is presented. The daughter plasma waves are treated in the strong damping limit, and have amplitudes given by the (linear) kinetic response to the ponderomotive drive. Pump depletion, inverse-bremsstrahlung damping, bremsstrahlung emission, Thomson scattering off density fluctuations, and whole-beam focusing are included. The numerical code deplete, which implements this model, is described. The model is compared with traditional linear gain calculations, as well as 'plane-wave' simulations with the paraxial propagation code pf3d. Comparisons with Brillouin-scattering experiments at the OMEGA Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, p. 495 (1997)] show that laser speckles greatly enhance the reflectivity over the deplete results. An approximate upper bound on this enhancement, motivated by phase conjugation, is given by doubling the deplete coupling coefficient. Analysis with deplete of an ignition design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner, E. M. Campbell, and W. J. Hogan, Fusion Technol. 26, p. 755 (1994)], with a peak radiation temperature of 285 eV, shows encouragingly low reflectivity. Doubling the coupling to bound the speckle enhancement suggests a less optimistic picture. Re-absorption of Raman light is seen to be significant in this design.

  2. Condorcet and borda count fusion method for ligand-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ali; Saeed, Faisal; Salim, Naomie; Abdo, Ammar

    2014-01-01

    It is known that any individual similarity measure will not always give the best recall of active molecule structure for all types of activity classes. Recently, the effectiveness of ligand-based virtual screening approaches can be enhanced by using data fusion. Data fusion can be implemented using two different approaches: group fusion and similarity fusion. Similarity fusion involves searching using multiple similarity measures. The similarity scores, or ranking, for each similarity measure are combined to obtain the final ranking of the compounds in the database. The Condorcet fusion method was examined. This approach combines the outputs of similarity searches from eleven association and distance similarity coefficients, and then the winner measure for each class of molecules, based on Condorcet fusion, was chosen to be the best method of searching. The recall of retrieved active molecules at top 5% and significant test are used to evaluate our proposed method. The MDL drug data report (MDDR), maximum unbiased validation (MUV) and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD) data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints. Simulated virtual screening experiments with the standard two data sets show that the use of Condorcet fusion provides a very simple way of improving the ligand-based virtual screening, especially when the active molecules being sought have a lowest degree of structural heterogeneity. However, the effectiveness of the Condorcet fusion was increased slightly when structural sets of high diversity activities were being sought.

  3. Electron kinetic effects on interferometry and polarimetry in high temperature fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Brower, D. L.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J.; Parke, E.

    2013-11-01

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on phase measurements made by the toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP) and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be precisely treated or the measurement accuracy will fail to meet the specified requirements for ITER operation. We calculate electron thermal corrections to the interferometric phase and polarization state of an electromagnetic wave propagating along tangential and poloidal chords (Faraday and Cotton-Mouton polarimetry) and incorporate them into the Stokes vector equation for evolution of polarization. Although these corrections are small at electron temperatures Te ≃ 1 keV, they become sizable at Te ⩾ 10 keV. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in the τ = Te/mec2 model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with τ2-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. Proper treatment of temperature effects will ensure more accurate interpretation of interferometric and polarimetric measurements in fusion devices like ITER and DEMO. The use of precise analytic expressions is especially important for burning plasmas where various interferometric techniques will be used for direct real time feedback control of device operations with time resolution ˜1 ms to regulate the rate of the thermonuclear burn and monitor/control the safety factor profile.

  4. Evaluation of Nb-base alloys for the divertor structure in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, I.M.

    1996-04-01

    Niobium-base alloys are candidate materials for the divertor structure in fusion reactors. For this application, an alloy should resist aqueous corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and radiation damage and should have high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion. Results of corrosion and embrittlement screening tests of several binary and ternary Nb alloys in high-temperature water indicated the Mb-1Zr, Nb-5MO-1Zr, and Nb-5V-1Z4 (wt %) showed sufficient promise for further investigation. These alloys, together with pure Nb and Zircaloy-4 have been exposed to high purity water containing a low concentration of dissolved oxygen (<12 ppb) at 170, 230, and 300{degrees}C for up to {approx}3200 h. Weight-change data, microstructural observations, and qualitative mechanical-property evaluation reveal that Nb-5V-1Zr is the most promising alloy at higher temperatures. Below {approx}200{degrees}C, the alloys exhibit similiar corrosion behavior.

  5. Medical Image Fusion Based on Feature Extraction and Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gao; Zongxi, Song

    2017-01-01

    As a novel multiscale geometric analysis tool, sparse representation has shown many advantages over the conventional image representation methods. However, the standard sparse representation does not take intrinsic structure and its time complexity into consideration. In this paper, a new fusion mechanism for multimodal medical images based on sparse representation and decision map is proposed to deal with these problems simultaneously. Three decision maps are designed including structure information map (SM) and energy information map (EM) as well as structure and energy map (SEM) to make the results reserve more energy and edge information. SM contains the local structure feature captured by the Laplacian of a Gaussian (LOG) and EM contains the energy and energy distribution feature detected by the mean square deviation. The decision map is added to the normal sparse representation based method to improve the speed of the algorithm. Proposed approach also improves the quality of the fused results by enhancing the contrast and reserving more structure and energy information from the source images. The experiment results of 36 groups of CT/MR, MR-T1/MR-T2, and CT/PET images demonstrate that the method based on SR and SEM outperforms five state-of-the-art methods. PMID:28321246

  6. Medical Image Fusion Based on Feature Extraction and Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yin; Wei, Gao; Zongxi, Song

    2017-01-01

    As a novel multiscale geometric analysis tool, sparse representation has shown many advantages over the conventional image representation methods. However, the standard sparse representation does not take intrinsic structure and its time complexity into consideration. In this paper, a new fusion mechanism for multimodal medical images based on sparse representation and decision map is proposed to deal with these problems simultaneously. Three decision maps are designed including structure information map (SM) and energy information map (EM) as well as structure and energy map (SEM) to make the results reserve more energy and edge information. SM contains the local structure feature captured by the Laplacian of a Gaussian (LOG) and EM contains the energy and energy distribution feature detected by the mean square deviation. The decision map is added to the normal sparse representation based method to improve the speed of the algorithm. Proposed approach also improves the quality of the fused results by enhancing the contrast and reserving more structure and energy information from the source images. The experiment results of 36 groups of CT/MR, MR-T1/MR-T2, and CT/PET images demonstrate that the method based on SR and SEM outperforms five state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Feature-based multiexposure image-sequence fusion with guided filter and image alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang; Du, Junping; Zhang, Zhenhong

    2015-01-01

    Multiexposure fusion images have a higher dynamic range and reveal more details than a single captured image of a real-world scene. A clear and intuitive feature-based fusion technique for multiexposure image sequences is conceptually proposed. The main idea of the proposed method is to combine three image features [phase congruency (PC), local contrast, and color saturation] to obtain weight maps of the images. Then, the weight maps are further refined using a guided filter which can improve their accuracy. The final fusion result is constructed using the weighted sum of the source image sequence. In addition, for multiexposure image-sequence fusion involving dynamic scenes containing moving objects, ghost artifacts can easily occur if fusion is directly performed. Therefore, an image-alignment method is first used to adjust the input images to correspond to a reference image, after which fusion is performed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a superior performance compared to the existing methods.

  8. Fission thrust sail as booster for high Δv fusion based propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyssens, Frederik; Wouters, Kristof; Driesen, Maarten

    2015-12-01

    The fission thrust sail as booster for nuclear fusion-based rocket propulsion for future starships is introduced and studied. First order calculations are used together with Monte Carlo simulations to assess system performance. If a D-D fusion rocket such as e.g. considered in Project Icarus has relatively low efficiency (~30%) in converting fusion fuel to a directed exhaust, adding a fission sail is shown to be beneficial for the obtainable delta-v. In addition, this type of fission-fusion hybrid propulsion has the potential to improve acceleration and act as a micrometeorite shield.

  9. An accelerator based fusion-product source for development of inertial confinement fusion nuclear diagnostics.

    PubMed

    McDuffee, S C; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Leiter, R; Canavan, M J; Casey, D T; Rygg, J R; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2008-04-01

    A fusion-product source, utilizing a 150 kV Cockraft-Walton linear accelerator, has been refurbished to provide a reliable nuclear diagnostic development tool to the national inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research program. The accelerator is capable of routinely generating DD reaction rates at approximately 10(7)/s when using a 150 kV, 150 microA deuterium (D) beam onto an erbium (Er) or titanium (Ti) target doped with D, and D(3)He reaction rates at approximately 5 x 10(5)/s when using a using a 120 kV, approximately 100 microA D beam onto a Er or Ti target doped with (3)He. The new accelerator is currently being used in a number of projects related to the national ICF program at the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], which includes the wedge range filter charged-particle spectrometry program [F. H. Seguin et al., Rev. Sci Instrum. 75, 3520 (2004)] and the magnetic recoil neutron spectrometer [J. A. Frenje et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 854 (2001)].

  10. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  11. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John

    2014-02-18

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  12. Fusion - An energy source for synthetic fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-05-01

    An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  13. Belief Function Based Decision Fusion for Decentralized Target Classification in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyu; Zhang, Zhenjiang

    2015-08-19

    Decision fusion in sensor networks enables sensors to improve classification accuracy while reducing the energy consumption and bandwidth demand for data transmission. In this paper, we focus on the decentralized multi-class classification fusion problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and a new simple but effective decision fusion rule based on belief function theory is proposed. Unlike existing belief function based decision fusion schemes, the proposed approach is compatible with any type of classifier because the basic belief assignments (BBAs) of each sensor are constructed on the basis of the classifier's training output confusion matrix and real-time observations. We also derive explicit global BBA in the fusion center under Dempster's combinational rule, making the decision making operation in the fusion center greatly simplified. Also, sending the whole BBA structure to the fusion center is avoided. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed fusion rule has better performance in fusion accuracy compared with the naïve Bayes rule and weighted majority voting rule.

  14. Belief Function Based Decision Fusion for Decentralized Target Classification in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenyu; Zhang, Zhenjiang

    2015-01-01

    Decision fusion in sensor networks enables sensors to improve classification accuracy while reducing the energy consumption and bandwidth demand for data transmission. In this paper, we focus on the decentralized multi-class classification fusion problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and a new simple but effective decision fusion rule based on belief function theory is proposed. Unlike existing belief function based decision fusion schemes, the proposed approach is compatible with any type of classifier because the basic belief assignments (BBAs) of each sensor are constructed on the basis of the classifier’s training output confusion matrix and real-time observations. We also derive explicit global BBA in the fusion center under Dempster’s combinational rule, making the decision making operation in the fusion center greatly simplified. Also, sending the whole BBA structure to the fusion center is avoided. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed fusion rule has better performance in fusion accuracy compared with the naïve Bayes rule and weighted majority voting rule. PMID:26295399

  15. Theoretical Model of the Probability of Fusion Between Deuterons Within Deformed Lattices with Microcracks at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulvio, Frisone

    2006-02-01

    In this work, we wish to demonstrate that a reaction path as the following, dislocations, deformations due to thermodynamic stress and, finally, microcrack occurrence, can enhance the process of fusion of the deuterons introduced into the lattice by deuterium loading [F. Frisone, Can variations in temperature influence deuteron interaction within crystalline lattices? Nuovo Cimento D, 18, 1279 (1996)]. In fact, calculating the rate of deuteron-plasmon-deuteron fusion within a microcrack, showed, together with an enhancement of the tunneling effect, an increase of at least 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to the probability of fusion on the no deformed lattice. In fact, strong electric fields can take place in the microcrack and the deuterons are accelerated to the energy which are enough for the D-D tunnelling [M. Rabinowitz, High temperature superconductivity and cold fusion, Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 4, 233 (1990); J. Price Hirt and J. Lothe, Theory of Dislocation (McGraw Hill); Z. Phys., 457, 156: (1960)]. These phenomena open the way to the theoretical hypothesis that a kind of chain reaction, catalyzed by the microcracks produced in the structure as a result of deuterium loading, can favour the process of deuteron-plasmon fusion (N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin (Eds.), Solid State Physics, Chapter 25 (Saunders College, Philadelphia, 1972), pp.492-509).

  16. Guided filter-based fusion method for multiexposure images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xinglin; Luo, Haibo; Qi, Feng; Zhou, Peipei

    2016-11-01

    It is challenging to capture a high-dynamic range (HDR) scene using a low-dynamic range camera. A weighted sum-based image fusion (IF) algorithm is proposed so as to express an HDR scene with a high-quality image. This method mainly includes three parts. First, two image features, i.e., gradients and well-exposedness are measured to estimate the initial weight maps. Second, the initial weight maps are refined by a guided filter, in which the source image is considered as the guidance image. This process could reduce the noise in initial weight maps and preserve more texture consistent with the original images. Finally, the fused image is constructed by a weighted sum of source images in the spatial domain. The main contributions of this method are the estimation of the initial weight maps and the appropriate use of the guided filter-based weight maps refinement. It provides accurate weight maps for IF. Compared to traditional IF methods, this algorithm avoids image segmentation, combination, and the camera response curve calibration. Furthermore, experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in both subjective and objective evaluations.

  17. Fusion Based Seamless Mosaic for Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ting; Li, Shutao; Fu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    A fusion based seamless mosaic method for stitching remote sensing images is introduced in this paper. The proposed method focuses on one major problem in the process of mosaic: how to generate visually pleasant stitching result in the cases of misalignment, global and local intensity differences between images. First, two partially overlapped images are decomposed into high-frequency components and low-frequency components with Gaussian low-pass filter. Second, by considering the information characteristics contained in both separated components, different mosaic schemes are designed to accomplish stitching process accordingly. For the low-frequency components consisting of coarse shape and illumination information, two-dimension weighted blending rule is utilized to achieve smoothing transition. For the high-frequency components including rich details, an improved seam searching strategy based on dynamic programming is introduced. With the obtained stitching seam guiding the stitching process, visible structural break can be avoided. Finally, the mosaic result is produced by linearly composing both stitching results of different components together. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in generating seamless mosaic results without introducing any unexpected blurring or artifacts.

  18. Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET-based Full-Bridge for Fusion Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Prager, James; Picard, Julian; Hashim, Akel

    2014-10-01

    Switching power amplifiers (SPAs) have a wide variety of applications within the fusion science community, including feedback and control systems for dynamic plasma stabilization in tokamaks, inductive and arc plasma sources, Radio Frequency (RF) helicity and flux injection, RF plasma heating and current drive schemes, ion beam generation, and RF pre-ionizer systems. SiC MOSFETs offer many advantages over IGBTs including lower drive energy requirements, lower conduction and switching losses, and higher switching frequency capabilities. When comparing SiC and traditional silicon-based MOSFETs, SiC MOSFETs provide higher current carrying capability allowing for smaller package weights and sizes and lower operating temperature. Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT) is designing, constructing, and testing a SiC MOSFET-based full-bridge SPA. EHT will leverage the proprietary gate drive technology previously developed with the support of a DOE SBIR, which will enable fast, efficient switching in a small form factor. The primary goal is to develop a SiC MOSFET-based SPA for fusion science applications. Work supported in part by the DOE under Contract Number DE-SC0011907.

  19. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view. PMID:26758235

  20. Computer Based Behavioral Biometric Authentication via Multi-Modal Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    retinal scans [25]. Generally these methods are more reliable and successful in real world application than behavioral techniques [14]. One drawback...Bhattacharyya, et al. [25], found that the iris scanner , with an Equal Error Rate (EER) of 0.01% performed the best. 1.2 Behavioral Biometrics Behavioral...include voice and facial recognition; fingerprint, voice, and iris; and iris and retinal features [33]. 2.7.1 Fusion Methods. Fusion of biometric

  1. Feature-Motivated Simplified Adaptive PCNN-Based Medical Image Fusion Algorithm in NSST Domain.

    PubMed

    Ganasala, Padma; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-02-01

    Multimodality medical image fusion plays a vital role in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up studies of various diseases. It provides a composite image containing critical information of source images required for better localization and definition of different organs and lesions. In the state-of-the-art image fusion methods based on nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) and pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN), authors have used normalized coefficient value to motivate the PCNN-processing both low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) sub-bands. This makes the fused image blurred and decreases its contrast. The main objective of this work is to design an image fusion method that gives the fused image with better contrast, more detail information, and suitable for clinical use. We propose a novel image fusion method utilizing feature-motivated adaptive PCNN in NSST domain for fusion of anatomical images. The basic PCNN model is simplified, and adaptive-linking strength is used. Different features are used to motivate the PCNN-processing LF and HF sub-bands. The proposed method is extended for fusion of functional image with an anatomical image in improved nonlinear intensity hue and saturation (INIHS) color model. Extensive fusion experiments have been performed on CT-MRI and SPECT-MRI datasets. Visual and quantitative analysis of experimental results proved that the proposed method provides satisfactory fusion outcome compared to other image fusion methods.

  2. A generative model for image segmentation based on label fusion.

    PubMed

    Sabuncu, Mert R; Yeo, B T Thomas; Van Leemput, Koen; Fischl, Bruce; Golland, Polina

    2010-10-01

    We propose a nonparametric, probabilistic model for the automatic segmentation of medical images, given a training set of images and corresponding label maps. The resulting inference algorithms rely on pairwise registrations between the test image and individual training images. The training labels are then transferred to the test image and fused to compute the final segmentation of the test subject. Such label fusion methods have been shown to yield accurate segmentation, since the use of multiple registrations captures greater inter-subject anatomical variability and improves robustness against occasional registration failures. To the best of our knowledge, this manuscript presents the first comprehensive probabilistic framework that rigorously motivates label fusion as a segmentation approach. The proposed framework allows us to compare different label fusion algorithms theoretically and practically. In particular, recent label fusion or multiatlas segmentation algorithms are interpreted as special cases of our framework. We conduct two sets of experiments to validate the proposed methods. In the first set of experiments, we use 39 brain MRI scans-with manually segmented white matter, cerebral cortex, ventricles and subcortical structures-to compare different label fusion algorithms and the widely-used FreeSurfer whole-brain segmentation tool. Our results indicate that the proposed framework yields more accurate segmentation than FreeSurfer and previous label fusion algorithms. In a second experiment, we use brain MRI scans of 282 subjects to demonstrate that the proposed segmentation tool is sufficiently sensitive to robustly detect hippocampal volume changes in a study of aging and Alzheimer's Disease.

  3. A Multiprocessor-Based Sensor Fusion Software Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxon, Bruce C.

    1988-03-01

    The ability to reason with information from a variety of sources is critical to the development of intelligent autonomous systems. Multisensor integration, or sensor fusion, is an area of research that attempts to provide a computational framework in which such perceptual reasoning can quickly and effectively be applied, enabling autonomous systems to function in unstructured, unconstrained environments. In this paper, the fundamental characteristics of the sensor fusion problem are explored. An hierarchical sensor fusion software architecture is presented as a computational framework in which information from complementary sensors is effectively combined. The concept of a sensor fusion pyramid is introduced, along with three unique computational abstractions: virtual sensors, virtual effectors, and focus of attention processing. The computing requirements of this sensor fusion architecture are investigated, and the blackboard system model is proposed as a computational methodology on which to build a sensor fusion software architecture. Finally, the Butterfly Parallel Processor is presented as a computer architecture that provides the computational capabilities required to support these intelligent systems applications.

  4. Protein function prediction based on data fusion and functional interrelationship.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Wekesa, Jael-Sanyanda; Shi, Guan-Li; Luan, Yu-Shi

    2016-04-01

    One of the challenging tasks of bioinformatics is to predict more accurate and confident protein functions from genomics and proteomics datasets. Computational approaches use a variety of high throughput experimental data, such as protein-protein interaction (PPI), protein sequences and phylogenetic profiles, to predict protein functions. This paper presents a method that uses transductive multi-label learning algorithm by integrating multiple data sources for classification. Multiple proteomics datasets are integrated to make inferences about functions of unknown proteins and use a directed bi-relational graph to assign labels to unannotated proteins. Our method, bi-relational graph based transductive multi-label function annotation (Bi-TMF) uses functional correlation and topological PPI network properties on both the training and testing datasets to predict protein functions through data fusion of the individual kernel result. The main purpose of our proposed method is to enhance the performance of classifier integration for protein function prediction algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of Bi-TMF on multi-sources datasets in yeast, human and mouse benchmarks. Bi-TMF outperforms other recently proposed methods.

  5. Improving Agent Based Models and Validation through Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Marek; Demianyk, Bryan C.P.; Friesen, Marcia R.; McLeod, Robert D.; Mukhi, Shamir N.

    2011-01-01

    This work is contextualized in research in modeling and simulation of infection spread within a community or population, with the objective to provide a public health and policy tool in assessing the dynamics of infection spread and the qualitative impacts of public health interventions. This work uses the integration of real data sources into an Agent Based Model (ABM) to simulate respiratory infection spread within a small municipality. Novelty is derived in that the data sources are not necessarily obvious within ABM infection spread models. The ABM is a spatial-temporal model inclusive of behavioral and interaction patterns between individual agents on a real topography. The agent behaviours (movements and interactions) are fed by census / demographic data, integrated with real data from a telecommunication service provider (cellular records) and person-person contact data obtained via a custom 3G Smartphone application that logs Bluetooth connectivity between devices. Each source provides data of varying type and granularity, thereby enhancing the robustness of the model. The work demonstrates opportunities in data mining and fusion that can be used by policy and decision makers. The data become real-world inputs into individual SIR disease spread models and variants, thereby building credible and non-intrusive models to qualitatively simulate and assess public health interventions at the population level. PMID:23569606

  6. Computational polarization difference underwater imaging based on image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Polarization difference imaging can improve the quality of images acquired underwater, whether the background and veiling light are unpolarized or partial polarized. Computational polarization difference imaging technique which replaces the mechanical rotation of polarization analyzer and shortens the time spent to select the optimum orthogonal ǁ and ⊥axes is the improvement of the conventional PDI. But it originally gets the output image by setting the weight coefficient manually to an identical constant for all pixels. In this paper, a kind of algorithm is proposed to combine the Q and U parameters of the Stokes vector through pixel-level image fusion theory based on non-subsample contourlet transform. The experimental system built by the green LED array with polarizer to illuminate a piece of flat target merged in water and the CCD with polarization analyzer to obtain target image under different angle is used to verify the effect of the proposed algorithm. The results showed that the output processed by our algorithm could show more details of the flat target and had higher contrast compared to original computational polarization difference imaging.

  7. Modelling of the Remote Fusion Cutting Process Based on Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Villumsen, Sigurd; Olsen, Flemming O.

    Remote fusion cutting (RFC) is an interesting industrial process compared to traditional laser cutting. It is because traditional laser cutting is limiting travel speed and accessibility due to the required positioning of the cutting head just above the workpiece for providing a cutting gas pressure. For RFC this pressure is created by the vapor, which is formed when the laser beam evaporates the cut material. The drawback of RFC compared to traditional laser cutting is a worse cut quality, wide cut kerf and a slower travel speed. The contribution of this paper is an experimental investigation, which determined the process window for RFC in stainless steel with a single mode fiber laser. The process variables: travel speed, focus position, power and sheet thickness were investigated. Based on the results of the experiments and process knowledge the aim of this work was to determine and describe the most important driving mechanisms for understanding and modelling the RFC process. The purpose is to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms in the process and find the factors, which can improve the performance and also determine the limitations. The validation results show that the developed model of the RFC process gives a similar process window as the experimental results for the tested parameters and variation of travel speed and focus position.

  8. Infrared and visible image fusion method based on saliency detection in sparse domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. H.; Qi, Y.; Ding, W. R.

    2017-06-01

    Infrared and visible image fusion is a key problem in the field of multi-sensor image fusion. To better preserve the significant information of the infrared and visible images in the final fused image, the saliency maps of the source images is introduced into the fusion procedure. Firstly, under the framework of the joint sparse representation (JSR) model, the global and local saliency maps of the source images are obtained based on sparse coefficients. Then, a saliency detection model is proposed, which combines the global and local saliency maps to generate an integrated saliency map. Finally, a weighted fusion algorithm based on the integrated saliency map is developed to achieve the fusion progress. The experimental results show that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art methods in terms of several universal quality evaluation indexes, as well as in the visual quality.

  9. Fusion of remote sensing images based on pyramid decomposition with Baldwinian Clonal Selection Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Haiyan; Xing, Bei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yanyan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we put forward a novel fusion method for remote sensing images based on the contrast pyramid (CP) using the Baldwinian Clonal Selection Algorithm (BCSA), referred to as CPBCSA. Compared with classical methods based on the transform domain, the method proposed in this paper adopts an improved heuristic evolutionary algorithm, wherein the clonal selection algorithm includes Baldwinian learning. In the process of image fusion, BCSA automatically adjusts the fusion coefficients of different sub-bands decomposed by CP according to the value of the fitness function. BCSA also adaptively controls the optimal search direction of the coefficients and accelerates the convergence rate of the algorithm. Finally, the fusion images are obtained via weighted integration of the optimal fusion coefficients and CP reconstruction. Our experiments show that the proposed method outperforms existing methods in terms of both visual effect and objective evaluation criteria, and the fused images are more suitable for human visual or machine perception.

  10. The effect of temperature and pH on the solubility of quinolone compounds: estimation of heat of fusion.

    PubMed

    Yu, X; Zipp, G L; Davidson, G W

    1994-04-01

    Although many reports involving fluoroquinolone agents have been published in the past decades, only a few address preformulation studies. In this paper, we describe the effect of temperature and pH on the aqueous solubility of two typically used quinolones, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. We measured the aqueous solubilities over the pH range of 5.5 to 9.5 at temperature of 6, 25, 30, and 40 degrees C. The intrinsic solubilities and the thermodynamic dissociation constants were determined from solubility data and the temperature dependence of the intrinsic solubility was evaluated using van't Hoff and Hildebrand plots. The heat of fusion was determined from these two plots. When the heat of fusion was compared to that measured from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, we found that the Hildebrand method overestimated, and the van't Hoff equation underestimated, the heat of fusion. From the absolute values of the relative errors, the Hildebrand plot produced the better results. DSC results show that the heat of fusion is 15.41 kcal/mol for ciprofloxacin and 7.88 kcal/mol for norfloxacin.

  11. Helicobacter Pylori infection detection from gastric X-ray images based on feature fusion and decision fusion.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kenta; Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a fully automatic method for detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is presented with the aim of constructing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. In order to realize a CAD system with good performance for detection of H. pylori infection, we focus on the following characteristic of stomach X-ray examination. The accuracy of X-ray examination differs depending on the symptom of H. pylori infection that is focused on and the position from which X-ray images are taken. Therefore, doctors have to comprehensively assess the symptoms and positions. In order to introduce the idea of doctors' assessment into the CAD system, we newly propose a method for detection of H. pylori infection based on the combined use of feature fusion and decision fusion. As a feature fusion scheme, we adopt Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL). Since MKL can combine several features with determination of their weights, it can represent the differences in symptoms. By constructing an MKL classifier for each position, we can obtain several detection results. Furthermore, we introduce confidence-based decision fusion, which can consider the relationship between the classifier's performance and the detection results. Consequently, accurate detection of H. pylori infection becomes possible by the proposed method. Experimental results obtained by applying the proposed method to real X-ray images show that our method has good performance, close to the results of detection by specialists, and indicate that the realization of a CAD system for determining the risk of H. pylori infection is possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A systematic study on the influence of nuclear surface tension and temperature upon the parameterization of the fusion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaei, R.; Hadikhani, A.

    2017-07-01

    For the first time the influence of the surface energy coefficient γ and temperature T on the parameterization of the fusion barriers is systematically analyzed within the framework of the proximity formalism, namely proximity 1977, proximity 1988 and proximity 2010 models. A total of 114 fusion reactions with the condition 39 ≤ Z1 Z2 ≤ 1520 for the charge product of their participant nuclei have been studied. We present γ-dependent and T -dependent pocket formulas which reproduce the theoretical and empirical data of the fusion barrier height and position for our considered reactions with good accuracy. It is shown that the quality of the γ-dependent formula enhances by increasing the strength of the surface energy coefficient. Moreover, the obtained results confirm that imposing the thermal effects improves the agreement between the parameterized and empirical data of the barrier characteristics.

  13. A color fusion method of infrared and low-light-level images based on visual perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jing; Yan, Minmin; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lianfa

    2014-11-01

    The color fusion images can be obtained through the fusion of infrared and low-light-level images, which will contain both the information of the two. The fusion images can help observers to understand the multichannel images comprehensively. However, simple fusion may lose the target information due to inconspicuous targets in long-distance infrared and low-light-level images; and if targets extraction is adopted blindly, the perception of the scene information will be affected seriously. To solve this problem, a new fusion method based on visual perception is proposed in this paper. The extraction of the visual targets ("what" information) and parallel processing mechanism are applied in traditional color fusion methods. The infrared and low-light-level color fusion images are achieved based on efficient typical targets learning. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The fusion images achieved by our algorithm can not only improve the detection rate of targets, but also get rich natural information of the scenes.

  14. Multispectral medical image fusion in Contourlet domain for computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Moin, Aisha; Srivastava, Anuja; Bao, Le Nguyen; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Le, Dac-Nhuong

    2016-07-01

    Computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be performed by dint of the analysis of the functional and structural changes in the brain. Multispectral image fusion deliberates upon fusion of the complementary information while discarding the surplus information to achieve a solitary image which encloses both spatial and spectral details. This paper presents a Non-Sub-sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) based multispectral image fusion model for computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The proposed fusion methodology involves color transformation of the input multispectral image. The multispectral image in YIQ color space is decomposed using NSCT followed by dimensionality reduction using modified Principal Component Analysis algorithm on the low frequency coefficients. Further, the high frequency coefficients are enhanced using non-linear enhancement function. Two different fusion rules are then applied to the low-pass and high-pass sub-bands: Phase congruency is applied to low frequency coefficients and a combination of directive contrast and normalized Shannon entropy is applied to high frequency coefficients. The superiority of the fusion response is depicted by the comparisons made with the other state-of-the-art fusion approaches (in terms of various fusion metrics).

  15. Multispectral medical image fusion in Contourlet domain for computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Moin, Aisha; Srivastava, Anuja; Bao, Le Nguyen; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Le, Dac-Nhuong

    2016-07-01

    Computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be performed by dint of the analysis of the functional and structural changes in the brain. Multispectral image fusion deliberates upon fusion of the complementary information while discarding the surplus information to achieve a solitary image which encloses both spatial and spectral details. This paper presents a Non-Sub-sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) based multispectral image fusion model for computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The proposed fusion methodology involves color transformation of the input multispectral image. The multispectral image in YIQ color space is decomposed using NSCT followed by dimensionality reduction using modified Principal Component Analysis algorithm on the low frequency coefficients. Further, the high frequency coefficients are enhanced using non-linear enhancement function. Two different fusion rules are then applied to the low-pass and high-pass sub-bands: Phase congruency is applied to low frequency coefficients and a combination of directive contrast and normalized Shannon entropy is applied to high frequency coefficients. The superiority of the fusion response is depicted by the comparisons made with the other state-of-the-art fusion approaches (in terms of various fusion metrics).

  16. Multispectral medical image fusion in Contourlet domain for computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bhateja, Vikrant E-mail: nhuongld@hus.edu.vn; Moin, Aisha; Srivastava, Anuja; Bao, Le Nguyen; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Le, Dac-Nhuong E-mail: nhuongld@hus.edu.vn

    2016-07-15

    Computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can be performed by dint of the analysis of the functional and structural changes in the brain. Multispectral image fusion deliberates upon fusion of the complementary information while discarding the surplus information to achieve a solitary image which encloses both spatial and spectral details. This paper presents a Non-Sub-sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) based multispectral image fusion model for computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. The proposed fusion methodology involves color transformation of the input multispectral image. The multispectral image in YIQ color space is decomposed using NSCT followed by dimensionality reduction using modified Principal Component Analysis algorithm on the low frequency coefficients. Further, the high frequency coefficients are enhanced using non-linear enhancement function. Two different fusion rules are then applied to the low-pass and high-pass sub-bands: Phase congruency is applied to low frequency coefficients and a combination of directive contrast and normalized Shannon entropy is applied to high frequency coefficients. The superiority of the fusion response is depicted by the comparisons made with the other state-of-the-art fusion approaches (in terms of various fusion metrics).

  17. Face-iris multimodal biometric scheme based on feature level fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Guang; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Dong, Hongxing; He, Fei

    2015-11-01

    Unlike score level fusion, feature level fusion demands all the features extracted from unimodal traits with high distinguishability, as well as homogeneity and compatibility, which is difficult to achieve. Therefore, most multimodal biometric research focuses on score level fusion, whereas few investigate feature level fusion. We propose a face-iris recognition method based on feature level fusion. We build a special two-dimensional-Gabor filter bank to extract local texture features from face and iris images, and then transform them by histogram statistics into an energy-orientation variance histogram feature with lower dimensions and higher distinguishability. Finally, through a fusion-recognition strategy based on principal components analysis and support vector machine (FRSPS), feature level fusion and one-to-n identification are accomplished. The experimental results demonstrate that this method can not only effectively extract face and iris features but also provide higher recognition accuracy. Compared with some state-of-the-art fusion methods, the proposed method has a significant performance advantage.

  18. Cold nuclear fusion and muon-catalyzed fusion. January 1976-April 1989 (Citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for January 1976-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning experiments and research in a type of nuclear fusion process which occurs at lower temperatures and pressures than conventional fusion reactions. The references describe theoretical and experimental results for a proposed muon-catalyzed fusion reactor, and for studies on muon sticking and reactivation, temperature dependence of fusion rates, and resolution of some engineering challenges. (Contains 82 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  19. Decision-fusion-based automated drill bit toolmark correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brett C.; Press, Michael J.; Guerci, Joseph R.

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a recent study conducted to investigate the reproducibility of toolmarks left by drill bits. This paper focuses on the automated analysis aspect of the study, and particularly the advantages of using decision fusion methods in the comparisons. To enable the study to encompass a large number of samples, existing technology was adapted to the task of automatically comparing the test impressions. Advanced forensic pattern recognition algorithms that had been developed for the comparison of ballistic evidence in the DRUGFIRETM system were modified for use in this test. The results of the decision fusion architecture closely matched those obtained by expert visual examination. The study, aided by the improved pattern recognition algorithm, showed that drill bit impressions do contain reproducible marks. In a blind test, the DRUGFIRE pattern recognition algorithm, enhanced with the decision fusion architecture, consistently identified the correct bit as the source of the test impressions.

  20. Optimal multi-focus contourlet-based image fusion algorithm selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Adam; Giansiracusa, Michael; Messer, Neal; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Multi-focus image fusion is becoming increasingly prevalent, as there is a strong initiative to maximize visual information in a single image by fusing the salient data from multiple images for visualization. This allows an analyst to make decisions based on a larger amount of information in a more efficient manner because multiple images need not be cross-referenced. The contourlet transform has proven to be an effective multi-resolution transform for both denoising and image fusion through its ability to pick up the directional and anisotropic properties while being designed to decompose the discrete two-dimensional domain. Many studies have been done to develop and validate algorithms for wavelet image fusion, but the contourlet has not been as thoroughly studied. When the contourlet coefficients for the wavelet coefficients are substituted in image fusion algorithms, it is contourlet image fusion. There are a multitude of methods for fusing these coefficients together and the results demonstrate that there is an opportunity for fusing coefficients together in the contourlet domain for multi-focus images. This paper compared the algorithms with a variety of no reference image fusion metrics including information theory based, image feature based and structural similarity based assessments to select the image fusion method.

  1. Sputtering, Plasma Chemistry, and RF Sheath Effects in Low-Temperature and Fusion Plasma Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E.; McGugan, James M.; Pankin, Alexei Y.; Roark, Christine M.; Smithe, David N.; Stoltz, Peter H.

    2016-09-01

    A new sheath boundary condition has been implemented in VSim, a plasma modeling code which makes use of both PIC/MCC and fluid FDTD representations. It enables physics effects associated with DC and RF sheath formation - local sheath potential evolution, heat/particle fluxes, and sputtering effects on complex plasma-facing components - to be included in macroscopic-scale plasma simulations that need not resolve sheath scale lengths. We model these effects in typical ICRF antenna operation scenarios on the Alcator C-Mod fusion device, and present comparisons of our simulation results with experimental data together with detailed 3D animations of antenna operation. Complex low-temperature plasma chemistry modeling in VSim is facilitated by MUNCHKIN, a standalone python/C++/SQL code that identifies possible reaction paths for a given set of input species, solves 1D rate equations for the ensuing system's chemical evolution, and generates VSim input blocks with appropriate cross-sections/reaction rates. These features, as well as principal path analysis (to reduce the number of simulated chemical reactions while retaining accuracy) and reaction rate calculations from user-specified distribution functions, will also be demonstrated. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's SBIR program, Award DE-SC0009501.

  2. Dynamic network based learning systems for sensor information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Dinesh; Julier, Simon

    2017-05-01

    In order to get the modularity and reconfigurability for sensor information fusion services in modern battle-spaces, dynamic service composition and dynamic topology determination is needed. In the current state-of-the-art, such information fusion services are composed manually and in a programmatic manner. In this paper, we consider an approach towards more automation by assuming that the topology of a solution is provided, and automatically choosing the different types and kinds of algorithms which can be used at each step. This includes the use of contextual information and techniques such as multi-arm bandits for investing the exploration and exploitation tradeoff.

  3. Texture Analysis Based Fusion Experiments Using High-Resolution SAR and Optical Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Luo, Y.; Zhou, H.; Xue, Q.; Wang, A.

    2012-08-01

    High resolution SAR images contain plenty of detailed textural features, and optical images have spectral features. For the different characteristics of the two images, Firstly, we extracted textural measures of TerraSAR-X image based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) method, and chose the appropriate window. Then data fusion between textural measures of TerraSAR-X image and QuickBird multi-spectral image was implemented based on PCA transform, and the fusion results were quantitatively evaluated, showing that the fusion image keep spectral information well and the spatial information be enhanced.

  4. Audio-Visual Speaker Diarization Based on Spatiotemporal Bayesian Fusion.

    PubMed

    Gebru, Israel; Ba, Sileye; Li, Xiaofei; Horaud, Radu

    2017-01-05

    Speaker diarization consists of assigning speech signals to people engaged in a dialogue. An audio-visual spatiotemporal diarization model is proposed. The model is well suited for challenging scenarios that consist of several participants engaged in multi-party interaction while they move around and turn their heads towards the other participants rather than facing the cameras and the microphones. Multiple-person visual tracking is combined with multiple speech-source localization in order to tackle the speech-to-person association problem. The latter is solved within a novel audio-visual fusion method on the following grounds: binaural spectral features are first extracted from a microphone pair, then a supervised audio-visual alignment technique maps these features onto an image, and finally a semisupervised clustering method assigns binaural spectral features to visible persons. The main advantage of this method over previous work is that it processes in a principled way speech signals uttered simultaneously by multiple persons. The diarization itself is cast into a latent-variable temporal graphical model that infers speaker identities and speech turns, based on the output of an audio-visual association process, executed at each time slice, and on the dynamics of the diarization variable itself. The proposed formulation yields an efficient exact inference procedure. A novel dataset, that contains audio-visual training data as well as a number of scenarios involving several participants engaged in formal and informal dialogue, is introduced. The proposed method is thoroughly tested and benchmarked with respect to several state-of-the art diarization algorithms.

  5. Temperature Measurements of Fusion Plasmas Produced by Laser-Irradiated D2-3 He or CD4-3 He Clustering Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, W.; Ditmire, T.; Quevedo, H.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Donovan, M.; Gaul, E.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Hagel, K.; Natowitz, J. B.

