Science.gov

Sample records for future business environment

  1. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  2. Bridging Business with Tradition for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowannie, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The American Indian Business Association supports the recruitment and retention of American Indian business students at the University of New Mexico, helps students balance business school teachings with Native cultural values, acts as a liaison between the school and tribal business managers, and has carried out research and developed courses on…

  3. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  4. Future E-Business Applications in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Some of the opportunities created by e-business, or electronic commerce, for college teaching and administration are explored, including distributed learning, new forms of payment, new learning materials, academic support tools, administrative support, and new forms of publishing. E-business initiatives for colleges and universities are suggested.…

  5. A Future Astronomical Software Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosböl, P.; Tody, D.; Paioro, L.; Granet, Y.; Garilli, B.; Surace, C.; Opticon Fase Network

    2012-09-01

    Analyzing data sets in astronomy has become more and more complex and has driven the development of specific tools, functions and tasks. In order to integrate these tools in a global environment and thereby preserving them, the OPTICON Network 9.2 in coordination with US-VAO has outlined requirements, defined an architectural concept and developed a prototype of a Future Astronomical Software Environment (FASE). Important features are support for user scripting (e.g. Python), access to legacy applications (e.g. IRAF, MIDAS), integration with the Virtual Observatory (VO) for access to remote data and computation, and scalability supporting desktops to distributed cluster systems. A first prototype has been implemented and demonstrates the feasibility by offering access to numerous applications (e.g. ds9, ESO CPL pipelines, MIDAS, topcat) from a Python or Unix shell using VO-SAMP as a software bus. A simple packaging system is also provided to allow easy definition and sharing of applications at a Web portal.

  6. Future Directions for Business Education: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesten, Cyril A.; Lambrecht, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize perceptions from the field about current issues and to propose future directions for the field of business education. Method: A modified three-stage Delphi study was carried out with business educators who attended national conferences and/or belonged to national professional organizations.…

  7. A network-oriented business modeling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisconti, Cristian; Storelli, Davide; Totaro, Salvatore; Arigliano, Francesco; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia

    The development of formal models related to the organizational aspects of an enterprise is fundamental when these aspects must be re-engineered and digitalized, especially when the enterprise is involved in the dynamics and value flows of a business network. Business modeling provides an opportunity to synthesize and make business processes, business rules and the structural aspects of an organization explicit, allowing business managers to control their complexity and guide an enterprise through effective decisional and strategic activities. This chapter discusses the main results of the TEKNE project in terms of software components that enable enterprises to configure, store, search and share models of any aspects of their business while leveraging standard and business-oriented technologies and languages to bridge the gap between the world of business people and IT experts and to foster effective business-to-business collaborations.

  8. Integrating the Internet into the Business Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Mary J.; Schroeder, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an introduction to the communication resources of the Internet and provides several specific examples of business solutions in the areas of electronic mail communications, business applications software support, system design, and databases, Advantages and disadvantages for management when integrating the Internet into a business…

  9. Faculty Unions, Business Models, and the Academy's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses questions about the future of faculty unions, business models, and the academy by providing some current and historical context regarding the causes of and conflicts about faculty unions. He also reviews trends in college and university management over the past three decades, using California, Ohio, and…

  10. Towards Increasing Business Students' Confidence in Facing an Ethically Confusing Business Environment: A Strategic Management Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox-Wolfgramm, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presentation will focus on the application of self leadership and strategic management concepts to help make sense of the current global financial crisis and its critical connection with our future business professionals' perceptions of ethical behavior. The author will explore ideas that lead to the strengthening of business students'…

  11. Relevance of Education & Training in a Business Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Jo Ann M.

    Today's workplace must employ knowledgeable, flexible, efficient, and adaptable workers who are lifelong learners. Adult learners need to be updated on the latest changes in the structure of the business environment. Business programs must respond to corporate and personal development needs by designing curriculum that embraces the management…

  12. A Learning Framework for the Small Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelliher, Felicity; Henderson, Joan Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to offer insight into the factors affecting individual and organisational learning in a small business; specifically the identification of the learning relationships that are unique to the small business environment. Design/methodology/approach: The authors apply Crossan et al.'s (1997, 1999) Organisational…

  13. "Piggybacking" on Business Communication through Interdisciplinarity: Developing Student Communication Skills in Legal Environment of Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Amanda Harmon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an assignment for a legal environment of business course that builds upon and reinforces strong business communication practices. The assignment discusses "piggybacking," which is the unauthorized use of another person's wireless Internet connection. In this assignment, the students are required (1) to…

  14. Futurism: Its Potential and Actual Role in Master of Business Administration (MBA) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin T.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author highlights the potential role of "futurism" in master of business administration (MBA) curricula and the conceivable offerings of futurism to business planners. This article serves as a corollary to educators in MBA business education and concerns to the nature of futurism, the benefits of futurism to managerial…

  15. Environment of Intellect: Considerations for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonomura, Yoshinobu

    This paper describes key design technology issues as general ideas, rather than for specific fields, with a view to realizing better technology for the future. This paper also discusses the scope of the vision we should adopt, the factors we should be conscious of, and how we should design future systems. The key ideas arise from the belief that technology should be designed in the context of the environment with intellect behind it.

  16. Graduate Education in a Small Business Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A., III; Longmier, B.; Giambusso, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports on the issues that confront a professor when supervising graduate students and postdocs whose research work is done on site at a small business. The advantages include relative freedom from having to write proposals; the excitement of working on topics that have clear, direct uses; more extensive engineering support than many students get; and hands on day to day mentoring from the rest of the team. Students get direct instruction in technology transfer and small business processes. The disadvantages include isolation from the rest of the students in your Department and campus life, physical isolation from resources such as the seminar program, library, health center, and other student services. In addition, students who need "introduction to research" practicum instruction in electronics and computer skills will not do well. Finally, care must be taken to avoid including proprietary data in the core argument of the work.

  17. Orbital Debris and Future Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the historical and current orbital debris environment. Included is information about: Projected growth of the future debris population, The need for active debris removal (ADR), A grand challenge for the 21st century and The forward path

  18. Business list vs ground observation for measuring a food environment: saving time or waste of time (or worse)?

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Bumol, Joel; Torrens, Luis; Varona, Monica; Berke, Ethan M

    2013-10-01

    In food-environment research, an alternative to resource-intensive direct observation on the ground has been the use of commercial business lists. We sought to determine how well a frequently used commercial business list measures a dense urban food environment like the Bronx, NY. On 155 Bronx street segments, investigators compared two different levels for matches between the business list and direct ground observation: lenient (by business type) and strict (by business name). For each level of matching, researchers calculated sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPVs) for the business list overall and by broad business categories: General Grocers (eg, supermarkets), Specialty Food Stores (eg, produce markets), Restaurants, and Businesses Not Primarily Selling Food (eg, newsstands). Even after cleaning the business list (eg, for cases of multiple listings at a single location), and allowing for inexactness in listed street addresses and spellings of business names, the overall performance of the business list was poor. For strict matches, the business list had an overall sensitivity of 39.3% and PPV of 45.5%. Sensitivities and PPVs by broad business categories were not meaningfully different from overall values, although sensitivity for General Grocers and PPV for Specialty Food Stores were particularly low: 26.2% and 32%, respectively. For lenient matches, sensitivities and PPVs were somewhat higher but still poor: 52.4% to 60% and 60% to 75%, respectively. The business list is inadequate to measure the actual food environment in the Bronx. If results represent performance in other settings, findings from prior studies linking food environments to diet and diet-related health outcomes using such business lists are in question, and future studies of this type should avoid relying solely on such business lists.

  19. Business list vs. ground observation for measuring a food environment: saving time or waste of time (or worse)?

    PubMed Central

    Lucan, Sean C.; Maroko, Andrew R.; Bumol, Joel; Torrens, Luis; Varona, Monica; Berke, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    In food-environment research, an alternative to resource-intensive direct observation on the ground has been the use of commercial business lists. We sought to determine how well a frequently-used commercial business list measures a dense urban food environment like the Bronx. On 155 Bronx street segments, investigators compared two different levels for “matches” between the business list and direct ground observation: lenient (by business type) and strict (by business name). For each level of matching, researchers calculated sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPVs) for the business list overall and by broad business categories: General grocers (e.g., supermarkets), Specialty-food stores (e.g., produce markets), Restaurants, and Businesses not primarily selling food (e.g., newsstands). Even after cleaning the business list (e.g., for cases of multiple listings at a single location), and allowing for inexactness in listed street addresses and spellings of business names, the overall performance of the business list was poor. For strict “matches”, the business list had an overall sensitivity of 39.3% and PPV of 45.5%. Sensitivities and PPVs by broad business categories were not meaningfully different from overall values, although sensitivity for General grocers and PPV for Specialty-food stores were particularly low: 26.2% and 32.0% respectively. For lenient “matches”, sensitivities and PPVs were somewhat higher but still poor: 52.4–60.0% and 60.0–75.0% respectively. The business list is inadequate to measures the actual food environment in the Bronx. If results represent performance in other settings, findings from prior studies linking food environments to diet and diet-related health outcomes using such business lists are in question, and future studies of this type should avoid relying solely on such business lists. PMID:23871107

  20. Building integrated business environments: analysing open-source ESB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Carreras, M. A.; García Jimenez, F. J.; Gómez Skarmeta, A. F.

    2015-05-01

    Integration and interoperability are two concepts that have gained significant prominence in the business field, providing tools which enable enterprise application integration (EAI). In this sense, enterprise service bus (ESB) has played a crucial role as the underpinning technology for creating integrated environments in which companies may connect all their legacy-applications. However, the potential of these technologies remains unknown and some important features are not used to develop suitable business environments. The aim of this paper is to describe and detail the elements for building the next generation of integrated business environments (IBE) and to analyse the features of ESBs as the core of this infrastructure. For this purpose, we evaluate how well-known open-source ESB products fulfil these needs. Moreover, we introduce a scenario in which the collaborative system 'Alfresco' is integrated in the business infrastructure. Finally, we provide a comparison of the different open-source ESBs available for IBE requirements. According to this study, Fuse ESB provides the best results, considering features such as support for a wide variety of standards and specifications, documentation and implementation, security, advanced business trends, ease of integration and performance.

  1. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  2. McGraw-Hill's 1972 Report on Business & the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, F., Ed.; And Others

    Up-to-date information on environmental law and enforcement, industrial problems and solutions, and municipal waste treatment problems is offered in this compendium. It reports on the condition of the American environment as it affects, and is affected by, the operation of business enterprises. The text deals objectively with present and future…

  3. Population, resources, environment: an uncertain future.

    PubMed

    Repetto, R

    1987-07-01

    This issue analyzes the economic and environmental consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries (LDC), the population decline in developed countries, the limits that life on a finite planet impose on economic and demographic expansion and progress, and the proper governmental response to promote the welfare of its current and future citizens. The links between population growth, resource use, and environmental quality are too complex to permit straightforward generalizations about direct causal relationships. However, rapid population growth has increased the number of poor people in LDC, thus contributing to degradation of the environment and the renewable resources of land, water, and nonhuman species on which humans depend. Demands of the rich industrial countries have also generated environmental pressures and have been foremost in consumption of the nonrenewable resources of fossil fuels, metals, and nonmetallic minerals. On the other hand, population and economic growth have also stimulated technological and management changes that help supply and use resources more effectively. Wide variations in the possible ultimate size of world population and accelerating technological change make future interrelationships of population, resources, and the environment uncertain as well as complex. Those interrelationships are mediated largely by government policies. Responsible governments can bring about a sustainable balance in the population/resource/environment equation by adopting population and development policies that experience has shown could reduce future population numbers in LDC below the additional 5 billion indicated in current UN medium projections. This coupled with proven management programs in both LDC and developed countries could brake and reverse the depletion and degradation of natural resources.

  4. Population, resources, environment: an uncertain future.

    PubMed

    Repetto, R

    1987-07-01

    This issue analyzes the economic and environmental consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries (LDC), the population decline in developed countries, the limits that life on a finite planet impose on economic and demographic expansion and progress, and the proper governmental response to promote the welfare of its current and future citizens. The links between population growth, resource use, and environmental quality are too complex to permit straightforward generalizations about direct causal relationships. However, rapid population growth has increased the number of poor people in LDC, thus contributing to degradation of the environment and the renewable resources of land, water, and nonhuman species on which humans depend. Demands of the rich industrial countries have also generated environmental pressures and have been foremost in consumption of the nonrenewable resources of fossil fuels, metals, and nonmetallic minerals. On the other hand, population and economic growth have also stimulated technological and management changes that help supply and use resources more effectively. Wide variations in the possible ultimate size of world population and accelerating technological change make future interrelationships of population, resources, and the environment uncertain as well as complex. Those interrelationships are mediated largely by government policies. Responsible governments can bring about a sustainable balance in the population/resource/environment equation by adopting population and development policies that experience has shown could reduce future population numbers in LDC below the additional 5 billion indicated in current UN medium projections. This coupled with proven management programs in both LDC and developed countries could brake and reverse the depletion and degradation of natural resources. PMID:12268583

  5. A New Paradigm for the Teaching of Business Law and Legal Environment Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Marc

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to develop curriculum and materials on law-related topics better designed for business students planning a career in business. Except incidentally, business school legal faculty are not teaching future lawyers or paralegals. The world of the business practitioner is very different from that of the lawyer. For most business people…

  6. Business Education in Asia and Australasia: Recent Trends and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Colm

    2013-01-01

    The globalization of business education is leading to convergence in the traditionally more diverse business curriculum. This can be seen by examining the mission and vision statements of Asia and Australasia's leading business schools, which emphasize the provision of quality learning and scholarship; educating future leaders; and…

  7. The Current and Future Role of Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayment, John; Smith, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable debate since the global financial crisis has been evident concerning the role of business schools. This article aims to outline the authors' research on their role. Design/methodology/approach: The paper begins with an overview of the significant literature highlighting the current debates impacting on business schools…

  8. It's Not Easy Being Green: Bringing Real Life to the Undergraduate Legal Environment of Business Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum, Tanya M.; Perry, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    In the Legal Environment of Business course in a traditional undergraduate business curriculum, students are expected to acquire knowledge about many areas of the law and the application of law to business, society, and the international marketplace. Current concepts in undergraduate business education, such as ethics and sustainability, must also…

  9. Future prospect 2012-2025 - How will our business change for the next 10 years -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sakae

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to discuss about the "Future". How our business will change in the next 10 years? I believe the key is 3 mega-trends "Sustainability", "Cloud Computing" and "Life Innovation". With the development of social environment, the required business will change, too. The future would be invisible if you shut yourself up in your single industry. It is important to see various business fields horizontally, and recognize various key changes stereoscopically such as demographics, economy, technology, sense of value and lifestyle, when you develop mid-and-long term strategy. "Cloud" is silent, but the revolution of personal computing. It will bring the drastic changes in every industry. It will make "voice" and "moving image" possible to use as the interface to access your computer. Cloud computing will also make the client device more diversified and spread the application range widely. 15 years ago, the term "IT" was equivalent to "personal computer". Recently, it rather means to use smartphone and tablet device. In the next several years, TV and car-navigation system will be connected to broadband and it will become a part of personal computing. The meaning of personal computing is changing essentially year by year. In near future, the universe of computing will expand to the energy, medical and health-care, and agriculture etc. It passed only 20 years since we use "Computer" in a full scale operation. Recently, computer has start understanding our few words and talking in babble like a baby. The history of computing has just started.

  10. Characterizing the food environment: Pitfalls and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Drewnowski, Adam; Duncan, Glen E; Hurvitz, Philip M; Saelens, Brian E; Scharnhorst, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess a county population’s exposure to different types of food sources reported to affect both diet quality and obesity rates. Design: Food permit records obtained from the local health department served to establish the full census of food stores and restaurants. Employing prior categorization schemes which classified the relative healthfulness of food sources based on establishment type (i.e. supermarkets versus convenience stores, or full-service versus fast food restaurants), food establishments were assigned to the healthy, unhealthy, or undetermined groups. Setting: King County, WA. Subjects: Full census of food sources. Results: According to all categorization schemes, most food establishments in King County fell into the unhealthy and undetermined groups. The use of the food permit data showed that large stores, which included supermarkets as healthy food establishments, contained a sizeable number of bakery/delis, fish/meat, ethnic and standard quick service restaurants, and coffee shops, all food sources that, when housed in a separate venue or owned by a different business establishment, were classified as either unhealthy or of undetermined value to health. Conclusions: To fully assess the potential health effects of exposure to the extant food environment, future research would need to establish the health value of foods in the many such common establishments as individually owned grocery stores and ethnic food stores and restaurants. Within- venue exposure to foods should also be investigated. PMID:23570695

  11. Measurement in Service Businesses: Challenges and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Rajesh Kumar

    This chapter presents challenges faced by service businesses while implementing a measurement system. A review of existing frameworks is presented and a new framework, the Service Scorecard, is introduced. The Service Scorecard is an adaptation of the Six Sigma Business Scorecard for the service sector. The framework has also been influenced by existing frameworks such as the Malcom Baldrige award criteria, the Balanced Scorecard, the European Quality award and the Service Profit Chain model. The seven elements of the Service Scorecard are Growth, Leadership, Acceleration, Collaboration, Innovation, Execution, and Retention. The examples of measurement systems are presented with concrete real-world case examples. Final thoughts and the challenges faced are also presented.

  12. Some strategies to address the challenges of collecting observational data in a busy clinical environment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; McDonald, Glenda; Luck, Lauretta; Waine, Melissa; Wilkes, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Studies drawing on observational methods can provide vital data to enhance healthcare. However, collecting observational data in clinical settings is replete with challenges, particularly where multiple data-collecting observers are used. Observers collecting data require shared understanding and training to ensure data quality, and particularly, to confirm accurate and consistent identification, discrimination and recording of data. The aim of this paper is to describe strategies for preparing and supporting multiple researchers tasked with collecting observational data in a busy, and often unpredictable, hospital environment. We hope our insights might assist future researchers undertaking research in similar settings. PMID:27188039

  13. OECD Work on Future Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisens, Henno; Benavides, Francisco; Dumont, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Designing school buildings to respond to change is not a new idea. But perhaps what is different today is the kind and degree of change which we have to anticipate. The OECD is carrying out projects that can help in the planning and design of future educational facilities--exploring trends in education and studying innovative learning…

  14. Views on the Future of Business Education: Responses to Six Critical Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Burton S.

    2007-01-01

    Questions about the future of business education have been asked and answered throughout its long history. The author posed six of these questions at the 2002 Peter L. Agnew Lecture at New York University. These six questions, all pointing to the year 2020, are: (1) What will business education be?; (2) Where will it be?; (3) How will it be…

  15. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  16. Future Directions of Management Science and Operations Management in Business School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Jack A.; Denton, James W.

    2006-01-01

    The fields of Management Science (MS) and Operations Management (OM) have co-existed in business school curricula for over a half century. This paper examines five trends that point toward a bright future for Operations Management in the business curriculum. These trends include an increasing emphasis on global competition, the growth of the…

  17. Sleep Environment Recommendations for Future Spaceflight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin; Caddick, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence demonstrates that astronauts experience sleep loss and circadian desynchronization during spaceflight. Ground-based evidence demonstrates that these conditions lead to reduced performance, increased risk of injuries and accidents and short and long-term health consequences. Many of the factors contributing to these conditions relate to the habitability of the sleep environment. Noise, inadequate temperature and airflow, and inappropriate lighting and light pollution have each been associated with sleep loss and circadian misalignment during spaceflight operations and on Earth. As NASA prepares to send astronauts on long-duration, deep space missions, it is critical that the habitability of the sleep environment provide adequate mitigations for potential sleep disruptors. We conducted a comprehensive literature review summarizing optimal sleep hygiene parameters for lighting, temperature, airflow, humidity, comfort, intermittent and erratic sounds, and privacy and security in the sleep environment. We reviewed the design and use of sleep environments in a wide range of cohorts including among aquanauts, expeditioners, pilots, military personnel and ship operators. We also reviewed the specifications and sleep quality data arising from every NASA spaceflight mission, beginning with Gemini. Finally, we conducted structured interviews with individuals experienced in sleeping in non-traditional spaces including oilrig workers, Navy personnel, astronauts, and expeditioners. We also interviewed the engineers responsible for the design of the sleeping quarters presently deployed on the International Space Station. We found that the optimal sleep environment is cool, dark, quiet, and is perceived as safe and private. There are wide individual differences in the preferred sleep environment; therefore modifiable sleeping compartments are necessary to ensure all crewmembers are able to select personalized configurations for optimal sleep. A sub-optimal sleep

  18. The Future of Business: Merit in Writing across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Heather; Hancock, Carol; Phillips, JoDee

    2011-01-01

    As a direct response to higher education's challenge to produce more engineers, scientists, and business professionals, universities have increased the numbers of degrees and continue to focus on increasing the numbers of students in these areas. As recently as the 2011 State of the Union speech by President Obama, the United States is posed to…

  19. Business Administration and Management: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flewellen, William C., Jr.

    Drawing from site visits to 39 public and private colleges in Massachusetts, this report presents an evaluation of college programs in business administration and management and recommendations for improvement. Section 1 provides an overview of the statewide study and its findings. After identifying the colleges visited and the members of the…

  20. Building Florida's Future: Quality and Access or Business as Usual?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2006

    2006-01-01

    How many of Florida's four million children should expect to attend the State University System someday? And what should they find when they arrive? The bare minimum? Or world-class universities with facilities on a par with the best the nation has to offer? This report states that a "business as usual" approach has corroded the link between the…

  1. Population, Resources, Environment: An Uncertain Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The links between population growth, resource use, and environmental quality are too complex to permit straightforward generalizations about causal relationships. However, rapid population growth has increased the number of poor people in developing countries, thus contributing to the degradation of the environment and the renewable resources of…

  2. Future space. A new blueprint for business architecture.

    PubMed

    Huang, J

    2001-04-01

    Although the Internet is an essential conduit for many business activities, it isn't rendering the physical world any less important, as the failures of many Web merchants demonstrate. People need social and sensual contact. The companies that succeed will be those best able to integrate the physical and the virtual. But that requires a new kind of business architecture--a new approach to designing stores, offices, factories, and other spaces where business is conducted. The author, a faculty member at Harvard Graduate School of Design, provides practical guidelines to help managers and entrepreneurs think creatively about the structures in which their businesses operate. He outlines four challenges facing designers of such "convergent" structures, so-called because they function in both physical and virtual space: matching form to function, allowing visitors to visualize the presence of others, personalizing spaces, and choreographing connectivity. Using numerous examples, from a fashion retailer that wants to sell in stores as well as through a Web site to a radically new kind of consulate, the author shows how businesses can meet each challenge. For instance, allowing customers to visualize the presence of others means that visitors to a Web site should be given a sense of other site visitors. Personalizing physical and virtual spaces involves using databases to enable those spaces to adapt quickly to user preferences. The success of companies attempting to merge on-line and traditional operations will depend on many factors. But without a well-designed convergent architecture, no company will fully reap the synergies of physical space and Internet technology.

  3. Climate Change Education: Preparing Future and Current Business Leaders--A Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storksdieck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Climate change poses challenges as well as opportunities for businesses and, broadly speaking for the entire economy. Businesses will be challenged to provide services or products with less harmful influence on the climate; respond to a changing policy, regulatory, and market environment; and provide new services and products to help address the…

  4. Effective Listening: Barriers to Listening in a Diverse Business Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Augusta M.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that listening skills are a critical starting point for the management of diversity in business organizations. Discusses listening barriers which prevent the nurturing of diversity in business. (PRA)

  5. [Issues on business of genetic testing in near future].

    PubMed

    Takada, Fumio

    2009-06-01

    Since 1990's, a business condition that company sells genetic testing services directly to consumers without through medical facility, so called "direct-to-consumers (DTC) genetic testing", has risen. They provide genetic testing for obesity, disease susceptibility or paternity, etc. There are serious problems in this kind of business. Most of the providers do not make sales with face-to-face selling, and do through internet instead. They do not provide genetic counseling by certified genetic counselor or clinical geneticist. Most DTC genetic testing services for disease susceptibility or predispositions including obesity, lack scientific validity, clinical validity and clinical utility. And also including paternity genetic testing, they all have risks of ethical legal and social issues (ELSI) in genetic discrimination and/or eugenics. The specific problem in Japan is that the healthcare section of the government still has not paid attention and not taken seriously the requirement to deploy safety net.

  6. The Attorney-Client Relationship as a Business Law-Legal Environment Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Murray S.

    2004-01-01

    Business school law courses should promote understanding of legal processes affecting business, help students learn to recognize legal issues and manage legal risks, increase ethical sensitivity, and help students to develop critical thinking skills. To this end, business law and legal environment textbooks tend to focus on ethical and legal…

  7. Discounting future green: money versus the environment.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, David J; Weber, Elke U

    2009-08-01

    In 3 studies, participants made choices between hypothetical financial, environmental, and health gains and losses that took effect either immediately or with a delay of 1 or 10 years. In all 3 domains, choices indicated that gains were discounted more than losses. There were no significant differences in the discounting of monetary and environmental outcomes, but health gains were discounted more and health losses were discounted less than gains or losses in the other 2 domains. Correlations between implicit discount rates for these different choices suggest that discount rates are influenced more by the valence of outcomes (gains vs. losses) than by domain (money, environment, or health). Overall, results indicate that when controlling as many factors as possible, at short to medium delays, environmental outcomes are discounted in a similar way to financial outcomes, which is good news for researchers and policy makers alike. PMID:19653793

  8. Discounting future green: money versus the environment.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, David J; Weber, Elke U

    2009-08-01

    In 3 studies, participants made choices between hypothetical financial, environmental, and health gains and losses that took effect either immediately or with a delay of 1 or 10 years. In all 3 domains, choices indicated that gains were discounted more than losses. There were no significant differences in the discounting of monetary and environmental outcomes, but health gains were discounted more and health losses were discounted less than gains or losses in the other 2 domains. Correlations between implicit discount rates for these different choices suggest that discount rates are influenced more by the valence of outcomes (gains vs. losses) than by domain (money, environment, or health). Overall, results indicate that when controlling as many factors as possible, at short to medium delays, environmental outcomes are discounted in a similar way to financial outcomes, which is good news for researchers and policy makers alike.

  9. Dynamic Optical Networks for Future Internet Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matera, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    This article reports an overview on the evolution of the optical network scenario taking into account the exponential growth of connected devices, big data, and cloud computing that is driving a concrete transformation impacting the information and communication technology world. This hyper-connected scenario is deeply affecting relationships between individuals, enterprises, citizens, and public administrations, fostering innovative use cases in practically any environment and market, and introducing new opportunities and new challenges. The successful realization of this hyper-connected scenario depends on different elements of the ecosystem. In particular, it builds on connectivity and functionalities allowed by converged next-generation networks and their capacity to support and integrate with the Internet of Things, machine-to-machine, and cloud computing. This article aims at providing some hints of this scenario to contribute to analyze impacts on optical system and network issues and requirements. In particular, the role of the software-defined network is investigated by taking into account all scenarios regarding data centers, cloud computing, and machine-to-machine and trying to illustrate all the advantages that could be introduced by advanced optical communications.

  10. Understanding Dishonest Academic Behaviour Amongst Business Students--The Business Leaders of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagraim, Jeffrey; Goodman, Suki; Pulker, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This study applies the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to increase understanding about dishonest academic behaviour amongst undergraduate business students. A total of 579 respondents from three universities in South Africa completed an online survey about their beliefs regarding academic dishonesty, their intentions to engage in dishonest…

  11. Air Charter - The Business Airline of the Future...But, Does the Business Traveler Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaps, Robert W.; Gardner, Robin C.; Hartung, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, FAR Part 121 commercial carriers have provided efficient, economical and safe air transportation for corporate and business users. Recently, however, corporate and business travelers find their travel plans disrupted by delays, bankruptcies, poor service, lost baggage, fare increases, labor strikes and other systemic difficulties that degrade their travel experience to unsatisfactory levels. This article examines these Part 121 service delivery problems and, utilizing a tripartite investigative methodology, examines an alternative air transport mode: FAR Part 135 on-demand charter travel products. This long extant segment of our national air transportation system is set prime to support increased demand for charter services. Corporate and business travelers are set prime to utilize viable, cost effective alternatives to commercial travel products. Two research questions emerge. First is whether corporate and business travelers are aware of Part 135 travel alternatives. Second is whether Part 135 charter service providers are aware of this latent demand and are effectively targeting this demand segment in their marketing efforts. The three-part surveys employed to investigate these questions examined demand side

  12. Information Literacy in the Reference Environment: Preparing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Hannelore B.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses changes in the academic library information environment and considers future possibilities. Highlights include making information useful, not just accessible; a brief history of reference service; technological advances; and the integration of user instruction and reference. (LRW)

  13. Wrestling with Objectivity and Fairness: U.S. Environment Reporters and the Business Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachsman, David B.; Simon, James; Valenti, JoAnn Myer

    2005-01-01

    Environment reporters have been criticized for allegedly having an antibusiness bias. This study, based on a series of regional surveys including 364 U.S. environment reporters, found the journalists commonly used a business or economics framework for their stories. The reporters used some business organizations as sources more often than some…

  14. A Future for Undergraduate Education in UK Business Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goatman, Anna; Medway, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Anyone interested in the future or current state of undergraduate education would gain something from picking up a slim-volumed and rather dull-looking book entitled "Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate" by American academic, Ernest Boyer. In a matter of only 81 pages, Boyer delivers a critically damning assessment of the…

  15. The Changing Office Environment. National Business Education Yearbook, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret H., Ed.

    This National Business Education Yearbook is divided into five parts. Each part contains several chapters authored by leaders in the field of business education. Part 1, Perspectives, includes the following three chapters: Growing Need for Office Personnel; Tomorrow's Manager of Administrative Services; and Constraints Affecting the Business…

  16. Business Value of Information Technology in Network Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yucong

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) business value research is suggested as fundamental to the contribution of the IS discipline. The IS research community has accumulated a critical mass of IT business value studies, but only limited or mixed results have been found on the direct relationship between IT and firm performance. Extant studies mostly focus…

  17. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This…

  18. Virtual Business Operating Environment in the Cloud: Conceptual Architecture and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhad, Hamid R. Motahari; Stephenson, Bryan; Singhal, Sharad; Castellanos, Malu

    Advances in service oriented architecture (SOA) have brought us close to the once imaginary vision of establishing and running a virtual business, a business in which most or all of its business functions are outsourced to online services. Cloud computing offers a realization of SOA in which IT resources are offered as services that are more affordable, flexible and attractive to businesses. In this paper, we briefly study advances in cloud computing, and discuss the benefits of using cloud services for businesses and trade-offs that they have to consider. We then present 1) a layered architecture for the virtual business, and 2) a conceptual architecture for a virtual business operating environment. We discuss the opportunities and research challenges that are ahead of us in realizing the technical components of this conceptual architecture. We conclude by giving the outlook and impact of cloud services on both large and small businesses.

  19. Acquiring Business English in a Quasi-Natural Business Environment: A Method of Teaching Business English to Students of Business and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarnopolsky, Oleg; Kozhushko, Svitlana

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses a method of organizing Business English studies for students who learn it as a foreign language at schools of business and universities outside English-speaking countries. These students typically lack both previous practical experience in business and opportunities to watch business being done in English or to participate…

  20. Strategic alliance: adapting to the business environment in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Mara, Cynthia Massie; Ziegenfuss, James T

    2002-01-01

    This article is addressed to long-term-care administrators and planners as well as purchasers of long-term care. Believing the current and future business environment will force continued adaptation in long-term-care organizations, the authors utilize nine categories to map pressures for change: cultural, technological, educational, political, legal, natural resource, demographic, sociologic, and economic. Long-term-care organizations, especially those that are not-for-profit, are becoming members of alliances as one way of addressing these pressures. This article describes and presents a case example of a composite alliance to demonstrate the advantages of membership in a strategic alliance. We also present examples of ways in which alliance members use strategic partnerships to improve their ability to manage these forces. PMID:12847938

  1. The Database Business: Managing Today--Planning for Tomorrow. Issues and Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, T. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Current issues and the future of the database business are discussed in five papers. Topics covered include aspects relating to the quality of database production; international ownership in the U.S. information marketplace; an overview of pricing strategies in the electronic information industry; and pricing issues from the viewpoints of online…

  2. Implementing a Course in Business Environment and Public Policy: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Bob E.; Snider, Walter D.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a course of study dealing with business values, ethics, and environment. The course focuses on issues concerning ethical and moral considerations that may be encountered in the marketplace. (JOW)

  3. International Business Education in a Global Environment: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    The globalisation phenomenon poses a different set of challenges to the higher education system in countries around the world and requires that international business students be prepared to function professionally in an increasingly complex, interdependent, and dynamic economy. Understanding the educational implications of the…

  4. Future Evolution of Virtual Worlds as Communication Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisco, Giulio

    Extensive experience creating locations and activities inside virtual worlds provides the basis for contemplating their future. Users of virtual worlds are diverse in their goals for these online environments; for example, immersionists want them to be alternative realities disconnected from real life, whereas augmentationists want them to be communication media supporting real-life activities. As the technology improves, the diversity of virtual worlds will increase along with their significance. Many will incorporate more advanced virtual reality, or serve as major media for long-distance collaboration, or become the venues for futurist social movements. Key issues are how people can create their own virtual worlds, travel across worlds, and experience a variety of multimedia immersive environments. This chapter concludes by noting the view among some computer scientists that future technologies will permit uploading human personalities to artificial intelligence avatars, thereby enhancing human beings and rendering the virtual worlds entirely real.

  5. Telehealth: important concepts for future nursing practice in space environments.

    PubMed

    Chonin, A

    1998-01-01

    The concept of telehealth has become a vital issue to healthcare providers in this day of instantaneous, varied, and technology-based communications. This article discusses the issues and implications of telehealth to nurses on Earth and in future space environments. Telehealth will be defined as currently implemented and the legal ramifications of practice across state lines, national borders, rural, and in remote and hazardous locations (space environments: orbital, Moon and Mars bases) will be delineated. The age of information is now here, and the age of communication is beginning. Telehealth is and will be an important means of providing communication links and healthcare to clients and providers alike. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of important concepts related to telehealth for their current and future practice. PMID:11871451

  6. Health service support in the future operating environment 2035.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The period to 2035 is likely to be characterised by instability between states and in relations between groups within states. It is predicted to include climate change, rapid population growth, resource scarcity, resurgence in ideology, and shifts in power from west to east. Many of these changes are likely to have an impact on the health of civil societies and those military personnel deployed by states to counter these challenges. This paper considers the potential impact of emerging global strategic trends on health service support (HSS) in the Future Operating Environment 2035. Global Strategic Trends-Out to 2040, The Future Character of Conflict and NATO Strategic Foresight Analysis Report 2013 provide the foundations of the paper. The study concludes that future impacts on HSS are neither completely predictable nor predetermined, and there is always a possibility of a strategic shock. Knowledge of vulnerability, however, allows an informed approach to the development and evaluation of adaptive strategies to lessen risks to health.

  7. Microplastics in the marine environment: Current trends and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Gimenez, Barbara Carolina Garcia

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade, the presence of microplastics on marine environments has become an important environmental concern and focus of interest of many researches. Thus, to provide a more integrated view of the research trends regarding this topic, we use a scientometric approach to systematically assess and quantify advances in knowledge related to microplastics in the marine environment. The papers that we used for our assessment were obtained from the database Thomson Reuters (ISI Web of Science), between 2004 and 2014. Our results reveal the overall research performance in the study area of microplastics present in the marine environment over the past decade as a newly developed research field. It has been recognized that there are several important issues that should be investigated. Toward that end, based on the suggested directions on all papers reviewed, we point out areas/topics of interest that may guide future work in the coming years.