    2014-10-01

    We report on experiments in which a mixture of D2 or CD4 clusters and 3He gas was irradiated by a petawatt-laser pulse, generating nuclear fusion reactions such as D(d, 3He) n, D(d, t) p , and 3He(d, p)4He. We measured the yields of fusion neutrons and protons from these reactions and found them to agree with yields based on a simple cylindrical plasma model. The plasma temperature was determined by two different methods. In the first, it was derived from time-of-flight data of deuterium ions ejected from exploding D2 or CD4 clusters. In the second, it was measured from the ratio of neutron yield to proton yield from D(d, 3He) n and 3He(d, p)4He reactions, respectively. The temperatures determined by these two methods agree well, indicating (i) the ion energy distribution is not significantly distorted when ions travel in the disassembling plasma; (ii) the kinetic energy of deuterium ions, especially the hottest part responsible for nuclear fusion, is well described by a near-Maxwellian distribution.

  6. Discovery of temperature-dependent phenomena of muon-catalyzed fusion in solid deuterium and tritium mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, N; Nagamine, K; Matsuzaki, T; Ishida, K; Nakamura, S N; Matsuda, Y; Tanase, M; Kato, M; Sugai, H; Kudo, K; Takeda, N; Eaton, G H

    2003-01-31

    A systematic experimental study on muon-catalyzed fusion was conducted using a series of solid deuterium and tritium mixtures. A variety of conditions were investigated, i.e., tritium concentrations from 20% to 70%, and temperatures from 5 to 16 K. With decreasing temperature, we observed an unexpected decrease in the muon cycling rate (lambda(c)) and an increase in the muon loss probability (W). The origins of these observed changes were interpreted by the temperature-dependence in the dt mu formation process for lambda(c) and that in the muon reactivation process after muon-to-alpha sticking for W.

  7. ComTrustO: Composite Trust-Based Ontology Framework for Information and Decision Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-06

    ComTrustO: Composite Trust-based Ontology Framework for Information and Decision Fusion Alessandro Oltramari Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh... ontology -based framework for information fusion, as a support system for human decision makers. In particular, we build upon the concept of composite...multidimensional trust, we construct a composite trust ontology framework, called ComTrustO, that embraces four trust ontologies , one for each trust type. We

  8. The Architecture of Information Fusion System Ingreenhouse Wireless Sensor Network Based on Multi-Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenting; Chen, Ming

    In view of current unprogressive situation of factory breeding in aquaculture, this article designed a standardized, informationized and intelligentized aquaculture system, proposed a information fusion architecture based on multi-agent in greenhouse wireless sensor network (GWSN), and researched mainly the structural characteristic of the four-classed information fusion based on distributed multi-agent and the method to construct the structure inside of every agent.

  9. Projection-Based linear constrained estimation and fusion over long-haul links

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S

    2016-01-01

    We study estimation and fusion with linear dynamics in long-haul sensor networks, wherein a number of sensors are remotely deployed over a large geographical area for performing tasks such as target tracking, and a remote fusion center serves to combine the information provided by these sensors in order to improve the overall tracking accuracy. In reality, the motion of a dynamic target might be subject to certain constraints, for instance, those defined by a road network. We explore the accuracy performance of projection-based constrained estimation and fusion methods that is affected by information loss over the long-haul links. We use an example to compare the tracking errors under various implementations of centralized and distributed projection-based estimation and fusion methods and demonstrate the effectiveness of using projection-based methods in these settings.

  10. Infrared and multi-type images fusion algorithm based on contrast pyramid transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua; Wang, Yan; Wu, Yujing; Qian, Yunsheng

    2016-09-01

    A fusion algorithm for infrared and multi-type images based on contrast pyramid transform (CPT) combined with Otsu method and morphology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, two sharpened images are combined to the first fused image based on information entropy weighted scheme. Afterwards, two enhanced images and the first fused one are decomposed into a series of images with different dimensions and spatial frequencies. To the low-frequency layer, the Otsu method is applied to calculate the optimal segmentation threshold of the first fused image, which is subsequently used to determine the pixel values in top layer fused image. With respect to the high-frequency layers, the top-bottom hats morphological transform is employed to each layer before maximum selection criterion. Finally, the series of decomposed images are reconstructed and then superposed with the enhanced image processed by morphological gradient operation as a second fusion to get the final fusion image. Infrared and visible images fusion, infrared and low-light-level (LLL) images fusion, infrared intensity and infrared polarization images fusion, and multi-focus images fusion are discussed in this paper. Both experimental results and objective metrics demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm over the conventional ones used to compare.

  11. Generating multi-atom entangled W states via light-matter interface based fusion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xue-Ping; Yang, Ming; Ozaydin, Fatih; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2015-11-09

    W state is a key resource in quantum communication. Fusion technology has been proven to be a good candidate for preparing a large-size W state from two or more small-size W states in linear optical system. It is of great importance to study how to fuse W states via light-matter interface. Here we show that it is possible to prepare large-size W-state networks using a fusion mechanism in cavity QED system. The detuned interaction between three atoms and a vacuum cavity mode constitute the main fusion mechanism, based on which two or three small-size atomic W states can be fused into a larger-size W state. If no excitation is detected from those three atoms, the remaining atoms are still in the product of two or three new W states, which can be re-fused. The complicated Fredkin gate used in the previous fusion schemes is avoided here. W states of size 2 can be fused as well. The feasibility analysis shows that our fusion processes maybe implementable with the current technology. Our results demonstrate how the light-matter interaction based fusion mechanism can be realized, and may become the starting point for the fusion of multipartite entanglement in cavity QED system.

  12. Inference of gene function based on gene fusion events: the rosetta-stone method.

    PubMed

    Suhre, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    The method described in this chapter can be used to infer putative functional links between two proteins. The basic idea is based on the principle of "guilt by association." It is assumed that two proteins, which are found to be transcribed by a single transcript in one (or several) genomes are likely to be functionally linked, for example by acting in a same metabolic pathway or by forming a multiprotein complex. This method is of particular interest for studying genes that exhibit no, or only remote, homologies with already well-characterized proteins. Combined with other non-homology based methods, gene fusion events may yield valuable information for hypothesis building on protein function, and may guide experimental characterization of the target protein, for example by suggesting potential ligands or binding partners. This chapter uses the FusionDB database (http://www.igs.cnrs-mrs.fr/FusionDB/) as source of information. FusionDB provides a characterization of a large number of gene fusion events at hand of multiple sequence alignments. Orthologous genes are included to yield a comprehensive view of the structure of a gene fusion event. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is provided to evaluate the history of a gene fusion event, and three-dimensional protein structure information is used, where available, to further characterize the nature of the gene fusion. For genes that are not comprised in FusionDB, some instructions are given as how to generate a similar type of information, based solely on publicly available web tools that are listed here.

  13. Age Estimation Based on Children's Voice: A Fuzzy-Based Decision Fusion Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Hua-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Automatic estimation of a speaker's age is a challenging research topic in the area of speech analysis. In this paper, a novel approach to estimate a speaker's age is presented. The method features a “divide and conquer” strategy wherein the speech data are divided into six groups based on the vowel classes. There are two reasons behind this strategy. First, reduction in the complicated distribution of the processing data improves the classifier's learning performance. Second, different vowel classes contain complementary information for age estimation. Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients are computed for each group and single layer feed-forward neural networks based on self-adaptive extreme learning machine are applied to the features to make a primary decision. Subsequently, fuzzy data fusion is employed to provide an overall decision by aggregating the classifier's outputs. The results are then compared with a number of state-of-the-art age estimation methods. Experiments conducted based on six age groups including children aged between 7 and 12 years revealed that fuzzy fusion of the classifier's outputs resulted in considerable improvement of up to 53.33% in age estimation accuracy. Moreover, the fuzzy fusion of decisions aggregated the complementary information of a speaker's age from various speech sources. PMID:25006595

  14. Optimal query-based relevance feedback in medical image retrieval using score fusion-based classification.

    PubMed

    Behnam, Mohammad; Pourghassem, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) framework using an effective classification method and a novel relevance feedback (RF) approach are proposed. For a large-scale database with diverse collection of different modalities, query image classification is inevitable due to firstly, reducing the computational complexity and secondly, increasing influence of data fusion by removing unimportant data and focus on the more valuable information. Hence, we find probability distribution of classes in the database using Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for each feature descriptor and then using the fusion of obtained scores from the dependency probabilities, the most relevant clusters are identified for a given query. Afterwards, visual similarity of query image and images in relevant clusters are calculated. This method is performed separately on all feature descriptors, and then the results are fused together using feature similarity ranking level fusion algorithm. In the RF level, we propose a new approach to find the optimal queries based on relevant images. The main idea is based on density function estimation of positive images and strategy of moving toward the aggregation of estimated density function. The proposed framework has been evaluated on ImageCLEF 2005 database consisting of 10,000 medical X-ray images of 57 semantic classes. The experimental results show that compared with the existing CBMIR systems, our framework obtains the acceptable performance both in the image classification and in the image retrieval by RF.

  15. Measurement of membrane fusion activity from viral membrane fusion proteins based on a fusion-dependent promoter induction system in insect cells

    PubMed Central

    Slack, J. M.; Blissard, G. W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A number of viral membrane fusion proteins can be expressed alone on the surface of host cells, then triggered to induce cell-to-cell fusion or syncytium formation. Although rapid and easily observed, syncytium formation is not easily quantified and differences in fusion activity are not easily distinguished or measured. To address this problem, we developed a rapid and quantitative cell-to-cell fusion system that is useful for comparative analysis and may be suitable for high throughput screening. In this system, expression of a reporter protein, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), is dependent on cell-to-cell fusion. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells expressing a chimeric Lac Repressor-IE1 protein were fused to Sf9 cells containing an EGFP reporter construct under the control of a responsive lac operator containing promoter. Membrane fusion efficiency was measured from the resulting EGFP fluorescence activity. Sf9 cells expressing the Orgyia pseudotsugata Multicapsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV) GP64 envelope fusion protein were used as a model to test this fusion assay. Subtle changes in fusion activities of GP64 proteins containing single amino acid substitutions in a putative membrane fusion domain were distinguished, and decreases in EGFP fluorescence corresponded to decreases in the hydrophobicity in the small putative membrane fusion domain. PMID:11562545

  16. Feature and Score Fusion Based Multiple Classifier Selection for Iris Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Rabiul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a new feature and score fusion based iris recognition approach where voting method on Multiple Classifier Selection technique has been applied. Four Discrete Hidden Markov Model classifiers output, that is, left iris based unimodal system, right iris based unimodal system, left-right iris feature fusion based multimodal system, and left-right iris likelihood ratio score fusion based multimodal system, is combined using voting method to achieve the final recognition result. CASIA-IrisV4 database has been used to measure the performance of the proposed system with various dimensions. Experimental results show the versatility of the proposed system of four different classifiers with various dimensions. Finally, recognition accuracy of the proposed system has been compared with existing N hamming distance score fusion approach proposed by Ma et al., log-likelihood ratio score fusion approach proposed by Schmid et al., and single level feature fusion approach proposed by Hollingsworth et al. PMID:25114676

  17. Application of Multi-Sensor Information Fusion Method Based on Rough Sets and Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jinxue; Wang, Guohu; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Cui, Fengkui

    In order to improve the precision and date processing speed of multi-sensor information fusion, a kind of multi-sensor data fusion process algorithm has been studied in this paper. First, based on rough set theory (RS) to attribute reduction the parameter set, we use the advantages of rough set theory in dealing with large amount of data to eliminate redundant information. Then, the data can be trained and classified by Support Vector Machine (SYM). Experimental results showed that this method can improve the speed and accuracy of multi-sensor fusion system.

  18. Aerosol Resuspension Model for MELCOR for Fusion and Very High Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    B.J. Merrill

    2011-01-01

    Dust is generated in fusion reactors from plasma erosion of plasma facing components within the reactor’s vacuum vessel (VV) during reactor operation. This dust collects in cooler regions on interior surfaces of the VV. Because this dust can be radioactive, toxic, and/or chemically reactive, it poses a safety concern, especially if mobilized by the process of resuspension during an accident and then transported as an aerosol though out the reactor confinement building, and possibly released to the environment. A computer code used at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to model aerosol transport for safety consequence analysis is the MELCOR code. A primary reason for selecting MELCOR for this application is its aerosol transport capabilities. The INL Fusion Safety Program (FSP) organization has made fusion specific modifications to MELCOR. Recent modifications include the implementation of aerosol resuspension models in MELCOR 1.8.5 for Fusion. This paper presents the resuspension models adopted and the initial benchmarking of these models.

  19. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Schissel, David P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J. R.; Feibush, E.; Fredian, T. W.; Goode, M. M.; Greenwald, M. J.; Keahey, K.; Leggett, T.; Li, K.; McCune, D. C.; Papka, M. E.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Thompson, M. R.; Uram, T.; Wallace, G.

    2012-12-20

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES Grid (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  20. Multispectral image fusion based on diffusion morphology for enhanced vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.; Vygolov, Oleg V.; Vizilter, Yury V.; Zheltov, Sergey Y.; Vishnyakov, Boris V.

    2016-05-01

    Existing image fusion methods based on morphological image analysis, that expresses the geometrical idea of image shape as a label image, are quite sensitive to the quality of image segmentation and, therefore, not sufficiently robust to noise and high frequency distortions. On the other hand, there are a number of methods in the field of dimensionality reduction and data comparison that give possibility of avoiding an image segmentation step by using diffusion maps techniques. The paper proposes a new approach for multispectral image fusion based on the combination of morphological image analysis and diffusion maps theory (i.e. Diffusion Morphology). A new image fusion algorithm is described that uses a matched diffusion filtering procedure instead of morphological projection. The algorithm is implemented for a three channels Enhanced Vision System prototype. The comparative results of image fusion are shown on real images acquired in flight experiments.

  1. Projection-Based Linear Constrained Estimation and Fusion over Long-Haul Links

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study estimation and fusion with linear dynamics in long-haul sensor networks, wherein a number of sensors are remotely deployed over a large geographical area for performing tasks such as target tracking, and a remote fusion center serves to combine the information provided by these sensors in order to improve the overall tracking accuracy. In reality, the motion of a dynamic target might be subject to certain constraints, for instance, those defined by a road network. We explore the accuracy performance of projection-based constrained estimation and fusion methods that is affected by information loss over the long-haul links. We use a tracking example to compare the tracking errors under various implementations of centralized and distributed projection-based estimation and fusion methods.

  2. Avalanche proton-boron fusion based on elastic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Eliezer, Shalom; Martinez Val, Josè Maria; Hora, Heinrich; Korn, Georg; Nissim, Noaz

    2016-05-15

    Recent experiments done at Prague with the 600 J/0.2 ns PALS laser interacting with a layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen enriched target have produced around 10{sup 9} alphas. We suggest that these unexpected very high fusion reactions of proton with {sup 11}B indicate an avalanche multiplication for the measured anomalously high nuclear reaction yields. This can be explained by elastic nuclear collisions in the broad 600 keV energy band, which is coincident with the high nuclear p-{sup 11}B fusion cross section, by the way of multiplication through generation of three secondary alpha particles from a single primarily produced alpha particle.

  3. Flexible Fusion Structure-Based Performance Optimization Learning for Multisensor Target Tracking.

    PubMed

    Ge, Quanbo; Wei, Zhongliang; Cheng, Tianfa; Chen, Shaodong; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2017-05-06

    Compared with the fixed fusion structure, the flexible fusion structure with mixed fusion methods has better adjustment performance for the complex air task network systems, and it can effectively help the system to achieve the goal under the given constraints. Because of the time-varying situation of the task network system induced by moving nodes and non-cooperative target, and limitations such as communication bandwidth and measurement distance, it is necessary to dynamically adjust the system fusion structure including sensors and fusion methods in a given adjustment period. Aiming at this, this paper studies the design of a flexible fusion algorithm by using an optimization learning technology. The purpose is to dynamically determine the sensors' numbers and the associated sensors to take part in the centralized and distributed fusion processes, respectively, herein termed sensor subsets selection. Firstly, two system performance indexes are introduced. Especially, the survivability index is presented and defined. Secondly, based on the two indexes and considering other conditions such as communication bandwidth and measurement distance, optimization models for both single target tracking and multi-target tracking are established. Correspondingly, solution steps are given for the two optimization models in detail. Simulation examples are demonstrated to validate the proposed algorithms.

  4. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Landrum, D. B.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an approach in which a magnetized target plasma is compressed inertially by an imploding material wall. A high energy plasma liner may be used to produce the required implosion. The plasma liner is formed by the merging of a number of high momentum plasma jets converging towards the center of a sphere where two compact toroids have been introduced. Preliminary 3-D hydrodynamics modeling results using the SPHINX code of Los Alamos National Laboratory have been very encouraging and confirm earlier theoretical expectations. The concept appears ready for experimental exploration and plans for doing so are being pursued. In this talk, we explore conceptually how this innovative fusion approach could be packaged for space propulsion for interplanetary travel. We discuss the generally generic components of a baseline propulsion concept including the fusion engine, high velocity plasma accelerators, generators of compact toroids using conical theta pinches, magnetic nozzle, neutron absorption blanket, tritium reprocessing system, shock absorber, magnetohydrodynamic generator, capacitor pulsed power system, thermal management system, and micrometeorite shields.

  5. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Landrum, D. B.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an approach in which a magnetized target plasma is compressed inertially by an imploding material wall. A high energy plasma liner may be used to produce the required implosion. The plasma liner is formed by the merging of a number of high momentum plasma jets converging towards the center of a sphere where two compact toroids have been introduced. Preliminary 3-D hydrodynamics modeling results using the SPHINX code of Los Alamos National Laboratory have been very encouraging and confirm earlier theoretical expectations. The concept appears ready for experimental exploration and plans for doing so are being pursued. In this talk, we explore conceptually how this innovative fusion approach could be packaged for space propulsion for interplanetary travel. We discuss the generally generic components of a baseline propulsion concept including the fusion engine, high velocity plasma accelerators, generators of compact toroids using conical theta pinches, magnetic nozzle, neutron absorption blanket, tritium reprocessing system, shock absorber, magnetohydrodynamic generator, capacitor pulsed power system, thermal management system, and micrometeorite shields.

  6. A New Grid based Ionosphere Algorithm for GAGAN using Data Fusion Technique (ISRO GIVE Model-Multi Layer Data Fusion)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Nirmala; Ganeshan, A. S.; Mishra, Saumyaketu

    2012-07-01

    A New Grid based Ionosphere Algorithm for GAGAN using Data Fusion Technique (ISRO GIVE Model-Multi Layer Data Fusion) Saumyaketu Mishra, Nirmala S, A S Ganeshan ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore and Timothy Schempp, Gregory Um, Hans Habereder Raytheon Company Development of a region-specific ionosphere model is the key element in providing precision approach services for civil aviation with GAGAN (GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation). GAGAN is an Indian SBAS (Space Based Augmentation System) comprising of three segments; space segment (GEO and GPS), ground segment (15 Indian reference stations (INRES), 2 master control centers and 3 ground uplink stations) and user segment. The GAGAN system is intended to provide air navigation services for APV 1/1.5 precision approach over the Indian land mass and RNP 0.1 navigation service over Indian Flight Information Region (FIR), conforming to the standards of GNSS ICAO-SARPS. Ionosphere being largest source of error is of prime concern for a SBAS. India is a low latitude country, posing challenges for grid based ionosphere algorithm development; large spatial and temporal gradients, Equatorial anomaly, Depletions (bubbles), Scintillations etc. To meet the required GAGAN performance, it is necessary to develop and implement a best suitable ionosphere model, applicable for the Indian region as thin shell models like planar does not meet the requirement. ISRO GIVE Model - Multi Layer Data Fusion (IGM-MLDF) employs an innovative approach for computing the ionosphere corrections and confidences at pre-defined grid points at 350 Km shell height. Ionosphere variations over the Geo-magnetic equatorial regions shows peak electron density shell height variations from 200 km to 500 km, so single thin shell assumption at 350 km is not valid over Indian region. Hence IGM-MLDF employs innovative scheme of modeling at two shell heights. Through empirical analysis the shell heights of 250 km and 450 km are chosen. The ionosphere measurement

  7. Log-Gabor energy based multimodal medical image fusion in NSCT domain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Tong, Song; Huang, Shuying; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal medical image fusion is a powerful tool in clinical applications such as noninvasive diagnosis, image-guided radiotherapy, and treatment planning. In this paper, a novel nonsubsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT) based method for multimodal medical image fusion is presented, which is approximately shift invariant and can effectively suppress the pseudo-Gibbs phenomena. The source medical images are initially transformed by NSCT followed by fusing low- and high-frequency components. The phase congruency that can provide a contrast and brightness-invariant representation is applied to fuse low-frequency coefficients, whereas the Log-Gabor energy that can efficiently determine the frequency coefficients from the clear and detail parts is employed to fuse the high-frequency coefficients. The proposed fusion method has been compared with the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT), and the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) based image fusion methods and other NSCT-based methods. Visually and quantitatively experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion method can obtain more effective and accurate fusion results of multimodal medical images than other algorithms. Further, the applicability of the proposed method has been testified by carrying out a clinical example on a woman affected with recurrent tumor images.

  8. Log-Gabor Energy Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion in NSCT Domain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Tong, Song; Huang, Shuying; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal medical image fusion is a powerful tool in clinical applications such as noninvasive diagnosis, image-guided radiotherapy, and treatment planning. In this paper, a novel nonsubsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT) based method for multimodal medical image fusion is presented, which is approximately shift invariant and can effectively suppress the pseudo-Gibbs phenomena. The source medical images are initially transformed by NSCT followed by fusing low- and high-frequency components. The phase congruency that can provide a contrast and brightness-invariant representation is applied to fuse low-frequency coefficients, whereas the Log-Gabor energy that can efficiently determine the frequency coefficients from the clear and detail parts is employed to fuse the high-frequency coefficients. The proposed fusion method has been compared with the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT), and the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) based image fusion methods and other NSCT-based methods. Visually and quantitatively experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion method can obtain more effective and accurate fusion results of multimodal medical images than other algorithms. Further, the applicability of the proposed method has been testified by carrying out a clinical example on a woman affected with recurrent tumor images. PMID:25214889

  9. Infrared and visible image fusion scheme based on NSCT and low-level visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huafeng; Qiu, Hongmei; Yu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-05-01

    Multi-scale transform (MST) is an efficient tool for image fusion. Recently, many fusion methods have been developed based on different MSTs, and they have shown potential application in many fields. In this paper, we propose an effective infrared and visible image fusion scheme in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, in which the NSCT is firstly employed to decompose each of the source images into a series of high frequency subbands and one low frequency subband. To improve the fusion performance we designed two new activity measures for fusion of the lowpass subbands and the highpass subbands. These measures are developed based on the fact that the human visual system (HVS) percept the image quality mainly according to its some low-level features. Then, the selection principles of different subbands are presented based on the corresponding activity measures. Finally, the merged subbands are constructed according to the selection principles, and the final fused image is produced by applying the inverse NSCT on these merged subbands. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art fusion methods in terms of both visual effect and objective evaluation results.

  10. Plasma fusion and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hideo, Kozima

    1996-12-31

    Fundamental problems of plasma fusion (controlled thermonuclear fusion) due to the contradicting demands of the magnetic confinement of plasma and suppression of instabilities occurring on and in plasma are surveyed in contrast with problems of cold fusion. Problems in cold fusion due to the complicated constituents and types of force are explained. Typical cold fusion events are explained by a model based on the presence of trapped neutrons in cold fusion materials. The events include Pons-Fleishmann effect, tritium anomaly, helium 4 production, and nuclear transmutation. Fundamental hypothesis of the model is an effectiveness of a new concept--neutron affinity of elements. The neutron affinity is defined and some bases supporting it are explained. Possible justification of the concept by statistical approach is given.

  11. Effective multifocus image fusion based on HVS and BP neural network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Zheng, Wenjuan; Huang, Shuying

    2014-01-01

    The aim of multifocus image fusion is to fuse the images taken from the same scene with different focuses to obtain a resultant image with all objects in focus. In this paper, a novel multifocus image fusion method based on human visual system (HVS) and back propagation (BP) neural network is presented. Three features which reflect the clarity of a pixel are firstly extracted and used to train a BP neural network to determine which pixel is clearer. The clearer pixels are then used to construct the initial fused image. Thirdly, the focused regions are detected by measuring the similarity between the source images and the initial fused image followed by morphological opening and closing operations. Finally, the final fused image is obtained by a fusion rule for those focused regions. Experimental results show that the proposed method can provide better performance and outperform several existing popular fusion methods in terms of both objective and subjective evaluations.

  12. Pixel-level multisensor image fusion based on matrix completion and robust principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuozheng; Deller, J. R.; Fleet, Blair D.

    2016-01-01

    Acquired digital images are often corrupted by a lack of camera focus, faulty illumination, or missing data. An algorithm is presented for fusion of multiple corrupted images of a scene using the lifting wavelet transform. The method employs adaptive fusion arithmetic based on matrix completion and self-adaptive regional variance estimation. Characteristics of the wavelet coefficients are used to adaptively select fusion rules. Robust principal component analysis is applied to low-frequency image components, and regional variance estimation is applied to high-frequency components. Experiments reveal that the method is effective for multifocus, visible-light, and infrared image fusion. Compared with traditional algorithms, the new algorithm not only increases the amount of preserved information and clarity but also improves robustness.

  13. A study on target recognition fusion algorithm based on fuzzy theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Feng; Yang, WanHai

    2008-03-01

    In the process of the multi-sensors target recognition fusion, focused on the problem that it is difficult to determine the reliability of each sensor and how the data measured by different sensors are fused, a multi-sensor target recognition fusion method based on fuzzy theory is proposed. The mutual supportability of multiple sensors is obtained from the correlation function. Then by the membership function, the reliability of information provide by each sensor is gained. Finally, the supposed fusion result of multi-sensors target recognition can be produced on the basis of fuzzy integration function. The method is simple computationally and can objectively reflect the reliability of each sensor and interrelationship between these sensors. By applying the method to the target recognition, the simulation experiment shows that it can identify the target accurately and is an effective and feasible multi-sensors target recognition fusion method.

  14. Image fusion quality assessment based on discrete cosine transform and human visual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jianfang; Li, Jianxun

    2012-09-01

    With the rapid development of image fusion technology, image fusion quality evaluation plays a very important guiding role in selecting or designing image fusion algorithms. Objective image quality assessment is an interesting research subject in the field of image quality assessment. The ideal objective evaluation method is consistent with human perceptual evaluation. A new fusion image quality assessment method according with human vision system and discrete cosine transform (DCT) is introduced. Firstly, using the Sobel operator to calculate to gradient images for the source images and fused image, the gradient images are divided into 8×8 blocks and calculating the DCT coefficients for each block, and then based on the characteristics of human visual system, calculates the luminance masking, contrast masking to form the perceptual error matrix between input images and fused images. Finally, weighs the perceptual error matrix using the structural similarity. Experiments demonstrate that the new assessment maintains better consistency with human subjective perception.

  15. Dictionary learning method for joint sparse representation-based image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiheng; Fu, Yuli; Li, Haifeng; Zou, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Recently, sparse representation (SR) and joint sparse representation (JSR) have attracted a lot of interest in image fusion. The SR models signals by sparse linear combinations of prototype signal atoms that make a dictionary. The JSR indicates that different signals from the various sensors of the same scene form an ensemble. These signals have a common sparse component and each individual signal owns an innovation sparse component. The JSR offers lower computational complexity compared with SR. First, for JSR-based image fusion, we give a new fusion rule. Then, motivated by the method of optimal directions (MOD), for JSR, we propose a novel dictionary learning method (MODJSR) whose dictionary updating procedure is derived by employing the JSR structure one time with singular value decomposition (SVD). MODJSR has lower complexity than the K-SVD algorithm which is often used in previous JSR-based fusion algorithms. To capture the image details more efficiently, we proposed the generalized JSR in which the signals ensemble depends on two dictionaries. MODJSR is extended to MODGJSR in this case. MODJSR/MODGJSR can simultaneously carry out dictionary learning, denoising, and fusion of noisy source images. Some experiments are given to demonstrate the validity of the MODJSR/MODGJSR for image fusion.

  16. Cognitive foundations for model-based sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.; Weijers, Bertus; Mutz, Chris W.

    2003-08-01

    Target detection, tracking, and sensor fusion are complicated problems, which usually are performed sequentially. First detecting targets, then tracking, then fusing multiple sensors reduces computations. This procedure however is inapplicable to difficult targets which cannot be reliably detected using individual sensors, on individual scans or frames. In such more complicated cases one has to perform functions of fusing, tracking, and detecting concurrently. This often has led to prohibitive combinatorial complexity and, as a consequence, to sub-optimal performance as compared to the information-theoretic content of all the available data. It is well appreciated that in this task the human mind is by far superior qualitatively to existing mathematical methods of sensor fusion, however, the human mind is limited in the amount of information and speed of computation it can cope with. Therefore, research efforts have been devoted toward incorporating "biological lessons" into smart algorithms, yet success has been limited. Why is this so, and how to overcome existing limitations? The fundamental reasons for current limitations are analyzed and a potentially breakthrough research and development effort is outlined. We utilize the way our mind combines emotions and concepts in the thinking process and present the mathematical approach to accomplishing this in the current technology computers. The presentation will summarize the difficulties encountered by intelligent systems over the last 50 years related to combinatorial complexity, analyze the fundamental limitations of existing algorithms and neural networks, and relate it to the type of logic underlying the computational structure: formal, multivalued, and fuzzy logic. A new concept of dynamic logic will be introduced along with algorithms capable of pulling together all the available information from multiple sources. This new mathematical technique, like our brain, combines conceptual understanding with

  17. Inertial-fusion research based on pulsed power

    SciTech Connect

    Yonas, G.

    1982-01-01

    PBFA-II, with design parameters of 3.5 MJ and 100 TW, is being configured to allow us to investigate either imploding foils or ion beams as inertial fusion drivers. The same accelerator can drive a foil with a magnetically insulated electromagnetic flow > 10/sup 12/ W/cm/sup 2/ at 10 MV/cm and also power an ion diode at a source intensity of 10/sup 10/ W/cm/sup 2/ and an accelerating potential approx. 10 MV. Our goal is to obtain 100 TW/cm/sup 2/ and 1 MJ on target for ignition studies.

  18. Android Based Behavioral Biometric Authentication via Multi-Modal Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    feature fusion to determine if it is more effective than the results from the individual modalities. Comparison results from both tasks (user...5 20.83% 50.00% 52.08% 20.83% Initially, Authentication testing with the smaller window size had negative effects on all FAR and FRR values. However...the FRR to 32.67% and therefore causes too much of an adverse effect on usability to be viable. This negative effect on the FRR is most likely due 36

  19. Bandelet-based image fusion: a comparative study for multi-focus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giansiracusa, Michael; Lutz, Adam; Messer, Neal; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark

    2016-05-01

    There is a strong initiative to maximize visual information in a single image for viewing by fusing the salient data from multiple images. Many multi-focus imaging systems exist that would be able to provide better image data if these images are fused together. A fused image would allow an analyst to make decisions based on a single image rather than crossreferencing multiple images. The bandelet transform has proven to be an effective multi-resolution transform for both denoising and image fusion through its ability to calculate geometric flow in localized regions and decompose the image based on an orthogonal basis in the direction of the flow. Many studies have been done to develop and validate algorithms for wavelet image fusion but the bandelet has not been well investigated. This study seeks to investigate the use of the bandelet coefficients versus wavelet coefficients in modified versions of image fusion algorithms. There are many different methods for fusing these coefficients together for multi-focus and multi-modal images such as the simple average, absolute min and max, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a weighted average. This paper compares the image fusion methods with a variety of no reference image fusion metrics including information theory based, image feature based and structural similarity based assessments.

  20. Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Jafari, S. Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Mehdian, H.

    2014-10-15

    Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

  1. Interactive virtual endoscopy in coronary arteries based on multimodality fusion.

    PubMed

    Wahle, Andreas; Olszewski, Mark E; Sonka, Milan

    2004-11-01

    A novel approach for platform-independent virtual endoscopy in human coronary arteries is presented in this paper. It incorporates previously developed and validated methodology for multimodality fusion of two X-ray angiographic images with pullback data from intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). These modalities pose inherently different challenges than those present in many tomographic modalities that provide parallel slices. The fusion process results in a three- or four-dimensional (3-D/4-D) model of a coronary artery, specifically of its lumen/plaque and media/adventitia surfaces. The model is used for comprehensive quantitative hemodynamic, morphologic, and functional analyses. The resulting quantitative indexes are then used to supplement the model. Platform-independent visualization is achieved through the use of the ISO/IEC-standardized Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The visualization includes an endoscopic fly-through animation that enables the user to interactively select vessel location and fly-through speed, as well as to display image pixel data or quantification results in 3-D. The presented VRML virtual-endoscopy system is used in research studies of coronary atherosclerosis development, quantitative assessment of coronary morphology and function, and vascular interventions.

  2. Nuclei-Based Features for Uterine Cervical Cancer Histology Image Analysis With Fusion-Based Classification.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Banerjee, Koyel; Joe Stanley, R; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George; Zuna, Rosemary; Frazier, Shelliane R; Moss, Randy H; Stoecker, William V

    2016-11-01

    Cervical cancer, which has been affecting women worldwide as the second most common cancer, can be cured if detected early and treated well. Routinely, expert pathologists visually examine histology slides for cervix tissue abnormality assessment. In previous research, we investigated an automated, localized, fusion-based approach for classifying squamous epithelium into Normal, CIN1, CIN2, and CIN3 grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) based on image analysis of 61 digitized histology images. This paper introduces novel acellular and atypical cell concentration features computed from vertical segment partitions of the epithelium region within digitized histology images to quantize the relative increase in nuclei numbers as the CIN grade increases. Based on the CIN grade assessments from two expert pathologists, image-based epithelium classification is investigated with voting fusion of vertical segments using support vector machine and linear discriminant analysis approaches. Leave-one-out is used for the training and testing for CIN classification, achieving an exact grade labeling accuracy as high as 88.5%.

  3. Multi-Scale Pixel-Based Image Fusion Using Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Naveed ur; Ehsan, Shoaib; Abdullah, Syed Muhammad Umer; Akhtar, Muhammad Jehanzaib; Mandic, Danilo P.; McDonald-Maier, Klaus D.

    2015-01-01

    A novel scheme to perform the fusion of multiple images using the multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) algorithm is proposed. Standard multi-scale fusion techniques make a priori assumptions regarding input data, whereas standard univariate empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-based fusion techniques suffer from inherent mode mixing and mode misalignment issues, characterized respectively by either a single intrinsic mode function (IMF) containing multiple scales or the same indexed IMFs corresponding to multiple input images carrying different frequency information. We show that MEMD overcomes these problems by being fully data adaptive and by aligning common frequency scales from multiple channels, thus enabling their comparison at a pixel level and subsequent fusion at multiple data scales. We then demonstrate the potential of the proposed scheme on a large dataset of real-world multi-exposure and multi-focus images and compare the results against those obtained from standard fusion algorithms, including the principal component analysis (PCA), discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and non-subsampled contourlet transform (NCT). A variety of image fusion quality measures are employed for the objective evaluation of the proposed method. We also report the results of a hypothesis testing approach on our large image dataset to identify statistically-significant performance differences. PMID:26007714

  4. Fusion of infrared and visible images based on BEMD and NSDFB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Pan; Huang, Zhanhua; Lei, Hai

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new fusion method based on the adaptive multi-scale decomposition of bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) and the flexible directional expansion of nonsubsampled directional filter banks (NSDFB) for visible-infrared images. Compared with conventional multi-scale fusion methods, BEMD is non-parametric and completely data-driven, which is relatively more suitable for non-linear signals decomposition and fusion. NSDFB can provide direction filtering on the decomposition levels to capture more geometrical structure of the source images effectively. In our fusion framework, the entropies of the two patterns of source images are firstly calculated and the residue of the image whose entropy is larger is extracted to make it highly relevant with the other source image. Then, the residue and the other source image are decomposed into low-frequency sub-bands and a sequence of high-frequency directional sub-bands in different scales by using BEMD and NSDFB. In this fusion scheme, two relevant fusion rules are used in low-frequency sub-bands and high-frequency directional sub-bands, respectively. Finally, the fused image is obtained by applying corresponding inverse transform. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion algorithm can obtain state-of-the-art performance for visible-infrared images fusion in both aspects of objective assessment and subjective visual quality even for the source images obtained in different conditions. Furthermore, the fused results have high contrast, remarkable target information and rich details information that are more suitable for human visual characteristics or machine perception.

  5. Multimodal biometric authentication based on the fusion of finger vein and finger geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2009-09-01

    We propose a new multimodal biometric recognition based on the fusion of finger vein and finger geometry. This research shows three novelties compared to previous works. First, this is the first approach to combine the finger vein and finger geometry information at the same time. Second, the proposed method includes a new finger geometry recognition based on the sequential deviation values of finger thickness extracted from a single finger. Third, we integrate finger vein and finger geometry by a score-level fusion method based on a support vector machine. Results show that recognition accuracy is significantly enhanced using the proposed method.

  6. MRI/TRUS fusion software-based targeted biopsy: the new standard of care?

    PubMed

    Manfredi, M; Costa Moretti, T B; Emberton, M; Villers, A; Valerio, M

    2015-09-01

    The advent of multiparametric MRI has made it possible to change the way in which prostate biopsy is done, allowing to direct biopsies to suspicious lesions rather than randomly. The subject of this review relates to a computer-assisted strategy, the MRI/US fusion software-based targeted biopsy, and to its performance compared to the other sampling methods. Different devices with different methods to register MR images to live TRUS are currently in use to allow software-based targeted biopsy. Main clinical indications of MRI/US fusion software-based targeted biopsy are re-biopsy in men with persistent suspicious of prostate cancer after first negative standard biopsy and the follow-up of patients under active surveillance. Some studies have compared MRI/US fusion software-based targeted versus standard biopsy. In men at risk with MRI-suspicious lesion, targeted biopsy consistently detects more men with clinically significant disease as compared to standard biopsy; some studies have also shown decreased detection of insignificant disease. Only two studies directly compared MRI/US fusion software-based targeted biopsy with MRI/US fusion visual targeted biopsy, and the diagnostic ability seems to be in favor of the software approach. To date, no study comparing software-based targeted biopsy against in-bore MRI biopsy is available. The new software-based targeted approach seems to have the characteristics to be added in the standard pathway for achieving accurate risk stratification. Once reproducibility and cost-effectiveness will be verified, the actual issue will be to determine whether MRI/TRUS fusion software-based targeted biopsy represents anadd-on test or a replacement to standard TRUS biopsy.

  7. Comment on: Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: A pertinent inequality on barrier penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.D. III Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA )

    1990-10-15

    Gerald Rosen claims to justify the large value apparently observed by Fleischman and Pons and also by Jones {ital et} {ital al}., in their experiments on cold fusion. Rosen derives an inequality for the Coulomb barrier penetration factor. This comment points out a crucial error in his derivation. (AIP)

  8. An adaptive block-based fusion method with LUE-SSIM for multi-focus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianing; Guo, Yongcai; Huang, Yukun

    2016-09-01

    Because of the lenses' limited depth of field, digital cameras are incapable of acquiring an all-in-focus image of objects at varying distances in a scene. Multi-focus image fusion technique can effectively solve this problem. Aiming at the block-based multi-focus image fusion methods, the problem that blocking-artifacts often occurs. An Adaptive block-based fusion method based on lifting undistorted-edge structural similarity (LUE-SSIM) is put forward. In this method, image quality metrics LUE-SSIM is firstly proposed, which utilizes the characteristics of human visual system (HVS) and structural similarity (SSIM) to make the metrics consistent with the human visual perception. Particle swarm optimization(PSO) algorithm which selects LUE-SSIM as the object function is used for optimizing the block size to construct the fused image. Experimental results on LIVE image database shows that LUE-SSIM outperform SSIM on Gaussian defocus blur images quality assessment. Besides, multi-focus image fusion experiment is carried out to verify our proposed image fusion method in terms of visual and quantitative evaluation. The results show that the proposed method performs better than some other block-based methods, especially in reducing the blocking-artifact of the fused image. And our method can effectively preserve the undistorted-edge details in focus region of the source images.

  9. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-09-04

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  10. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    PubMed Central

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided. PMID:24008284

  11. The addition of a sagittal image fusion improves the prostate cancer detection in a sensor-based MRI /ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy.

    PubMed

    Günzel, Karsten; Cash, Hannes; Buckendahl, John; Königbauer, Maximilian; Asbach, Patrick; Haas, Matthias; Neymeyer, Jörg; Hinz, Stefan; Miller, Kurt; Kempkensteffen, Carsten

    2017-01-13

    To explore the diagnostic benefit of an additional image fusion of the sagittal plane in addition to the standard axial image fusion, using a sensor-based MRI/US fusion platform. During July 2013 and September 2015, 251 patients with at least one suspicious lesion on mpMRI (rated by PI-RADS) were included into the analysis. All patients underwent MRI/US targeted biopsy (TB) in combination with a 10 core systematic prostate biopsy (SB). All biopsies were performed on a sensor-based fusion system. Group A included 162 men who received TB by an axial MRI/US image fusion. Group B comprised 89 men in whom the TB was performed with an additional sagittal image fusion. The median age in group A was 67 years (IQR 61-72) and in group B 68 years (IQR 60-71). The median PSA level in group A was 8.10 ng/ml (IQR 6.05-14) and in group B 8.59 ng/ml (IQR 5.65-12.32). In group A the proportion of patients with a suspicious digital rectal examination (DRE) (14 vs. 29%, p = 0.007) and the proportion of primary biopsies (33 vs 46%, p = 0.046) were significantly lower. The rate of PI-RADS 3 lesions were overrepresented in group A compared to group B (19 vs. 9%; p = 0.044). Classified according to PI-RADS 3, 4 and 5, the detection rates of TB were 42, 48, 75% in group A and 25, 74, 90% in group B. The rate of PCa with a Gleason score ≥7 missed by TB was 33% (18 cases) in group A and 9% (5 cases) in group B; p-value 0.072. An explorative multivariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that PI-RADS, a suspicious DRE and performing an additional sagittal image fusion were significant predictors for PCa detection in TB. 9 PCa were only detected by TB with sagittal fusion (sTB) and sTB identified 10 additional clinically significant PCa (Gleason ≥7). Performing an additional sagittal image fusion besides the standard axial fusion appears to improve the accuracy of the sensor-based MRI/US fusion platform.

  12. Feature Fusion Based SVM Classifier for Protein Subcellular Localization Prediction.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Julia; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Islam, Md Khaled Ben; Hasan, Md Al Mehedi

    2016-12-18

    For the importance of protein subcellular localization in different branches of life science and drug discovery, researchers have focused their attentions on protein subcellular localization prediction. Effective representation of features from protein sequences plays a most vital role in protein subcellular localization prediction specially in case of machine learning techniques. Single feature representation-like pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC), physiochemical property models (PPM), and amino acid index distribution (AAID) contains insufficient information from protein sequences. To deal with such problems, we have proposed two feature fusion representations, AAIDPAAC and PPMPAAC, to work with Support Vector Machine classifiers, which fused PseAAC with PPM and AAID accordingly. We have evaluated the performance for both single and fused feature representation of a Gram-negative bacterial dataset. We have got at least 3% more actual accuracy by AAIDPAAC and 2% more locative accuracy by PPMPAAC than single feature representation.

  13. Conflict management based on belief function entropy in sensor fusion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor network plays an important role in intelligent navigation. It incorporates a group of sensors to overcome the limitation of single detection system. Dempster-Shafer evidence theory can combine the sensor data of the wireless sensor network by data fusion, which contributes to the improvement of accuracy and reliability of the detection system. However, due to different sources of sensors, there may be conflict among the sensor data under uncertain environment. Thus, this paper proposes a new method combining Deng entropy and evidence distance to address the issue. First, Deng entropy is adopted to measure the uncertain information. Then, evidence distance is applied to measure the conflict degree. The new method can cope with conflict effectually and improve the accuracy and reliability of the detection system. An example is illustrated to show the efficiency of the new method and the result is compared with that of the existing methods.

  14. A millimeter wave image fusion algorithm design and optimization based on CDF97 wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian-cheng; Chen, Bo-yang; Xia, A.-lin; Liu, Xin-guang

    2011-08-01

    Millimeter wave imaging technology provides a new detection method for security, fast and safe. But the wave of the images is its own shortcomings, such as noise and low sensitivity. Systems used for security, since only the corresponding specific objects to retain the information, and other information missing, so the actual image is difficult to locate in the millimeter wave . Image fusion approach can be used to effectively solve this problem. People usually use visible and millimeter-wave image fusion. The use of visible image contains the visual information. The fused image can be more convenient site for the detection of concealed weapons and to provide accurate positioning. The integration of information from different detectors, and there are different between the two levels of signal to noise ratio and pixel resolution, so traditional pixel-level fusion methods often cannot satisfy the fusion. Many experts and scholars apply wavelet transform approach to deal with some remote sensing image fusion, and the performance has been greatly improved. Due to these wavelet transform algorithm with complexity and large amount of computation, many algorithms are still in research stage. In order to improve the fusion performance and gain the real-time image fusion, an Integer Wavelet Transform CDF97 based with regional energy enhancement fusion algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, this paper studies of choice of wavelet operator. The paper invites several characteristics to evaluate the performance of wavelet operator used in image fusion. Results show that CDF97 wavelet fusion performance is better than traditional wavelet wavelets such as db wavelet, the vanishing moment longer the better. CDF97 wavelet has good energy concentration characteristic. The low frequency region of the transformed image contains almost the whole image energy. The target in millimeter wave image often has the low-pass characteristics and with a higher energy compare to the ambient

  15. Spiking Cortical Model Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Combining Entropy Information with Weber Local Descriptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuming; Ren, Jinxia; Huang, Zhiwen; Zhu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal medical image fusion (MIF) plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Existing MIF methods tend to introduce artifacts, lead to loss of image details or produce low-contrast fused images. To address these problems, a novel spiking cortical model (SCM) based MIF method has been proposed in this paper. The proposed method can generate high-quality fused images using the weighting fusion strategy based on the firing times of the SCM. In the weighting fusion scheme, the weight is determined by combining the entropy information of pulse outputs of the SCM with the Weber local descriptor operating on the firing mapping images produced from the pulse outputs. The extensive experiments on multimodal medical images show that compared with the numerous state-of-the-art MIF methods, the proposed method can preserve image details very well and avoid the introduction of artifacts effectively, and thus it significantly improves the quality of fused images in terms of human vision and objective evaluation criteria such as mutual information, edge preservation index, structural similarity based metric, fusion quality index, fusion similarity metric and standard deviation. PMID:27649190

  16. Spiking Cortical Model Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Combining Entropy Information with Weber Local Descriptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Ren, Jinxia; Huang, Zhiwen; Zhu, Fei

    2016-09-15

    Multimodal medical image fusion (MIF) plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Existing MIF methods tend to introduce artifacts, lead to loss of image details or produce low-contrast fused images. To address these problems, a novel spiking cortical model (SCM) based MIF method has been proposed in this paper. The proposed method can generate high-quality fused images using the weighting fusion strategy based on the firing times of the SCM. In the weighting fusion scheme, the weight is determined by combining the entropy information of pulse outputs of the SCM with the Weber local descriptor operating on the firing mapping images produced from the pulse outputs. The extensive experiments on multimodal medical images show that compared with the numerous state-of-the-art MIF methods, the proposed method can preserve image details very well and avoid the introduction of artifacts effectively, and thus it significantly improves the quality of fused images in terms of human vision and objective evaluation criteria such as mutual information, edge preservation index, structural similarity based metric, fusion quality index, fusion similarity metric and standard deviation.

  17. Suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction because of the deceleration of alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Shmatov, M. L.

    2016-09-15

    It is shown that a rapid deceleration of alpha particles in matter of electron temperature up to 100 keV leads a strong suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction with the reproduction of fast protons in the α+{sup 11}B and n+{sup 10}B reactions. The statement that the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction with an acceleration of {sup 11}B nuclei because of elastic alpha-particle scattering manifests itself in experiments at the PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System) facility is analyzed.

  18. Intelligent query by humming system based on score level fusion of multiple classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo Nam, Gi; Thu Trang Luong, Thi; Ha Nam, Hyun; Ryoung Park, Kang; Park, Sung-Joo

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the necessity for content-based music retrieval that can return results even if a user does not know information such as the title or singer has increased. Query-by-humming (QBH) systems have been introduced to address this need, as they allow the user to simply hum snatches of the tune to find the right song. Even though there have been many studies on QBH, few have combined multiple classifiers based on various fusion methods. Here we propose a new QBH system based on the score level fusion of multiple classifiers. This research is novel in the following three respects: three local classifiers [quantized binary (QB) code-based linear scaling (LS), pitch-based dynamic time warping (DTW), and LS] are employed; local maximum and minimum point-based LS and pitch distribution feature-based LS are used as global classifiers; and the combination of local and global classifiers based on the score level fusion by the PRODUCT rule is used to achieve enhanced matching accuracy. Experimental results with the 2006 MIREX QBSH and 2009 MIR-QBSH corpus databases show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of single classifier and other fusion methods.

  19. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  20. Multifocus microscope color image fusion based on Daub(2) and Daub(4) kernels of the Daubechies wavelet family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Vivanco, Alfonso; Tellez-Arriaga, Irwing; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Santiago-Tepantlan, C.

    2009-08-01

    We present in this work a multifocus image fusion based on the Daubechies wavelet transform applied to multi-focus microscopy color images acquired by the bright-field reflection microscopy technique. The fusion scheme is based on the Daub(2) and Daub(4) kernels of the Daubechies family. The fusion scheme is implemented in each RGB channel. Experimental results are presented using metallic samples.

  1. The Development of SiC MOSFET-based Switching Power Amplifiers for Fusion Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Picard, Julian

    2015-11-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. is developing a switching power amplifier (SPA) based on silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). SiC MOSFETs offer many advantages over IGBTs including lower drive energy requirements, lower conduction and switching losses, and higher switching frequency capabilities. When comparing SiC and traditional silicon-based MOSFETs, SiC MOSFETs provide higher current carrying capability allowing for smaller package weights and sizes and lower operating temperature. EHT has conducted single device testing that directly compares the capabilities of SiC MOSFETs and IGBTs to demonstrate the utility of SiC MOSFETs for fusion science applications. These devices have been built into a SPA that can drive resistive loads and resonant tank loads at 800 V, 4.25 kA at pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 MHz. During the Phase II program, EHT will finalize the design of the SPA. In Year 2, EHT will replace the SPAs used in the HIT-SI lab at the University of Washington to allow for operation over 100 kHz. SPA prototype results will be presented. This work is supported under DOE Grant # DE-SC0011907.

  2. Hybrid Pixel-Based Method for Cardiac Ultrasound Fusion Based on Integration of PCA and DWT

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Puteri Suhaiza; Wirza, Rahmita; Dimon, Mohd Zamrin; Khalid, Fatimah; Moosavi Tayebi, Rohollah

    2015-01-01

    Medical image fusion is the procedure of combining several images from one or multiple imaging modalities. In spite of numerous attempts in direction of automation ventricle segmentation and tracking in echocardiography, due to low quality images with missing anatomical details or speckle noises and restricted field of view, this problem is a challenging task. This paper presents a fusion method which particularly intends to increase the segment-ability of echocardiography features such as endocardial and improving the image contrast. In addition, it tries to expand the field of view, decreasing impact of noise and artifacts and enhancing the signal to noise ratio of the echo images. The proposed algorithm weights the image information regarding an integration feature between all the overlapping images, by using a combination of principal component analysis and discrete wavelet transform. For evaluation, a comparison has been done between results of some well-known techniques and the proposed method. Also, different metrics are implemented to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm. It has been concluded that the presented pixel-based method based on the integration of PCA and DWT has the best result for the segment-ability of cardiac ultrasound images and better performance in all metrics. PMID:26089965

  3. A Novel Fusion-Based Ship Detection Method from Pol-SAR Images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenguang; Ji, Yu; Lin, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    A novel fusion-based ship detection method from polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-SAR) images is proposed in this paper. After feature extraction and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection, the detection results of HH channel, diplane scattering by Pauli decomposition and helical factor by Barnes decomposition are fused together. The confirmed targets and potential target pixels can be obtained after the fusion process. Using the difference degree of the target, potential target pixels can be classified. The fusion-based ship detection method works accurately by utilizing three different features comprehensively. The result of applying the technique to measured Airborne Synthetic Radar (AIRSAR) data shows that the novel detection method can achieve better performance in both ship’s detection and ship’s shape preservation compared to the result of K-means clustering method and the Notch Filter method. PMID:26426021

  4. Physics-based and human-derived information fusion for analysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Nagy, James; Scott, Steve; Okoth, Joshua; Hinman, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Recent trends in physics-based and human-derived information fusion (PHIF) have amplified the capabilities of analysts; however with the big data opportunities there is a need for open architecture designs, methods of distributed team collaboration, and visualizations. In this paper, we explore recent trends in the information fusion to support user interaction and machine analytics. Challenging scenarios requiring PHIF include combing physics-based video data with human-derived text data for enhanced simultaneous tracking and identification. A driving effort would be to provide analysts with applications, tools, and interfaces that afford effective and affordable solutions for timely decision making. Fusion at scale should be developed to allow analysts to access data, call analytics routines, enter solutions, update models, and store results for distributed decision making.

  5. Reliable clock estimation using linear weighted fusion based on pairwise broadcast synchronization

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xin Zhao, Xiangmo Hui, Fei Ma, Junyan Yang, Lan

    2014-10-06

    Clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied extensively in recent years and many protocols are put forward based on the point of statistical signal processing, which is an effective way to optimize accuracy. However, the accuracy derived from the statistical data can be improved mainly by sufficient packets exchange, which will consume the limited power resources greatly. In this paper, a reliable clock estimation using linear weighted fusion based on pairwise broadcast synchronization is proposed to optimize sync accuracy without expending additional sync packets. As a contribution, a linear weighted fusion scheme for multiple clock deviations is constructed with the collaborative sensing of clock timestamp. And the fusion weight is defined by the covariance of sync errors for different clock deviations. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed approach can achieve better performance in terms of sync overhead and sync accuracy.

  6. Analyzer-based imaging of spinal fusion in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. E.; Beavis, R. C.; Fiorella, David; Schültke, E.; Allen, L. A.; Juurlink, B. H.; Zhong, Z.; Chapman, L. D.

    2008-05-01

    Analyzer-based imaging (ABI) utilizes synchrotron radiation sources to create collimated monochromatic x-rays. In addition to x-ray absorption, this technique uses refraction and scatter rejection to create images. ABI provides dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging techniques. Twenty-one adult male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups to undergo the following interventions: (1) non-injured control, (2) decortication alone, (3) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and (4) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and interspinous wiring. Surgical procedures were performed at the L5-6 level. Animals were killed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the intervention and the spine muscle blocks were excised. Specimens were assessed for the presence of fusion by (1) manual testing, (2) conventional absorption radiography and (3) ABI. ABI showed no evidence of bone fusion in groups 1 and 2 and showed solid or possibly solid fusion in subjects from groups 3 and 4 at 6 weeks. Metal artifacts were not present in any of the ABI images. Conventional absorption radiographs did not provide diagnostic quality imaging of either the graft material or fusion masses in any of the specimens in any of the groups. Synchrotron-based ABI represents a novel imaging technique which can be used to assess spinal fusion in a small animal model. ABI produces superior image quality when compared to conventional radiographs.

  7. Kernel-Based Sensor Fusion With Application to Audio-Visual Voice Activity Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dov, David; Talmon, Ronen; Cohen, Israel

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of multiple view data fusion in the presence of noise and interferences. Recent studies have approached this problem using kernel methods, by relying particularly on a product of kernels constructed separately for each view. From a graph theory point of view, we analyze this fusion approach in a discrete setting. More specifically, based on a statistical model for the connectivity between data points, we propose an algorithm for the selection of the kernel bandwidth, a parameter, which, as we show, has important implications on the robustness of this fusion approach to interferences. Then, we consider the fusion of audio-visual speech signals measured by a single microphone and by a video camera pointed to the face of the speaker. Specifically, we address the task of voice activity detection, i.e., the detection of speech and non-speech segments, in the presence of structured interferences such as keyboard taps and office noise. We propose an algorithm for voice activity detection based on the audio-visual signal. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms competing fusion and voice activity detection approaches. In addition, we demonstrate that a proper selection of the kernel bandwidth indeed leads to improved performance.

  8. Fusion of a FBG-based health monitoring system for wind turbines with a fiber-optic lightning detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Sebastian G. M.; Wiesent, Benjamin; Müller, Mathias S.; Puente León, Fernando; Méndez Hernández, Yarú

    2008-04-01

    Wind turbine blades are made of composite materials and reach a length of more than 42 meters. Developments for modern offshore turbines are working on about 60 meters long blades. Hence, with the increasing height of the turbines and the remote locations of the structures, health monitoring systems are becoming more and more important. Therefore, fiber-optic sensor systems are well-suited, as they are lightweight, immune against electromagnetic interference (EMI), and as they can be multiplexed. Based on two separately existing concepts for strain measurements and lightning detection on wind turbines, a fused system is presented. The strain measurement system is based on a reflective fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) network embedded in the composite structure of the blade. For lightning detection, transmissive &fiber-optic magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect are used to register the lightning parameters and estimate the impact point. Hence, an existing lightning detection system will be augmented, due to the fusion, by the capability to measure strain, temperature and vibration. Load, strain, temperature and impact detection information can be incorporated into the turbine's monitoring or SCADA system and remote controlled by operators. Data analysis techniques allow dynamic maintenance scheduling to become a reality, what is of special interest for the cost-effective maintenance of large offshore or badly attainable onshore wind parks. To prove the feasibility of this sensor fusion on one optical fiber, interferences between both sensor systems are investigated and evaluated.

  9. Graph-based Data Modeling and Analysis for Data Fusion in Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lei

    ., fusion of multi-source data can in principal produce more detailed information than each single source. On the other hand, besides the abundant spectral information contained in HSI data, features such as texture and shape may be employed to represent data points from a spatial perspective. Furthermore, feature fusion also includes the strategy of removing redundant and noisy features in the dataset. One of the major problems in machine learning and pattern recognition is to develop appropriate representations for complex nonlinear data. In HSI processing, a particular data point is usually described as a vector with coordinates corresponding to the intensities measured in the spectral bands. This vector representation permits the application of linear and nonlinear transformations with linear algebra to find an alternative representation of the data. More generally, HSI is multi-dimensional in nature and the vector representation may lose the contextual correlations. Tensor representation provides a more sophisticated modeling technique and a higher-order generalization to linear subspace analysis. In graph theory, data points can be generalized as nodes with connectivities measured from the proximity of a local neighborhood. The graph-based framework efficiently characterizes the relationships among the data and allows for convenient mathematical manipulation in many applications, such as data clustering, feature extraction, feature selection and data alignment. In this thesis, graph-based approaches applied in the field of multi-source feature and data fusion in remote sensing area are explored. We will mainly investigate the fusion of spatial, spectral and LiDAR information with linear and multilinear algebra under graph-based framework for data clustering and classification problems.

  10. Discrete Kalman Filter based Sensor Fusion for Robust Accessibility Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghersi, I.; Mariño, M.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    Human-machine interfaces have evolved, benefiting from the growing access to devices with superior, embedded signal-processing capabilities, as well as through new sensors that allow the estimation of movements and gestures, resulting in increasingly intuitive interfaces. In this context, sensor fusion for the estimation of the spatial orientation of body segments allows to achieve more robust solutions, overcoming specific disadvantages derived from the use of isolated sensors, such as the sensitivity of magnetic-field sensors to external influences, when used in uncontrolled environments. In this work, a method for the combination of image-processing data and angular-velocity registers from a 3D MEMS gyroscope, through a Discrete-time Kalman Filter, is proposed and deployed as an alternate user interface for mobile devices, in which an on-screen pointer is controlled with head movements. Results concerning general performance of the method are presented, as well as a comparative analysis, under a dedicated test application, with results from a previous version of this system, in which the relative-orientation information was acquired directly from MEMS sensors (3D magnetometer-accelerometer). These results show an improved response for this new version of the pointer, both in terms of precision and response time, while keeping many of the benefits that were highlighted for its predecessor, giving place to a complementary method for signal acquisition that can be used as an alternative-input device, as well as for accessibility solutions.

  11. Evaluation of data fusion and image segmentation in earth observation based rapid mapping workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witharana, Chandi; Civco, Daniel L.; Meyer, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an exploratory study, which aimed to discover the synergies of data fusion and image segmentation in the context of EO-based rapid mapping workflows. Our approach pillared on the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) focusing on multiscale, internally-displaced persons' (IDP) camp information extraction from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) images. We applied twelve pansharpening algorithms to two subsets of a GeoEye-1 image scene that was taken over a former war-induced ephemeral settlement in Sri Lanka. A multidimensional assessment was employed to benchmark pansharpening algorithms with respect to their spectral and spatial fidelity. The multiresolution segmentation (MRS) algorithm of the eCognition Developer software served as the key algorithm in the segmentation process. The first study site was used for comparing segmentation results produced from the twelve fused products at a series of scale, shape, and compactness settings of the MRS algorithm. The segmentation quality and optimum parameter settings of the MRS algorithm were estimated by using empirical discrepancy measures. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to compare the quality of image object candidates, which were derived from the twelve pansharpened products. A wall-to-wall classification was performed based on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to classify image objects candidates of the fused images. The second site simulated a more realistic crisis information extraction scenario where the domain expertise is crucial in segmentation and classification. We compared segmentation and classification results of the original images (non-fused) and twelve fused images to understand the efficacy of data fusion. We have shown that the GEOBIA has the ability to create meaningful image objects during the segmentation process by compensating the fused image's spectral distortions with the high-frequency information content that has been injected during fusion. Our

  12. Infrared and visible image fusion based on visual saliency map and weighted least square optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinlei; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Bo; Zong, Hua

    2017-05-01

    The goal of infrared (IR) and visible image fusion is to produce a more informative image for human observation or some other computer vision tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-scale fusion method based on visual saliency map (VSM) and weighted least square (WLS) optimization, aiming to overcome some common deficiencies of conventional methods. Firstly, we introduce a multi-scale decomposition (MSD) using the rolling guidance filter (RGF) and Gaussian filter to decompose input images into base and detail layers. Compared with conventional MSDs, this MSD can achieve the unique property of preserving the information of specific scales and reducing halos near edges. Secondly, we argue that the base layers obtained by most MSDs would contain a certain amount of residual low-frequency information, which is important for controlling the contrast and overall visual appearance of the fused image, and the conventional ;averaging; fusion scheme is unable to achieve desired effects. To address this problem, an improved VSM-based technique is proposed to fuse the base layers. Lastly, a novel WLS optimization scheme is proposed to fuse the detail layers. This optimization aims to transfer more visual details and less irrelevant IR details or noise into the fused image. As a result, the fused image details would appear more naturally and be suitable for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can achieve a superior performance compared with other fusion methods in both subjective and objective assessments.

  13. Image fusion based on millimeter-wave for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weiwen; Zhao, Yuejin; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Yalin; Zhang, Jingshui

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a novel multi sensors image fusion technology which is presented for concealed weapon detection (CWD). It is known to all, because of the good transparency of the clothes at millimeter wave band, a millimeter wave radiometer can be used to image and distinguish concealed contraband beneath clothes, for example guns, knives, detonator and so on. As a result, we adopt the passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging technology for airport security. However, in consideration of the wavelength of millimeter wave and the single channel mechanical scanning, the millimeter wave image has law optical resolution, which can't meet the need of practical application. Therefore, visible image (VI), which has higher resolution, is proposed for the image fusion with the millimeter wave image to enhance the readability. Before the image fusion, a novel image pre-processing which specifics to the fusion of millimeter wave imaging and visible image is adopted. And in the process of image fusion, multi resolution analysis (MRA) based on Wavelet Transform (WT) is adopted. In this way, the experiment result shows that this method has advantages in concealed weapon detection and has practical significance.

  14. Research on MR-SVD based visual and infrared image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yajun; Xiao, Junbo; Yang, Jinbao; Chai, Zhi; Wu, Yuanliang

    2016-10-01

    Transform domain based visual and infrared image fusion method is an important research direction. All kinds of natural images could not be expressed effectively by wavelet transform with only one kind of wavelet basis functions due to the high redundancies of its linear and curve singularity expression. Multi-resolution singular value decomposition (MR-SVD) computed the transformation matrix from the original image. With the computed transformation matrix, the original image is decomposed to unrelated "smooth" and the "detail" components. On each layer of the smooth components, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to replace the wavelet filter, realizing the multi-level decomposition. A novel visual and infrared image fusion algorithm is presented because of the better sparsity and adaptability of multi-resolution singular value decomposition (MR-SVD), which could resolve the difficult problem of wavelet function basis selection for different kind of visual and infrared images. The same transformation matrixes computed from original visual or infrared imagery used to decompose the original images with MR-SVD, which could reduce the blurring problem of fusion image got by the average transformation matrixes. Then, cycle spinning is employed to remove the artifacts in the fusion image. experimental results according to both the subjective and objective criteria, including the average, standard deviation and average MI, indicate that the proposed method could get better fusion results compared to methods like wavelet transform.

  15. A Peltier-based variable temperature source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molki, Arman; Roof Baba, Abdul

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we propose a simple and cost-effective variable temperature source based on the Peltier effect using a commercially purchased thermoelectric cooler. The proposed setup can be used to quickly establish relatively accurate dry temperature reference points, which are necessary for many temperature applications such as thermocouple calibration.

  16. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  17. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-07-19

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  18. Autonomous navigation vehicle system based on robot vision and multi-sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lihong; Chen, Yingsong; Cui, Zhouping

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of autonomous navigation vehicle based on robot vision and multi-sensor fusion technology is expatiated in this paper. In order to acquire more intelligence and robustness, accurate real-time collection and processing of information are realized by using this technology. The method to achieve robot vision and multi-sensor fusion is discussed in detail. The results simulated in several operating modes show that this intelligent vehicle has better effects in barrier identification and avoidance and path planning. And this can provide higher reliability during vehicle running.

  19. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Schaich, Charles R.; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Byun, Thak S.

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design and implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.

  20. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    DOE PAGES

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; ...

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design andmore » implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.« less

  1. Feature-level fusion of multiple target detection results in hyperspectral image based on RX detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xu; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Lina; Gao, Lianru; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2012-05-01

    Target detection is an important research content in hyperspectral remote sensing technology, which is widely used in securities and defenses. Nowadays, many target detection algorithm have been proposed. One of the key evaluation indicators of these algorithms performance is false-alarm rate. The feature-level fusion of different target detection results is a simple and effective method to reduce false-alarm rate. But the different value ranges of different algorithms bring difficulties for data fusion. This paper proposed a feature-level fusion method based on RXD detector, which is to integrate multiple target detection results into a multi-bands image, and fuse detection results using principal theory of abnormal detection. Experiments revealed that, this method is not restricted by the quantity of target detection algorithms and not influenced by different value ranges of different algorithms, which can reduce false-alarm rate effectively.

  2. Distributed service-based approach for sensor data fusion in IoT environments.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Valenzuela, Sandra; Holgado-Terriza, Juan A; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, José M; Muros-Cobos, Jesús L

    2014-10-15

    The Internet of Things (IoT) enables the communication among smart objects promoting the pervasive presence around us of a variety of things or objects that are able to interact and cooperate jointly to reach common goals. IoT objects can obtain data from their context, such as the home, office, industry or body. These data can be combined to obtain new and more complex information applying data fusion processes. However, to apply data fusion algorithms in IoT environments, the full system must deal with distributed nodes, decentralized communication and support scalability and nodes dynamicity, among others restrictions. In this paper, a novel method to manage data acquisition and fusion based on a distributed service composition model is presented, improving the data treatment in IoT pervasive environments.

  3. Distributed Service-Based Approach for Sensor Data Fusion in IoT Environments

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Valenzuela, Sandra; Holgado-Terriza, Juan A.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, José M.; Muros-Cobos, Jesús L.

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) enables the communication among smart objects promoting the pervasive presence around us of a variety of things or objects that are able to interact and cooperate jointly to reach common goals. IoT objects can obtain data from their context, such as the home, office, industry or body. These data can be combined to obtain new and more complex information applying data fusion processes. However, to apply data fusion algorithms in IoT environments, the full system must deal with distributed nodes, decentralized communication and support scalability and nodes dynamicity, among others restrictions. In this paper, a novel method to manage data acquisition and fusion based on a distributed service composition model is presented, improving the data treatment in IoT pervasive environments. PMID:25320907

  4. A remote sensing image fusion method based on feedback sparse component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jindong; Yu, Xianchuan; Pei, Wenjing; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Libao

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new remote sensing image (RSI) fusion technique based on sparse blind source separation theory. Our method employs feedback sparse component analysis (FSCA), which can extract the original image in a step-by-step manner and is robust against noise. For RSIs from the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite, FSCA can separate useful surface feature information from redundant information and noise. The FSCA algorithm is therefore used to develop two RSI fusion schemes: one focuses on fusing high-resolution and multi-spectral images, while the other fuses synthetic aperture radar bands. The experimental results show that the proposed method can preserve spectral and spatial details of the source images. For certain evaluation indexes, our method performs better than classical fusion methods.

  5. Design assumptions and bases for small D-T-fueled Sperical Tokamak (ST) fusion core

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Galambos, J.D.; Fogarty, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent progress in defining the assumptions and clarifying the bases for a small D-T-fueled ST fusion core are presented. The paper covers several issues in the physics of ST plasmas, the technology of neutral beam injection, the engineering design configuration, and the center leg material under intense neutron irradiation. This progress was driven by the exciting data from pioneering ST experiments, a heightened interest in proof-of-principle experiments at the MA level in plasma current, and the initiation of the first conceptual design study of the small ST fusion core. The needs recently identified for a restructured fusion energy sciences program have provided a timely impetus for examining the subject of this paper. Our results, though preliminary in nature, strengthen the case for the potential realism and attractiveness of the ST approach.

  6. Study of adaptive LLL/infrared image color fusion algorithm based on the environment illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qing-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Chao

    2016-10-01

    LLL (Low-light-level) / infrared image fusion can integrate both bands information of the target, it is beneficial for target detection and scene perception in the low visibility weather such as night, haze, rain, and snow. The quality of fused image is declined, when any channel image quality drops. There will be great changes in the brightness, contrast and noise on LLL images when environment illumination has obvious changes, but the current color fusion methods is not adapted to the environment illumination change in larger dynamic range. In this paper, LLL image characteristics are analyzed under different environment illumination, and a kind of adaptive color fusion method is proposed based on the RGB color space. The fused image can get better brightness and signal-to-noise ratio under the different intensity of illumination.

  7. Genetic algorithm-based classifiers fusion for multisensor activity recognition of elderly people.

    PubMed

    Chernbumroong, Saisakul; Cang, Shuang; Yu, Hongnian

    2015-01-01

    Activity recognition of an elderly person can be used to provide information and intelligent services to health care professionals, carers, elderly people, and their families so that the elderly people can remain at homes independently. This study investigates the use and contribution of wrist-worn multisensors for activity recognition. We found that accelerometers are the most important sensors and heart rate data can be used to boost classification of activities with diverse heart rates. We propose a genetic algorithm-based fusion weight selection (GAFW) approach which utilizes GA to find fusion weights. For all possible classifier combinations and fusion methods, the study shows that 98% of times GAFW can achieve equal or higher accuracy than the best classifier within the group.

  8. Micro-computed tomography-based three-dimensional kinematic analysis during lateral bending for spinal fusion assessment in a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomonori; Inoue, Nozomu; Sah, Robert L; Lee, Yu-Po; Taborek, Alexander P; Williams, Gregory M; Moseley, Timothy A; Bae, Won C; Masuda, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    Rat posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) models have been used to assess the safety and effectiveness of new bone substitutes and osteoinductive growth factors using palpation, radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology as standard methods to evaluate spinal fusion. Despite increased numbers of PLF studies involving alternative bone substitutes and growth factors, the quantitative assessment of treatment efficacy during spinal motion has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of spinal fusion on lumbar spine segment stability during lateral bending using a μCT-based three-dimensional (3D) kinematic analysis in the rat PLF model. Fourteen athymic male rats underwent PLF surgery at L4/5 and received bone grafts harvested from the ilium and femurs of syngeneic rats (Isograft, n=7) or no graft (Sham, n=7). At 8 weeks after the PLF surgery, spinal fusion was assessed by manual palpation, plain radiography, μCT, and histology. To determine lumbar segmental motions at the operated level during lateral bending, 3D kinematic analysis was performed. The Isograft group, but not the Sham group, showed spinal fusion on manual palpation (6/7), solid fusion mass in radiographs (6/7), as well as bone bridging in μCT and histological images (5/7). Compared to the Sham group, the Isograft group revealed limited 3D lateral bending angular range of motion and lateral translation during lateral bending at the fused segment where disc height narrowing was observed. This μCT-based 3D kinematic analysis can provide a quantitative assessment of spinal fusion in a rat PLF model to complement current gold standard methods used for efficacy assessment of new therapeutic approaches.

  9. The wide area retrievals of temperature in life space from multi-data set fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, D. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Heat wave is one of the phenomena stemmed from abnormal climate caused by climate change. This phenomenon which occurs strongly and frequently worldwide has been threatening the heath-vulnerable classes in the urban and suburb area. To reduce the damage from the heat wave, the current research attempts to perform data assimilation between highresolution images and ground observation data based on middle infra-red satellite imagery. We use an integrated approach involving compilation of both spatial and non-spatial data from government agencies and institutions, application of spatial and temporal analyses using remote sensing data. The near real-time temperature retrievals of selected areas are performed and analyzed using thermal data from COMS, Landsat, and in-situ data. And, the computational complexity and storage were discussed. Seven major land-use categories (Built-up, Road, Agriculture (green house, paddy fields, and dry fields), Field of construction work, Vegetation (forests), Wasteland and Water bodies) frequently are used in Korea. The four land-uses were selected as the most strongly areas affected by heat waves according to the survey of National Emergency Management Agency. In the future, we will estimate the precise wide area temperature of life space and promote the application of the heat/health watch/warning system.

  10. Processing of spent platinum-based catalysts via fusion with potassium hydrogenosulfate.

    PubMed

    Batista, Sebastião Guedes; Afonso, Júlio Carlos

    2010-12-15

    This work describes a route for processing spent platinum-based commercial catalysts (Pt and PtSnIn/Al(2)O(3)) via fusion with potassium hydrogenosulfate (KHSO(4)). Samples were previously ground. The optimized experimental parameters were: temperature, 450°C; time, 3h; sample/flux mass ratio, 1/10. The fused mass was dissolved in water and the elements present were isolated by a multi-step separation procedure. Platinum was recovered as the only water-insoluble residue. About 45 wt% of aluminium was recovered as KAl(SO(4))(2)·12H(2)O (alum), whereas the remaining element was recovered as Al(OH)(3). Tin and indium were recovered together as sulfides at pH 1. About 72 wt% of potassium was recovered as K(2)SO(4) when the final effluent was treated with sulfuric acid (pH 1) and slowly evaporated. Generation of final wastes was greatly reduced. More than 98 wt% of the elements present in the catalysts examined was recovered.

  11. Atomistic simulations of deuterium irradiation on iron-based alloys in future fusion reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Safi, E.; Polvi, J.; Lasa, A.; ...

    2016-10-14

    Iron-based alloys are now being considered as plasma-facing materials for the first wall of future fusion reactors. Therefore, the iron (Fe) and carbon (C) erosion will play a key role in predicting the life-time and viability of reactors with steel walls. In this work, the surface erosion and morphology changes due to deuterium (D) irradiation in pure Fe, Fe with 1% C impurity and the cementite, are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, varying surface temperature and impact energy. The sputtering yields for both Fe and C were found to increase with incoming energy. In iron carbide, C sputtering wasmore » preferential to Fe and the deuterium was mainly trapped as D2 in bubbles, while mostly atomic D was present in Fe and Fe–1%C. The sputtering yields obtained from MD were compared to SDTrimSP yields. At lower impact energies, the sputtering mechanism was of both physical and chemical origin, while at higher energies (>100 eV) the physical sputtering dominated.« less

  12. Atomistic simulations of deuterium irradiation on iron-based alloys in future fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Safi, E.; Polvi, J.; Lasa, A.; Nordlund, K.

    2016-10-14

    Iron-based alloys are now being considered as plasma-facing materials for the first wall of future fusion reactors. Therefore, the iron (Fe) and carbon (C) erosion will play a key role in predicting the life-time and viability of reactors with steel walls. In this work, the surface erosion and morphology changes due to deuterium (D) irradiation in pure Fe, Fe with 1% C impurity and the cementite, are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, varying surface temperature and impact energy. The sputtering yields for both Fe and C were found to increase with incoming energy. In iron carbide, C sputtering was preferential to Fe and the deuterium was mainly trapped as D2 in bubbles, while mostly atomic D was present in Fe and Fe–1%C. The sputtering yields obtained from MD were compared to SDTrimSP yields. At lower impact energies, the sputtering mechanism was of both physical and chemical origin, while at higher energies (>100 eV) the physical sputtering dominated.

  13. Sensor fusion-based security concept on airports with a rotating millimetre wave person scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantscher, Sebastian; Lang, Stefan; Hägelen, Manfred; Essen, Helmut; Tessmann, Axel

    2010-10-01

    This paper gives an overview about a new security concept on airports. Because single systems have not often the desired reliability, the concept is based on the fusion of different sensors. Moreover, first measurements of a 94 GHz person scanner with circular synthetic aperture are presented showing the capability to detect metallic as well as nonmetallic objects without violating the personal privacy.

  14. Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: A pertinent inequality on barrier penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, G. )

    1989-10-01

    For a D{sub 2} molecule with linear vibrational energy {ital E}, it is shown that {lambda}({ital E}) in the WKB {ital d}--{ital d} fusion rate expression {Lambda}({ital E}){congruent}(5.7{times}10{sup 8} s{sup {minus}1})(exp{minus}{lambda}({ital E})) satisfies a useful scaling inequality. It follows from this inequality that {Lambda}({ital E}){approx gt}2.8{times}10{sup {minus}20} s{sup {minus}1} for a lattice-caged D{sub 2} with vibrational energy {ital E}=9.0 eV.

  15. MRI-PET image fusion based on NSCT transform using local energy and local variance fusion rules.

    PubMed

    Amini, Nasrin; Fatemizadeh, E; Behnam, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Image fusion means to integrate information from one image to another image. Medical images according to the nature of the images are divided into structural (such as CT and MRI) and functional (such as SPECT, PET). This article fused MRI and PET images and the purpose is adding structural information from MRI to functional information of PET images. The images decomposed with Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform and then two images were fused with applying fusion rules. The coefficients of the low frequency band are combined by a maximal energy rule and coefficients of the high frequency bands are combined by a maximal variance rule. Finally, visual and quantitative criteria were used to evaluate the fusion result. In visual evaluation the opinion of two radiologists was used and in quantitative evaluation the proposed fusion method was compared with six existing methods and used criteria were entropy, mutual information, discrepancy and overall performance.