  8. Future reef decalcification under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Sophie G.; Kline, David I.; Pantos, Olga; Angly, Florent E.; Tyson, Gene W.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is a major threat to coral reefs, but some argue that the threat is mitigated by factors such as the variability in the response of coral calcification to acidification, differences in bleaching susceptibility, and the potential for rapid adaptation to anthropogenic warming. However the evidence for these mitigating factors tends to involve experimental studies on corals, as opposed to coral reefs, and rarely includes the influence of multiple variables (e.g., temperature and acidification) within regimes that include diurnal and seasonal variability. Here, we demonstrate that the inclusion of all these factors results in the decalcification of patch-reefs under business-as-usual scenarios and reduced, although positive, calcification under reduced-emission scenarios. Primary productivity was found to remain constant across all scenarios, despite significant bleaching and coral mortality under both future scenarios. Daylight calcification decreased and nocturnal decalcification increased sharply from the preindustrial and control conditions to the future scenarios of low (reduced emissions) and high (business-as-usual) increases in pCO2. These changes coincided with deeply negative carbonate budgets, a shift toward smaller carbonate sediments, and an increase in the abundance of sediment microbes under the business-as-usual emission scenario. Experimental coral reefs demonstrated highest net calcification rates and lowest rates of coral mortality under preindustrial conditions, suggesting that reef processes may not have been able to keep pace with the relatively minor environmental changes that have occurred during the last century. Taken together, our results have serious implications for the future of coral reefs under business-as-usual environmental changes projected for the coming decades and century. PMID:24003127

  9. Future reef decalcification under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Dove, Sophie G; Kline, David I; Pantos, Olga; Angly, Florent E; Tyson, Gene W; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-09-17

    Increasing atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is a major threat to coral reefs, but some argue that the threat is mitigated by factors such as the variability in the response of coral calcification to acidification, differences in bleaching susceptibility, and the potential for rapid adaptation to anthropogenic warming. However the evidence for these mitigating factors tends to involve experimental studies on corals, as opposed to coral reefs, and rarely includes the influence of multiple variables (e.g., temperature and acidification) within regimes that include diurnal and seasonal variability. Here, we demonstrate that the inclusion of all these factors results in the decalcification of patch-reefs under business-as-usual scenarios and reduced, although positive, calcification under reduced-emission scenarios. Primary productivity was found to remain constant across all scenarios, despite significant bleaching and coral mortality under both future scenarios. Daylight calcification decreased and nocturnal decalcification increased sharply from the preindustrial and control conditions to the future scenarios of low (reduced emissions) and high (business-as-usual) increases in pCO2. These changes coincided with deeply negative carbonate budgets, a shift toward smaller carbonate sediments, and an increase in the abundance of sediment microbes under the business-as-usual emission scenario. Experimental coral reefs demonstrated highest net calcification rates and lowest rates of coral mortality under preindustrial conditions, suggesting that reef processes may not have been able to keep pace with the relatively minor environmental changes that have occurred during the last century. Taken together, our results have serious implications for the future of coral reefs under business-as-usual environmental changes projected for the coming decades and century.

  10. Future reef decalcification under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Dove, Sophie G; Kline, David I; Pantos, Olga; Angly, Florent E; Tyson, Gene W; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-09-17

    Increasing atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is a major threat to coral reefs, but some argue that the threat is mitigated by factors such as the variability in the response of coral calcification to acidification, differences in bleaching susceptibility, and the potential for rapid adaptation to anthropogenic warming. However the evidence for these mitigating factors tends to involve experimental studies on corals, as opposed to coral reefs, and rarely includes the influence of multiple variables (e.g., temperature and acidification) within regimes that include diurnal and seasonal variability. Here, we demonstrate that the inclusion of all these factors results in the decalcification of patch-reefs under business-as-usual scenarios and reduced, although positive, calcification under reduced-emission scenarios. Primary productivity was found to remain constant across all scenarios, despite significant bleaching and coral mortality under both future scenarios. Daylight calcification decreased and nocturnal decalcification increased sharply from the preindustrial and control conditions to the future scenarios of low (reduced emissions) and high (business-as-usual) increases in pCO2. These changes coincided with deeply negative carbonate budgets, a shift toward smaller carbonate sediments, and an increase in the abundance of sediment microbes under the business-as-usual emission scenario. Experimental coral reefs demonstrated highest net calcification rates and lowest rates of coral mortality under preindustrial conditions, suggesting that reef processes may not have been able to keep pace with the relatively minor environmental changes that have occurred during the last century. Taken together, our results have serious implications for the future of coral reefs under business-as-usual environmental changes projected for the coming decades and century. PMID:24003127

  11. Optimization of a Future RLV Business Case using Multiple Strategic Market Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    There is a lack of depth in the current paradigm of conceptual level economic models used to evaluate the value and viability of future capital projects such as a commercial reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Current modeling methods assume a single price is charged to all customers, public or private, in order to optimize the economic metrics of interest. This assumption may not be valid given the different utility functions for space services of public and private entities. The government's requirements are generally more inflexible than its commercial counterparts. A government's launch schedules are much more rigid, choices of international launch services restricted, and launch specifications generally more stringent as well as numerous. These requirements generally make the government's demand curve more inelastic. Subsequently, a launch vehicle provider will charge a higher price (launch price per kg) to the government and may obtain a higher level of financial profit compared to an equivalent a commercial payload. This profit is not a sufficient condition to enable RLV development by itself but can help in making the financial situation slightly better. An RLV can potentially address multiple payload markets; each market has a different price elasticity of demand for both the commercial and government customer. Thus, a more resilient examination of the economic landscape requires optimization of multiple prices in which each price affects a different demand curve. Such an examination is performed here using the Cost and Business Analysis Module (CABAM), an MS-Excel spreadsheet-based model that attempts to couple both the demand and supply for space transportation services in the future. The demand takes the form of market assumptions (both near-term and far-term) and the supply comes from user-defined vehicles that are placed into the model. CABAM represents RLV projects as commercial endeavors with the possibility to model the effects of government

  12. Attitudes toward Business Ethics and Degree of Opinion Leadership of Future Managers In the United States, Finland, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comegys, Charles; Vaisanen, Jaani; Lupton, Robert A.; Rawlinson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes towards business ethics of future managers in three countries: the United State, Finland, and China, and determine whether business ethics attitudes differed by the student's major, class year, GPA, gender, age, and the number of ethics and religious studies courses completed.…

  13. Health service support in the future operating environment 2035.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The period to 2035 is likely to be characterised by instability between states and in relations between groups within states. It is predicted to include climate change, rapid population growth, resource scarcity, resurgence in ideology, and shifts in power from west to east. Many of these changes are likely to have an impact on the health of civil societies and those military personnel deployed by states to counter these challenges. This paper considers the potential impact of emerging global strategic trends on health service support (HSS) in the Future Operating Environment 2035. Global Strategic Trends-Out to 2040, The Future Character of Conflict and NATO Strategic Foresight Analysis Report 2013 provide the foundations of the paper. The study concludes that future impacts on HSS are neither completely predictable nor predetermined, and there is always a possibility of a strategic shock. Knowledge of vulnerability, however, allows an informed approach to the development and evaluation of adaptive strategies to lessen risks to health. PMID:24696135

  14. Candidate Performance on the Business Environment and Concepts Section of the CPA Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, D. H.; Tan, K. B.; Campbell, Annhenrie

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how differences in curricular design of undergraduate accounting programs influence pass rates on the Business Environment and Concepts Section of the CPA Exam. The association of the pass rate of a school's accounting graduates to the design of the schools accounting program and to other school characteristics was examined…

  15. One Approach to Formulating and Evaluating Student Work Groups in Legal Environment of Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Joan E.; Carr, B. Nathaniel; Grota, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    The principal focus of this study is an investigation of whether students' grade point average (GPA) is a viable criterion for forming student work groups in the undergraduate Legal Environment of Business course. More specifically, the research focuses on the impact of: (1) GPA-homogeneous (HO) and GPA-heterogeneous (HE) groups upon student…

  16. The future of bibliographic standards in a networked information environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The main mission of the CENDI Cataloging Working Group is to provide guidelines for cataloging practices that support the sharing of database records among the CENDI agencies, and that incorporate principles based on cost effectiveness and efficiency. Recent efforts include the extension of COSATI Guidelines for the Cataloging of Technical Reports to include non-print materials, and the mapping of each agency's export file structure to USMARC. Of primary importance is the impact of electronic documents and the distributed nature of the networked information environment. Topics discussed during the workshop include the following: Trade-offs in Cataloging and Indexing Internet Information; The Impact on Current and Future Standards; A Look at WWW Metadata Initiatives; Standards for Electronic Journals; The Present and Future Search Engines; The Roles for Text Analysis Software; Advanced Search Engine Meets Metathesaurus; Locator Schemes for Internet Resources; Identifying and Cataloging Web Document Types; In Search of a New Bibliographic Record. The videos in this set include viewgraphs of charts and related materials of the workshop.

  17. The Future Labor Force and Workplace and the Scientific and Engineering Workforce: Implications for Society and Business and Potential Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightle, Juliana

    This report examines the future shortages of scientists and engineers and suggests potential solutions to the shortage. The first section presents general demographic data and trends and interprets what this information suggests for the future economy and business in general. The second section considers the supply of physical scientists and…

  18. Genetics of Addiction: Future Focus on Gene × Environment Interaction?

    PubMed

    Vink, Jacqueline M

    2016-09-01

    The heritability of substance use is moderate to high. Successful efforts to find genetic variants associated with substance use (smoking, alcohol, cannabis) have been undertaken by large consortia. However, the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the identified genetic variants is small. Interestingly, there is overlap between the genetic variants that influence different substances. Moreover, there are sets of "substance-specific" genes and sets of genes contributing to a "vulnerability for addictive behavior" in general. It is important to recognize that genes alone do not determine addiction phenotypes: Environmental factors such as parental monitoring, peer pressure, or socioeconomic status also play an important role. Despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of substance use, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences like gene-environment (G × E) interactions. Understanding this balance may hold the key to understanding the individual differences in substance use, abuse, and addictive behavior. Recommendations for future research are described in this commentary and include increasing the power of G × E studies by using state-of-the-art methods such as polygenic risk scores instead of single genetic variants and taking genetic overlap between substances into account. Future genetic studies should also investigate environmental risk factors for addictive behavior more extensively to unravel the interaction between nature and nurture. Focusing on G × E interactions not only will give insight into the underlying biological mechanism but will also characterize subgroups (based on environmental factors) at high risk for addictive behaviors. With this information, we could bridge the gap between fundamental research and applications for society. PMID:27588524

  19. Chemical pollution of the environment: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M R

    1993-01-01

    In an era of 'global environmental change' people are concerned about emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to the atmosphere because of their direct impact on global warming and their stratospheric ozone-depleting effects. Unprecedented efforts have been made to reduce the global emissions of CFCs. Major industries, which are competing within the modern global economy, have recognized the importance of maintaining a 'green' perspective. Future operations will be designed to reduce the direct emissions of chemical by-products to air, water and soil, and to recycle and to reuse critical solvents such as water. 'Star Wars' technologies for the rapid, economical and effective elimination of industrial and domestic wastes will be developed and employed on a large scale. Advanced technologies for the control and monitoring of chemical pollutants on regional and global scales will be developed and implemented. Satellite-based instruments will be able to detect, to quantify, and to monitor a wide range of chemical pollutants. Our understanding of the fate and consequences of chemicals in the environment will increase dramatically such that we shall be able to predict the environmental, ecological and biochemical consequences of novel synthetic molecules with much greater precision.

  20. A Framework for Organizing Current and Future Electric Utility Regulatory and Business Models

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, Andrew; Cappers, Peter; Schwartz, Lisa C.; Fadrhonc, Emily Martin

    2015-06-01

    Many regulators, utilities, customer groups, and other stakeholders are reevaluating existing regulatory models and the roles and financial implications for electric utilities in the context of today’s environment of increasing distributed energy resource (DER) penetrations, forecasts of significant T&D investment, and relatively flat or negative utility sales growth. When this is coupled with predictions about fewer grid-connected customers (i.e., customer defection), there is growing concern about the potential for serious negative impacts on the regulated utility business model. Among states engaged in these issues, the range of topics under consideration is broad. Most of these states are considering whether approaches that have been applied historically to mitigate the impacts of previous “disruptions” to the regulated utility business model (e.g., energy efficiency) as well as to align utility financial interests with increased adoption of such “disruptive technologies” (e.g., shareholder incentive mechanisms, lost revenue mechanisms) are appropriate and effective in the present context. A handful of states are presently considering more fundamental changes to regulatory models and the role of regulated utilities in the ownership, management, and operation of electric delivery systems (e.g., New York “Reforming the Energy Vision” proceeding).

  1. Business & Education: Partners for the Future. A Resource Publication for: Business/Chambers of Commerce/Education and Community Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert L.

    Written on the premises that long-term economic growth is tied directly to the performance of public education and that the U.S. educational system is in crisis, this book encourages increased business involvement in a community-wide response to improve education at all levels. Chapter I offers an overview of contemporary educational problems in…

  2. Unfinished Business: Continued Investment in Child Care and Early Education Is Critical to Business and America's Future. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Business leaders have an acute understanding of the importance of a well-educated workforce to support a strong economy, keep America competitive globally, and ensure a vibrant democracy. Right now 20 percent of the American labor force is functionally illiterate or innumerate. High-quality child care and early education builds a strong foundation…

  3. Organizational Strategy and Business Environment Effects Based on a Computation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reklitis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Trivellas, Panagiotis

    2007-12-01

    According to many researchers of organizational theory, a great number of problems encountered by the manufacturing firms are due to their ineffectiveness to respond to significant changes of their external environment and align their competitive strategy accordingly. From this point of view, the pursuit of the appropriate generic strategy is vital for firms facing a dynamic and highly competitive environment. In the present paper, we adopt Porter's typology to operationalise organizational strategy (cost leadership, innovative and marketing differentiation, and focus) considering changes in the external business environment (dynamism, complexity and munificence). Although simulation of social events is a quite difficult task, since there are so many considerations (not all well understood) involved, in the present study we developed a dynamic system based on the conceptual framework of strategy-environment associations.

  4. Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future.

    PubMed

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-01-01

    These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required. Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture.

  5. Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future.

    PubMed

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-01-01

    These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required. Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture. PMID:22558031

  6. Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future

    PubMed Central

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-01-01

    These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required. Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture. PMID:22558031

  7. 75 FR 44303 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Environment Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Environment... Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Environment Subcommittee; Notice of... Secretary of Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Environment Subcommittee, which will be held...

  8. 75 FR 68017 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Environment Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Environment... Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Environment Subcommittee; Notice of... Secretary of Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Environment Subcommittee, which will be held...

  9. Effects of Enron on Future Russian Business Leaders: A Time Line Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlum, Marty; Moskalionov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Russia has emerged as a new capitalistic country with a prior history of corruption under the state controlled regime. Will word of corruption in America stop efforts for an ethical business climate in the new Russia? Has the Enron scandal affected Russian views of business? In pursuit of the answer, the authors surveyed Russian business students…

  10. La demande linguistique dans les entreprises: Brabant. Les besoins langagiers des futurs cadres d'entreprise (Language Needs in Business: Brabant. The Language Needs of Future Business Managers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramlot, J. M.

    By studying the job offers in a Belgian newspaper, an attempt is made to determine what the language needs in business are. Offers which explicitly require language skills were collected from a French-language newspaper between November of 1971 and June of 1972, and codified according to the languages mentioned and the combinations thereof, the…

  11. The Future of New England. 1987 Survey of Business, Government and Higher Education Leaders. State by State Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Board of Higher Education, Boston, MA.

    Information from the 1987 Future of New England survey is presented, gaining the perspectives of the region's business, higher education, and government leaders about five major areas of concern to the New England states: economic growth, internationalization of the economy, education and training, environmental concerns, and public policy…

  12. Software development environments: Present and future, appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Computerized environments which facilitate the development of appropriately functioning software systems are discussed. Their current status is reviewed and several trends exhibited by their history are identified. A number of principles, some at (slight) variance with the historical trends, are suggested and it is argued that observance of these principles is critical to achieving truly effective and efficient software development support environments.

  13. Towards an intelligent hospital environment: OR of the future.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jeffrey V; van den Heuvel, Willem-Jan; Ganous, Tim; Burton, Matthew M; Kumar, Animesh

    2005-01-01

    Patients, providers, payers, and government demand more effective and efficient healthcare services, and the healthcare industry needs innovative ways to re-invent core processes. Business process reengineering (BPR) showed adopting new hospital information systems can leverage this transformation and workflow management technologies can automate process management. Our research indicates workflow technologies in healthcare require real time patient monitoring, detection of adverse events, and adaptive responses to breakdown in normal processes. Adaptive workflow systems are rarely implemented making current workflow implementations inappropriate for healthcare. The advent of evidence based medicine, guideline based practice, and better understanding of cognitive workflow combined with novel technologies including Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), mobile/wireless technologies, internet workflow, intelligent agents, and Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) opens up new and exciting ways of automating business processes. Total situational awareness of events, timing, and location of healthcare activities can generate self-organizing change in behaviors of humans and machines. A test bed of a novel approach towards continuous process management was designed for the new Weinburg Surgery Building at the University of Maryland Medical. Early results based on clinical process mapping and analysis of patient flow bottlenecks demonstrated 100% improvement in delivery of supplies and instruments at surgery start time. This work has been directly applied to the design of the DARPA Trauma Pod research program where robotic surgery will be performed on wounded soldiers on the battlefield.

  14. The University of Louisville: the AuD in a medical and business environment.

    PubMed

    Windmill, Ian M; Cunningham, David R; Preminger, Jill E

    2004-12-01

    The audiology program at the University of Louisville is located in the city's medical complex, which houses the university's health-related programs, 5 acute care hospitals, and 1 rehabilitation hospital. The audiology program has a variety of clinical sites that expose students to broad-based clinical environments, patient populations, and instructional opportunities. The presence of university faculty and staff within these clinics assures that students have consistent educational development. The expanding research program complements the clinical activities. The hospital and faculty-owned private practice locations provide important opportunities to learn the business aspects of audiology.

  15. Aspects of the Future Environment of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newitt, Jane

    A demographics-based approach to conjecture on the social future suggests several factors that bear on the social context of education in the 1980s, including shifts in population, economic activity, and political power, implications of the youth decline, possible intergenerational changes in fertility and women's employment, and the cyclical…

  16. Trusting in a better future: the global environment facility.

    PubMed

    Holton, W C

    2000-07-01

    Individual countries acting alone cannot solve environmental problems that span national borders. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was created in 1991 to serve as a mechanism for international cooperation in the funding of grants to address concerns in four areas of the global environment: biological diversity, climate change, international waters, and ozone layer depletion. To date, more than 500 projects have been funded with over $2 billion of GEF funds and another $5 billion leveraged from public and private sources, including $2 billion in matching funds from developing countries.

  17. Value of the future: Discounting in random environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. Doyne; Geanakoplos, John; Masoliver, Jaume; Montero, Miquel; Perelló, Josep

    2015-05-01

    We analyze how to value future costs and benefits when they must be discounted relative to the present. We introduce the subject for the nonspecialist and take into account the randomness of the economic evolution by studying the discount function of three widely used processes for the dynamics of interest rates: Ornstein-Uhlenbeck, Feller, and log-normal. Besides obtaining exact expressions for the discount function and simple asymptotic approximations, we show that historical average interest rates overestimate long-run discount rates and that this effect can be large. In other words, long-run discount rates should be substantially less than the average rate observed in the past, otherwise any cost-benefit calculation would be biased in favor of the present and against interventions that may protect the future.

  18. Language Learning in Virtual Reality Environments: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tsun-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the research trends in language learning in a virtual reality environment by conducting a content analysis of findings published in the literature from 2004 to 2013 in four top ranked computer-assisted language learning journals: "Language Learning & Technology," "CALICO Journal," "Computer…

  19. Healthy Schools, Healthy Futures: The Case for Improving School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Alan C.

    This book addresses the school as a worksite for faculty, staff, and administrators; as a learning site for students; and as an important site for creating a healthy, productive environment. Born out of a commitment to health education as an essential strategy for maintaining public health, this book contends that the physical condition of the…

  20. Open Data Processing Environment for Future Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerver, W.; Schmitz, G.; Sommer, C.; Willnecker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The globalization and decentralisation of future space missions execution requires new concepts for payload and experiment operation. The technological evolution in the area of data systems and networks will allow for almost unlimited remote operations. Software and hardware technologies bundled with modern networking will permit the distribution of work task- and location wise. Whereas in the past both, telemetry and telecommanding had been worked out as special software products taking care of specific mission and individual instrument requirements, future systems will be based on generic solutions and open data systems. Common interface applications in software and hardware will allow the user to access any data products and other mission or experiment related information from remote site. The user will become part of the mission control centre in a virtual manner. DLR, together with small and medium enterprises, has initiated the development for an open data processing system, DAVIS, which face the new challenges. The modular concept of the generic system allows the easy customised implementation of payload and experiment specific data services. Telescience, which means the interactive remote operations of science in space, can be simply realised by scaleable real-time telemetry and telecommand modules. DAVIS covers the entire application chain - telemetry services and archiving, data processing, visualisation and on-line data analysis, as well as telecommanding and tracking. It offers further on various interfaces to other systems, databases or analysis tools via dedicated application programming interfaces (API) and supports the development of multi-platform applications. DAVIS has gained great success in past Spacelab missions and is presently used for the preparation of the project Rosetta-Lander, part of the next cornerstone mission of ESA in 2003. In addition, it is now under further development for the future utilisation in the ISS payload operations

  1. Past successes and future challenges: Improving the urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gade, M.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses issues related to the Chicago urban environment from her perspective in the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Understanding of the ozone air pollution problem in the Chicago area has undergone significant changes in the past three years, and there is still more to be understood about the complex factors which contribute to ozone pollution over urban areas such as Chicago. Ability to address these problems to present clean air standards is not in hand at present. The author asserts that information, and the ability of governmental agencies to ingest and respond to that information in a timely manner is a key to improvement of the environment in urban areas in reasonable time spans. In addition cost and price information on environmental control and protection needs to be more clearly presented to the people so they can understand the difficult choices which must be made in addressing these environmental problems.

  2. Evolving the future by creating and adapting to novel environments.

    PubMed

    LaFreniere, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Adaptation demands effective responses to both recurrent and novel environmental challenges. Developmental plasticity and domain-general mechanisms have important consequences with respect to our human capacity for imagining, creating, and adapting to novel environments. They facilitate the evolution of any cognitive mechanism, no matter how opportunistic, flexible, or domain-general, that is able to solve new problems or achieve new goals. PMID:25162874

  3. 75 FR 57546 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Environment Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...) Environment Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Environment Subcommittee... the Secretary of Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Environment Subcommittee, which...

  4. 75 FR 34519 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Environment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... on Environment; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Environment Subcommittee... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Environment Subcommittee, which will be held at the office of...

  5. Setting up your own business. Facing the future as an entrepreneur.

    PubMed

    Brent, N J

    1990-01-01

    Other areas of setting up and running a business also are important to explore, especially if the business plans to use employees. You will become an employer, and you must be familiar with rules and regulations that include areas such as the employee's right to a safe workplace, worker's compensation laws, unemployment compensation laws and tax liabilities, antidiscrimination laws, and wage and tax laws. If independent contractors are going to be used, you must recognize that well-developed contracts are a necessity. If you are going to market a new product, consult with an attorney whose practice concentrates in trademark and patent law before the product is shared with others. Being well informed about the proposed business venture, not only before its establishment but as it develops and grows, can help you be in the best position to have a successful business. PMID:2301936

  6. Distributed computing environments for future space control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viallefont, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of a CNES research project on distributed computing systems. The purpose of this research was to study the impact of the use of new computer technologies in the design and development of future space applications. The first part of this study was a state-of-the-art review of distributed computing systems. One of the interesting ideas arising from this review is the concept of a 'virtual computer' allowing the distributed hardware architecture to be hidden from a software application. The 'virtual computer' can improve system performance by adapting the best architecture (addition of computers) to the software application without having to modify its source code. This concept can also decrease the cost and obsolescence of the hardware architecture. In order to verify the feasibility of the 'virtual computer' concept, a prototype representative of a distributed space application is being developed independently of the hardware architecture.

  7. Acid in the environment: lessons learned and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Visgilio, Gerald R.; Whitelaw, Diana M.

    2007-07-01

    This book is the result of a conference held biannually at the Goodwin-Niering Center for Conservation Biology and Environmental Studies at Connecticut College. It uses an interdisciplinary approach to focus on important ecological impacts of acid deposition, the transboundary nature of the pollutants that cause acid rain, and domestic and international policies designed to reduce the emission of these pollutants. The book combines research findings and the policy analyses of experts from different academic disciplines with the positions advanced by representatives of various nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The sixteen papers are arranged in four parts entitled: ecological impacts of acid deposition; acid emissions energy and policy; sulfur dioxide and the market; and lessons learned and future prospects.

  8. The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Elimelech, Menachem; Phillip, William A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, numerous large-scale seawater desalination plants have been built in water-stressed countries to augment available water resources, and construction of new desalination plants is expected to increase in the near future. Despite major advancements in desalination technologies, seawater desalination is still more energy intensive compared to conventional technologies for the treatment of fresh water. There are also concerns about the potential environmental impacts of large-scale seawater desalination plants. Here, we review the possible reductions in energy demand by state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies, the potential role of advanced materials and innovative technologies in improving performance, and the sustainability of desalination as a technological solution to global water shortages.

  9. The case for regulatory reform in the business and healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa Z; Barhem, Belal; Hamidi, Samir; Inungu, Joseph; Prater, Gwendolyn S; O'Keefe, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Government regulations affect corporations and consumers on a daily basis. For example, environmental and safety regulations in the workplace are administrated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) under the Department of Labor. OSHA sets and enforces standards in work environment to ensure the safety and health of workers. Other regulatory agencies, such as the National Highway and Transportation Agency (NHTSA), oversee the transportation and the safety of the automobile and truck industry. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) plays a major role in approving new drugs on the market and in monitoring drug safety, and it has the power to remove drugs from the market if they are proved to be safety and health problems to the public. However, the mere existence of these regulations often causes impediments to businesses, and the extent of their ultimate usefulness is examined and analyzed in this paper

  10. The future of energy efficiency services in a competitive environment

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-12-31

    The competitive restructuring of the electric power industry raises fundamental strategic questions about how energy efficiency services can best be delivered. While some utilities believe that the ``commoditization`` of electric power will extinguish their role in providing efficiency services, others are committed to developing new ways of profitably delivering highly integrated service packages in a more competitive environment. In other industries that have undergone similar transitions, leading companies have prospered by developing new ``reintegration`` strategies to provide enhanced customer value. In the electric power sector, these strategies will bring to the fore finance and marketing skills, giving rise to far-reaching changes in the provision of energy services. Using market-based forward prices for electricity, power merchants may soon be able to ``monetize`` electricity savings and arbitrate against kilowatt-hour prices. Providers of efficiency services will be forced to develop new techniques for ``mass customization`` of service packages, incorporating features such as power quality management, innovative pricing, billing, and financial risk management. Technology integration will be a central task for these companies. As the transmission and distribution grid is permeated with real-time price information, the optimal technical solutions for the customer, including distributed generation, storage, and efficiency options, will become increasingly site-specific and time-dependent.

  11. Business change process, creativity and the brain: a practitioner's reflective account with suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Yeats, Rowena M; Yeats, Martyn F

    2007-11-01

    Resolution of a critical organizational problem requires the use of carefully selected techniques. This is the work of a management consultant: facilitating a business change process in an organizational setting. Here, an account is provided of a practitioner's reflections on one such case study that demonstrates a structure for a business change process. The reflective account highlights certain affective states and social behaviors that were extracted from participants during the business change process. These affective states and social behaviors are mediated by specific neural networks in the brain that are activated during organizational intervention. By breaking down the process into the affective states and social behaviors highlighted, cognitive neuroscience can be a useful tool for investigating the neural substrates of such intervention. By applying a cognitive neuroscience approach to examine organizational change, it is possible to converge on a greater understanding of the neural substrates of everyday social behavior.

  12. Business change process, creativity and the brain: a practitioner's reflective account with suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Yeats, Rowena M; Yeats, Martyn F

    2007-11-01

    Resolution of a critical organizational problem requires the use of carefully selected techniques. This is the work of a management consultant: facilitating a business change process in an organizational setting. Here, an account is provided of a practitioner's reflections on one such case study that demonstrates a structure for a business change process. The reflective account highlights certain affective states and social behaviors that were extracted from participants during the business change process. These affective states and social behaviors are mediated by specific neural networks in the brain that are activated during organizational intervention. By breaking down the process into the affective states and social behaviors highlighted, cognitive neuroscience can be a useful tool for investigating the neural substrates of such intervention. By applying a cognitive neuroscience approach to examine organizational change, it is possible to converge on a greater understanding of the neural substrates of everyday social behavior. PMID:17717094

  13. Environment Online: The Greening of Databases, Part 3. Business and Regulatory Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Patricia Gayle; Stoss, Frederick W.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews online and CD-ROM environmental information sources that focus on business, governmental regulations, and environmental issues. Business databases, environmental databases, environmental audit software packages, and electronic bulletin boards are included. (22 references) (LAE)

  14. The Future of Smalltown and Rural America: The Impact on Small Business. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Small Business Problems in Smaller Towns and Urban Areas of the Select Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives, Ninety-Second Congress, Second Session Pursuant to H. Res. 5 and 19, May 2, 3, and 4, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Small Business.

    Printed for use by the Select Committee on Small Business (House of Representatives), these hearings present the testimony of 23 individuals on "The Future of Smalltown and Rural America: The Impact on Small Business" held before the Subcommittee on Small Business Problems in Smaller Towns and Urban Areas (May 2-4, 1972). These hearings present…

  15. Will E-Business Shape the Future of Open and Distance Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana

    2001-01-01

    Explores the impact that electronic business is likely to have on the growth of open and distance learning. Discusses global consortia and global virtual universities; technological developments, including Web qualities; value chains; pricing models; the importance of scale; operating efficiencies; and increasing competition. (Author/LRW)

  16. Minding Our Own Business: Local Retail Establishments and the Future of Southern Civic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Charles M., II

    2005-01-01

    The civic community perspective focuses on local social and economic institutions that buffer communities from external, often global forces. Important community organizations such as locally oriented business establishments, civic organizations, associations, and churches are emphasized. These critical entities are posited to benefit a…

  17. Future Skill Needs Assessment of Selected Metropolitan Milwaukee Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resource Services, Milwaukee, WI.

    In spring 1983, a study was commissioned by Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC) to identify the skills that would be needed by local businesses and industries within the next 5 to 7 years due to technological changes. Interviews were conducted with 25 deans, associate deans, and instructors at MATC and with representatives from 39 area firms.…

  18. Measuring Future Worker Productivity via Business Email Message Creation: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagler, Barbara E.; Erthal, Margaret; Walzer, Dona; Anderson, Marcia A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research was conducted to determine if relationships exist among college students' business email message productivity score and (a) email message quality score, (b) text keying method used to create email message, and (c) self-reported college English grade. Background: Email is increasingly the communication channel preferred for…

  19. The Potential of Simulated Environments in Teacher Education: Current and Future Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieker, Lisa A.; Rodriguez, Jacqueline A.; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin; Hynes, Michael C.; Hughes, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    The future of virtual environments is evident in many fields but is just emerging in the field of teacher education. In this article, the authors provide a summary of the evolution of simulation in the field of teacher education and three factors that need to be considered as these environments further develop. The authors provide a specific…

  20. Effects of Work Environment on Transfer of Training: Empirical Evidence from Master of Business Administration Programs in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Nga T. P.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Practical application of newly gained knowledge and skills, also referred to as transfer of training, is an issue of great concern in training issues generally and in Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs particularly. This empirical study examined the influence of the trainees' work environment on their transfer of training, taking…

  1. Reneging: A Topic to Promote Engaging Discussions about Law and Ethics in a Business Law or Legal Environment Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tonia Hap

    2009-01-01

    This article is intended for business law and legal environment instructors who want to help students understand how they might react when presented with an ethical conflict, no matter how big or how small. The article discusses not only the compelling ethical issues that may arise in reneging cases, but also legal issues. The article provides…

  2. Employment Law, Negotiation, and the Business Environment: A Cooperative Collective Bargaining Negotiation of the National Hockey League Lockout of 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocchetti, Corey A.

    2008-01-01

    Employment law is a "must-cover" subject in business environment courses. Comparing the plethora of topics requiring coverage with the limited time devoted to employment law during a typical academic term, other important employment subjects--such as negotiation and collective bargaining--commonly receive short shrift. This article offers a…

  3. Contrasting Views of Business Students' Writing Needs in an EFL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacha, Nahla Nola; Bahous, Rima

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of business student and faculty views at the Lebanese American University as to the students' language proficiency levels, writing in particular, and what the specific writing needs are in order for students to be effective in their course work. The role of the English and business faculty is also investigated.…

  4. Legal Environment v. Business Law Courses: A Distinction without a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol J.; Crain, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a content analysis and statistics on the law-related core course requirements in colleges of business to assist professors and administrators in making curriculum decisions. It examines the name of "undergraduate" law-based course requirements in the business core in 404 universities accredited by the…

  5. It Is a Small World after All: Teaching Business Ethics in a Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budden, Connie B.; Budden, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, managers and employees are facing ethical issues when conducting business in the global marketplace. Business educators attempting to teach appropriate ethical behavior and develop skills for dealing with complex ethical situations need to incorporate realistic case scenarios to challenge students. Such cases should appropriately…

  6. The Design of Future Airbreathing Engine Systems within an Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, J. B.; Housner, J. M.; Lytle, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new Initiative proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of this initiative is to develop a future design environment for engineering and science mission synthesis for use by NASA scientists and engineers. This new initiative is called the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The paper describes the mission of NASA, future aerospace system characteristics, the current engineering design process, the ISE concept, and concludes with a description of possible ISE applications for the decision of air-breathing propulsion systems.

  7. Evolution of the Business Environment Surrounding the UK's Nuclear Site Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Miskimin, P.A.; Lees, P.M.; Wall, C.E.E.

    2006-07-01

    In April 2005 twenty civil nuclear sites in the United Kingdom became the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), a new organization created by the British Government to manage the cleanup of these sites. As a key part of this transition, the NDA became the owner and manager of these sites, which formerly were owned by the site operators, British Nuclear Fuels Limited plc (BNFL) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). This was one of the most significant events in the history of the United Kingdom's nuclear industry and represented a true sea change, affecting many aspects of life and business on and around these sites as well as nationally. The NDA's budget for the cleanup of the twenty sites and the management of the overall cleanup program is approximately pounds 2 Billion per annum, almost $4 Billion. It is important to note that approximately half of this amount is spent with the supply chains which serve the management and operations contractors, including pounds 500 million at Sellafield alone. Additionally, the site management and operations contractors receive most of the pounds 2 Billion through contracts between the NDA and the various site management companies. This represents a lot of government money moving through contracts between entities, which invokes procurement and contracting rules and regulations, that while not new, have not previously been this broadly applied to nuclear site cleanup activities throughout the UK. The current estimate for the total life cycle cleanup costs for all twenty civil nuclear sites is pounds 56 Billion, a figure that is likely to increase further. The first rules to mention are the European Union Procurement Guidelines, which are designed to help ensure that procurements involving government funds are conducted in an open, fair, and transparent environment. While it is difficult to argue with the intent of these rules, at least for now they are having a slowing down effect on

  8. Modeling of the Orbital Debris Environment Risks in the Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Despite of the tireless work by space surveillance assets, much of the Earth debris environment is not easily measured or tracked. For every object that is in an orbit we can track, there are hundreds of small debris that are too small to be tracked but still large enough to damage spacecraft. In addition, even if we knew today's environment with perfect knowledge, the debris environment is dynamic and would change tomorrow. Therefore, orbital debris scientists rely on numerical modeling to understand the nature of the debris environment and its risk to space operations throughout Earth orbit and into the future. This talk will summarize the ways in which modeling complements measurements to help give us a better picture of what is occurring in Earth orbit, and helps us to better conduct current and future space operations.

  9. Equipped for the Future. Preparing for Work: A Guide for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Literacy Studies, University of Tennessee (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Preparing for Work," developed by Equipped for the Future at the Center for Literacy Studies, University of Tennessee, is a skills-based course designed for implementation in organizations and agencies involved in preparing their clients and students for entry level work. Each of the instructional modules that comprise the "Preparing for Work"…

  10. The Future of the Physical Learning Environment: School Facilities that Support the User

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuuskorpi, Marko; Gonzalez, Nuria Cabellos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the conclusions of a study, carried out in collaboration with schools in six European countries, which focused on tomorrow's physical learning environments. The study, which stemmed from a project entitled Forum for the Future and which was funded by the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE), was designed to contribute to…

  11. Elementary School Students' Perceptions of the Future Environment through Artwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özsoy, Sibel; Ahi, Berat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate first level of elementary school students' perceptions of the future state of the environment through the pictures they draw. The participants of the study are 131 first-grade students, 127 second-grade students, 160 third-grade students, 188 fourth-grade students, and 222 fifth-grade…

  12. 2009 Community College Futures Assembly Focus: Leading Change--Leading in an Uncertain Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F.; Morris, Phillip A.

    2009-01-01

    The Community College Futures Assembly has served as a national, independent policy thinktank since 1995. Its purpose is to articulate the critical issues facing American community colleges and recognize innovative programs. Convening annually in January in Orlando, Florida, the Assembly offers a learning environment where tough questions are…

  13. [Analysis of China's energy consumption and its impact on the environment in the future].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo-fu; Deng, Hong-bing; Yan, Yan; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2005-05-01

    With the development of economy and urbanization, energy consumption and its impact on the environment in the future have become a focal point in China. Based on briefly reviewing energy consumption during 1980-2000 and analyzing its impact, three scenarios are assumed to forecast energy consumption status and analyze its impact on the environment in the future. The results indicate that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO2 and soot dust caused by energy consumption would keep a high level in the future, and there are significant differences among the three scenarios' estimates. Improving energy efficiency and strengthening the exploitation and utilization of clean and renewable energy are suggested to mitigate the environmental pollution.