  16. Fudge: a high-bandwidth fusion diagnostic of the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    Diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)/Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program must include good characterization of the fusion source. Ideally, diagnostics would measure the spatially-resolved history of the fusion reaction rate and temperature. Existing diagnostics can satisfy this goal only partially. One class of new techniques that could play a major role in high-yield diagnostics is measurements based on fusion {gamma} rays. The Fusion Diagnostic Gamma Experiment (FUDGE) can be used to perform energy-resolved measurements of (D,T) fusion reaction rates This diagnostic is based on the 16 7-MeV {gamma} rays that are produced by (D,T) fusion. The {gamma} rays are free of spectral dispersion and can be detected with a high bandwidth Cherenkov detector. A simple magnetic monochromator selects signals from the 16 7-MeV {gamma} rays and reduces background signals from non-fusion {gamma} rays.

  17. Using an Assumption-Based Truth Maintenance System to Switch Contexts during data Fusion Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    COVERED 1 19911 4. Tr.LE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Using An Assumption-Based Truth Maintenance System to Switch Context during Data Fusion...position over time. The third section on justification- based truth maintenance systems introduces the concept of retraction to correct temporal...inconsistencies which arise in situation databases when objects change spatial position. The fourth section on assumption-based truth maintenance system is

  18. Irradiation effect of the insulating materials for fusion superconducting magnets at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Koji; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    In ITER, superconducting magnets should be used in such severe environment as high fluence of fast neutron, cryogenic temperature and large electromagnetic forces. Insulating material is one of the most sensitive component to radiation. So radiation resistance on mechanical properties at cryogenic temperature are required for insulating material. The purpose of this study is to evaluate irradiation effect of insulating material at cryogenic temperature by gamma-ray irradiation. Firstly, glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) and hybrid composite were prepared. After irradiation at room temperature (RT) or liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT, 77 K), interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and glass-transition temperature (Tg) measurement were conducted. It was shown that insulating materials irradiated at room temperature were much degraded than those at cryogenic temperature.

  19. An adaptive fusion approach for infrared and visible images based on NSCT and compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiong; Maldague, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    A novel nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) based image fusion approach, implementing an adaptive-Gaussian (AG) fuzzy membership method, compressed sensing (CS) technique, total variation (TV) based gradient descent reconstruction algorithm, is proposed for the fusion computation of infrared and visible images. Compared with wavelet, contourlet, or any other multi-resolution analysis method, NSCT has many evident advantages, such as multi-scale, multi-direction, and translation invariance. As is known, a fuzzy set is characterized by its membership function (MF), while the commonly known Gaussian fuzzy membership degree can be introduced to establish an adaptive control of the fusion processing. The compressed sensing technique can sparsely sample the image information in a certain sampling rate, and the sparse signal can be recovered by solving a convex problem employing gradient descent based iterative algorithm(s). In the proposed fusion process, the pre-enhanced infrared image and the visible image are decomposed into low-frequency subbands and high-frequency subbands, respectively, via the NSCT method as a first step. The low-frequency coefficients are fused using the adaptive regional average energy rule; the highest-frequency coefficients are fused using the maximum absolute selection rule; the other high-frequency coefficients are sparsely sampled, fused using the adaptive-Gaussian regional standard deviation rule, and then recovered by employing the total variation based gradient descent recovery algorithm. Experimental results and human visual perception illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed fusion approach. The efficiency and robustness are also analyzed and discussed through different evaluation methods, such as the standard deviation, Shannon entropy, root-mean-square error, mutual information and edge-based similarity index.

  20. A generative probability model of joint label fusion for multi-atlas based brain segmentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Daoqiang; Nie, Feiping; Huang, Heng; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-08-01

    Automated labeling of anatomical structures in medical images is very important in many neuroscience studies. Recently, patch-based labeling has been widely investigated to alleviate the possible mis-alignment when registering atlases to the target image. However, the weights used for label fusion from the registered atlases are generally computed independently and thus lack the capability of preventing the ambiguous atlas patches from contributing to the label fusion. More critically, these weights are often calculated based only on the simple patch similarity, thus not necessarily providing optimal solution for label fusion. To address these limitations, we propose a generative probability model to describe the procedure of label fusion in a multi-atlas scenario, for the goal of labeling each point in the target image by the best representative atlas patches that also have the largest labeling unanimity in labeling the underlying point correctly. Specifically, sparsity constraint is imposed upon label fusion weights, in order to select a small number of atlas patches that best represent the underlying target patch, thus reducing the risks of including the misleading atlas patches. The labeling unanimity among atlas patches is achieved by exploring their dependencies, where we model these dependencies as the joint probability of each pair of atlas patches in correctly predicting the labels, by analyzing the correlation of their morphological error patterns and also the labeling consensus among atlases. The patch dependencies will be further recursively updated based on the latest labeling results to correct the possible labeling errors, which falls to the Expectation Maximization (EM) framework. To demonstrate the labeling performance, we have comprehensively evaluated our patch-based labeling method on the whole brain parcellation and hippocampus segmentation. Promising labeling results have been achieved with comparison to the conventional patch-based labeling

  1. EEG/fMRI fusion based on independent component analysis: integration of data-driven and model-driven methods.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xu; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A; Yao, Dezhong

    2012-09-01

    Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide complementary noninvasive information of brain activity, and EEG/fMRI fusion can achieve higher spatiotemporal resolution than each modality separately. This focuses on independent component analysis (ICA)-based EEG/fMRI fusion. In order to appreciate the issues, we first describe the potential and limitations of the developed fusion approaches: fMRI-constrained EEG imaging, EEG-informed fMRI analysis, and symmetric fusion. We then outline some newly developed hybrid fusion techniques using ICA and the combination of data-/model-driven methods, with special mention of the spatiotemporal EEG/fMRI fusion (STEFF). Finally, we discuss the current trend in methodological development and the existing limitations for extrapolating neural dynamics.

  2. Image fusion in craniofacial virtual reality modeling based on CT and 3dMD photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Xin, Pengfei; Yu, Hongbo; Cheng, Huanchong; Shen, Shunyao; Shen, Steve G F

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of building a craniofacial virtual reality model by image fusion of 3-dimensional (3D) CT models and 3 dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface. A CT scan and stereophotography were performed. The 3D CT models were reconstructed by Materialise Mimics software, and the stereophotogrammetric facial surface was reconstructed by 3 dMD patient software. All 3D CT models were exported as Stereo Lithography file format, and the 3 dMD model was exported as Virtual Reality Modeling Language file format. Image registration and fusion were performed in Mimics software. Genetic algorithm was used for precise image fusion alignment with minimum error. The 3D CT models and the 3 dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface were finally merged into a single file and displayed using Deep Exploration software. Errors between the CT soft tissue model and 3 dMD facial surface were also analyzed. Virtual model based on CT-3 dMD image fusion clearly showed the photorealistic face and bone structures. Image registration errors in virtual face are mainly located in bilateral cheeks and eyeballs, and the errors are more than 1.5 mm. However, the image fusion of whole point cloud sets of CT and 3 dMD is acceptable with a minimum error that is less than 1 mm. The ease of use and high reliability of CT-3 dMD image fusion allows the 3D virtual head to be an accurate, realistic, and widespread tool, and has a great benefit to virtual face model.

  3. A novel visible and infrared image fusion algorithm based on detail enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve the characteristic information of the fused images, we propose a novel infrared and visible image fusion algorithm based on image detail enhancement in this paper, the bilateral filter and dynamic range partitioning (BF & DRP) are used to improve the original infrared image, and the multi-scale retinex transform (MRT) also is used to deal with image fusion. Firstly a method of bilateral filter and dynamic range partitioning (BF & DRP) was used to improve the details of the low SNR and low contrast original infrared image, by which the edges of targets were strengthened, the noises were suppressed, and the constrast of infrared image was enhanced. Secondly, and finally, the multi-scale retinex transform was used to improve the fusion of visible and infrared image, by combining the multi-scale transform and regional fusion where the adaptive low frequency and high frequency coefficient were considered, which effectively suppressed the noises and enhanced the details.. Experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed image fusion method. The salient color and texture feature of visible image was well preserved, the important details of infrared and visible image were highlighted. The results show that this algorithm is better than traditional image fusion method, such as wavelet transform, non-sampled contourlet transform, in in standard deviation, information entropy and Average gradient etc.. the algorithm of this paper is able to preserve the details of image, increase the amount of importance characteristic information, is advantageous to the visual performance and distinguishability of fused image for human observation.

  4. Mass classification in mammography with multi-agent based fusion of human and machine intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Dongdong; Fan, Ming; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Juan; Shan, Yanna; Dai, Gang; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Although the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can be applied for classifying the breast masses, the effects of this method on improvement of the radiologist' accuracy for distinguishing malignant from benign lesions still remain unclear. This study provided a novel method to classify breast masses by integrating the intelligence of human and machine. In this research, 224 breast masses were selected in mammography from database of DDSM with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories. Three observers (a senior and a junior radiologist, as well as a radiology resident) were employed to independently read and classify these masses utilizing the Positive Predictive Values (PPV) for each BI-RADS category. Meanwhile, a CAD system was also implemented for classification of these breast masses between malignant and benign. To combine the decisions from the radiologists and CAD, the fusion method of the Multi-Agent was provided. Significant improvements are observed for the fusion system over solely radiologist or CAD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the fusion system increased by 9.6%, 10.3% and 21% compared to that of radiologists with senior, junior and resident level, respectively. In addition, the AUC of this method based on the fusion of each radiologist and CAD are 3.5%, 3.6% and 3.3% higher than that of CAD alone. Finally, the fusion of the three radiologists with CAD achieved AUC value of 0.957, which was 5.6% larger compared to CAD. Our results indicated that the proposed fusion method has better performance than radiologist or CAD alone.

  5. Use of energy-based coagulative fusion technology and lung sealants during anatomic lung resection.

    PubMed

    Schuchert, Matthew J; Abbas, Ghulam; Landreneau, Joshua P; Luketich, James D; Landreneau, Rodney J

    2012-09-01

    Energy-based tissue fusion technology is being increasingly used for vascular division in numerous intra-abdominal applications. Very few data, however, are available regarding the application of this technology in the chest during anatomic lung resection. In the present review, we evaluated the use of energy-based fusion and lung sealants during anatomic lung resection. We performed a review of case series and published studies to evaluate the use of energy-based coagulative fusion technology and lung sealants during anatomic lung resection. We then used energy-based coagulative fusion technology during anatomic lung resection (segmentectomy or lobectomy) in 316 cases from 2008 to 2011. Two energy applications were applied to the arterial and venous branches before vessel division. In the first 12 cases, we used a device with a small curved jaw (range, 3.3-4.7 mm). Two partial venous dehiscences were noted and controlled intraoperatively. For the remaining cases, we used a larger jaw (6 mm × 22 mm) with no arterial or venous dehiscence occurring (vessels ranged from 0.4 to 1.2 cm). Autologous or synthetic tissue sealants applied to the parenchymal staple lines might reduce the severity and duration of perioperative air leaks. Suture line buttressing with pericardial or absorbable biosynthetic polyester strips might reduce the severity of air leaks in patients with severe emphysema undergoing anatomic lung resection or lung volume reduction surgery. The bipolar tissue fusion system provides a safe and effective technique for the division of the pulmonary arterial and venous branches during anatomic lung resection. Surgical sealants and buttressing adjuncts might reduce perioperative air leak potential. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary results of anatomic lung resection using energy-based tissue and vessel coagulative fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Schuchert, Matthew J; Abbas, Ghulam; Pettiford, Brian L; Luketich, James D; Landreneau, Rodney J

    2010-11-01

    Mechanical stapling devices have been established as the mainstay of therapy in the selective isolation and division of bronchial and vascular structures during anatomic lung resection. Few data are available regarding the application of energy-based tissue fusion technology during anatomic lung resection. In the present study, we evaluated the use of energy-based instruments for the division of the pulmonary arterial and venous branches during anatomic lung resection. Anatomic lung resection (segmentectomy or lobectomy) was performed using energy-based coagulative fusion technology. A low-profile jaw can be used to facilitate dissection in both open and video-assisted thoracic surgery cases, applying a seal 6 mm wide by 22 mm in length. Two energy applications were applied to the arterial and venous branches before vessel division. The bipolar tissue fusion system was used in 211 patients between 2008 and 2010 (104 lobectomies and 107 anatomic segmentectomies). Initially, we used a device with a smaller, curved jaw (n = 12), producing a 3.3- to 4.7-cm seal. No arterial dehiscences and 2 partial venous dehiscences that were recognized and controlled intraoperatively occurred. For the remaining cases, we used a new device with a larger jaw that applied a seal 6 mm wide by 22 mm in length. No arterial or venous dehiscences (vessel size range, 0.4-1.2 cm) occurred. The bipolar tissue fusion system provided safe and reliable control of pulmonary arterial and venous branches during anatomic lung resection. The use of energy-based tissue fusion technology represents a reasonable alternative to mechanical stapling devices during anatomic lung resection. Copyright © 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A batteryless temperature sensor based on high temperature sensitive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, Asma; Pelegri-Sebastia, José; Laghmich, Youssef; Lyhyaoui, Abdelouahid

    2016-05-01

    The major challenge in wireless sensor networks is the reduction of energy consumption. Passive wireless sensor network is an attractive solution for measuring physical parameters in harsh environment for large range of applications requiring sensing devices with low cost of fabrication, small size and long term measurement stability. Batteryless temperature sensing techniques are an active research field. The approach developed in our work holds a promising future for temperature sensor applications in order to successfully reduce the energy consumption. The temperature sensor presented in this paper is based on the electromagnetic transduction principle using the integration of the high temperature sensitive material into a passive structure. Variation in temperature makes the dielectric constant of this material changing, and such modification induces variation in the resonant frequencies of high-Q whispering-gallery modes (WGM) in the millimeter-wave frequency range. Following the results achieved, the proposed device shows a linear response to the increasing temperature and these variations can be remotely detected from a radar interrogation. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  8. An Improved BLE Indoor Localization with Kalman-Based Fusion: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Röbesaat, Jenny; Zhang, Peilin; Abdelaal, Mohamed; Theel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Indoor positioning has grasped great attention in recent years. A number of efforts have been exerted to achieve high positioning accuracy. However, there exists no technology that proves its efficacy in various situations. In this paper, we propose a novel positioning method based on fusing trilateration and dead reckoning. We employ Kalman filtering as a position fusion algorithm. Moreover, we adopt an Android device with Bluetooth Low Energy modules as the communication platform to avoid excessive energy consumption and to improve the stability of the received signal strength. To further improve the positioning accuracy, we take the environmental context information into account while generating the position fixes. Extensive experiments in a testbed are conducted to examine the performance of three approaches: trilateration, dead reckoning and the fusion method. Additionally, the influence of the knowledge of the environmental context is also examined. Finally, our proposed fusion method outperforms both trilateration and dead reckoning in terms of accuracy: experimental results show that the Kalman-based fusion, for our settings, achieves a positioning accuracy of less than one meter. PMID:28445421

  9. Remote Sensing Image Fusion Method Based on Nonsubsampled Shearlet Transform and Sparse Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonon, Altan-Ulzii; Hu, Jianwen; Li, Shutao

    2015-12-01

    The remote sensing image fusion is an important preprocessing technique in remote sensing image processing. In this paper, a remote sensing image fusion method based on the nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) with sparse representation (SR) is proposed. Firstly, the low resolution multispectral (MS) image is upsampled and color space is transformed from Red-Green-Blue (RGB) to Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS). Then, the high resolution panchromatic (PAN) image and intensity component of MS image are decomposed by NSST to high and low frequency coefficients. The low frequency coefficients of PAN and the intensity component are fused by the SR with the learned dictionary. The high frequency coefficients of intensity component and PAN image are fused by local energy based fusion rule. Finally, the fused result is obtained by performing inverse NSST and inverse IHS transform. The experimental results on IKONOS and QuickBird satellites demonstrate that the proposed method provides better spectral quality and superior spatial information in the fused image than other remote sensing image fusion methods both in visual effect and object evaluation.

  10. Change detection in synthetic aperture radar images based on image fusion and fuzzy clustering.

    PubMed

    Gong, Maoguo; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jingjing

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents an unsupervised distribution-free change detection approach for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images based on an image fusion strategy and a novel fuzzy clustering algorithm. The image fusion technique is introduced to generate a difference image by using complementary information from a mean-ratio image and a log-ratio image. In order to restrain the background information and enhance the information of changed regions in the fused difference image, wavelet fusion rules based on an average operator and minimum local area energy are chosen to fuse the wavelet coefficients for a low-frequency band and a high-frequency band, respectively. A reformulated fuzzy local-information C-means clustering algorithm is proposed for classifying changed and unchanged regions in the fused difference image. It incorporates the information about spatial context in a novel fuzzy way for the purpose of enhancing the changed information and of reducing the effect of speckle noise. Experiments on real SAR images show that the image fusion strategy integrates the advantages of the log-ratio operator and the mean-ratio operator and gains a better performance. The change detection results obtained by the improved fuzzy clustering algorithm exhibited lower error than its preexistences.

  11. An Improved BLE Indoor Localization with Kalman-Based Fusion: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Röbesaat, Jenny; Zhang, Peilin; Abdelaal, Mohamed; Theel, Oliver

    2017-04-26

    Indoor positioning has grasped great attention in recent years. A number of efforts have been exerted to achieve high positioning accuracy. However, there exists no technology that proves its efficacy in various situations. In this paper, we propose a novel positioning method based on fusing trilateration and dead reckoning. We employ Kalman filtering as a position fusion algorithm. Moreover, we adopt an Android device with Bluetooth Low Energy modules as the communication platform to avoid excessive energy consumption and to improve the stability of the received signal strength. To further improve the positioning accuracy, we take the environmental context information into account while generating the position fixes. Extensive experiments in a testbed are conducted to examine the performance of three approaches: trilateration, dead reckoning and the fusion method. Additionally, the influence of the knowledge of the environmental context is also examined. Finally, our proposed fusion method outperforms both trilateration and dead reckoning in terms of accuracy: experimental results show that the Kalman-based fusion, for our settings, achieves a positioning accuracy of less than one meter.

  12. A novel super-resolution image fusion algorithm based on improved PCNN and wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Gao, Kun; Song, Yajun; Ni, Guoqiang

    2009-10-01

    Super-resolution reconstruction technology is to explore new information between the under-sampling image series obtained from the same scene and to achieve the high-resolution picture through image fusion in sub-pixel level. The traditional super-resolution fusion methods for sub-sampling images need motion estimation and motion interpolation and construct multi-resolution pyramid to obtain high-resolution, yet the function of the human beings' visual features are ignored. In this paper, a novel resolution reconstruction for under-sampling images of static scene based on the human vision model is considered by introducing PCNN (Pulse Coupled Neural Network) model, which simplifies and improves the input model, internal behavior and control parameters selection. The proposed super-resolution image fusion algorithm based on PCNN-wavelet is aimed at the down-sampling image series in a static scene. And on the basis of keeping the original features, we introduce Relief Filter(RF) to the control and judge segment to overcome the effect of random factors(such as noise, etc) effectively to achieve the aim that highlighting interested object though the fusion. Numerical simulations show that the new algorithm has the better performance in retaining more details and keeping high resolution.

  13. Matrix factorization-based data fusion for gene function prediction in baker's yeast and slime mold.

    PubMed

    Zitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective methods for the characterization of gene functions that are able to combine diverse data sources in a sound and easily-extendible way is an important goal in computational biology. We have previously developed a general matrix factorization-based data fusion approach for gene function prediction. In this manuscript, we show that this data fusion approach can be applied to gene function prediction and that it can fuse various heterogeneous data sources, such as gene expression profiles, known protein annotations, interaction and literature data. The fusion is achieved by simultaneous matrix tri-factorization that shares matrix factors between sources. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by evaluating its performance on predicting ontological annotations in slime mold D. discoideum and on recognizing proteins of baker's yeast S. cerevisiae that participate in the ribosome or are located in the cell membrane. Our approach achieves predictive performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art kernel-based data fusion, but requires fewer data preprocessing steps.

  14. A fusion method for visible and infrared images based on contrast pyramid with teaching learning based optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Haiyan; Wang, Yanyan

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel image fusion scheme based on contrast pyramid (CP) with teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) for visible and infrared images under different spectrum of complicated scene. Firstly, CP decomposition is employed into every level of each original image. Then, we introduce TLBO to optimizing fusion coefficients, which will be changed under teaching phase and learner phase of TLBO, so that the weighted coefficients can be automatically adjusted according to fitness function, namely the evaluation standards of image quality. At last, obtain fusion results by the inverse transformation of CP. Compared with existing methods, experimental results show that our method is effective and the fused images are more suitable for further human visual or machine perception.

  15. Use of Polycarbonate Vacuum Vessels in High-Temperature Fusion-Plasma Research

    SciTech Connect

    B. Berlinger, A. Brooks, H. Feder, J. Gumbas, T. Franckowiak and S.A. Cohen

    2012-09-27

    Magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research requires ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions, primarily to reduce plasma contamination by impurities. For radiofrequency (RF)-heated plasmas, a great benefit may accrue from a non-conducting vacuum vessel, allowing external RF antennas which avoids the complications and cost of internal antennas and high-voltage high-current feedthroughs. In this paper we describe these and other criteria, e.g., safety, availability, design flexibility, structural integrity, access, outgassing, transparency, and fabrication techniques that led to the selection and use of 25.4-cm OD, 1.6-cm wall polycarbonate pipe as the main vacuum vessel for an MFE research device whose plasmas are expected to reach keV energies for durations exceeding 0.1 s

  16. Cold fusion coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wachtler, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    Historically, fusion of metals was accomplished through the use of heat. Cold fusion has become a reality with metal to metal fusion occurring at room temperature. The basics of this new technology which can be done in tank, brush or solid form is covered in this paper.

  17. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based relational matching and multimodal medical image fusion: generalized 3D approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajdic, Stevan M.; Katz, Henry E.; Downing, Andrew R.; Brooks, Michael J.

    1994-09-01

    A 3D relational image matching/fusion algorithm is introduced. It is implemented in the domain of medical imaging and is based on Artificial Intelligence paradigms--in particular, knowledge base representation and tree search. The 2D reference and target images are selected from 3D sets and segmented into non-touching and non-overlapping regions, using iterative thresholding and/or knowledge about the anatomical shapes of human organs. Selected image region attributes are calculated. Region matches are obtained using a tree search, and the error is minimized by evaluating a `goodness' of matching function based on similarities of region attributes. Once the matched regions are found and the spline geometric transform is applied to regional centers of gravity, images are ready for fusion and visualization into a single 3D image of higher clarity.

  18. Detection of a phosphorylated glycine-serine linker in an IgG-based fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Tyshchuk, Oksana; Völger, Hans Rainer; Bulau, Patrick; Koll, Hans; Mølhøj, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular mass determination by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of a recombinant IgG-based fusion protein (mAb1-F) produced in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells demonstrated the presence of a dominant +79 Da product variant. Using LC-MS tryptic peptide mapping analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation fragmentations, the modification was localized to the C-terminal serine residue of a glycine-serine linker [(G4S)2] of a fused heavy chain containing in total 2 (G4S)2-linkers. The modification was identified as a phosphorylation (+79.97 Da) by the presence of a 98 Da neutral loss reaction with CID, by spiking a synthetic phosphoserine peptide, and by dephosphorylation with alkaline phosphatase. A thermolysin digest combined with higher-energy collision dissociation (HCD) positioned the phosphoserine to one specific glycine-serine linker of the fused heavy chain, and the relative level of phosphorylated linker was determined to be 11.3% and 0.4% by LC-MS when the fusion protein was transiently expressed in HEK or in stably transformed Chinese hamster ovary cells, respectively. This observation demonstrates that fusions with glycine-serine linker sequences should be carefully evaluated during drug development to prevent the introduction of a phosphorylation site in therapeutic fusion proteins. PMID:27661266

  19. Data fusion-based assessment of raw materials in mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Xu, Jin; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2012-11-01

    In mammalian cell culture producing therapeutic proteins, one of the important challenges is the use of several complex raw materials whose compositional variability is relatively high and their influences on cell culture is poorly understood. Under these circumstances, application of spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometrics can provide fast, simple, and non-destructive ways to evaluate raw material quality, leading to more consistent cell culture performance. In this study, a comprehensive data fusion strategy of combining multiple spectroscopic techniques is investigated for the prediction of raw material quality in mammalian cell culture. To achieve this purpose, four different spectroscopic techniques of near-infrared, Raman, 2D fluorescence, and X-ray fluorescence spectra were employed for comprehensive characterization of soy hydrolysates which are commonly used as supplements in culture media. First, the different spectra were compared separately in terms of their prediction capability. Then, ensemble partial least squares (EPLS) was further employed by combining all of these spectral datasets in order to produce a more accurate estimation of raw material properties, and compared with other data fusion techniques. The results showed that data fusion models based on EPLS always exhibit best prediction accuracy among all the models including individual spectroscopic methods, demonstrating the synergetic effects of data fusion in characterizing the raw material quality.

  20. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Pasciuto, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2016-01-01

    Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor’s uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process. PMID:26821027

  1. Multipolarimetric SAR image change detection based on multiscale feature-level fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhai, L.

    2015-06-01

    Many methodologies of change detection have been discussed in the literature, but most of them are tested on only optical images or traditional synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images. Few studies have investigated multipolarimetric SAR image change detection. In this study, we presented a type of multipolarimetric SAR image change detection approach based on nonsubsampled contourlet transform and multiscale feature-level fusion techniques. In this approach, Instead of denoising an image in advance, the nonsubsampled contourlet transform multiscale decomposition was used to reduce the effect of speckle noise by processing only the low-frequency sub-band coefficients of the decomposed image, and the multiscale feature-level fusion technique was employed to integrate the rich information obtained from various polarization images. Because SAR image information is dependent on scale, a multiscale multipolarimetric feature-level fusion strategy is introduced into the change detection to improve change detection precision; this feature-level fusion can not only achieve complementation of information with different polarizations and on different scales, but also has better robustness against noise. Compared with PCA methods, the proposed method constructs better differential images, resulting in higher change detection precision.

  2. Large field-of-view range-gated laser imaging based on image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Pengdao; Wang, Xinwei; Sun, Liang; You, Ruirong; Lei, Pingshun; Zhou, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Laser range-gated imaging has great potentials in remote night surveillance with far detection distance and high resolution, even if under bad weather conditions such as fog, snow and rain. However, the field of view (FOV) is smaller than large objects like buildings, towers and mountains, thus only parts of targets are observed in one single frame, so that it is difficult for targets identification. Apparently, large FOV is beneficial to solve the problem, but the detection range is not available due to low illumination density in a large field of illumination matching with the FOV. Therefore, a large field-of-view range-gated laser imaging is proposed based on image fusion in this paper. Especially an image fusion algorithm has been developed for low contrast images. First of all, an infrared laser range-gated system is established to acquire gate images with small FOV for three different scenarios at night. Then the proposed image fusion algorithm is used for generating panoramas for the three groups of images respectively. Compared with raw images directly obtained by the imaging system, the fused images have a larger FOV with more detail target information. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image fusion algorithm is effective to expand the FOV of range-gated imaging.

  3. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking.

    PubMed

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Pasciuto, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2016-01-26

    Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor's uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process.

  4. Technique for image fusion based on nonsubsampled shearlet transform and improved pulse-coupled neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weiwei; Liu, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    A new technique for image fusion based on nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) and improved pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN) is proposed. NSST, as a novel multiscale geometric analysis tool, can be optimally efficient in representing images and capturing the geometric features of multidimensional data. As a result, NSST is introduced into the area of image fusion to complete the decompositions of source images in any scale and any direction. Then the basic PCNN model is improved to be improved PCNN (IPCNN), which is more concise and more effective. IPCNN adopts the contrast of each pixel in images as the linking strength β, and the time matrix T of subimages can be obtained via the synchronous pulse-burst property. By using IPCNN, the fused subimages can be achieved. Finally, the final fused image can be obtained by using inverse NSST. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the new technique presented in this paper is competitive in the field of image fusion in terms of both fusion performance and computational efficiency.

  5. A novel adaptive multi-focus image fusion algorithm based on PCNN and sharpness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qiguang; Wang, Baoshu

    2005-05-01

    A novel adaptive multi-focus image fusion algorithm is given in this paper, which is based on the improved pulse coupled neural network(PCNN) model, the fundamental characteristics of the multi-focus image and the properties of visual imaging. Compared with the traditional algorithm where the linking strength, βij, of each neuron in the PCNN model is the same and its value is chosen through experimentation, this algorithm uses the clarity of each pixel of the image as its value, so that the linking strength of each pixel can be chosen adaptively. A fused image is produced by processing through the compare-select operator the objects of each firing mapping image taking part in image fusion, deciding in which image the clear parts is and choosing the clear parts in the image fusion process. By this algorithm, other parameters, for example, Δ, the threshold adjusting constant, only have a slight effect on the new fused image. It therefore overcomes the difficulty in adjusting parameters in the PCNN. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm works better in preserving the edge and texture information than the wavelet transform method and the Laplacian pyramid method do in multi-focus image fusion.

  6. Feature Sensitive Label Fusion with Random Walker for Atlas-based Image Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Siqi; Chung, Albert C S

    2017-04-06

    In this paper, a novel label fusion method is proposed for brain magnetic resonance image segmentation. This label fusion method is formulated on a graph, which embraces both label priors from atlases and anatomical priors from target image. To represent a pixel in a comprehensive way, three kinds of feature vectors are generated, including intensity, gradient and structural signature. To select candidate atlas nodes for fusion, rather than exact searching, randomized k-d tree with spatial constraint is introduced as an efficient approximation for high-dimensional feature matching. Feature Sensitive Label Prior (FSLP), which takes both the consistency and variety of different features into consideration, is proposed to gather atlas priors. As FSLP is a non-convex problem, one heuristic approach is further designed to solve it efficiently. Moreover, based on the anatomical knowledge, parts of the target pixels are also employed as graph seeds to assist the label fusion process and an iterative strategy is utilized to gradually update the label map. The comprehensive experiments carried out on two publicly available databases give results to demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain better segmentation quality.

  7. Fusion of hand vein, iris and fingerprint for person identity verification based on Bayesian theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Deng, Shichao; Wang, Yunxin

    2009-11-01

    Biometric identification is an important guarantee for social security. In recent years, as the development of social and economic, the more accuracy and safety of identification are required. The person identity verification systems that use a single biometric appear inherent limitations in accuracy, user acceptance, universality. Limitations of unimodal biometric systems can be overcome by using multimodal biometric systems, which combines the conclusions made by a number of unrelated biometrics indicators. Aiming at the limitations of unimodal biometric identification, a recognition algorithm for multimodal biometric fusion based on hand vein, iris and fingerprint was proposed. To verify person identity, the hand vein images, iris images and fingerprint images were preprocessed firstly. The region of interest (ROI) of hand vein image was obtained and filtered to reduce image noises. The multiresolution analysis theory was utilized to extract the texture information of hand vein. The iris image was preprocessed through iris localization, eyelid detection, image normalization and image enhancement, and then the feature code of iris was extracted from the detail images obtained using wavelet transform. The texture feature information represented fingerprint pattern was extracted after filtering and image enhancement. The Bayesian theorem was employed to realize the fusion at the matching score level and the fusion recognition result was finally obtained. The experimental results were presented, which showed that the recognition performance of the proposed fusion method was obviously higher than that of single biometric recognition algorithm. It had verified the efficiency of the proposed method for biometrics.

  8. A fusion algorithm for infrared and visible images based on RDU-PCNN and ICA-bases in NSST domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhanwen; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yifan; Li, Xu

    2016-11-01

    The aim of infrared and visible image fusion is to enhance the feature in infrared image and preserve abundant detail information in visible image. Based on the fact that the human sense system accepts external stimulation only when the stimulus intensity is greater than a certain value and the reaction of neuronal cells have obvious regional characters, an image fusion algorithm based on region dual-channel unit-linking pulse coupled neural networks (RDU-PCNN) and independent component analysis (ICA) bases in non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST) domain for infrared and visible images is proposed. RDU-PCNN we constructed has obvious regional characters and much lower computational costs. We trained ICA-bases using a number of images that the content and statistical properties are similar with the fusion images but applied it as low-frequency ICA-bases, which can reduce calculation complexity. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can significantly improved the fusion quality and need less computational costs.

  9. Multi-focus image fusion algorithm based on adaptive PCNN and wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-guo; Wang, Ming-jia; Han, Guang-liang

    2011-08-01

    Being an efficient method of information fusion, image fusion has been used in many fields such as machine vision, medical diagnosis, military applications and remote sensing. In this paper, Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) is introduced in this research field for its interesting properties in image processing, including segmentation, target recognition et al. and a novel algorithm based on PCNN and Wavelet Transform for Multi-focus image fusion is proposed. First, the two original images are decomposed by wavelet transform. Then, based on the PCNN, a fusion rule in the Wavelet domain is given. This algorithm uses the wavelet coefficient in each frequency domain as the linking strength, so that its value can be chosen adaptively. Wavelet coefficients map to the range of image gray-scale. The output threshold function attenuates to minimum gray over time. Then all pixels of image get the ignition. So, the output of PCNN in each iteration time is ignition wavelet coefficients of threshold strength in different time. At this moment, the sequences of ignition of wavelet coefficients represent ignition timing of each neuron. The ignition timing of PCNN in each neuron is mapped to corresponding image gray-scale range, which is a picture of ignition timing mapping. Then it can judge the targets in the neuron are obvious features or not obvious. The fusion coefficients are decided by the compare-selection operator with the firing time gradient maps and the fusion image is reconstructed by wavelet inverse transform. Furthermore, by this algorithm, the threshold adjusting constant is estimated by appointed iteration number. Furthermore, In order to sufficient reflect order of the firing time, the threshold adjusting constant αΘ is estimated by appointed iteration number. So after the iteration achieved, each of the wavelet coefficient is activated. In order to verify the effectiveness of proposed rules, the experiments upon Multi-focus image are done. Moreover

  10. Investigating synergies of data fusion and image segmentation in earth observation based rapid mapping workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witharana, C.

    2013-12-01

    In humanitarian emergencies, the timeliness of data provision and the short time-window available for dispatching value-added information pose major challenges to the mapping community. We have been engaged with a continuous research effort to explore novel ways to catalyze the EO-based humanitarian crisis information retrieval chain. This paper is an exploratory study, which aimed to discover the synergies of data fusion and image segmentation in the context of EO-based rapid mapping workflows. Our approach pillared on the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) focusing on multiscale, internally-displaced persons' (IDP) camp information extraction from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) images. We applied twelve pansharpening algorithms to two subsets of a GeoEye-1 image scene that was taken over a former war-induced ephemeral settlement in Sri Lanka. A multidimensional assessment was employed to benchmark pansharpening algorithms with respect to their spectral and spatial fidelity. The multiresolution segmentation (MRS) algorithm of the eCognition Developer software served as the key algorithm in the segmentation process. The first study site was used for comparing segmentation results produced from the twelve fused products at a series of scale, shape, and compactness settings of the MRS algorithm. The segmentation quality and optimum parameter settings of the MRS algorithm were estimated by using empirical discrepancy measures. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to compare the quality of image object candidates, which were derived from the twelve pansharpened products. A wall-to-wall classification was performed based on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to classify image objects candidates of the fused images. The second site simulated a more realistic crisis information extraction scenario where the domain expertise is crucial in segmentation and classification. We compared segmentation and classification results of the original

  11. Improved Magnetic Fusion Energy Economics via Massive Resistive Electromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-08-19

    Abandoning superconductors for magnetic fusion reactors and instead using resistive magnet designs based on cheap copper or aluminum conductor material operating at "room temperature" (300 K) can reduce the capital cost per unit fusion power and simplify plant operations. By increasing unit size well beyond that of present magnetic fusion energy conceptual designs using superconducting electromagnets, the recirculating power fraction needed to operate resistive electromagnets can be made as close to zero as needed for economy without requiring superconductors. Other advantages of larger fusion plant size, such as very long inductively driven pulses, may also help reduce the cost per unit fusion power.

  12. Based on Landsat8 multi-resolution remote sensing image fusion of urban heat-island difference analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Yuefeng; Ye, Siqi; Han, Caiyun

    2015-12-01

    Over the years, with the accelerating of city construction, urban heat-island effect has become increasingly significant.According to meteorological data of nearly ten years, some parts of the regional land surface temperature is higher, and then it influence people's introduction and living directly. At the same time it also affect the ecological environment of the earth.This article bases on the Landsat8 remote sensing image of 2014, through the different resolution of image fusion to analyze the differences surface temperature of the study area and forecast the future development tendency. Research finding: in different resolution, due to details of the objects reflecting obviously differences, affected by it, the surface temperature also exists obvious difference. The lower resolution, the surface temperature difference is smaller; on the contrary,the higher resolution makes surface temperature difference more significant. This shows that with the expansion of cities and the change of vegetation, water, the regional differences of heat-island effect is more obvious. In future development, how to coordinate and plan buildings, factories, vegetation, water, etc will affect the distribution of urban heat-island effect.

  13. Neural Network Based Sensory Fusion for Landmark Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumbla, Kishan -K.; Akbarzadeh, Mohammad R.

    1997-01-01

    NASA is planning to send numerous unmanned planetary missions to explore the space. This requires autonomous robotic vehicles which can navigate in an unstructured, unknown, and uncertain environment. Landmark based navigation is a new area of research which differs from the traditional goal-oriented navigation, where a mobile robot starts from an initial point and reaches a destination in accordance with a pre-planned path. The landmark based navigation has the advantage of allowing the robot to find its way without communication with the mission control station and without exact knowledge of its coordinates. Current algorithms based on landmark navigation however pose several constraints. First, they require large memories to store the images. Second, the task of comparing the images using traditional methods is computationally intensive and consequently real-time implementation is difficult. The method proposed here consists of three stages, First stage utilizes a heuristic-based algorithm to identify significant objects. The second stage utilizes a neural network (NN) to efficiently classify images of the identified objects. The third stage combines distance information with the classification results of neural networks for efficient and intelligent navigation.

  14. Multi-scale modelling to relate beryllium surface temperature, deuterium concentration and erosion in fusion reactor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi, E.; Valles, G.; Lasa, A.; Nordlund, K.

    2017-05-01

    Beryllium (Be) has been chosen as the plasma-facing material for the main wall of ITER, the next generation fusion reactor. Identifying the key parameters that determine Be erosion under reactor relevant conditions is vital to predict the ITER plasma-facing component lifetime and viability. To date, a certain prediction of Be erosion, focusing on the effect of two such parameters, surface temperature and D surface content, has not been achieved. In this work, we develop the first multi-scale KMC-MD modeling approach for Be to provide a more accurate database for its erosion, as well as investigating parameters that affect erosion. First, we calculate the complex relationship between surface temperature and D concentration precisely by simulating the time evolution of the system using an object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) technique. These simulations provide a D surface concentration profile for any surface temperature and incoming D energy. We then describe how this profile can be implemented as a starting configuration in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We finally use MD simulations to investigate the effect of temperature (300-800 K) and impact energy (10-200 eV) on the erosion of Be due to D plasma irradiations. The results reveal a strong dependency of the D surface content on temperature. Increasing the surface temperature leads to a lower D concentration at the surface, because of the tendency of D atoms to avoid being accommodated in a vacancy, and de-trapping from impurity sites diffuse fast toward bulk. At the next step, total and molecular Be erosion yields due to D irradiations are analyzed using MD simulations. The results show a strong dependency of erosion yields on surface temperature and incoming ion energy. The total Be erosion yield increases with temperature for impact energies up to 100 eV. However, increasing temperature and impact energy results in a lower fraction of Be atoms being sputtered as BeD molecules due to the lower D

  15. Multi-scale modelling to relate beryllium surface temperature, deuterium concentration and erosion in fusion reactor environment

    DOE PAGES

    Safi, E.; Valles, G.; Lasa, A.; ...

    2017-03-27

    Beryllium (Be) has been chosen as the plasma-facing material for the main wall of ITER, the next generation fusion reactor. Identifying the key parameters that determine Be erosion under reactor relevant conditions is vital to predict the ITER plasma-facing component lifetime and viability. To date, a certain prediction of Be erosion, focusing on the effect of two such parameters, surface temperature and D surface content, has not been achieved. In this paper, we develop the first multi-scale KMC-MD modeling approach for Be to provide a more accurate database for its erosion, as well as investigating parameters that affect erosion. First,more » we calculate the complex relationship between surface temperature and D concentration precisely by simulating the time evolution of the system using an object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) technique. These simulations provide a D surface concentration profile for any surface temperature and incoming D energy. We then describe how this profile can be implemented as a starting configuration in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We finally use MD simulations to investigate the effect of temperature (300–800 K) and impact energy (10–200 eV) on the erosion of Be due to D plasma irradiations. The results reveal a strong dependency of the D surface content on temperature. Increasing the surface temperature leads to a lower D concentration at the surface, because of the tendency of D atoms to avoid being accommodated in a vacancy, and de-trapping from impurity sites diffuse fast toward bulk. At the next step, total and molecular Be erosion yields due to D irradiations are analyzed using MD simulations. The results show a strong dependency of erosion yields on surface temperature and incoming ion energy. The total Be erosion yield increases with temperature for impact energies up to 100 eV. However, increasing temperature and impact energy results in a lower fraction of Be atoms being sputtered as BeD molecules due to the lower

  16. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Feng; Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  17. Iterative structure-based improvement of a respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Li; Chen, Man; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Kong, Wing-Pui; Lai, Yen-Ting; Rundlet, Emily J.; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Yang, Yongping; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Guttman, Miklos; Lees, Christopher R.; Pancera, Marie; Sastry, Mallika; Soto, Cinque; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B.E.; Thomas, Paul V.; Van Galen, Joseph G.; Baxa, Ulrich; Lee, Kelly K.; Mascola, John R.; Graham, Barney S.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Structure-based design of vaccines has been a long-sought goal, especially the iterative optimization used so successfully with structure-based design of drugs. We previously developed a 1st-generation vaccine antigen called DS-Cav1, comprising a pre-fusion-stabilized form of the fusion (F) glycoprotein, which elicited high titers of protective responses against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in mice and macaques. Here we report the improvement of DS-Cav1 through iterative cycles of structure-based design that significantly increased the titer of RSV-protective responses. The resultant 2nd-generation “DS2”-stabilized immunogens have F subunits genetically linked, fusion peptide deleted, and interprotomer movements stabilized by an additional disulfide bond. These DS2-immunogens are promising vaccine candidates with superior attributes, such as the absence of a requirement for furin cleavage and increased antigenic stability to heat inactivation. The iterative structure-based improvement described here may have utility in the optimization of other vaccine antigens. PMID:27478931

  18. Finger-vein and fingerprint recognition based on a feature-level fusion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinfeng; Hong, Bofeng

    2013-07-01

    Multimodal biometrics based on the finger identification is a hot topic in recent years. In this paper, a novel fingerprint-vein based biometric method is proposed to improve the reliability and accuracy of the finger recognition system. First, the second order steerable filters are used here to enhance and extract the minutiae features of the fingerprint (FP) and finger-vein (FV). Second, the texture features of fingerprint and finger-vein are extracted by a bank of Gabor filter. Third, a new triangle-region fusion method is proposed to integrate all the fingerprint and finger-vein features in feature-level. Thus, the fusion features contain both the finger texture-information and the minutiae triangular geometry structure. Finally, experimental results performed on the self-constructed finger-vein and fingerprint databases are shown that the proposed method is reliable and precise in personal identification.

  19. DNA Triplex-Based Complexes Display Anti-HIV-1-Cell Fusion Activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Xiaoyu; Chong, Huihui; Lai, Wenqing; Jiang, Xifeng; Wang, Chao; He, Yuxian; Liu, Keliang

    2015-08-01

    DNA triplexes with hydrophobic modifications were designed and evaluated for their activity as inhibitors of the cell fusion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Triplex inhibitors displayed low micromolar activities in the cell-cell fusion assay and nanomolar activities in the anti-HIV-1 pseudovirus test. Helix structure and the presence of sufficient numbers of hydrophobic regions were essential for the antifusion activity. Results from native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent resonance energy transfer-based inhibitory assay indicated that these triplexes may interact with the primary pocket at the glycoprotein 41 (gp41) N-heptad repeat, thereby inhibiting formation of the HIV-1 gp41 6-helical bundle. Triplex-based complexes may represent a novel category of HIV-1 inhibitors in anti-HIV-1 drug discovery.

  20. 3D face recognition based on the hierarchical score-level fusion classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mráček, Štěpán.; Váša, Jan; Lankašová, Karolína; Drahanský, Martin; Doležel, Michal

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the 3D face recognition algorithm that is based on the hierarchical score-level fusion clas-sifiers. In a simple (unimodal) biometric pipeline, the feature vector is extracted from the input data and subsequently compared with the template stored in the database. In our approachm, we utilize several feature extraction algorithms. We use 6 different image representations of the input 3D face data. Moreover, we are using Gabor and Gauss-Laguerre filter banks applied on the input image data that yield to 12 resulting feature vectors. Each representation is compared with corresponding counterpart from the biometric database. We also add the recognition based on the iso-geodesic curves. The final score-level fusion is performed on 13 comparison scores using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier.

  1. Application of the fault diagnosis strategy based on hierarchical information fusion in motors fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Li; Fei, Qi

    2006-03-01

    This paper has analyzed merits and demerits of both neural network technique and of the information fusion methods based on the D-S (dempster-shafer evidence) Theory as well as their complementarity, proposed the hierarchical information fusion fault diagnosis strategy by combining the neural network technique and the fused decision diagnosis based on D-S Theory, and established a corresponding functional model. Thus, we can not only solve a series of problems caused by rapid growth in size and complexity of neural network structure with diagnosis parameters increasing, but also can provide effective method for basic probability assignment in D-S Theory. The application of the strategy to diagnosing faults of motor bearings has proved that this method is of fairly high accuracy and reliability in fault diagnosis.

  2. Finger-vein verification based on multi-features fusion.

    PubMed

    Qin, Huafeng; Qin, Lan; Xue, Lian; He, Xiping; Yu, Chengbo; Liang, Xinyuan

    2013-11-05

    This paper presents a new scheme to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems. Firstly, a vein pattern extraction method to extract the finger-vein shape and orientation features is proposed. Secondly, to accommodate the potential local and global variations at the same time, a region-based matching scheme is investigated by employing the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) matching method. Finally, the finger-vein shape, orientation and SIFT features are combined to further enhance the performance. The experimental results on databases of 426 and 170 fingers demonstrate the consistent superiority of the proposed approach.

  3. Electroencephalogram-based decoding cognitive states using convolutional neural network and likelihood ratio based score fusion

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based decoding human brain activity is challenging, owing to the low spatial resolution of EEG. However, EEG is an important technique, especially for brain–computer interface applications. In this study, a novel algorithm is proposed to decode brain activity associated with different types of images. In this hybrid algorithm, convolutional neural network is modified for the extraction of features, a t-test is used for the selection of significant features and likelihood ratio-based score fusion is used for the prediction of brain activity. The proposed algorithm takes input data from multichannel EEG time-series, which is also known as multivariate pattern analysis. Comprehensive analysis was conducted using data from 30 participants. The results from the proposed method are compared with current recognized feature extraction and classification/prediction techniques. The wavelet transform-support vector machine method is the most popular currently used feature extraction and prediction method. This method showed an accuracy of 65.7%. However, the proposed method predicts the novel data with improved accuracy of 79.9%. In conclusion, the proposed algorithm outperformed the current feature extraction and prediction method. PMID:28558002

  4. Knowledge-based imaging-sensor fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westrom, George

    1989-11-01

    An imaging system which applies knowledge-based technology to supervise and control both sensor hardware and computation in the imaging system is described. It includes the development of an imaging system breadboard which brings together into one system work that we and others have pursued for LaRC for several years. The goal is to combine Digital Signal Processing (DSP) with Knowledge-Based Processing and also include Neural Net processing. The system is considered a smart camera. Imagine that there is a microgravity experiment on-board Space Station Freedom with a high frame rate, high resolution camera. All the data cannot possibly be acquired from a laboratory on Earth. In fact, only a small fraction of the data will be received. Again, imagine being responsible for some experiments on Mars with the Mars Rover: the data rate is a few kilobits per second for data from several sensors and instruments. Would it not be preferable to have a smart system which would have some human knowledge and yet follow some instructions and attempt to make the best use of the limited bandwidth for transmission. The system concept, current status of the breadboard system and some recent experiments at the Mars-like Amboy Lava Fields in California are discussed.

  5. Knowledge-based imaging-sensor fusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westrom, George

    1989-01-01

    An imaging system which applies knowledge-based technology to supervise and control both sensor hardware and computation in the imaging system is described. It includes the development of an imaging system breadboard which brings together into one system work that we and others have pursued for LaRC for several years. The goal is to combine Digital Signal Processing (DSP) with Knowledge-Based Processing and also include Neural Net processing. The system is considered a smart camera. Imagine that there is a microgravity experiment on-board Space Station Freedom with a high frame rate, high resolution camera. All the data cannot possibly be acquired from a laboratory on Earth. In fact, only a small fraction of the data will be received. Again, imagine being responsible for some experiments on Mars with the Mars Rover: the data rate is a few kilobits per second for data from several sensors and instruments. Would it not be preferable to have a smart system which would have some human knowledge and yet follow some instructions and attempt to make the best use of the limited bandwidth for transmission. The system concept, current status of the breadboard system and some recent experiments at the Mars-like Amboy Lava Fields in California are discussed.

  6. An Investigation of Image Fusion Algorithms using a Visual Performance-based Image Evaluation Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Synthetic Vision, J.G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 5802, (March 2005 ). S . Senthil Kumar and S . Muttan, “PCA based image fusion”, in Algorithms and...Zhao ( 2005 ). Image fusion using D- S Evidence theory and ANOVA method. Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference of Information...Dixon, Timothy D.; Noyes, Jan; Troscianko, Tom; Canga, Eduardo Fernandez; Bull, Dave; and Canagarajah , Nishan ( 2005 ). Psychophysical and metric

  7. A DNA-based semantic fusion model for remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Heng; Weng, Jian; Yu, Guangchuang; Massawe, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Semantic technology plays a key role in various domains, from conversation understanding to algorithm analysis. As the most efficient semantic tool, ontology can represent, process and manage the widespread knowledge. Nowadays, many researchers use ontology to collect and organize data's semantic information in order to maximize research productivity. In this paper, we firstly describe our work on the development of a remote sensing data ontology, with a primary focus on semantic fusion-driven research for big data. Our ontology is made up of 1,264 concepts and 2,030 semantic relationships. However, the growth of big data is straining the capacities of current semantic fusion and reasoning practices. Considering the massive parallelism of DNA strands, we propose a novel DNA-based semantic fusion model. In this model, a parallel strategy is developed to encode the semantic information in DNA for a large volume of remote sensing data. The semantic information is read in a parallel and bit-wise manner and an individual bit is converted to a base. By doing so, a considerable amount of conversion time can be saved, i.e., the cluster-based multi-processes program can reduce the conversion time from 81,536 seconds to 4,937 seconds for 4.34 GB source data files. Moreover, the size of result file recording DNA sequences is 54.51 GB for parallel C program compared with 57.89 GB for sequential Perl. This shows that our parallel method can also reduce the DNA synthesis cost. In addition, data types are encoded in our model, which is a basis for building type system in our future DNA computer. Finally, we describe theoretically an algorithm for DNA-based semantic fusion. This algorithm enables the process of integration of the knowledge from disparate remote sensing data sources into a consistent, accurate, and complete representation. This process depends solely on ligation reaction and screening operations instead of the ontology.

  8. Method for PE Pipes Fusion Jointing Based on TRIZ Contradictions Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianguang; Tan, Runhua; Gao, Jinyong; Wei, Zihui

    The core of the TRIZ theories is the contradiction detection and solution. TRIZ provided various methods for the contradiction solution, but all that is not systematized. Combined with the technique system conception, this paper summarizes an integration solution method for contradiction solution based on the TRIZ contradiction theory. According to the method, a flowchart of integration solution method for contradiction is given. As a casestudy, method of fusion jointing PE pipe is analysised.

  9. Targeted base editing in rice and tomato using a CRISPR-Cas9 cytidine deaminase fusion.

    PubMed

    Shimatani, Zenpei; Kashojiya, Sachiko; Takayama, Mariko; Terada, Rie; Arazoe, Takayuki; Ishii, Hisaki; Teramura, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Hiroki; Miura, Kenji; Ezura, Hiroshi; Nishida, Keiji; Ariizumi, Tohru; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-03-27

    We applied a fusion of CRISPR-Cas9 and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Target-AID) for point mutagenesis at genomic regions specified by single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) in two crop plants. In rice, we induced multiple herbicide-resistance point mutations by multiplexed editing using herbicide selection, while in tomato we generated marker-free plants with homozygous heritable DNA substitutions, demonstrating the feasibility of base editing for crop improvement.

  10. A DNA-Based Semantic Fusion Model for Remote Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Heng; Weng, Jian; Yu, Guangchuang; Massawe, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Semantic technology plays a key role in various domains, from conversation understanding to algorithm analysis. As the most efficient semantic tool, ontology can represent, process and manage the widespread knowledge. Nowadays, many researchers use ontology to collect and organize data's semantic information in order to maximize research productivity. In this paper, we firstly describe our work on the development of a remote sensing data ontology, with a primary focus on semantic fusion-driven research for big data. Our ontology is made up of 1,264 concepts and 2,030 semantic relationships. However, the growth of big data is straining the capacities of current semantic fusion and reasoning practices. Considering the massive parallelism of DNA strands, we propose a novel DNA-based semantic fusion model. In this model, a parallel strategy is developed to encode the semantic information in DNA for a large volume of remote sensing data. The semantic information is read in a parallel and bit-wise manner and an individual bit is converted to a base. By doing so, a considerable amount of conversion time can be saved, i.e., the cluster-based multi-processes program can reduce the conversion time from 81,536 seconds to 4,937 seconds for 4.34 GB source data files. Moreover, the size of result file recording DNA sequences is 54.51 GB for parallel C program compared with 57.89 GB for sequential Perl. This shows that our parallel method can also reduce the DNA synthesis cost. In addition, data types are encoded in our model, which is a basis for building type system in our future DNA computer. Finally, we describe theoretically an algorithm for DNA-based semantic fusion. This algorithm enables the process of integration of the knowledge from disparate remote sensing data sources into a consistent, accurate, and complete representation. This process depends solely on ligation reaction and screening operations instead of the ontology. PMID:24116207

  11. Diamond based detectors for high temperature, high radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, A.; Fern, G. R.; Hobson, P. R.; Smith, D. R.; Lefeuvre, G.; Saenger, R.

    2017-01-01

    Single crystal CVD diamond has many desirable properties as a radiation detector; exceptional radiation hardness and physical hardness, chemical inertness, low Z (close to human tissue, good for dosimetry and transmission mode applications), wide bandgap (high temperature operation with low noise and solar blind), an intrinsic pathway to fast neutron detection through the 12C(n,α)9Be reaction. This combination of radiation hardness, temperature tolerance and ability to detect mixed radiation types with a single sensor makes diamond particularly attractive as a detector material for harsh environments such as nuclear power station monitoring (fission and fusion) and oil well logging. Effective exploitation of these properties requires the development of a metallisation scheme to give contacts that remain stable over extended periods at elevated temperatures (up to 250°C in this instance). Due to the cost of the primary detector material, computational modelling is essential to best utilise the available processing methods for optimising sensor response through geometry and conversion media configurations and to fully interpret experimental data. Monte Carlo simulations of our diamond based sensor have been developed, using MCNP6 and FLUKA2011, assessing the sensor performance in terms of spectral response and overall efficiency as a function of the detector and converter geometry. Sensors with varying metallisation schemes for high temperature operation have been fabricated at Brunel University London and by Micron Semiconductor Limited. These sensors have been tested under a varied set of conditions including irradiation with fast neutrons and alpha particles at high temperatures. The presented study indicates that viable metallisation schemes for high temperature contacts have been successfully developed and the modelling results, supported by preliminary experimental data from partners, indicate that the simulations provide a reasonable representation of

  12. Fusion Based on Visible Light Positioning and Inertial Navigation Using Extended Kalman Filters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhitian; Feng, Lihui; Yang, Aiying

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of smart technology, the need for location-based services (LBS) increases every day. Since classical positioning technology such as GPS cannot satisfy the needs of indoor positioning, new indoor positioning technologies, such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and Visible light communication (VLC), have already cut a figure. VLC positioning has been proposed because it has higher accuracy, costs less, and is easier to accomplish in comparison to the other indoor positioning technologies. However, the practicality of VLC positioning is limited since it is easily affected by multipath effects and the layout of LEDs. Thus, we propose a fusion positioning system based on extended Kalman filters, which can fuse the VLC position and the inertial navigation data. The accuracy of the fusion positioning system is in centimeters, which is better compared to the VLC-based positioning or inertial navigation alone. Furthermore, the fusion positioning system has high accuracy, saves energy, costs little, and is easy to install, making it a promising candidate for future indoor positioning applications. PMID:28492479

  13. A Weighted Belief Entropy-Based Uncertainty Measure for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongchuan; Zhou, Deyun; Xu, Shuai; He, Zichang

    2017-04-22

    In real applications, how to measure the uncertain degree of sensor reports before applying sensor data fusion is a big challenge. In this paper, in the frame of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, a weighted belief entropy based on Deng entropy is proposed to quantify the uncertainty of uncertain information. The weight of the proposed belief entropy is based on the relative scale of a proposition with regard to the frame of discernment (FOD). Compared with some other uncertainty measures in Dempster-Shafer framework, the new measure focuses on the uncertain information represented by not only the mass function, but also the scale of the FOD, which means less information loss in information processing. After that, a new multi-sensor data fusion approach based on the weighted belief entropy is proposed. The rationality and superiority of the new multi-sensor data fusion method is verified according to an experiment on artificial data and an application on fault diagnosis of a motor rotor.

  14. Fusion Based on Visible Light Positioning and Inertial Navigation Using Extended Kalman Filters.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhitian; Feng, Lihui; Yang, Aiying

    2017-05-11

    With the rapid development of smart technology, the need for location-based services (LBS) increases every day. Since classical positioning technology such as GPS cannot satisfy the needs of indoor positioning, new indoor positioning technologies, such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and Visible light communication (VLC), have already cut a figure. VLC positioning has been proposed because it has higher accuracy, costs less, and is easier to accomplish in comparison to the other indoor positioning technologies. However, the practicality of VLC positioning is limited since it is easily affected by multipath effects and the layout of LEDs. Thus, we propose a fusion positioning system based on extended Kalman filters, which can fuse the VLC position and the inertial navigation data. The accuracy of the fusion positioning system is in centimeters, which is better compared to the VLC-based positioning or inertial navigation alone. Furthermore, the fusion positioning system has high accuracy, saves energy, costs little, and is easy to install, making it a promising candidate for future indoor positioning applications.

  15. Speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images using a discrete wavelet transform-based image fusion technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Sung Min; Park, Sung Yun

    2015-01-01

    Here, the speckle noise in ultrasonic images is removed using an image fusion-based denoising method. To optimize the denoising performance, each discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and filtering technique was analyzed and compared. In addition, the performances were compared in order to derive the optimal input conditions. To evaluate the speckle noise removal performance, an image fusion algorithm was applied to the ultrasound images, and comparatively analyzed with the original image without the algorithm. As a result, applying DWT and filtering techniques caused information loss and noise characteristics, and did not represent the most significant noise reduction performance. Conversely, an image fusion method applying SRAD-original conditions preserved the key information in the original image, and the speckle noise was removed. Based on such characteristics, the input conditions of SRAD-original had the best denoising performance with the ultrasound images. From this study, the best denoising technique proposed based on the results was confirmed to have a high potential for clinical application.

  16. The design of red-blue 3D video fusion system based on DM642

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rongguo; Luo, Hao; Lv, Jin; Feng, Shu; Wei, Yifang; Zhang, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at the uncertainty of traditional 3D video capturing including camera focal lengths, distance and angle parameters between two cameras, a red-blue 3D video fusion system based on DM642 hardware processing platform is designed with the parallel optical axis. In view of the brightness reduction of traditional 3D video, the brightness enhancement algorithm based on human visual characteristics is proposed and the luminance component processing method based on YCbCr color space is also proposed. The BIOS real-time operating system is used to improve the real-time performance. The video processing circuit with the core of DM642 enhances the brightness of the images, then converts the video signals of YCbCr to RGB and extracts the R component from one camera, so does the other video and G, B component are extracted synchronously, outputs 3D fusion images finally. The real-time adjustments such as translation and scaling of the two color components are realized through the serial communication between the VC software and BIOS. The system with the method of adding red-blue components reduces the lost of the chrominance components and makes the picture color saturation reduce to more than 95% of the original. Enhancement algorithm after optimization to reduce the amount of data fusion in the processing of video is used to reduce the fusion time and watching effect is improved. Experimental results show that the system can capture images in near distance, output red-blue 3D video and presents the nice experiences to the audience wearing red-blue glasses.

  17. Design and development of high-temperature superconducting magnet system with joint-winding for the helical fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, N.; Ito, S.; Terazaki, Y.; Seino, Y.; Hamaguchi, S.; Tamura, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.

    2015-05-01

    An innovative winding method is developed by connecting high-temperature superconducting (HTS) conductors to enable efficient construction of a magnet system for the helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. A large-current capacity HTS conductor, referred to as STARS, is being developed by the incorporation of several innovative ideas, such as the simple stacking of state-of-the-art yttrium barium copper oxide tapes embedded in a copper jacket, surrounded by electrical insulation inside a conductor, and an outer stainless-steel jacket cooled by helium gas. A prototype conductor sample was fabricated and reached a current of 100 kA at a bias magnetic field of 5.3 T with the temperature at 20 K. At 4.2 K, the maximum current reached was 120 kA, and a current of 100 kA was successfully sustained for 1 h. A low-resistance bridge-type mechanical lap joint was developed and a joint resistance of 2 nΩ was experimentally confirmed for the conductor sample.

  18. Real-Virtual Fusion Manufacturing Scheduling with Social Contract Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yi; Fujii, Nobutada; Kaihara, Toshiya; Fujii, Susumu; Umeda, Toyohiro

    In this study, a new concept named Real-Virtual Fusion Manufacturing System (RVF-MS) is proposed, which aims to adaptively and effectively deal with both external and internal fluctuations in production by realizing a fusion between real production shop floor (real system) and virtual manufacturing system model (virtual system). In order to realize the proposed methodology, multi-agent system is used for constructing dynamic model in virtual system. In this paper, a new production scheduling mechanism at planning phase for RVF-MS is proposed, where a social contract based approach, named Combinatorial Auction (CA), with Local Search method is applied. The effectiveness of RVF-MS is verified by computational experiments for flexible flow shop problem.

  19. Bearing fault identification by higher order energy operator fusion: A non-resonance based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghidi, H.; Liang, M.

    2016-10-01

    We report a non-resonance based approach to bearing fault detection. This is achieved by a higher order energy operator fusion (HOEO_F) method. In this method, multiple higher order energy operators are fused to form a single simple transform to process the bearing signal obscured by noise and vibration interferences. The fusion is guided by entropy minimization. Unlike the popular high frequency resonance technique, this method does not require the information of resonance excited by the bearing fault. The effects of the HOEO_F method on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) are illustrated in this paper. The performance of the proposed method in handling noise and interferences has been examined using both simulated and experimental data. The results indicate that the HOEO_F method outperforms both the envelope method and the original energy operator method.

  20. Multi-focus image fusion and robust encryption algorithm based on compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Di; Wang, Lan; Xiang, Tao; Wang, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Multi-focus image fusion schemes have been studied in recent years. However, little work has been done in multi-focus image transmission security. This paper proposes a scheme that can reduce data transmission volume and resist various attacks. First, multi-focus image fusion based on wavelet decomposition can generate complete scene images and optimize the perception of the human eye. The fused images are sparsely represented with DCT and sampled with structurally random matrix (SRM), which reduces the data volume and realizes the initial encryption. Then the obtained measurements are further encrypted to resist noise and crop attack through combining permutation and diffusion stages. At the receiver, the cipher images can be jointly decrypted and reconstructed. Simulation results demonstrate the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  1. Performance improvement of classifier fusion for batch samples based on upper integral.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui-Min; Wang, Xi-Zhao

    2015-03-01

    The generalization ability of ELM can be improved by fusing a number of individual ELMs. This paper proposes a new scheme of fusing ELMs based on upper integrals, which differs from all the existing fuzzy integral models of classifier fusion. The new scheme uses the upper integral to reasonably assign tested samples to different ELMs for maximizing the classification efficiency. By solving an optimization problem of upper integrals, we obtain the proportions of assigning samples to different ELMs and their combinations. The definition of upper integral guarantees such a conclusion that the classification accuracy of the fused ELM is not less than that of any individual ELM theoretically. Numerical simulations demonstrate that most existing fusion methodologies such as Bagging and Boosting can be improved by our upper integral model.

  2. Synthetic Aperture Radar Target Recognition with Feature Fusion Based on a Stacked Autoencoder.

    PubMed

    Kang, Miao; Ji, Kefeng; Leng, Xiangguang; Xing, Xiangwei; Zou, Huanxin

    2017-01-20

    Feature extraction is a crucial step for any automatic target recognition process, especially in the interpretation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In order to obtain distinctive features, this paper proposes a feature fusion algorithm for SAR target recognition based on a stacked autoencoder (SAE). The detailed procedure presented in this paper can be summarized as follows: firstly, 23 baseline features and Three-Patch Local Binary Pattern (TPLBP) features are extracted. These features can describe the global and local aspects of the image with less redundancy and more complementarity, providing richer information for feature fusion. Secondly, an effective feature fusion network is designed. Baseline and TPLBP features are cascaded and fed into a SAE. Then, with an unsupervised learning algorithm, the SAE is pre-trained by greedy layer-wise training method. Capable of feature expression, SAE makes the fused features more distinguishable. Finally, the model is fine-tuned by a softmax classifier and applied to the classification of targets. 10-class SAR targets based on Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) dataset got a classification accuracy up to 95.43%, which verifies the effectiveness of the presented algorithm.

  3. Synthetic Aperture Radar Target Recognition with Feature Fusion Based on a Stacked Autoencoder

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Miao; Ji, Kefeng; Leng, Xiangguang; Xing, Xiangwei; Zou, Huanxin

    2017-01-01

    Feature extraction is a crucial step for any automatic target recognition process, especially in the interpretation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In order to obtain distinctive features, this paper proposes a feature fusion algorithm for SAR target recognition based on a stacked autoencoder (SAE). The detailed procedure presented in this paper can be summarized as follows: firstly, 23 baseline features and Three-Patch Local Binary Pattern (TPLBP) features are extracted. These features can describe the global and local aspects of the image with less redundancy and more complementarity, providing richer information for feature fusion. Secondly, an effective feature fusion network is designed. Baseline and TPLBP features are cascaded and fed into a SAE. Then, with an unsupervised learning algorithm, the SAE is pre-trained by greedy layer-wise training method. Capable of feature expression, SAE makes the fused features more distinguishable. Finally, the model is fine-tuned by a softmax classifier and applied to the classification of targets. 10-class SAR targets based on Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) dataset got a classification accuracy up to 95.43%, which verifies the effectiveness of the presented algorithm. PMID:28117689

  4. Generalized TV and sparse decomposition of the ultrasound image deconvolution model based on fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qiaonong; Wan, Suiren

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound image deconvolution involves noise reduction and image feature enhancement, denoising need equivalent the low-pass filtering, image feature enhancement is to strengthen the high-frequency parts, these two requirements are often combined together. It is a contradictory requirement that we must be reasonable balance between these two basic requirements. Image deconvolution method of partial differential equation model is the method based on diffusion theory, and sparse decomposition deconvolution is image representation-based method. The mechanisms of these two methods are not the same, effect of these two methods own characteristics. In contourlet transform domain, we combine the strengths of the two deconvolution method together by image fusion, and introduce the entropy of local orientation energy ratio into fusion decision-making, make a different treatment according to the actual situation on the low-frequency part of the coefficients and the high-frequency part of the coefficient. As deconvolution process is inevitably blurred image edge information, we fusion the edge gray-scale image information to the deconvolution results in order to compensate the missing edge information. Experiments show that our method is better than the effect separate of using deconvolution method, and restore part of the image edge information.

  5. Segmentation by fusion of histogram-based k-means clusters in different color spaces.

    PubMed

    Mignotte, Max

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a new, simple, and efficient segmentation approach, based on a fusion procedure which aims at combining several segmentation maps associated to simpler partition models in order to finally get a more reliable and accurate segmentation result. The different label fields to be fused in our application are given by the same and simple (K-means based) clustering technique on an input image expressed in different color spaces. Our fusion strategy aims at combining these segmentation maps with a final clustering procedure using as input features, the local histogram of the class labels, previously estimated and associated to each site and for all these initial partitions. This fusion framework remains simple to implement, fast, general enough to be applied to various computer vision applications (e.g., motion detection and segmentation), and has been successfully applied on the Berkeley image database. The experiments herein reported in this paper illustrate the potential of this approach compared to the state-of-the-art segmentation methods recently proposed in the literature.

  6. Fusion of classifiers for REIS-based detection of suspicious breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Dror; Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Sumkin, Jules H.; Tublin, Mitchell; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    After developing a multi-probe resonance-frequency electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system aimed at detecting women with breast abnormalities that may indicate a developing breast cancer, we have been conducting a prospective clinical study to explore the feasibility of applying this REIS system to classify younger women (< 50 years old) into two groups of "higher-than-average risk" and "average risk" of having or developing breast cancer. The system comprises one central probe placed in contact with the nipple, and six additional probes uniformly distributed along an outside circle to be placed in contact with six points on the outer breast skin surface. In this preliminary study, we selected an initial set of 174 examinations on participants that have completed REIS examinations and have clinical status verification. Among these, 66 examinations were recommended for biopsy due to findings of a highly suspicious breast lesion ("positives"), and 108 were determined as negative during imaging based procedures ("negatives"). A set of REIS-based features, extracted using a mirror-matched approach, was computed and fed into five machine learning classifiers. A genetic algorithm was used to select an optimal subset of features for each of the five classifiers. Three fusion rules, namely sum rule, weighted sum rule and weighted median rule, were used to combine the results of the classifiers. Performance evaluation was performed using a leave-one-case-out cross-validation method. The results indicated that REIS may provide a new technology to identify younger women with higher than average risk of having or developing breast cancer. Furthermore, it was shown that fusion rule, such as a weighted median fusion rule and a weighted sum fusion rule may improve performance as compared with the highest performing single classifier.

  7. Benchmarking of data fusion algorithms in support of earth observation based Antarctic wildlife monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witharana, Chandi; LaRue, Michelle A.; Lynch, Heather J.

    2016-03-01

    Remote sensing is a rapidly developing tool for mapping the abundance and distribution of Antarctic wildlife. While both panchromatic and multispectral imagery have been used in this context, image fusion techniques have received little attention. We tasked seven widely-used fusion algorithms: Ehlers fusion, hyperspherical color space fusion, high-pass fusion, principal component analysis (PCA) fusion, University of New Brunswick fusion, and wavelet-PCA fusion to resolution enhance a series of single-date QuickBird-2 and Worldview-2 image scenes comprising penguin guano, seals, and vegetation. Fused images were assessed for spectral and spatial fidelity using a variety of quantitative quality indicators and visual inspection methods. Our visual evaluation elected the high-pass fusion algorithm and the University of New Brunswick fusion algorithm as best for manual wildlife detection while the quantitative assessment suggested the Gram-Schmidt fusion algorithm and the University of New Brunswick fusion algorithm as best for automated classification. The hyperspherical color space fusion algorithm exhibited mediocre results in terms of spectral and spatial fidelities. The PCA fusion algorithm showed spatial superiority at the expense of spectral inconsistencies. The Ehlers fusion algorithm and the wavelet-PCA algorithm showed the weakest performances. As remote sensing becomes a more routine method of surveying Antarctic wildlife, these benchmarks will provide guidance for image fusion and pave the way for more standardized products for specific types of wildlife surveys.

  8. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  9. Multi-platform Chlorophyll and Sea Surface Temperature data fusion for Potential Fishing Zone detection using MODIS/VIIRS and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaradia, M. T.; Tijani, K.; Morea, A.; Nutricato, R.; Guerriero, L.; Giannini, L.; Nannucci, L.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing data are being successfully used in several countries to localize potential fishing zones (PFZ). Oceanographic conditions related to water temperature and nutrient distribution strongly influence natural concentration of fish stocks and can be identified as oceanic upwelling fronts using information about Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll Concentration (CHL) obtained from satellite data. In this context, the present work illustrates a satellite-based near-real time fishery forecasting system tuned for the Adriatic Sea in order to help fishermen in saving fuel and ship time. More specifically, we developed an innovative multi-mission, multi-sensor and multi-temporal data fusion technique for the automatic identification of the upwelling fronts from the geometry of the distribution of the SST and CHL and of their gradients, using observations from the ocean color MODIS sensors of Terra and Aqua NASA satellites in conjunction with appropriate data from the VIIRS sensor on the Suomi/NPP satellite. To this aim, precision geo-referencing and masking procedures were used to allow automatic selection of good quality pixels. A time stack of the final maps has been obtained as three-day running average with one-day step, taking into account the average local duration of the upwelling fronts. Finally, a gradient-based edge detection algorithm using the Canny filter has been applied to each of the three-day composite maps, based on the distribution of the SST and CHL and of their gradients, for the determination of the fronts as potential fishing zones. The procedure is being validated using the geographic information of categorized fish Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) of the 2013 fishing campaigns of the FEDERPESCA fleet, as part of the project "Sustainable Fishery", funded by Apulia Region, in Southern Italy (FEP 2007-2013 - Measure 3.1 ), for the development of a satellite-based near-real time fishery forecasting system to be used in the

  10. Experimental Electron Temperature Gradient Dependence of Heavy Impurity Transport in Fusion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Villegas, D.; Guirlet, R.; Bourdelle, C.; Hoang, G. T.; Garbet, X.; Sabot, R.

    2010-07-16

    The turbulent impurity (nickel) transport dependence on the normalized electron temperature gradient has been analyzed in sawtooth-free electron cyclotron wave heated Tore Supra plasmas. In the core, our experimental analysis shows that the lower R/L{sub T{sub e}}, the lower the nickel diffusion coefficient. The latter decreases until the instability threshold is reached. The experimental threshold is in agreement with the one computed by a gyrokinetic model. Further out, R/L{sub T{sub e}} plays no role in the impurity diffusion. This set of experimental results is consistent with a quasilinear gyrokinetic analysis.

  11. An Improved Multi-Sensor Fusion Navigation Algorithm Based on the Factor Graph.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qinghua; Chen, Weina; Liu, Jianye; Wang, Huizhe

    2017-03-21

    An integrated navigation system coupled with additional sensors can be used in the Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MUAV) applications because the multi-sensor information is redundant and complementary, which can markedly improve the system accuracy. How to deal with the information gathered from different sensors efficiently is an important problem. The fact that different sensors provide measurements asynchronously may complicate the processing of these measurements. In addition, the output signals of some sensors appear to have a non-linear character. In order to incorporate these measurements and calculate a navigation solution in real time, the multi-sensor fusion algorithm based on factor graph is proposed. The global optimum solution is factorized according to the chain structure of the factor graph, which allows for a more general form of the conditional probability density. It can convert the fusion matter into connecting factors defined by these measurements to the graph without considering the relationship between the sensor update frequency and the fusion period. An experimental MUAV system has been built and some experiments have been performed to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Multi-modal image fusion based on ROI and Laplacian Pyramid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiong; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hao; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a region of interest-based (ROI-adaptive) fusion algorithm of infrared and visible images by using the Laplacian Pyramid method. Firstly, we estimate the saliency map of infrared images, and then divide the infrared image into two parts: the regions of interest (RoI) and the regions of non-interest (nRoI), by normalizing the saliency map. Visible images are also segmented into two parts by using the Gauss High-pass filter: the regions of high frequency (RoH) and the regions of low frequency (RoL). Secondly, we down-sampled both the nRoI of infrared image and the RoL of visible image as the input of next level processing. Finally, we use normalized saliency map of infrared images as the weighted coefficient to get the basic image on the top level and choose max gray value of the RoI of infrared image and the RoH of visible image to get the detail image. In this way, our method can keep target feature of infrared image and texture detail information of visual image at the same time. Experiment results show that such fusion scheme performs better than the other fusion algorithms both on human visual system and quantitative metrics.

  13. Wavelet-Based Visible and Infrared Image Fusion: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sappa, Angel D.; Carvajal, Juan A.; Aguilera, Cristhian A.; Oliveira, Miguel; Romero, Dennis; Vintimilla, Boris X.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates different wavelet-based cross-spectral image fusion strategies adopted to merge visible and infrared images. The objective is to find the best setup independently of the evaluation metric used to measure the performance. Quantitative performance results are obtained with state of the art approaches together with adaptations proposed in the current work. The options evaluated in the current work result from the combination of different setups in the wavelet image decomposition stage together with different fusion strategies for the final merging stage that generates the resulting representation. Most of the approaches evaluate results according to the application for which they are intended for. Sometimes a human observer is selected to judge the quality of the obtained results. In the current work, quantitative values are considered in order to find correlations between setups and performance of obtained results; these correlations can be used to define a criteria for selecting the best fusion strategy for a given pair of cross-spectral images. The whole procedure is evaluated with a large set of correctly registered visible and infrared image pairs, including both Near InfraRed (NIR) and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR). PMID:27294938

  14. Estimating legal age based on fusion of The proximal humeral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, María Benito; Codinha, Sónia; García, Alexandra Muñoz; Sánchez, José Antonio Sánchez

    2016-12-06

    The increasing demand which requires ascertaining the legal age of undocumented individuals who reach the various countries of the European Community means that new lines of research must be developed which help respond to questions posed by the Justice Administration. For this reason, this study has been designed on the basis of fusion times of the proximal humeral epiphysis. Moreover, the ultrasound scan has been used as the diagnostic method. It is a non-invasive technique, unlike the radiograph, which is used under current standards for the forensic diagnosis of age. Used as a study sample were the ultrasound images of the proximal humeral epiphysis among 221 individuals belonging to the Spanish population, of both genders, of ages ranging from 5 to 30 years. All of the images were classified into 6 stages of fusion based on the morphology of each. The results display differences among the six age groups proposed for each of the stages of fusion and are of great interest from the perspective of enforcing the Spanish Criminal Law Act on Minors, because Stage 4 would mean that the person being studied is under the age of 16 years in the case of males and 15 years in the case of females. These results, coupled with the use of ultrasound as a non-invasive diagnostic technique, make this study a very useful method when the use of radiographs is not possible.

  15. Wavelet-Based Visible and Infrared Image Fusion: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Sappa, Angel D; Carvajal, Juan A; Aguilera, Cristhian A; Oliveira, Miguel; Romero, Dennis; Vintimilla, Boris X

    2016-06-10

    This paper evaluates different wavelet-based cross-spectral image fusion strategies adopted to merge visible and infrared images. The objective is to find the best setup independently of the evaluation metric used to measure the performance. Quantitative performance results are obtained with state of the art approaches together with adaptations proposed in the current work. The options evaluated in the current work result from the combination of different setups in the wavelet image decomposition stage together with different fusion strategies for the final merging stage that generates the resulting representation. Most of the approaches evaluate results according to the application for which they are intended for. Sometimes a human observer is selected to judge the quality of the obtained results. In the current work, quantitative values are considered in order to find correlations between setups and performance of obtained results; these correlations can be used to define a criteria for selecting the best fusion strategy for a given pair of cross-spectral images. The whole procedure is evaluated with a large set of correctly registered visible and infrared image pairs, including both Near InfraRed (NIR) and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR).