  14. What about Place? Considering the Role of Physical Environment on Youth Imagining of Future Possible Selves

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Identity research indicates that development of well elaborated cognitions about oneself in the future, or one's possible selves, is consequential for youths' developmental trajectories, influencing a range of social, health, and educational outcomes. Although the theory of possible selves considers the role of social contexts in identity development, the potential influence of the physical environment is understudied. At the same time, a growing body of work spanning multiple disciplines points to the salience of place, or the meaningful physical environments of people's everyday lives, as an active contributor to self-identity. Bridging these two lines of inquiry, I provide evidence to show how place-based experiences, such as belonging, aversion, and entrapment, may be internalized and encoded into possible selves, thus producing emplaced future self-concept. I suggest that for young people, visioning self in the future is inextricably bound with place; place is an active contributor both in the present development of future self-concept and in enabling young people to envision different future possible places. Implications for practice and future research include place-making interventions and conceptualizing place beyond “neighborhood effects.” PMID:25642137

  15. A New Concept for a Business Ethics Program and the Development of a Monitoring Method for the Engineering Ethics Environment of a Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Yuji; Hayase, Kenichi; Oba, Kyoko; Fudano, Jun

    For most modern corporations, engineering is an essential element. While the public increasingly demands social responsibility in business activities, the importance of the interweaving relationship between business ethics and engineering ethics has been recognized. In this paper, firstly the change in the business environment is overviewed. Then, a new concept for designing and implementing a business ethics program, named the EAB (Ethics Across the Business) approach, is proposed. The EAB approach is highly adaptable for engineering-oriented corporations in their business ethics program activities because it derives from a process approach which has been much used by many companies to perform such activities as quality assurance and environment management. Finally, a newly developed method to monitor employee consciousness in terms of engineering ethics is introduced together with trial results.

  16. Emerging CAE technologies and their role in Future Ambient Intelligence Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Dramatic improvements are on the horizon in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) and various simulation technologies. The improvements are due, in part, to the developments in a number of leading-edge technologies and their synergistic combinations/convergence. The technologies include ubiquitous, cloud, and petascale computing; ultra high-bandwidth networks, pervasive wireless communication; knowledge based engineering; networked immersive virtual environments and virtual worlds; novel human-computer interfaces; and powerful game engines and facilities. This paper describes the frontiers and emerging simulation technologies, and their role in the future virtual product creation and learning/training environments. The environments will be ambient intelligence environments, incorporating a synergistic combination of novel agent-supported visual simulations (with cognitive learning and understanding abilities); immersive 3D virtual world facilities; development chain management systems and facilities (incorporating a synergistic combination of intelligent engineering and management tools); nontraditional methods; intelligent, multimodal and human-like interfaces; and mobile wireless devices. The Virtual product creation environment will significantly enhance the productivity and will stimulate creativity and innovation in future global virtual collaborative enterprises. The facilities in the learning/training environment will provide timely, engaging, personalized/collaborative and tailored visual learning.

  17. A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal to Stabilize the Future LEO Debris Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent analyses of the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resources, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of the effectiveness of ADR must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ADR to preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-cost ratio. This paper describes a comprehensive sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term, orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of many key parameters. These parameters include (1) the starting epoch of ADR implementation, (2) various target selection criteria, (3) the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers, (4) the consequence of targeting specific inclination or altitude regimes, (5) the consequence of targeting specific classes of vehicles, and (6) the timescale of removal. Additional analyses on the importance of postmission disposal and how future launches might affect the requirements to stabilize the environment are also included.

  18. Technology and the Research Environment of the Future. The Impact of the Information Science Revolution on the Research Environment of the Future. Proceedings of Three Seminars (Albany, New York, September 15, 1987, February 2, 1988, and May 6, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Library, Albany.

    In a series of three half-day seminars, scientists from AT&T Bell Laboratories, IBM (International Business Machines), and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives described current research in materials science, computing, and networking with implications for scholarly communication in the future. The audience for the seminars included…

  19. Business Process Elicitation, Modeling, and Reengineering: Teaching and Learning with Simulated Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeyaraj, Anand

    2010-01-01

    The design of enterprise information systems requires students to master technical skills for elicitation, modeling, and reengineering business processes as well as soft skills for information gathering and communication. These tacit skills and behaviors cannot be effectively taught students but rather experienced and learned by students. This…

  20. Primary Traits of Oral Business Presentation: Translatable Use for Assessment in a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds, Elke M.; Raven, Arjan; Brawley, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    As more and more classes are taught on-line, new challenges for assessment of student learning have come about. In this paper on the use of digital video (DV) as an acceptable means to assess student oral business presentation skills, content analysis was used to test for the presence of primary traits inherent in effective formal business…

  1. Creating a College and Business Partnership That Works: Simulation in a Manufacturing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Forrest B.; Williamson, Jim

    2000-01-01

    In a simulation, a student team studied a real factory system and tested three work configurations. The partnership benefitted students and business, but the project underscored the need for careful coordination, assistance from company management and instructors, and a longer time frame than a semester. (SK)

  2. Proactive Encouragement of Interdisciplinary Research Teams in a Business School Environment: Strategy and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan M.; Carter, Nathan C.; Hadlock, Charles R.; Haughton, Dominique M.; Sirbu, George

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes efforts to promote collaborative research across traditional boundaries in a business-oriented university as part of an institutional transformation. We model this activity within the framework of social network analysis and use quantitative tools from that field to characterize resulting impacts. (Contains 4 tables and 2…

  3. Students' Perceptions of Computer-Based Learning Environments, Their Attitude towards Business Statistics, and Their Academic Achievement: Implications from a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, ThuyUyen H.; Charity, Ian; Robson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates students' perceptions of computer-based learning environments, their attitude towards business statistics, and their academic achievement in higher education. Guided by learning environments concepts and attitudinal theory, a theoretical model was proposed with two instruments, one for measuring the learning environment and…

  4. Perspectives on Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and Future Aerospace Workforce Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the advanced learning technologies is given in this presentation along with a brief description of their impact on future aerospace workforce development. The presentation is divided into five parts (see Figure 1). In the first part, a brief historical account of the evolution of learning technologies is given. The second part describes the current learning activities. The third part describes some of the future aerospace systems, as examples of high-tech engineering systems, and lists their enabling technologies. The fourth part focuses on future aerospace research, learning and design environments. The fifth part lists the objectives of the workshop and some of the sources of information on learning technologies and learning networks.

  5. Future of Grid-Tied PV Business Models: What Will Happen When PV Penetration on the Distribution Grid is Significant? Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.; Katofsky, R.; Frantzis, L.; Sawyer, H.; Margolis, R.

    2008-05-01

    Eventually, distributed PV will become a more significant part of the generation mix. When this happens, it is expected that utilities will have to take on a more active role in the placement, operation and control of these systems. There are operational complexities and concerns of revenue erosion that will drive utilities into greater involvement of distributed PV and will create new business models. This report summarizes work done by Navigant Consulting Inc. for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's work on Renewable System Integration. The objective of the work was to better understand the structure of these future business models and the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) required to support their deployment. This report describes potential future PV business models in terms of combinations of utility ownership and control of the PV assets, and the various relationships between end-users and third-party owners.

  6. Perspectives on Emerging/Novel Computing Paradigms and Future Aerospace Workforce Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2003-01-01

    The accelerating pace of the computing technology development shows no signs of abating. Computing power reaching 100 Tflop/s is likely to be reached by 2004 and Pflop/s (10(exp 15) Flop/s) by 2007. The fundamental physical limits of computation, including information storage limits, communication limits and computation rate limits will likely be reached by the middle of the present millennium. To overcome these limits, novel technologies and new computing paradigms will be developed. An attempt is made in this overview to put the diverse activities related to new computing-paradigms in perspective and to set the stage for the succeeding presentations. The presentation is divided into five parts. In the first part, a brief historical account is given of development of computer and networking technologies. The second part provides brief overviews of the three emerging computing paradigms grid, ubiquitous and autonomic computing. The third part lists future computing alternatives and the characteristics of future computing environment. The fourth part describes future aerospace workforce research, learning and design environments. The fifth part lists the objectives of the workshop and some of the sources of information on future computing paradigms.

  7. Payment Of the New Mexico Environment Department- Hazardous Waste Bureau Annual Business and Generation Fees Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Catherine L.

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this letter is to transmit to the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB), the Los alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Annual Business and Generation Fees for calendar year 2011. These fees are required pursuant to the provisions of New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act, Chapter 74, Article 4, NMSA (as amended). The Laboratory's Fenton Hill Facility did not generate any hazardous waste during the entire year, and is not required to pay a fee for calendar year 2011. The enclosed fee represents the amount for a single facility owned by the Department of Energy and co-operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS).

  8. SURVEY ON THE DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND BUSINESS CONTINUITY OF COMPANIES BASED ON THE HEARING ETC. INVESTIGATION TO CRO IN THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND CONSIDERATION OF ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT IN FUTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiruma, Yoshiki; Noda, Kentaro

    In light of the recent disaster, a major theme for corporations is now how to go about disaster preparedness and business continuity undertakings. This survey examines the effectiveness of existing disaster preparedness and business continuity efforts, while also paying consideration to issues that must be overcome or improved in the future. This paper will present a path (requirements) for improving business continuity capacity, and endeavors to link that path to future assistance for recovery and business continuity for corporations by having the path utilized in developing various tools that ameliorate disaster preparedness and business continuity capacity.

  9. Ants in the Hospital Environment: Ecological Parameters as Support for Future Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    de Castro, M M; Almeida, M; Fernandes, E F; Prezoto, F

    2016-06-01

    Urban ants cause many losses to human society, and they represent a potential threat to public health in hospital environments due to their ability to transport pathogenic organisms. We evaluated several ecological parameters (richness, abundance, constancy, and evenness), their fluctuation during the seasons, and identified species that occur outside the natural range of the ant fauna of a hospital environment, as support for future management strategies. Ant sampling was held every 2 months by using attractive bait traps in the morning and evening, leading to the sampling of 10,342 individuals belonging to six subfamilies and 26 species. Myrmicinae showed higher richness (n = 12) and abundance (n = 7336), with Pheidole susannae Forel being the most abundant species. The most constant species (100%) were P. susannae and Tetramorium simillimum (Smith). Among the most abundant species, Monomorium floricola (Jerdon) and Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) are considered as species that occur outside the natural range. No difference was observed between species richness and abundance. The Shannon (2.247), dominance (0.1395) and evenness indices (0.6897) indicated a stability of the community throughout the year with high diversity and low dominance of species. The sampled data constitute a new series of information on a long-term ecological approach to support future management strategies in hospital environments and allow for more efficient pest control.

  10. The challenge of health & environment: Profiling risks & strategic priorities for now & the future

    PubMed Central

    Narain, Jai P.

    2012-01-01

    A substantial burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing countries is attributable to environmental risk factors. WHO estimates that the environmental factors are responsible for an estimated 24 per cent of the global burden of disease in terms of healthy life years lost and 23 per cent of all deaths; children being the worst sufferers. Given that the environment is linked with most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), without proper attention to the environmental risk factors and their management, it will be difficult to achieve many MDGs by 2015. The impact of environmental degradation on health may continue well into the future and the situation in fact, is likely to get worse. In order to address this challenge, two facts are worth noting. First, that much of the environmental disease burden is attributable to a few critical risk factors which include unsafe water and sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke from cooking fuel, outdoor air pollution, exposure to chemicals such as arsenic, and climate change. Second, that environment and health aspects must become, as a matter of urgency, a national priority, both in terms of policy and resources allocation. To meet the challenge of health and environment now and in the future, the following strategic approaches must be considered which include conducting environmental and health impact assessments; strengthening national environmental health policy and infrastructure; fostering inter-sectoral co-ordination and partnerships; mobilizing public participation; and enhancing the leadership role of health in advocacy, stewardship and capacity building. PMID:22960884

  11. The challenge of health & environment: profiling risks & strategic priorities for now & the future.

    PubMed

    Narain, Jai P

    2012-08-01

    A substantial burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing countries is attributable to environmental risk factors. WHO estimates that the environmental factors are responsible for an estimated 24 per cent of the global burden of disease in terms of healthy life years lost and 23 per cent of all deaths; children being the worst sufferers. Given that the environment is linked with most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), without proper attention to the environmental risk factors and their management, it will be difficult to achieve many MDGs by 2015. The impact of environmental degradation on health may continue well into the future and the situation in fact, is likely to get worse. In order to address this challenge, two facts are worth noting. First, that much of the environmental disease burden is attributable to a few critical risk factors which include unsafe water and sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke from cooking fuel, outdoor air pollution, exposure to chemicals such as arsenic, and climate change. Second, that environment and health aspects must become, as a matter of urgency, a national priority, both in terms of policy and resources allocation. To meet the challenge of health and environment now and in the future, the following strategic approaches must be considered which include conducting environmental and health impact assessments; strengthening national environmental health policy and infrastructure; fostering inter-sectoral co-ordination and partnerships; mobilizing public participation; and enhancing the leadership role of health in advocacy, stewardship and capacity building. PMID:22960884

  12. The future of retail clinics: in a volatile health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer

    2010-01-01

    Recent estimates put the total number of retail clinics at more than 1000 nationwide. Some forecasts estimate that explosive growth will continue in the future, whereas others suggest that the retail clinic boom might be ending. This article assesses the retail clinic trend and explores its future viability in the volatile health care environment. Eight administrative and clinical leaders in 7 health systems that are affiliated with or own retail clinics were asked specific questions about the future evolution of retail clinics. Respondents offered mixed opinions about the future of retail clinics, and most were skeptical about their growth potential. Some of the respondents believed that health care reform will be supportive of retail clinics, but there was uncertainty about the specific effects of expansion in insurance coverage. Respondents reacted differently to the prospect of retail clinics expanding their scope of practice to include chronic conditions. Some of them welcomed the trend, but the majority was critical of it for various reasons. At this turning point for the health care system, it is not clear whether retail clinics will represent a significant value proposition for the system or whether they are a fad that will soon pass and disappear.

  13. A temporal forecast of radiation environments for future space exploration missions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Cucinotta, Francis A; Wilson, John W

    2007-06-01

    The understanding of future space radiation environments is an important goal for space mission operations, design, and risk assessment. We have developed a solar cycle statistical model in which sunspot number is coupled to space-related quantities, such as the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) deceleration potential (phi) and the mean occurrence frequency of solar particle events (SPEs). Future GCR fluxes were derived from a predictive model, in which the temporal dependence represented by phi was derived from GCR flux and ground-based Climax neutron monitor rate measurements over the last four decades. These results showed that the point dose equivalent inside a typical spacecraft in interplanetary space was influenced by solar modulation by up to a factor of three. It also has been shown that a strong relationship exists between large SPE occurrences and phi. For future space exploration missions, cumulative probabilities of SPEs at various integral fluence levels during short-period missions were defined using a database of proton fluences of past SPEs. Analytic energy spectra of SPEs at different ranks of the integral fluences for energies greater than 30 MeV were constructed over broad energy ranges extending out to GeV for the analysis of representative exposure levels at those fluences. Results will guide the design of protection systems for astronauts during future space exploration missions.

  14. A temporal forecast of radiation environments for future space exploration missions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Cucinotta, Francis A; Wilson, John W

    2007-06-01

    The understanding of future space radiation environments is an important goal for space mission operations, design, and risk assessment. We have developed a solar cycle statistical model in which sunspot number is coupled to space-related quantities, such as the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) deceleration potential (phi) and the mean occurrence frequency of solar particle events (SPEs). Future GCR fluxes were derived from a predictive model, in which the temporal dependence represented by phi was derived from GCR flux and ground-based Climax neutron monitor rate measurements over the last four decades. These results showed that the point dose equivalent inside a typical spacecraft in interplanetary space was influenced by solar modulation by up to a factor of three. It also has been shown that a strong relationship exists between large SPE occurrences and phi. For future space exploration missions, cumulative probabilities of SPEs at various integral fluence levels during short-period missions were defined using a database of proton fluences of past SPEs. Analytic energy spectra of SPEs at different ranks of the integral fluences for energies greater than 30 MeV were constructed over broad energy ranges extending out to GeV for the analysis of representative exposure levels at those fluences. Results will guide the design of protection systems for astronauts during future space exploration missions. PMID:17165049

  15. Future directions: advances and implications of virtual environments designed for pain management.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Soomro, Ahmad; Riva, Giuseppe; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Pain symptoms have been addressed with a variety of therapeutic measures in the past, but as we look to the future, we begin encountering new options for patient care and individual health and well-being. Recent studies indicate that computer-generated graphic environments--virtual reality (VR)--can offer effective cognitive distractions for individuals suffering from pain arising from a variety of physical and psychological illnesses. Studies also indicate the effectiveness of VR for both chronic and acute pain conditions. Future possibilities for VR to address pain-related concerns include such diverse groups as military personnel, space exploration teams, the general labor force, and our ever increasing elderly population. VR also shows promise to help in such areas as drug abuse, at-home treatments, and athletic injuries.

  16. Planning, Implementation and Optimization of Future space Missions using an Immersive Visualization Environement (IVE) Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E.

    Planning, Implementation and Optimization of Future Space Missions using an Immersive Visualization Environment (IVE) Machine E. N. Harris, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, CO and George.W. Morgenthaler, U. of Colorado at Boulder History: A team of 3-D engineering visualization experts at the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company have developed innovative virtual prototyping simulation solutions for ground processing and real-time visualization of design and planning of aerospace missions over the past 6 years. At the University of Colorado, a team of 3-D visualization experts are developing the science of 3-D visualization and immersive visualization at the newly founded BP Center for Visualization, which began operations in October, 2001. (See IAF/IAA-01-13.2.09, "The Use of 3-D Immersive Visualization Environments (IVEs) to Plan Space Missions," G. A. Dorn and G. W. Morgenthaler.) Progressing from Today's 3-D Engineering Simulations to Tomorrow's 3-D IVE Mission Planning, Simulation and Optimization Techniques: 3-D (IVEs) and visualization simulation tools can be combined for efficient planning and design engineering of future aerospace exploration and commercial missions. This technology is currently being developed and will be demonstrated by Lockheed Martin in the (IVE) at the BP Center using virtual simulation for clearance checks, collision detection, ergonomics and reach-ability analyses to develop fabrication and processing flows for spacecraft and launch vehicle ground support operations and to optimize mission architecture and vehicle design subject to realistic constraints. Demonstrations: Immediate aerospace applications to be demonstrated include developing streamlined processing flows for Reusable Space Transportation Systems and Atlas Launch Vehicle operations and Mars Polar Lander visual work instructions. Long-range goals include future international human and robotic space exploration missions such as the development of a Mars

  17. My Ideal City (mic): Virtual Environments to Design the Future Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgherini, M.; Garbin, E.

    2011-09-01

    MIC is an EU funded project to explore the use of shared virtual environments as part of a public discussion on the issues of building the city of the future. An interactive exploration of four european cities - in the digital city models were translated urban places, family problems and citizens wishes - is a chance to see them in different ways and from different points of view, to imagine new scenarios to overcome barriers and stereotypes no longer effective. This paper describes the process from data to visualization of virtual cities and, in detail, the project of two interactive digital model (Trento and Lisbon).

  18. Integrating Foreign Languages and Cultures into U.S. International Business Programs: Best Practices and Future Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacco, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of foreign languages and cultures and their integration into U.S. international business programs. The author juxtaposes globalization strategies of European and American business schools and highlights pre-university foreign language study in Europe and the U.S. The paper goes on to describe model U.S.…

  19. Intelligent Agents and Their Potential for Future Design and Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Agents and Their Potential for Future Design and Synthesis Environment, held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, September 16-17, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of intelligent agents technology and to identify the potential of software agents for use in future design and synthesis environment. The presentations covered the current status of agent technology and several applications of intelligent software agents. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

  20. Strategic planning for future learning environments: an exploration of interpersonal, interprofessional and political factors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Cathrine

    2013-09-01

    This article, written from the stance of a public planner and a policy maker, explores the challenges and potential in creating future learning environments through the concept of a new learning landscape. It is based on the belief that physical planning can support the strategic goals of universities. In Denmark, a political focus on education as a mean to improve national capacity for innovation and growth are redefining the universities role in society. This is in turn changing the circumstances for the physical planning. Drawing on examples of physical initiatives in three different scales--city, building and room scale, the paper highlights how space and place matters on an interpersonal, an interprofessional and a political level. The article suggests that a wider understanding of how new learning landscapes are created--both as a material reality and a political discourse--can help frame an emerging community of practice. This involves university leaders, faculty and students, architects, designers and urban planners, citizens and policy makers with the common goal of creating future learning environments today.

  1. Perspective: Environment, biodiversity, and the education of the physician of the future.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Andrés; Balsari, Satchit; Nusbaum, Julie; Heerboth, Aaron; Lemery, Jay

    2013-02-01

    Ours is an age of unprecedented levels of environmental alteration and biodiversity loss. Beyond the exposure to environmental hazards, conditions such as environmental degradation, biotic impoverishment, climate change, and the loss of ecosystem services create important health threats by changing the ecology of many pathogens and increasing the incidence and/or severity of certain noncommunicable conditions. They also threaten health in the future by weakening the Earth's life support systems.Although physicians remain one of the most often accessed and most trusted sources of information about the environment, there is currently little emphasis on educating medical professionals about these environmental issues. This lack of training reduces the ability of most physicians to be efficient science-public interfaces and makes them ineffective at contributing to address the fundamental causes of environmental problems or participate in substantive environmental policy discussions. This is an important challenge facing medical education today.To turn medical students into effective physician-citizens, an already-overwhelmed medical school curriculum must make way for a thoughtful exploration of environmental stressors and their impacts on human health. The overarching question before medical educators is how to develop the competencies, standards, and curricula for this educational endeavor. To this end, the authors highlight some of the critical linkages between health and the environment and suggest a subset of key practical issues that need to be addressed in order to create environmental education standards for the physician of the future.

  2. Strategic planning for future learning environments: an exploration of interpersonal, interprofessional and political factors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Cathrine

    2013-09-01

    This article, written from the stance of a public planner and a policy maker, explores the challenges and potential in creating future learning environments through the concept of a new learning landscape. It is based on the belief that physical planning can support the strategic goals of universities. In Denmark, a political focus on education as a mean to improve national capacity for innovation and growth are redefining the universities role in society. This is in turn changing the circumstances for the physical planning. Drawing on examples of physical initiatives in three different scales--city, building and room scale, the paper highlights how space and place matters on an interpersonal, an interprofessional and a political level. The article suggests that a wider understanding of how new learning landscapes are created--both as a material reality and a political discourse--can help frame an emerging community of practice. This involves university leaders, faculty and students, architects, designers and urban planners, citizens and policy makers with the common goal of creating future learning environments today. PMID:23930688

  3. Predicting the Future Impact of Droughts on Ungulate Populations in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Clare; Chauvenet, Aliénor L. M.; McRae, Louise M.; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Droughts can have a severe impact on the dynamics of animal populations, particularly in semi-arid and arid environments where herbivore populations are strongly limited by resource availability. Increased drought intensity under projected climate change scenarios can be expected to reduce the viability of such populations, yet this impact has seldom been quantified. In this study, we aim to fill this gap and assess how the predicted worsening of droughts over the 21st century is likely to impact the population dynamics of twelve ungulate species occurring in arid and semi-arid habitats. Our results provide support to the hypotheses that more sedentary, grazing and mixed feeding species will be put at high risk from future increases in drought intensity, suggesting that management intervention under these conditions should be targeted towards species possessing these traits. Predictive population models for all sedentary, grazing or mixed feeding species in our study show that their probability of extinction dramatically increases under future emissions scenarios, and that this extinction risk is greater for smaller populations than larger ones. Our study highlights the importance of quantifying the current and future impacts of increasing extreme natural events on populations and species in order to improve our ability to mitigate predicted biodiversity loss under climate change. PMID:23284700

  4. Problem-Based Learning in Web Environments: The Case of ``Virtual eBMS'' for Business Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Gianluca; Secundo, Giustina; Taurino, Cesare

    This chapter presents a case study where Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach is applied to a Web-based environment. It first describes the main features behind the PBL for creating Business Engineers able to face the grand technological challenges of the 2020. Then it introduces a Web Based system supporting the PBL strategy, called the “Virtual eBMS”. This system has been designed and implemented at the e-Business Management Section of the Scuola Superiore ISUFI - University of Salento (Italy), in the framework of a research project carried out in collaboration with IBM. Besides the logical and technological description of Virtual eBMS, the chapter presents two applications of the platform in two different contexts: an academic context (international master) and an entrepreneurial context (awareness workshop with companies and entrepreneurs). The system is illustrated starting from the description of an operational framework for designing curricula PBL based from the author perspective and, then, illustrating a typical scenario of a learner accessing to the curricula. In the description, it is highlighted both the “structured” way and the “unstructured” way to create and follow an entire learning path.

  5. Multi-Disciplinary Analysis for Future Launch Systems Using NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald; Mathias, Donovan; Reuther, James; Garn, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    A new engineering environment constructed for the purposes of analyzing and designing Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) is presented. The new environment has been developed to allow NASA to perform independent analysis and design of emerging RLV architectures and technologies. The new Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is both collaborative and distributed. It facilitates integration of the analyses by both vehicle performance disciplines and life-cycle disciplines. Current performance disciplines supported include: weights and sizing, aerodynamics, trajectories, propulsion, structural loads, and CAD-based geometries. Current life-cycle disciplines supported include: DDT&E cost, production costs, operations costs, flight rates, safety and reliability, and system economics. Involving six NASA centers (ARC, LaRC, MSFC, KSC, GRC and JSC), AEE has been tailored to serve as a web-accessed agency-wide source for all of NASA's future launch vehicle systems engineering functions. Thus, it is configured to facilitate (a) data management, (b) automated tool/process integration and execution, and (c) data visualization and presentation. The core components of the integrated framework are a customized PTC Windchill product data management server, a set of RLV analysis and design tools integrated using Phoenix Integration's Model Center, and an XML-based data capture and transfer protocol. The AEE system has seen production use during the Initial Architecture and Technology Review for the NASA 2nd Generation RLV program, and it continues to undergo development and enhancements in support of its current main customer, the NASA Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program.

  6. Studying social interactions through immersive virtual environment technology: virtues, pitfalls, and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bombari, Dario; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Canadas, Elena; Bachmann, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present review is to explain how immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) can be used for the study of social interactions and how the use of virtual humans in immersive virtual environments can advance research and application in many different fields. Researchers studying individual differences in social interactions are typically interested in keeping the behavior and the appearance of the interaction partner constant across participants. With IVET researchers have full control over the interaction partners, can standardize them while still keeping the simulation realistic. Virtual simulations are valid: growing evidence shows that indeed studies conducted with IVET can replicate some well-known findings of social psychology. Moreover, IVET allows researchers to subtly manipulate characteristics of the environment (e.g., visual cues to prime participants) or of the social partner (e.g., his/her race) to investigate their influences on participants’ behavior and cognition. Furthermore, manipulations that would be difficult or impossible in real life (e.g., changing participants’ height) can be easily obtained with IVET. Beside the advantages for theoretical research, we explore the most recent training and clinical applications of IVET, its integration with other technologies (e.g., social sensing) and future challenges for researchers (e.g., making the communication between virtual humans and participants smoother). PMID:26157414

  7. How to place your bet on the future coastal environment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, N. G.; Thieler, E. R.; Gutierrez, B. T.

    2010-12-01

    The future forms and functions of many coastal areas are unknown due to uncertainty in the future forces that will drive evolution (e.g., rate and magnitude of sea-level rise, changes in storminess) and due to limitations in our understanding of some of the evolutionary processes (e.g., coastal erosion, habitat response, human response). Anyone or anything (e.g., home owners, government officials, flora and fauna) making a decision that depends on the future coastal environment are essentially “betting” on one or more possible scenarios. Ideally, they should be able to evaluate the probability of winning (e.g., successfully protecting homes from storm surge, attracting tourists to beaches, preventing habitat loss). The USGS is integrating scientific understanding and uncertainty with coastal management problems in order to provide better assessments of existing bets and to evaluate the risk associated with some future sea-level rise scenarios. Here, we describe a focused study at Assateague Island National Seashore that includes both infrastructure and habitat that are sensitive to sea-level rise and climate change. Some coastal management bets are not overly sensitive to environmental uncertainty. This is because it may only be necessary to know whether environmental thresholds have been crossed (e.g., shoreline or water level intersects specific infrastructure or habitat boundaries) rather than knowing exact values for environmental parameters. Other bets are less clearly framed. Thus, coastal management questions provide the limits of integration of a probabilistic problem and allow complicated scientific understanding to be expressed as the risk of a particular bet. Nature holds the cards in this game, and investment in robust prediction is our ante. Who’s in?

  8. Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) in a Distance Learning Course on Mathematics Applied to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidarra, Jose; Araujo, Joao

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the dominant form of distance learning that is common in most e-learning systems rests on a set of learning devices and environments that may be outdated from the student's perspective, namely because it is not supportive of learner empowerment and does not facilitate the efforts of self-directed learners. For this…

  9. Character Development in Business Education: A Comparison of Coeducational and Single-Sex Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James H.; Ruhe, John; Lee, Monle; Rajadhyaksha, Ujvala

    2011-01-01

    This study questions the widely held assumption, particularly in the United States, that coeducation is best. Previous research supports the development of single-sex education for both female and male students. This study examines how the learning climate of the coeducation environment seems to affect the character development of female business…

  10. Students' Perceptions of the Academic Environment and Approaches to Studying in British Postgraduate Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on student learning in higher education has identified clear associations between variations in students' perceptions of the academic environment and variations in their study behaviour. This study investigated a general theoretical model linking students' demographic characteristics, perceptions and study behaviour with measures…

  11. Cultivating Early Trajectories of Participation: A Blended Learning Environment for Business German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, David O.

    2016-01-01

    The essay forwards suggestions for developing a blended learning environment to insert genre-based language for specific purposes (LSP) subject matter into the undergraduate second language development curriculum. Specifically, the essay will highlight: (1) the development of an overarching narrative for structuring the LSP subject matter; (2) the…

  12. Information Gathering: The Information Behaviors of Line-Managers within a Business Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Maureen L.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of managers' information needs focuses on a study that examined information gathering behaviors of line-managers and compared their information behaviors to non-managers within the same environment. Suggests that managers tend to seek and accumulate information for which they have no explicit or known need. (Author/LRW)

  13. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  14. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  15. Back to the future: virtualization of the computing environment at the W. M. Keck Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Kevin L.; Birch, Denny A.; Holt, Jennifer M.; Randolph, William B.; Ward, Josephine A.

    2014-07-01

    Over its two decades of science operations, the W.M. Keck Observatory computing environment has evolved to contain a distributed hybrid mix of hundreds of servers, desktops and laptops of multiple different hardware platforms, O/S versions and vintages. Supporting the growing computing capabilities to meet the observatory's diverse, evolving computing demands within fixed budget constraints, presents many challenges. This paper describes the significant role that virtualization is playing in addressing these challenges while improving the level and quality of service as well as realizing significant savings across many cost areas. Starting in December 2012, the observatory embarked on an ambitious plan to incrementally test and deploy a migration to virtualized platforms to address a broad range of specific opportunities. Implementation to date has been surprisingly glitch free, progressing well and yielding tangible benefits much faster than many expected. We describe here the general approach, starting with the initial identification of some low hanging fruit which also provided opportunity to gain experience and build confidence among both the implementation team and the user community. We describe the range of challenges, opportunities and cost savings potential. Very significant among these was the substantial power savings which resulted in strong broad support for moving forward. We go on to describe the phasing plan, the evolving scalable architecture, some of the specific technical choices, as well as some of the individual technical issues encountered along the way. The phased implementation spans Windows and Unix servers for scientific, engineering and business operations, virtualized desktops for typical office users as well as more the more demanding graphics intensive CAD users. Other areas discussed in this paper include staff training, load balancing, redundancy, scalability, remote access, disaster readiness and recovery.

  16. Behavioral studies on anxiety and depression in a drug discovery environment: keys to a successful future.

    PubMed

    Bouwknecht, J Adriaan

    2015-04-15

    The review describes a personal journey through 25 years of animal research with a focus on the contribution of rodent models for anxiety and depression to the development of new medicines in a drug discovery environment. Several classic acute models for mood disorders are briefly described as well as chronic stress and disease-induction models. The paper highlights a variety of factors that influence the quality and consistency of behavioral data in a laboratory setting. The importance of meta-analysis techniques for study validation (tolerance interval) and assay sensitivity (Monte Carlo modeling) are demonstrated by examples that use historic data. It is essential for successful discovery of new potential drugs to maintain a high level of control in animal research and to bridge knowledge across in silico modeling, and in vitro and in vivo assays. Today, drug discovery is a highly dynamic environment in search of new types of treatments and new animal models which should be guided by enhanced two-way translation between bench and bed. Although productivity has been disappointing in the search of new and better medicines in psychiatry over the past decades, there has been and will always be an important role for in vivo models in-between preclinical discovery and clinical development. The right balance between good science and proper judgment versus a decent level of innovation, assay development and two-way translation will open the doors to a very bright future.

  17. The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F

    2014-02-01

    Recently, research examining the occurrence of microplastics in the marine environment has substantially increased. Field and laboratory work regularly provide new evidence on the fate of microplastic debris. This debris has been observed within every marine habitat. In this study, at least 101 peer-reviewed papers investigating microplastic pollution were critically analysed (Supplementary material). Microplastics are commonly studied in relation to (1) plankton samples, (2) sandy and muddy sediments, (3) vertebrate and invertebrate ingestion, and (4) chemical pollutant interactions. All of the marine organism groups are at an eminent risk of interacting with microplastics according to the available literature. Dozens of works on other relevant issues (i.e., polymer decay at sea, new sampling and laboratory methods, emerging sources, externalities) were also analysed and discussed. This paper provides the first in-depth exploration of the effects of microplastics on the marine environment and biota. The number of scientific publications will increase in response to present and projected plastic uses and discard patterns. Therefore, new themes and important approaches for future work are proposed.

  18. Les connaissances linguistiques des cadres: Le point de vue de la direction des entreprises. Les besoins langagiers des futurs cadres d'entreprise. (Language Skills of Trained Personnel: The Viewpoint of Business Management. The Language Needs of Future Business Managers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatry, Paul

    The first part of this paper outlines the factors that appear to influence the language attitudes or language behavior of business directors and managerial staff in Belgium. Age and the economic and political surroundings appear to be the principal factors. The younger individuals are, the more positive are their attitudes about the language…

  19. A future data environment - reusability vs. citability and synchronisation vs. ingestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, D.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decades data managers dedicated their work to the pursuit for importable data. In the recent years this chase seams to come to an end while funding organisations assume that the approach of data publications with citable data sets will eliminate denial of scientists to commit their data. But is this true for all problems we are facing at the edge of a data avalanche and data intensive science? The concept of citable data is a logical consequence from the connection of points. Potential data providers in the past complained usually about the missing of a credit assignment for data providers and they still do. The selected way of DOI captured data sets is perfectly fitting into the credit system of publisher driven publications with countable citations. This system is well known by scientists for approximately 400 years now. Unfortunately, there is a double bind situation between citeability and reusability. While cooperation of publishers and data archives are coming into existence, it is necessary to get one question clear: "Is it really worth while in the twenty-first century to force data into the publication process of the seventeenth century?" Data publications enable easy citability, but do not support easy data reusability for future users. Additional problems occur in such an environment while taking into account the chances of collaborative data corrections in the institutional repository. The future with huge amounts of data connected with publications makes reconsideration towards a more integrated approach reasonable. In the past data archives were the only infrastructures taking care of long-term data retrievability and availability. Nevertheless, they were never a part of the scientific process from data creation, analysis, interpretation and publication. Data archives were regarded as isolated islands in the sea of scientific data. Accordingly scientists considered data publications like a stumbling stone in their daily routines and

  20. Back to the Future with Business and Marketing Education. Annual Atlantic Coast Business and Marketing Education Conference Proceedings (12th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 17-18, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Randy L., Ed.

    This proceedings includes: "Bridging the International Learning Gap" (Arnold); "Back to the Future" (Baker); "Conducting Successful Class Projects over the Internet" (Beasley); "The Need for Ethics Instruction at the High School Level" (Brown); "Incorporating Industry-Based Skills Standards into High School Secretarial Programs" (Bunn);…

  1. Business Management Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This course guide is designed for teaching about the U.S. business system. Students are introduced to management functions and the background knowledge/skills necessary to be a successful manager. The guide contains 10 competency goals: (1) nature of U.S. business; (2) environment of business; (3) types of business ownership; (4) management…

  2. Sustainability - what are the odds? Envisioning the future of our environment, economy and society

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability – the word is everywhere these days. Cities, transportation systems, energy producers, agriculture, fisheries, businesses, even mines (!), are making claims or making plans for sustainability. Several formal definitions of sustainability have been offered; here is ...