  16. An Improved Multi-Sensor Fusion Navigation Algorithm Based on the Factor Graph

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinghua; Chen, Weina; Liu, Jianye; Wang, Huizhe

    2017-01-01

    An integrated navigation system coupled with additional sensors can be used in the Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MUAV) applications because the multi-sensor information is redundant and complementary, which can markedly improve the system accuracy. How to deal with the information gathered from different sensors efficiently is an important problem. The fact that different sensors provide measurements asynchronously may complicate the processing of these measurements. In addition, the output signals of some sensors appear to have a non-linear character. In order to incorporate these measurements and calculate a navigation solution in real time, the multi-sensor fusion algorithm based on factor graph is proposed. The global optimum solution is factorized according to the chain structure of the factor graph, which allows for a more general form of the conditional probability density. It can convert the fusion matter into connecting factors defined by these measurements to the graph without considering the relationship between the sensor update frequency and the fusion period. An experimental MUAV system has been built and some experiments have been performed to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:28335570

  17. Test technology on divergence angle of laser range finder based on CCD imaging fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Sheng-bing; Chen, Zhen-xing; Lv, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Laser range finder has been equipped with all kinds of weapons, such as tank, ship, plane and so on, is important component of fire control system. Divergence angle is important performance and incarnation of horizontal resolving power for laser range finder, is necessary appraised test item in appraisal test. In this paper, based on high accuracy test on divergence angle of laser range finder, divergence angle test system is designed based on CCD imaging, divergence angle of laser range finder is acquired through fusion technology for different attenuation imaging, problem that CCD characteristic influences divergence angle test is solved.

  18. Human Perivascular Stem Cell-Based Bone Graft Substitute Induces Rat Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Choon G.; James, Aaron W.; Asatrian, Greg; Chang, Le; Nguyen, Alan; Le, Khoi; Bayani, Georgina; Lee, Robert; Stoker, David; Zhang, Xinli

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because of its abundance and accessibility. We have previously defined a population of native MSCs termed perivascular stem cells (PSCs), purified from diverse human tissues, including adipose tissue. Human PSCs (hPSCs) are a bipartite cell population composed of pericytes (CD146+CD34−CD45−) and adventitial cells (CD146−CD34+CD45−), isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and with properties identical to those of culture identified MSCs. Our previous studies showed that hPSCs exhibit improved bone formation compared with a sample-matched unpurified population (termed stromal vascular fraction); however, it is not known whether hPSCs would be efficacious in a spinal fusion model. To investigate, we evaluated the osteogenic potential of freshly sorted hPSCs without culture expansion and differentiation in a rat model of posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion. We compared increasing dosages of implanted hPSCs to assess for dose-dependent efficacy. All hPSC treatment groups induced successful spinal fusion, assessed by manual palpation and microcomputed tomography. Computerized biomechanical simulation (finite element analysis) further demonstrated bone fusion with hPSC treatment. Histological analyses showed robust endochondral ossification in hPSC-treated samples. Finally, we confirmed that implanted hPSCs indeed differentiated into osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the majority of the new bone formation was of host origin. These results suggest that implanted hPSCs positively regulate bone formation via direct and paracrine mechanisms. In summary, hPSCs are a readily available MSC population that effectively forms bone without requirements for culture or predifferentiation. Thus, hPSC-based products show promise for future efforts in clinical bone regeneration and repair. PMID:25154782

  19. Person re-identification across aerial and ground-based cameras by deep feature fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Arne; Metzler, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Person re-identification is the task of correctly matching visual appearances of the same person in image or video data while distinguishing appearances of different persons. The traditional setup for re-identification is a network of fixed cameras. However, in recent years mobile aerial cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become increasingly useful for security and surveillance tasks. Aerial data has many characteristics different from typical camera network data. Thus, re-identification approaches designed for a camera network scenario can be expected to suffer a drop in accuracy when applied to aerial data. In this work, we investigate the suitability of features, which were shown to give robust results for re- identification in camera networks, for the task of re-identifying persons between a camera network and a mobile aerial camera. Specifically, we apply hand-crafted region covariance features and features extracted by convolu- tional neural networks which were learned on separate data. We evaluate their suitability for this new and as yet unexplored scenario. We investigate common fusion methods to combine the hand-crafted and learned features and propose our own deep fusion approach which is already applied during training of the deep network. We evaluate features and fusion methods on our own dataset. The dataset consists of fourteen people moving through a scene recorded by four fixed ground-based cameras and one mobile camera mounted on a small UAV. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of the features in the new scenario and show that our fusion approach successfully leverages the strengths of each feature and outperforms all single features significantly.

  20. Human perivascular stem cell-based bone graft substitute induces rat spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Choon G; James, Aaron W; Asatrian, Greg; Chang, Le; Nguyen, Alan; Le, Khoi; Bayani, Georgina; Lee, Robert; Stoker, David; Zhang, Xinli; Ting, Kang; Péault, Bruno; Soo, Chia

    2014-10-01

    Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because of its abundance and accessibility. We have previously defined a population of native MSCs termed perivascular stem cells (PSCs), purified from diverse human tissues, including adipose tissue. Human PSCs (hPSCs) are a bipartite cell population composed of pericytes (CD146+CD34-CD45-) and adventitial cells (CD146-CD34+CD45-), isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and with properties identical to those of culture identified MSCs. Our previous studies showed that hPSCs exhibit improved bone formation compared with a sample-matched unpurified population (termed stromal vascular fraction); however, it is not known whether hPSCs would be efficacious in a spinal fusion model. To investigate, we evaluated the osteogenic potential of freshly sorted hPSCs without culture expansion and differentiation in a rat model of posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion. We compared increasing dosages of implanted hPSCs to assess for dose-dependent efficacy. All hPSC treatment groups induced successful spinal fusion, assessed by manual palpation and microcomputed tomography. Computerized biomechanical simulation (finite element analysis) further demonstrated bone fusion with hPSC treatment. Histological analyses showed robust endochondral ossification in hPSC-treated samples. Finally, we confirmed that implanted hPSCs indeed differentiated into osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the majority of the new bone formation was of host origin. These results suggest that implanted hPSCs positively regulate bone formation via direct and paracrine mechanisms. In summary, hPSCs are a readily available MSC population that effectively forms bone without requirements for culture or predifferentiation. Thus, hPSC-based products show promise for future efforts in clinical bone regeneration and repair. ©AlphaMed Press.

  1. Low temperature embrittlement behaviour of different ferritic-martensitic alloys for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.

    1996-10-01

    In the last few years a lot of different low activation CrWVTa steels have been developed world-wide. Without irradiation some of these alloys show clearly a better low temperature embrittlement behaviour than commercial CrNiMoV(Nb) alloys. Within the MANITU project a study was carried out to compare, prior to the irradiation program, the embrittlement behaviour of different alloys in the unirradiated condition performing instrumented Charpy impact bending tests with sub-size specimens. The low activation materials (LAM) considered were different OPTIFER alloys (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe), F82H (JAERI), 9Cr2WVTa (ORNL), and GA3X (PNL). The modified commercial 10-11% CrNiMoVNb steels were MANET and OPTIMAR. A meaningful comparison between these alloys could be drawn, since the specimens of all materials were manufactured and tested under the same conditions.

  2. A comparative evaluation of wear of enamel caused by ceramics with different fusion temperatures.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Meenakshi; Jain, Deshraj

    2013-12-01

    Dental ceramics are the most used esthetic fixed Prosthodontic restorative material today. However, dentists remain suspicious about their potential abrasivity. Lower-fusing ceramic materials developed, are claimed to be wear friendly. This study was conducted to compare the wear of enamel of extracted teeth against one conventionally used ceramic VMK-95 (fusing temperature 930 °C) and two new lower-fusing ceramics-Omega 900 and Finesse with fusing temperatures 900 and 760 °C respectively, used for metal-ceramic restorations. Metal disks were prepared from ceramic alloy and divided into three groups of 10 disks each on which VMK-95, Omega 900 and Finesse ceramics were applied respectively. Ceramic disks and tooth specimen were mounted on custom-made wear simulator and subjected to predefined masticatory test. Each tooth specimen was profiled by laser triangulation sensor before and after masticatory test. Difference in height was calculated. The results showed that mean loss of height of tooth was least against Finesse (0.3431 + 0.0177 mm) followed by Omega 900 (0.4076 + 0.0135 mm) and VMK-95 (0.6177 + 0.014 mm). Statistical analysis revealed statistically significant difference between VMK-95 & Omega 900 and VMK-95 & Finesse. The difference in loss of height of tooth against Finesse & Omega 900 is statistically insignificant (P < 0.001). The results of this study indicate that lower-fusing dental ceramics cause less wear of opposing enamel.

  3. The Mechanical and material properties of 316LN austenitic stainless steel for the fusion application in cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sas, J.; Weiss, K.-P.; Jung, A.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the constant increase of claims for all materials used in superconducting magnets in "magnetic fusion reactors", the article deals with the possibilities of increasing the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel tested at cryogenic conditions that ensure the transport of Helium to magnets. The aim of the experimental plan was to increase the mechanical properties of the steel grade 316LN tested at 4.2K from the original value Steel A: YS = 1045 MPa, UTS = 1528 MPa, A = 33% to the value of YS = 1204 MPa,UTS = 1642 MPa, A = 34% and Steel B: YS = 1173 MPa, UTS = 1541 MPa, A = 28% to the value of YS = 1351 MPa, UTS = 1645 MPa, A = 17%. The increase in mechanical properties of the steel grade under examination has been made by means of heat processing in the conditions of annealing: Th1 = 625 ° C / th1 = 696 h. The mechanical properties of steel were evaluated using static tension tests at 4,2 K. The samples were placed in a cryostat filled with liquid helium. Except for the mechanical properties, there were also evaluated structural changes depending on the conditions of heat processing by light optical microscopy and EBSD (Electron Backscatter Diffraction). The increase of steel properties used in low temperatures was achieved by heat processing.

  4. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 mum of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb 83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by

  5. Research on HDR image fusion algorithm based on Laplace pyramid weight transform with extreme low-light CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Wen; Li, Li; Jin, Weiqi; Qiu, Su; Zou, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Extreme-Low-Light CMOS has been widely applied in the field of night-vision as a new type of solid image sensor. But if the illumination in the scene has drastic changes or the illumination is too strong, Extreme-Low-Light CMOS can't both clearly present the high-light scene and low-light region. According to the partial saturation problem in the field of night-vision, a HDR image fusion algorithm based on the Laplace Pyramid was researched. The overall gray value and the contrast of the low light image is very low. We choose the fusion strategy based on regional average gradient for the top layer of the long exposure image and short exposure image, which has rich brightness and textural features. The remained layers which represent the edge feature information of the target are based on the fusion strategy based on regional energy. In the process of source image reconstruction with Laplacian pyramid image, we compare the fusion results with four kinds of basal images. The algorithm is tested using Matlab and compared with the different fusion strategies. We use information entropy, average gradient and standard deviation these three objective evaluation parameters for the further analysis of the fusion result. Different low illumination environment experiments show that the algorithm in this paper can rapidly get wide dynamic range while keeping high entropy. Through the verification of this algorithm features, there is a further application prospect of the optimized algorithm. Keywords: high dynamic range imaging, image fusion, multi-exposure image, weight coefficient, information fusion, Laplacian pyramid transform.

  6. Intermetallic-Based High-Temperature Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-04-25

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminizes are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  7. Fusion activity of influenza virus PR8/34 correlates with a temperature-induced conformational change within the hemagglutinin ectodomain detected by photochemical labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, J.; Zugliani, C. ); Mischler, R. )

    1991-03-05

    Fusion of influenza viruses with membranes is catalyzed by the viral spike protein hemagglutinin (HA). Under mildly acidic conditions ({approximately}pH 5) this protein undergoes a conformational change that triggers the exposure of the fusion peptide, the hydrophobic N-terminal segment of the HA2 polypeptide chain. Insertion of this segment into the target membrane (or viral membrane ) is likely to represent a key step along the fusion pathway, but the details are far from being clear. The photoreactive phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-(11-(4-(3-(trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl)phenyl)(2-{sup 3}H)undecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (({sup 3}H)PTPC/11), inserted into the bilayer of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), allowed the authors to investigate both the interaction of viruses with the vesicles under perfusion conditions and the fusion process itself occurring at elevated temperatures only. Despite the observed binding of viruses to LUVs at pH 5 and 0C, labeling of HA2 was very weak. They have studied also the effect of temperature on the acid-induced (pH 5) interaction of bromelain-solubilized HA (BHA) with vesicles.

  8. Fusion of hyperspectral and lidar data based on dimension reduction and maximum likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, B.; Arefi, H.; Bigdeli, B.; Motagh, M.; Roessner, S.

    2015-04-01

    Limitations and deficiencies of different remote sensing sensors in extraction of different objects caused fusion of data from different sensors to become more widespread for improving classification results. Using a variety of data which are provided from different sensors, increase the spatial and the spectral accuracy. Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) data fused together with hyperspectral images (HSI) provide rich data for classification of the surface objects. Lidar data representing high quality geometric information plays a key role for segmentation and classification of elevated features such as buildings and trees. On the other hand, hyperspectral data containing high spectral resolution would support high distinction between the objects having different spectral information such as soil, water, and grass. This paper presents a fusion methodology on Lidar and hyperspectral data for improving classification accuracy in urban areas. In first step, we applied feature extraction strategies on each data separately. In this step, texture features based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) from Lidar data and PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and MNF (Minimum Noise Fraction) based dimension reduction methods for HSI are generated. In second step, a Maximum Likelihood (ML) based classification method is applied on each feature spaces. Finally, a fusion method is applied to fuse the results of classification. A co-registered hyperspectral and Lidar data from University of Houston was utilized to examine the result of the proposed method. This data contains nine classes: Building, Tree, Grass, Soil, Water, Road, Parking, Tennis Court and Running Track. Experimental investigation proves the improvement of classification accuracy to 88%.

  9. Combining elements of information fusion and knowledge-based systems to support situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Jean

    2006-04-01

    Situation awareness has emerged as an important concept in military and public security environments. Situation analysis is defined as a process, the examination of a situation, its elements, and their relations, to provide and maintain a product, i.e., a state of situation awareness for the decision maker(s). It is well established that information fusion, defined as the process of utilizing one or more information sources over time to assemble a representation of aspects of interest in an environment, is a key enabler to meeting the demanding requirements of situation analysis. However, although information fusion is important, developing and adopting a knowledge-centric view of situation analysis should provide a more holistic perspective of this process. This is based on the notion that awareness ultimately has to do with having knowledge of something. Moreover, not all of the situation elements and relationships of interest are directly observable. Those aspects of interest that cannot be observed must be inferred, i.e., derived as a conclusion from facts or premises, or by reasoning from evidence. This paper discusses aspects of knowledge, and how it can be acquired from experts, formally represented and stored in knowledge bases to be exploited by computer programs, and validated. Knowledge engineering is reviewed, with emphasis given to cognitive and ontological engineering. Facets of reasoning are discussed, along with inferencing methods that can be used in computer applications. Finally, combining elements of information fusion and knowledge-based systems, an overall approach and framework for the building of situation analysis support systems is presented.

  10. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-15

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  11. Iterative structure-based improvement of a fusion-glycoprotein vaccine against RSV.

    PubMed

    Joyce, M Gordon; Zhang, Baoshan; Ou, Li; Chen, Man; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Kong, Wing-Pui; Lai, Yen-Ting; Rundlet, Emily J; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Yang, Yongping; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Guttman, Miklos; Lees, Christopher R; Pancera, Marie; Sastry, Mallika; Soto, Cinque; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B E; Thomas, Paul V; Van Galen, Joseph G; Baxa, Ulrich; Lee, Kelly K; Mascola, John R; Graham, Barney S; Kwong, Peter D

    2016-09-01

    Structure-based design of vaccines, particularly the iterative optimization used so successfully in the structure-based design of drugs, has been a long-sought goal. We previously developed a first-generation vaccine antigen called DS-Cav1, comprising a prefusion-stabilized form of the fusion (F) glycoprotein, which elicits high-titer protective responses against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in mice and macaques. Here we report the improvement of DS-Cav1 through iterative cycles of structure-based design that significantly increased the titer of RSV-protective responses. The resultant second-generation 'DS2'-stabilized immunogens have their F subunits genetically linked, their fusion peptides deleted and their interprotomer movements stabilized by an additional disulfide bond. These DS2 immunogens are promising vaccine candidates with superior attributes, such as their lack of a requirement for furin cleavage and their increased antigenic stability against heat inactivation. The iterative structure-based improvement described here may have utility in the optimization of other vaccine antigens.

  12. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  13. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  14. Fusion angle affects intervertebral adjacent spinal segment joint forces-Model-based analysis of patient specific alignment.

    PubMed

    Senteler, Marco; Weisse, Bernhard; Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Farshad, Mazda T; Snedeker, Jess G

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the hypothesis that adjacent segment intervertebral joint loads are sensitive to the degree of lordosis that is surgically imposed during vertebral fusion. Adjacent segment degeneration is often observed after lumbar fusion, but a causative mechanism is not yet clearly evident. Altered kinematics of the adjacent segments and potentially nonphysiological mechanical joint loads have been implicated in this process. However, little is known of how altered alignment and kinematics influence loading of the adjacent intervertebral joints under consideration of active muscle forces. This study investigated these effects by simulating L4/5 fusions using kinematics-driven musculoskeletal models of one generic and eight sagittal alignment-specific models. Models featured different spinopelvic configurations but were normalized by body height, masses, and muscle properties. Fusion of the L4/5 segment was implemented in an in situ (22°), hyperlordotic (32°), and hypolordotic (8°) fashion and kinematic input parameters were changed accordingly based on findings of an in vitro investigation. Bending motion from upright standing to 45° forward flexion and back was simulated for all models in intact and fused conditions. Joint loads at adjacent levels and moment arms of spinal muscles experienced changes after all types of fusion. Hypolordotic configuration led to an increase of adjacent segment (L3/4) shear forces of 29% on average, whereas hyperlordotic fusion reduced shear by 39%. Overall, L4/5 in situ fusion resulted in intervertebral joint forces closest to intact loading conditions. An artificial decrease in lumbar lordosis (minus 14° on average) caused by an L4/5 fusion lead to adverse loading conditions, particularly at the cranial adjacent levels, and altered muscle moment arms, in particular for muscles in the vicinity of the fusion. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:131-139, 2017. © 2016

  15. An algorithm of remotely sensed hyperspectral image fusion based on spectral unmixing and feature reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuejian; Zhang, Lifu; Cen, Yi; Zhang, Mingyue

    2016-05-01

    In order to get high spatial resolution hyperspectral data, many studies have examined methods to combine spectral information contained in hyperspectral image with spatial information contained in multispectral/panchromatic image. This paper developed a new hyperspectral image fusion method base on the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) theory. Data sets obtained by the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) was used to evaluate the performance of the method. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can provide a good way to solve the problem of high spatial resolution hyperspectral data shortage.

  16. A Fusion Algorithm for GFP Image and Phase Contrast Image of Arabidopsis Cell Based on SFL-Contourlet Transform

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Peng; Wang, Jing; Wei, Biao; Mi, Deling

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid multiscale and multilevel image fusion algorithm for green fluorescent protein (GFP) image and phase contrast image of Arabidopsis cell is proposed in this paper. Combining intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transform and sharp frequency localization Contourlet transform (SFL-CT), this algorithm uses different fusion strategies for different detailed subbands, which include neighborhood consistency measurement (NCM) that can adaptively find balance between color background and gray structure. Also two kinds of neighborhood classes based on empirical model are taken into consideration. Visual information fidelity (VIF) as an objective criterion is introduced to evaluate the fusion image. The experimental results of 117 groups of Arabidopsis cell image from John Innes Center show that the new algorithm cannot only make the details of original images well preserved but also improve the visibility of the fusion image, which shows the superiority of the novel method to traditional ones. PMID:23476716

  17. a Median-Based Depthmap Fusion Strategy for the Generation of Oriented Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothermel, M.; Haala, N.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Due to good scalability, systems for image-based dense surface reconstruction often employ stereo or multi-baseline stereo methods. These types of algorithms represent the scene by a set of depth or disparity maps which eventually have to be fused to extract a consistent, non-redundant surface representation. Generally the single depth observations across the maps possess variances in quality. Within the fusion process not only preservation of precision and detail but also density and robustness with respect to outliers are desirable. Being prune to outliers, in this article we propose a local median-based algorithm for the fusion of depth maps eventually representing the scene as a set of oriented points. Paying respect to scalability, points induced by each of the available depth maps are streamed to cubic tiles which then can be filtered in parallel. Arguing that the triangulation uncertainty is larger in the direction of image rays we define these rays as the main filter direction. Within an additional strategy we define the surface normals as the principle direction for median filtering/integration. The presented approach is straight-forward to implement since employing standard oc- and kd-tree structures enhanced by nearest neighbor queries optimized for cylindrical neighborhoods. We show that the presented method in combination with the MVS (Rothermel et al., 2012) produces surfaces comparable to the results of the Middlebury MVS benchmark and favorably compares to an state-of-the-art algorithm employing the Fountain dataset (Strecha et al., 2008). Moreover, we demonstrate its capability of depth map fusion for city scale reconstructions derived from large frame airborne imagery.

  18. Fusion set selection with surrogate metric in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Multi-atlas based image segmentation sees unprecedented opportunities but also demanding challenges in the big data era. Relevant atlas selection before label fusion plays a crucial role in reducing potential performance loss from heterogeneous data quality and high computation cost from extensive data. This paper starts with investigating the image similarity metric (termed ‘surrogate’), an alternative to the inaccessible geometric agreement metric (termed ‘oracle’) in atlas relevance assessment, and probes into the problem of how to select the ‘most-relevant’ atlases and how many such atlases to incorporate. We propose an inference model to relate the surrogates and the oracle geometric agreement metrics. Based on this model, we quantify the behavior of the surrogates in mimicking oracle metrics for atlas relevance ordering. Finally, analytical insights on the choice of fusion set size are presented from a probabilistic perspective, with the integrated goal of including the most relevant atlases and excluding the irrelevant ones. Empirical evidence and performance assessment are provided based on prostate and corpus callosum segmentation.

  19. Fusion set selection with surrogate metric in multi-atlas based image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2016-02-07

    Multi-atlas based image segmentation sees unprecedented opportunities but also demanding challenges in the big data era. Relevant atlas selection before label fusion plays a crucial role in reducing potential performance loss from heterogeneous data quality and high computation cost from extensive data. This paper starts with investigating the image similarity metric (termed 'surrogate'), an alternative to the inaccessible geometric agreement metric (termed 'oracle') in atlas relevance assessment, and probes into the problem of how to select the 'most-relevant' atlases and how many such atlases to incorporate. We propose an inference model to relate the surrogates and the oracle geometric agreement metrics. Based on this model, we quantify the behavior of the surrogates in mimicking oracle metrics for atlas relevance ordering. Finally, analytical insights on the choice of fusion set size are presented from a probabilistic perspective, with the integrated goal of including the most relevant atlases and excluding the irrelevant ones. Empirical evidence and performance assessment are provided based on prostate and corpus callosum segmentation.

  20. Multi-atlas and label fusion approach for patient-specific MRI based skull estimation.

    PubMed

    Torrado-Carvajal, Angel; Herraiz, Joaquin L; Hernandez-Tamames, Juan A; San Jose-Estepar, Raul; Eryaman, Yigitcan; Rozenholc, Yves; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Wald, Lawrence L; Malpica, Norberto

    2016-04-01

    MRI-based skull segmentation is a useful procedure for many imaging applications. This study describes a methodology for automatic segmentation of the complete skull from a single T1-weighted volume. The skull is estimated using a multi-atlas segmentation approach. Using a whole head computed tomography (CT) scan database, the skull in a new MRI volume is detected by nonrigid image registration of the volume to every CT, and combination of the individual segmentations by label-fusion. We have compared Majority Voting, Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE), Shape Based Averaging (SBA), and the Selective and Iterative Method for Performance Level Estimation (SIMPLE) algorithms. The pipeline has been evaluated quantitatively using images from the Retrospective Image Registration Evaluation database (reaching an overlap of 72.46 ± 6.99%), a clinical CT-MR dataset (maximum overlap of 78.31 ± 6.97%), and a whole head CT-MRI pair (maximum overlap 78.68%). A qualitative evaluation has also been performed on MRI acquisition of volunteers. It is possible to automatically segment the complete skull from MRI data using a multi-atlas and label fusion approach. This will allow the creation of complete MRI-based tissue models that can be used in electromagnetic dosimetry applications and attenuation correction in PET/MR. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Conductivity depth imaging of Airborne Electromagnetic data with double pulse transmitting current based on model fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Dou, Mei; Lu, Yiming; Peng, Cong; Yu, Zining; Zhu, Kaiguang

    2017-01-01

    The airborne electromagnetic (AEM) systems have been used traditionally in mineral exploration. Typically the system transmits a single pulse waveform to detect conductive anomaly. Conductivity-depth imaging (CDI) of data is generally applied in identifying conductive targets. A CDI algorithm with double-pulse transmitting current based on model fusion is developed. The double-pulse is made up of a half-sine pulse of high power and a trapezoid pulse of low power. This CDI algorithm presents more shallow information than traditional CDI with a single pulse. The electromagnetic response with double-pulse transmitting current is calculated by linear convolution based on forward modeling. The CDI results with half-sine and trapezoid pulse are obtained by look-up table method, and the two results are fused to form a double-pulse conductivity-depth imaging result. This makes it possible to obtain accurate conductivity and depth. Tests on synthetic data demonstrate that CDI algorithm with double-pulse transmitting current based on model fusion maps a wider range of conductivities and does a better job compared with CDI with a single pulse transmitting current in reflecting the whole geological conductivity changes.

  2. An Adaptive Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Method Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Fault Diagnosis of Planetary Gearbox.

    PubMed

    Jing, Luyang; Wang, Taiyong; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Peng

    2017-02-21

    A fault diagnosis approach based on multi-sensor data fusion is a promising tool to deal with complicated damage detection problems of mechanical systems. Nevertheless, this approach suffers from two challenges, which are (1) the feature extraction from various types of sensory data and (2) the selection of a suitable fusion level. It is usually difficult to choose an optimal feature or fusion level for a specific fault diagnosis task, and extensive domain expertise and human labor are also highly required during these selections. To address these two challenges, we propose an adaptive multi-sensor data fusion method based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) for fault diagnosis. The proposed method can learn features from raw data and optimize a combination of different fusion levels adaptively to satisfy the requirements of any fault diagnosis task. The proposed method is tested through a planetary gearbox test rig. Handcraft features, manual-selected fusion levels, single sensory data, and two traditional intelligent models, back-propagation neural networks (BPNN) and a support vector machine (SVM), are used as comparisons in the experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to detect the conditions of the planetary gearbox effectively with the best diagnosis accuracy among all comparative methods in the experiment.

  3. An Adaptive Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Method Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Fault Diagnosis of Planetary Gearbox

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Luyang; Wang, Taiyong; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    A fault diagnosis approach based on multi-sensor data fusion is a promising tool to deal with complicated damage detection problems of mechanical systems. Nevertheless, this approach suffers from two challenges, which are (1) the feature extraction from various types of sensory data and (2) the selection of a suitable fusion level. It is usually difficult to choose an optimal feature or fusion level for a specific fault diagnosis task, and extensive domain expertise and human labor are also highly required during these selections. To address these two challenges, we propose an adaptive multi-sensor data fusion method based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) for fault diagnosis. The proposed method can learn features from raw data and optimize a combination of different fusion levels adaptively to satisfy the requirements of any fault diagnosis task. The proposed method is tested through a planetary gearbox test rig. Handcraft features, manual-selected fusion levels, single sensory data, and two traditional intelligent models, back-propagation neural networks (BPNN) and a support vector machine (SVM), are used as comparisons in the experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to detect the conditions of the planetary gearbox effectively with the best diagnosis accuracy among all comparative methods in the experiment. PMID:28230767

  4. Decision Level Fusion of LIDAR Data and Aerial Color Imagery Based on Bayesian Theory for Urban Area Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastiveis, H.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) generates high-density 3D point clouds to provide a comprehensive information from object surfaces. Combining this data with aerial/satellite imagery is quite promising for improving land cover classification. In this study, fusion of LiDAR data and aerial imagery based on Bayesian theory in a three-level fusion algorithm is presented. In the first level, pixel-level fusion, the proper descriptors for both LiDAR and image data are extracted. In the next level of fusion, feature-level, using extracted features the area are classified into six classes of "Buildings", "Trees", "Asphalt Roads", "Concrete roads", "Grass" and "Cars" using Naïve Bayes classification algorithm. This classification is performed in three different strategies: (1) using merely LiDAR data, (2) using merely image data, and (3) using all extracted features from LiDAR and image. The results of three classifiers are integrated in the last phase, decision level fusion, based on Naïve Bayes algorithm. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a high resolution color orthophoto and LiDAR data over the urban areas of Zeebruges, Belgium were applied. Obtained results from the decision level fusion phase revealed an improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient.

  5. Refractive index insensitive temperature sensor based on waist-enlarged few mode fiber bitapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Si-wen; Fu, Xing-hu; Fu, Guang-wei; Jin, Wa; Bi, Wei-hong

    2017-01-01

    A refractive index insensitive temperature sensor based on waist-enlarged few mode fiber (FMF) bitapers is presented. The first section of FMF is spliced between two single-mode fibers. In fusion process, the waist-enlarged FMF bitapers can be obtained by large current discharging repeatedly. The refractive index and temperature sensing mechanisms are analyzed. For the sensors with different sizes, the refractive index and temperature experiments have been performed. The results show that in the refractive index ranges of 1.335 0—1.346 6 and 1.348 2—1.419 3, the refractive index insensitivity is verified. In a temperature range of 31.9—90 °C, the sensor sensitivity can be up to 85.57 pm/°C. In addition, it has a compact structure. Therefore, the sensor can avoid the cross sensitivity for measuring the refractive index and temperature simultaneously.

  6. A novel algorithm for PET and MRI fusion based on digital curvelet transform via extracting lesions on both images.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Shirin Hajeb Mohammad; Houshyari, Mohammad; Mostaar, Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Merging multimodal images is a useful tool for accurate and efficient diagnosis and analysis in medical applications. The acquired data are a high-quality fused image that contains more information than an individual image. In this paper, we focus on the fusion of MRI gray scale images and PET color images. For the fusion of MRI gray scale images and PET color images, we used lesion region extracting based on the digital Curvelet transform (DCT) method. As curvelet transform has a better performance in detecting the edges, regions in each image are perfectly segmented. Curvelet decomposes each image into several low- and high-frequency sub-bands. Then, the entropy of each sub-band is calculated. By comparing the entropies and coefficients of the extracted regions, the best coefficients for the fused image are chosen. The fused image is obtained via inverse Curvelet transform. In order to assess the performance, the proposed method was compared with different fusion algorithms, both visually and statistically. The analysis of the results showed that our proposed algorithm has high spectral and spatial resolution. According to the results of the quantitative fusion metrics, this method achieves an entropy value of 6.23, an MI of 1.88, and an SSIM of 0.6779. Comparison of these experiments with experiments of four other common fusion algorithms showed that our method is effective. The fusion of MRI and PET images is used to gather the useful information of both source images into one image, which is called the fused image. This study introduces a new fusion algorithm based on the digital Curvelet transform. Experiments show that our method has a high fusion effect.

  7. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Bayazeed; Saini, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, Daya Shankar; Agarwal, Pankaj B.

    2016-04-01

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ˜ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  8. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Md Bayazeed; Saini, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, Daya Shankar; Agarwal, Pankaj B.

    2016-04-13

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ∼ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  9. SFM: A novel sequence-based fusion method for disease genes identification and prioritization.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Abdulaziz; Moghadam Charkari, Nasrollah

    2015-10-21

    The identification of disease genes from human genome is of great importance to improve diagnosis and treatment of disease. Several machine learning methods have been introduced to identify disease genes. However, these methods mostly differ in the prior knowledge used to construct the feature vector for each instance (gene), the ways of selecting negative data (non-disease genes) where there is no investigational approach to find them and the classification methods used to make the final decision. In this work, a novel Sequence-based fusion method (SFM) is proposed to identify disease genes. In this regard, unlike existing methods, instead of using a noisy and incomplete prior-knowledge, the amino acid sequence of the proteins which is universal data has been carried out to present the genes (proteins) into four different feature vectors. To select more likely negative data from candidate genes, the intersection set of four negative sets which are generated using distance approach is considered. Then, Decision Tree (C4.5) has been applied as a fusion method to combine the results of four independent state-of the-art predictors based on support vector machine (SVM) algorithm, and to make the final decision. The experimental results of the proposed method have been evaluated by some standard measures. The results indicate the precision, recall and F-measure of 82.6%, 85.6% and 84, respectively. These results confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method.

  10. IEC Based D-{sup 3}He Fusion for Space Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, George H.; Burton, R.; Richardson, N.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, Hiromu

    2002-07-01

    A preliminary system design is presented for a high performance 100-MWe manned space vehicle in the 500 metric ton class, based on Inertial Electrostatic Fusion (IEC), allowing trip times to the outer planets of several months. An IEC is chosen because it's simplified structure results in a very high power-to-weight ratio. D-{sup 3}He fuel is used to give 14.7-MeV protons as a primary fusion reaction product. Direct conversion of proton energy to electricity is employed, providing a high efficiency. An IEC reactor with a proton energy gain (power in 14.7-MeV protons/input electric power) of 4 or better is assumed. Extrapolation of present laboratory scale IEC experiments to such conditions is possible theoretically, but faces several open issues that require further study such as stability under high-density conditions. The final thruster is based on an NSTAR-extrapolated krypton ion design with a specific impulse of 16,000 seconds and a total thrust of 1020 N. Round trip thrust time for mission set to Jupiter {delta}V of 100 km/s is then {approx}950 days. (authors)

  11. Estimation of tire-road friction coefficient based on frequency domain data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Luo, Yugong; Bian, Mingyuan; Qin, Zhaobo; Luo, Jian; Li, Keqiang

    2017-02-01

    Due to the noise of sensing equipment, the tire states, such as the sideslip angle and the slip ratio, cannot be accurately observed under the conditions with small acceleration, which results in the inapplicability of the time domain data based tire-road friction coefficient (TRFC) estimation method. In order to overcome this shortcoming, frequency domain data fusion is proposed to estimate the TRFC based on the natural frequencies of the steering system and the in-wheel motor driving system. Firstly, a relationship between TRFC and the steering system natural frequency is deduced by investigating its frequency response function (FRF). Then the lateral TRFC is determined by the steering natural frequency which is only identified using the information of the assist motor current and the steering speed of the column. With spectral comparison between the steering and driving systems, the data fusion is carried out to get a comprehensive TRFC result, using the different frequency information of the longitudinal and lateral value. Finally, simulations and experiments on different road surfaces validated the correctness of the steering system FRF and the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Gyro Drift Correction for An Indirect Kalman Filter Based Sensor Fusion Driver.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan-Gun; Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Jang, Seonmin; Kim, Deokhwan; Kim, Yonghun; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-06-11

    Sensor fusion techniques have made a significant contribution to the success of the recently emerging mobile applications era because a variety of mobile applications operate based on multi-sensing information from the surrounding environment, such as navigation systems, fitness trackers, interactive virtual reality games, etc. For these applications, the accuracy of sensing information plays an important role to improve the user experience (UX) quality, especially with gyroscopes and accelerometers. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed a novel mechanism to resolve the gyro drift problem, which negatively affects the accuracy of orientation computations in the indirect Kalman filter based sensor fusion. Our mechanism focuses on addressing the issues of external feedback loops and non-gyro error elements contained in the state vectors of an indirect Kalman filter. Moreover, the mechanism is implemented in the device-driver layer, providing lower process latency and transparency capabilities for the upper applications. These advances are relevant to millions of legacy applications since utilizing our mechanism does not require the existing applications to be re-programmed. The experimental results show that the root mean square errors (RMSE) before and after applying our mechanism are significantly reduced from 6.3 × 10(-1) to 5.3 × 10(-7), respectively.

  13. Orientation-based face recognition using multispectral imagery and score fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2011-11-01

    A new orientation-based face recognition method is proposed in this paper. The orientation analysis is performed with Gabor wavelet transform (GWT). The multispectral imagery includes the visible (RGB) and thermal (long-wave infrared) face images from the same group of subjects. The recognition performance of the new method is compared with that of three classical algorithms, principle component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and elastic bunch graph matching. A score-level fusion of several algorithms versus multispectral images is explored and presented. Specifically, at each frequency band of GWT, an index number representing the strongest orientational response is selected, and then encoded in a binary number to favor the Hamming distance calculation. Multiple-band orientation codes are then organized into a face pattern byte (FPB) by using order statistics. With the FPB, Hamming distances are calculated and compared to achieve face identification. The FPB has the dimensionality of 8 bits per pixel and its performance will be compared to that of face pattern word (32 bits per pixel). The dimensionality of FPB can be further reduced down to 4 bits per pixel, called face pattern nibble. Experimental results with the multispectral faces of 96 subjects show that the proposed orientation-based face recognition method is very promising in contrast with three classical methods. Furthermore, the recognition performance with score-level fusion achieves 100% when tested on the entire multispectral database.

  14. Investigation of oxidation resistance of carbon based first-wall liner materials of fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moormann, R.; Hinssen, H. K.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Stauch, B.; Wu, C. H.

    1994-09-01

    One important aspect in selection of carbon based first-wall liner materials in fusion reactors is a sufficient oxidation resistance against steam and oxygen; this is because during accidents like loss of coolant into vacuum or loss of vacuum these oxidizing media can enter the vacuum vessel and may cause some corrosion of carbon followed by release of adsorbed tritium; in addition other consequences of oxidation like formation of burnable gases and their explosions have to be examined. Based on extensive experience on nuclear graphite oxidation in HTRs KFA has started in cooperation with NET some experimental investigations on oxidation of fusion reactor carbons. Results of first experiments on CFCs, Ti- and Si-doped carbons and graphites in steam (1273-1423 K) and oxygen (973 K) are reported. It was found that most materials have a similar reactivity as HTR nuclear graphites (which is much smaller than those of usual technical carbons); Si-doped CFCs however have a remarkably better oxidation resistance than those, which is probably due to the formation of a protecting layer of SiO 2. The measured kinetic data will be used in safety analyses for above mentioned accidents.

  15. Optimization-Based Sensor Fusion of GNSS and IMU Using a Moving Horizon Approach

    PubMed Central

    Girrbach, Fabian; Hol, Jeroen D.; Bellusci, Giovanni; Diehl, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    The rise of autonomous systems operating close to humans imposes new challenges in terms of robustness and precision on the estimation and control algorithms. Approaches based on nonlinear optimization, such as moving horizon estimation, have been shown to improve the accuracy of the estimated solution compared to traditional filter techniques. This paper introduces an optimization-based framework for multi-sensor fusion following a moving horizon scheme. The framework is applied to the often occurring estimation problem of motion tracking by fusing measurements of a global navigation satellite system receiver and an inertial measurement unit. The resulting algorithm is used to estimate position, velocity, and orientation of a maneuvering airplane and is evaluated against an accurate reference trajectory. A detailed study of the influence of the horizon length on the quality of the solution is presented and evaluated against filter-like and batch solutions of the problem. The versatile configuration possibilities of the framework are finally used to analyze the estimated solutions at different evaluation times exposing a nearly linear behavior of the sensor fusion problem. PMID:28534857

  16. A Simulation Environment for Benchmarking Sensor Fusion-Based Pose Estimators

    PubMed Central

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2015-01-01

    In-depth analysis and performance evaluation of sensor fusion-based estimators may be critical when performed using real-world sensor data. For this reason, simulation is widely recognized as one of the most powerful tools for algorithm benchmarking. In this paper, we present a simulation framework suitable for assessing the performance of sensor fusion-based pose estimators. The systems used for implementing the framework were magnetic/inertial measurement units (MIMUs) and a camera, although the addition of further sensing modalities is straightforward. Typical nuisance factors were also included for each sensor. The proposed simulation environment was validated using real-life sensor data employed for motion tracking. The higher mismatch between real and simulated sensors was about 5% of the measured quantity (for the camera simulation), whereas a lower correlation was found for an axis of the gyroscope (0.90). In addition, a real benchmarking example of an extended Kalman filter for pose estimation from MIMU and camera data is presented. PMID:26703603

  17. Gyro Drift Correction for An Indirect Kalman Filter Based Sensor Fusion Driver

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan-Gun; Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Jang, Seonmin; Kim, Deokhwan; Kim, Yonghun; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    Sensor fusion techniques have made a significant contribution to the success of the recently emerging mobile applications era because a variety of mobile applications operate based on multi-sensing information from the surrounding environment, such as navigation systems, fitness trackers, interactive virtual reality games, etc. For these applications, the accuracy of sensing information plays an important role to improve the user experience (UX) quality, especially with gyroscopes and accelerometers. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed a novel mechanism to resolve the gyro drift problem, which negatively affects the accuracy of orientation computations in the indirect Kalman filter based sensor fusion. Our mechanism focuses on addressing the issues of external feedback loops and non-gyro error elements contained in the state vectors of an indirect Kalman filter. Moreover, the mechanism is implemented in the device-driver layer, providing lower process latency and transparency capabilities for the upper applications. These advances are relevant to millions of legacy applications since utilizing our mechanism does not require the existing applications to be re-programmed. The experimental results show that the root mean square errors (RMSE) before and after applying our mechanism are significantly reduced from 6.3×10-1 to 5.3×10-7, respectively. PMID:27294941

  18. Optimization-Based Sensor Fusion of GNSS and IMU Using a Moving Horizon Approach.

    PubMed

    Girrbach, Fabian; Hol, Jeroen D; Bellusci, Giovanni; Diehl, Moritz

    2017-05-19

    The rise of autonomous systems operating close to humans imposes new challenges in terms of robustness and precision on the estimation and control algorithms. Approaches based on nonlinear optimization, such as moving horizon estimation, have been shown to improve the accuracy of the estimated solution compared to traditional filter techniques. This paper introduces an optimization-based framework for multi-sensor fusion following a moving horizon scheme. The framework is applied to the often occurring estimation problem of motion tracking by fusing measurements of a global navigation satellite system receiver and an inertial measurement unit. The resulting algorithm is used to estimate position, velocity, and orientation of a maneuvering airplane and is evaluated against an accurate reference trajectory. A detailed study of the influence of the horizon length on the quality of the solution is presented and evaluated against filter-like and batch solutions of the problem. The versatile configuration possibilities of the framework are finally used to analyze the estimated solutions at different evaluation times exposing a nearly linear behavior of the sensor fusion problem.

  19. Fusion of infrared and visible images based on saliency scale-space in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfei; Sang, Nong; Dan, Zhiping

    2015-12-01

    A fusion algorithm of infrared and visible images based on saliency scale-space in the frequency domain was proposed. Focus of human attention is directed towards the salient targets which interpret the most important information in the image. For the given registered infrared and visible images, firstly, visual features are extracted to obtain the input hypercomplex matrix. Secondly, the Hypercomplex Fourier Transform (HFT) is used to obtain the salient regions of the infrared and visible images respectively, the convolution of the input hypercomplex matrix amplitude spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale which is equivalent to an image saliency detector are done. The saliency maps are obtained by reconstructing the 2D signal using the original phase and the amplitude spectrum, filtered at a scale selected by minimizing saliency map entropy. Thirdly, the salient regions are fused with the adoptive weighting fusion rules, and the nonsalient regions are fused with the rule based on region energy (RE) and region sharpness (RS), then the fused image is obtained. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm can hold high spectrum information of the visual image, and effectively get the thermal targets information at different scales of the infrared image.

  20. Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel ρR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, H. G. Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lahmann, B.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Caggiano, J. A.; Divol, L.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Meezan, N. B.; Moran, M. J.; and others

    2015-08-15

    In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, the secondary fusion processes D({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He and D(T,n){sup 4}He occur, as the primary fusion products {sup 3}He and T react in flight with thermal deuterons. In implosions with moderate fuel areal density (∼5–100 mg/cm{sup 2}), the secondary D-{sup 3}He reaction saturates, while the D-T reaction does not, and the combined information from these secondary products is used to constrain both the areal density and either the plasma electron temperature or changes in the composition due to mix of shell material into the fuel. The underlying theory of this technique is developed and applied to three classes of implosions on the National Ignition Facility: direct-drive exploding pushers, indirect-drive 1-shock and 2-shock implosions, and polar direct-drive implosions. In the 1- and 2-shock implosions, the electron temperature is inferred to be 0.65 times and 0.33 times the burn-averaged ion temperature, respectively. The inferred mixed mass in the polar direct-drive implosions is in agreement with measurements using alternative techniques.

  1. Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel ρR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lahmann, B.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Caggiano, J. A.; Divol, L.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Meezan, N. B.; Moran, M. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Kline, J. L.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Tregillis, I. L.; Batha, S. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, the secondary fusion processes D(3He,p)4He and D(T,n)4He occur, as the primary fusion products 3He and T react in flight with thermal deuterons. In implosions with moderate fuel areal density (˜5-100 mg/cm2), the secondary D-3He reaction saturates, while the D-T reaction does not, and the combined information from these secondary products is used to constrain both the areal density and either the plasma electron temperature or changes in the composition due to mix of shell material into the fuel. The underlying theory of this technique is developed and applied to three classes of implosions on the National Ignition Facility: direct-drive exploding pushers, indirect-drive 1-shock and 2-shock implosions, and polar direct-drive implosions. In the 1- and 2-shock implosions, the electron temperature is inferred to be 0.65 times and 0.33 times the burn-averaged ion temperature, respectively. The inferred mixed mass in the polar direct-drive implosions is in agreement with measurements using alternative techniques.

  2. Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel ρR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lahmann, B.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Caggiano, J. A.; Divol, L.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Meezan, N. B.; Moran, M. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Kline, J. L.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Tregillis, I. L.; Batha, S. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-08-25

    In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, the secondary fusion processes D(3He,p)4He and D(T,n)4He occur, as the primary fusion products 3He and T react in flight with thermal deuterons. In implosions with moderate fuel areal density (~ 5–100 mg/cm2), the secondary D-3He reaction saturates, while the D-T reaction does not, and the combined information from these secondary products is used to constrain both the areal density and either the plasma electron temperature or changes in the composition due to mix of shell material into the fuel. The underlying theory of this technique is developed and applied to three classes of implosions on the National Ignition Facility: direct-drive exploding pushers, indirect-drive 1-shock and 2-shock implosions,and polar direct-drive implosions. In the 1- and 2-shock implosions, the electron temperature is inferred to be 0.65 x and 0.33 x the burn-averaged ion temperature, respectively. The inferred mixed mass in the polar direct-drive implosions is in agreement with measurements using alternative techniques.

  3. Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel ρR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF

    DOE PAGES

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; ...

    2015-08-25

    In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, the secondary fusion processes D(3He,p)4He and D(T,n)4He occur, as the primary fusion products 3He and T react in flight with thermal deuterons. In implosions with moderate fuel areal density (~ 5–100 mg/cm2), the secondary D-3He reaction saturates, while the D-T reaction does not, and the combined information from these secondary products is used to constrain both the areal density and either the plasma electron temperature or changes in the composition due to mix of shell material into the fuel. The underlying theory of this technique is developed and applied to three classes of implosionsmore » on the National Ignition Facility: direct-drive exploding pushers, indirect-drive 1-shock and 2-shock implosions,and polar direct-drive implosions. In the 1- and 2-shock implosions, the electron temperature is inferred to be 0.65 x and 0.33 x the burn-averaged ion temperature, respectively. The inferred mixed mass in the polar direct-drive implosions is in agreement with measurements using alternative techniques.« less

  4. Joint sparsity based heterogeneous data-level fusion for target detection and estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ruixin; Zulch, Peter; Distasio, Marcello; Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe

    2017-05-01

    Typical surveillance systems employ decision- or feature-level fusion approaches to integrate heterogeneous sensor data, which are sub-optimal and incur information loss. In this paper, we investigate data-level heterogeneous sensor fusion. Since the sensors monitor the common targets of interest, whose states can be determined by only a few parameters, it is reasonable to assume that the measurement domain has a low intrinsic dimensionality. For heterogeneous sensor data, we develop a joint-sparse data-level fusion (JSDLF) approach based on the emerging joint sparse signal recovery techniques by discretizing the target state space. This approach is applied to fuse signals from multiple distributed radio frequency (RF) signal sensors and a video camera for joint target detection and state estimation. The JSDLF approach is data-driven and requires minimum prior information, since there is no need to know the time-varying RF signal amplitudes, or the image intensity of the targets. It can handle non-linearity in the sensor data due to state space discretization and the use of frequency/pixel selection matrices. Furthermore, for a multi-target case with J targets, the JSDLF approach only requires discretization in a single-target state space, instead of discretization in a J-target state space, as in the case of the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) or the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate that the proposed JSDLF approach achieves excellent performance with near real-time accurate target position and velocity estimates.

  5. Data Fusion Based on Optical Technology for Observation of Human Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Pietro; De Maria, Giuseppe; Natale, Ciro; Pirozzi, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of human observation is becoming more and more frequent within imitation learning and programming by demonstration approaches (PbD) to robot programming. For robotic systems equipped with anthropomorphic hands, the observation phase is very challenging and no ultimate solution exists. This work proposes a novel mechatronic approach to the observation of human hand motion during manipulation tasks. The strategy is based on the combined use of an optical motion capture system and a low-cost data glove equipped with novel joint angle sensors, based on optoelectronic technology. The combination of the two information sources is obtained through a sensor fusion algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) suitably modified to tackle the problem of marker occlusions, typical of optical motion capture systems. This approach requires a kinematic model of the human hand. Another key contribution of this work is a new method to calibrate this model.

  6. Fusion of a Flavin-Based Fluorescent Protein to Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Arabidopsis thaliana Improves Enzyme Stability

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Kathrin Emmi; Kopka, Benita; Wirtz, Astrid; Pohl, Martina; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxynitrile lyase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtHNL) was fused to different fluorescent reporter proteins. Whereas all fusion constructs retained enzymatic activity and fluorescence in vivo and in vitro, significant differences in activity and pH stability were observed. In particular, flavin-based fluorescent reporter (FbFP) fusions showed almost 2 orders of magnitude-increased half-lives in the weakly acidic pH range compared to findings for the wild-type enzyme. Analysis of the quaternary structure of the respective FbFP-AtHNL fusion proteins suggested that this increased stability is apparently caused by oligomerization mediated via the FbFP tag. Moreover, the increased stability of the fusion proteins enabled the efficient synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile in an aqueous-organic two-phase system at a pH of <5. Remarkably, (R)-mandelonitrile synthesis is not possible using wild-type AtHNL under the same conditions due to the inherent instability of this enzyme below pH 5. The fusion strategy presented here reveals a surprising means for the stabilization of enzymes and stresses the importance of a thorough in vitro characterization of in vivo-employed fluorescent fusion proteins. PMID:23728815

  7. Enhancement of Tropical Land Cover Mapping with Wavelet-Based Fusion and Unsupervised Clustering of SAR and Landsat Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Laporte, Nadine; Netanyahuy, Nathan S.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The characterization and the mapping of land cover/land use of forest areas, such as the Central African rainforest, is a very complex task. This complexity is mainly due to the extent of such areas and, as a consequence, to the lack of full and continuous cloud-free coverage of those large regions by one single remote sensing instrument, In order to provide improved vegetation maps of Central Africa and to develop forest monitoring techniques for applications at the local and regional scales, we propose to utilize multi-sensor remote sensing observations coupled with in-situ data. Fusion and clustering of multi-sensor data are the first steps towards the development of such a forest monitoring system. In this paper, we will describe some preliminary experiments involving the fusion of SAR and Landsat image data of the Lope Reserve in Gabon. Similarly to previous fusion studies, our fusion method is wavelet-based. The fusion provides a new image data set which contains more detailed texture features and preserves the large homogeneous regions that are observed by the Thematic Mapper sensor. The fusion step is followed by unsupervised clustering and provides a vegetation map of the area.

  8. Big fusion, little fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Frank; ddtuttle

    2016-08-01

    In reply to correspondence from George Scott and Adam Costley about the Physics World focus issue on nuclear energy, and to news of construction delays at ITER, the fusion reactor being built in France.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of biological Boolean networks using information fusion based on nonadditive set functions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An algebraic method for information fusion based on nonadditive set functions is used to assess the joint contribution of Boolean network attributes to the sensitivity of the network to individual node mutations. The node attributes or characteristics under consideration are: in-degree, out-degree, minimum and average path lengths, bias, average sensitivity of Boolean functions, and canalizing degrees. The impact of node mutations is assessed using as target measure the average Hamming distance between a non-mutated/wild-type network and a mutated network. Results We find that for a biochemical signal transduction network consisting of several main signaling pathways whose nodes represent signaling molecules (mainly proteins), the algebraic method provides a robust classification of attribute contributions. This method indicates that for the biochemical network, the most significant impact is generated mainly by the combined effects of two attributes: out-degree, and average sensitivity of nodes. Conclusions The results support the idea that both topological and dynamical properties of the nodes need to be under consideration. The algebraic method is robust against the choice of initial conditions and partition of data sets in training and testing sets for estimation of the nonadditive set functions of the information fusion procedure. PMID:25189194

  10. Represent and fuse bimodal biometric images at the feature level: complex-matrix-based fusion scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong; Zhang, David

    2010-03-01

    Multibiometrics can obtain a higher accuracy than the single biometrics by simultaneously using multiple biometric traits of the subject. We note that biometric traits are usually in the form of images. Thus, how to properly fuse the information of multiple biometric images of the subject for authentication is crucial for multibiometrics. We propose a novel image-based linear discriminant analysis (IBLDA) approach to fuse two biometric traits (i.e., bimodal biometric images) of the same subject in the form of matrix at the feature level. IBLDA first integrates two biometric traits of one subject into a complex matrix and then directly extracts low-dimensional features for the integrated biometric traits. IBLDA also enables more information to be exploited than the matching score level fusion and the decision level fusion. Compared to linear discriminant analysis (LDA), IBLDA has the following advantages: First, it can overcome the small sample size problem that conventional LDA usually suffers from. Second, IBLDA solves the eigenequation at a low computational cost. Third, when storing the scatter matrices IBLDA will not bring as heavy a memory burden as conventional LDA. We also clearly show the theoretical foundation of the proposed method. The experiment result shows that the proposed method can obtain a high classification accuracy.

  11. Analysis of laser remote fusion cutting based on a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect

    Matti, R. S.; Ilar, T.; Kaplan, A. F. H.

    2013-12-21

    Laser remote fusion cutting is analyzed by the aid of a semi-analytical mathematical model of the processing front. By local calculation of the energy balance between the absorbed laser beam and the heat losses, the three-dimensional vaporization front can be calculated. Based on an empirical model for the melt flow field, from a mass balance, the melt film and the melting front can be derived, however only in a simplified manner and for quasi-steady state conditions. Front waviness and multiple reflections are not modelled. The model enables to compare the similarities, differences, and limits between laser remote fusion cutting, laser remote ablation cutting, and even laser keyhole welding. In contrast to the upper part of the vaporization front, the major part only slightly varies with respect to heat flux, laser power density, absorptivity, and angle of front inclination. Statistical analysis shows that for high cutting speed, the domains of high laser power density contribute much more to the formation of the front than for low speed. The semi-analytical modelling approach offers flexibility to simplify part of the process physics while, for example, sophisticated modelling of the complex focused fibre-guided laser beam is taken into account to enable deeper analysis of the beam interaction. Mechanisms like recast layer generation, absorptivity at a wavy processing front, and melt film formation are studied too.

  12. Protein interaction maps for complete genomes based on gene fusion events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, Anton J.; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ouzounis, Christos A.

    1999-11-01

    A large-scale effort to measure, detect and analyse protein-protein interactions using experimental methods is under way. These include biochemistry such as co-immunoprecipitation or crosslinking, molecular biology such as the two-hybrid system or phage display, and genetics such as unlinked noncomplementing mutant detection. Using the two-hybrid system, an international effort to analyse the complete yeast genome is in progress. Evidently, all these approaches are tedious, labour intensive and inaccurate. From a computational perspective, the question is how can we predict that two proteins interact from structure or sequence alone. Here we present a method that identifies gene-fusion events in complete genomes, solely based on sequence comparison. Because there must be selective pressure for certain genes to be fused over the course of evolution, we are able to predict functional associations of proteins. We show that 215 genes or proteins in the complete genomes of Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Methanococcus jannaschii are involved in 64 unique fusion events. The approach is general, and can be applied even to genes of unknown function.

  13. a Novel Fusion-Based Unsupervised Approach for Multispectral Image Change Detection with Saliency Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Jiang, G.; Shao, L.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, J.

    2017-09-01

    To fully utilize the spectral information and remove noise in multispectral image change detection, A fusion-based unsupervised approach, which exploits NSCT (Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform) and multi-scale saliency maps for detecting changed areas by using multispectral images is presented in this paper. Firstly, aiming at make full use of multispectral information, each band of the multitemporal images is applied to get an initial difference image set (IDIS), which is then decomposed into several low-pass approximation and high-pass directional sub bands by NSCT; In order to remove most of the noise, saliency maps of each sub bands and each scales are obtained by processing only the low-frequency sub-band coefficients of the decomposed image; Finally the binary change map is extracted by using a novel inter-scale and inter-band fusion method. Experimental results validate the superior performance of the proposed approach with respect to several state-of-the-art change detection techniques.

  14. Novel fusion method for visible light and infrared images based on NSST-SF-PCNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weiwei; Zhang, Longjun; Lei, Yang

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of image fusion is to combine the source images of the same scene into a single composite image with more useful information and much better visual effects, which is undoubtedly suitable for further image processing tasks. This paper presented a novel fusion method for visible light and infrared images based on non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST)-spatial frequency (SF)-pulse coupled neural network (PCNN). As a recently developed multi-resolution geometric analysis tool, NSST not only has remarked superiorities over other past conventional tools in terms of information capturing and computational costs saving, but also overcomes the lack of shift-invariance in shearlet transform (ST), so NSST applies to conducting the decompositions and reconstructions. Besides, traditional PCNN model is also upgraded to be an improved one called IPCNN in this paper to fuse the low-frequency and high-frequency subband coefficients. In the IPCNN structure, on the one hand, the value of the linking strength β is determined by the SF which represents the gradient features of the subband image; on the other hand, the time matrix is utilized to adaptively decide the iteration number of the IPCNN model, which is helpful to increase the function efficiency and save computational resources. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method performs well and has obvious superiorities over other current typical ones in both subjective visual performance and objective criteria.

  15. Comprehensive tire-road friction coefficient estimation based on signal fusion method under complex maneuvering operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Yang, K.; Jia, G.; Ran, X.; Song, J.; Han, Z.-Q.

    2015-05-01

    The accurate estimation of the tire-road friction coefficient plays a significant role in the vehicle dynamics control. The estimation method should be timely and reliable for the controlling requirements, which means the contact friction characteristics between the tire and the road should be recognized before the interference to ensure the safety of the driver and passengers from drifting and losing control. In addition, the estimation method should be stable and feasible for complex maneuvering operations to guarantee the control performance as well. A signal fusion method combining the available signals to estimate the road friction is suggested in this paper on the basis of the estimated ones of braking, driving and steering conditions individually. Through the input characteristics and the states of the vehicle and tires from sensors the maneuvering condition may be recognized, by which the certainty factors of the friction of the three conditions mentioned above may be obtained correspondingly, and then the comprehensive road friction may be calculated. Experimental vehicle tests validate the effectiveness of the proposed method through complex maneuvering operations; the estimated road friction coefficient based on the signal fusion method is relatively timely and accurate to satisfy the control demands.

  16. Displacement damage parameters for fusion breeder blanket materials based on BCA computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichtle, Dieter

    2002-12-01

    Based on the MARLOWE code, a refined binary collision approximation (BCA) simulation model has been developed which is particularly suited for light mass and polyatomic ionic solids in a fusion environment. Main features of the model are described, including appropriate extensions of the kinematical procedure and the ion-solid interactions. Defect yields from the simulated collision cascades are used for deriving displacement cross sections in Be, Li 2O, Li 2SiO 3, Li 2SiO 4 and Li 2TiO 3. Comparisons with standard results show that there is an energy dependence which is strongly correlated with the spectrum of primary knock-on atoms. In particular, for lithium ceramics the contribution of damage induced by secondary helium and tritium is remarkable even in a fast neutron flux. The total displacements per atom in a fusion demonstration reactor blanket obtained by means of BCA-simulation results is in general lower than NRT-values by about 30% for the lithium breeder materials, but higher by around 90% for beryllium. These differences can be attributed to differences of binding properties and crystalline structure of the respective material, which also influence the defect composition.

  17. Analysis of laser remote fusion cutting based on a mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matti, R. S.; Ilar, T.; Kaplan, A. F. H.

    2013-12-01

    Laser remote fusion cutting is analyzed by the aid of a semi-analytical mathematical model of the processing front. By local calculation of the energy balance between the absorbed laser beam and the heat losses, the three-dimensional vaporization front can be calculated. Based on an empirical model for the melt flow field, from a mass balance, the melt film and the melting front can be derived, however only in a simplified manner and for quasi-steady state conditions. Front waviness and multiple reflections are not modelled. The model enables to compare the similarities, differences, and limits between laser remote fusion cutting, laser remote ablation cutting, and even laser keyhole welding. In contrast to the upper part of the vaporization front, the major part only slightly varies with respect to heat flux, laser power density, absorptivity, and angle of front inclination. Statistical analysis shows that for high cutting speed, the domains of high laser power density contribute much more to the formation of the front than for low speed. The semi-analytical modelling approach offers flexibility to simplify part of the process physics while, for example, sophisticated modelling of the complex focused fibre-guided laser beam is taken into account to enable deeper analysis of the beam interaction. Mechanisms like recast layer generation, absorptivity at a wavy processing front, and melt film formation are studied too.

  18. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N.; Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design. PMID:26694387

  19. E-Nose Vapor Identification Based on Dempster-Shafer Fusion of Multiple Classifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Winston; Leung, Henry; Kwan, Chiman; Linnell, Bruce R.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic nose (e-nose) vapor identification is an efficient approach to monitor air contaminants in space stations and shuttles in order to ensure the health and safety of astronauts. Data preprocessing (measurement denoising and feature extraction) and pattern classification are important components of an e-nose system. In this paper, a wavelet-based denoising method is applied to filter the noisy sensor measurements. Transient-state features are then extracted from the denoised sensor measurements, and are used to train multiple classifiers such as multi-layer perceptions (MLP), support vector machines (SVM), k nearest neighbor (KNN), and Parzen classifier. The Dempster-Shafer (DS) technique is used at the end to fuse the results of the multiple classifiers to get the final classification. Experimental analysis based on real vapor data shows that the wavelet denoising method can remove both random noise and outliers successfully, and the classification rate can be improved by using classifier fusion.

  20. Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.; Rothe, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific components and/or subsystems. Each data module contains engineering, equipment, and installation labor cost data for different configurations and types of the specific component or subsystem. This paper describes the assumptions, definitions, methodology, and architecture incorporated in the development of the cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base, along with the type of input required and the output format.

  1. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N; Li, Jia

    2015-12-14

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design.

  2. Application of the information fusion based on evidence theory in urban development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiqun, Chen; Zequn, Guan

    2005-10-01

    Traditional remote sensing image classification methods have been mature,especially the maximum likelihood technique based on statistical analysis methods. But Traditional remote sensing image classification methods can't handle multiple source remotely sensed data,in order to make optimized decisions, better use must be made of all available information acquired from different sources.Evidential reasoning has been proposed as one of the most promising approaches for integrating multisource information. We expatiate on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and present a method of multisource information fusion based on it. We also apply this method in urban development. The experimental results show that this method present in this paper is effective,and it can greatly improve the ability of image classification.

  3. Intelligent security system based on neuro-fuzzy multisensor data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Judy; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Kuo, Yih-Shi; Savant, Gajendra D.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents a real-world application of neurofuzzy processing to a security system with multiple sensor. Integrating fuzzy logic with neural networks, the authors have automated the tasks of sensor data fusion and determination of false/true alarms, which currently rely solely on human monitoring operators, so that they operate in a way similar to human reasoning. This integrated security system includes a set of heterogeneous sensor. To take advantage of each sensor's strengths, they are positioned and integrated for side, accurate, economical coverage. The system includes real-time tracking cameras functioning as true digital motion detectors with the capability of approximating the size, direction, and number of intruders. The system is also capable of real-time image segmentation based on motion, and of image recognition based on neural networks.

  4. Novel image fusion scheme based on maximum ratio combining for robust multispectral face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omri, Faten; Foufou, Sebti

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the research in multispectral face recognition has focused on developing efficient frameworks for improving face recognition performance at close-up distances. However, few studies have investigated the multispectral face images captured at long distance. In fact, great challenges still exist in recognizing human face in images captured at long distance as the image quality might be affected and some important features masked. Therefore, multispectral face recognition tools and algorithms should evolve from close-up distances to long distances. To address these issues, we present in this paper a novel image fusion scheme based on Maximum Ratio Combining algorithm and improve multispectral face recognition at long distance. The proposed method is compared with similar super-resolution method based on the Maximum likelihood algorithm. Simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed approach in term of average variance of detection error.

  5. Synthesis of Fusion Genes for Cloning by Megaprimer-Based PCR.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Oliveira, Carla; Domingues, Lucília

    2017-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the technique of choice used to obtain DNA for cloning, because it rapidly provides high amounts of desired DNA fragments and allows the easy introduction of extremities adequate for enzyme restriction or homologous recombination, and of artificial, native, or modified sequence elements for specific applications. In this context, the use of megaprimer-based PCR strategies allows the versatile and fast assembly and amplification of tailor-made DNA sequences readily available for cloning.In this chapter, we describe the design and use of a megaprimer-based PCR protocol to construct customized fusion genes ready for cloning into commercial expression plasmids by restriction digestion and ligation.

  6. A faster, high resolution, mtPA-GFP-based mitochondrial fusion assay acquiring kinetic data of multiple cells in parallel using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lovy, Alenka; Molina, Anthony J A; Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Trudeau, Kyle; Shirihai, Orian S

    2012-07-20

    , mitochondria become depolarized, and upon accumulation this leads to impaired cell function. Mitochondrial fission has been shown to signal a cell to progress toward apoptosis. It can also provide a mechanism by which to separate depolarized and inactive mitochondria to keep the bulk of the network robust. Fusion of mitochondria, on the other hand, leads to sharing of matrix proteins, solutes, mtDNA and the electrochemical gradient, and also seems to prevent progression to apoptosis. How fission and fusion of mitochondria affects cell homeostasis and ultimately the functioning of the organism needs further understanding, and therefore the continuous development and optimization of how to gather information on these phenomena is necessary. Existing mitochondrial fusion assays have revealed various insights into mitochondrial physiology, each having its own advantages. The hybrid PEG fusion assay, mixes two populations of differently labeled cells (mtRFP and mtYFP), and analyzes the amount of mixing and colocalization of fluorophores in fused, multinucleated, cells. Although this method has yielded valuable information, not all cell types can fuse, and the conditions under which fusion is stimulated involves the use of toxic drugs that likely affect the normal fusion process. More recently, a cell free technique has been devised, using isolated mitochondria to observe fusion events based on a luciferase assay. Two human cell lines are targeted with either the amino or a carboxy terminal part of Renilla luciferase along with a leucine zipper to ensure dimerization upon mixing. Mitochondria are isolated from each cell line, and fused. The fusion reaction can occur without the cytosol under physiological conditions in the presence of energy, appropriate temperature and inner mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, the cytosol was found to modulate the extent of fusion, demonstrating that cell signaling regulates the fusion process. This assay will be very useful for high

  7. Fusion nuclear science facilities and pilot plants based on the spherical tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, J. E.; Brown, T.; El-Guebaly, L.; Boyer, M.; Canik, J.; Colling, B.; Raman, R.; Wang, Z.; Zhai, Y.; Buxton, P.; Covele, B.; D’Angelo, C.; Davis, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Gryaznevich, M.; Harb, M.; Hender, T. C.; Kaye, S.; Kingham, D.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Maingi, R.; Marriott, E.; Meier, E. T.; Mynsberge, L.; Neumeyer, C.; Ono, M.; Park, J. -K.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Valanju, P.; Woolley, R.

    2016-08-16

    Here, a fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) could play an important role in the development of fusion energy by providing the nuclear environment needed to develop fusion materials and components. The spherical torus/tokamak (ST) is a leading candidate for an FNSF due to its potentially high neutron wall loading and modular configuration. A key consideration for the choice of FNSF configuration is the range of achievable missions as a function of device size. Possible missions include: providing high neutron wall loading and fluence, demonstrating tritium self-sufficiency, and demonstrating electrical self-sufficiency. All of these missions must also be compatible with a viable divertor, first-wall, and blanket solution. ST-FNSF configurations have been developed simultaneously incorporating for the first time: (1) a blanket system capable of tritium breeding ratio TBR ≈ 1, (2) a poloidal field coil set supporting high elongation and triangularity for a range of internal inductance and normalized beta values consistent with NSTX/NSTX-U previous/planned operation, (3) a long-legged divertor analogous to the MAST-U divertor which substantially reduces projected peak divertor heat-flux and has all outboard poloidal field coils outside the vacuum chamber and superconducting to reduce power consumption, and (4) a vertical maintenance scheme in which blanket structures and the centerstack can be removed independently. Progress in these ST-FNSF missions versus configuration studies including dependence on plasma major radius R 0 for a range 1 m–2.2 m are described. In particular, it is found the threshold major radius for TBR = 1 is ${{R}_{0}}\\geqslant 1.7$ m, and a smaller R 0 = 1 m ST device has TBR ≈ 0.9 which is below unity but substantially reduces T consumption relative to not breeding. Calculations of neutral beam heating and current drive for non-inductive ramp-up and sustainment are described. An A = 2, R = 3 m device incorporating high-temperature

  8. Fusion nuclear science facilities and pilot plants based on the spherical tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Menard, J. E.; Brown, T.; El-Guebaly, L.; ...

    2016-08-16

    Here, a fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) could play an important role in the development of fusion energy by providing the nuclear environment needed to develop fusion materials and components. The spherical torus/tokamak (ST) is a leading candidate for an FNSF due to its potentially high neutron wall loading and modular configuration. A key consideration for the choice of FNSF configuration is the range of achievable missions as a function of device size. Possible missions include: providing high neutron wall loading and fluence, demonstrating tritium self-sufficiency, and demonstrating electrical self-sufficiency. All of these missions must also be compatible with a viable divertor, first-wall, and blanket solution. ST-FNSF configurations have been developed simultaneously incorporating for the first time: (1) a blanket system capable of tritium breeding ratio TBR ≈ 1, (2) a poloidal field coil set supporting high elongation and triangularity for a range of internal inductance and normalized beta values consistent with NSTX/NSTX-U previous/planned operation, (3) a long-legged divertor analogous to the MAST-U divertor which substantially reduces projected peak divertor heat-flux and has all outboard poloidal field coils outside the vacuum chamber and superconducting to reduce power consumption, and (4) a vertical maintenance scheme in which blanket structures and the centerstack can be removed independently. Progress in these ST-FNSF missions versus configuration studies including dependence on plasma major radius R 0 for a range 1 m–2.2 m are described. In particular, it is found the threshold major radius for TBR = 1 ismore » $${{R}_{0}}\\geqslant 1.7$$ m, and a smaller R 0 = 1 m ST device has TBR ≈ 0.9 which is below unity but substantially reduces T consumption relative to not breeding. Calculations of neutral beam heating and current drive for non-inductive ramp-up and sustainment are described. An A = 2, R = 3 m device incorporating high-temperature

  9. Fusion nuclear science facilities and pilot plants based on the spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. E.; Brown, T.; El-Guebaly, L.; Boyer, M.; Canik, J.; Colling, B.; Raman, R.; Wang, Z.; Zhai, Y.; Buxton, P.; Covele, B.; D'Angelo, C.; Davis, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Gryaznevich, M.; Harb, M.; Hender, T. C.; Kaye, S.; Kingham, D.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Maingi, R.; Marriott, E.; Meier, E. T.; Mynsberge, L.; Neumeyer, C.; Ono, M.; Park, J.-K.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Valanju, P.; Woolley, R.

    2016-10-01

    A fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) could play an important role in the development of fusion energy by providing the nuclear environment needed to develop fusion materials and components. The spherical torus/tokamak (ST) is a leading candidate for an FNSF due to its potentially high neutron wall loading and modular configuration. A key consideration for the choice of FNSF configuration is the range of achievable missions as a function of device size. Possible missions include: providing high neutron wall loading and fluence, demonstrating tritium self-sufficiency, and demonstrating electrical self-sufficiency. All of these missions must also be compatible with a viable divertor, first-wall, and blanket solution. ST-FNSF configurations have been developed simultaneously incorporating for the first time: (1) a blanket system capable of tritium breeding ratio TBR  ≈  1, (2) a poloidal field coil set supporting high elongation and triangularity for a range of internal inductance and normalized beta values consistent with NSTX/NSTX-U previous/planned operation, (3) a long-legged divertor analogous to the MAST-U divertor which substantially reduces projected peak divertor heat-flux and has all outboard poloidal field coils outside the vacuum chamber and superconducting to reduce power consumption, and (4) a vertical maintenance scheme in which blanket structures and the centerstack can be removed independently. Progress in these ST-FNSF missions versus configuration studies including dependence on plasma major radius R 0 for a range 1 m-2.2 m are described. In particular, it is found the threshold major radius for TBR  =  1 is {{R}0}≥slant 1.7 m, and a smaller R 0  =  1 m ST device has TBR  ≈  0.9 which is below unity but substantially reduces T consumption relative to not breeding. Calculations of neutral beam heating and current drive for non-inductive ramp-up and sustainment are described. An A  =  2, R 0

  10. Fusion nuclear science facilities and pilot plants based on the spherical tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, J. E.; Brown, T.; El-Guebaly, L.; Boyer, M.; Canik, J.; Colling, B.; Raman, R.; Wang, Z.; Zhai, Y.; Buxton, P.; Covele, B.; D’Angelo, C.; Davis, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Gryaznevich, M.; Harb, M.; Hender, T. C.; Kaye, S.; Kingham, D.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Maingi, R.; Marriott, E.; Meier, E. T.; Mynsberge, L.; Neumeyer, C.; Ono, M.; Park, J. -K.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Valanju, P.; Woolley, R.

    2016-08-16

    Here, a fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) could play an important role in the development of fusion energy by providing the nuclear environment needed to develop fusion materials and components. The spherical torus/tokamak (ST) is a leading candidate for an FNSF due to its potentially high neutron wall loading and modular configuration. A key consideration for the choice of FNSF configuration is the range of achievable missions as a function of device size. Possible missions include: providing high neutron wall loading and fluence, demonstrating tritium self-sufficiency, and demonstrating electrical self-sufficiency. All of these missions must also be compatible with a viable divertor, first-wall, and blanket solution. ST-FNSF configurations have been developed simultaneously incorporating for the first time: (1) a blanket system capable of tritium breeding ratio TBR ≈ 1, (2) a poloidal field coil set supporting high elongation and triangularity for a range of internal inductance and normalized beta values consistent with NSTX/NSTX-U previous/planned operation, (3) a long-legged divertor analogous to the MAST-U divertor which substantially reduces projected peak divertor heat-flux and has all outboard poloidal field coils outside the vacuum chamber and superconducting to reduce power consumption, and (4) a vertical maintenance scheme in which blanket structures and the centerstack can be removed independently. Progress in these ST-FNSF missions versus configuration studies including dependence on plasma major radius R 0 for a range 1 m–2.2 m are described. In particular, it is found the threshold major radius for TBR = 1 is ${{R}_{0}}\\geqslant 1.7$ m, and a smaller R 0 = 1 m ST device has TBR ≈ 0.9 which is below unity but substantially reduces T consumption relative to not breeding. Calculations of neutral beam heating and current drive for non-inductive ramp-up and sustainment are described. An A = 2, R = 3 m device incorporating high-temperature

  11. An improved poly(A) motifs recognition method based on decision level fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanxin; Han, Jiuqiang; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Jiguang; Liu, Ruiling

    2015-02-01

    Polyadenylation is the process of addition of poly(A) tail to mRNA 3' ends. Identification of motifs controlling polyadenylation plays an essential role in improving genome annotation accuracy and better understanding of the mechanisms governing gene regulation. The bioinformatics methods used for poly(A) motifs recognition have demonstrated that information extracted from sequences surrounding the candidate motifs can differentiate true motifs from the false ones greatly. However, these methods depend on either domain features or string kernels. To date, methods combining information from different sources have not been found yet. Here, we proposed an improved poly(A) motifs recognition method by combing different sources based on decision level fusion. First of all, two novel prediction methods was proposed based on support vector machine (SVM): one method is achieved by using the domain-specific features and principle component analysis (PCA) method to eliminate the redundancy (PCA-SVM); the other method is based on Oligo string kernel (Oligo-SVM). Then we proposed a novel machine-learning method for poly(A) motif prediction by marrying four poly(A) motifs recognition methods, including two state-of-the-art methods (Random Forest (RF) and HMM-SVM), and two novel proposed methods (PCA-SVM and Oligo-SVM). A decision level information fusion method was employed to combine the decision values of different classifiers by applying the DS evidence theory. We evaluated our method on a comprehensive poly(A) dataset that consists of 14,740 samples on 12 variants of poly(A) motifs and 2750 samples containing none of these motifs. Our method has achieved accuracy up to 86.13%. Compared with the four classifiers, our evidence theory based method reduces the average error rate by about 30%, 27%, 26% and 16%, respectively. The experimental results suggest that the proposed method is more effective for poly(A) motif recognition.

  12. 3D modeling of geological anomalies based on segmentation of multiattribute fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Ning; Song, Cheng-Yun; Li, Zhi-Yong; Cai, Han-Peng; Yao, Xing-Miao; Hu, Guang-Min

    2016-09-01

    3D modeling of geological bodies based on 3D seismic data is used to define the shape and volume of the bodies, which then can be directly applied to reservoir prediction, reserve estimation, and exploration. However, multiattributes are not effectively used in 3D modeling. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method for building of 3D model of geological anomalies based on the segmentation of multiattribute fusion. First, we divide the seismic attributes into edge- and region-based seismic attributes. Then, the segmentation model incorporating the edge- and region-based models is constructed within the levelset-based framework. Finally, the marching cubes algorithm is adopted to extract the zero level set based on the segmentation results and build the 3D model of the geological anomaly. Combining the edge-and region-based attributes to build the segmentation model, we satisfy the independence requirement and avoid the problem of insufficient data of single seismic attribute in capturing the boundaries of geological anomalies. We apply the proposed method to seismic data from the Sichuan Basin in southwestern China and obtain 3D models of caves and channels. Compared with 3D models obtained based on single seismic attributes, the results are better agreement with reality.

  13. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  14. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-04-02

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented.

  15. A new approach to accurate validation of remote sensing retrieval of evapotranspiration based on data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Jiang, D.; Wang, J.; Zhu, Y.