  3. Future Interagency Range and Spaceport Technologies (FIRST) Formulation Products: 1. Transformational Spaceport and Range Concept of Operations. 2. F.I.R.S.T. Business Case Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Baseline Report captures range and spaceport capabilities at five sites: KSC, CCAFS, VAFB, Wallops, and Kodiak. The Baseline depicts a future state that relies on existing technology, planned upgrades, and straight-line recapitalization at these sites projected through 2030. The report presents an inventory of current spaceport and range capabilities at these five sites. The baseline is the first part of analyzing a business case for a set of capabilities designed to transform U.S. ground and space launch operations toward a single, integrated national "system" of space transportation systems. The second part of the business case compares current capabilities with technologies needed to support the integrated national "system". The final part, a return on investment analysis, identifies the technologies that best lead to the integrated national system and reduce recurring costs..Numerous data sources were used to define and describe the baseline spaceport and range by identifying major systems and elements and describing capabilities, limitations, and capabilities

  4. How small business health exchanges can offer value to their future customers--and why they must.

    PubMed

    Kingsdale, Jon

    2012-02-01

    The success of the Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP)-health insurance exchanges targeted at the small-group market and opening for business in January 2014-will depend in large part on persuading small employers and qualified health plans to participate. The most important objective will be offering employers lower-cost health plans than they have now. Other critical objectives will be offering small firms administrative efficiencies and access to choices among high-value plans that are not offered elsewhere. This article frames the challenges that exchanges will encounter in meeting these objectives. In particular, it discusses the advisability of small-business exchanges' offering an "employee choice" model (which the article describes in detail); of combining the small-business and individual exchanges to broaden product offerings and gain operational efficiencies; and of encouraging low-cost plans to enter the exchange market, perhaps by enabling Medicaid managed care plans to offer comparable commercial products, and in turn affording health plans access to a uniquely motivated market of small firms and their workers who want affordable coverage.

  5. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  6. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  7. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  8. Space environment data storage and access: lessons learned and recommendations for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Hugh; Heynderickx, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    With the ever increasing volume of space environment data available at present and planned for the near future, the demands on data storage and access methods are increasing as well. In addition, continued access to historical, archived data remains crucial. On the basis of many years of experience, the authors identify the following issues as important for continued and efficient handling of datasets now and in the future: The huge data volumes currently or very soon avaiable from a number of space missions will limi direct Internet download access to even relatively short epoch ranges of data. Therefore, data providers should establish or extend standardised data (post-) processing services so that only data query results should be downloaded. Although a single standardised data format will in all likelihood remain utopia, data providers should at least include extensive metadata with their data products, according to established standards and practices (e.g. ISTP, SPASE). Standardisation of (sets of) metadata greatly facilitates data mining and querying. The use of SQL database storage should be considered instead of, or in parallel with, classic storage of data files. The use of SQL does away with having to handle file parsing and processing, while at the same time standard access protocols can be used to (remotely) connect to such data repositories. Many data holdings are still lacking in extensive descriptions of data provenance (e.g. instrument description), content and format. Unfortunately, detailed data information is usually rejected by scientific and technical journals. Re-processing of historical archived datasets into modern formats, making them easily available and usable, is urgently required, as knowledge is being lost. A global data directory has still not been achieved; policy makers should enforce stricter rules for "broadcasting" dataset information.

  9. Studies of the stability of complex organics in a Martian environment -current knowledge and future questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szopa, Cyril; Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; Cottin, Hervé; Buch, Arnaud

    The discovery of organic molecules on Mars is one among the most important objectives to determine if a prebiotic chemistry, or even life, could have existed on this planet. However, no organic molecule, except atmospheric methane, was ever detected at the Mars surface probed with remote sensing or in situ space probes and experiments in the 70's. This is one of the main reasons why, at the light of recent discoveries on the past Mars environmental conditions and the possibilities for organics to be present at Mars, rovers will seek for organics at the surface or near sub-surface of Mars within the next years. In this frame, the fate of organic molecules at the surface of Mars is of primary importance to determine how these molecules can evolve in such a harsh environment, and in this way, to determine their capability to survive and to be detected by surface rovers. One mean to characterize the way organic molecules can be processed at the surface of Mars is to submit such molecules to analogues environmental conditions either reproduced at the laboratory, or found in low Earth orbit. This methodology is used for years, especially concerning UV radiation, but the development of such approaches increased these last years in the favourable context of Mars exploration. The goal of this presentation is to address the issue of the role played by the environmental conditions at the Mars surface on the survival or the evolution of organic molecules of interest for exo/astrobiology. It will particularly emphasize on experimental approaches devoted to evaluate the fate of such organics under Mars surface conditions simulated in laboratory. One among the most important output of this work will be an inventory of organics and/or post products potentially resistant in the Mars surface environment. Such an inventory will be of primary interest for future in situ missions dedicated to the search for organics at the surface of Mars

  10. Measuring galaxy environment with the synergy of future photometric and spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Marulli, F.; Cimatti, A.; Merson, A. I.; Norberg, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Baugh, C. M.; Branchini, E.

    2016-10-01

    We exploit the synergy between low-resolution spectroscopy and photometric redshifts to study environmental effects on galaxy evolution in slitless spectroscopic surveys from space. As a test case, we consider the future Euclid Deep survey (˜40 deg2), which combines a slitless spectroscopic survey limited at Hα flux ≥5 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 and a photometric survey limited in H band (H ≤ 26). We use Euclid-like galaxy mock catalogues, in which we anchor the photometric redshifts to the 3D galaxy distribution of the available spectroscopic redshifts. We then estimate the local density contrast by counting objects in cylindrical cells with radius from 1 to 10 h-1Mpc, over the redshift range 0.9 < z < 1.8. We compare this density field with the one computed in a mock catalogue with the same depth as the Euclid Deep survey (H = 26) but without redshift measurement errors. We find that our method successfully separates high- from low-density environments (the last from the first quintile of the density distribution), with higher efficiency at low redshift and large cells: the fraction of low-density regions mistaken by high-density peaks is <1 per cent for all scales and redshifts explored, but for scales of 1 h-1Mpc for which is a few per cent. These results show that we can efficiently study environment in photometric samples if spectroscopic information is available for a smaller sample of objects that sparsely samples the same volume. We demonstrate that these studies are possible in the Euclid Deep survey, i.e. in a redshift range in which environmental effects are different from those observed in the local Universe, hence providing new constraints for galaxy evolution models.

  11. Breeding salmonids for feed efficiency in current fishmeal and future plant-based diet environments.

    PubMed

    Quinton, Cheryl D; Kause, Antti; Koskela, Juha; Ritola, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is increasingly replacing fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fish with soybean meal (SBM). This diet change presents a potential for genotype-environment (G x E) interactions. We tested whether current salmonid breeding programmes that evaluate and select within fishmeal diets also improve growth and efficiency on potential future SBM diets. A total of 1680 European whitefish from 70 families were reared with either fishmeal- or SBM-based diets in a split-family design. Individual daily gain (DG), daily feed intake (DFI) and feed efficiency (FE) were recorded. Traits displayed only weak G x E interactions as variances and heritabilities did not differ substantially between the diets, and cross-diet genetic correlations were near unity. In both diets, DFI exhibited moderate heritability and had very high genetic correlation with DG whereas FE had low heritability. Predicted genetic responses demonstrated that selection to increase DG and FE on the fishmeal diet lead to favourable responses on the SBM diet. Selection for FE based on an index including DG and DFI achieved at least double FE gain versus selection on DG alone. Therefore, current breeding programmes are improving the biological ability of salmonids to use novel plant-based diets, and aiding the aquaculture industry to reduce fishmeal use.

  12. Current and Near-Term Future Measurements of the Orbital Debris Environment at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Gene; Liou, J.-C.; Mulrooney, M.; Horstman, M

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office places great emphasis on obtaining and understanding direct measurements of the orbital debris environment. The Orbital Debris Program Office's environmental models are all based on these measurements. Because OD measurements must cover a very wide range of sizes and altitudes, one technique realistically cannot be used for all measurements. In general, radar measurements have been used for lower altitudes and optical measurements for higher altitude orbits. For very small debris, in situ measurements such as returned spacecraft surfaces are utilized. In addition to receiving information from large debris (> 5-10 cm diameter) from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, NASA conducts statistical measurements of the debris population for smaller sizes. NASA collects data from the Haystack and Goldstone radars for debris in low Earth orbit as small as 2- 4 mm diameter and from the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope for debris near geosynchronous orbit altitude for sizes as small as 30-60 cm diameter. NASA is also currently examining the radiator panel of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 which was exposed to space for 16 years and was recently returned to Earth during the STS- 125 Space Shuttle mission. This paper will give an overview of these on-going measurement programs at NASA as well as discuss progress and plans for new instruments and techniques in the near future.

  13. Are firms' voluntary environmental management activities beneficial for the environment and business? An empirical study focusing on Japanese manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Kimitaka; Kaneko, Shinji; Fujii, Hidemichi; Komatsu, Satoru

    2012-08-30

    In this paper, to clarify whether a firm's voluntary approach to environmental protection is beneficial for both the environment and business, we analyze whether a firm's voluntary implementation of an environmental management system (EMS) simultaneously reduces its environmental impacts and improves its productivity. Using data on Japanese manufacturing firms for 2002-2008, we find empirical support for the view that the implementation of an EMS simultaneously reduces environmental impacts and improves productivity, and that a reduction in environmental impacts also improves productivity. However, in the context of this relationship, the direct effect of implementing an EMS on productivity is conditional. If various other activities designed to improve productivity implemented in response to market discipline are also taken into account, the effect of implementing an EMS is hidden by the effects of these activities. This implies that voluntary environmental management activities are merely a minor component of these activities. Therefore, the relationship between the implementation of an EMS and productivity improvement is not strong, although implementing an EMS indirectly improves productivity by reducing environmental impacts.

  14. Information Management Architecture for an Integrated Computing Environment for the Environmental Restoration Program. Volume 2, Interim business systems guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    As part of the Environmental Restoration Program at Martin Marietta, IEM (Information Engineering Methodology) was developed as part of a complete and integrated approach to the progressive development and subsequent maintenance of automated data sharing systems. This approach is centered around the organization`s objectives, inherent data relationships, and business practices. IEM provides the Information Systems community with a tool kit of disciplined techniques supported by automated tools. It includes seven stages: Information Strategy Planning; Business Area Analysis; Business System Design; Technical Design; Construction; Transition; Production. This document focuses on the Business Systems Architecture.

  15. Planning documents: a business planning strategy.

    PubMed

    Kaehrle, P A

    2000-06-01

    Strategic planning and business plan development are essential nursing management skills in today's competitive, fast paced, continually changing health care environment. Even in times of great uncertainty, nurse managers need to plan and forecast for the future. A well-written business plan allows nurse managers to communicate their expertise and proactively contribute to the programmatic decisions and changes occurring within their patient population or service area. This article presents the use of planning documents as a practical, strategic business planning strategy. Although the model addresses orthopedic services specifically, nurse managers can gain an understanding and working knowledge of planning concepts that can be applied to all patient populations.

  16. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  17. The landscape of Wageningen as an inspiring teaching environment for future environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Sonneveld, Marthijn

    2013-04-01

    Practical field work is an essential component in training future soil scientists. This is facilitated when a wide variety of geological materials geomorphological phenomena and soil patterns are within reach. One of the leading universities in soil science in the Netherlands, Wageningen University, was founded some hundred years ago in the small city of Wageningen because of the rich variety of soils and landscapes in its vicinity. Being located in the central part of the Netherlands, its region is famous because here Late-Pleistocene and Late-Holocene deposits meet. Wageningen is located on the slope of an ice pushed ridge which dates from the Saalien ice age, bordering a glacial tongue basin The ridge is mainly composed of pushed coarse grained fluvial deposits. In the Weichselien ice age cover sands have been deposited on the sides of this ridge. During the Holocene the ridge was eroded on the southern side, where the river Rhine has cut into the older deposits and deposited mainly fine grained fluvial deposits. Peat formation took place in the lower parts of the basin. In addition this region has been inhabited by people, who have worked, and fertilized the soil, creating a thickened A-horizon in some locations around Wageningen. This geological setting has created a palette of different sedimentary deposits which serve as mother material for a variety of soil types like podzols, brown forest soils, , fluvial clay to loamy soils, plaggen soils and peat soils. In our education we frequently use the soils in the surrounding as a teaching environment for our students. They are send out to use all their senses and look, feel, hear and sometimes even taste the soils. They use these impressions to describe the soils and understand why the soils are on that specific place in the landscape where we find it. We feel students benefit from this playground in our backyard, because, even though students work more and more in an individual and virtual environment where they

  18. The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

  19. Toward a Sustainable Future: The Role of Student Affairs in Creating Healthy Environments, Social Justice, and Strong Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Toward a Sustainable Future: The Role of Student Affairs in Creating Healthy Environments, Social Justice, and Strong Economies" is a call to action for college student educators, articulating the crucial role they play in the international sustainability movement. It contains valuable information about educating self, educating students, and…

  20. Effects of Self-Efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, and Perceptions of Future Work Environment on Preservice Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesnut, Steven R.; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of self-efficacy, expectations of future work environment, and emotional intelligence on preservice teacher commitment to the teaching profession on a sample of 209 preservice teachers. The purpose of the study was to add to the existing knowledge surrounding preservice teacher commitment and promote…

  1. Suitability of Agent Technology for Military Command and Control in the Future Combat System Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Potok, TE

    2003-02-13

    The U.S. Army is faced with the challenge of dramatically improving its war fighting capability through advanced technologies. Any new technology must provide significant improvement over existing technologies, yet be reliable enough to provide a fielded system. The focus of this paper is to assess the novelty and maturity of agent technology for use in the Future Combat System (FCS). The FCS concept represents the U.S. Army's ''mounted'' form of the Objective Force. This concept of vehicles, communications, and weaponry is viewed as a ''system of systems'' which includes net-centric command and control (C{sup 2}) capabilities. This networked C{sup 2} is an important transformation from the historically centralized, or platform-based, C{sup 2} function since a centralized command architecture may become a decision-making and execution bottleneck, particularly as the pace of war accelerates. A mechanism to ensure an effective network-centric C{sup 2} capacity (combining intelligence gathering and analysis available at lower levels in the military hierarchy) is needed. Achieving a networked C{sup 2} capability will require breakthroughs in current software technology. Many have proposed the use of agent technology as a potential solution. Agents are an emerging technology, and it is not yet clear whether it is suitable for addressing the networked C{sup 2} challenge, particularly in satisfying battlespace scalability, mobility, and security expectations. We have developed a set of software requirements for FCS based on military requirements for this system. We have then evaluated these software requirements against current computer science technology. This analysis provides a set of limitations in the current technology when applied to the FCS challenge. Agent technology is compared against this set of limitations to provide a means of assessing the novelty of agent technology in an FCS environment. From this analysis we find that existing technologies will not

  2. Emerging and Future Computing Paradigms and Their Impact on the Research, Training, and Design Environments of the Aerospace Workforce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Emerging and Future Computing Paradigms and their impact on the Research, Training and Design Environments of the Aerospace Workforce. The workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 18 and 19, 2003. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to a) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to new computing paradigms, including grid computing, pervasive computing, high-productivity computing, and the IBM-led autonomic computing; and b) identify future directions for research that have high potential for future aerospace workforce environments. The format of the workshop included twenty-one, half-hour overview-type presentations and three exhibits by vendors.

  3. Learning Environment Research in Science Classrooms: Past Progress and Future Prospects. NARST Monograph, Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.

    Many questions of interest to teachers, educational researchers, curriculum developers, and policymakers in science education can be asked about classroom environment. Does a classroom's environment affect student learning attitudes? What is the impact of a new curriculum or teaching method on the nature of a classroom's environment? Can teachers…

  4. Future Foreign Language Teachers' Social and Cognitive Collaboration in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Nike; Ducate, Lara

    2006-01-01

    Discussion boards provide an interactive venue where new and future language teachers can reflect, evaluate, solve problems or simply exchange ideas (e.g., Bonk, Hansen, Grabner-Hagen, Lazar, & Mirabelli, 1996; DeWert, Babinski, & Jones, 2003; Kumari, 2001; Pawan, Paulus, Yalcin, & Chang, 2003). In addition, encouraging future teachers to learn…

  5. Sustainability - What are the Odds? Guessing the Future of our Environment, Economy, and Society

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article examines the concept of sustainability from a global perspective, describing how alternative futures might develop in the environmental, economic, and social dimensions. The alternatives to sustainability appear to be (a) a catastrophic failure of life support, econo...

  6. Science and Technology Education--Shaping the Environment of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    This paper explains the structure of the International Organization of Science and Technology Education (IOSTE) and the relevance of science and technology education. To support the environment, education should integrate the environment into the curriculum, and the information should be delivered as a system. Earth Systems Education (ESE) is a…

  7. Changing the Food Environment for Obesity Prevention: Key Gaps and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Paula Andrea; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The food environment has a great impact on the nutritional health of the population. Food environment interventions have become a popular strategy to address the obesity epidemic. However, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the most effective strategies to modify the food environment to improve health. In this review, we examine key gaps in the food environment intervention literature, including the need for: developing appropriate formative research plans when addressing the food environment; methods for selecting intervention domains and components; incorporating food producers and distributors in intervention strategies; strengthening evaluation of environmental interventions; building the evidence base for food environment interventions in diverse settings; engaging policy makers in the process of modifying the food environment; and creating systems science models to examine the costs and benefits of a potential program or policy on the food environment prior to implementation. In addition, we outline the need for strategies for addressing these issues including conducting additional pilot interventions, developing additional methodologies, and embracing the use of simulation models. PMID:25574452

  8. Aging Well and the Environment: Toward an Integrative Model and Research Agenda for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Hans-Werner; Iwarsson, Susanne; Oswald, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The effects of the physical-spatial-technical environment on aging well have been overlooked both conceptually and empirically. In the spirit of M. Powell Lawton's seminal work on aging and environment, this article attempts to rectify this situation by suggesting a new model of how older people interact with their…

  9. Designing Asynchronous Online Discussion Environments: Recent Progress and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Tianyi; Franklin, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Asynchronous online discussion environments are important platforms to support learning. Research suggests, however, threaded forums, one of the most popular asynchronous discussion environments, do not often foster productive online discussions naturally. This paper explores how certain properties of threaded forums have affected or constrained…

  10. Risky Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarbrough, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    During my internship I worked on two major projects, recommending improvements for the Center's Risk Management Workshop and helping with the strategic planning efforts for Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA). The risk management improvements is the key project I worked on this semester through my internship, while the strategic planning is the secondary assignment. S&MA Business Office covers both aspects in its delegation, getting both spans some of the work done in the office. A risk is a future event with a negative consequence that has some probability of occurring. Safety and Mission Assurance identifies, analyzes, plans, and tracks risk. The directorate offers the Center a Risk Management Workshop, and part of the ongoing efforts of S&MA is to make continuous improvements to the RM Workshop. By using the Project Management Institute's (PMI) Standard for Risk Management, I performed a gap analysis to make improvements for our materials. I benchmarked the PMI's Risk Management Standard, compared our Risk Management Workshop materials to PMI's standard, and identified any gaps in our material. My major findings were presented to the Business Office of S&MA for a decision on whether or not to incorporate the improvements. These suggestions were made by attending JSC working group meetings, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) panel reviews and various risk review meetings. The improvements provide better understanding of risk management processes and enhanced risk tracking knowledge and skills. Risk management is an integral part of any engineering discipline, getting exposed to this section of engineering will greatly help shape my career in the future. Johnson Space Center is a world leader in risk management processes; learning risk management here gives me a huge advantage over my peers, as well as understanding decision making in the context of risk management will help me to be a well-rounded engineer. Strategic planning is an area I had not previously

  11. Commentary: Study of Gene-Environment Interplay--A Lesson in How to Keep Oneself Busy for the Foreseeable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viding, Essi

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists have long been aware that individuals differ in their response to environmental stressors. It is equally apparent that whilst positive or corrective environmental factors help some individuals, others seem to benefit little, if at all. To make the matters even more interesting (at least for a researcher who is…

  12. LOBIN: E-textile and wireless-sensor-network-based platform for healthcare monitoring in future hospital environments.

    PubMed

    López, Gregorio; Custodio, Víctor; Moreno, José Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a novel healthcare IT platform developed under the LOBIN project, which allows monitoring several physiological parameters, such as ECG, heart rate, body temperature, etc., and tracking the location of a group of patients within hospital environments. The combination of e-textile and wireless sensor networks provides an efficient way to support noninvasive and pervasive services demanded by future healthcare environments. This paper presents the architecture, system deployment as well as validation results from both laboratory tests and a pilot scheme developed with real users in collaboration with the Cardiology Unit at La Paz Hospital, Madrid, Spain. PMID:20643610

  13. Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Culina, Antica; Hinde, Camilla A; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-10-22

    Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a population-level approach, individual-level responses to variation in the social environment remain largely unstudied. Here, we explore carry-over effects on future mating decisions of the social environment in which the initial mating decision occurred. Using detailed data on the winter social networks of great tits, we tested whether the probability of subsequent divorce, a year later, could be predicted by measures of the social environment at the time of pairing. We found that males that had a lower proportion of female associates, and whose partner ranked lower among these, as well as inexperienced breeders, were more likely to divorce after breeding. We found no evidence that a female's social environment influenced the probability of divorce. Our findings highlight the importance of the social environment that individuals experience during initial pair formation on later pairing outcomes, and demonstrate that such effects can be delayed. Exploring these extended effects of the social environment can yield valuable insights into processes and selective pressures acting upon the mating strategies that individuals adopt. PMID:26468239

  14. Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Culina, Antica; Hinde, Camilla A; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-10-22

    Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a population-level approach, individual-level responses to variation in the social environment remain largely unstudied. Here, we explore carry-over effects on future mating decisions of the social environment in which the initial mating decision occurred. Using detailed data on the winter social networks of great tits, we tested whether the probability of subsequent divorce, a year later, could be predicted by measures of the social environment at the time of pairing. We found that males that had a lower proportion of female associates, and whose partner ranked lower among these, as well as inexperienced breeders, were more likely to divorce after breeding. We found no evidence that a female's social environment influenced the probability of divorce. Our findings highlight the importance of the social environment that individuals experience during initial pair formation on later pairing outcomes, and demonstrate that such effects can be delayed. Exploring these extended effects of the social environment can yield valuable insights into processes and selective pressures acting upon the mating strategies that individuals adopt.

  15. Creativity in Business/Business in Creativity: Transdisciplinary Curricula as an Enabling Strategy in Enterprise Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penaluna, Andrew; Penaluna, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Recent guidance for UK government policy makers has warned that HEIs face an uncertain future and has advocated transdisciplinary curricula. Earlier, in 2005, two other UK government papers highlighted the advantages of integrating design-related strategies into business environments and addressed the impact creativity could have on business…

  16. The future water environment--using scenarios to explore the significant water management challenges in England and Wales to 2050.

    PubMed

    Henriques, C; Garnett, K; Weatherhead, E K; Lickorish, F A; Forrow, D; Delgado, J

    2015-04-15

    Society gets numerous benefits from the water environment. It is crucial to ensure that water management practices deliver these benefits over the long-term in a sustainable and cost-effective way. Currently, hydromorphological alterations and nutrient enrichment pose the greatest challenges in European water bodies. The rapidly changing climatic and socio-economic boundary conditions pose further challenges to water management decisions and the achievement of policy goals. Scenarios are a strategic tool useful in conducting systematic investigations of future uncertainties pertaining to water management. In this study, the use of scenarios revealed water management challenges for England and Wales to 2050. A set of existing scenarios relevant to river basin management were elaborated through stakeholder workshops and interviews, relying on expert knowledge to identify drivers of change, their interdependencies, and influence on system dynamics. In a set of four plausible alternative futures, the causal chain from driving forces through pressures to states, impacts and responses (DPSIR framework) was explored. The findings suggest that scenarios driven by short-term economic growth and competitiveness undermine current environmental legislative requirements and exacerbate the negative impacts of climate change, producing a general deterioration of water quality and physical habitats, as well as reduced water availability with adverse implications for the environment, society and economy. Conversely, there are substantial environmental improvements under the scenarios characterised by long-term sustainability, though achieving currently desired environmental outcomes still poses challenges. The impacts vary across contrasting generic catchment types that exhibit distinct future water management challenges. The findings suggest the need to address hydromorphological alterations, nutrient enrichment and nitrates in drinking water, which are all likely to be

  17. The future water environment--using scenarios to explore the significant water management challenges in England and Wales to 2050.

    PubMed

    Henriques, C; Garnett, K; Weatherhead, E K; Lickorish, F A; Forrow, D; Delgado, J

    2015-04-15

    Society gets numerous benefits from the water environment. It is crucial to ensure that water management practices deliver these benefits over the long-term in a sustainable and cost-effective way. Currently, hydromorphological alterations and nutrient enrichment pose the greatest challenges in European water bodies. The rapidly changing climatic and socio-economic boundary conditions pose further challenges to water management decisions and the achievement of policy goals. Scenarios are a strategic tool useful in conducting systematic investigations of future uncertainties pertaining to water management. In this study, the use of scenarios revealed water management challenges for England and Wales to 2050. A set of existing scenarios relevant to river basin management were elaborated through stakeholder workshops and interviews, relying on expert knowledge to identify drivers of change, their interdependencies, and influence on system dynamics. In a set of four plausible alternative futures, the causal chain from driving forces through pressures to states, impacts and responses (DPSIR framework) was explored. The findings suggest that scenarios driven by short-term economic growth and competitiveness undermine current environmental legislative requirements and exacerbate the negative impacts of climate change, producing a general deterioration of water quality and physical habitats, as well as reduced water availability with adverse implications for the environment, society and economy. Conversely, there are substantial environmental improvements under the scenarios characterised by long-term sustainability, though achieving currently desired environmental outcomes still poses challenges. The impacts vary across contrasting generic catchment types that exhibit distinct future water management challenges. The findings suggest the need to address hydromorphological alterations, nutrient enrichment and nitrates in drinking water, which are all likely to be

  18. Medicare: Challenges and Future Directions in a Changing Health Care Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Laurence Z.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In this Gerontological Society of America-sponsored Congressional Briefing Seminar, authorities from several disciplines summarize history, rationale, strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges of Medicare program. In current arena of health care reform, role of Medicare is far from certain, and it is crucial to understand and confront multitude…

  19. Academic Integrity in the Business School Environment: I'll Get by with a Little Help from My Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Kenneth J.; Davis, Richard; Toy, Daniel; Wright, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of academic dishonesty has been increasing throughout the past few decades. Past research has indicated that business students cheat more than their peers in other disciplines across the university. And, of particular concern to marketing educators, the current research finds that marketing majors cheat significantly more than their…

  20. Development and Use of an Instrument to Measure Students' Perceptions of a Business Statistics Learning Environment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thuyuyen H.; Newby, Michael; Skordi, Panayiotis G.

    2015-01-01

    Statistics is a required subject of study in many academic disciplines, including business, education and psychology, that causes problems for many students. This has long been recognised and there have been a number of studies into students' attitudes towards statistics, particularly statistical anxiety. However, none of these studies…

  1. What Can Happen When Business and Language Faculty Cooperate across an Ocean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Michael; Karney, Dennis; Vigier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Management schools are expected to educate future professionals with the necessary skills to operate successfully in a global business environment. In this paper, the authors analyze and reflect on an experiment in interdisciplinary cooperation undertaken by business faculty at a US university and language faculty at a French School of Management.…

  2. Environment Canada cuts threaten the future of science and international agreements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Hoff, Raymond M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Einaudi, Franco

    2012-02-01

    In August 2011, 300 Environment Canada scientists and staff working on environmental monitoring and protection learned that their jobs would be terminated, and an additional 400-plus Environment Canada employees received notice that their positions were targeted for elimination. These notices received widespread coverage in the Canadian media and international attention in Nature News. Environment Canada is a government agency responsible for meteorological services as well as environmental research. We are concerned that research and observations related to ozone depletion, tropospheric pollution, and atmospheric transport of toxic chemicals in the northern latitudes may be seriously imperiled by the budget cuts that led to these job terminations. Further, we raise the questions being asked by the international community, scientists, and policy makers alike: First, will Canada be able to meet its obligations to the monitoring and assessment studies that support the various international agreements inTable 1? Second, will Canada continue to be a leader in Arctic research.

  3. The Impact of Neighborhood Social and Built Environment Factors across the Cancer Continuum: Current Research, Methodologic Considerations, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Shariff-Marco, Salma; De Rouen, Mindy; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Yen, Irene H.; Mujahid, Mahasin; Satariano, William A.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood social and built environments have been recognized as important contexts in which health is shaped. We review the extent to which these neighborhood factors have been addressed in population-level cancer research, with a scan of the literature for research that focuses on specific social and/or built environment characteristics and association with outcomes across the cancer continuum, including incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and survival. We discuss commonalities and differences in methodologies across studies, current challenges in research methodology, and future directions in this research area. The assessment of social and built environment factors in relation to cancer is a relatively new field, with 82% of 34 reviewed papers published since 2010. Across the wide range of social and built environment exposures and cancer outcomes considered by the studies, numerous associations were reported. However, the directions and magnitudes of association varied, due in large part to the variation in cancer sites and outcomes being studied, but also likely due to differences in study populations, geographical region, and, importantly, choice of neighborhood measure and geographic scale. We recommend that future studies consider the life course implications of cancer incidence and survival, integrate secondary and self-report data, consider work neighborhood environments, and further develop analytical and statistical approaches appropriate to the geospatial and multilevel nature of the data. Incorporating social and built environment factors into research on cancer etiology and outcomes can provide insights into disease processes, identify vulnerable populations, and generate results with translational impact of relevance for interventionists and policy makers. PMID:25847484

  4. The impact of neighborhood social and built environment factors across the cancer continuum: Current research, methodological considerations, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Shariff-Marco, Salma; DeRouen, Mindy; Keegan, Theresa H M; Yen, Irene H; Mujahid, Mahasin; Satariano, William A; Glaser, Sally L

    2015-07-15

    Neighborhood social and built environments have been recognized as important contexts in which health is shaped. The authors reviewed the extent to which these neighborhood factors have been addressed in population-level cancer research by scanning the literature for research focused on specific social and/or built environment characteristics and their association with outcomes across the cancer continuum, including incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and survival. The commonalities and differences in methodologies across studies, the current challenges in research methodology, and future directions in this research also were addressed. The assessment of social and built environment factors in relation to cancer is a relatively new field, with 82% of the 34 reviewed articles published since 2010. Across the wide range of social and built environment exposures and cancer outcomes considered by the studies, numerous associations were reported. However, the directions and magnitudes of associations varied, in large part because of the variation in cancer sites and outcomes studied, but also likely because of differences in study populations, geographic regions, and, importantly, choice of neighborhood measures and geographic scales. The authors recommend that future studies consider the life-course implications of cancer incidence and survival, integrate secondary and self-report data, consider work neighborhood environments, and further develop analytical and statistical approaches appropriate to the geospatial and multilevel nature of the data. Incorporating social and built environment factors into research on cancer etiology and outcomes can provide insights into disease processes, identify vulnerable populations, and generate results with translational impact of relevance for interventionists and policy makers.

  5. Gene-environment interactions and obesity: recent developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, a major public health concern, is a multifactorial disease caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Although recent genome-wide association studies have identified many loci related to obesity or body mass index, the identified variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of obesity. Better understanding of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors is the basis for developing effective personalized obesity prevention and management strategies. This article reviews recent advances in identifying gene-environment interactions related to obesity and describes epidemiological designs and newly developed statistical approaches to characterizing and discovering gene-environment interactions on obesity risk. PMID:25951849

  6. Future Directions: Advances and Implications of Virtual Environments Designed for Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Ahmad; Riva, Giuseppe; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pain symptoms have been addressed with a variety of therapeutic measures in the past, but as we look to the future, we begin encountering new options for patient care and individual health and well-being. Recent studies indicate that computer-generated graphic environments—virtual reality (VR)—can offer effective cognitive distractions for individuals suffering from pain arising from a variety of physical and psychological illnesses. Studies also indicate the effectiveness of VR for both chronic and acute pain conditions. Future possibilities for VR to address pain-related concerns include such diverse groups as military personnel, space exploration teams, the general labor force, and our ever increasing elderly population. VR also shows promise to help in such areas as drug abuse, at-home treatments, and athletic injuries. PMID:24892206

  7. Protecting the Environment for the Sake of Our Common Future. Special Report 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Sigrid, Ed.

    In June 1992, representatives of more than 170 countries met in Rio de Janeiro, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, to consider international cooperation aimed at preserving the sources of human life. This report presents Germany's involvement in that cooperative effort. The report is presented in six sections: (1) an…

  8. PPCPS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: FUTURE RESEARCH - BEGINNING WITH THE END ALWAYS IN MIND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are an extraordinarily diverse group of chemicals used in veterinary medicine, agricultural practice, and human health and cosmetic care. The various sources and origins of PPCPs as pollutants in the environment are depicted in a...

  9. The ultraviolet environment of Mars: biological implications past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Catling, D C; Davis, W L; Snook, K; Kepner, R L; Lee, P; McKay, C P

    2000-08-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to quantitatively investigate aspects of the martian ultraviolet radiation environment, past and present. Biological action spectra for DNA inactivation and chloroplast (photosystem) inhibition are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances for the martian surface under cloudless skies. Over time Mars has probably experienced an increasingly inhospitable photobiological environment, with present instantaneous DNA weighted irradiances 3.5-fold higher than they may have been on early Mars. This is in contrast to the surface of Earth, which experienced an ozone amelioration of the photobiological environment during the Proterozoic and now has DNA weighted irradiances almost three orders of magnitude lower than early Earth. Although the present-day martian UV flux is similar to that of early Earth and thus may not be a critical limitation to life in the evolutionary context, it is a constraint to an unadapted biota and will rapidly kill spacecraft-borne microbes not covered by a martian dust layer. Microbial strategies for protection against UV radiation are considered in the light of martian photobiological calculations, past and present. Data are also presented for the effects of hypothetical planetary atmospheric manipulations on the martian UV radiation environment with estimates of the biological consequences of such manipulations.

  10. The ultraviolet environment of Mars: biological implications past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockell, C. S.; Catling, D. C.; Davis, W. L.; Snook, K.; Kepner, R. L.; Lee, P.; McKay, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to quantitatively investigate aspects of the martian ultraviolet radiation environment, past and present. Biological action spectra for DNA inactivation and chloroplast (photosystem) inhibition are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances for the martian surface under cloudless skies. Over time Mars has probably experienced an increasingly inhospitable photobiological environment, with present instantaneous DNA weighted irradiances 3.5-fold higher than they may have been on early Mars. This is in contrast to the surface of Earth, which experienced an ozone amelioration of the photobiological environment during the Proterozoic and now has DNA weighted irradiances almost three orders of magnitude lower than early Earth. Although the present-day martian UV flux is similar to that of early Earth and thus may not be a critical limitation to life in the evolutionary context, it is a constraint to an unadapted biota and will rapidly kill spacecraft-borne microbes not covered by a martian dust layer. Microbial strategies for protection against UV radiation are considered in the light of martian photobiological calculations, past and present. Data are also presented for the effects of hypothetical planetary atmospheric manipulations on the martian UV radiation environment with estimates of the biological consequences of such manipulations.

  11. Beyond the Personal Learning Environment: Attachment and Control in the Classroom of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark William; Sherlock, David

    2014-01-01

    The Personal Learning Environment (PLE) has been presented in a number of guises over a period of 10 years as an intervention which seeks the reorganisation of educational technology through shifting the "locus of control" of technology towards the learner. In the intervening period to the present, a number of initiatives have attempted…

  12. The Social Semantic Web in Intelligent Learning Environments: State of the Art and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic, Jelena; Gasevic, Dragan; Torniai, Carlo; Bateman, Scott; Hatala, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Today's technology-enhanced learning practices cater to students and teachers who use many different learning tools and environments and are used to a paradigm of interaction derived from open, ubiquitous, and socially oriented services. In this context, a crucial issue for education systems in general, and for Intelligent Learning Environments…

  13. A New Future for Children with Substantial Handicaps: The Second Wave of "Least Restrictive Environment."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliton, Gilbert; Schroeder, Henry J.

    Developed as part of the Indiana Least Restrictive Environment Project, this document is concerned with issues relating to the education and community integration of persons with substantial handicaps. The paper traces the development of the movement to provide those special education services necessary to integrate the disabled into the general…

  14. THE EPA'S ROLE IN PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT -- PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some say environmentalism started with Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring. This best seller in addition to decades of the effects of pollution on people's lives surely contributed to help shift public opinion regarding the environment. This "shift" culminated with the birth of a ...

  15. THE EPA'S ROLE IN PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some say environmentalism started with Rachel Carson's book entitled Silent Spring. This best seller in addition to decades of the effects of pollution on people's lives surely contributed to help shift public opinion regarding the environment. This "shift" culminated with the bi...

  16. Influences by Sound and Light to Mind and Body during Delivery, and Future of Childbirth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Miyuki

    I, who is a musician, was stimulated by own childbirth experience, and developed the ultimate “delivery room” which enabled relaxation support using sound and light. This paper explains regarding its development and the improvement of childbirth environment in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Japan.

  17. New directions in valuing geospatial information - how to value goespatial information for policy and business decisioins in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Governments are increasingly asking for more evidence of the benefits of investing in geospatial data and infrastructure before investing. They are looking for a clearer articulation of the economic, environmental and social benefits than has been possble in the past. Development of techniques has accelerated in the past five years as governments and industry become more involved in the capture and use of geospatial data. However evaluation practitioners have struggled to answer these emerging questions. The paper explores the types of questions that decision makers are asking and discusses the different approaches and methods that have been used recently to answer them. It explores the need for better buisness case models. The emerging approaches are then discussed and their attributes reviewed. These include methods of analysing tengible economic benefits, intangible benefits and societal benefits. The paper explores the use of value chain analysis and real options analysis to better articulate the impacts on international competitiveness and how to value the potential benefits of innovations enabled by the geospatial data that is produced. The paper concludes by illustrating the potential for these techniques in current and future decision making.