    2010-03-01

    The study presented a new method of validating the remote-sensing (RS) retrieval of evapotranspiration (ET) under the support of a distributed hydrological model: Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In this method, the output runoff data based on a fusion of ET data, meteorological data and rainfall data, etc. were compared with the observed runoff data, so as to carry out validation analysis. A new pattern of validating the ET data obtained from RS retrieval, which was more appropriate than the conventional means of observing the ET at several limited stations based on eddy covariance, was proposed. It has integrated the advantage of high requirement of ET with high spatial resolution in the distributed hydrological model and that of the capacity of providing ET with high spatial resolution in RS methods. First, the ET data in five years (2000-2004) were retrieved with RS according to the principle of energy balance. The temporal/spatial ditribution of monthly ET data and related causes were analyzed in the year of 2000, and the monthly ET in the five years was calculated according to the PM model. Subsequently, the results of the RS retrieval of ET and the PM-based ET calculation were compared and validated. Finnaly, the ET data obtained from RS retrieval was evaluated with the new method, under the support of SWAT, meteorologic data, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), landuse data and soil data, etc. as the input, being compared with the PM-based ET. According to the ET data analysis, it can be inferred that the ET obtained from RS retrieval was more continuous and stable with less saltation, while the PM-based ET presented saltation, especially in the year of 2000 and 2001. The correlation coefficient between the monthly ET in two methods reaches 0.8914, which could be explained by the influence from clouds and the inadequate representativeness of the meteorologic stations. Moreover, the PM-based ET was smaller than the ET obtained from RS retrieval, which was

  16. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  17. A fusion algorithm for infrared and visible based on guided filtering and phase congruency in NSST domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhanwen; Feng, Yan; Chen, Hang; Jiao, Licheng

    2017-10-01

    A novel and effective image fusion method is proposed for creating a highly informative and smooth surface of fused image through merging visible and infrared images. Firstly, a two-scale non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST) is employed to decompose the visible and infrared images into detail layers and one base layer. Then, phase congruency is adopted to extract the saliency maps from the detail layers and a guided filtering is proposed to compute the filtering output of base layer and saliency maps. Next, a novel weighted average technique is used to make full use of scene consistency for fusion and obtaining coefficients map. Finally the fusion image was acquired by taking inverse NSST of the fused coefficients map. Experiments show that the proposed approach can achieve better performance than other methods in terms of subjective visual effect and objective assessment.

  18. Technique for gray-scale visual light and infrared image fusion based on non-subsampled shearlet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weiwei

    2014-03-01

    A novel image fusion technique based on NSST (non-subsampled shearlet transform) is presented, aiming at resolving the fusion problem of spatially gray-scale visual light and infrared images. NSST, as a new member of MGA (multi-scale geometric analysis) tools, possesses not only flexible direction features and optimal shift-invariance, but much better fusion performance and lower computational costs compared with several current popular MGA tools such as NSCT (non-subsampled contourlet transform). We specifically propose new rules for the fusion of low and high frequency sub-band coefficients of source images in the second step of the NSST-based image fusion algorithm. First, the source images are decomposed into different scales and directions using NSST. Then, the model of region average energy (RAE) is proposed and adopted to fuse the low frequency sub-band coefficients of the gray-scale visual light and infrared images. Third, the model of local directional contrast (LDC) is given and utilized to fuse the corresponding high frequency sub-band coefficients. Finally, the final fused image is obtained by using inverse NSST to all fused sub-images. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique, several current popular ones are compared over three different publicly available image sets using four evaluation metrics, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique performs better in both subjective and objective qualities.

  19. Automated image-based assay for evaluation of HIV neutralization and cell-to-cell fusion inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sheik-Khalil, Enas; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Özkaya Şahin, Gülsen; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Carpenter, Anne E; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2014-08-30

    Standardized techniques to detect HIV-neutralizing antibody responses are of great importance in the search for an HIV vaccine. Here, we present a high-throughput, high-content automated plaque reduction (APR) assay based on automated microscopy and image analysis that allows evaluation of neutralization and inhibition of cell-cell fusion within the same assay. Neutralization of virus particles is measured as a reduction in the number of fluorescent plaques, and inhibition of cell-cell fusion as a reduction in plaque area. We found neutralization strength to be a significant factor in the ability of virus to form syncytia. Further, we introduce the inhibitory concentration of plaque area reduction (ICpar) as an additional measure of antiviral activity, i.e. fusion inhibition. We present an automated image based high-throughput, high-content HIV plaque reduction assay. This allows, for the first time, simultaneous evaluation of neutralization and inhibition of cell-cell fusion within the same assay, by quantifying the reduction in number of plaques and mean plaque area, respectively. Inhibition of cell-to-cell fusion requires higher quantities of inhibitory reagent than inhibition of virus neutralization.

  20. An SMS structure based temperature sensor using a chalcogenide multimode fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Yuan, Libo; Brambilla, Gilberto; Farrell, Gerald

    2016-11-01

    In this work we investigated the fabrication of a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fibre structure based on a chalcogenide (As2S3 and AsxS1-x) multimode fibre (MMF) sandwiched between two standard silica singlemode fibres (SMFs) using a commercial fibre fusion splicer. The temperature dependence of this hybrid fibre structure was also investigated. A first proof of concept showed that the hybrid SMS fibre structure has an average experimental temperature sensitivity of 50.63 pm/°C over a temperature range of 20 °C 100°C at wavelengths around 1.55 μm. The measured results show a general agreement with numerical simulations based on a guided-mode propagation analysis method. Our result provides a potential platform for the development of compact, high-optical-quality and robust sensing devices operating at the mid-infrared wavelength range.

  1. Heterogeneous classifier fusion for ligand-based virtual screening: or, how decision making by committee can be a good thing.

    PubMed

    Riniker, Sereina; Fechner, Nikolas; Landrum, Gregory A

    2013-11-25

    The concept of data fusion - the combination of information from different sources describing the same object with the expectation to generate a more accurate representation - has found application in a very broad range of disciplines. In the context of ligand-based virtual screening (VS), data fusion has been applied to combine knowledge from either different active molecules or different fingerprints to improve similarity search performance. Machine-learning (ML) methods based on fusion of multiple homogeneous classifiers, in particular random forests, have also been widely applied in the ML literature. The heterogeneous version of classifier fusion - fusing the predictions from different model types - has been less explored. Here, we investigate heterogeneous classifier fusion for ligand-based VS using three different ML methods, RF, naïve Bayes (NB), and logistic regression (LR), with four 2D fingerprints, atom pairs, topological torsions, RDKit fingerprint, and circular fingerprint. The methods are compared using a previously developed benchmarking platform for 2D fingerprints which is extended to ML methods in this article. The original data sets are filtered for difficulty, and a new set of challenging data sets from ChEMBL is added. Data sets were also generated for a second use case: starting from a small set of related actives instead of diverse actives. The final fused model consistently outperforms the other approaches across the broad variety of targets studied, indicating that heterogeneous classifier fusion is a very promising approach for ligand-based VS. The new data sets together with the adapted source code for ML methods are provided in the Supporting Information .

  2. A Multi-Level Decision Fusion Strategy for Condition Based Maintenance of Composite Structures

    PubMed Central

    Sharif Khodaei, Zahra; Aliabadi, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a multi-level decision fusion strategy is proposed which weighs the Value of Information (VoI) against the intended functions of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. This paper presents a multi-level approach for three different maintenance strategies in which the performance of the SHM systems is evaluated against its intended functions. Level 1 diagnosis results in damage existence with minimum sensors covering a large area by finding the maximum energy difference for the guided waves propagating in pristine structure and the post-impact state; Level 2 diagnosis provides damage detection and approximate localization using an approach based on Electro-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) measures, while Level 3 characterizes damage (exact location and size) in addition to its detection by utilising a Weighted Energy Arrival Method (WEAM). The proposed multi-level strategy is verified and validated experimentally by detection of Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) on a curved composite fuselage panel. PMID:28773910

  3. A method of recognition based on the feature layer fusion of palmprint and hand vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hua; Yang, Xiaoping; Shi, Guangyuan

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a method of recognition of multi-modal biometrics for palmprint and hand vein based on the feature layer fusion is proposed, combined with the characteristics of an improved canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and two dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA). After pretreatment respectively, feature vectors of palmprint and hand vein images are extracted using two dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA),then fused in the feature level using the improved canonical correlation analysis(CCA), so identification can be done by a adjacent classifier finally. Using this method, two biometric information can be fused and the redundancy of information between features can effectively eliminated, the problem of the high-dimensional and small sample size can be overcome too. Simulation experimental results show that the proposed method in this paper can effectively improve the recognition rate of identification.

  4. Compact Intense Neutron Generators Based on Inertial Electrostatic Confinement of D-D Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, K.; Inoue, K.; Kajiwara, T.; Nakamatsu, R.

    2015-10-01

    A neutron generator based on inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) of fusion plasmas is being developed for a non-destructive inspection system of special nuclear materials hidden in sea containers. The new IEC device is equipped with a multistage feedthrough which was designed aiming at both capability of a high bias voltage and enhancement of ion recirculation by modification of electric fields in the IEC device. Experimental comparison was made with a conventional single-stage IEC device developed in an earlier work. As the results, both the increase in the applied voltage and the modified field symmetry by the new multistage scheme showed significant enhancement in the neutron output. As a consequence, neutron output per input discharge current was enhanced drastically by a factor of ~30 in total. Also, the first pulsing experiments of the newly developed IEC neutron generator showed pulsed neutron output with a rapid pulse fall-off of ~ 1 μsec successfully.

  5. Simultaneous image compression, fusion and encryption algorithm based on compressive sensing and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingbin; Mei, Wenbo; Du, Huiqian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel approach based on compressive sensing and chaos is proposed for simultaneously compressing, fusing and encrypting multi-modal images. The sparsely represented source images are firstly measured with the key-controlled pseudo-random measurement matrix constructed using logistic map, which reduces the data to be processed and realizes the initial encryption. Then the obtained measurements are fused by the proposed adaptive weighted fusion rule. The fused measurement is further encrypted into the ciphertext through an iterative procedure including improved random pixel exchanging technique and fractional Fourier transform. The fused image can be reconstructed by decrypting the ciphertext and using a recovery algorithm. The proposed algorithm not only reduces data volume but also simplifies keys, which improves the efficiency of transmitting data and distributing keys. Numerical results demonstrate the feasibility and security of the proposed scheme.

  6. Intelligent Information Fusion in the Aviation Domain: A Semantic-Web based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen; Goforth, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Information fusion from multiple sources is a critical requirement for System Wide Information Management in the National Airspace (NAS). NASA and the FAA envision creating an "integrated pool" of information originally coming from different sources, which users, intelligent agents and NAS decision support tools can tap into. In this paper we present the results of our initial investigations into the requirements and prototype development of such an integrated information pool for the NAS. We have attempted to ascertain key requirements for such an integrated pool based on a survey of DSS tools that will benefit from this integrated pool. We then advocate key technologies from computer science research areas such as the semantic web, information integration, and intelligent agents that we believe are well suited to achieving the envisioned system wide information management capabilities.

  7. Yb:YAG ceramic-based laser driver for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrovec, John; Copeland, Drew A.; Litt, Amardeep S.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a new class of laser amplifiers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers based on a Yb:YAG ceramic disk in an edge-pumped configuration and cooled by a high-velocity gas flow. The Yb lasant offers very high efficiency and low waste heat. The ceramic host material has a thermal conductivity nearly 15-times higher than the traditionally used glass and it is producible in sizes suitable for a typical 10- to 20-kJ driver beam line. The combination of high lasant efficiency, low waste heat, edge-pumping, and excellent thermal conductivity of the host, enable operation at 10 to 20 Hz at over 20% wall plug efficiency while being comparably smaller and less costly than recently considered face-pumped alternative drivers using Nd:glass, Yb:S-FAP, and cryogenic Yb:YAG. Scalability of the laser driver over a broad range of sizes is presented.

  8. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fusion based assays for studying protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Vikis, Haris G; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fusion proteins have become an effective reagent to use in the study of protein-protein interactions. GST-fusion proteins can be produced in bacterial and mammalian cells in large quantities and purified rapidly. GST can be coupled to a glutathione matrix, which permits its use as an effective affinity column to study interactions in vitro or to purify protein complexes in cells expressing the GST-fusion protein. Here, we provide a technical description of the utilization of GST-fusion proteins as both a tool to study protein-protein interactions and also as a means to purify interacting proteins.

  9. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  10. A regional method for craniofacial reconstruction based on coordinate adjustments and a new fusion strategy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qingqiong; Zhou, Mingquan; Wu, Zhongke; Shui, Wuyang; Ji, Yuan; Wang, Xingce; Liu, Ching Yiu Jessica; Huang, Youliang; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-02-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction recreates a facial outlook from the cranium based on the relationship between the face and the skull to assist identification. But craniofacial structures are very complex, and this relationship is not the same in different craniofacial regions. Several regional methods have recently been proposed, these methods segmented the face and skull into regions, and the relationship of each region is then learned independently, after that, facial regions for a given skull are estimated and finally glued together to generate a face. Most of these regional methods use vertex coordinates to represent the regions, and they define a uniform coordinate system for all of the regions. Consequently, the inconsistence in the positions of regions between different individuals is not eliminated before learning the relationships between the face and skull regions, and this reduces the accuracy of the craniofacial reconstruction. In order to solve this problem, an improved regional method is proposed in this paper involving two types of coordinate adjustments. One is the global coordinate adjustment performed on the skulls and faces with the purpose to eliminate the inconsistence of position and pose of the heads; the other is the local coordinate adjustment performed on the skull and face regions with the purpose to eliminate the inconsistence of position of these regions. After these two coordinate adjustments, partial least squares regression (PLSR) is used to estimate the relationship between the face region and the skull region. In order to obtain a more accurate reconstruction, a new fusion strategy is also proposed in the paper to maintain the reconstructed feature regions when gluing the facial regions together. This is based on the observation that the feature regions usually have less reconstruction errors compared to rest of the face. The results demonstrate that the coordinate adjustments and the new fusion strategy can significantly improve the

  11. A geomorphology-based approach for digital elevation model fusion - case study in Danang city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. A.; Raghavan, V.; Masumoto, S.; Vinayaraj, P.; Yonezawa, G.

    2014-07-01

    Global digital elevation models (DEM) are considered a source of vital spatial information and find wide use in several applications. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global DEM (GDEM) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) DEM offer almost global coverage and provide elevation data for geospatial analysis. However, GDEM and SRTM still contain some height errors that affect the quality of elevation data significantly. This study aims to examine methods to improve the resolution as well as accuracy of available free DEMs by data fusion techniques and evaluating the results with a high-quality reference DEM. The DEM fusion method is based on the accuracy assessment of each global DEM and geomorphological characteristics of the study area. Land cover units were also considered to correct the elevation of GDEM and SRTM with respect to the bare-earth surface. The weighted averaging method was used to fuse the input DEMs based on a landform classification map. According to the landform types, the different weights were used for GDEM and SRTM. Finally, a denoising algorithm (Sun et al., 2007) was applied to filter the output-fused DEM. This fused DEM shows excellent correlation to the reference DEM, having a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9986, and the accuracy was also improved from a root mean square error (RMSE) of 14.9 m in GDEM and 14.8 m in SRTM to 11.6 m in the fused DEM. The results of terrain-related parameters extracted from this fused DEM such as slope, curvature, terrain roughness index and normal vector of topographic surface are also very comparable to reference data.

  12. Biomechanical Comparison of Spinal Fusion Methods Using Interspinous Process Compressor and Pedicle Screw Fixation System Based on Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jisoo; Kim, Sohee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomechanical effects of a newly proposed Interspinous Process Compressor (IPC) and compare with pedicle screw fixation at surgical and adjacent levels of lumbar spine. Methods A three dimensional finite element model of intact lumbar spine was constructed and two spinal fusion models using pedicle screw fixation system and a new type of interspinous devices, IPC, were developed. The biomechanical effects such as range of motion (ROM) and facet contact force were analyzed at surgical level (L3/4) and adjacent levels (L2/3, L4/5). In addition, the stress in adjacent intervertebral discs (D2, D4) was investigated. Results The entire results show biomechanical parameters such as ROM, facet contact force, and stress in adjacent intervertebral discs were similar between PLIF and IPC models in all motions based on the assumption that the implants were perfectly fused with the spine. Conclusion The newly proposed fusion device, IPC, had similar fusion effect at surgical level, and biomechanical effects at adjacent levels were also similar with those of pedicle screw fixation system. However, for clinical applications, real fusion effect between spinous process and hooks, duration of fusion, and influence on spinous process need to be investigated through clinical study. PMID:26962413

  13. A Novel Fusion Framework Based on Adaptive PCNN in NSCT Domain for Whole-Body PET and CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Li, Siqi

    2017-01-01

    The PET and CT fusion images, combining the anatomical and functional information, have important clinical meaning. This paper proposes a novel fusion framework based on adaptive pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNNs) in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain for fusing whole-body PET and CT images. Firstly, the gradient average of each pixel is chosen as the linking strength of PCNN model to implement self-adaptability. Secondly, to improve the fusion performance, the novel sum-modified Laplacian (NSML) and energy of edge (EOE) are extracted as the external inputs of the PCNN models for low- and high-pass subbands, respectively. Lastly, the rule of max region energy is adopted as the fusion rule and different energy templates are employed in the low- and high-pass subbands. The experimental results on whole-body PET and CT data (239 slices contained by each modality) show that the proposed framework outperforms the other six methods in terms of the seven commonly used fusion performance metrics. PMID:28473868

  14. A Novel Fusion Framework Based on Adaptive PCNN in NSCT Domain for Whole-Body PET and CT Images.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiying; Jiang, Huiyan; Li, Siqi

    2017-01-01

    The PET and CT fusion images, combining the anatomical and functional information, have important clinical meaning. This paper proposes a novel fusion framework based on adaptive pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNNs) in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain for fusing whole-body PET and CT images. Firstly, the gradient average of each pixel is chosen as the linking strength of PCNN model to implement self-adaptability. Secondly, to improve the fusion performance, the novel sum-modified Laplacian (NSML) and energy of edge (EOE) are extracted as the external inputs of the PCNN models for low- and high-pass subbands, respectively. Lastly, the rule of max region energy is adopted as the fusion rule and different energy templates are employed in the low- and high-pass subbands. The experimental results on whole-body PET and CT data (239 slices contained by each modality) show that the proposed framework outperforms the other six methods in terms of the seven commonly used fusion performance metrics.

  15. Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale. PMID:25031874

  16. (International Panel on 14 MeV Intense Neutron Source Based on Accelerators for Fusion Materials Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Thoms, K.R.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1991-02-14

    Both travelers were members of a nine-person US delegation that participated in an international workshop on accelerator-based 14 MeV neutron sources for fusion materials research hosted by the University of Tokyo. Presentations made at the workshop reviewed the technology developed by the FMIT Project, advances in accelerator technology, and proposed concepts for neutron sources. One traveler then participated in the initial meeting of the IEA Working Group on High Energy, High Flux Neutron Sources in which efforts were begun to evaluate and compare proposed neutron sources; the Fourth FFTF/MOTA Experimenters' Workshop which covered planning and coordination of the US-Japan collaboration using the FFTF reactor to irradiate fusion reactor materials; and held discussions with several JAERI personnel on the US-Japan collaboration on fusion reactor materials.

  17. Multi-frame decision level fusion for face classification based on a photon-counting linear discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Seokwon

    2011-03-01

    Face classification in an uncontrolled setting has wide applications in security and surveillance systems. Multiple frames are often available for this purpose captured by multiple sensors or a single sensor generating video clips. Data fusion technique for face classification has an advantage in that a considerable amount of information can be used to achieve high recognition performance. This paper investigates the efficacy of multi-frame decision level fusion for face classification based on a photon-counting linear discriminant analysis, which realizes Fisher's criterion without dimensionality reduction. Decision level fusion comprises two stages: score validation and score combination. During score validation, candidate symbols (classes) are selected by a screening process. During score combination, the candidate scores are combined in order to make a final decision. In the experiments, a facial image database is employed to show the preliminary results of the proposed technique.

  18. Size-exclusion chromatography based on silica-diol for the analysis of the proinsulin fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Gusarova, V; Vorobjeva, T; Gusarov, D; Lasman, V; Bayramashvili, D

    2007-12-28

    Size-exclusion chromatography based on silica-diol sorbent was employed to analyze the recombinant proinsulin fusion protein obtained during the process of refolding and the following ion-exchange purification. The assay was qualified as a control method estimating its accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limits of quantitation, specificity, and robustness. The results show the reliability for the intended use.

  19. Multidimensional spectroscopic data fusion improves precancerous tissue discrimination based on spatially resolved autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdat, F.; Amouroux, M.; Guermeur, Y.; Blondel, W.

    2015-07-01

    The current study deals with new perspectives to perform more efficient classification of mouse skin precancerous stages by means of a decision fusion scheme based on belief functions and exploiting the spatial resolution of the autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopic data.

  20. A data fusion-based methodology for optimal redesign of groundwater monitoring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kerachian, Reza

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a new data fusion-based methodology is presented for spatio-temporal (S-T) redesigning of Groundwater Level Monitoring Networks (GLMNs). The kriged maps of three different criteria (i.e. marginal entropy of water table levels, estimation error variances of mean values of water table levels, and estimation values of long-term changes in water level) are combined for determining monitoring sub-areas of high and low priorities in order to consider different spatial patterns for each sub-area. The best spatial sampling scheme is selected by applying a new method, in which a regular hexagonal gridding pattern and the Thiessen polygon approach are respectively utilized in sub-areas of high and low monitoring priorities. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and a S-T kriging models are used to simulate water level fluctuations. To improve the accuracy of the predictions, results of the ANN and S-T kriging models are combined using a data fusion technique. The concept of Value of Information (VOI) is utilized to determine two stations with maximum information values in both sub-areas with high and low monitoring priorities. The observed groundwater level data of these two stations are considered for the power of trend detection, estimating periodic fluctuations and mean values of the stationary components, which are used for determining non-uniform sampling frequencies for sub-areas. The proposed methodology is applied to the Dehgolan plain in northwestern Iran. The results show that a new sampling configuration with 35 and 7 monitoring stations and sampling intervals of 20 and 32 days, respectively in sub-areas with high and low monitoring priorities, leads to a more efficient monitoring network than the existing one containing 52 monitoring stations and monthly temporal sampling.

  1. Change Detection with Multi-Source Defective Remote Sensing Images Based on Evidential Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yunfei; Tao, Liangliang

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing images with clouds, shadows or stripes are usually considered as defective data which limit their application for change detection. This paper proposes a method to fuse a series of defective images as evidences for change detection. In the proposed method, post-classification comparison process is firstly performed on multi-source defective images. Then, the classification results of all the images, together with their corresponding confusion matrixes are used to calculate the Basic Belief Assignment (BBA) of each pixel. Further, based on the principle of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, a BBA redistribution process is introduced to deal with the defective parts of multi-source data. At last, evidential fusion and decision making rules are applied on the pixel level, and the final map of change detection can be derived. The proposed method can finish change detection with data fusion and image completion in one integrated process, which makes use of the complementary and redundant information from the input images. The method is applied to a case study of landslide barrier lake formed in Aug. 3rd, 2014, with a series of multispectral images from different sensors of GF-1 satellite. Result shows that the proposed method can not only complete the defective parts of the input images, but also provide better change detection accuracy than post-classification comparison method with single pair of pre- and post-change images. Subsequent analysis indicates that high conflict degree between evidences is the main source of errors in the result. Finally, some possible reasons that result in evidence conflict on the pixel level are analysed.

  2. Road centerline extraction from airborne LiDAR point cloud based on hierarchical fusion and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhenyang; Hu, Youjian; Jin, Shuanggen; Yevenyo, Yao Ziggah

    2016-08-01

    Road information acquisition is an important part of city informatization construction. Airborne LiDAR provides a new means of acquiring road information. However, the existing road extraction methods using LiDAR point clouds always decide the road intensity threshold based on experience, which cannot obtain the optimal threshold to extract a road point cloud. Moreover, these existing methods are deficient in removing the interference of narrow roads and several attached areas (e.g., parking lot and bare ground) to main roads extraction, thereby imparting low completeness and correctness to the city road network extraction result. Aiming at resolving the key technical issues of road extraction from airborne LiDAR point clouds, this paper proposes a novel method to extract road centerlines from airborne LiDAR point clouds. The proposed approach is mainly composed of three key algorithms, namely, Skewness balancing, Rotating neighborhood, and Hierarchical fusion and optimization (SRH). The skewness balancing algorithm used for the filtering was adopted as a new method for obtaining an optimal intensity threshold such that the "pure" road point cloud can be obtained. The rotating neighborhood algorithm on the other hand was developed to remove narrow roads (corridors leading to parking lots or sidewalks), which are not the main roads to be extracted. The proposed hierarchical fusion and optimization algorithm caused the road centerlines to be unaffected by certain attached areas and ensured the road integrity as much as possible. The proposed method was tested using the Vaihingen dataset. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively extract road centerlines in a complex urban environment with 91.4% correctness and 80.4% completeness.

  3. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm

    PubMed Central

    López, Natalia M; di Sciascio, Fernando; Soria, Carlos M; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2009-01-01

    Background Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA) and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF), both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Methods Tested in five volunteers, a redundant arrangement was obtained with two pairs of electrodes for each recording channel. The myoelectric signals were electronically amplified, filtered and digitalized, while the processing, fusion algorithms and control were implemented in a personal computer under MATLAB® environment and in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The experiments used an industrial robotic manipulator BOSCH SR-800, type SCARA, with four degrees of freedom; however, only the first joint was used to move the end effector to a desired position, the latter obtained as proportional to the EMG amplitude. Results Several trials, including disconnecting and reconnecting one electrode and disturbing the signal with synthetic noise, were performed to test the fusion techniques. The results given by VWA and DKF were transformed into joint coordinates and used as command signals to the robotic arm. Even though the resultant signal was not exact, the failure was ignored and the joint reference signal never exceeded the workspace limits. Conclusion The fault robustness and safety characteristics of a myoelectric controlled manipulator system were substantially improved. The proposed scheme prevents potential risks for the operator, the equipment and the environment. Both algorithms showed efficient behavior. This outline could be applied to myoelectric control of prosthesis, or assistive manipulators to better assure the system functionality when electrode faults or noisy environment are present. PMID:19243627

  4. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm.

    PubMed

    López, Natalia M; di Sciascio, Fernando; Soria, Carlos M; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2009-02-25

    Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA) and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF), both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Tested in five volunteers, a redundant arrangement was obtained with two pairs of electrodes for each recording channel. The myoelectric signals were electronically amplified, filtered and digitalized, while the processing, fusion algorithms and control were implemented in a personal computer under MATLAB environment and in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The experiments used an industrial robotic manipulator BOSCH SR-800, type SCARA, with four degrees of freedom; however, only the first joint was used to move the end effector to a desired position, the latter obtained as proportional to the EMG amplitude. Several trials, including disconnecting and reconnecting one electrode and disturbing the signal with synthetic noise, were performed to test the fusion techniques. The results given by VWA and DKF were transformed into joint coordinates and used as command signals to the robotic arm. Even though the resultant signal was not exact, the failure was ignored and the joint reference signal never exceeded the workspace limits. The fault robustness and safety characteristics of a myoelectric controlled manipulator system were substantially improved. The proposed scheme prevents potential risks for the operator, the equipment and the environment. Both algorithms showed efficient behavior. This outline could be applied to myoelectric control of prosthesis, or assistive manipulators to better assure the system functionality when electrode faults or noisy environment are present.

  5. Novel fusion for hybrid optical/microcomputed tomography imaging based on natural light surface reconstruction and iterated closest point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Nannan; Tian, Jie; Liu, Xia; Deng, Kexin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Bo; Wang, Kun; Ma, Xibo

    2014-02-01

    In mathematics, optical molecular imaging including bioluminescence tomography (BLT), fluorescence tomography (FMT) and Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) are concerned with a similar inverse source problem. They all involve the reconstruction of the 3D location of a single/multiple internal luminescent/fluorescent sources based on 3D surface flux distribution. To achieve that, an accurate fusion between 2D luminescent/fluorescent images and 3D structural images that may be acquired form micro-CT, MRI or beam scanning is extremely critical. However, the absence of a universal method that can effectively convert 2D optical information into 3D makes the accurate fusion challengeable. In this study, to improve the fusion accuracy, a new fusion method for dual-modality tomography (luminescence/fluorescence and micro-CT) based on natural light surface reconstruction (NLSR) and iterated closest point (ICP) was presented. It consisted of Octree structure, exact visual hull from marching cubes and ICP. Different from conventional limited projection methods, it is 360° free-space registration, and utilizes more luminescence/fluorescence distribution information from unlimited multi-orientation 2D optical images. A mouse mimicking phantom (one XPM-2 Phantom Light Source, XENOGEN Corporation) and an in-vivo BALB/C mouse with implanted one luminescent light source were used to evaluate the performance of the new fusion method. Compared with conventional fusion methods, the average error of preset markers was improved by 0.3 and 0.2 pixels from the new method, respectively. After running the same 3D internal light source reconstruction algorithm of the BALB/C mouse, the distance error between the actual and reconstructed internal source was decreased by 0.19 mm.

  6. Soft computing-based terrain visual sensing and data fusion for unmanned ground robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we have primarily discussed technical challenges and navigational skill requirements of mobile robots for traversability path planning in natural terrain environments similar to Mars surface terrains. We have described different methods for detection of salient terrain features based on imaging texture analysis techniques. We have also presented three competing techniques for terrain traversability assessment of mobile robots navigating in unstructured natural terrain environments. These three techniques include: a rule-based terrain classifier, a neural network-based terrain classifier, and a fuzzy-logic terrain classifier. Each proposed terrain classifier divides a region of natural terrain into finite sub-terrain regions and classifies terrain condition exclusively within each sub-terrain region based on terrain visual clues. The Kalman Filtering technique is applied for aggregative fusion of sub-terrain assessment results. The last two terrain classifiers are shown to have remarkable capability for terrain traversability assessment of natural terrains. We have conducted a comparative performance evaluation of all three terrain classifiers and presented the results in this paper.

  7. Efficient Iris Recognition Based on Optimal Subfeature Selection and Weighted Subregion Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, andMMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity. PMID:24683317

  8. Efficient iris recognition based on optimal subfeature selection and weighted subregion fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; He, Fei; Wang, Hongye; Deng, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, and MMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity.

  9. Enfuvirtide (T20)-Based Lipopeptide Is a Potent HIV-1 Cell Fusion Inhibitor: Implications for Viral Entry and Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiujuan; Chong, Huihui; Zhu, Yuanmei; Wei, Huamian; Wu, Xiyuan; He, Jinsheng; Wang, Xinquan; He, Yuxian

    2017-09-15

    The peptide drug enfuvirtide (T20) is the only viral fusion inhibitor used in combination therapy for HIV-1 infection, but it has relatively low antiviral activity and easily induces drug resistance. Emerging studies demonstrate that lipopeptide-based fusion inhibitors, such as LP-11 and LP-19, which mainly target the gp41 pocket site, have greatly improved antiviral potency and in vivo stability. In this study, we focused on developing a T20-based lipopeptide inhibitor that lacks pocket-binding sequence and targets a different site. First, the C-terminal tryptophan-rich motif (TRM) of T20 was verified to be essential for its target binding and inhibition; then, a novel lipopeptide, termed LP-40, was created by replacing the TRM with a fatty acid group. LP-40 showed markedly enhanced binding affinity for the target site and dramatically increased inhibitory activity on HIV-1 membrane fusion, entry, and infection. Unlike LP-11 and LP-19, which required a flexible linker between the peptide sequence and the lipid moiety, addition of a linker to LP-40 sharply reduced its potency, implying different binding modes with the extended N-terminal helices of gp41. Also, interestingly, LP-40 showed more potent activity than LP-11 in inhibiting HIV-1 Env-mediated cell-cell fusion while it was less active than LP-11 in inhibiting pseudovirus entry, and the two inhibitors displayed synergistic antiviral effects. The crystal structure of LP-40 in complex with a target peptide revealed their key binding residues and motifs. Combined, our studies have not only provided a potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitor, but also revealed new insights into the mechanisms of viral inhibition.IMPORTANCE T20 is the only membrane fusion inhibitor available for treatment of viral infection; however, T20 requires high doses and has a low genetic barrier for resistance, and its inhibitory mechanism and structural basis remain unclear. Here, we report the design of LP-40, a T20-based lipopeptide inhibitor

  10. Dual-tree complex wavelet transform and image block residual-based multi-focus image fusion in visual sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Tong, Song; Huang, Shuying; Lin, Pan

    2014-11-26

    This paper presents a novel framework for the fusion of multi-focus images explicitly designed for visual sensor network (VSN) environments. Multi-scale based fusion methods can often obtain fused images with good visual effect. However, because of the defects of the fusion rules, it is almost impossible to completely avoid the loss of useful information in the thus obtained fused images. The proposed fusion scheme can be divided into two processes: initial fusion and final fusion. The initial fusion is based on a dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT). The Sum-Modified-Laplacian (SML)-based visual contrast and SML are employed to fuse the low- and high-frequency coefficients, respectively, and an initial composited image is obtained. In the final fusion process, the image block residuals technique and consistency verification are used to detect the focusing areas and then a decision map is obtained. The map is used to guide how to achieve the final fused image. The performance of the proposed method was extensively tested on a number of multi-focus images, including no-referenced images, referenced images, and images with different noise levels. The experimental results clearly indicate that the proposed method outperformed various state-of-the-art fusion methods, in terms of both subjective and objective evaluations, and is more suitable for VSNs.

  11. Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform and Image Block Residual-Based Multi-Focus Image Fusion in Visual Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Tong, Song; Huang, Shuying; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for the fusion of multi-focus images explicitly designed for visual sensor network (VSN) environments. Multi-scale based fusion methods can often obtain fused images with good visual effect. However, because of the defects of the fusion rules, it is almost impossible to completely avoid the loss of useful information in the thus obtained fused images. The proposed fusion scheme can be divided into two processes: initial fusion and final fusion. The initial fusion is based on a dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT). The Sum-Modified-Laplacian (SML)-based visual contrast and SML are employed to fuse the low- and high-frequency coefficients, respectively, and an initial composited image is obtained. In the final fusion process, the image block residuals technique and consistency verification are used to detect the focusing areas and then a decision map is obtained. The map is used to guide how to achieve the final fused image. The performance of the proposed method was extensively tested on a number of multi-focus images, including no-referenced images, referenced images, and images with different noise levels. The experimental results clearly indicate that the proposed method outperformed various state-of-the-art fusion methods, in terms of both subjective and objective evaluations, and is more suitable for VSNs. PMID:25587878

  12. High sensitivity temperature sensor based on a polymer filled hollow core optical fibre interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Ng, Wai Pang; Fu, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Jinhui; Yu, Chongxiu; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    A high-sensitivity temperature sensor based on a singlemode-multimode-polymer filled hollow core fibre-multimode-singlemode (SMHMS) fibre structure is proposed. This sensor was made from a short section of hollow core fibre filled with a high thermo-optic coefficient (TOC) polymer with a refractive index close to that of the fibre cladding, fusion spliced between two singlemode-multimode (SM) fibre structures. This sensor effectively improves the temperature sensitivity by over 200 times by comparison to a conventional singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fibre structure. In this report, we experimentally demonstrate that the proposed sensor provides a high temperature sensitivity of 2.16 nm/°C.

  13. The possible hot nature of cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehne, R.W. )

    1994-03-01

    Based on the model of micro hot fusion, the neutron emission rate of cold fusion is determined without the need for fine-tuning parameters. Moreover, the experimental conditions that are essential to reproduce fusion are determined. 84 refs.

  14. An automatic fuzzy-based multi-temporal brain digital subtraction angiography image fusion algorithm using curvelet transform and content selection strategy.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Saba; Pourghassem, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    Recently image fusion has prominent role in medical image processing and is useful to diagnose and treat many diseases. Digital subtraction angiography is one of the most applicable imaging to diagnose brain vascular diseases and radiosurgery of brain. This paper proposes an automatic fuzzy-based multi-temporal fusion algorithm for 2-D digital subtraction angiography images. In this algorithm, for blood vessel map extraction, the valuable frames of brain angiography video are automatically determined to form the digital subtraction angiography images based on a novel definition of vessel dispersion generated by injected contrast material. Our proposed fusion scheme contains different fusion methods for high and low frequency contents based on the coefficient characteristic of wrapping second generation of curvelet transform and a novel content selection strategy. Our proposed content selection strategy is defined based on sample correlation of the curvelet transform coefficients. In our proposed fuzzy-based fusion scheme, the selection of curvelet coefficients are optimized by applying weighted averaging and maximum selection rules for the high frequency coefficients. For low frequency coefficients, the maximum selection rule based on local energy criterion is applied to better visual perception. Our proposed fusion algorithm is evaluated on a perfect brain angiography image dataset consisting of one hundred 2-D internal carotid rotational angiography videos. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed fusion algorithm in comparison with common and basic fusion algorithms.

  15. Online energy management strategy of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles based on data fusion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Daming; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Gao, Fei; Ravey, Alexandre; Matraji, Imad; Godoy Simões, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    Energy management strategy plays a key role for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs), it directly affects the efficiency and performance of energy storages in FCHEVs. For example, by using a suitable energy distribution controller, the fuel cell system can be maintained in a high efficiency region and thus saving hydrogen consumption. In this paper, an energy management strategy for online driving cycles is proposed based on a combination of the parameters from three offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers using data fusion approach. The fuzzy logic controllers are respectively optimized for three typical driving scenarios: highway, suburban and city in offline. To classify patterns of online driving cycles, a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM) is used to provide probabilistic classification results. Based on the classification results of the online driving cycle, the parameters of each offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers are then fused using Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory, in order to calculate the final parameters for the online fuzzy logic controller. Three experimental validations using Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) platform with different-sized FCHEVs have been performed. Experimental comparison results show that, the proposed PSVM-DS based online controller can achieve a relatively stable operation and a higher efficiency of fuel cell system in real driving cycles.

  16. Fine Particle Sensor Based on Multi-Angle Light Scattering and Data Fusion.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenjia; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhou, Hongliang

    2017-05-04

    Meteorological parameters such as relative humidity have a significant impact on the precision of PM2.5 measurement instruments based on light scattering. Instead of adding meteorological sensors or dehumidification devices used widely in commercial PM2.5 measurement instruments, a novel particle sensor based on multi-angle light scattering and data fusion is proposed to eliminate the effect of meteorological factors. Three photodiodes are employed to collect the scattered light flux at three distinct angles. Weather index is defined as the ratio of scattered light fluxes collected at the 40° and 55° angles, which can be used to distinguish the mass median diameter variation caused by different meteorological parameters. Simulations based on Lorenz-Mie theory and field experiments establish the feasibility of this scheme. Experimental results indicate that mass median diameter has less effect on the photodiode at the 55° angle in comparison with photodiodes at the 40° angle and 140° angle. After correction using the weather index, the photodiode at the 40° angle yielded the best results followed by photodiodes at the 55° angle and the 140° angle.

  17. Fine Particle Sensor Based on Multi-Angle Light Scattering and Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wenjia; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhou, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Meteorological parameters such as relative humidity have a significant impact on the precision of PM2.5 measurement instruments based on light scattering. Instead of adding meteorological sensors or dehumidification devices used widely in commercial PM2.5 measurement instruments, a novel particle sensor based on multi-angle light scattering and data fusion is proposed to eliminate the effect of meteorological factors. Three photodiodes are employed to collect the scattered light flux at three distinct angles. Weather index is defined as the ratio of scattered light fluxes collected at the 40° and 55° angles, which can be used to distinguish the mass median diameter variation caused by different meteorological parameters. Simulations based on Lorenz-Mie theory and field experiments establish the feasibility of this scheme. Experimental results indicate that mass median diameter has less effect on the photodiode at the 55° angle in comparison with photodiodes at the 40° angle and 1