  18. Environment-physiology, diet quality and energy balance: the influence of early life nutrition on future energy balance.

    PubMed

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A

    2014-07-01

    Diseases caused by impaired regulation of energy balance, in particular obesity, represent a major global health burden. Although polymorphisms, lifestyle and dietary choices have been associated with differential risk of obesity and related conditions, a substantial proportion of the variation in disease risk remains unexplained. Evidence from epidemiological studies, natural experiments and from studies in animal models has shown that a poor intra-uterine environment is associated causally with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease in adulthood. Induction of phenotypes that increase disease risk involves the fetus receiving cues from the mother about the environment which, via developmental plasticity, modify the phenotype of the offspring to match her environment. However, inaccurate information may induce an offspring phenotype that is mismatched to the future environment. Such mismatch has been suggested to underlie increased risk of metabolic disease associated with a poor early life environment. Recent studies have shown that induction of modified phenotypes in the offspring involves altered epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Identification of a central role of epigenetics in the aetiology of obesity and metabolic disease may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic interventions and of biomarkers of disease risk.

  19. Applications of optical fiber assemblies in harsh environments: the journey past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; LaRocca, Frank; Thomes, William Joe; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Macmurphy, Shawn

    2008-08-01

    Over the past ten years, NASA has studied the effects of harsh environments on optical fiber assemblies for communication systems, lidar systems, and science missions. The culmination of this has resulted in recent technologies that are unique and tailored to meeting difficult requirements under challenging performance constraints. This presentation will focus on the past mission applications of optical fiber assemblies, including: qualification information, lessons learned, and new technological advances that will enable the road ahead.

  20. The Value of Biomedical Simulation Environments to Future Human Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta,Lealem; Myers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Mars and NEO missions will expose astronaut to extended durations of reduced reduced gravity, isolation and higher radiation. These new operation conditions pose health risks that are not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. Advanced computational simulation environments can beneficially augment research to predict, assess and mitigate potential hazards to astronaut health. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP), within the NASA Human Research Program, strives to achieve this goal.

  1. Applications of Optical Fiber Assemblies in Harsh Environments, the Journey Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; LaRocca, Frank; Thomas, William Joe; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Macmurphy, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past ten years, NASA has studied the effects of harsh environments on optical fiber assemblies for communication systems, lidar systems, and science missions. The culmination of this has resulted in recent technologies that are unique and tailored to meeting difficult requirements under challenging performance constraints. This presentation will focus on the past mission applications of optical fiber assemblies including; qualification information, lessons learned and new technological advances that will enable the road ahead.

  2. The future of real-world neuroscience: imaging techniques to assess active brains in social environments.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto; Fukuda, Masato; Yahata, Noriaki; Morita, Kentaro; Fujii, Naotaka

    2015-01-01

    The human brain is characterized by an evolutionarily new, highly developed neocortex, which has characteristic connections with phylogenically older structures to enable adaptation to complex social environments. Adaptive social behavior requires successful mental representations of the self and others' emotions and intentions. Measurement of brain activity under laboratory-based settings has been the gold standard in previous cognitive neuroscience studies. However, these measurement settings may be sub-optimal if we want to visualize brain function in active individuals in real-world environments. Neuroscience has historically developed through generations of the "sensing brain," "emotional brain," "social brain," and "ego brain." The next generation is the "action brain" combined with "real-world neuroscience" perspective. To enable in situ measurement of the action brain, real-world or two-person neuroimaging techniques are necessary to visualize brain dynamics during natural social situations, such as the presence of others. This review discusses recent literature describing non-human primate (NHP) and human brain functions during active behaviors in social environments. Uncovering the neurobiological mechanisms of the active brain in the presence of others by using real-world neuroimaging will be an important step toward fully understanding the human brain and its mental functions.

  3. CosmoBon for studying wood formation under exotic gravitational environment for future space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Funada, Ryo; Nakamura, Teruko; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Cosmobon, Jstwg

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science. Japanese flowering cherry tree is one of a candidate for these studies. Mechanism behind sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively. Even molecular mechanism for the response of plant against gravity has been investigated quite intensively for various species, woody plants are left behind. Morphology of woody branch growth is different from that of stem growth in herbs. Morphology in tree is strongly dominated by the secondary xylem formation. Nobody knows the tree shape grown under the space environment. If whole tree could be brought up to space as research materials, it might provide important scientific knowledge. Furthermore, trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. The serious problem would be their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We can study secondly xylem formation, wood formation, under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. "CosmoBon" is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. It has been recognized that the reaction wood in CosmoBon is formed similar to natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  4. The role and future of the Laser Technology in the Additive Manufacturing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Gideon N.

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) was, in the early days, strongly inspired by upcoming laser technologies. The trend to apply lasers in manufacturing in the 1970's might be also be seen as the ignition point, as is evident in early precedent patents. During the evolvement of AM processes, many new systems based on various physical principals were evident; alternative energy sources for AM are in use today. Starting with the 'historical' background followed by a detailed classification analyzing the enablers in use, relevant laser technologies have been identified. This paper focuses on powder bed technologies for plastics and metals as the relevant Laser technology. It concentrates on laser influences and state-of-the-art knowledge. The paper will present a generalized, 'big picture' overview indicating 'lessons learned' and where future emphasis should be focused. Opportunities and challenges, including actual development status, will be described in view of the desired outcomes. Finally, future research challenges and conclusions will be stated and several relevant references for further readings will be given.

  5. Emerging pollutants in the environment: present and future challenges in biomonitoring, ecological risks and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Demnerová, Kateřina; Aamand, Jens; Agathos, Spiros; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    Emerging pollutants reach the environment from various anthropogenic sources and are distributed throughout environmental matrices. Although great advances have been made in the detection and analysis of trace pollutants during recent decades, due to the continued development and refinement of specific techniques, a wide array of undetected contaminants of emerging environmental concern need to be identified and quantified in various environmental components and biological tissues. These pollutants may be mobile and persistent in air, water, soil, sediments and ecological receptors even at low concentrations. Robust data on their fate and behaviour in the environment, as well as on threats to ecological and human health, are still lacking. Moreover, the ecotoxicological significance of some emerging micropollutants remains largely unknown, because satisfactory data to determine their risk often do not exist. This paper discusses the fate, behaviour, (bio)monitoring, environmental and health risks associated with emerging chemical (pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, hormones, toxins, among others) and biological (bacteria, viruses) micropollutants in soils, sediments, groundwater, industrial and municipal wastewaters, aquaculture effluents, and freshwater and marine ecosystems, and highlights new horizons for their (bio)removal. Our study aims to demonstrate the imperative need to boost research and innovation for new and cost-effective treatment technologies, in line with the uptake, mode of action and consequences of each emerging contaminant. We also address the topic of innovative tools for the evaluation of the effects of toxicity on human health and for the prediction of microbial availability and degradation in the environment. Additionally, we consider the development of (bio)sensors to perform environmental monitoring in real-time mode. This needs to address multiple species, along with a more effective exploitation of specialised microbes or enzymes

  6. Impact of family environment on future mental health professionals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Kissinger, Daniel B; Lee, Sang Min; Twitty, Lisa; Kisner, Harrison

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between dimensions of functioning in the family of origin of graduate students in helping profession programs and their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. One hundred forty-three participants completed the Family Environment Scale (FES-R: Moos & Moos, 1986), the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale (ATLG: Herek, 1994), and demographic questions. Results suggest that three family dimensions (conflict, intellectual-cultural orientation, and moral-religious emphasis) significantly predicted attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The results also revealed that younger students held more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men than their older peers. Implications for educators, researchers, and practitioners are discussed.

  7. Clinical review: the hospital of the future - building intelligent environments to facilitate safe and effective acute care delivery.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Brian W; Litell, John M; Herasevich, Vitaly; Gajic, Ognjen

    2012-12-12

    The translation of knowledge into rational care is as essential and pressing a task as the development of new diagnostic or therapeutic devices, and is arguably more important. The emerging science of health care delivery has identified the central role of human factor ergonomics in the prevention of medical error, omission, and waste. Novel informatics and systems engineering strategies provide an excellent opportunity to improve the design of acute care delivery. In this article, future hospitals are envisioned as organizations built around smart environments that facilitate consistent delivery of effective, equitable, and error-free care focused on patient-centered rather than provider-centered outcomes.

  8. The future is in the numbers: the power of predictive analysis in the biomedical educational environment

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical programs have a potential treasure trove of data they can mine to assist admissions committees in identification of students who are likely to do well and help educational committees in the identification of students who are likely to do poorly on standardized national exams and who may need remediation. In this article, we provide a step-by-step approach that schools can utilize to generate data that are useful when predicting the future performance of current students in any given program. We discuss the use of linear regression analysis as the means of generating that data and highlight some of the limitations. Finally, we lament on how the combination of these institution-specific data sets are not being fully utilized at the national level where these data could greatly assist programs at large. PMID:27374246

  9. Lunar base habitat designs: Characterizing the environment, and selecting habitat designs for future trade-offs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Ferrall, Joseph; Seshan, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of distinct conceptual lunar habitat designs covering the pre- and post-Apollo era is presented. The impact of the significant lunar environmental challenges such as temperature, atmosphere, radiation, soil properties, meteorites, and seismic activity on the habitat design parameters are outlined. Over twenty habitat designs were identified and classified according to mission type, crew size; total duration of stay, modularity, environmental protection measures, and emplacement. Simple selection criteria of (1) post-Apollo design, (2) uniqueness of the habitat design, (3) level of thoroughness in design layout, (4) habitat dimensions are provided, and (5) materials of construction for the habitat shell are specified, are used to select five habitats for future trade studies. Habitat emplacement scenarios are created to examine the possible impact of emplacement of the habitat in different locations, such as lunar poles vs. equatorial, above ground vs. below ground, etc.

  10. Present and future gamma-ray probes of the Cygnus OB2 environment

    SciTech Connect

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Moore, Russell D.; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Torres, Diego F.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2009-11-15

    The MAGIC Collaboration has provided new observational data pertaining to the TeV J2032+4130 gamma-ray source (within the Cygnus OB2 region), for energies E{sub {gamma}}>400 GeV. It is then appropriate to update the impact of these data on gamma-ray production mechanisms in stellar associations. We consider two mechanisms of gamma-ray emission, pion production and decay (PION) and photoexcitation of high-energy nuclei followed by prompt photoemission from the daughter nuclei (A*). We find that while the data can be accommodated with either scenario, the A* features a spectral bump, corresponding to the threshold for exciting the giant dipole resonance, which can serve to discriminate between them. We comment on neutrino emission and detection from the region if the PION and/or A* processes are operative. We also touch on the implications for this analysis of future Fermi and Cerenkov Telescope array data.

  11. Early Social Environment Affects the Endogenous Oxytocin System: A Review and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Emily; Fielder, Andrea; Ghabriel, Nerelle; Sawyer, Michael; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation, and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g., genetic variation (of the OXTR), age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences, such as social experiences, stress, or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences, and function. Second, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention. PMID:25814979

  12. The Value of Biomedical Simulation Environments to Future Human Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, Jerry G.; Skytland, Nicholas G.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    With the ambitious goals to send manned missions to asteroids and onto Mars, substantial work will be required to ensure the well being of the men and women who will undertake these difficult missions. Unlike current International Space Station or Shuttle missions, astronauts will be required to endure long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation, isolation and reduced gravity. These new operation conditions will pose health risks that are currently not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. Therefore, it is essential to develop and apply advanced tools to predict, assess and mitigate potential hazards to astronaut health. NASA s Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working to develop and apply computational models of physiologic response to space flight operation conditions over various time periods and environmental circumstances. The collective application and integration of well vetted models assessing the physiology, biomechanics and anatomy is referred to as the Digital Astronaut. The Digital Astronaut simulation environment will serve as a practical working tool for use by NASA in operational activities such as the prediction of biomedical risks and functional capabilities of astronauts. In additional to space flight operation conditions, DAP s work has direct applicability to terrestrial biomedical research by providing virtual environments for hypothesis testing, experiment design, and to reduce animal/human testing. A practical application of the DA to assess pre and post flight responses to exercise is illustrated and the difficulty in matching true physiological responses is discussed.

  13. Atomic Force Microscopy of Isolated Nanostructures: Biomolecular Imaging in Hydrated Environments - Status and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Sergio; Thomson, Neil H.

    The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in ambient conditions has some key advantages for characterising isolated nanostructures over other operating environments. The lack of a bulk liquid environment minimises motion of the sample to maximise resolution, while humidity control allows retention of surface water, keeping biomolecules sufficiently hydrated. The use of relatively stiff cantilevers in air (k > 10 N/m) prevents significant energy being transferred to higher modes or frequencies. This enables reliable modelling of the cantilever dynamics with relatively straightforward point mass and spring models. We show herein that combining modelling with experiment leads to robust interpretation of dynamic AFM in air. This understanding has led to new ways of operation, including a true non-contact mode in ambient and small amplitude small set-point (SASS) modes. These modes will be important to gain quantitative information about structure and processes on the nanoscale. We also discuss interpretation of height information obtained from AFM on the nanoscale and summarise a framework for recovery of apparent height loss for nanostructures. A combination of these methods will lead to a new era of quantitative AFM for nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  14. [Environment and health in Gela (Sicily): present knowledge and prospects for future studies].

    PubMed

    Musmeci, Loredana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Carere, Mario; Cori, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    The study area includes the Municipalities of Gela, Niscemi and Butera located in the South of Sicily, Italy. In 1990 it was declared Area at High Risk of Environmental Crisis. In 2000 part of it was designated as Gela Reclamation Site of National Interest, RSNI. The site includes a private industrial area, public and marine areas, for a total of 51 km(2). Gela populationin 2008 was 77,145 (54,774 in 1961). Sea level:46 m. Total area: 276 km(2). Grid reference: 37 degrees 4' 0" N, 14 degrees 15' 0" E. Niscemi and Butera are located border to Gela. Populations are respectively 26,541 and 5,063. Sea level respectively: 332 m and 402 m. Close to the city of Gela, the industrial area, operating since 1962, includes chemical production plants, a power station and an oil refinery plant, one of the larger in Europe, refining 5 millions tons of crude per year. From the beginning the workforces decreased from 7,000 to the current 3,000 units. Over the years, these industrial activities have been a major source of environmental pollution. Extremely high levels of toxic, persistent and bio-accumulating chemical pollutants have been documented. Many relevant environmental and health data are available. Prior to the studies described in the present publication, their use in order to identify environmental pressures on health has been limited. Nevertheless, since several years different epidemiological studies have provided evidence of the occurrence of health outcomes significantly higher than in neighbouring areas and compared to regional data. In 2007 a Multidisciplinary Working Group has been established, to analyze the existing data on pollution-exposure-effect and to complete current knowledge on the cycle of pollutants, from migration in the environment to health impact. The present publication is a collection of contribution of this group of experts, supported by the following projects: Evaluation of environmental health impact and estimation of economic costs at of

  15. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current activities and future key tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, A. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Decaulne, A.

    2012-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.)SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Saemundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK), Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (2004-2006), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of

  16. Airborne remote sensing for geology and the environment; present and future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Ken; Knepper, Daniel H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, a group of leading experts from government, academia, and industry attended a workshop on airborne remote sensing sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and hosted by the Branch of Geophysics. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the scientific rationale for airborne remote sensing in support of government earth science in the next decade. This report has arranged the six resulting working-group reports under two main headings: (1) Geologic Remote Sensing, for the reports on geologic mapping, mineral resources, and fossil fuels and geothermal resources; and (2) Environmental Remote Sensing, for the reports on environmental geology, geologic hazards, and water resources. The intent of the workshop was to provide an evaluation of demonstrated capabilities, their direct extensions, and possible future applications, and this was the organizational format used for the geologic remote sensing reports. The working groups in environmental remote sensing chose to present their reports in a somewhat modified version of this format. A final section examines future advances and limitations in the field. There is a large, complex, and often bewildering array of remote sensing data available. Early remote sensing studies were based on data collected from airborne platforms. Much of that technology was later extended to satellites. The original 80-m-resolution Landsat Multispectral Scanner System (MSS) has now been largely superseded by the 30-m-resolution Thematic Mapper (TM) system that has additional spectral channels. The French satellite SPOT provides higher spatial resolution for channels equivalent to MSS. Low-resolution (1 km) data are available from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR system, which acquires reflectance and day and night thermal data daily. Several experimental satellites have acquired limited data, and there are extensive plans for future satellites including those of Japan (JERS), Europe (ESA), Canada

  17. The Interplay of Perceptions of the Learning Environment, Personality and Learning Strategies: A Study amongst International Business Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhuis, Jan; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on students' learning strategies has examined the relationships between either perceptions of the learning environment or personality and learning strategies. The focus of this study was on the joint relationships between the students' perceptions of the learning environment, their personality, and the learning strategies they…

  18. Teaching Research Methods and Statistics in eLearning Environments: Pedagogy, Practical Examples, and Possible Futures.

    PubMed

    Rock, Adam J; Coventry, William L; Morgan, Methuen I; Loi, Natasha M

    2016-01-01

    Generally, academic psychologists are mindful of the fact that, for many students, the study of research methods and statistics is anxiety provoking (Gal et al., 1997). Given the ubiquitous and distributed nature of eLearning systems (Nof et al., 2015), teachers of research methods and statistics need to cultivate an understanding of how to effectively use eLearning tools to inspire psychology students to learn. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to discuss critically how using eLearning systems might engage psychology students in research methods and statistics. First, we critically appraise definitions of eLearning. Second, we examine numerous important pedagogical principles associated with effectively teaching research methods and statistics using eLearning systems. Subsequently, we provide practical examples of our own eLearning-based class activities designed to engage psychology students to learn statistical concepts such as Factor Analysis and Discriminant Function Analysis. Finally, we discuss general trends in eLearning and possible futures that are pertinent to teachers of research methods and statistics in psychology. PMID:27014147

  19. Teaching Research Methods and Statistics in eLearning Environments: Pedagogy, Practical Examples, and Possible Futures.

    PubMed

    Rock, Adam J; Coventry, William L; Morgan, Methuen I; Loi, Natasha M

    2016-01-01

    Generally, academic psychologists are mindful of the fact that, for many students, the study of research methods and statistics is anxiety provoking (Gal et al., 1997). Given the ubiquitous and distributed nature of eLearning systems (Nof et al., 2015), teachers of research methods and statistics need to cultivate an understanding of how to effectively use eLearning tools to inspire psychology students to learn. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to discuss critically how using eLearning systems might engage psychology students in research methods and statistics. First, we critically appraise definitions of eLearning. Second, we examine numerous important pedagogical principles associated with effectively teaching research methods and statistics using eLearning systems. Subsequently, we provide practical examples of our own eLearning-based class activities designed to engage psychology students to learn statistical concepts such as Factor Analysis and Discriminant Function Analysis. Finally, we discuss general trends in eLearning and possible futures that are pertinent to teachers of research methods and statistics in psychology.

  20. Teaching Research Methods and Statistics in eLearning Environments: Pedagogy, Practical Examples, and Possible Futures

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Adam J.; Coventry, William L.; Morgan, Methuen I.; Loi, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Generally, academic psychologists are mindful of the fact that, for many students, the study of research methods and statistics is anxiety provoking (Gal et al., 1997). Given the ubiquitous and distributed nature of eLearning systems (Nof et al., 2015), teachers of research methods and statistics need to cultivate an understanding of how to effectively use eLearning tools to inspire psychology students to learn. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to discuss critically how using eLearning systems might engage psychology students in research methods and statistics. First, we critically appraise definitions of eLearning. Second, we examine numerous important pedagogical principles associated with effectively teaching research methods and statistics using eLearning systems. Subsequently, we provide practical examples of our own eLearning-based class activities designed to engage psychology students to learn statistical concepts such as Factor Analysis and Discriminant Function Analysis. Finally, we discuss general trends in eLearning and possible futures that are pertinent to teachers of research methods and statistics in psychology. PMID:27014147

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Operational Impact of Improved Space Tracking on Collision Avoidance in the Future LEO Space Debris Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, D.; Borgeson, D.; Peterson, G.; Jenkin, A.; Sorge, M.

    2010-09-01

    Even if global space policy successfully curtails on orbit explosions and ASAT demonstrations, studies indicate that the number of debris objects in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will continue to grow solely from debris on debris collisions and debris generated from new launches. This study examines the threat posed by this growing space debris population over the next 30 years and how improvements in our space tracking capabilities can reduce the number of Collision Avoidance (COLA) maneuvers required keep the risk of operational satellite loss within tolerable limits. Particular focus is given to satellites operated by the Department of Defense (DoD) and Intelligence Community (IC) in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The following debris field and space tracking performance parameters were varied parametrically in the experiment to study the impact on the number of collision avoidance maneuvers required: - Debris Field Density (by year 2009, 2019, 2029, and 2039) - Quality of Track Update (starting 1 sigma error ellipsoid) - Future Propagator Accuracy (error ellipsoid growth rates - Special Perturbations in 3 axes) - Track Update Rate for Debris (stochastic) - Track Update Rate for Payloads (stochastic) Baseline values matching present day tracking performance for quality of track update, propagator accuracy, and track update rate were derived by analyzing updates to the unclassified Satellite Catalog (SatCat). Track update rates varied significantly for active payloads and debris and as such we used different models for the track update rates for military payloads and debris. The analysis was conducted using the System Effectiveness Analysis Simulation (SEAS) an agent based model developed by the United States Air Force Space Command’s Space and Missile Systems Center to evaluate the military utility of space systems. The future debris field was modeled by The Aerospace Corporation using a tool chain which models the growth of the 10cm+ debris field using high fidelity

  4. A strategy for developing future academic leaders for South Africa in a resource-constrained environment.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, Umesh G; Bobat, Raziya A; Pillay, Sandy; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    A key challenge in addressing the shortage of health care workers in resource-constrained environments is ensuring that there is optimal academic capacity for their training. South Africa's University of KwaZulu-Natal has placed academic and research capacity building at the heart of its program with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative in a program called ENhancing Training and REsearch capacity and Expertise (ENTREE). The program aims to increase the quantity, quality, and retention of health care graduates. It is premised on the basis that research capacity development will lead to an increase in teachers who will be essential to improving the quality and quantity of health care workers needed to meet South Africa's health challenges. This is being achieved through four components of the program: (1) infusion of the undergraduate program with research modules; (2) attraction of academically talented students in the middle of their undergraduate program into a parallel track that has research capacity as its major thrust; (3) attraction of qualified health care personnel into a supported PhD program; and (4) providing strong research ethics training and mentorship. A significant proportion of the program is being executed in rural training sites, to increase the probability that trainees will return to the sites as mentors.

  5. Future directions in behavioral headache research: applications for an evolving health care environment.

    PubMed

    Penzien, Donald B; Rains, Jeanetta C; Lipchik, Gay L; Nicholson, Robert A; Lake, Alvin E; Hursey, Karl G

    2005-05-01

    Three decades of research has produced effective behavioral treatments for migraine and tension-type headache, yet the full fruition of this research has not been realized. Further development and dissemination of behavioral treatments is needed to impact the large numbers of those with headache who potentially could benefit from these interventions. At the same time, an evolving health care environment challenges researchers and providers to employ greater efficiency and innovation in managing all chronic disorders. Hopefully, the recently published clinical trials guidelines for behavioral headache research will serve as a catalyst for production of quality empiricism that, in turn, will generate enhanced behavioral strategies and will optimize health care resource utilization. This article describes 10 areas of critical needs and research priorities for behavioral headache research, including: replication and extension of seminal studies using improved methodology; analysis of barriers to implementation of behavioral treatments; development of referral and treatment algorithms; behavioral compliance facilitation with medical interventions; development of a headache self-management model; integration of behavioral intervention within traditional medical practice; identification and management of comorbid psychopathology among headache patients; prevention of disease progression; analysis of behavioral therapeutic mechanisms, and development of innovative treatment formats and applications of information technologies. PMID:15953270

  6. A Strategy for Developing Future Academic Leaders for South Africa in a Resource-Constrained Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lalloo, Umesh G.; Bobat, Raziya A.; Pillay, Sandy; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in addressing the shortage of health care workers in resource-constrained environments is ensuring that there is optimal academic capacity for their training. South Africa’s University of KwaZulu-Natal has placed academic and research capacity building at the heart of its program with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) in a program called ENhancing Training, REsearch Capacity, and Expertise (ENTREE). The program is premised on the basis that research capacity development will lead to an increase in teachers who will be essential to improving the quality and quantity of health care workers needed to meet South Africa’s health challenges. This is being achieved through four components of the program: (1) infusion of the undergraduate program with research modules; (2) attraction of academically talented students in the middle of their undergraduate program into a parallel track that has research capacity as its major thrust; (3) attraction of qualified health care personnel into a supported PhD program; and (4) providing strong research ethics training and mentorship. A significant proportion of the program is being executed in rural training sites, to increase the probability that trainees will return to the sites as mentors. PMID:25072580

  7. Ageing, genes, environment and epigenetics: what twin studies tell us now, and in the future.

    PubMed

    Steves, Claire Joanne; Spector, Timothy D; Jackson, Stephen H D

    2012-09-01

    Compared with younger people, older people are much more variable in their organ function, and these large individual differences contribute to the complexity of geriatric medicine. What determines this variability? Is it due to the accumulation of different life experiences, or because of the variation in the genes we are born with, or an interaction of both? This paper reviews key findings from ageing twin cohorts probing these questions. Twin studies are the perfect natural experiment to dissect out genes and life experiences. We discuss the paradox that ageing is strongly determined by heritable factors (an influence that often gets stronger with time), yet longevity and lifespan seem not to be so heritable. We then focus on the intriguing question of why DNA sequence-identical twins might age differently. Animal studies are increasingly showing that epigenetic modifications occurring in early development and adulthood, might be key to ageing phenomena but this is difficult to investigate longitudinally in human populations, due to ethical problems of intervention and long lifespan. We propose that identical twin studies using new and existing cohorts may be useful human models in which to investigate the interaction between the environment and genetics, mediated by epigenetic modifications. PMID:22826292

  8. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  9. Is Small Business Doomed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Education Forum, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a sampling of viewpoints from businessmen, economists, futurists, and government experts on the future of small business presented at hearings before the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Consumers, and Employment, Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives. Problems of taxes, the economy, and government regulations are discussed from…

  10. What can we learn from the existing evidence of the business case for investments in nursing care: importance of content, context, and policy environment.

    PubMed

    Yakusheva, Olga; Wholey, Douglas; Frick, Kevin D

    2013-04-01

    Decisions of health care institutions to invest in nursing care are often guided by mixed and conflicting evidence of effects of the investments on organizational function and sustainability. This paper uses new evidence generated through Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI)-funded research and published in peer-reviewed journals, to illustrate where the business case for nursing investments stands and to discuss factors that may limit the existing evidence and its transferability into clinical practice. We conclude that there are 3 limiting factors: (1) the existing business case for nursing investments is likely understated due to the inability of most studies to capture spillover and long-run dynamic effects, thus causing organizations to forfeit potentially viable nursing investments that may improve long-term financial stability; (2) studies rarely devote sufficient attention to describing the content and the organization-specific contextual factors, thus limiting generalizability; and (3) fragmentation of the current health care delivery and payment systems often leads to the financial benefits of investments in nursing care accruing outside of the organization incurring the costs, thus making potentially quality-improving and cost-saving interventions financially unattractive from the organization's perspective. The payment reform, with its emphasis on high-quality affordable patient-centered care, is likely to strengthen the business case for investments in nursing care. Methodologically rigorous approaches that focus on broader societal implications of investments in nursing care, combined with a thorough understanding of potential barriers and facilitators of nursing change, should be an integral part of future research and policy efforts.

  11. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Silje A; Coelho, Liz H; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-05-05

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  12. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Silje A.; Coelho, Liz H.; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-01-01

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space. PMID:25370192

  13. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Silje A; Coelho, Liz H; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-01-01

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space. PMID:25370192

  14. NASA's Planetary Science Summer School: Training Future Mission Leaders in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS) is an intensive program for postdocs and advanced graduate students in science and engineering fields with a keen interest in planetary exploration. The goal is to train the next generation of planetary science mission leaders in a hands-on environment involving a wide range of engineers and scientists. It was established in 1989, and has undergone several incarnations. Initially a series of seminars, it became a more formal mission design experience in 1999. Admission is competitive, with participants given financial support. The competitively selected trainees develop an early mission concept study in teams of 15-17, responsive to a typical NASA Science Mission Directorate Announcement of Opportunity. They select the mission concept from options presented by the course sponsors, based on high-priority missions as defined by the Decadal Survey, prepare a presentation for a proposal authorization review, present it to a senior review board and receive critical feedback. Each participant assumes multiple roles, on science, instrument and project teams. They develop an understanding of top-level science requirements and instrument priorities in advance through a series of reading assignments and webinars help trainees. Then, during the five day session at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, they work closely with concurrent engineers including JPL's Advanced Projects Design Team ("Team X"), a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. All are mentored and assisted directly by Team X members and course tutors in their assigned project roles. There is a strong emphasis on making difficult trades, simulating a real mission design process as accurately as possible. The process is intense and at times dramatic, with fast-paced design sessions and late evening study sessions. A survey of PSSS alumni

  15. The Predicted Growth of the Low Earth Orbit Space Debris Environment: An Assessment of Future Risk for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.

    2007-01-01

    Space debris is a worldwide-recognized issue concerning the safety of commercial, military, and exploration spacecraft. The space debris environment includes both naturally occuring meteoroids and objects in Earth orbit that are generated by human activity, termed orbital debris. Space agencies around the world are addressing the dangers of debris collisions to both crewed and robotic spacecraft. In the United States, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center leads the effort to categorize debris, predict its growth, and formulate mitigation policy for the environment from low Earth orbit (LEO) through geosynchronous orbit (GEO). This paper presents recent results derived from the NASA long-term debris environment model, LEGEND. It includes the revised NASA sodium potassium droplet model, newly corrected for a factor of two over-estimation of the droplet population. The study indicates a LEO environment that is already highly collisionally active among orbital debris larger than 1 cm in size. Most of the modeled collision events are non-catastrophic (i.e., They lead to a cratering of the target, but no large scale fragmentation.). But they are potentially mission-ending, and take place between impactors smaller than 10 cm and targets larger than 10 cm. Given the small size of the impactor these events would likely be undetectable by present-day measurement means. The activity continues into the future as would be expected. Impact rates of about four per year are predicted by the current study within the next 30 years, with the majority of targets being abandoned intacts (spent upper stages and spacecraft). Still, operational spacecraft do show a small collisional activity, one that increases over time as the small fragment population increases.

  16. 17 CFR 240.3a43-1 - Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... securities otherwise than in connection with futures or options on futures trading or the investment of... contemporaneously created postions in futures or options on futures; (2) Transactions as agent for a customer for investment of margin and excess funds related to futures or options on futures trading or the trading...

  17. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Bruce; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This review identifies understudied areas of emerging contaminant (EC) research in wastewaters and the environment, and recommends direction for future monitoring. Non-regulated trace organic ECs including pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are focused on due to ongoing policy initiatives and the expectant broadening of environmental legislation. These ECs are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, mainly derived from the discharge of municipal wastewater effluents. Their presence is of concern due to the possible ecological impact (e.g., endocrine disruption) to biota within the environment. To better understand their fate in wastewaters and in the environment, a standardised approach to sampling is needed. This ensures representative data is attained and facilitates a better understanding of spatial and temporal trends of EC occurrence. During wastewater treatment, there is a lack of suspended particulate matter analysis due to further preparation requirements and a lack of good analytical approaches. This results in the under-reporting of several ECs entering wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and the aquatic environment. Also, sludge can act as a concentrating medium for some chemicals during wastewater treatment. The majority of treated sludge is applied directly to agricultural land without analysis for ECs. As a result there is a paucity of information on the fate of ECs in soils and consequently, there has been no driver to investigate the toxicity to exposed terrestrial organisms. Therefore a more holistic approach to environmental monitoring is required, such that the fate and impact of ECs in all exposed environmental compartments are studied. The traditional analytical approach of applying targeted screening with low resolution mass spectrometry (e.g., triple quadrupoles) results in numerous chemicals such as transformation products going undetected. These can exhibit similar toxicity to the parent EC, demonstrating the necessity

  18. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Bruce; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This review identifies understudied areas of emerging contaminant (EC) research in wastewaters and the environment, and recommends direction for future monitoring. Non-regulated trace organic ECs including pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are focused on due to ongoing policy initiatives and the expectant broadening of environmental legislation. These ECs are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, mainly derived from the discharge of municipal wastewater effluents. Their presence is of concern due to the possible ecological impact (e.g., endocrine disruption) to biota within the environment. To better understand their fate in wastewaters and in the environment, a standardised approach to sampling is needed. This ensures representative data is attained and facilitates a better understanding of spatial and temporal trends of EC occurrence. During wastewater treatment, there is a lack of suspended particulate matter analysis due to further preparation requirements and a lack of good analytical approaches. This results in the under-reporting of several ECs entering wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and the aquatic environment. Also, sludge can act as a concentrating medium for some chemicals during wastewater treatment. The majority of treated sludge is applied directly to agricultural land without analysis for ECs. As a result there is a paucity of information on the fate of ECs in soils and consequently, there has been no driver to investigate the toxicity to exposed terrestrial organisms. Therefore a more holistic approach to environmental monitoring is required, such that the fate and impact of ECs in all exposed environmental compartments are studied. The traditional analytical approach of applying targeted screening with low resolution mass spectrometry (e.g., triple quadrupoles) results in numerous chemicals such as transformation products going undetected. These can exhibit similar toxicity to the parent EC, demonstrating the necessity

  19. Applying a 3D Situational Virtual Learning Environment to the Real World Business--An Extended Research in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shwu-huey

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand (1) what kind of students can be facilitated through the help of three-dimensional virtual learning environment (3D VLE), and (2) the relationship between a conventional test (ie, paper and pencil test) and the 3D VLE used in this study, the study designs a 3D virtual supermarket (3DVS) to help students transform their role…

  20. Learning Environment Associated with Use of Mixed Mode Delivery Model among Secondary Business Studies Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Noi Keng; Fraser, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    At many teacher education institutes around the world, preservice teachers are empowered to use pedagogical tools and strategies that engage their students. We used a modified version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) to evaluate the effectiveness of a pedagogical model known as the Mixed Mode Delivery (MMD) model in terms…

  1. Handbook for Business Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication is designed as a reference book for business teachers and school administrators who are concerned with present and future problems of administering and supervising business education at the secondary level. Chapter I details the roles and responsibilities of the business education department chair who is administrator, supervisor,…

  2. Investigating near-road particle number concentrations along a busy urban corridor with varying built environment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junshi; Wang, An; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at capturing the determinants of near-road concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFP) using linear mixed-effects models, investigating the effects of meteorology, built environment, and traffic. In addition, the differences in the levels of UFP between both sides of the road were investigated. To reach these objectives, field measurements were conducted on 16 weekdays in the months of March and April 2015, along Papineau Avenue, a high-volume street in Montreal, Canada. Four sites were identified varying in land use, building height, and road characteristics. Air quality measurements were conducted at each location (on both sides of the road) for two consecutive hours, at four different times during the day and repeated four times, leading to a total of 16 visits per location. Traffic volume and composition was also recorded. On-site meteorological variables including wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity were collected using a portable weather station. Linear mixed-effects models with random intercept were developed for both dependent variables: the natural logarithm of the mean UFP concentration and the difference in UFP concentrations between two sides of the road. Lower temperatures and wind speeds were associated with increased UFP concentrations. Winds orthogonal to the road tended to increase UFP concentrations as well as the differences between both sides of the road. Finally, built environment variables such as the presence of open areas and buildings on both sides of the road, had a positive influence on the difference between UFP on the two sides.

  3. Serving two purposes: Plans for a MOOC and a World Campus course called Energy, the Environment, and Our Future (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bralower, T. J.; Alley, R. B.; Blumsack, S.; Keller, K.; Feineman, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    We are in the final stages of developing a Massive Open Online Course entitled Energy, the Environment, and Our Future. The course is a broad overview of the implications of the current energy options on Earth's climate and the choices for more sustainable energy sources in the future. The course is founded in concepts explored in the book and PBS series Earth: The Operators' Manual, but it includes more in-depth treatment of renewable energy as well as the ethical issues surrounding energy choices. One of the key aspects of the course is that it is being designed to be taught in two formats, the first, an eight week MOOC through Coursera in Fall semester 2013, and the second, a 16 week online course developed as part of the NSF Geo-STEP InTeGrate program and offered through the Penn State World Campus. The advantage of the MOOC format is the ability to reach out to thousands of students worldwide, exposing them to the science behind important issues that may have a direct impact on the lifestyle decisions they make, while the World Campus course allows us to explore deeper levels of cognition through application of carefully designed pedagogies. The principal difference between the two versions of the course will be assessment. The MOOC will have embedded assessment between pages and end of module quizzes. The InTeGrate course will have a range of assessments that are directly linked to the goals and objectives of the course. These will include active learning exercises built around energy and climate data. Both of the versions are works in progress and we anticipate modifying them regularly based on student feedback.

  4. Volcanoes and the environment: Lessons for understanding Earth's past and future from studies of present-day volcanic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, Tamsin A.

    2015-10-01

    Volcanism has affected the environment of our planet over a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (< 1 yr to 100s Myr) scales and will continue to do so. As well as examining the Earth's geological record and using computer modelling to understand these effects, much of our knowledge of these processes comes from studying volcanism on the present-day planet. Understanding the full spectrum of possible routes and mechanisms by which volcanism can affect the environment is key to developing a realistic appreciation of possible past and potential future volcanic impact scenarios. This review paper seeks to give a synoptic overview of these potential mechanisms, focussing on those that we can seek to understand over human timescales by studying current volcanic activity. These effects are wide ranging from well-documented planetary-scale impacts (e.g., cooling by stratospheric aerosol veils) to more subtle or localised processes like ash fertilisation of ocean biota and impacts on cloud properties, atmospheric oxidant levels and terrestrial ecosystems. There is still much to be gained by studying present-day volcanic emissions. This review highlights the need for further work in three example areas. Firstly, to understand regional and arc-scale volcanic emissions, especially cycling of elements through subduction zones, more volatile measurements are needed to contribute to a fundamental and systematic understanding of these processes throughout geological time. Secondly, there is still uncertainty surrounding whether stratospheric ozone depletion following volcanic eruptions results solely from activation of anthropogenic halogen species. We should be poised to study future eruptions into the stratosphere with regard to their impacts and halogen load and work to improve our models and understanding of the relevant underlying processes within the Earth and the atmosphere. Thirdly, we lack a systematic understanding of trace metal volatility from magmas

  5. Future fisheries yield in shelf waters: a model study into effects of a warmer and more acidic marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, S. M.; le Quesne, W.; Parker, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    We applied a coupled, marine water column model to three sites in the North Sea. The three sites represent different hydrodynamic regimes and are thus representative of a wider area. The model consists of a hydro-biogeochemical model (GOTM-ERSEM-BFM) coupled one way upwards to a size-structured model representing pelagic predators and detritivores (Blanchard et al., 2009). Thus, bottom-up pressures like changing abiotic environment (climate change, chemical cycling) impact on fish biomass across the size spectrum. Here, we studied three different impacts of future conditions on fish yield: climatic impacts (medium emission scenario), abiotic ocean acidification impacts (reduced pelagic nitrification) and biotic ocean acidification impacts (reduced detritivore growth rate). The three impacts were studied separately and combined, and showed that sites within different hydrodynamic regimes responded very differently. The seasonally stratified site showed an increase in fish yields (occuring in winter and spring), with acidification effects of the same order of magnitude as climatic effects. The permanently mixed site also showed an increase in fish yield (increase in summer, decrease in winter), due to climatic effects moderated by acidification impacts. The third site, which is characterised by large interannual variability in thermal stratification duration, showed a decline in fish yields (occuring in winter) due to decline of the benthic system which forms an important carbon pathway at this site. All sites displayed a shift towards a more pelagic oriented system.

  6. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — A systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research

    SciTech Connect

    Kabisch, Nadja; Qureshi, Salman; Haase, Dagmar

    2015-01-15

    Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research. - Highlights: • Reviewed literature on urban green pins down a dearth of comparative studies. • Case studies in Africa and Russia are marginalized – the Europe and US dominate. • Questionnaires are used as major tool followed by GIS and quantitative approaches. • Developing countries should contribute in building an urban green space agenda. • Interdisciplinary, adaptable and pluralistic approaches can satiate a knowledge gap.

  7. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries.

  8. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries. PMID:21703381

  9. Clinical research: assessing the future in a changing environment; summary report of conference sponsored by the American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, Washington, DC, March 1996.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M; Genel, M; Altman, R D; Williams, M A; Allen, J R

    1998-03-01

    Concerns about funding of clinical research underlie all other problems identified at the Council on Scientific Affairs conference. Future National Institutes of Health (NIH) budgets are likely to be constant at best, and the general public expects cost containment to be an ongoing goal; this is exacerbated by the impending Medicare Trust Fund crisis. Meanwhile, traditional financial support of clinical research in academic medical centers (AMCs) through cross-subsidization is imperiled by competitive pressures largely caused by managed care. Although managed care organizations (MCOs) are potentially rich sources of funding and other resources, and some not-for-profit companies are conducting some research, for-profit MCOs have not demonstrated an understanding of the importance of clinical research. Young physicians are being discouraged from careers as clinical researchers and established investigators are "dropping out" because of demands for clinical productivity and competition for research grants, loss of patients/research subjects to managed care, perceived lack of status and compensation, and overall uncertainty about continued financial support. Efforts to assist current and potential clinical investigators are discussed in this report. Loss of patients, denial of reimbursement, and competition with MCOs and contract research organizations (CROs) have placed AMCs under unprecedented pressure. However, research centers located in AMCs have allowed investigators to conduct clinical research by providing a "protected environment." Furthermore, many AMCs are determined to continue conducting clinical research and are addressing related problems. Although the NIH will continue to be a major source of funding for clinical research, partnerships between various private and public entities provide important opportunities to maximize the productivity of all individuals and institutions involved. Potential partnerships include MCOs, AMCs, CROs, pharmaceutical

  10. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  11. Starting a Business in the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Danny

    The business and economic development center of Midland College provides assistance to small businesses. Written for use by future and current small business owners and entrepreneurs living in a 17-county area of the Permian Basin of Texas, this guidebook describes the procedures for developing a business plan and for successfully starting and…

  12. Why business models matter.

    PubMed

    Magretta, Joan

    2002-05-01

    "Business model" was one of the great buzz-words of the Internet boom. A company didn't need a strategy, a special competence, or even any customers--all it needed was a Web-based business model that promised wild profits in some distant, ill-defined future. Many people--investors, entrepreneurs, and executives alike--fell for the fantasy and got burned. And as the inevitable counterreaction played out, the concept of the business model fell out of fashion nearly as quickly as the .com appendage itself. That's a shame. As Joan Magretta explains, a good business model remains essential to every successful organization, whether it's a new venture or an established player. To help managers apply the concept successfully, she defines what a business model is and how it complements a smart competitive strategy. Business models are, at heart, stories that explain how enterprises work. Like a good story, a robust business model contains precisely delineated characters, plausible motivations, and a plot that turns on an insight about value. It answers certain questions: Who is the customer? How do we make money? What underlying economic logic explains how we can deliver value to customers at an appropriate cost? Every viable organization is built on a sound business model, but a business model isn't a strategy, even though many people use the terms interchangeably. Business models describe, as a system, how the pieces of a business fit together. But they don't factor in one critical dimension of performance: competition. That's the job of strategy. Illustrated with examples from companies like American Express, EuroDisney, WalMart, and Dell Computer, this article clarifies the concepts of business models and strategy, which are fundamental to every company's performance.

  13. Internet and the nuclear business

    SciTech Connect

    Roxey, T.

    1994-12-31

    Today`s business environment is very different than what it was just a few short years ago. People from all different segments of our companies are being asked to think about how they work in different and sometimes unsettling ways. Not that these new thoughts are unsettling by themselves but rather our new, more competitive business practices are challenging our old comfortable jobs. This report discusses the need to use the Internet for information exchange in todays business environment.

  14. The Effects of a Strengths-Based Assessment and Development Program on First-Term Masters of Business Administration Students and Future Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohn, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Adults returning to graduate school to acquire a master of business administration (MBA) degree face a myriad of challenges as they attempt to manage academic responsibilities, work, family, and social obligations. Currently, a number of educational professionals only look to identify and remediate student deficiencies. Developing existing…

  15. Analysis of the interrelationship of energy, economy, and environment: A model of a sustainable energy future for Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boo, Kyung-Jin

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to provide the groundwork for a sustainable energy future in Korea. For this purpose, a conceptual framework of sustainable energy development was developed to provide a deeper understanding of interrelationships between energy, the economy, and the environment (E 3). Based on this theoretical work, an empirical simulation model was developed to investigate the ways in which E3 interact. This dissertation attempts to develop a unified concept of sustainable energy development by surveying multiple efforts to integrate various definitions of sustainability. Sustainable energy development should be built on the basis of three principles: ecological carrying capacity, economic efficiency, and socio-political equity. Ecological carrying capacity delineates the earth's resource constraints as well as its ability to assimilate wastes. Socio-political equity implies an equitable distribution of the benefits and costs of energy consumption and an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. Economic efficiency dictates efficient allocation of scarce resources. The simulation model is composed of three modules: an energy module, an environmental module and an economic module. Because the model is grounded on economic structural behaviorism, the dynamic nature of the current economy is effectively depicted and simulated through manipulating exogenous policy variables. This macro-economic model is used to simulate six major policy intervention scenarios. Major findings from these policy simulations were: (1) carbon taxes are the most effective means of reducing air-pollutant emissions; (2) sustainable energy development can be achieved through reinvestment of carbon taxes into energy efficiency and renewable energy programs; and (3) carbon taxes would increase a nation's welfare if reinvested in relevant areas. The policy simulation model, because it is based on neoclassical economics, has limitations such that it cannot fully

  16. A Videocase Approach to ESP/Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Kay

    The case study, where students analyze actual business situations and discuss complex business issues in a relatively risk-free environment, is a particularly good method for teaching business English. Graduate business programs use both written and video case studies in the classroom. Videocases bring the case study alive on film and may be…

  17. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  18. Fishy Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1988-01-01

    The IRS argues that income from alumni associations group life and medical insurance policies is business profit, not tax-exempt contributions to its member associations. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) is described. (MLW)

  19. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  20. Future Leadership Competencies: From Foresight to Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Emma; Robertson, Phillipa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: With tectonic plate shifting change and continuous uncertainty, a reliance on leadership competencies rooted in the past will no longer be successful. Instead, it is argued that the emerging business environment now demands a new set of leadership skills that are aligned to the requirements of the future. This paper aims to address these…

  1. An Analysis of the e-Business Program in the School of Business Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Shyamalendu; Reddy, Surender

    2007-01-01

    The article analyzes various present and future aspects of e-business as it is or should be incorporated in the school of business curriculum. The study uses both primary and secondary data. The results indicate that e-business courses are currently taught across the traditional disciplines of business schools. The courses are primarily taught as…

  2. Writing a successful business plan.

    PubMed

    Haag, A B

    1997-01-01

    1. In creating and building a business, the entrepreneur assumes all the responsibilities for its development and management, as well as the risks and risks and rewards. Many businesses do not survive because business owners fail to develop an effective plan. 2. The business plan focuses on major areas of concern and their contribution to the success of a new business. The finished product communicates the product/service to others and provides the basis for the financial proposal. 3. Planning helps identify customers, market area, pricing strategy, and competitive conditions. It aids in decision making and is an essential guide for operating a business successfully and measuring progress. 4. The business plan not only serves as a mechanism for obtaining any needed financial resources, but also indicates the future direction of the company.

  3. Virtual Reality: The Future of Animated Virtual Instructor, the Technology and Its Emergence to a Productive E-Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiman, Juhanita

    This paper discusses the use of Virtual Reality (VR) in e-learning environments where an intelligent three-dimensional (3D) virtual person plays the role of an instructor. With the existence of this virtual instructor, it is hoped that the teaching and learning in the e-environment will be more effective and productive. This virtual 3D animated…

  4. Research Review: Gene-Environment Interaction Research in Youth Depression--A Systematic Review with Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Erin C.; Uddin, Monica; Subramanian, S. V.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Depression is a major public health problem among youth, currently estimated to affect as many as 9% of US children and adolescents. The recognition that both genes (nature) and environments (nurture) are important for understanding the etiology of depression has led to a rapid growth in research exploring gene-environment interactions…

  5. Business Ethics in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the development of the interest in business ethics as a regular part of the business education curriculum. Indicates that ethics is an essential issue today because of information technology and changes in the socio-political environment. (JOW)

  6. Pattern-based information portal for business plan co-creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontchev, Boyan; Ruskov, Petko; Tanev, Stoyan

    2010-10-01

    Creation of business plans helps entrepreneurs in managing identification of business opportunities and committing necessary resources for process evolution. Applying patterns in business plan creation facilitates the identification of effective solutions that were adopted in the past and may provide a basis for adopting similar solutions in the future within given business context. The article presents the system design of an information portal for business plan co-creation based on patterns. The portal is going to provide start-up and entrepreneurs with ready-to-modify business plan patterns in order to help them in development of effective and efficient business plans. It will facilitate entrepreneurs in co-experimenting and co-learning more frequently and faster. Moreover, the paper focuses on the software architecture of the pattern based portal and explains the functionality of its modules, namely the pattern designer, pattern repository services and agent-based pattern implementers. It explains their role for business process co-creation, storing and managing patterns described formally, and selecting patterns best suited for specific business case. Thus, innovative entrepreneurs will be guided by the portal in co-writing winning business plans and staying competitive in the present day dynamic globalized environment.

  7. Pattern-based information portal for business plan co-creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontchev, Boyan; Ruskov, Petko; Tanev, Stoyan

    2011-03-01

    Creation of business plans helps entrepreneurs in managing identification of business opportunities and committing necessary resources for process evolution. Applying patterns in business plan creation facilitates the identification of effective solutions that were adopted in the past and may provide a basis for adopting similar solutions in the future within given business context. The article presents the system design of an information portal for business plan co-creation based on patterns. The portal is going to provide start-up and entrepreneurs with ready-to-modify business plan patterns in order to help them in development of effective and efficient business plans. It will facilitate entrepreneurs in co-experimenting and co-learning more frequently and faster. Moreover, the paper focuses on the software architecture of the pattern based portal and explains the functionality of its modules, namely the pattern designer, pattern repository services and agent-based pattern implementers. It explains their role for business process co-creation, storing and managing patterns described formally, and selecting patterns best suited for specific business case. Thus, innovative entrepreneurs will be guided by the portal in co-writing winning business plans and staying competitive in the present day dynamic globalized environment.

  8. Changing the Environmental Behaviour of Small Business Owners: The Business Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Beth; Redmond, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the environment is something of a cracked record to many small business owners, as historically any calls to business to change or improve their practices or behaviours were from the "environmental" or "green" perspective, rather than from a business perspective. As a consequence, many small businesses have…

  9. Integrating the Humanities and Business Education: The Experience of International Business as an Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Stanley

    In international business education, there has been a general acceptance of the need for a curriculum integrating humanities and business education, since international business, operating within a world environment, requires an understanding of disciplines such as law, geography, psychology, and sociology in addition to functional business areas…

  10. Electric utility growth: The small business connection

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, J.R. )

    1990-08-02

    In today's competitive environment utilities must seek new strategies to insure future growth. Economic development is but one of many utility strategies being implemented today. Traditionally, most utility economic development efforts involve the recruitment of targeted industries. This recruitment strategy involves the identification of attractive industries and companies, and subsequent marketing efforts to encourage company relocation or expansion in the utility's service territory. This strategy is the most practiced by utilities, yet ironically it has been judged as relatively ineffective. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the merits of utilities refocusing their economic development efforts on a new strategy currently employed by state and local growth organizations and oriented toward business retention and expansion rather than industrial targeting and recruitment. Many utilities have retention/expansion strategies, but target them at their largest industrial customers. The focus of this article is on the value of small business retention/expansion activities and the feasibility of implementing a successful plan.

  11. One Environmental Education Center's Industry Initiative: Collaborating to Create More Environmentally and Economically Sustainable Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollweg, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    The Centre for Environment Education (CEE) added an Industry Initiative to its portfolio of more traditional environmental education programs in 1993. This article documents the start-up and evolution of that program and the ways that businesses and CEE have worked together for a sustainable future. A specific 18-month project, in which CEE and an…

  12. Business Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…

  13. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 4 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The AGATE program is complimented by a NASA Lewis-led program to develop safe, smooth, quiet and affordable propulsion systems for future four-to-six-seat general aviation airplanes. The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program is developing diesel prop and jet engines to be flight demonstrated at the year 2000 EAA AirVenture Air Show & Convention in Oshkosh, Wisc. Commericially produced engines based on these demonstrator engines and their manufacturing technologies will soon follow. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  14. Keys to the Future of American Business. Proceedings from the Creativity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Conference (4th, Los Angeles, California, March 20-21, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, George T., Ed.; And Others

    These proceedings contain 3 speaker presentations and 17 workshop papers from a conference of experts who are involved in creating environments that encourage people to be creative, innovative, and entrepreneurial. The speaker presentations are "Creative Public-Private Sector Ventures--'The Success Series'" (Bettianne Welch), "Just Do It" (Wally…

  15. Keys to the Future of American Business. Proceedings from the Creativity, Innovation & Entrepreneurship Symposium (2nd, Washington, D.C., March 21-22, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, George T., Ed.; Whiting, Bruce G., Ed.

    These proceedings present 5 keynote addresses and 28 session papers focusing on creation of environments for stimulating entrepreneurial activities. The keynote addresses are "Entrepreneurial Leadership--A Performing Art" (Gordon L. Lippitt); "Innovation & Entrepreneurship at Work in a Large Company" (George F. Troy); "Thoughts Regarding…

  16. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  17. Beyond Greening the Business School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Lilly M.; Rook, Sarah P.

    2010-01-01

    The business community is increasingly aware of the natural environmental and how a significant number of business practices are adversely affecting that environment and our planet. Businesses must take a leadership role, though economic systems, not only in recovering and preserving our planet but also managing financial and human resources with…

  18. Future approaches to organ regeneration: microscale environments, stem cell engineering, and self-assembly of living tissues.

    PubMed

    Hacking, S Adam; Kachouie, Nezamoddin N; Lee, Won Gu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    A promising means to address the limited supply of donor tissue is through the generation of artificial organs consisting of cells and materials. Progress towards this goal is limited by three main obstacles namely the generation of a sufficient number of cells specific to the organ, the arrangement of these cells in a functional tissue architecture and the delivery of nutrients and removal of waste from the tissue mass. This chapter describes the emerging approaches that may be achieved by the control of stem cell differentiation, control of the local tissue environment on the microscale, and the generation of complex structures containing multiple cell types. PMID:19745484

  19. Future approaches to organ regeneration: microscale environments, stem cell engineering, and self-assembly of living tissues.

    PubMed

    Hacking, S Adam; Kachouie, Nezamoddin N; Lee, Won Gu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    A promising means to address the limited supply of donor tissue is through the generation of artificial organs consisting of cells and materials. Progress towards this goal is limited by three main obstacles namely the generation of a sufficient number of cells specific to the organ, the arrangement of these cells in a functional tissue architecture and the delivery of nutrients and removal of waste from the tissue mass. This chapter describes the emerging approaches that may be achieved by the control of stem cell differentiation, control of the local tissue environment on the microscale, and the generation of complex structures containing multiple cell types.

  20. A hospital information system based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for exchanging distributed medical objects--an approach to future environment of sharing healthcare information.

    PubMed

    Ohe, K

    1998-01-01

    Tightly related subsystems in a HIS have to exchange medical data flexibly by the data object rather than by the battery of the data. We developed a CPR subsystem based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) that retrieves and stores clinical information in the object-oriented database via Internet Intra-ORB Protocol (IIOP). The system is hybridized with the legacy HIS applications on the client terminals. We believe that our solution and the experiences will contribute to the future CORBA-based environment in which computerized patient information is shared among hospitals, clinics, and tightly related systems.

  1. The Volta Grande do Xingu: reconstruction of past environments and forecasting of future scenarios of a unique Amazonian fluvial landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, A. O.; Hartmann, G. A.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Pupim, F. N.; Bertassoli, D. J.; Parra, M.; Antinao, J. L.; Sousa, L. M.; Sabaj Pérez, M. H.; Oliveira, P. E.; Santos, R. A.; Savian, J. F.; Grohmann, C. H.; Medeiros, V. B.; McGlue, M. M.; Bicudo, D. C.; Faustino, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Xingu River is a large clearwater river in eastern Amazonia and its downstream sector, known as the Volta Grande do Xingu ("Xingu Great Bend"), is a unique fluvial landscape that plays an important role in the biodiversity, biogeochemistry and prehistoric and historic peopling of Amazonia. The sedimentary dynamics of the Xingu River in the Volta Grande and its downstream sector will be shifted in the next few years due to the construction of dams associated with the Belo Monte hydropower project. Impacts on river biodiversity and carbon cycling are anticipated, especially due to likely changes in sedimentation and riverbed characteristics. This research project aims to define the geological and climate factors responsible for the development of the Volta Grande landscape and to track its environmental changes during the Holocene, using the modern system as a reference. In this context, sediment cores, riverbed rock and sediment samples and greenhouse gas (GHG) samples were collected in the Volta Grande do Xingu and adjacent upstream and downstream sectors. The reconstruction of past conditions in the Volta Grande is necessary for forecasting future scenarios and defining biodiversity conservation strategies under the operation of Belo Monte dams. This paper describes the scientific questions of the project and the sampling surveys performed by an international team of Earth scientists and biologists during the dry seasons of 2013 and 2014. Preliminary results are presented and a future workshop is planned to integrate results, present data to the scientific community and discuss possibilities for deeper drilling in the Xingu ria to extend the sedimentary record of the Volta Grande do Xingu.

  2. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott; Decaulne, Armelle

    2013-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G. / A.I.G. ) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Sæmundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK) and Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments) (2004 - ), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available

  3. The Dynamics of Multicultural NPD Teams in Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Nusa; Kline, Miro

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the business environment, responses of companies to these changes and the available information and communication technologies (ICT) pose a number of challenges to present and future product developers, as well as to educational institutions. An appropriate response to these challenges is to create a solid basis for strategies to combat…

  4. Future changes in climate, ocean circulation, ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycling simulated for a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario until year 4000 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Oschlies, Andreas; Matthews, H. Damon; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2008-03-01

    A new model of global climate, ocean circulation, ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycling, including a fully coupled carbon cycle, is presented and evaluated. The model is consistent with multiple observational data sets from the past 50 years as well as with the observed warming of global surface air and sea temperatures during the last 150 years. It is applied to a simulation of the coming two millennia following a business-as-usual scenario of anthropogenic CO2 emissions (SRES A2 until year 2100 and subsequent linear decrease to zero until year 2300, corresponding to a total release of 5100 GtC). Atmospheric CO2 increases to a peak of more than 2000 ppmv near year 2300 (that is an airborne fraction of 72% of the emissions) followed by a gradual decline to ˜1700 ppmv at year 4000 (airborne fraction of 56%). Forty-four percent of the additional atmospheric CO2 at year 4000 is due to positive carbon cycle-climate feedbacks. Global surface air warms by ˜10°C, sea ice melts back to 10% of its current area, and the circulation of the abyssal ocean collapses. Subsurface oxygen concentrations decrease, tripling the volume of suboxic water and quadrupling the global water column denitrification. We estimate 60 ppb increase in atmospheric N2O concentrations owing to doubling of its oceanic production, leading to a weak positive feedback and contributing about 0.24°C warming at year 4000. Global ocean primary production almost doubles by year 4000. Planktonic biomass increases at high latitudes and in the subtropics whereas it decreases at midlatitudes and in the tropics. In our model, which does not account for possible direct impacts of acidification on ocean biology, production of calcium carbonate in the surface ocean doubles, further increasing surface ocean and atmospheric pCO2. This represents a new positive feedback mechanism and leads to a strengthening of the positive interaction between climate change and the carbon cycle on a multicentennial to millennial

  5. Building Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how Washington University (St. Louis, MO) converted odd space into a program allowing students to be shopkeepers for necessary services and the school assuming the role of landlord. Tips for overseeing student businesses are highlighted. (GR)

  6. An Analysis of 50mK and 300mK Cryogenic Environments for Future ESA Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, J.; Perkinson, M. C.; D'Arrigo, P.; Geelen, K.; Hepburn, I.; Brockley-Blatt, C.; Duband, L.; Bradshaw, T.

    2008-03-01

    A number of future European Space Agency (ESA), science missions may require detector cooling to sub-Kelvin temperatures. One such mission is the X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy (XEUS), mission, which is a candidate for the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 plan, following XMM-Newton and Chandra. The Detector Spacecraft model payload comprises a passively cooled wide-field camera at 200K, and one of two narrow-field instruments at 300mK and 50mK. As with several other science missions, the required lifetime is at least 5 years, with a 10 year goal, necessitating the use of long-life closed cycle cooling systems. Under contract to ESA, Astrium has worked with the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), and CEA-SBT, to propose a payload accommodation design for XEUS capable of meeting the demanding requirements. Our baseline consists of a two stage Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), at 50mK, and a helium sorption cooler at 300mK. Each system will be pre-cooled by a closed cycle J-T system, similar to Planck, at 2.5K or 4K, which itself will be pre-cooled by a two-stage Stirling cycle cooler, at 17K or 18K. This paper describes the mission, and discusses the cryogenic architectures in depth.

  7. Strategic Plan for the College of Business, Arizona State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Coll. of Business.

    A strategic plan was developed for the Arizona State University (ASU) College of Business. Development of the strategic plan involved creation of ASU Business Partners, a group of over 40 representatives from the business community working closely with 47 faculty members and students to create a model "business school of the future" and to assess…

  8. The Right Amount of Glue: Technologies and Standards Relevant to a Future Solar-Terrestrial Data Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, J. B.; Dimitoglou, G.; Bogart, R.; Tian, K. Q.; Hill, F.; Wampler, S.; Martens, P. C.; Davey, A. R.

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the challenge of developing a new system science, we will need to employ technology that enables researchers to access data from fields with which they are at least initially unfamiliar as well as from sources they use more regularly. At the same time, the quantity of data to be obtained by missions such as the Solar Dynamics Observatory demands ease and simplicity of data access. These competing demands must in turn fit within severely constrained funding for data analysis in such projects. Based on experience in only a single discipline but with a diversity of data types and sources, we will give examples of technology that have made a significant difference in the way people do science. Similarly, we will show how adoption of a well-documented data format has made it easier for one community to search, reduce, and analyze data. We will also describe a community-supported data reduction and analysis software tree with useful features. We will attempt to generalize the lessons learned in these instances to features the broader, solar-terrestrial community might find compelling, while avoiding overdesign of a common data environment.

  9. Globalization and the Business Schools: Toward Business and World-Sustainable Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieck-Assad, María de Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is a force that produces deep changes in business and society. Business schools face great challenges and opportunities in educating future leaders who can work across countries and cultures. This article presents some strategic issues regarding the type of education that business schools should offer from a global perspective, aimed…

  10. Modular neuronal assemblies embodied in a closed-loop environment: toward future integration of brains and machines.

    PubMed

    Tessadori, Jacopo; Bisio, Marta; Martinoia, Sergio; Chiappalone, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors, from simple to most complex, require a two-way interaction with the environment and the contribution of different brain areas depending on the orchestrated activation of neuronal assemblies. In this work we present a new hybrid neuro-robotic architecture based on a neural controller bi-directionally connected to a virtual robot implementing a Braitenberg vehicle aimed at avoiding obstacles. The robot is characterized by proximity sensors and wheels, allowing it to navigate into a circular arena with obstacles of different sizes. As neural controller, we used hippocampal cultures dissociated from embryonic rats and kept alive over Micro Electrode Arrays (MEAs) for 3-8 weeks. The developed software architecture guarantees a bi-directional exchange of information between the natural and the artificial part by means of simple linear coding/decoding schemes. We used two different kinds of experimental preparation: "random" and "modular" populations. In the second case, the confinement was assured by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mask placed over the surface of the MEA device, thus defining two populations interconnected via specific microchannels. The main results of our study are: (i) neuronal cultures can be successfully interfaced to an artificial agent; (ii) modular networks show a different dynamics with respect to random culture, both in terms of spontaneous and evoked electrophysiological patterns; (iii) the robot performs better if a reinforcement learning paradigm (i.e., a tetanic stimulation delivered to the network following each collision) is activated, regardless of the modularity of the culture; (iv) the robot controlled by the modular network further enhances its capabilities in avoiding obstacles during the short-term plasticity trial. The developed paradigm offers a new framework for studying, in simplified model systems, neuro-artificial bi-directional interfaces for the development of new strategies for brain-machine interaction.

  11. Modular Neuronal Assemblies Embodied in a Closed-Loop Environment: Toward Future Integration of Brains and Machines

    PubMed Central

    Tessadori, Jacopo; Bisio, Marta; Martinoia, Sergio; Chiappalone, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors, from simple to most complex, require a two-way interaction with the environment and the contribution of different brain areas depending on the orchestrated activation of neuronal assemblies. In this work we present a new hybrid neuro-robotic architecture based on a neural controller bi-directionally connected to a virtual robot implementing a Braitenberg vehicle aimed at avoiding obstacles. The robot is characterized by proximity sensors and wheels, allowing it to navigate into a circular arena with obstacles of different sizes. As neural controller, we used hippocampal cultures dissociated from embryonic rats and kept alive over Micro Electrode Arrays (MEAs) for 3–8 weeks. The developed software architecture guarantees a bi-directional exchange of information between the natural and the artificial part by means of simple linear coding/decoding schemes. We used two different kinds of experimental preparation: “random” and “modular” populations. In the second case, the confinement was assured by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mask placed over the surface of the MEA device, thus defining two populations interconnected via specific microchannels. The main results of our study are: (i) neuronal cultures can be successfully interfaced to an artificial agent; (ii) modular networks show a different dynamics with respect to random culture, both in terms of spontaneous and evoked electrophysiological patterns; (iii) the robot performs better if a reinforcement learning paradigm (i.e., a tetanic stimulation delivered to the network following each collision) is activated, regardless of the modularity of the culture; (iv) the robot controlled by the modular network further enhances its capabilities in avoiding obstacles during the short-term plasticity trial. The developed paradigm offers a new framework for studying, in simplified model systems, neuro-artificial bi-directional interfaces for the development of new strategies for brain-machine interaction

  12. Modular neuronal assemblies embodied in a closed-loop environment: toward future integration of brains and machines.

    PubMed

    Tessadori, Jacopo; Bisio, Marta; Martinoia, Sergio; Chiappalone, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors, from simple to most complex, require a two-way interaction with the environment and the contribution of different brain areas depending on the orchestrated activation of neuronal assemblies. In this work we present a new hybrid neuro-robotic architecture based on a neural controller bi-directionally connected to a virtual robot implementing a Braitenberg vehicle aimed at avoiding obstacles. The robot is characterized by proximity sensors and wheels, allowing it to navigate into a circular arena with obstacles of different sizes. As neural controller, we used hippocampal cultures dissociated from embryonic rats and kept alive over Micro Electrode Arrays (MEAs) for 3-8 weeks. The developed software architecture guarantees a bi-directional exchange of information between the natural and the artificial part by means of simple linear coding/decoding schemes. We used two different kinds of experimental preparation: "random" and "modular" populations. In the second case, the confinement was assured by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mask placed over the surface of the MEA device, thus defining two populations interconnected via specific microchannels. The main results of our study are: (i) neuronal cultures can be successfully interfaced to an artificial agent; (ii) modular networks show a different dynamics with respect to random culture, both in terms of spontaneous and evoked electrophysiological patterns; (iii) the robot performs better if a reinforcement learning paradigm (i.e., a tetanic stimulation delivered to the network following each collision) is activated, regardless of the modularity of the culture; (iv) the robot controlled by the modular network further enhances its capabilities in avoiding obstacles during the short-term plasticity trial. The developed paradigm offers a new framework for studying, in simplified model systems, neuro-artificial bi-directional interfaces for the development of new strategies for brain-machine interaction. PMID

  13. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented.

  14. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented. PMID:25416371

  15. Assessing mobile food vendors (a.k.a. street food vendors)—methods, challenges, and lessons learned for future food-environment research

    PubMed Central

    Lucan, Sean C.; Varona, Monica; Maroko, Andrew R.; Bumol, Joel; Torrens, Luis; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Mobile food vendors (also known as street food vendors) may be important sources of food, particularly in minority and low-income communities. Unfortunately, there are no good data sources on where, when, or what vendors sell. The lack of a published assessment method may contribute to the relative exclusion of mobile food vendors from existing food-environment research. A goal of this study was to develop, pilot, and troubleshoot a method to assess mobile food vendors. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional assessment of mobile food vendors through direct observations and brief interviews. METHODS Using printed maps, investigators canvassed all streets in Bronx County, NY (excluding highways but including entrance and exit ramps) in 2010, looking for mobile food vendors. For each vendor identified, researchers recorded a unique identifier, the vendor’s location, and direct observations. Investigators also recorded vendors answers to where, when, and what they sold. RESULTS Of 372 identified vendors, 38% did not answer brief-interview questions (19% were “in transit”, 15% refused; others were absent from their carts/trucks/stands or with customers). About 7% of vendors who ultimately answered questions were reluctant to engage with researchers. Some vendors expressed concerns about regulatory authority; only 34% of vendors had visible permits or licenses and many vendors had improvised illegitimate-appearing set-ups. The majority of vendors (75% of those responding) felt most comfortable speaking Spanish; 5% preferred other non-English languages. Nearly a third of vendors changed selling locations (streets, neighborhoods, boroughs) day-to-day or even within a given day. There was considerable variability in times (hours, days, months) in which vendors reported doing business; for 86% of vendors, weather was a deciding factor. CONCLUSIONS Mobile food vendors have a variable and fluid presence in an urban environment. Variability in hours and locations, having

  16. Radiation Environment at LEO in the frame of Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University - recent, current and future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkova, Irina; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Bogomolov, Vitaly; Bogomolov, Andrey; Barinova, Vera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Radiation Environment of Near-Earth space is one of the most important factors of space weather. Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University provides operational control of radiation conditions at Low Earth's Orbits (LEO) of the near-Earth space using data of recent (Vernov, CORONAS series), current (Meteor-M, Electro-L series) and future (Lomonosov) space missions. Internet portal of Space Monitoring Data Center of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ provides possibilities to control and analyze the space radiation conditions in the real time mode together with the geomagnetic and solar activity including hard X-ray and gamma- emission of solar flares. Operational data obtained from space missions at L1, GEO and LEO and from the Earth's magnetic stations are used to represent radiation and geomagnetic state of near-Earth environment. The models of space environment that use space measurements from different orbits were created. Interactive analysis and operational neural network forecast services are based on these models. These systems can automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons of outer Earth's radiation belt using data from GEO and LEO as input. As an example of LEO data we consider data from Vernov mission, which was launched into solar-synchronous orbit (altitude 640 - 83 0 km, inclination 98.4°, orbital period about 100 min) on July 8, 2014 and began to receive scientific information since July 20, 2014. Vernov mission have provided studies of the Earth's radiation belt relativistic electron precipitation and its possible connection with atmosphere transient luminous events, as well as the solar hard X-ray and gamma-emission measurements. Radiation and electromagnetic environment monitoring in the near-Earth Space, which is very important for space weather study, was also realised

  17. The interventional radiology business plan.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Michael V; Meek, Mary E; Kaufman, John A

    2012-09-01

    Strategic planning and business planning are processes commonly employed by organizations that exist in competitive environments. Although it is difficult to prove a causal relationship between formal strategic/business planning and positive organizational performance, there is broad agreement that formal strategic and business plans are components of successful organizations. The various elements of strategic plans and business plans are not common in the vernacular of practicing physicians. As health care becomes more competitive, familiarity with these tools may grow in importance. Herein we provide an overview of formal strategic and business planning, and offer a roadmap for an interventional radiology-specific plan that may be useful for organizations confronting competitive and financial threats.

  18. Advancing Acquisition of Business Know-How: Critical Learning Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lainema, Timo; Lainema, Kirsi

    2008-01-01

    The turbulent business environment requires business expertise from ever-larger personnel groups. The required business know-how is a combination of knowledge and several different skills, and it should provide the learners with an overall view of the functioning of a business organization as a whole. Moreover, while work is increasingly becoming…

  19. Classroom Strategies: The Methodology of Business Education. National Business Education Yearbook, No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perreault, Heidi R., Ed.

    Designed for classroom teachers, this refereed yearbook includes examples, resources, and success stories to assist business educators to provide their students with the necessary skills for success in work and in life. Part I, Examining Business and Education Environments, contains the following chapters: "Business and Industry Need Qualified…

  20. The Englishnization of Business: Does This Help or Hinder Teaching Global Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Frank J.; Glasscock, Kip; Sen, Kabir C.

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has been one of the most important movements in business since the end of World War II. The business education establishment, as represented by the AACSB accreditation agency, has been struggling to get its member schools to properly prepare their graduates for this new global business environment. It has generally been conceded that…

  1. Business Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Genigraphics Corporation's Masterpiece 8770 FilmRecorder is an advanced high resolution system designed to improve and expand a company's in-house graphics production. GRAFTIME/software package was designed to allow office personnel with minimal training to produce professional level graphics for business communications and presentations. Products are no longer being manufactured.

  2. Business Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    A brief definition of some fundamentals of microcomputers and of the ways they may be used in small businesses can help potential buyers make informed purchases. Hardware (the mechanical devices from which computers are made) described here are the video display, keyboard, central processing unit, "random access" and "read only" memories, cassette…

  3. Unfinished Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Adult learning is not a tidy business: adults fit learning into the spaces left by the other demands on complex lives, and into the spaces left in administrative structures overwhelmingly designed for other people. No simple metric can capture adults' diverse purposes and achievements, and no single programme can capture the full range of things…

  4. Successful business process design. Business plan development for the occupational health services unit.

    PubMed

    Kalina, C M; Fitko, J

    1997-02-01

    1. The occupational health nurse is often mandated by management to validate health services offered and programs developed for employees as valuable to the business and company mission. 2. The business plan of the occupational health service is a working document, changing as needs of the client/customer and internal and external business and socio-economic environment evolve. 3. Alignment with and support of the company mission, goals, and objectives is another method of proving good occupational health is good business. 4. Business planning is a basic business tool the wise and prudent occupational health nurse can use in proving good occupational health is vital to the success of a company.

  5. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under an Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Symbiotics, Inc. developed a software system that permits users to upgrade products from standalone applications so they can communicate in a distributed computing environment. Under a subsequent NASA SBIR grant, Symbiotics added additional tools to the SOCIAL product to enable NASA to coordinate conventional systems for planning Shuttle launch support operations. Using SOCIAL, data may be shared among applications in a computer network even when the applications are written in different programming languages. The product was introduced to the commercial market in 1993 and is used to monitor and control equipment for operation support and to integrate financial networks. The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry. InQuisiX is a reuse library providing high performance classification, cataloging, searching, browsing, retrieval and synthesis capabilities. These form the foundation for software reuse, producing higher quality software at lower cost and in less time. Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. developed the technology under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects funded by NASA and the Army and is marketing InQuisiX in conjunction with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry.

  6. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 3 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). NASA has selected a team of industry partners to help develop a 'highway in the sky' system, a key element of the government-industry effort to revitalize general aviation in the United States. The team will complete hardware and software development of a totally new concept for presenting critical flight path guidance information to the pilot. The cockpit display system will include a computer-drawn highway that the pilot follows to a pre-programmed destination. The highway will be drawn on a highly intuitive, low-cost flat panel display -- the primary flight display of the future -- that will displace decades-old 'steam gauge' instrumentation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  7. Research of B2B e-Business Application and Development Technology Based on SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Li Liang

    Today, the B2B e-business systems in most enterprises usually have multiple heterogeneous and independent systems which are based on different platforms and operate in different functional departments. To deal with the increased services in future, an enterprise needs to expand its system continuously. This, however, will cause great inconvenience to the future system maintenance. To implement e-business successfully, a unified internal e-business integration environment must be established to integrate the internal system and thus realize a unified internal mechanism within the enterprise e-business system. The SOA (service-oriented architecture), however, can well meet the above requirements. The integration of SOA-based applications can reduce the dependency of different types of IT systems, reduce the cost of system maintenance and the complexity of the IT system operation, increase the flexibility of the system deployment, and at the same time exclude the barrier of service innovation. Research and application of SOA-based enterprise application systems has become a very important research project at present. Based on SOA, this document designs an enterprise e-business application model and realizes a flexible and expandable e-business platform.

  8. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  9. Liberty High School Transition Project: Model Process for Assimilating School, Community, Business, Government and Service Groups of the Least Restrictive Environment for Nondisabled and Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Michael K.

    The panel presentation traces the development of and describes the operation of a Brentwood (California) project to prepare approximately 75 severely disabled individuals, ages 12-22, to function in the least restrictive recreation/leisure, vocational, and general community environments. Transition Steering Committee developed such project…

  10. Business, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea

    1998-05-01

    The annual business meeting, which all members are encouraged to attend, will take place on Tuesday afternoon. Come enjoy the President's Ice Cream Party. Come meet new officers. Come nominate candidates for the Nominating Committee. The Nominating Committee is a very important body which provides the slate of candidates for the annual AAS election. Society business will be discussed briefly. Highlighting this meeting will be a panel discussion on: "How to Get Your Paper Published Promptly" Should I mention that Notable Authority Professor Hjalmar Sciatti hates me and my papers? When is it OK to start complaining that no report has arrived? Do I have to do everything the referee says? These and related questions will be addressed at the business meeting in a panel presentation by the editors of the three main AAS publications, Paul Hodge (AJ), Helmut Abt (ApJ), Alex Dalgarno (ApJ Letters), concerning the refereeing and editing process and how authors can interface with it most effectively. There will be time for questions and discussions toward the end, or you can send your questions in advance to askeds@aas.org, so that the most frequent ones can be covered in the presentations.

  11. Vulnerability of community businesses to environmental disasters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S

    2009-03-01

    Business plays important roles in community functioning. However, disaster research has been disproportionately focused on units of analysis such as families, households and government agencies. This paper synthesises the major findings within the business development research field and the disaster research field. It constructs a framework for evaluating business vulnerability to natural disasters. Our theoretical integration of the research conducted to date addresses five major issues. First, it defines the ways in which businesses are subject to the impacts of natural disasters. Second, it identifies the factors that determine the magnitude of business impacts after a disaster. Third, it identifies how and when businesses return to their pre-disaster level in the disaster stricken community. Fourth, it describes measures that can be taken by individual firms and community planners to reduce the impacts of environmental disasters. Fifth, it identifies needs for public policy and future research to reduce business vulnerability to environmental disasters.

  12. Impact of Growing Business on Software Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitina, Natalja; Kajko-Mattsson, Mira

    When growing their businesses, software organizations should not only put effort into developing and executing their business strategies, but also into managing and improving their internal software development processes and aligning them with business growth strategies. It is only in this way they may confirm that their businesses grow in a healthy and sustainable way. In this paper, we map out one software company's business growth on the course of its historical events and identify its impact on the company's software production processes and capabilities. The impact concerns benefits, challenges, problems and lessons learned. The most important lesson learned is that although business growth has become a stimulus for starting thinking and improving software processes, the organization lacked guidelines aiding it in and aligning it to business growth. Finally, the paper generates research questions providing a platform for future research.

  13. Navigating Disruptive Innovation in Undergraduate Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behara, Ravi S.; Davis, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    The undergraduate business education landscape is dramatically changing and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Many of the changes are being driven by increasing costs, advances in technology, rapid globalization, and an increasingly diverse workforce and customer base, and are occurring simultaneously in both the business world…

  14. Journal of Business and Training Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmann, Donna H., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This ninth issue contains seven articles dealing with research, theory, trends and issues, curriculum, teaching methodology, technology, and personal/professional development. "Attitudes of FBLA (Future Business Leaders of America) Students toward Traditional Business Values and the American Economic System" (Inder P. Nijihawan, Richard S. Ellis)…

  15. Teaching Business IT Ethics: A Professional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; Moynihan, Eddie; McWilliam, Jennie; Gresty, David

    2004-01-01

    In UK higher education a primary aim of business IT-related qualifications is the preparation of students for a relevant career. In this article we discuss an approach to teaching business IT ethics in a university context that prepares students for the ethical problems that they may meet in their future IT careers, and we demonstrate how this…

  16. Asynchronous Learning Forums for Business Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Christine Cope; Wulf, Catharina

    2009-01-01

    The use of IT as a facilitator for student collaboration in higher business education has grown rapidly since 2000. Asynchronous discussion forums are used abundantly for collaborative training purposes and for teaching students business-relevant tools for their future careers. This article presents an analysis of the asynchronous discussion forum…

  17. A Look at Business in 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on the Industrial World Ahead, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the program, papers, and discussions of the first conference exclusively concerned with the American business system and the first one on the future. Approximately 1,500 key business, labor, university, and government leaders met to consider the issues, challenges, and opportunities confronting the American private…

  18. Analysis of Brush Fire Scars in Semi-Arid Urban Environments: Implications for Future Fire and Flood Hazards Using Field and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misner, T.; Ramsey, M.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2002-12-01

    The number of forest fires has increased dramatically over the past five years in the western United States, due to both human and natural causes. These fires commonly expand rapidly as a function of vegetation, climate as well as past and present fire fighting practices. Many urban areas, such as Phoenix, AZ have experienced extreme population growth rates over the past 50 years. A majority of the development now occurring is in desert areas that have once burned, or are currently threatened by the potential of brush fires. These regions northeast of the city of Phoenix have experienced numerous fires over the past two decades that have been expensive to fight, and caused a considerable amount of property damage. This region is also currently targeted as one of the prime suburban growth corridors in a metropolitan area. As people expand into these environments there is an increased risk of fire, and the potential of subsequent flooding focused within the scars. Therefore, the ability to predict and control fires is increasingly important in these rapidly growing areas. Remote sensing together with detailed field data has been used to characterize areas scarred by past fires with the goal of assessing the risk for burning in the future. Space and airborne data from ASTER, Landsat ETM, SIR-C, TIMS and balloon-based cameras have been combined within a GIS model to characterize existing fire scars northeast of Phoenix, AZ. These data sets were used to quantify the relationship of fire scar age to vegetative recovery, and to determine the control of local topography on fire behavior. In addition, detailed field topographic surveys were combined with sediment trap data to contrast erosion rates in several burned and unburned catchments. Initial results imply a slightly higher erosion rate in the scars and therefore increased flooding risks. The combination of remote sensing data analyses with a GIS database, constrained by careful geomorphic and sedimentological

  19. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  20. The Past and Future Trends of Heat Stress Based On Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Outdoor Environment of Tehran City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    HABIBI MOHRAZ, Majid; GHAHRI, Asghar; KARIMI, Mehrdad; GOLBABAEI, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The workers who are working in the open and warm environments are at risk of health effects of climate and heat changes. It is expected that the risk is increase with global warming. This study aimed to investigate the changes of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index in the past and to predict their trend of future changes in Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods: The meteorological data recorded in Tehran, Iran during the statistical period between 1961 and 2009 were obtained from the Iran Meteorological Organization and based on them, WBGT index was calculated and processed using Man-Kendall correlation test. Results: The results of Man-Kendall correlation test showed that the trend of changes of annual mean WBGT during the statistical period under study (1961–2009) has been significantly increasing. In addition, the result of proposed predictive model estimated that an increase of about 1.55 degree in WBGT index will be seen over 40 years from 2009 to 2050 in Tehran. Conclusion: Climate change in Tehran has had an effect on person’s exposure to heat stresses consistent with global warming. PMID:27648423

  1. The Past and Future Trends of Heat Stress Based On Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Outdoor Environment of Tehran City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    HABIBI MOHRAZ, Majid; GHAHRI, Asghar; KARIMI, Mehrdad; GOLBABAEI, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The workers who are working in the open and warm environments are at risk of health effects of climate and heat changes. It is expected that the risk is increase with global warming. This study aimed to investigate the changes of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index in the past and to predict their trend of future changes in Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods: The meteorological data recorded in Tehran, Iran during the statistical period between 1961 and 2009 were obtained from the Iran Meteorological Organization and based on them, WBGT index was calculated and processed using Man-Kendall correlation test. Results: The results of Man-Kendall correlation test showed that the trend of changes of annual mean WBGT during the statistical period under study (1961–2009) has been significantly increasing. In addition, the result of proposed predictive model estimated that an increase of about 1.55 degree in WBGT index will be seen over 40 years from 2009 to 2050 in Tehran. Conclusion: Climate change in Tehran has had an effect on person’s exposure to heat stresses consistent with global warming.

  2. Improve processes on healthcare: current issues and future trends.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jason C H; Dolan, Matt; Lin, Binshan

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is a critical resource for improving today's business competitiveness. However, many healthcare providers do not proactively manage or improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their services with IT. Survival in a competitive business environment demands continuous improvements in quality and service, while rigorously maintaining core values. Electronic commerce continues its development, gaining ground as the preferred means of business transactions. Embracing e-healthcare and treating IT as a strategic tool to improve patient safety and the quality of care enables healthcare professionals to benefit from technology formerly used only for management purposes. Numerous improvement initiatives, introduced by both the federal government and the private sector, seek to better the status quo in IT. This paper examines the current IT climate using an enhanced "Built to Last" model, and comments on future IT strategies within the healthcare industry. PMID:18048217

  3. Business Intelligence Modeling in Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Davis, Rodney D.

    2005-01-01

    long-term benefits in support of the NASA objectives for simulation based acquisition, will improve the ability to assess architectural options verses safety/risk for future exploration systems, and will facilitate incorporation of operability as a systems design consideration, reducing overall life cycle cost for future systems. The future of business intelligence of space exploration will focus on the intelligent system-of-systems real-time enterprise. In present business intelligence, a number of technologies that are most relevant to space exploration are experiencing the greatest change. Emerging patterns of set of processes rather than organizational units leading to end-to-end automation is becoming a major objective of enterprise information technology. The cost element is a leading factor of future exploration systems.

  4. Business intelligence modeling in launch operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Davis, Rodney D.

    2005-05-01

    The future of business intelligence in space exploration will focus on the intelligent system-of-systems real-time enterprise. In present business intelligence, a number of technologies that are most relevant to space exploration are experiencing the greatest change. Emerging patterns of set of processes rather than organizational units leading to end-to-end automation is becoming a major objective of enterprise information technology. The cost element is a leading factor of future exploration systems. This technology project is to advance an integrated Planning and Management Simulation Model for evaluation of risks, costs, and reliability of launch systems from Earth to Orbit for Space Exploration. The approach builds on research done in the NASA ARC/KSC developed Virtual Test Bed (VTB) to integrate architectural, operations process, and mission simulations for the purpose of evaluating enterprise level strategies to reduce cost, improve systems operability, and reduce mission risks. The objectives are to understand the interdependency of architecture and process on recurring launch cost of operations, provide management a tool for assessing systems safety and dependability versus cost, and leverage lessons learned and empirical models from Shuttle and International Space Station to validate models applied to Exploration. The systems-of-systems concept is built to balance the conflicting objectives of safety, reliability, and process strategy in order to achieve long term sustainability. A planning and analysis test bed is needed for evaluation of enterprise level options and strategies for transit and launch systems as well as surface and orbital systems. This environment can also support agency simulation based acquisition process objectives. The technology development approach is based on the collaborative effort set forth in the VTB's integrating operations, process models, systems and environment models, and cost models as a comprehensive disciplined

  5. Designing a Futuristic Business Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Chiew Wye; Siraj, Saedah

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a discourse on the theoretical aspects underpinning the design of the Business Studies curriculum domain. It draws on recent shifts in the business and educational environment of Malaysia, and maps out the methodology and method for expanding and revamping the core ground of the discipline. Using the pragmatic worldview stance, this…

  6. Constructivist Pedagogy for the Business Communication Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Minu

    2007-01-01

    Business education and learning has become formidable and challenging over the last few years. A traditional learning environment is bereft of active learning where students only try to memorise terms and concepts and is unable to apply them to the real corporate world. It was found in the business communication classes that students fail to…

  7. Challenges in Cross-Cultural Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Alli; Ruggieri, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important and lasting legacies of the 20th century is globalization and the increased integration among countries and economies leading to more interactions among the peoples of different cultures. This effect has also percolated into the business environment and into the realm of business education. We have seen the…

  8. Moral Reasoning, Academic Dishonesty, and Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Leonard, Valorie M.; LeBrasseur, Rolland

    2012-01-01

    This study links moral reasoning, academic dishonesty, and business students. Undergraduate business students (N = 1357) from eight Ontario (Canada) universities responded to a survey to express their perceptions and expectations of their academic environment and the variables that can help them to understand what is morally right and what is…

  9. On Developing Business Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  10. Special Issue: Building Your Career Development e-Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Nine articles in this issue discuss how to develop a career development e-business, how e-business has expanded, creating a successful Web presence, doing business on the Internet, and how to take control of your career and future. (JOW)

  11. Business/Education Partnerships. ERIC Digest No. 156.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    Since the early 1980s, more and more businesses have been motivated to enter into business/education partnerships to improve the academic and technical skills of the future work force. In the one-to-one institutional partnership, the needs of one school and/or one business drive the agreement. As partnerships expand to involve multiple partners,…

  12. Integrated Contextual Learning: Situated Learning in the Business Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, John E.

    The Integrated Contextual Learning (ICL) alternative learning methodology is examined as to the impact it can have on the preparation of future managers. The state of business education is reviewed noting criticism that business schools are too theoretical and out of touch with business realities. The ICL is a methodology derivative of Reiterative…

  13. Rethinking Business Education as a Profession: Implications for Catholic Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Professional education importantly shapes the way future professionals understand their work and their identity as members of their professional field. Undergraduate business education does this by giving students an understanding of the nature and functions of business as well as what they may hope for from a business career, along with the…

  14. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  15. Visual business ecosystem intelligence: lessons from the field.

    PubMed

    Basole, Rahul C

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic insight into business ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. With the emergence of new digital business data, opportunities exist to develop rich, interactive visual-analytics tools. Georgia Institute of Technology researchers have been developing and implementing visual business ecosystem intelligence tools in corporate settings. This article discusses the challenges they faced, the lessons learned, and opportunities for future research.

  16. Personality, Perceived Environment, and Behavior Systems Related to Future Smoking Intentions among Youths: An Application of Problem-Behavior Theory in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Na, Li; He, Yaping; Redmon, Pam; Qiao, Yun; Ma, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking among youths is a worldwide problem, particularly in China. Many endogenous and environmental factors influence smokers’ intentions to smoke; therefore, a comprehensive model is needed to understand the significance and relationship of predictors. This study aimed to develop a prediction model based on problem-behavior theory (PBT) to interpret intentions to smoke among Chinese youths. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,675 adolescents from junior, senior, and vocational high schools in Shanghai, China. Data on smoking status, smoking knowledge, attitude toward smoking, parents’ and peers’ smoking, and media exposure to smoking were collected from students. A structural equation model was used to assess the developed prediction model. Results The experimental smoking rate and current smoking rate among the students were 11.0% and 3%, respectively. Our constructed model showed an acceptable fit to the data (comparative fit index = 0.987, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.034). Intention to smoke was predicted by perceived environment (β = 0.455, P < 0.001) system consisting of peer smoking (β = 0.599, P < 0.001), parent smoking (β = 0.152, P < 0.001), and media exposure to smoking (β = 0.226, P < 0.001), and behavior system (β = 0.487, P < 0.001) consisting of tobacco experimentation (β = 0.663, P < 0.001) and current smoking (β = 0.755, P < 0.001). Smoking intention was irrelevant for personality system in students (β = -0.113, P>0.05) which consisted of acceptance of tobacco use (β = 0.668, P < 0.001) and academic performance (β = 0.171, P < 0.001). Conclusion The PBT-based model we developed provides a good understanding of the predictors of intentions to smoke and it suggests future interventions among youths should focus on components in perceived environment and behavior systems, and take into account the moderating effects of personality system. PMID:25826611

  17. Assessing the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Allen

    A review of the past, the present, and the future offers an enlightening view of literacy in America. A 1967 issue of the "Illinois Journal of Education" has articles on phonics, linguistics, spelling, modalities of learning, disadvantaged children, vision screening and vision training, readiness, Montessori, partnerships between business and…

  18. Assessment of vulnerability to future marine processes of urbanized coastal environments by a GIS-based approach: expected scenario in the metropolitan area of Bari (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, F.; Ceppi, C.; Christopulos, V.

    2013-12-01

    Literature concerning the risk assessment procedures after extreme meteorological events is generally focused on the establishing of relationship between actual severe weather conditions and impact detected over the involved zones. Such an events are classified on the basis of measurements and observation able to assess the magnitude of phenomena or on the basis of related effects on the affected area, the latter being deeply connected with the overall physical vulnerability. However such assessment almost never do consider scenario about expected extreme event and possible pattern of urbanization at the time of impact and nor the spatial and temporal uncertainty of phenomena are taken into account. The drawn of future scenario about coastal vulnerability to marine processes is therefore difficult. This work focuses the study case of the Metropoli Terra di Bari (metropolitan area of Bari, Apulia, Italy) where a coastal vulnerability analysis due to climate changes expected on the basis of expert opinions coming from the scientific community was carried out. Several possible impacts on the coastal environments were considered, in particular sea level rise inundation, flooding due to storm surge and coastal erosion. For such a purpose the methodology base on SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario) produced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) was adopted after a regionalization procedure as carried out by Verburgh and others (2006) at the European scale. The open source software SLEUTH, base on the cellular automate principle, was used and the reliability of obtained scenario verified through the Monte Carlo method. Once these scenario were produced, a GIS-based multicriteria methodology was implemented to evaluate the vulnerability of the urbanized coastal area of interest. Several vulnerability maps related are therefore available for different scenario able to consider the degree of hazards and potential development of the typology and extent

  19. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  20. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  1. Quality Measures for Digital Business Ecosystems Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Muhammad; Hussain, Farookh Khadeer; Chang, Elizabeth

    To execute a complex business task, business entities may need to collaborate with each other as individually they may not have the capability or willingness to perform the task on its own. Such collaboration can be seen implemented in digital business ecosystems in the form of simple coalitions using multi-agent systems or by employing Electronic Institutions. A major challenge is choosing optimal partners who will deliver the agreed commitments, and act in the coalition’s interest. Business entities are scaled according to their quality level. Determining the quality of previously unknown business entities and predicting the quality of such an entity in a dynamic environment are crucial issues in Business Ecosystems. A comprehensive quality management system grounded in the concepts of Trust and Reputation can help address these issues.

  2. 40 CFR 52.991 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.991 Small business assistance... a Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance Program to...

  3. 40 CFR 52.183 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arkansas § 52.183 Small business assistance... a Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance...

  4. 40 CFR 1603.6 - Business requiring a meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business requiring a meeting. 1603.6... THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1603.6 Business requiring a meeting. The Board may, by majority vote of its Members, determine that particular items or classes of Board business cannot...

  5. 40 CFR 704.7 - Confidential business information claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential business information... Provisions for Section 8(a) Information-Gathering Rules § 704.7 Confidential business information claims. (a) Any person submitting a notice under this rule may assert a business confidentiality claim...

  6. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  7. 40 CFR 52.183 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arkansas § 52.183 Small business assistance... a Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance...

  8. 40 CFR 704.7 - Confidential business information claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Confidential business information... Provisions for Section 8(a) Information-Gathering Rules § 704.7 Confidential business information claims. (a) Any person submitting a notice under this rule may assert a business confidentiality claim...

  9. 40 CFR 52.991 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.991 Small business assistance... a Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance Program to...

  10. 40 CFR 52.183 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arkansas § 52.183 Small business assistance... a Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance...

  11. 40 CFR 52.991 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.991 Small business assistance... a Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance Program to...

  12. 40 CFR 1603.6 - Business requiring a meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business requiring a meeting. 1603.6... THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1603.6 Business requiring a meeting. The Board may, by majority vote of its Members, determine that particular items or classes of Board business cannot...

  13. 40 CFR 704.7 - Confidential business information claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Confidential business information... Provisions for Section 8(a) Information-Gathering Rules § 704.7 Confidential business information claims. (a) Any person submitting a notice under this rule may assert a business confidentiality claim...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1935 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1935 Small business... implement a Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance Program...

  15. 40 CFR 52.183 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arkansas § 52.183 Small business assistance... a Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance...

  16. 40 CFR 52.991 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.991 Small business assistance... a Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance Program to...

  17. Creating a Course in Global Business Ethics: A Modest Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooge, Lucien J.

    2011-01-01

    The College of Management at the Georgia Institute of Technology has placed more emphasis on the topic of business ethics in the past few years. Business ethics has always been a required component of the legal environment of business course whether taught at the undergraduate or graduate levels. More recently, the college has introduced an…

  18. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

  19. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  20. From Business Dining to Public Speaking: Tips for Acquiring Professional Presence and Its Role in the Business Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Anna Nicholson

    2010-01-01

    In today's dynamic business environment, organizations are beginning to realize the importance of teaching business etiquette, not only to enhance their corporate culture, but also to increase productivity and profitability. Corporations are providing opportunities for executives of today and business leaders of tomorrow to acquire these vital…

  1. Risky business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Jessica

    2008-04-01

    Riccardo Rebonato is a man with a clear and deep understanding of the most complex elements of the financial markets. His first book, Interest Rate Option Models, was one of the earliest proper mathematical texts on the complexities of "interest rate options" - investment tools in which the pay-offs depend on the future level of interest rates - and it is still relevant today. But is he the right person to write a book, without equations, about the fundamental problems underlying risk management in the markets? Before I opened Plight of the Fortune Tellers I have to confess to being dubious.

  2. A Technology Plan for Enabling Commercial Space Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry M.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Space Transportation Program is a customer driven, focused technology program that supports the NASA Strategic Plan and considers future commercial space business projections. The initial cycle of the Advanced Space Transportation Program implementation planning was conducted from December 1995 through February 1996 and represented increased NASA emphasis on broad base technology development with the goal of dramatic reductions in the cost of space transportation. The second planning cycle, conducted in January and February 1997, updated the program implementation plan based on changes in the external environment, increased maturity of advanced concept studies, and current technology assessments. The program has taken a business-like approach to technology development with a balanced portfolio of near, medium, and long-term strategic targets. Strategic targets are influenced by Earth science, space science, and exploration objectives as well as commercial space markets. Commercial space markets include those that would be enhanced by lower cost transportation as well as potential markets resulting in major increases in space business induced by reductions in transportation cost. The program plan addresses earth-to-orbit space launch, earth orbit operations and deep space systems. It also addresses all critical transportation system elements; including structures, thermal protection systems, propulsion, avionics, and operations. As these technologies are matured, integrated technology flight experiments such as the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator programs support near-term (one to five years) development or operational decisions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program and the flight demonstrator programs combine business planning, ground-based technology demonstrations and flight demonstrations that will permit industry and NASA to commit to revolutionary new space transportation systems

  3. Internationalizing the Business School Curriculum by Internationalizing the Business School Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cima, Lawrence R.; Daley, James M.

    In order to meet the challenge of today's global business environment and accreditation requirements for "internationalization," the School of Business at John Carroll University in Ohio undertook a 2-year project to enhance the internationalization of its faculty. The core of the project involved a set of on-site workshops on curriculum…

  4. The Just in Time Approach To Effectively Use Business Software in College Business Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Brian R.

    The skills necessary to compete in a fast paced business environment--critical thinking, risk taking, team building, project management, and others--are not and cannot be addressed in the traditional delivery of an undergraduate business course. The Ohio University-Lancaster Management program uses a project based, just-in-time (JIT) approach to…

  5. Redesigning the Traditional Business Gaming Process: Aiming to Capture Business Process Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lainema, Timo

    2004-01-01

    The constantly changing business environment has forced many organizations to move away from focusing on individual tasks and functions to focusing on more integrated and coordinated ways of work. Higher-level business and information systems (IS) education is also in a state of change, as the traditional curriculum does not coincide with business…

  6. The Business of Testing.

    PubMed

    Jolosky, Theo; Watson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was a brilliant man: erudite, thoughtful, confident, deliberate, and curious. He was an integrative thinker. It is widely known how these characteristics manifested themselves in his landmark work in the areas of personality theory, personality development, and personality assessment. What is likely less well known is that he displayed these same characteristics in and to the world of business; in particular, his relationships with those who published and distributed his assessment measures. This article traces those relationships. Various components are explored, ranging from product development to product marketing, from the protection of intellectual property to the development and execution of contracts, from deciding how and when to revise a test to ensuring that his legacy continues long into the future. Although the primary dynamic of these relationships was commercial, the reasons for their success were personal. Common goals, clarity of communication, persistence, respect, and trust allowed these relationships to develop, prosper, evolve, and endure. PMID:26473457

  7. The Business of Testing.

    PubMed

    Jolosky, Theo; Watson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was a brilliant man: erudite, thoughtful, confident, deliberate, and curious. He was an integrative thinker. It is widely known how these characteristics manifested themselves in his landmark work in the areas of personality theory, personality development, and personality assessment. What is likely less well known is that he displayed these same characteristics in and to the world of business; in particular, his relationships with those who published and distributed his assessment measures. This article traces those relationships. Various components are explored, ranging from product development to product marketing, from the protection of intellectual property to the development and execution of contracts, from deciding how and when to revise a test to ensuring that his legacy continues long into the future. Although the primary dynamic of these relationships was commercial, the reasons for their success were personal. Common goals, clarity of communication, persistence, respect, and trust allowed these relationships to develop, prosper, evolve, and endure.

  8. Business Intelligence in Hospital Management.

    PubMed

    Escher, Achim; Hainc, Nicolin; Boll, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) is a worthwhile investment, and will play a significant role in hospital management in the near future. Implementation of BI is challenging and requires resources, skills, and a strategy, but enables management to have easy access to relevant analysis of data and visualization of important key performance indicators (KPI). Modern BI applications will help to overcome shortages of common "hand-made" analysis, save time and money, and will enable even managers to do "self-service" analysis and reporting.

  9. Toward an International Partnership: Business Activities and the Foreign Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kitzie

    1987-01-01

    Recommendations for integrating instruction in business and foreign languages to prepare future business workers to deal with increasing need for international business-related exchange include: exchange with business instructors abroad; insight into other countries' cultural traditions; and exposure to native speakers. (CB)

  10. Telecommunications Options Connect OCLC and Libraries to the Future: The Co-Evolution of OCLC Connectivity Options and the Library Computing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    1998-01-01

    The Online Computer Library Center's (OCLC) access options have kept pace with the evolving trends in telecommunications and the library computing environment. As libraries deploy microcomputers and develop networks, OCLC offers access methods consistent with these environments. OCLC works toward reorienting its network paradigm through TCP/IP…

  11. Oil-particle interactions and submergence from crude oil spills in marine and freshwater environments: review of the science and future research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Boufadel, Michael C.; Johnson, Rex; Lee, Kenneth W.; Graan, Thomas P.; Bejarano, Adriana C.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Waterman, David; Capone, Daniel M.; Hayter, Earl; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Dekker, Timothy; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Hassan, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about oil-particle interactions in coastal marine environments, there remains a need for additional science on methods to detect and quantify the presence of OPAs and to understand their effects on containment and recovery of oil spilled under various temperature regimes and in different aquatic habitats including freshwater environments.

  12. The ecological research needs of business.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-04-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services.We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK's Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector.Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement.Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses' impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses.Business

  13. The ecological research needs of business.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-04-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services.We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK's Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector.Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement.Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses' impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses.Business

  14. The future of employment-based health insurance.

    PubMed

    Battistella, R; Burchfield, D

    2000-01-01

    A transformation of employment-connected health insurance from a defined benefit to defined contribution arrangement is projected based on new economic realities affecting the competitiveness of the business environment. This article discusses those new realities along with the future of employment-based health insurance. The business of American business is profits, but, to the detriment of that goal, for the past half century business has also been in the business of providing health insurance for workers. However, in light of previously unencountered pressures on profits, employers are realizing they cannot afford to continue the practice of paying for and overseeing the provision of healthcare benefits to employees amid increasing premiums, state and federal mandates, the overbearing cost of managing healthcare benefits, and the threat of loss of protection under ERISA. Yet, the political and social pressures on businesses to continue to provide health insurance are formidable, perhaps impregnable, barriers to complete withdrawal of what has come to be thought of as a "right" of employees. Companies are anxious to find alternatives to the status quo, but any feasible alternative must cost less, require less administrative oversight, and ensure that employees still maintain a measure of choice. Two possible solutions for American businesses are adoption of (1) a "medical savings account" system, or (2) a "voucher" system. Either system would result in lower costs and greater fiscal stability for both employers and employees. They would also remove much of the responsibility for healthcare decisions from employers and place it in the hands of the employees. But, perhaps the greatest contribution of either system would be the reduction in moral hazard and its inflationary effect on medical costs. PMID:11066952

  15. Missing variables: how exclusion of human resources policy information confounds research connecting health and business outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Wendy D; Sherman, Bruce W

    2014-01-01

    When corporate health researchers examine the effects of health on business outcomes or the effect of health interventions on health and business outcomes, results will necessarily be confounded by the corporate environment(s) in which they are studied. In this research setting, most studies control for factors traditionally identified in public health, such as demographics and health status. Nevertheless, often overlooked is the extent to which company policies can also independently impact health care cost, work attendance, and productivity outcomes. With changes in employment and benefits practices resulting from health care reform, including incentives and plan design options, consideration of these largely neglected variables in research design has become increasingly important. This commentary summarizes existing knowledge regarding the implications of policy variations in research outcomes and provides a framework for incorporating them into future employer-based research.

  16. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Kennedy Space Center, EIC Laboratories invented a Raman Spectrograph with fiber optic sampling for space applications such as sensing hazardous fuel vapors and making on-board rapid analyses of chemicals and minerals. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based measurement technique that provides through a unique vibrational spectrum a molecular 'fingerprint,' and can function in aqueous environments. EIC combined optical fiber technology with Raman methods to develop sensors that can be operated at a distance from the spectrographic analysis instruments and the laser excitation source. EIC refined and commercialized the technology to create the Fiber Optic Raman Spectrograph and the RamanProbe. Commercial applications range from process control to monitoring hazardous materials.

  17. Child health: a legitimate business concern.

    PubMed

    Major, Debra A; Cardenas, Rebekah A; Allard, Carolyn B

    2004-10-01

    This article reviews evidence substantiating the relationship between child health and business outcomes and evaluates literature regarding organizational interventions that benefit child health and reduce associated costs. The review focuses on 4 family-friendly initiatives, including prenatal programs, lactation programs, sick child care, and flexible working arrangements, and considers 4 business outcomes, specifically health care costs, face time, productive time, and employer attractiveness. Limitations of previous research are discussed, and preventive and reactive models of the relationship between child health and business outcomes are developed as guides for future research.

  18. Detection and Characterization of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment: Current State-of-the-art and Future Directions Report, Annotated Bibliography, and Image Library

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing manufacture and implementation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) will continue to lead to the release of these materials into the environment. Reliably assessing the environmental exposure risk of ENMs will depend highly on the ability to quantify and characterize...

  19. The ecological research needs of business

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-01-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services. We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector. Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement. Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses’ impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses

  20. Careful Planning: The Fundraising Edge [and] A Twelve-Step Program for Stronger Grant Proposals [and] Business-School Partnerships: Future Media Center Funding Sources [and] Rakin' in the Clams... Or, How to Make Lots of Cash from Renting Best-Sellers [and] The Book Business: The Bookstore as an Alternative Funding Source for the Public Library [and] Friends of the Library Book Sales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumerford, Steve; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents six articles addressing various methods and concerns for raising funds for public, academic, and school libraries, including raising money from corporations, foundations, and individuals; the process of writing grant proposals; local business/school partnerships; rental programs for bestsellers; bookstores/giftshops; and friends of the…

  1. Business Value Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, Artem; Duarte, Vasco

    Agile teams want to deliver maximum business value. That’s easy if the on-site Ccstomer assigns business value to each story. But how does the customer do that? How can you estimate business value? This workshop is run as a game, where teams have to make tough business decisions for their ”organizations”. Teams have to decide which orders to take and what to deliver first in order to earn more. The session gives the participants basic business value estimation techniques, but the main point is to make people live through the business situation and to help them feel the consequences of various choices.

  2. A Comparative Study of Ethical Values of Business Students: American vs. Middle Eastern Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurden, Michael; Shurden, Susan; Cagwin, Douglass

    2008-01-01

    Business schools must prepare students to face the world and yet maintain strong ethical convictions. The question of ethics in the business environment is not exclusive to the United States. Ethical business behavior is a multinational issue, and all business schools world-wide must deal with this issue. However, cultural differences often define…

  3. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  4. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management. PMID:27513336

  5. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security.

    PubMed

    Kriticos, Darren J; Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management. PMID:27513336

  6. Business-to-business: Buying Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millberg, Laura

    1994-01-01

    A survey of Minnesota businesses about their efforts to buy recycled content products. Results discuss reactive versus proactive policies, the corporate advantage of environmental protection, how efforts are hampered by confusion, suppliers as key informants, and businesses' need for information. (MDH)

  7. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  8. The Rising Tide of Estuary English: The Changing Nature of Oral British Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    1995-01-01

    Defines "Estuary English," a fast-growing accent of British English that is spreading across England. Discusses its usage in the British business community; its acceptability and future; and its implications for business communicators, teachers, and consultants. (SR)

  9. Future of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  10. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  11. The Link: Business, Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1984

    1984-01-01

    An excerpt from "Corporate and Campus Cooperation: An Action Agenda" (a report from the Business-Higher Education Forum) explains some methods for strengthening the link between the business and education communities. (Author/MLW)

  12. Our World, Our Future: Bilingual Activities on Population and the Environment = Nuestro Mundo, Nuestro Futuro: Actividades Bilingues Acerca de la Poblacion y el Medio Ambiente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This bilingual activity guide helps to develop students' understandings of the interdependence of people and the environment. Interdisciplinary resources are provided featuring environmental education lessons with applications to the social studies, science, math, and family life education curricula. It is designed for the middle school level, but…

  13. The regulatory environment past and future--incentive or impediment to developments in food science and technology: a perspective from FDA.

    PubMed

    Shank, F R; Carson, K

    1994-01-01

    The best system for protecting public health is one that involves two layers of control before food reaches the consumer. The first layer of control is the industry's clear responsibility to prepare food that is safe. The second layer of control is the monitoring that is provided by government to ensure that the industry is doing its job and is in fact producing safe food. While some may view this "second layer" as an impediment in the development and marketing of new technologies, there is another way to look at the "regulatory environment". The regulatory environment itself, is not an impediment to the development of food science and technology. The regulatory environment, with all its components--scientists, consumers, industry, and Congress--defines "safety" within the context of today's technology, scientific capability, and tolerance level of the lay public. The entire regulatory environment serves to guide the development of food science and technology by providing signposts, in the form of scientifically sound regulatory decisions. The scientific basis of these decisions becomes building blocks on which to rest further refinement of the technology, product, ingredient, or packaging material or on which research in related technologies or research in innovative directions can build. This scientific groundwork becomes very important as more and more companies move away from having self-contained research laboratories toward using commercial laboratories and academic institutions, as well as participating in cooperative research endeavors to meet food safety and product development research needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Business System Planning Project, Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-10-30

    The CHG Chief Information Officer (CIO) requested a study of alternatives to the current business system computing environment. This Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project Alternatives Analysis document presents an analysis of the current Project Controls, Work Management, and Business Management systems environment and alternative solutions that support the business functions. The project team has collected requirements and priorities from stakeholders in each business area and documented them in the BSP System Requirements Specification (SRS), RPP-6297. The alternatives analysis process identifies and measures possible solutions in each of the business process areas against the requirements as documented in the SRS. The team gathered input from both internal and external sources to identify and grade the possible solutions. This document captures the results of that activity and recommends a suite of software products. This study was to select the best product based on how well the product met the requirements, not to determine the platform or hardware environment that would be used. Additional analysis documentation can be found in BSP project files.

  15. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  16. Discovering the Business Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous business schools have begun experimenting with studio-based inquiry, often drawing inspiration from professional studios used within art and design schools and from business and governmental studios used for problem-solving and innovation. Business school studios vary considerably in form, ranging from temporary…

  17. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Because many U.S. businesses and companies want to do business with NASA, the Agency sends out procurement specialists to trade shows and conferences and organizes seminars to educate the business public on how to get on procurement lists to become product and service providers to the federal government.

  18. Articulating Business Education Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Beryl C.

    1998-01-01

    Responses from 75 of 108 business educators indicated that most students took business courses to develop both job and personal-use skills; more than 50% were college bound. A substantial overlap between skills taught in secondary and postsecondary business shows a strong possibility for curriculum articulation. (SK)

  19. Business and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchie, Lisa

    By virtue of the different natures of the two institutions, the relationship between business and the media is simultaneously adversarial and symbiotic: the media see themselves as society's watchdog while business sees itself as society's driving economic force. Meanwhile, business relies on the media for information, and the media rely on…

  20. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  1. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  2. The Business Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha; Meggison, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The business education curriculum encompasses the educational experiences of business students at all levels. Business education curricula include a variety of programs, courses, units, course objectives, student competencies, assessments, and extracurricular activities that have evolved over the years. Curricula are driven by numerous internal…

  3. First Business Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Business Development.

    This guide offers first-time business persons information as well as administrative and operational techniques for one-person business enterprises that have low initial start-up costs and low operational and overhead costs. These one-person businesses can be home based or have site locations outside the home. Included in this guide is a list of…

  4. Partnering with Business Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Many career and technical education (CTE) programs rely heavily on support from the business community to serve their students. However, there is very little information available on building solid business-education partnerships. Most people in the business world will say that they care about education, but how can educators find the people…

  5. Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Nanomaterials: Challenges and Future Needs

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Paresh Chandra; Yu, Hongtao; Fu, Peter P.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has gained a great deal of public interest due to the needs and applications of nanomaterials in many areas of human endeavors including industry, agriculture, business, medicine and public health. Environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitable as nanomaterials become part of our daily life, and as a result, nanotoxicity research is gaining attention. This review presents a summary of recent research efforts on fate, behavior and toxicity of different classes of nanomaterials in the environment. A critical evaluation of challenges and future needs for the safe environmental nanotechnology has been discussed. PMID:19204862

  6. Water use efficiency and crop water balance of rainfed wheat in a semi-arid environment: sensitivity of future changes to projected climate changes and soil type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yanmin; Liu, De Li; Anwar, Muhuddin Rajin; O'Leary, Garry; Macadam, Ian; Yang, Yonghui

    2016-02-01

    Wheat production is expected to be affected by climate change through changing components of the crop water balance such as rainfall, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff and drainage. We used the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-wheat model to simulate the potential impact of climate change on field water balance, ET and water use efficiency (WUE) under the SRES A2 emissions scenario. We ran APSIM with daily climate data statistically downscaled from 18 Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Twelve soil types of varying plant available water holding capacity (PAWC) at six sites across semi-arid southeastern Australia were considered. Biases in the GCM-simulated climate data were bias-corrected against observations for the 1961-1999 baseline period. However, biases in the APSIM output data relative to APSIM simulations forced with climate observations remained. A secondary bias correction was therefore performed on the APSIM outputs. Bias-corrected APSIM outputs for a future period (2021-2040) were compared with APSIM outputs generated using observations for the baseline period to obtain future changes. The results show that effective rainfall was decreased over all sites due to decreased growing season rainfall. ET was decreased through reduced soil evaporation and crop transpiration. There were no significant changes in runoff at any site. The variation in deep drainage between sites was much greater than for runoff, ranging from less than a few millimetres at the drier sites to over 100 mm at the wetter. However, in general, the averaged drainage over different soil types were not significantly different between the baseline (1961-1999) and future period of 2021-2040 ( P > 0.05). For the wetter sites, the variations in the future changes in drainage and runoff between the 18 GCMs were larger than those of the drier sites. At the dry sites, the variation in drainage decreased as PAWC increased. Overall, water use efficiency based on transpiration (WUE

  7. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future...

  8. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future...

  9. Early establishment response of different Pinus nigra ssp. salzmanii seed sources on contrasting environments: Implications for future reforestation programs and assisted population migration.

    PubMed

    Taïbi, K; del Campo, A D; Aguado, A; Mulet, J M

    2016-04-15

    Forest restoration constitutes an important issue within adaptive environmental management for climate change at global scale. However, effective implementation of these programs can only be achieved by revising current seed transfer guidelines, as they lack inherent spatial and temporal dynamics associated with climate change. In this sense, provenance trials may provide key information on the relative performance of different populations and/or genotypes under changing ecological conditions. This study addresses a methodological approach to evaluate early plantation performance and the consequent phenotypic plasticity and the pattern of the adaptation of different seed sources in contrasting environments. To this end, six seed sources of Salzmann pine were tested at three contrasting trial sites testing a hypothetical assisted population migration. Adaptation at each site was assessed through Joint Regression and Additive Main effect and Multiplication Interaction (AMMI) models. Most of the observed variation was attributed to the environment (above 90% for all traits), even so genotype and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) were significant. Seedlings out-planted under better site conditions did not differ in survival but in height growth. However, on sites with higher constraints, survival differed among seed sources and diameter growth was high. The adaptation analyses (AMMI) indicated that the cold-continental seed source 'Soria' performed as a generalist seed source, whereas 'Cordilleras Béticas', the southernmost seed source, was more adapted to harsh environments (frost and drought) in terms of survival. The results supported partially the hypothesis that assisted migration of seed sources makes sense within limited transfer distances, and this was reinforced by the GxE results. The present study could be valuable to address adaptive transfer of seedings in ecological restoration and to determine the suitable seed sources for reforestation programs

  10. Translating climate data for business decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, N.

    2015-12-01

    Businesses are bound to play an integral role in global and local climate change adaptation efforts, and integrating climate science into business decision-making can help protect companies' bottom-line and the communities which they depend upon. Yet many companies do not have good means to measure and manage climate risks. There are inherent limiting factors to incorporating climate data into existing operations and sourcing strategies. Spatial and temporal incongruities between climate and business models can make integration cumbersome. Even when such incongruities are resolved, raw climate data must undergo multiple transformations until the data is deemed actionable or otherwise translatable in dollar terms. However, the predictability of future impacts is advancing along with the use of second-order variables such as Cooling Degree Days and Water-Limited Crop productivity, helping business managers make better decisions about future energy and water demand requirements under the prospect of rising temperatures and more variable rainfall. This presentation will discuss the methods and opportunities for transforming raw climate data into business metrics. Results for the 2015 Corporate Adaptation Survey, led by Four Twenty Seven and in partnership with Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index, will also be presented to illustrate existing gaps between climate science and its application in the business context.

  11. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  12. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  13. Employee motivation: quality versus business concerns.

    PubMed

    Gunn, R A; Kazemek, E A

    1986-03-01

    The traditional factors that influence employee motivation and morale remain important in healthcare organizations. However, the nursing staff tends to be more self-motivated than many employees in other occupations because of values that are intrinsic to the nursing profession. When the humanist values of the nursing profession conflict or compete with business values, erosion of nursing morale and motivation may result with attendant employee "burnout" that undermines the organization's business objectives. There are several steps that both management and nursing educators can take to lessen the cultural conflict and avert motivational breakdowns. The future may teach us that an ideal blend of business and humanist values may result in a situation where good business decisions are good humanist decisions, and vice versa.

  14. Employee motivation: quality versus business concerns.

    PubMed

    Gunn, R A; Kazemek, E A

    1986-03-01

    The traditional factors that influence employee motivation and morale remain important in healthcare organizations. However, the nursing staff tends to be more self-motivated than many employees in other occupations because of values that are intrinsic to the nursing profession. When the humanist values of the nursing profession conflict or compete with business values, erosion of nursing morale and motivation may result with attendant employee "burnout" that undermines the organization's business objectives. There are several steps that both management and nursing educators can take to lessen the cultural conflict and avert motivational breakdowns. The future may teach us that an ideal blend of business and humanist values may result in a situation where good business decisions are good humanist decisions, and vice versa. PMID:10275455

  15. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  16. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  17. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three...

  18. The Four Challenges to Succeeding in a Family Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Notes four challenges faced by every family-owned day care center: keeping the business from consuming family time; sharing responsibility among family members; involving the next generation; and planning the future of the business. Provides tips based on insights from 18 day care center owners (husbands and wives) on dealing with these…

  19. 17 CFR 23.603 - Business continuity and disaster recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... disaster recovery. 23.603 Section 23.603 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING....603 Business continuity and disaster recovery. (a) Business continuity and disaster recovery plan... continuity and disaster recovery plan that outlines the procedures to be followed in the event of...

  20. 17 CFR 23.603 - Business continuity and disaster recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... disaster recovery. 23.603 Section 23.603 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING....603 Business continuity and disaster recovery. (a) Business continuity and disaster recovery plan... continuity and disaster recovery plan that outlines the procedures to be followed in the event of...

  1. Improving Computer Literacy of Business Management Majors: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Bartholomew, Kimberly W.; Miller, Duane

    2006-01-01

    Stakeholders, such as future employers, parents, and educators, have raised their expectations of college graduates in the area of computer literacy. Computer skills and understanding are especially critical for business management graduates, who are expected to use computer technology as a tool in every aspect of their career. Business students…

  2. 7 CFR 1980.490 - Business and industry buydown loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., gambling, or golf courses. (5) Meat processing facilities. The provisions of § 1980.411 (a)(8) of this... guaranteed for businesses engaged in meat or poultry processing. (i) Small Business Administration. Section... operate successfully in the future, the proposed loan may be approved even if disaster losses have...

  3. Understanding the Business of Library Acquisitions. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Karen A., Ed.

    This expanded edition provides new information about successfully managing library acquisitions. Chapters include: "Acquisitions, the Organization, and the Future" (Carol Pitts Diedrichs and Karen A. Schmidt); "The Business of Book Publishing" (Patricia Glass Schuman and Charles Harmon); "The Business of Scholarly Journal Publishing" (Gary J.…

  4. Changing the Learning Environment in the College of Engineering and Applied Science: The impact of Educational Training on Future Faculty and Student- Centered Pedagogy on Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskins, Whitney

    Over the past 20 years there have been many changes to the primary and secondary educational system that have impacted students, teachers, and post-secondary institutions across the United States of America. One of the most important is the large number of standardized tests students are required to take to show adequate performance in school. Students think differently because they are taught differently due to this focus on standardized testing, thus changing the skill sets students acquire in secondary school. This presents a critical problem for colleges and universities, as they now are using practices for and have expectations of these students that are unrealistic for the changing times. High dropout rates in the College of Engineering have been attributed to the cultural atmosphere of the institution. Students have reported a low sense of belonging and low relatability to course material. This study developed a "preparing the future" faculty program that gave graduate students at the University of Cincinnati a unique training experience that helped them understand the students they will educate. They received educational training, developed from a future educator's curriculum that covered classroom management, standards, and pedagogy. Graduate students who participated in the training program reported increases in self-efficacy and student understanding. To reduce negative experiences and increase motivation, Challenge Based Learning (CBL) was introduced in an undergraduate Basic Electric Circuits (BEC) course. CBL is a structured model for course content with a foundation in problem-based learning. CBL offers general concepts from which students derive the challenges they will address. Results show an improved classroom experience for students who were taught with CBL.

  5. Technology, Methodology, and Business Education. National Business Education Association Yearbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remp, Ann M., Ed.

    This document contains 20 papers on the challenges that business educators face in integrating technology into the learning environment. The following papers are included: "Teaching in a Dynamic Technology Environment: An Overview and Introduction" (Ann M. Remp); "Learners and Technology: Experience, Attitudes, and Expectations" (Jim Rucker,…

  6. Business Intelligence in Hospital Management.

    PubMed

    Escher, Achim; Hainc, Nicolin; Boll, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) is a worthwhile investment, and will play a significant role in hospital management in the near future. Implementation of BI is challenging and requires resources, skills, and a strategy, but enables management to have easy access to relevant analysis of data and visualization of important key performance indicators (KPI). Modern BI applications will help to overcome shortages of common "hand-made" analysis, save time and money, and will enable even managers to do "self-service" analysis and reporting. PMID:27514111

  7. Business involvement in science education

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, P.

    1995-12-31

    Science and math education in grades K through 12 directly affects America`s ability to meet tomorrow`s challenges. If America is to stay competitive in the world, we will need highly qualified scientists and engineers in industry and government and at universities. Jobs of the future will require greater technical and mathematical literacy than jobs of the past. Our goal is both to improve the quality of science education and to encourage more students to pursue science careers. General Atomics, a privately held research and development company, has joined the growing list of businesses that are committed to helping educators prepare students to meet these challenges.

  8. The Greening of a Business School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Describes the University of South Alabama's program of envirotech student internships in Latin America. Encourages business schools to reshape the anti-environmental attitudes prevalent in present and future managers by demonstrating how "green" can be profitable, especially in the international arena, through outcome-oriented instruction. (AIM)

  9. Small Business Training Models for Community Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellison, Holly M., Ed.

    Nine successful community college programs for small business management training are described in this report in terms of their college and economic context, purpose, offerings, delivery modes, operating and marketing strategies, community outreach, support services, faculty and staff, evaluation, and future directions. The model programs are…

  10. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  11. The Escalation of Business as Usual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchman, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    An academic plan is a business plan disguised in the regalia donned for significant public ceremonies--black cap and gown, colorful hood, and, of course, gold tassel. Several years ago, the University of Connecticut started to plan for the economic disaster that was at the time so obviously in the future of higher education institutions. A formal…

  12. Business Communications in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Gordon F.

    The use of telecommunications to expedite business communications in the "office of the future" is addressed in this paper. After briefly describing the development of the telephone industry and its response to consumer needs, the paper discusses the importance of information exchange through word processing, electronic mail, teleconferencing,…

  13. Futures Conditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    The readings presented here are designed to help the reader perceive the future more vividly. Part one of the book suggests the various ways in which the future can be seen; it includes science fiction and the views of various analysts as to what the future holds. Part two collects printed materials about the future from various sources, including…

  14. Results of induced atmosphere measurements from the Apollo program. [possible effects of the induced environment in the vicinity of manned spacecraft on future manned laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments on Apollo missions 15, 16, and 17 were utilized in an attempt to learn about the induced environment in the vicinity of manned spacecraft. Photographic sequences were examined to obtain scattered light data from the spacecraft-generated particulates during quiescence periods and after liquid dumps. The results allowed estimates of the obscuration factor and the clearing times after dumps. It was found that the clearing times were substantially longer than anticipated. The mass spectrometer detected a high molecular flux in lunar orbit which was induced by the spacecraft. It is shown that this is most likely caused by small ice crystals being continually produced in lunar orbit. Other data from the ultraviolet spectrometer and the stellar camera are also analyzed, and estimated values or upper limits are placed on the total scattering background, the size and number of particles generated, the velocity range, and the column density.

  15. The seasonal carbon and water balances of the Cerrado environment of Brazil: Past, present, and future influences of land cover and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes, Arielle Elias; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Coe, Michael T.

    2016-07-01

    The Brazilian savanna (known as Cerrado) is an upland biome made up of various vegetation types from herbaceous to arboreal. In this paper, MODIS remote sensing vegetation greenness from the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and evapotranspiration (ET) data for the 2000-2012 period were analyzed to understand the differences in the net primary productivity (NPP-proxy), carbon, and the evaporative flux of the major Cerrado natural and anthropic landscapes. The understanding of the carbon and evaporative fluxes of the main natural and anthropic vegetation types is of fundamental importance in studies regarding the impacts of land cover and land use changes in the regional and global climate. The seasonal dynamics of EVI and ET of the main natural and anthropic vegetation types of the Cerrado biome were analyzed using a total of 35 satellite-based samples distributed over representative Cerrado landscapes. Carbon and water fluxes were estimated for different scenarios, such as, a hypothetical unconverted Cerrado, 2002 and 2050 scenarios based on values derived from literature and on the PROBIO land cover and land use map for the Cerrado. The total growing season biomass for 2002 in the Cerrado region was estimated to be 28 gigatons of carbon and the evapotranspiration was 1336 gigatons of water. The mean estimated growing season evapotranspiration and biomass for 2002 was 576 Gt of water and 12 Gt of carbon for pasture and croplands compared to 760 Gt of water and 15 Gt of carbon for the Cerrado natural vegetation. In a modeled future scenario for the year 2050, the ET flux from natural Cerrado vegetation was 394 Gt less than in 2002 and 991 Gt less than in an unconverted scenario, with only natural vegetation, while the carbon was 8 Gt less than in 2002 and 21 Gt less than in this hypothetical pre-conversion Cerrado. On the other hand, the sum of the pasture and cropland ET flux increased by 405 Gt in 2050 relative to 2002 and the carbon by 11 Gt of carbon. Given the

  16. The Enterprise of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    Last year, IBM Corporation conducted a study to determine what the successful enterprise of the future would look like. Its research was based on surveys of 1,130 CEOs, general managers, and senior public sector and business leaders from around the world. A few college and university presidents also were asked to participate. After 30 years as a…

  17. The Future Problem Solving Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

  18. Uranium, its impact on the national and global energy mix; and its history, distribution, production, nuclear fuel-cycle, future, and relation to the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1997-01-01

    The many aspects of uranium, a heavy radioactive metal used to generate electricity throughout the world, are briefly described in relatively simple terms intended for the lay reader. An adequate glossary of unfamiliar terms is given. Uranium is a new source of electrical energy developed since 1950, and how we harness energy from it is explained. It competes with the organic coal, oil, and gas fuels as shown graphically. Uranium resources and production for the world are tabulated and discussed by country and for various energy regions in the United States. Locations of major uranium deposits and power reactors in the United States are mapped. The nuclear fuel-cycle of uranium for a typical light-water reactor is illustrated at the front end-beginning with its natural geologic occurrence in rocks through discovery, mining, and milling; separation of the scarce isotope U-235, its enrichment, and manufacture into fuel rods for power reactors to generate electricity-and at the back end-the reprocessing and handling of the spent fuel. Environmental concerns with the entire fuel cycle are addressed. The future of the use of uranium in new, simplified, 'passively safe' reactors for the utility industry is examined. The present resource assessment of uranium in the United States is out of date, and a new assessment could aid the domestic uranium industry.

  19. Multi-decadal changes in tundra environments and ecosystems: synthesis of the International Polar Year-Back to the Future project (IPY-BTF).

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Tweedie, Craig E; Akerman, Jonas; Andrews, Christopher; Bergstedt, Johan; Butler, Malcolm G; Christensen, Torben R; Cooley, Dorothy; Dahlberg, Ulrika; Danby, Ryan K; Daniëls, Fred J A; de Molenaar, Johannes G; Dick, Jan; Mortensen, Christian Ebbe; Ebert-May, Diane; Emanuelsson, Urban; Eriksson, Håkan; Hedenås, Henrik; Henry H R, Greg; Hik, David S; Hobbie, John E; Jantze, Elin J; Jaspers, Cornelia; Johansson, Cecilia; Johansson, Margareta; Johnson, David R; Johnstone, Jill F; Jonasson, Christer; Kennedy, Catherine; Kenney, Alice J; Keuper, Frida; Koh, Saewan; Krebs, Charles J; Lantuit, Hugues; Lara, Mark J; Lin, David; Lougheed, Vanessa L; Madsen, Jesper; Matveyeva, Nadya; Mcewen, Daniel C; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Narozhniy, Yuriy K; Olsson, Håkan; Pohjola, Veijo A; Price, Larry W; Rigét, Frank; Rundqvist, Sara; Sandström, Anneli; Tamstorf, Mikkel; Van Bogaert, Rik; Villarreal, Sandra; Webber, Patrick J; Zemtsov, Valeriy A

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the responses of tundra systems to global change has global implications. Most tundra regions lack sustained environmental monitoring and one of the only ways to document multi-decadal change is to resample historic research sites. The International Polar Year (IPY) provided a unique opportunity for such research through the Back to the Future (BTF) project (IPY project #512). This article synthesizes the results from 13 papers within this Ambio Special Issue. Abiotic changes include glacial recession in the Altai Mountains, Russia; increased snow depth and hardness, permafrost warming, and increased growing season length in sub-arctic Sweden; drying of ponds in Greenland; increased nutrient availability in Alaskan tundra ponds, and warming at most locations studied. Biotic changes ranged from relatively minor plant community change at two sites in Greenland to moderate change in the Yukon, and to dramatic increases in shrub and tree density on Herschel Island, and in subarctic Sweden. The population of geese tripled at one site in northeast Greenland where biomass in non-grazed plots doubled. A model parameterized using results from a BTF study forecasts substantial declines in all snowbeds and increases in shrub tundra on Niwot Ridge, Colorado over the next century. In general, results support and provide improved capacities for validating experimental manipulation, remote sensing, and modeling studies.

  20. Multi-decadal changes in tundra environments and ecosystems: synthesis of the International Polar Year-Back to the Future project (IPY-BTF).

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Tweedie, Craig E; Akerman, Jonas; Andrews, Christopher; Bergstedt, Johan; Butler, Malcolm G; Christensen, Torben R; Cooley, Dorothy; Dahlberg, Ulrika; Danby, Ryan K; Daniëls, Fred J A; de Molenaar, Johannes G; Dick, Jan; Mortensen, Christian Ebbe; Ebert-May, Diane; Emanuelsson, Urban; Eriksson, Håkan; Hedenås, Henrik; Henry H R, Greg; Hik, David S; Hobbie, John E; Jantze, Elin J; Jaspers, Cornelia; Johansson, Cecilia; Johansson, Margareta; Johnson, David R; Johnstone, Jill F; Jonasson, Christer; Kennedy, Catherine; Kenney, Alice J; Keuper, Frida; Koh, Saewan; Krebs, Charles J; Lantuit, Hugues; Lara, Mark J; Lin, David; Lougheed, Vanessa L; Madsen, Jesper; Matveyeva, Nadya; Mcewen, Daniel C; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Narozhniy, Yuriy K; Olsson, Håkan; Pohjola, Veijo A; Price, Larry W; Rigét, Frank; Rundqvist, Sara; Sandström, Anneli; Tamstorf, Mikkel; Van Bogaert, Rik; Villarreal, Sandra; Webber, Patrick J; Zemtsov, Valeriy A

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the responses of tundra systems to global change has global implications. Most tundra regions lack sustained environmental monitoring and one of the only ways to document multi-decadal change is to resample historic research sites. The International Polar Year (IPY) provided a unique opportunity for such research through the Back to the Future (BTF) project (IPY project #512). This article synthesizes the results from 13 papers within this Ambio Special Issue. Abiotic changes include glacial recession in the Altai Mountains, Russia; increased snow depth and hardness, permafrost warming, and increased growing season length in sub-arctic Sweden; drying of ponds in Greenland; increased nutrient availability in Alaskan tundra ponds, and warming at most locations studied. Biotic changes ranged from relatively minor plant community change at two sites in Greenland to moderate change in the Yukon, and to dramatic increases in shrub and tree density on Herschel Island, and in subarctic Sweden. The population of geese tripled at one site in northeast Greenland where biomass in non-grazed plots doubled. A model parameterized using results from a BTF study forecasts substantial declines in all snowbeds and increases in shrub tundra on Niwot Ridge, Colorado over the next century. In general, results support and provide improved capacities for validating experimental manipulation, remote sensing, and modeling studies. PMID:21954732

  1. Strategic renewal for business units.

    PubMed

    Whitney, J O

    1996-01-01

    Over the past decade, business units have increasingly taken the role of strategy formulation away from corporate headquarters. The change makes sense: business units are closer to customers, competitors, and costs. Nevertheless, business units can fail, just as headquarters once did, by losing their focus on the organization's priorities and capabilities. John Whitney--turnaround expert and professor of management at Columbia University--offers a method for refocusing companies that he calls the strategic-renewal process. The principles behind the process are straightforward, but its execution demands extensive data, rigorous analysis, and the judgment of key decision makers. However, when applied with diligence, it can produce a strategy that yields both growth and profit. To carry out the process, managers must analyze, one by one or in logical groupings, the company's customers, the products it sells, and the services it offers in light of three criteria: strategic importance, significance, and profitability. Does a given customer, product, or service mesh with the organization's goals? Is it significant in terms of current and future revenues? And is it truly profitable when all costs are care fully considered? Customers, products, and services that do not measure up, says the author, must be weeded out relentlessly. Although the process is a painstaking one, the article offers clear thinking on why-and how-to go about it. A series of exhibits takes managers through the questions they need to raise, and two matrices offer Whitney's concentrated wisdom on when to cultivate--and when to prune.

  2. Dam Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status does not predetermine calves for future shedding when raised in a contaminated environment: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P

    2015-06-19

    Uptake of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by calves in the first days of life from colostrum, milk and faeces is regarded an important moment of transmission. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between the MAP status of dams as determined by the presence of MAP DNA and antibody in colostrum and that of DNA in faeces and the environment with subsequent MAP shedding of their daughters. A cohort of 117 dam-daughter pairs giving birth/being born on eight commercial dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis was followed where colostrum, faecal and environmental samples (dust) were analysed for the presence of MAP using an IS900 real-time PCR. Antibodies in colostrum were measured by ELISA. Analysis of dust samples showed that on all farms environmental MAP exposure occurred continuously. In significantly more colostrum samples (48%) MAP DNA was detected compared to faecal samples (37%). MAP specific antibodies were present in 34% of the colostrum samples. In total MAP DNA was present in faecal samples of 41% of the daughters at least once during the sampling period. The association between faecal shedding in the offspring and the dam MAP status defined by MAP PCR on colostrum, MAP PCR on faeces or ELISA on colostrum was determined by an exact cox regression analysis for discrete data. The model indicated that the hazard for faecal shedding in daughters born to MAP positive dams was not significantly different compared to daughters born to MAP negative dams. When born to a dam with DNA positive faeces the HR was 1.05 (CI 0.6; 1.8) and with DNA positive colostrum the HR was 1.17 (CI 0.6; 2.3). When dam status was defined by a combination of both PCR outcomes (faeces and colostrum) and the ELISA outcome the HR was 1.26 (CI 0.9; 1.9). Therefore, this study indicates that neither the presence of MAP DNA in colostrum, MAP DNA in faeces nor the presence of MAP antibodies in colostrum of the dam significantly influences the hazard of

  3. Engaging Community Businesses in HIV Prevention: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Sipan, Carol L.; Batista, Marcia F.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Mulvihill, Mary M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To explore the feasibility of engaging community businesses in HIV prevention. Design Randomly selected business owners/managers were asked to display discreetly wrapped condoms and brochures provided free-of-charge for 3 months. Assessments were conducted at baseline, mid-, and post-program. Customer feedback was obtained through an online survey. Setting San Diego, California neighborhood with a high rate of AIDS. Subjects Fifty-one business owners/managers representing 10 retail categories, and 52 customers. Measures Participation rates, descriptive characteristics, number of condoms and brochures distributed, customer feedback, business owners'/managers' program satisfaction and willingness to provide future support for HIV prevention. Analysis Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact, and McNemar's tests were used to analyze data. Results The 20 business owners/managers (39%) who agreed to distribute condoms and brochures reported fewer years in business and more employees than those who agreed only to distribute brochures (20%) or refused to participate (41%), p <.05. Bars were the easiest of ten retail categories to recruit. Businesses with more employees and customers distributed more condoms and brochures, p < .05. More than 90% of customers supported distributing condoms and brochures in businesses and 96% of business owners/managers described their program experience as “positive.” Conclusion Businesses are willing to distribute condoms and brochures to prevent HIV. Policies to increase business participation in HIV prevention should be developed and tested. PMID:20465150

  4. Who owns the long term? Perspectives from global business leaders.

    PubMed

    Lévy, Maurice; Eskew, Mike; Bernotat, Wulf H; Barner, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Day-to-day management is challenging enough for CEOs. How do they manage for the long term as well? We posed that question to four top executives of global companies. According to Maurice Levy, chairman and CEO of Publicis Groupe, building the future is really about building the present and keeping close to the front line--those who deal with your customers and markets. He also attributes his company's success in large part to knowing when to take action: In a market where clients' needs steer your long-term future, timing is everything. UPS Chairman and CEO Mike Eskew emphasizes staying true to your vision and values over the long run, despite meeting obstacles along the way. It took more than 20 years, and many lessons learned, to produce consistent profits in what is today the company's fastest-growing and most profitable business: international small packages. Wulf H. Bernotat, CEO of E.ON, examines the challenges facing business leaders and politicians as they try to balance energy needs against potential environmental damage. He calls for educating people about consumption and waste, and he maintains that a diverse and reliable mix of energy sources is the only way to ensure a secure supply while protecting our environment. Finally, Marianne Barner, the director of corporate communications and ombudsman for children's issues at IKEA, discusses how the company is taking steps to improve the environment and be otherwise socially responsible. For example, it's partnering with NGOs to address child labor issues and, on its own, is working to help mitigate climate change. IKEA's goals include using renewable sources for 100% of its energy needs and cutting its overall energy consumption by 25%.

  5. Who owns the long term? Perspectives from global business leaders.

    PubMed

    Lévy, Maurice; Eskew, Mike; Bernotat, Wulf H; Barner, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Day-to-day management is challenging enough for CEOs. How do they manage for the long term as well? We posed that question to four top executives of global companies. According to Maurice Levy, chairman and CEO of Publicis Groupe, building the future is really about building the present and keeping close to the front line--those who deal with your customers and markets. He also attributes his company's success in large part to knowing when to take action: In a market where clients' needs steer your long-term future, timing is everything. UPS Chairman and CEO Mike Eskew emphasizes staying true to your vision and values over the long run, despite meeting obstacles along the way. It took more than 20 years, and many lessons learned, to produce consistent profits in what is today the company's fastest-growing and most profitable business: international small packages. Wulf H. Bernotat, CEO of E.ON, examines the challenges facing business leaders and politicians as they try to balance energy needs against potential environmental damage. He calls for educating people about consumption and waste, and he maintains that a diverse and reliable mix of energy sources is the only way to ensure a secure supply while protecting our environment. Finally, Marianne Barner, the director of corporate communications and ombudsman for children's issues at IKEA, discusses how the company is taking steps to improve the environment and be otherwise socially responsible. For example, it's partnering with NGOs to address child labor issues and, on its own, is working to help mitigate climate change. IKEA's goals include using renewable sources for 100% of its energy needs and cutting its overall energy consumption by 25%. PMID:17642126

  6. The business acumen of Canadian plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Bliss, J A; Caputy, G G

    1995-08-01

    , controlling, and evaluating) were all made use of by these practicing surgeons, although the evaluating and controlling functions seemed to predominate managerial time. These surgeons do recognize, for the most part, that a surgical practice is a form of business enterprise as well as a professional endeavor. Patient care, which is of paramount importance, is affected by the business aspect of our practices. The Canadian plastic surgeons surveyed have expressed the lack of business education and training as a problem. In the present medical environment, we need to be more responsible and efficient in our business practices through education and training in this aspect of our practices.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. Future energy system in environment, economy, and energy problems (1) nuclear system as a solution to the E{sup 3} tri-lemma

    SciTech Connect

    KEDA, Kazumi; SEKIMOTO, Hiroshi

    2006-07-01

    World energy demand is projected to double or triple by the turn of the 21. century. Particularly in developing countries, global warming is emerging as a serious issue. It makes the harmonization of energy, environment, and economy an urgent and major task for mankind. An optimization analysis has shown that the non-nuclear scenario will drive up the average electric power generation cost to 88-122 mills/kWh in 2100. The FBR-LWR scenario will hold the regional generation cost within the range of between 49 and 57 mills/kWh, while the non-nuclear scenario will inflate it. Taking reprocessing capacity and flat investment of plant into account and comparing the introduction terms of FBR from 2030 to 2070, a decade delay of FBR commercialization is found to reduce nuclear energy for the end of this century by 12-13%. As nuclear energy is the only proven and capable carbon-free energy source today, we should renew our recognition that Pu recycling option can make it sustainable and a growing number of countries should take the option effectively in the 21. century. (authors)

  8. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, A P; Huettmann, F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future.

  9. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Baltensperger, A. P.; Huettmann, F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  10. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, A P; Huettmann, F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  11. Issues for small businesses with waste management.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Elizabeth; Wang, Calvin

    2008-07-01

    Participation by small and medium enterprise (SME) in corporate social responsibility issues has been found to be lacking. This is a critical issue, as individually SMEs may have little impact on the environment but their collective footprint is significant. The management style and ethical stance of the owner-manager affects business decision making and therefore has a direct impact on the environmental actions of the business. Although adoption of environmental practices to create competitive advantage has been advocated, many businesses see implementation as a cost which cannot be transferred to their customers. After a brief review of pertinent literature this paper reports on an exploratory investigation into the issue. Results show that whereas owner-managers of small enterprises express concern regarding the environment, this does not then translate into better waste management practices.

  12. Issues for small businesses with waste management.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Elizabeth; Wang, Calvin

    2008-07-01

    Participation by small and medium enterprise (SME) in corporate social responsibility issues has been found to be lacking. This is a critical issue, as individually SMEs may have little impact on the environment but their collective footprint is significant. The management style and ethical stance of the owner-manager affects business decision making and therefore has a direct impact on the environmental actions of the business. Although adoption of environmental practices to create competitive advantage has been advocated, many businesses see implementation as a cost which cannot be transferred to their customers. After a brief review of pertinent literature this paper reports on an exploratory investigation into the issue. Results show that whereas owner-managers of small enterprises express concern regarding the environment, this does not then translate into better waste management practices. PMID:17445961

  13. Future Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahony, Michael J.; Politi, Christina; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Nejabati, Reza; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents views on the future of optical networking. A historical look at the emergence of optical networking is first taken, followed by a discussion on the drivers pushing for a new and pervasive network, which is based on photonics and can satisfy the needs of a broadening base of residential, business, and scientific users. Regional plans and targets for optical networking are reviewed to understand which current approaches are judged important. Today, two thrusts are driving separate optical network infrastructure models, namely 1) the need by nations to provide a ubiquitous network infrastructure to support all the future services and telecommunication needs of residential and business users and 2) increasing demands by the scientific community for networks to support their requirements with respect to large-scale data transport and processing. This paper discusses these network models together with the key enabling technologies currently being considered for future implementation, including optical circuit, burst and packet switching, and optical code-division multiplexing. Critical subsystem functionalities are also reviewed. The discussion considers how these separate models might eventually merge to form a global optical network infrastructure.

  14. 40 CFR 763.179 - Confidential business information claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the procedures set forth in 40 CFR part 2, subpart B. The Agency will place all information not... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential business information... business information claims. (a) Applicants for exemptions under § 763.173 may assert a...

  15. 40 CFR 52.510 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.510 Small business... Regulation Administration submitted a plan for the establishment and implementation of a Small...

  16. 40 CFR 52.510 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.510 Small business... Regulation Administration submitted a plan for the establishment and implementation of a Small...

  17. 40 CFR 52.510 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.510 Small business... Regulation Administration submitted a plan for the establishment and implementation of a Small...

  18. 40 CFR 52.510 - Small business assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small business assistance program. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.510 Small business... Regulation Administration submitted a plan for the establishment and implementation of a Small...

  19. Cheating the Business Template: Filling in the Blanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechenbier, Mahli Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Business professionals often use standard templates when composing documents, and teachers of business writing direct students to textbook examples to use as sample formats. Good instructors do want to provide their students with informative examples of what is expected, especially in an online course environment where students cannot raise their…

  20. Job Shock: Four New Principles Transforming Our Work and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, Harry S., Jr.

    This book focuses on the ongoing revolution in work. Downsizing, entrepreneurship, businesses within businesses, and the quality of work life are discussed, with emphasis on how one can survive and prosper in this environment. The 17 chapters of the book are organized in five parts. In Part 1, "New Work for A New Era of Prosperity," the chapters…